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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00047
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: Winter 1976
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00047
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Matter
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text


























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UNIVERSITYTY of FLOkIDA


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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


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HAROLD R. PARFITT
Governor-President
RICHARD L. HUNT
Lieutenant Governor


IIE
PANAMA CANAL


REVIEW Vy-1


WILLIE K. FRIAR
Editor, English Edition

JOSE T. TUNON H.
Editor, Spanish Edition


FRANK A. BALDWIN Writers
Panama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Vie CANEL, FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1.50, airmail $3, single copies 75 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Contents


Our Cover


The "Tarawa" transits
The Navy's newest multi-
purpose ship is tight fit in
the locks.


Twenty-thousand sailors on
shore leave
Those were the days when
the fleets converged at the
Canal.


Boom in trans-Canal
cruises
New breed of vacationers
seeing Canal on short air/
sea trips.


Construction-day photos
displayed in New York
Exhibit of Hallen's work
attracts large audience.


Culinary Capers
A dash of rum for a delect-
able difference.


The case of the missing
portrait 28
Old timers sponsored oil
painting as tribute to Goe-
thals.
Credits: Photos of M.O.M.A. p. 16 ond 17 by
John P. Francavillo; interior view of "Tarawa"
p. 6 by Ingall Shipbuilding. Other photos by
Arthur L. Pollack, Information Office Photog-
ropher, and Graphic Branch photographers Don
Goode, Ketin Jcnkinv, and Alberto Acevedo.


3





















,16
2'
8






11

-1




16




22 ,, ,
i


THE TOWERING TARAWA
is an appropriate term for the
Navy's new assault ship shown on
the cover towering over the control
house at Miraflores Locks. In this
view one can see how the eaves of
the control house were folded down
to accommodate the flight deck
which extended beyond the lock
walls.
Gathered on the deck are some of
the 400 local residents who accepted
the invitation of the officers and
crew to join them on the inaugural
transit of the new ship which was
enroute from Pascagoula, La., where
it was built to its home port, San
Diego.
The cover photograph is by Frank
Baker, who was a student assistant
in the Graphic Branch at the time
of the transit.
Inside the back cover is a Christ-
mas greeting to all REVIEW readers
in the form of a mola with a Santa
Claus motif. The mola was photo-
graphed by Arthur L. Pollack.

** *

Because the special bicentennial
edition of the REVIEW was distrib-
uted in July, there was no fall edi-
tion. Instead, this REVIEW, the
second of the year, is being desig-
nated the winter edition and is being
distributed during the Christmas
season.


\VINTER 1976





































U.S.S. "Taraita" approaches
Pedro Miguel Locks.



The Tarawa transit

By Willie K. Friar


The Navy's newest

assault ship

squeezes through


TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


T HE LHA SHIP SHALL BE
built to transit the Panama Canal
without structural modification or addi-
tional buoyancy devices." This sentence
in the basic contract for the construc-
tion of the U.S.S. Tarawa, the Navy's
giant new amphibious assault ship,
made sure she would be designed to
take maximum advantage of the 1,000
by 110 feet dimensions of the Canal
locks.


The Tarawa, which is the first vessel
of the second largest class of Navy ship
in service, had some protrusions re-
moved before she would fit in the locks,
but as with the four other ships of her
class, scheduled for the future, her
designers made sure she would be able
to utilize the Panama Canal.
The July transit of the Tarawa, not
only went smoothly, but it might be
said that it got off to a flying start-the




\ Panama Canal pilot was taken aboard
by helicopter.
Canal pilots usually are ferried to
ships by launch but when the Tarawa,
Which carries landing craft and heli-
copters, arrived in Canal waters,
July 14, she dispatched one of her
helicopters to pick up Canal pilot Capt.
Frank V. Kerley, who had been
assigned to guide the ship into port at
Cristobal.
The Cristobal Police provided two
Scars with flashing red lights to mark
the landing area, which was a field in
Old Cristobal opposite the Maintenance
Division.
\The helicopter touched down at
10:45 a.m. and 3 minutes later was
airborne again with its passengers,
-- -- which included several naval officers in
I.r I addition to Captain Kerley.
S, -/ As soon as he was aboard the Tarawa,
i.. a,1 Cap Captain Kerley radioed that there would
*:. '. be some delay in the arrival of the ship
,nr at the pier as two of the launches
S iiiicarried by the vessel had to be lowered
into the water and taken aboard on the
1j'-'' port side to facilitate the docking of
"-A the vessel.
The giant ship entered Cristobal
breakwater at 12:40 p.m. and with the
\ assistance of the towboats, Harding and
S M ehaffey, was berthed at Pier 6 AB.
S' The Industrial Division began work
Y immediately to prepare the ship for
S transit. Since the vessel, which is 820
S -feet long and has a beam of 106 feet,
was built to take maximum advantage
of the 1,000 by 110 feet dimensions of
Sthe locks, this involved removing all
protrusions such as antennas, catwalks
S and ladders which extended from the

Abore: Guests and crew watch from
the flight deck as the U.S.S. "Tarawa" __ ...
which has a beam of 106 feet, is
fitted into the 110-foot wide lockI .
chaamber at Miraflores.

At right: The "Tarawa" towers
order towing locomotives and a
merchant ship as she is
locked through. More .
than 4100 guests gather -
on dec. to watch.

..-


WINTER 1976




hull and flight deck in such a way as
to interfere with safe transit.
This work was completed on the
night of July 15 and the Tarawa began
her southbound transit the next day at
6:30 a.m. Five Canal pilots were
assigned to take the vessel through the
waterway. Captain Kerley served as
control pilot and was assisted by Capt.
Louis II1. Hixon, Capt. Ennis E. Daniel,
Capt. Drummond McNaughlton, and
Capt. William L. Keller. A pilot plat-
form 33 feet high was erected from
amidships to the control bridge for the
use of the command pilot and the other
pilots were stationed around the flight
deck, which is as long as three football
fields.
More than 400 Canal Zone military
and civilian personnel and their families
accepted the invitation of Capt. George
E. Church to join the ship's officers and
crew and the contingent of Marines,
who were aboard, for the transit.
The Tarawa entered Gatun at 8:31
a.m. and cleared Miraflores Locks at
3:49 p.m. The transit was without
serious problems but a strong wind at
Miraflores made it difficult to center the
huge ship in the lock chamber. She
was lowered, however, without diffi-
culty and docked in Balboa at 4:40
p.m. where all protrusions vere re-
installed. An open house was held
July 21 and 22 before the ship sailed
for San Diego, July 24, with Capt.
Joseph McDaniel, Acting Assistant Port
Captain, as pilot.
Planning for the inaugural transit of
the Tarawa began in October 1975
when Emil Cicchetto, of the Industrial
Division's Planning Section, was sent


- . -,

E-- '...b
-. -"



I~g -- i iiKrr


7I


At top: the giant ship moves through
Caillard Cut.
Above: Panama Canal pilot
Capt. Frank V. Kerley, left, and
Capt. George E. Church,
Commanding Officer of the "Tarawa,"
keep a careful watch during the transit.

At left: The "Tarawa" did not have to
tilt her antennas to get under the
bridge which spans the Canal at
Balboa although, in this photo,
it appears she might.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5































AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT OPERATIONS
The big LHA ships are built for amphibious assault operations-getting men and
equipment ashore. Heavy equipment such as tanks, armored personnel carriers,
trucks and jeeps, as well as men, ammunition and supplies are placed ashore by
amphibious craft through the ship's high well deck.
(Seen above in a loading operation at Balboa.) Vehicles drive down ramps into
waiting boats, and supplies are loaded aboard by monorail cars that travel overhead.
The well deck is 278 feet long and 78 feet wide. At the stern is a massive door
80 feet wide and 30 feet high, and weighing more than 90 tons.
The door lifts vertically, in two sections, to open the well deck to the sea.






-
-4
41.


Protrusions are removed from the vessel to make it possible for her to transit the Canal.
The work was performed in Cristobal by the Industrial Dicision.


to Pascagoula, Miss., to discuss plans
with the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division
of Litton Industries, the designers and
builders of the ship. Ingalls, the largest
shipyard in the Western Hemisphere,
employs 24,000 workers at one location
in Pascagoula.
Cicchetto later served as coordinator
for the Industrial Division when the
ship arrived at Cristobal.
Capt. C. W. Lewis, Port Captain,
Cristobal, and R. J. Danielson, Super-
intendent, Atlantic Locks, represented
the Marine Bureau during the planning
of transit arrangements.
The Tarawa is the largest Navy
vessel to transit the Canal since the
transits of the Missouri and her sister
ships which are 108 feet wide. The
Navy vessels now in service which are
larger than LHA-1 (her official desig-
nation) are the 13 attack aircraft
carriers. They are the only Navy vessels
now in service which cannot transit the
Canal. (According to the 1975 Lloyd's
Register of Shipping, there are 63,724
commercial ships of over 100 gross tons
in the world's inventory of ships. Of
these about 97 percent are able to
transit the Canal.)
Military officials have described the
Tarawa as a "formidable deterrent
force" because of her capability to
transport combat troops and land them
by assault craft and helicopters, evacu-
ate citizens, and operate a hospital.
Built to Marine Corps specifications,
the vessel has been called "the landing
force commander's dream come true"


WINTER 1976




by Marine Cen. Samuel Jaskilka. It
combines the operating capabilities of
an amphibious assault ship, amphibious
transport ship, cargo ship, and landing
ship dock. It was designed to maintain
what the Marine Corps calls "Tactical
Integrity"-getting all components of a
balanced force to the same point at
the same time.
The Tarawa was named in honor of
the 1,020 Marines who died in the
76-hour battle on the Pacific atoll
during November 1943 as American
forces battled for their first foothold in
the Gilbert and Mariana islands during
World War II. More than 2,000
Marines were wounded in this battle.
This was the first storming of an
atoll by American forces and it was
here that the concept of amphibious
warfare was proven sound. During the
terrible battle for the island, the great
loss of life was due primarily to a lack
of specialized equipment, communica-
tions, and prompt medical care.
With the U.S.S. Tarawa, the Marines
of today have a capability that few
could have envisioned during that Cen-
tral Pacific offensive of 1943.
In addition to its full-length flight
deck. which can handle nine helicopters
simulraneouslv, the Tarawa has a large
\\ell deck in its stern, measuring 78
feet by 26 feet for launching and
reco ering landing craft. The well deck,
%\hen flooded, provides ample maneu-
vering space and can handle any size
landing craft including the 134-foot
ULC (Utility Landing Craft), which is
capable of transporting three 60-ton
tanks and weighs 400 tons fully loaded.
The landing craft can be discharged
and loaded while the ship is underway.
On their return to the ship, a unique
line handling system is used to help
guide the craft into the well for
docking.
The troops, assigned to helicopters,
will go from their quarters to the flight
deck to board the waiting aircraft.
Those boarding the landing craft will
go to the well deck and board boats
before the well is flooded. There will
be no need, as in the past, for transfer-
ring from a troop transport ship to a
specialized helicopter carrier or am-
phibious craft docking ship and no
more climbing down a cargo net with
rifle and full pack to jump aboard a
small boat in the open sea.
Only those Marines, who served in
landing forces during World War II.
Korea and Vietnam, can fully ap-
preciate this new system. In the past,


an amphibious landing assault sched-
uled to hit the beaches at 6 a.m.
started with reveille at 2 a.m. When
the call came, the men made their way
to the main deck and climbed over the
side and down 40 or 50 feet with full
packs and weapons to a small wooden
lauding craft rising and falling on the
swells near the ship. They might circle
for hours, with 32 Marines packed in
each craft, before being ordered to
form into waves and head for the
assault beaches.
While the Tarawa offers vast im-
provements in moving men, the im-
provements in handling material add
equally to the advantages of the ship.
All supplies to support the landing


THE U.S. NAVY'S ERRANDS
of mercy have saved more
lives than its guns have ever des-
troyed," the late Fleet Adm.
Chester W. Nimitz, once said.
And the Tarawa is better suited
than any other ship to carry on
this tradition.
Whether it's a typhoon in the
Philippines, earthquakes in Cen-
tral America or a hurricane along
a U.S. Coast, the Tarawa has the
capability of providing transporta-
tion, food, water, clothing, shelter,
medical care and communications
to victims of disaster.
Here are some other facts which
the many people, who lined the
Canal banks, to watch the transit
might find of interest.
The Tarawa:
Stands 20 stories high and
must stoop to pass under the San
Diego Bridge-the tallest mast is
221 feet above the keel but it will
tilt and, when folded, the height
is reduced by 23 feet.
Has 1,450 compartments about
the same number as a large hotel.
Has nine elevators and two
horizontal conveyors-more than
most major department stores.
Has two boilers, the largest
ever manufactured in the United
States, and can generate a total of
400 tons of steam per hour. It can
develop 140,000 horsepower which
is equivalent to the horsepower of
700 average automobiles.


team are stored below decks and trans-
ported to the proper deck by elevators.
Helicopters are moved from the hanger
deck by elevator and trucks. Jeeps,
tanks and landing craft are moved
within the ship on vertical ramps run-
ning from the first platform, one deck
below the well deck up to the flight
deck. Vehicles can be stored on any
level and driven either to the landing
craft stored on the well deck level or to
the flight deck.
The first entirely new type of am-
phibious assault ship to join the Navy
fleet in the past decade, the Marine
Corps and Navy amphibious forces'
largest vessel, the Tarawa provides the


Has an electrical power sub-
system developing 14,000 kilowatts
of electrical power for the ship.
This is enough electrical power to
light 11,500 average-sized homes.
Has 1,200 tons of air-condi-
tioning equipment-sufficient to
environmentally control a 32-storv
office building or 500 average size
homes.
Has a 900 horsepower bow
thruster for lateral movement at
low speeds that can move the bow
with 20,000 lbs of force-equiva-
lent to half the pulling power of
a diesel electrical locomotive.
Can ballast 12,000 tons of sea-
water for trimming the ship to
receive and discharge landing craft
from the well deck.
Was constructed with more
than 20,000 tons of steel, 400 tons
of aluminum, 400 miles of cable
and 80 miles of piping.
Has an internal communica-
tions system with 692 phones (558
touch tone, 132 net phones and
2 switching phones).
Has a closed circuit TV sys-
tem which includes 14 cameras,
22 monitors, 14 audio stations,
3 video recorders, 48 'T receivers,
123 TV outlets and a complete
studio with 16mm film display and
video recorder equipment for live
or taped broadcasts.
Has a flight deck 2 acres
square.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


The First of Her Kind





(Continued from p. 7)
greatest versatility in the history of
amphibious operations.
Although primarily a tactical vessel.
which will be traveling with other ships
in a convoy, the Tarawa is capable of
providing a great deal of its own de-
fense. With its greater than 20-knot
speed it is less susceptible to attack
from enemy shipping. Its armament
includes three new lightweight 5-inch,
54 caliber guns, and two surface missile
launchers, each with a capability of
eight missiles per firing. The ship also
has six 20-mm machine guns, mounted
on the ship's four corners and amid-
ships, just below the flight deck.
An acclimatization room the size of
a large gymnasium, in which the tem-
perature and humidity levels prepare
troops to go ashore anywhere in the
world, is another innovation.
The Tarawa is capable of moving
quickly to the scene of any natural
disaster or military emergency where
it can use its facilities to give assistance.
including providing emergency elec-
trical power or distilling enough water
for the daily needs of 6,000 people as
well as providing shelter and military
protection.
Medical facilities aboard the ship are
the most modern available and include
two main operating rooms, two emer-
gency operating rooms, a blood bank.
laboratories and a 300-bed hospital.
There are also dental operating rooms,
a pharmacy, and isolation wards.
For her first transit of the Canal, tolls
for the Tarawa amounted to $21,120.
Although Panamanian and Colombian
Government vessels pass through the
Canal toll free, all U.S. vessels, in-
cluding U.S. Government vessels, are
assessed tolls.
Transits of the Panama Canal by
U.S. Government vessels-warships.
military transports, tankers, submarines,
and other types of military and char-
tered vessels-in the last 20 years have
ranged from as few as 182 in a year
to as high as 1,504 reflecting the ups
andc downs in the international situation.
By sending troops, equipment, amnd
all types of supplies through the Pan-
ama Canal during World War II, the
Korean War, and the Southeast Asian
conflict the ability of the United States
to react quickly and with large forces
was substantially improved.
The four other ships of the Tarawa
class being built with the capability to
transit the Canal, are the Saipan,
Belleau W\'ood, Nassau, and Da Nanne


Tlose were the days . .




When the fleets converged at the Canal


By Eunice Richard

FIRST TO APPEAR OVER THE
horizon were the battleships-eight
of them. Big armor plated giants of
more than 600 feet-the newest most
modern of their time, steaming majes-
tically one behind the other into Limon
Bay.
Then came the cruisers-eleven sleek
heavily armored warships-each bear-
ing the name of a prominent United
States city.
Following the cruisers were the fight-
ing dogs of the Navy. The first con-
tingent of the hundred and eight des-
troyers, showing their speed by cutting
swiftly through the sun flecked Carib-
bean, slowing down only when they
passed the Cristobal breakwater. Like
a well trained team of gymnasts, they
went to their assigned moorings to
await transit through the Canal.
It was the first visit to the new Canal
of the 175 ships of the Pacific Fleet. In
fact it was the first appearance of the
Pacific Fleet as a single unit. The U.S.
Navy, following the end of hostilities in
Europe in 1919, had been divided with
half of its force to remain on the At-
lantic coast and half to go to the
Pacific. It was also the first time that
the strategic value of the Panama Canal
was to be fully tested.
And tested it was to the full satisfac-
tion of all military experts and of
Admiral Hugh Rodman. who was the
Panama Canal's first Marine Superin-
tendent and was then commander-in-
chief of the Pacific Fleet.
The armada arrived in Cristobal
July 24, 1919, and completed passage
through the Canal Tuly 27. On July 28.
Governor Chester Harding cabled the
Secretary of War in Washington ad-
vising him that the Pacific Fleet had
left Balboa for the West Coast having
"made an expeditious passage through
the Canal without untoward incident"
and to the expressed satisfaction of
Admiral Rodman.


It was noted also that during the
period of heaviest naval business, from
July 24 to 27, 19 merchant ships and
several Panama Canal craft were put
through the waterway.
Prior to this historic transit, the only
U.S. Navy armada of any size to use
the Canal was a practice squadron of
six battleships which arrived earlier in
July enroute to South America with
midshipmen.
The visit of the Pacific Fleet, brief
as it was, provided welcome fun and
excitement for the residents of the
Isthmus. The Canal had been open only
5 years and during most of that time
the world had been embroiled in a
devastating world war. The allied
navies and many of the world mer-
chant ships were confined to the At-
lantic. The navies of the United States
and South America were on the alert
off the East Coast to protect the coun-
tries of the Western Hemisphere. Traf-
fic had been light during these years.
With the end of the war, new plans
were being made by the War Depart-
ment for the U.S. fighting ships, a num-
ber of which had engaged in action in
the north Atlantic and had been pre-
sent at the surrender of the German
Fleet.
It was a thrill for the local residents
to see the powerful United States Fleet
transit the new Canal and a bonanza
for the local merchants when the
thousands of men got shore leave.
There were many parties given by local
residents to welcome the thousands of
white clad officers and men of the
U.S. Navy.
The first men who went ashore in
1919 may have had a comparatively
dull time of it however when the Mayor
of Panama, playing it safe, made the
city bone dry for the sailors. The Star
& Herald noted that he issued an order
prohibiting the sale of alcoholic bever-
ages of any kind to the sailors and that
they all returned to their ships by 8
p.m. in good order.


WINTER 1976




________________________-r;;;;;;;..... ;Irai..


At top: Ships of the United States fleets anchored at Balboa, March 10, 1926.
Abovc: The U.S.S. "Saratoga" is locked through liraflores in March 1928.
At right: The U.S.S. "Missouri" mores through Caillard Cut itl August 1953.
The "Missouri" and her sister ships, which are 888 feet long and 108 feet in the
beam, are the widest vessels to transit the Panama Canal.


No such order was reported in sub-
sequent visits of the U.S. Navv which
following 1919 made Panama a base
for joint maneuvers of the Atlantic and
Pacific fleets up to the United States
entry into World War II.
When in January 1921, Admiral
Rodman arrived from the West Coast
with his Pacific Fleet to join the At-
lantic ships for maneuvers, there was a
gala atmosphere. The joint fleets re-
turned to Balboa from the Pacific for
an 8-day stay during which 20.000
sailors were given shore leave daily.
There were bullfights in Panama, pre-
carnival dances and balls at the social
clubs. President Belisario Porras of Pan-
ama entertained the officers of the U.S.
battle fleets at a banquet at the Union
Club. Also attending were 104 officials
of the Panama Government. officials
from the Canal Zone and members of
the diplomatic corps and their ladies.
This was the first time that the joint
fleets had visited Panama and the local
press reported that the bovs in white
made Central Avenue look like "the

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9


Great White Way." There were two
paydays while they were here and thev
bought everything in sight including
mangoes, pineapples, monkeys, squir-
rels, iguanas and Spanish shawls. It
was estimated that they spent more
than a million dollars during shore
leave and the press, noting the gener-
osity of navy men, said there must have
been many jitney drivers and coach
owners who became rich men over-
night.
At one time in 1921, there were five
U.S. admirals on the Isthmus. Most
popular here, of course, was Admiral
Bodman, who had organized the new
Panama Canal Marine Division during
construction days. He received loral
officials aboard his flagship, the U.S.S.
Newv Mexico, and went tarpon fishing
with his old pals at Gatun.
During the following years, the U.S.
Navy made constant use of the Panama
Canal and converged here on an aver-
age of once a year for joint maneuvers.
The types of ships changed with the
times hut when the early aircraft car-


riers Lexington and Saratoga were
built, they too came through although
it was a tight squeeze.
It was such a tight squeeze for the
U.S.S. Lexington that during her transit
in March 1928 she demolished four
concrete lamp posts at the locks and a
handrail on the Pedro Miguel Locks
was smashed flat. The U.S.S. Saratoga,
her sister ship. had made the transit a
short time earlier without incident.
They were the largest ever to transit
the locks up to that time. They were
888 feet in length and had beams of
107.9 feet.
Crowds gathered to see the aircraft
carriers squeeze through and for many
ears, the expression "he scraped by
like the Saratoga" was used in Panama
to refer to someone who barely passed
in school.
The aircraft carriers however were
not the widest military ships ever to
transit the Canal. This record is still
held by the U.S.S. Missouri and her
sister ships which are 10S feet in the
beam.









Ten hour's lor' lhe Tarawa bul t M

oll) sligh ll) n I Ior hai i


setpen fori' Ihe Colonel





By Dolores E. Suisman



A BOARD THE U 5.5. Tarawa
dunng her transit of the
Canal. v as marathon runnrmer
Marine Lt Col. David F.
Se-llr r.ho spent the 10 hours
preparing for a trans-lsthmian
run the following day.
It ..as the final da\ of a 'v.eek
of intensi.'e training that included
str-enuous daily\ .orkoutts and a
special diet. Each day. he had
run 20 niles-60 tnmes around
the flight deck of the giant ship.
The first 3 da\s. he had eaten
onl\ high-protein foods. The next
three, he had stuffed himself vith
carboh',drates. On that last da\
of preparation, he ate onl\ a
peanut butter sand,.ich.
On race da'.. he '.as up before
the sun. At 5 a m sharp.
he set out from the Fort Amador
Officers' Club heading do. n the
causevway. on the tfrst leg of his
route, mostt of ,.hich follo,.,ed the
Transisthmian High'. av.
That break-of-da\ start '.as to
mean that he o,ild be near the
hnish line before the midda\
heat o' ertook him


Though he speaks of "the
loiinel\ worldd of the long-distance
n-anner he wasn'tt idone. on
this r.ice. Thirt\ volunteerss from
th Marine Biarracks ran '.r Ith him
in ,5-mile rela\s dousing him
'. ith -.ater to counter the
bS-degree teniperat-re- and
carrYing the flild he needed
to sustainn him.
During the run. he drank
3 quarts of after r and 10
poundn. -an amount e.-uLal to
a gallon-of a special racer's
niiL\ture of fluids and salt.
The heat. he reported later.
didn't botherr hirr as he had
e-.pected it to But he hadn't
(:iected to climb si\ malor hills
on hAs v.a a across the Isthmus.
and the-v proj-ed the hardest
part of the race
The niarathoner reached the
.Atlatic Ocean shortly\ after noon.
locking exactlh 50 mnles in
7 hours 2 mrinutest 30 seconds.
He -.eighed in at 12 pounds
under his normal 135. Since he
had taken 10 pound' of fluid
during the race, this meant he ha,]


in reality, lost 22 pounds on the
grueling nin.
\\hen it -. as all o er hi
treatc:d himself to a big pitcher of
oraiii2e iuice and began the long.
slo.,. process of relang.
Th: day after the race, he ran
a slo.' S miles and felt he
.. as b.ck to normal
It took rrmuch more than a
''iek's intensive training to
prepare Colonel Seiler for his
Tranristhriian trek He h.is been
riunninr for 5 \ears. His interest
it hIrng-ditaince running begar
*t th rie ular "Manne PT" of
.3 niiles .i da\ No. hen he is
at hor i: he njns 11 miles to and
from ',.ork and gets in more
practice .at lunchtime. He totals
o' er 4 111 miles a \ear
The 4 3-\ear-old colonel
l.as ,* on four marathons competiin
.,z.iiiil others in his age group.
In a number of other races.
he ha' been the fir't fir lsher
o, er -II But he had never nrn
a race longer than 26 miles until
h: crossed the Isthrmus-a feat
that I.in\a men hAlf his age ha.e
attenrpted urnsui.:essfull\
Colonel Seiler has 25 \ears of
se4- ici ith the Marine Corps
.nd is a decorated e, teran of
the Kornean and Vierniam conflicts.
He an.ii his ..ife. Clona.
ha'.e three children at home.
Da% id Jr.. 20, \\illiam. IS and
Kathrl. 14 .A third son. .'.ho w.a
adopted in Korea. is nov. 32
and thi father of tv.o.
The colonirl. ho is a ssgned
to the Operational Test and
E\a.luation Di'. isoln at
)uantico. Va.. .'.as aboard the
Tarat.a on her maiden o\ age
to perform testing and e valuation
of the ne. ship.
The Taranra '.as in port for a
. .eek. RB\ the time she sailed from
Balboa, Colonel Seiler had crossed
the Isthmus bvi- e.en means
possible. He ..'.ent b\' ship.
by helicopter, bh car and.l by train.
But surely the most satisfying
tnp of all \.as his memorable
tr..iiisthmiiaii marathon nin

.'\l,.:,i LI. Col. Darid F. Seihlr.
a miartlboi rTi iii r prarticimg f..r hii'
trais-lstliiian rur, on the. flight deck
of tlhe "Tarawa" and, at tleft.
during the run.


\\i.TrER 1976i


_





Avalanche of


publicity


pIro(llues boom


in trans-Canal


cruises




SHORT AIR 'SEA CRUISES OF 14
or even 10 days are making it
possible for a whole new breed of
vacationers to see the Panama Canal.
And they are coming by the thou-
sands to satisfy their curiosity about
"the big ditch," which has received an
avalanche of publicity during the re-
cent political campaigns in the United
States.
"See the Panama Canal from your
bedroom window" and "One of the
world's great hotels sails through the
Panama Canal" are among the- adver-
tising slogans that are luring passengers
to fly-cruise vacations, which the Prin-
cess Line has called "seabird holidays."
Particularly prominent among the
new group of passengers are those from
the landlocked states who are taking
advantage of the package deals which
include flying free or at special rates
from various inland cities to the ports
where the cruises originate.
The success of the air/sea concept is
a result of what Duncan Beardslev,
Vice President, Marketing, for the
Royal Cruise Line, calls, "The total
marriage of the airplane and the ship."
He notes that as a result of skillful
scheduling and marketing, passengers
get a first class cruise plus air trans-
portation at just about the cost of
regular air fare alone. This is possible
because the chartered jets used by the
Ro\al Cruise Line, which operates out
of California, always go out full carry-
ing the entire complement of passen-
gers for the company's ship, the Golden
Odyssey, which cruises the Mediter-
ranean in the summer and features
trans-Canal cruises during the winter
months.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11


! -. :- W J '- -' "



SCruising...it's a great life


1 ;**---:--:
OsYhedu(" To Blte ig Ditch
Golden Odyssey....


'- ~' Man, A Plan
A Canal:
panama
SIng th-ou -
Sieinqg through Panama canal ;
like living a Irnat

--a t











A room



with



a



view







Whatever the variations in the air/
sea arrangements, however, passengers
on trans-Canal cruises are assured of a
transit in luxurious air-conditioned
comfort with their ships getting pre-
ferential treatment, including daylight
transit, in the parade of less glamorous
merchant ships which make up the bulk
of the Canal customers.
The highlight of these cruises, of
course, is the leisurely trip through
Caillard Cut and the locks complete
with luncheon on deck so that everyone
can watch the play-by-play action as
the ship is lifted up and down the water
stairway between the two oceans.
Some of the passengers coming here
during the dry season, may remember
the Panama Canal during the war years.
Although sailing through the jungles of
Panama at that time was an awe-
inspiring experience, it was often on
crowded troop ships and anything but
luxurious. Many are anxious to try it
again on one of the new air-conditioned
cruise ships.
A surprising number are repeat pas-
sengers who are bringing friends along
to introduce them to the engineering
wonders of the Canal. Whatever their
other reasons for coming, the current


S ...


Ample glassed-in areas make it possible for passengers on the "Island Princess"
to view the Canal transit in air-conditioned comfort but many of them
line the deck railings to get an even closer view as the ship enters Miraflores Locks.


12 WINTER 1976




-311r"JMF,,*- IMPOP- M W ."W- Mr 1. 1W


crop of passengers like the new price
tags. Short cruises and reasonable
prices are attracting a younger more
informal group who never before had
the time or money for a long expensive
(.cean voyage which in years past was
the only way to cruise through the
Canal.
Thcre is a greater choice of vessels
this year than ever before. At least
24 new cruise liners have been built
since 1970 and an equal number of
older ships have been reconditioned.
The newer ones are small enough to
enter small remote ports but large
enough to accommodate the full pas-
senger load of the jumbo jets used to
fly passengers to and from the liners.
Coming through the Canal in 1977
will be repeat customers like the Flag
Ship Cruises Kungsholm, Royal Cruise
Line's Golden Odyssey; the Princess
Line's Island Princess and Pacific Prin-
cess; and the Royal Viking Line's
ships, which pioneered the trans-Canal
route by scheduling regular transits for
ships calling at both Caribbean and
West Coast ports.
The Sitmar Line will send its popular
Fairsea eight times in 1977 from San
Juan, Puerto Rico to the U.S. West
Coast on 14-day trans-Panama voyages.
Sitmar is offering free transportation to


Jumbo jets




cruise ships ..-----

produce popular

package trips


Above: The "Royal Viking Sky," a regular Canal
customer passes through Gaillard Cut. Above right:
West German tourists gather on the decks of the Soviet
cruise ship, "Maxim Gorky," transiting the Canal on
an around-the-world cruise. On January 4, the "Gorky"
will make a southbound transit on another
around-the-world cruise.


Sitmar's "Fairsea," above, and Royal Cruise Line's "Golden, Odyssey,"
at right, are familiar dry season sights at the Canal as they
shuttle back and forth on a regular schedule of short air/sea cruises.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13





The (anal, always

popular with

tourists, provided

train tours

through the Cut

during

construction days


/






"Golden Odyssey" passengers watch
transit operations at Miraflores.


the ship for these cruises. Passengers
will be able to fly free round trip from
any of the 114-air/sea cities to San Juan
or Los Angeles on scheduled airlines.
They also will have stopover privileges
in the port city before returning home.
Sitmar's trans-Canal cruises, like
those of many other lines, stop at
St. George, Grenada; La Guaira, Vene-
zuela; Willemstad, Curacao; and Aca-
pulco in addition to San Juan and Los
Angeles on westbound trips. Eastbound,
the ships will sail from Los Angeles to
Cabo San Lucas, then to Acapulco,
transit the Canal, and stop at Willem-
stad, La Guaira, Charlotte Amalie,
St. Thomas, and terminate in San Juan.
Sun Line's Stella Oceanis has just an-
nounced a series of trans-Canal cruises
for January, February and March 1977.
Another new wrinkle is the offer by
Holland America Lines to let customers
participate in segments of the 86-day
world cruise of the SS Rotterdam de-
parting from New York, January 18,
and passing through the Canal the last


part of January on her way to the Far
East.
The Monarch Star, formerly the
Veendam, will travel through the Canal
the last part of April 1977, on a cruise
beginning in Florida and continuing to
the U.S. West Coast via St. Thomas,
La Guaira, Curacao and Acapulco.
After Los Angeles and Vancouver, the
ship will continue on to Alaska on a
special cruise.
The Golden Odyssey, which made
its first Canal visit last Christmas, is
scheduled for 10 Canal transits this
coming year. It will dock at Balboa
on all trips whether eastbound from
Aruba to Acapulco or westbound from
Acapulco to Aruba. Her stops are Aca-
jutla, El Salvador; and Cartagena,
Colombia. Land tours in Panama and
the Canal Zone can be purchased as a
part of the package.
The Royal Viking line offers more
trans-Canal cruises than any other line
and permits passengers to sail from
the port that is closest to home-San


P~1) .911
I '


The Prudential Line's "Santa Mercedes" is reflected in a
picr.ide puddle as she prepares to disembark passengers
in Balboa following an around South America cruise.


A group of passengers join in a songfest with Lucho Azcdrraga,
Panama's well-known organist, who provided
Latin American music for the voyage of the "Santa Mercedes."


14 WINTER 1976






PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
Fiscal Year 1976
TRANSITS (Oceangoing)
1976 1975
Commercial -___- 12,157 13,609
U.S. Government 85 170
Free------------ --- 38 7
Total. --- 12,280 13,786
TOLLS *
Commercial $134,253,716 $141,950,902
U.S. Govern-
nu.nt.- 734,151 1,381,526
Total $134,987,867 $143,332,428
CARGOOo (Oceangoing)
Commercial_ 117,212,266 140,101,459
U.S. Govern-
ment ---. 177,508 526,497
Free .------ 5,635 --
Total_ 117.395,409 140,627,956
o Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
O* Cargo figures are in long tons.


Francisco, Los Angeles or Florida. One
can cruise eastbound from California
in an easygoing 16 days or sail west
from Fort Laudcrdale in 17. The line
operates three magnificent 500-passen-
ger sister ships of Norwegian registry-
the Royal Viking Star, Royal Viking
Sky, and Royal Viking Seas. All were
built in 1973 and have broad teak
decks, considered too costly to install
in some newer vessels.
The Island Princess air/ sea packages
this year offer a number of options but
the mainstay of the program is the tran-
sit of the Panama Canal. They feature
the Caribbean, South America and
Mexico throughout the year with op-
tional inland tours of Mexico plus stays
in San Juan and Acapulco at both ends
of the cruise. Ports of call are St. Thom-
as, Martinique, Caracas, Curacao,
Aruba, Cartagena and Balboa. Particu-
larly popular for Canal viewing is the
glassed-in area around the swimming
pool which affords views on all sides
for watching the Canal transit. It is
here that a continental breakfast is
available and where the buffet lunch is
served for those who want a full day
of sightseeing while going through the
Canal.
And then there will be the unique
mammoth Queen Elizabeth 2, which
was built with the dimensions of the
locks in mind. The QE2, incidentally,
is the largest passenger ship ever to
transit the waterway. Her first transit
last year was a major event for both
the Canal and Isthmian residents who
flocked to the locks to watch the Queen
squeeze through on her record-breaking
transit. She will arrive in March on
another around-the-world cruise.
(See p. 27)


Nationality
Belgian-----
British.-----
Chilean--...
Chinese, Natl.
Colombian_.-
Cypriot---..
Danish._----
Ecuadorian _
French ..-._
German, West
Creek _----
Italian.-----
Japanese-----
Liberian --.-
Netherlands_-
Norwegian__.
Panamanian--
Peruvian....
Singaporean
South Korean
Soviet -__.
Spanish ..--_
Swedish __-.
United States
All other --
Total_


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS BY NATIONALITY


No. of Tons
transit of cargo
133 1,476,090
1,285 11,436,046
170 1,530,936
116 1,362,443
203 367,820
112 675,516
266 2,062,955
163 1,381,373
178 987,083
626 3,642,515
885 13,562,588
255 1,783,169
1,008 9,021,896
1,777 27,351,851
300 1,600,733
685 9,217,524
930 6,690,886
216 2,253,878
90 760,665
90 478,241
217 925,376
103 409,841
332 3,620,749
1,064 8,041,989
953 6,570,103
12,157 117,212,266


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRANSITS OVER
PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
Fiscal Year


Trade routes
East Coast United States-Asia -------------------
Europe-West Coast South America-.-__- ----_
East Coast United States-West Coast South America ---
Europe-West Coast United States/Canada-------
Europe-Asia ---- --_--_---- ------------
Europe-Oceania--------_ -------
East Coast Canada-Asia -- ----__-.......
United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii) .-------
East Coast South America-Asia----------------__-
West Coast South America-West Indies--------------
All other -------- _---- --
Total __-- __ _____--- _____ -


2
1
1






4
12


Arg. No.
transit
1976 1975 1965-69
',764 2,956 2,715
,121 1,241 1,356
,137 1,319 1,713
904 823 1,004
475 871 224
459 515 420
268 299 173
427 404 505
183 262 201
315 303 282
,104 4,616 3,910
.,157 13,609 12,503


OCEANGOING COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY MONTHS
Fiscal Year


July
Augu
Septe
Octob
Nove:
Dccel
Janua
Febru
Marc
April
May-
June_

I Be
Sta


Transits
Avg. No.
transit
Month 1976 1975 1965-69
1,089 1,219 1,067
st -_-------- 1,039 1,121 1,044
mber ------- 954 1,095 1,015
ber -----------. 1,045 1,125 1,049
mher------------ 994 1,086 1,021
mber--- ---- 992 1,111 1,035
r-----------y 1,018 1,142 1,003
uary ----------- 912 1,052 922
h .--- ---- 1,053 1,217 1,098
967 1,142 1,087
-- 1,068 1,209 1,110
___--- 1,026 1,090 1,052
Total __-- -- 12,157 13,609 12,503


fore deduction of any


operating expenses.


Tolls (In thousands of dollars)l


1976
$11,753
11,367
10,639
11,150
10,846
10,722
11,043
9,900
11,269
11,449
12,375
11,691
$134,204


1975
$11,834
12,254
11,928
11,855
11,150
11,487
12,081
10,682
12,607
11,773
12,966
11,281
$141,898


Average
tolls
1965-69
$6,322
6,298
6,139
6,387
6,258
6,409
6,167
5,654
6,748
6,681
6,854
6,609
$76,526


tistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff.


No. of T'ons
transits of cargo
157 1,330,355
1,368 13,846,863
140 1,661,221
144 1,864,655
151 285,193
226 1,582,193
326 2,360,157
119 737,922
224 1,347,891
766 4,384,618
1,142 16,435,493
250 1,718,622
1,225 10,583,359
1,950 34,912,321
420 1,837,536
832 12,845,855
1,050 7,682,773
194 2,013,166
71 795,095
121 791,289
187 1,110,825
65 511,963
373 3,587,244
1,097 9,022,027
1,011 6,852,823
13,609 140,101,459


Fiscal Year
1976 1975


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1965-69
Arg. No. Aug. tons
transit of cargo
79 206,416
1,371 10,125,323
113 749,126
113 850,945
218 453,484
17 143,032
385 2,222,146
69 87,104
227 914,145
1,216 4,205,430
505 5,197,097
230 1,535,099
916 7,004,351
1,370 18,579,528
529 2,341,708
1,462 14,579,194
540 2,576,955
152 730,427
N.A. N.A.
32 175,915
65 442,410
19 82,855
433 2,825,670
1,631 9,003,618
811 3,446,606
12,503 88,478,581















cattais historic photos


Cand




--0--










..N iY


HIS FALL, THE MUSEUM OF
Modem Art in New York fea-
tured an exhibit of 60 prints and 161
slides of the Panama Canal. All, hut a
few, are the work of Ernest "Red"
Hallen, the official photographer of the
Panama Canal from 1907 until 1937
when he retired. The M.O.M.A. pre-
sented the exhibit in conjunction with
the National Endowment of the Arts
and the New York State Council on the
Arts.
Dennis Longwell, an associate cu-
rator of photography at the Museum
who spent the past 3 years planning
and making arrangements for the dis-
play, said that he considers the Canal
one of the great earthworks of all
times." Speaking of the Canal photos.
he said, "Hallen's pictures are an exam-
ple of a major part of what photog-
raphy is all about-the miraculous abil-
ity to preserve time. What is now
invisible can come to life."
Hallen's work-more than 12,000


photographs of the Canal and the
Canal Zone-are the result of a brief
memorandum written by F. B. Maltby,
Division Engineer of the Isthmian
Canal Commission. It is doubtful that
he realized the magnitude of this pho-
tographic project when he wrote in
1906:
"I should like very much to have a
series of photographs taken at Gatun
about once a month to show the prog-
ress of the work. This should be done
regularly and will become valuable.
I think, in connection with progress
reports. I, therefore, request authority
for the employment of a photographer,
with whom, I understand, arrange-
ments have already been made, not to
exceed two days in each month."
Subsequently, Hallen was hired as
the official photographer and for the
next 30 cars he went about his duties
of recording the progress of the con-
struction and operation of the Canal.
His work is particularly remarkable


when it is realized that all of these
photographs were made on the old
8 x 10 glass plates. He is especially to
be commended for the high technical
quality of his work considering the
cumbersome plates, camera, and othpr
equipment he had to carry to the
muddy construction sites while coping
with tropical rains and high humidity.
Hallen attempts no personal artistic
statements about the Canal but worked
at carrying out his assignment-making
a documentary record of the construc-
tion and later the operation of the
waterway. However, the triumphs and
setbacks are recorded so proficiently
that, on viewing his photographs, one
is immediately aware of the immense
engineering problems involved in the
digeing of the Canal.
N. F. Karlins writing in the photo-
graphy column in the New York East
Side Express said: "Looking at these
photographs today, they are compelling
statements about the manipulation of


WINTER 1976



















Arnold Marshall, who has worked in
the Graphic Branch for more than
20 years, checks a print with the
glass plate from which it was made.


A museum visitor reads the introduction
to the exhibit of Panama Canal

photographs at the Museum of
Modern Art in New York.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW











*r tr
4r .k i




I -


.. .... : - -" .. ,_



. -. ,

-S ..." ... ",
d; /i -

-p -








Workers are dwarfed by the concrete sidewall monoliths tinder construction at Gatun, February 15, 1910.


The magnitude of the work is well illustrated in this scene at Pedro Miguel Locks showing the east chamber, May 4, 1911.


WINTER 1976

















IiI


A culvert forms an interesting geometric design in this scene showing laborers at work at Galtn, August 5, 1911.


ltallen took this view of Miraflores lower locks from a crane November 10, 1912.


TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW














All of Hallen's photographs are carefully

identified on the glass plates. The one at

left is labeled, "Culebra Cut-Looking

south from Cunette. Locomotive

No. 607 with train and steamshovel

working on bottom of Canal,

November 6, 1912." The one below is

precisely identified as "Operation of

Gatun Locks. Crowd on walls and

lower guard gates watching water

entering the west chamber of lower locks.

View looking south from forebay,

September 26, 1913."


ic
1.- -
~_~ ~c ~:...is jp~i
:e.. :JA'
c~
r i r
".
~- l~p~' / L~C ~il IC
-Cc.
-~rl .. c~---r 25
C ..
~l~P~L-~b~
- I I*%t~_:
..
-
j. .c;J~ b~ '
----,; -~s~- m~i ;:i
Irr (-.I
''
~-s
r~LSC -d Y
-''." r
. ,Y
~ jr,
r-'. 4~
c~c ~'`~`C~'-
ryp~j_~r :1r


WINTER 1976


I I





Hallen's photographs

provide a permanent

record of every phase

of the building of

the Panama Canal



rock, sand, and water over time.
Hallen's photographs more vividly
reveal the immensity of the project and
the difficulties involved in constructing
the Panama Canal when they focus on
one area and are viewed sequentially.
The transformation of the environment
becomes a magical process in which
mountains are moved and mammoth
trenches cut.
"Not only does the principal trench,
Culebra Cut, appear closer and closer
to completion in these photographs, but
workers cottages suddenly pop up as if
they had blossomed overnight. In the
last photo, just as man has succeeded
in cutting a huge swath in the earth,
nature has succeeded in reclaiming
some of her own land by sending up
huge palms before the worker's homes.
Progress on the excavation is counter-
balanced by the growth of natural
vegetation, and they are captured to-
gether by Hallen's camera. The pro-
cesses, not just the object involved, are
made visible."



Like most photographers, "Red" Hallen
seldom was in front of the camera.
In this rare photograph, taken
September 13, 1927, lie is seen, at
far right, sitting on a bank of the Canal.
of which lie took more than 12,000
photographs during his 30-year career
as official photographer. Others in the
group and their titles at that time, are:
1. C. Claybourn, Superintendent,
Dredging Division;
C. M. Butters, Assistant Engineer;
and IR. E. Snediker, Captain of Grader.



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21


Gene Thornton, writing of the ex-
hibit in his column in the New York
Times, said: "They are unpretentious
record shots but because of the subject
matter some of them are quite bizarre.
Without looking at the labels, we might
suppose they depict the archeological
excavation of ancient masonry walls or
the construction of a set for a colossal
science fiction film. However, every
photograph is clearly labeled and dated
on the negative itself, so we are never
in any real doubt about what we are
seeing or about the photographer's in-
tention to show it to us as clearly and
truly as possible."
The exhibit at the M.O.M.A. was
made up of photographs selected from
the collection of the U.S. Military
Academy but these pictures are only a
small part of the collection in the
Panama Canal historical files in the
Canal Zone.
The cataloging of this invaluable col-
lection was done by Adrian M.
Bouche, Jr., who volunteered his time
because of his great interest in the his-
tory of the waterway. Bouche retired
recently after a long career with the
Canal organization. He took on the task
of sorting and filing the Hallen glass
negatives and those of the French
photographers taken during the French
construction period.
It is unlikely that Hallen ever en-
visoned the continued exposure that his
work has received over the years. Re-
quests for his photographs arrive
regularly at the Panama Canal Infor-
mation Office to be used in books,


magazine articles, and as background
material for television programs and
movies.
Only a few of the thousands of
photographs are reproduced here. They
serve as a reminder that except for
"Red" Hallen or some photographer
like him to go out everyday and simply
take pictures, the heroic drama of the
building of the Panama Canal could
never have been told in such vivid and
precise detail.
The Panama Canal was the first great
engineering work to be thoroughly
recorded in photographs. An old timer
noting this added. "Too bad they didn't
have a "Red" Hallen around when they
were building the pyramids in Egypt.
It would answer a lot of questions."

SI


The quality of Hallen's work can be
more fully appreciated when conditions
under which he worked are taken
into account. He took this picture
after heavy rains flooded the Cut
May 29, 1913.





























Cooking With Rum

By Fannie P. Hernandez
22 WINTER 1976





THE NEXT TIME YOU ARE
served a dish flavored with rum,
as you enjoy it, reflect on the fas-
cinating history of that liquor.
As the major liquor distilled during
the earlv history of the United States,
and a byproduct of sugar-making, rum
was relatively inexpensive and readily
available. Casks of rum were sold
alongside the staples in all country
stores. By the earlv 1700s, the colonists
were consuming approximately 12
million gallons a year.
Perhaps the oldest of all hard
liquors, the drink has come a long way
since a kind of rum was first made
about 800 B.C. in India and China,
where the juice pressed from tall, wild
grass was boiled and fermented. The
Moors took the grass to Spain and
Columbus took some along to the New
World. The root shoots were planted
in what is today Haiti and that was


- .1 I


Chicken will have a golden glaze and a subtle flavor when baked with rum and honey.
Try the recipe on page 26 for a more festive holiday buffet.


the beginning of the cultivation of
sugar cane, the production of sugar,
and rum making in the New World.
The British were largely responsible
for the evolution of rum from a crude,
raw drink called "Kill-Devil" into the
type rum that is popular today.
Until recent times, rum was mainly
the workingman's drink, and the drink
associated with swashbuckling sailors
and cut-throat pirates who were guz-
zling grog up and down the Spanish
Main in the 16th century.
As the American colonies became
involved in trade with Africa and the
West Indies, a rum industry developed.
New England rum played a more
than passing role in the American
Revolution as England's import duty
on molasses for distilling rum was as
objectionable to the colonists as the
tariff on tea.
The British blockade tried to cut off
rum shipments to Washington's Army
from the \est Indies but the natives
went out in their sloops in the dark of
night and loaded the American frigates
at sea. It is said that hot rum kept up
the spirits of the American soldiers


during the long, harsh winter at Valley
Forge and helped to win the war.
While the populace was drinking the
lowly rum, in the homes of the wealthy
in colonial Philadelphia, the best
French wines flowed. Claret, Sherry,
Port and Madeira were used in cooking
also but it was good, old, mellow rum
that was mixed with peach brandy and
high quality French brandy' to make
the traditional punch that must have
packed a wallop. To this day, rum is a
must in British punch and almost
synonymous with the word.
Rum is produced all over the world
wherever sugar cane is grown, and
there are basically two types. They
are the light bodied rums character-
istic of Cuba and Puerto Rico, and the
(lark full-bodied rums of Jamaica.
which have a strong molasses flavor.
After distilling, nrm is colorless hut it


The chilled cucumber soup and table
setting on page 22 are by Noreen Singer.
Mrs. Singer is the wife of Panama
Canal pilot. Capt. Fritz Singer.
For recipe see page 26.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23














Rum Spiked Fruit Compote
3 cups watermelon balls
2 cups honeydew balls
2 cups papaya balls
2 cups fresh pineapple, cubed
Using scoop cutter, make fruit balls.
After making the watermelon balls,
hollow out the watermelon, leaving at
least % inch of the rind to form a bowl .
for serving the compote. Mix the fruits -
carefully and sprinkle with cup "
sugar. Turn into the watermelon bowl
and pour 2 cups of dark rum over the
fruit. Chill before serving.















Rum Balls
1 cup butter or margarine
1 cup powdered sugar
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon almond flavoring
34 cup dark rum
43 cups flour
2 cups chopped nuts
Additional powdered sugar for rolling
Cream butter and sugar. Add salt,
flavoring, rum and flour. Mix thor-
oughly. Add nuts and mix well. Chill
dough several hours or until it can be
handled. Make walnut size balls and
place on ungreased cookie sheet, about
2 inches apart. Bake at 350 degrees
for about 15 minutes or until golden
brown. While the), are still warm, roll
the balls in sugar and let them cool.
Then roll again in sugar until well
\ coated.


WINTER 1976





(Continued from p. 23)
picks up color from the casks in which
it is stored. Color is deepened by
adding caramel after aging. Rum must
be 3 years old before it is put on the
market.
In the rum producing countries,
some still drink it straight. Elsewhere,
rum is used in mixed drinks with light
rum for cocktails and dark rum for tall
drinks. Devotees of the rum cult go so
far as to recommend switching to rum
in making martinis. Rum is used also
to flavor tobacco.





Bananas Baked With Rum
6 bananas, ripe but firm
3 tablespoons lime juice
i cup brown sugar
M cup rum
chopped nuts
sour cream
Arrange bananas in baking dish.
Combine the lime juice, brown sugar
and rum. Pour over the bananas and
baste while baking at 350 for about
40 minutes, turning the bananas care-
fully. Add chopped nuts and slip under
the broiler until nuts are browned.
Serve with sour cream. Ripe plantains
may be prepared in the same manner
but \will require longer baking time.





Not only has versatile rum found
favor as an elegant drink, it has in-
vaded the kitchen, where it is becoming
more and more popular in the flavoring
of sauces and desserts. Imaginative
cooks are venturing into the use of rum
in the preparation of meats, poultry
and fish.
In areas of Latin America, particu-
larly the Caribbean, rum as the "wine
of the country" is used lavishly. Cooks
often add dark-gold rum to soups, fish
and poultry. For years, they have been
preparing desserts reeking of rum, per-
haps a little too powerful for the un-
accustomed palate. Raw rum is used
in the less affluent kitchens.
Cooking with rum, carefully, and
without getting carried away, glamor-
izes dishes and imparts a delectable
flavor to foods. Sometimes just a whiff


of rum will take a dish out of the
ordinary and make it a "conversation
piece." Serve your next roast with rum-
glazed onions. Make your holiday ham
more festive by serving it with pine-
apple slices that have been sprinkled
with brown sugar and rum and broiled
for a few minutes. Baste a roasting
chicken or duck with rum and honey.
Add a teaspoon of rum to the egg
mixture when making French toast,


add it to barbecue sauce and use it
when baking bananas or plantains.
Sprinkle a little rum on fruit salads.
Substitute a couple teaspoons of rum
for liquid when baking cookies. Pos-
sibilities are endless.
And for the coming holiday season,
prepare a frothy, delicious eggnog with
one of the dark rums, make a basket
of rum balls, prepare a fruit bowl by
hollowing out half a watermelon and
filling it with rum-drenched native
fruits, or serve ordinary bread pudding
lightly laced with creamy rum sauce.
Here are a few recipes for those
who would like to venture into the
world of rum cookery:
Welcome your friends this holiday
season with a symbol of fellowship-a
punch bowl brimming with eggnog.


Try sprinkling

rum over grapefruit

halves for an

interesting

first course


Eggnog for a Crowd
12 egg yolks
1 cup sugar
1 bottle of dark rum
12 egg whites
1 quart cream, whipped
1 quart milk
1 cup brandy
Early on the day of the party, beat
the volks until thick and lemon colored.
Gradually beat in sugar. Slowly, stir in
brandy and rum. Cover. Put in the
refrigerator.
To serve, pour in punch bowl and
fold in stiffly beaten egg whites,
whipped cream, and enough milk to
thin as desired.
Sprinkle with a little nutmeg or
shaved chocolate.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


kNW4 N 4qdo





Chestnuts in Rum
1 pound dried chestnuts
3 cups boiling water
1 pound brown sugar, dark
% cup water
% cup rum
2 tablespoons orange marmalade
1% teaspoons cyrstalized ginger in pieces
Put chestnuts in boiling water and
simmer until tender. Drain and remove
shells and skins. Rinse off. Combine
sugar, 3% cup water, rum, orange mar-
malade and ginger. Bring to a boil and
simmer until slightly thickened. Pour
over the chestnuts that have been
packed into a sterilized jar. Cover
tightly. When cool put in refrigerator.
May be used on top of vanilla ice
cream or fresh native white cheese.

Rum Torte
3 cup butter
1H cup confectioners sugar
4 egg yolks
cup strong coffee made with 2 tsp.
instant coffee
16 lady fingers
6 cup dark rum
Cream butter, add sugar, beat until
fluffy. Add coffee and egg yolks and
beat until creamy. Line a bread pan
with waxed paper. Place halved lady
fingers on bottom of pan. Sprinkle with
rum. Spread cream mixture on lady
fingers. Repeat three times. Place in
refrigerator overnight. When ready to
serve, turn out on serving plate and
frost with whipped cream.

Rum Nut Crepes
4 eggs
2 cups milk
1A cups flour
1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons melted butter
1 tablespoon dark rum
Beat eggs until foamy. Stir in milk
and melted butter. Add flour and salt
and beat until smooth. Put in refriger-
ator for an hour and then make crepes
using a 6" or 7" pan.
Filling
% cup chopped pecans or walnuts
34 cup sugar
4 ounces cream cheese
4 ounces cottage cheese, or 8 ounces
of either one
2 tbs. rum
3 tbs. golden raisins
'i cup orange marmalade
Cream the cheeses with sugar until


A (lash of rum


for a delectable


difference




smooth. Add remaining ingredients
and mix thoroughly. Put about a table-
spoonful of filling on each crepe. Turn
in the edges and roll the crepe. Melt
butter in a chaffing dish or skillet. Place
crepes in pan over moderate heat and
cook on both sides until golden brown.
Serve sprinkled with rum or rum
flavored whipped cream.
On the Isthmus, many gallons of
rum, each year, go into the preparation
of Sopa Borracha, literally "drunken
soup," a delicious, rum-soaked confec-
tion served at weddings, anniversary
and birthday parties and at other fes-
tive occasions. Here is the recipe for
the rich dessert by the late Mercedes
Smith, the wife of a former Panama
Canal official.


Sopa Borracha
1 sponge cake baked in a 12x 8x 2
wax-lined pan
Syrup
2 cups sugar
i cup water
5 whole cloves
1 cinnamon stick
inch of salt
1 teaspoon lime juice
% cup dark rum
% cup Spanish or Italian muscatel wine
1 cup pitted cooked prunes or
1 cup white raisins
In a saucepan, combine sugar, water,
cloves, cinnamon, salt and lime juice.
Bring to a boil. Simmer for 5 minutes.
Cool to room temperature. Add rum
and wine and pour into a jar. Add
pnrnes, cover. Allow to stand for a
couple days. Bake the sponge cake a
day in advance; it takes the syrup more
readily when dry. Place in a large
serving plate. Remove spices and spoon
syrup over the cake. Decorate with the
prunes or raisins. Yield 24 2-inch
squares.


Baked Chicken With Rum and Honey
1 3-pound chicken or chicken parts
salt and pepper
3 tablespoons butter
4 cup rum
' cup honey
Wash and dry chicken. Season with
salt and pepper. Place in a baking dish
and dot with butter. Bake 1 hour in
moderate oven (3250). Mix rum and
honey and pour over chicken pieces.
Continue baking until tender, turning
chicken and basting often. Chicken will
have a golden glaze and a subtle flavor
that will have your guests saying
"delicious, what is it?"

Rum Glazed Onions
1 Ib medium size onions
1 cup dark rum
cup honey
2 tablespoons butter
3 teaspoon salt
Boil the onions in salted water until
just tender and drain. Mix honey, rum
and butter in frying pan over low heat.
Add onions and turn carefully, spooning
the liquid over the onions until they
are well glazed.

Chilled Cucumber Soup
3 tablespoons butter
~i chopped medium sized onion
3 chopped scallions
3 cucumbers peeled and chopped
12 cups chicken broth
1 pint whipping cream
2 cup rum
1 egg yolk
1 dash nutmeg
In a 3-quart saucepan, saut6 onions
and scallions in butter for 3 to 5 min-
utes. Add cucumbers, cover, and steam
for 5 minutes. Stir in broth and continue
to steam for 5 more minutes. Cool,
puree in blender in batches. Pour into
3-quart bowl. Beat egg yolk with cream
and rum and fold into cucumber mix-
ture, refrigerate for at least 4 hours.
Sprinkle top with nutmeg before
serving.


26 WINTER 1976






PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH TIE CANAL

(In long tons)
Atlantic to Pacific
Fiscal Year


Commodity
Coal and coke----------------
Petroleum and products --------
Corn -------------------
Soybeans-------------------------
Phosphate-------------------- --
Wheat---------------------------
Sorghum--- ------- -- ----
Metal, scrap------ --------------
Ores, various---------------------
Chemicals, unclassified---------
Manufactures of iron and steel__ --
Fertilizers, unclassified--------
Sugar-- ------- --
Machinery and equipment (excluding autos,
trucks, accessories and parts) __
Caustic soda ----------------------
All other -- ---------
Total----------- ------


1976
15,712,262
13,045,708
8,176,914
4,391,950
3,263,408
2,441,805
2,230,980
1%444,734
1,438,475
967,467
796,866
745,934
693,095

568,654
530,736
9,546,680
65,995,668


1975
24,787,965
15,713,222
6,725,887
3,472,908
5,263,193
4,342,133
2,033,457
2,140,969
2,229,713
889,850
1,706,312
1,180,229
1,398,277

690,409
577,931
10,939,711
84,092,166


Aug. No. Tons
1965-69
10,370,494
15,342,941
2,696,185
2,148,905
3,824,274
931,528
N.A.
2,490,084
1,561,932
843,370
1,829,850
485,060
842,298

582,402
N.A.
9,991,667
53,940,990


Pacific to Atlantic
Fiscal Year


Commodity
Petroleum and products- ---- -
Manufactures of iron and steel ----- -.-_
Ores, various ---- -- -----
Lumber and products --------------
Sugar____ --------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) --
Bananas_____ --------
Pulpwood --------
Metals, various ----------
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts---
Coal and coke -----------
Sulfur--- --------
Wheat------ -------
Fishmeal--------------------------
Molasses -----------
All other___- --------
Total --------


1976
8,878,702
8,074,104
4,116,617
4,063,603
2,753,477
1,916,503
1,511,161
1,367,619
1,301,717
1,078,604
991,710
925,684
697,721
688,794
652,775
12,197,807
51,216,598


1975
8,191,574
9,530,091
6,415,646
3,453,054
2,854,950
1,683,656
1,682,417
2,004,175
1,808,735
1,004,534
1,515,379
1,130,092
299,080
846,388
504,648
13,084,874
56,009,293


Acg. No. Tons
1965-69
1,262,685
3,668,309
5,702,654
4,716,145
2,547,028
1,164,560
1,297,688
813,937
1,274,872
96,271
166,948
221,134
890,548
1,502,000
354,071
8,858,744
34,537,594


CANAL TRANSITS-COIMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
Fiscal Yeor


1976 1975
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Totol Total
Commercial:
Oceangoing -------- ------ 6,169 5,988 12,157 13,609
Small I--------------- ---- 422 323 745 804
Total--.------------ 6,591 6,311 12,902 14,413


U.S. Government:
Oceangoing .------_.
Small __1---


40
102
142


Total_-- -----------
Total Commercial and
U.S. Government --


45
34
79


85
136
221


Avg. No.
tronsits
1965-69


Total

12,503
569
13,072


170 927
110 117
280 1,044


6,733 6,390 13,123 14,693 14,116


I Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or under 500 displacement tons.
Statistics compiled by the Executive Planning Staff.


(Continued from p. 15)
Among the most frequent cargo-
passenger line customers of the Canal
are the U.S. flag Prudential line ships
that go through every 2 weeks. These
ships take on cargo as well as 50 or
more passengers and sail from the west
coast on 52-day cruises through the
Canal around South America through
the Strait of Magellan and back to
California. The Santa Mercedes, Santa
Mariana, Santa Maria and Santa Mag-
dalena are sister ships known as the
four M's. They have staterooms as
elegant as those found on any cruise
ship today.
This last fall one of the first of a
series of special around South America
cruises, originating and ending in
Balboa, was scheduled by Prudential
Cruises for its liner Santa Mercedes.
Travelers flew to and from Panama to
take the 39-day voyage, which called
at 12 South American and Caribbean
ports plus transits of the Panama Canal
and the Strait of Magellan. Passengers
wishing to take the full 53-day cruise
boarded in California. This was one of
Prudential's bonus cruises with pas-
sengers offered free excursions at all
ports visited. Panama's organist Lucho
Azcirraga provided the music.
Theme cruises and special enter-
tainers and lecturers are other cruise
innovations. One of the most popular
being a "winery cruise" which features
tours of world famous wineries in Chile
and Argentina and wine tasting and
lectures on evaluating wines produced
by Latin American countries.
Earlier this vear, two past presidents
of the American Contract Bridge
League were bridge instructors on
Sitmar's trans-Canal voyages aboard
the Fairwind.
The Golden Odyssey featured a
whole packet of theme cruises last year
including a backgammon and a bicen-
tennial cruise. Many more are sched-
uled for this season including a tra-
ditional Christmas cruise, and a New
Year's cruise which will feature singer
Rosernary Clooney. Rose Marie, the
well-known TV star, will be on the
January 5 trip.
With all the cruise lines reporting a
boom in business, this dry season will
see crowds of visitors lining the decks
of transiting ships to watch a dedicated
group of Panamanian and U.S. citizens
operating an efficiently run waterway
through which the commerce of the
world has been funneled economically
for the past 62 years.


TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 27








The case of


l the missing

.- hangs portrait

3 c vt n v n







Gov. Goethals by Gov. Harding

By Pandora Gerard Aleman

J T UST INSIDE THE ENTRANCE
itIJ to the newly remodeled Canal
S Zone Library-lMuseum on the second
floor of the Civil Affairs Building
hangs, in a simple gilt frame, a por-
trait of a man wearing a white tunic.
The casual visitor may not even notice
it. And those who do take note will
learn little of the story behind the
painting from the simple plaque which
reads, "Ceorge Goethals, by Chester
Harding."
Let us take up the thread of the
story on the evening of March 6, 1915.
The scene is the annual banquet of the
Society of the Chagres, held at the
Tivoli Hotel in Ancon. Two days
earlier, guest of honor George Wash-
ington Coethals had been made a
major general in the U.S. Arm)' by a
L. special act of Congress in recognition
of his accomplishments as chief engi-
Sneer of the Panama Canal from early
1907 to its official opening on Au-
gust 15, 1914. Now 56 and serving as
the first Governor of the Canal Zone,
S he has asked to be relieved of his
responsibilities. Looking out over the
assembled guests, he gives his "army"
I a farewell salute:
"We are gathered here tonight, not
in hope of something yet to be accom-
plished, but of actual accomplishment:
Emily i. Price, left, Librarian-Curator of the Canal Zone Library-Atnuserm, discusses the two oceans have been united ....
the Coethals portrait, u'hich hangs in the library, with Mrs. Kathryne Harding Deeble, The construction of the Canal means
daughter of Governor Harding, the painter of the portrait. Harding succeeded Goethals but little in comparison \with its
as Governor in 1917. The engraving for the 3-cent stamp, above, was made from coming usefulness to the world and
the e same photograph that llarding selected as a basis for the painting. what it will bring about. Its comple-


\VINTER 1976




tion is due to the brain and brawn of
the men who are gathered here-men
who have served loyally and well; and
no commander in the world ever had
a more faithful force than that which
worked with me in building the
Panama Canal."
But if those men were the body of
the Canal enterprise, Goethals was its
very soul. He knew every detail of tlhe
complex operation; he was out on the
lines from early morning, checking
progress, encouraging the men, solving
problems; and he was easily accessible
to anyone with a grievance. As the
refrain of "Tell the Colonel," a son,"
popular among the workers, tells it:
"See Colonel Coethals, tell Colonel
Goethals,
It's the only right and proper thing
to do.
Just write a letter, or, even better,
Arrange a little Sunday interview."
That his armv of workers returned
his affection and esteem was shown not
only in the way they moved waters and
earth at his command but in their
words and deeds long after the con-
struction era had passed.
Some 75 members of the Old Timers
Society of New York City were on the
Isthmus in January 1928 to renew old
associations and memories and see with
their own eves the success of the work
they had helped complete. Goethals
too was to have come, but, too ill to
travel, he sent a letter of greeting.
On January 21, a committee of Old
Timers acknowledged his thoughtful-
ness in a letter which concluded:
"A few years ago a vast army of
workers eagerly toiled beneath a tro-
pical sun to remove a great natural
barrier to man's advancing civilization
Their success was due to your leader-
ship, the patriotic, cohesive spirit that
animated them to accomplish the pur-
pose of their native land, and the
friendly cooperation of the Repuhlic oC
Panama and her citizens. The barrier
is removed and mankind is the richer
thereby. To have been a member of
that army was a privilege, to have
been its leader an imperishable honor.
"We affectionately greet vou, our
Chief."
This eloquent testimony of their
high regard for Coethals never reached
him. He died at noon that very day.
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad
employees on the Isthmus immediately
pooled their resources to send flowers
to the funeral and cabled Mrs.
Goethals:
"The death of our former chief has
deeply affected us all, and bereft an


army of workers of their beloved
friend, 'the Colonel.' Your husband's
sterling qualities will remain a happy
memory while we live, and his work
here will endure always as a monu-
ment to one of the world's greatest
engineers."
And the men collected funds for a
memorial volume of "items relating to
his life and work on the Isthmus" for
presentation to Mrs. Goethals.
But still they had not done enough.
On July 29, 1931, Executive Secre-
tary C. A. Mcllvaine wrote retired
Brig. Gen. Chester Harding, saying
Isthmians had heard he had painted
"an excellent likeness" of Goethals and
asking whether it was for sale. "A num-
ber of old timers here," he said, "feel
that here is the place for the portrait
to be hung permanently."


The hanging of

the painting was

the first local

recognition of

Goethals' role

in the building

of the Panama Canal


But the painting in question be-
longed to Mrs. Goethals, having been
painted at her request. It was the
second Goethals portrait that Harding
had done; the first was hanging at
West Point.
It is, perhaps, surprising enough to
find a retired Army general devoting
himself to painting; that he had been
called on to paint two portraits of
Coethals might be downright mystifv-
ing to one unaware of Harding's back-
ground.
Although Chester Harding was the
nephew-and namesake-of a well-
known portrait artist, there is nothing
in his early life to suggest that he
might carry on the tradition. An 1889
graduate of West Point, Harding was
commissioned in the Corps of Engi-
neers and, as a major, in 1907 was
assigned to the Panama Canal project
as engineer of the Gatun Locks Divi-
sion. From 1908 to 1913, he was
assistant engineer of the Atlantic Divi-
sion, and after a year's assignment in


Washington he returned in 1915 as en-
gineer in charge of maintenance. On
January 11, 1917, he succeeded George
W. Goethals as Governor of the Canal
Zone.
In 1921, after serving out his term
as Governor, Harding went to Paris,
where he studied art and began to
make a name as a portraitist.
There is obvious delight in his re-
sponse to Mcllvaine's query about the
Goethals portrait:
"If the old timers et al. are con-
sidering the presentation of an oil por-
trait of the General to the Canal, and
would like me to paint it, I should feel
most honored, and I would undertake
it under the inspiration of the affection
I shall always feel for him and for
those same old timers who supported
me so loyally when I was with them."
By September, Harding had formed
a good idea of what he would like to
achieve in the portrait.
"I have in mind what is known as a
bust portrait, or at the largest, a half-
length, and I feel that it should repre-
sent the General as he was known and
beloved, and is remembered, by the
'Canalers,' wearing his white jacket. It
should, I think, be painted from a
photograph taken on the Isthmus."
In his letter to Mcllvaine, Harding
added that he had been getting $500
for his bust portraits, "but if that figure
cannot be conveniently subscribed,
I would not let the fact stand in the
way of my having the opportunity to
paint the portrait."
The white coat which Harding men-
tions-and which had been described
by at least one man as "a waiter's
coat"-did indeed have special signifi-
cance for the old timers. When Goe-
thals, a military man, took over as chief
engineer after the resignation of the
popular and capable civilian John F.
Stevens, he faced a near-mutinous at-
titude on the part of the workers.
They were apprehensive that, as one
writer put it, "now the work would
have to be carried on with due cere-
mony and that when an officer ap-
peared everyone would have to stop
and salute." Goethals wasted no time
in putting those fears to rest, and
throughout his stay on the Isthmus his
uniform was not that of the Army
officer but the distinctive white jacket.
In late September, Mcllvaine for-
warded to Harding eight photographs
of Goethals taken by official Panama
Canal photographer "Red" Hallen and
asked Harding to begin the portrait.
Incidentally, the photo General
Harding selected was used again in


TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







One of the few photographs of Goetlhls
during his years on the Isthmus when he
was not wearing his white suit. Here
dressed in a dark suit, he visits the Gamboa
dike in 1913. With him, back to camera,
is Chester Harding, then a major and chief
of dredging and marine operations.
The other man is Lt. Col. H. F. Hodges,
who was in charge of solving all the
important engineering problems of the
Canal. The men were accompanied by their
wives. No event during the construction
of the Canal attracted more attention
among employees than the blowing up
of this dike, October 10, 1913, letting
the penned-up water into the Cut and
uniting the waters of the
Atlantic and Pacific. The dynamite charge
was set off in Washington, D.C. by
President Woodrow Wilson.


1934, this time as the basis of an en-
graving for a new Canal Zone stamp
when the letter rate was raised to
3 cents. The stamp was issued Au-
gust 15, 1934, on the anniversary of
the Canal opening, and is still in use.
In fact, the 3-cent Goethals stamp saw
a good deal of service recently after
the 13-cent airmail stamp was discon-
tinued and before the new all-purpose
13-cent stamp was introduced.
In order to give as many Isthmian
old timers the chance to share in the
work, contributions for the portrait
were limited to $1 each. This meant
there would be 500 contributors!
Work on the portrait continued
apace. On April 30, 1932, Harding
wrote Mcllvaine that he had shipped
"the Colonel's" picture to Panama
Railroad Vice President T. H. Ross-
bottom in New York, that "the frame
ordered from Chicago is promised to
arrive at Rossbottom's office not later
than the morning of May 7," and that
he hoped both would arrive in time for
unveiling at the New York Society of
the Panama Canal dinner, set for the
evening of May 7 at the Astor Hotel.
Harding went on: "As I like to con-
sider myself as one of the 'old timers,
I wish to contribute the frame, so there
will be no additional charge over the
amount of the check you sent me"-a
check which, however, he categorically
refused to negotiate until he had the
final word from Mcllvaine and the
old timers as to the portrait's accept-
ability.


Painting and frame reached New
York in good time. Rossbottom dis-
played the oil painting at the New
York dinner and shipped it to the Isth-
mus shortly thereafter on the SS Ancon
in care of the purser, who was to per-
sonally deliver it to the railroad's
receiving and forwarding agent. On
May 18, a railroad official carried it
aboard train No. 3 and, once in Bal-
boa, hand-delivered it to McIlvaine.
Mcllvaine advised Harding that he
could cash the check with a clear
conscience. His tribute went further:
"We are exceedingly pleased: the
portrait is much more lifelike than a
photograph and nothing but praise is
heard of it. All of us who were for-
tunate in having contact with him re-
member seeing 'the Colonel' many


times with the cheerful, quizzical light
in his eyes which is so well caught and
portrayed by an artist who knew him
equally well."
A special committee had been ap-
pointed to suggest a permanent loca-
tion for the portrait. After due
deliberation and experimentation, they
recommended hanging it in the rotunda
area of the Administration Building,
outside the library. They chose the spot
for its availability to the public and its
relatively good lighting, day and night.
Before the portrait was actually
hung, memos and sketches flew back
and forth among Calhoun, Smith and
Marstrand of the committee. Smith
advocated constructing a box-frame
with a light or small heater to prevent
mold and deterioration from dampness


Chester Harding, who was appointed Governor of the Canal Zone in 1917, visits
Gatun Locks. His long association with Goethals, combined with his artistic ability,
made him the ideal person to paint the portrait.


WINTER 1976


. r





and with a glass face to protect the
painting from "the flying insects which
infest this building." But he was out-
voted, and the unprotected painting
was hung within a few days of its
arrival.
Goethals had already been honored
by the New York Port Authority,
which he had served as a consulting
engineer, and which on July 1, 1928,
inaugurated the Goethals Bridge be-
tween Elizabeth, N.J., and Howland
Hook, Staten Island, N.Y. But, as a
Panama Canal press release of the time
noted, the hanging of the portrait by
Harding was "the first local recogni-
tion of the fact that Gen. George W.
Goethals was connected with building
the Panama Canal."
Smith's misgivings about hanging
the portrait without protection were
apparently well founded, as in 1936
Marstrand noted that "the canvas is
accumulating smudge, so it is soiled
in spots." After some urgent consulta-
tion, the painting was cleaned and
treated with the same solution that had
been used with success on the murals
in the rotunda of the Administration
Building.
After that, the record becomes
sketchy. A Panama Canal REVIEW
article in 1954 showed a 1940 photo
of two of Coethals' grandsons standing
to either side of their grandfather's desk
in the Executive Secretary's office, with
the portrait hanging on the wall
behind them. Another pair of grand-
sons were shown in a 1947 photo, on
either side of the easel-mounted por-
trait in a niche outside the rotunda.
The painting remained on display
for years after those visits. But when
in September 1968 the chief of the
Historical Division of the Office of the
Chief of Engineers wrote asking for
photos or transparencies of the portrait,
it was nowhere in sight.
For weeks, Canal officials scoured
the building. At last, one searcher was
inspired to try the safe deposit vault in
the basement.
Asked, "Have you seen anything
that might he the Goethals portrait?"
the woman seated behind the iron
railing thought a minute, then an-
swered, "Well, there's something down
here by my right foot." There was,
indeed-a package carefully wrapped
in brown paper.
The paper was tor quickly from one
corer, and the Goethals portrait had
been found. Getting it out \was not
easy, though; part of the railing had
to be removed.


Goetlhals' white jacket had special significance for


the "old timers." They remembered how, during construction


days, he wore it whether reviewing the Marines at Camp Elliot


or at social functions at his residence.


sP--
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... .....


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










WI
r1-:


Now that it had been brought to
light, there was time to speculate on
how the prized portrait had found
such a resting place. Gradually, the
story was pieced together.
In 1958, a major renovation of the
interior of the Administration Building
was undertaken-as a December 1957
REVIEW put it, "the first change of
any extensive nature to be made in
the Canal's Administration Building
since it was built under the watchful
eye of Col. George W. Goethals 43
Years ago." Ironically, the renovation,
which involved chiefly installation of
air-conditioning, modem lighting and
a new elevator, relegated to obscurity
the portrait of the very man who had
superintended the original construc-
tion.
The building swarmed with car-
penters, electricians, air-conditioning
technicians, painters and workmen of


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I

ST?!^!'JB
*fc^Jt^A-^j^J ^'-


all sorts. The atmosphere was anything
but conducive to contemplation of a
venerable portrait. The painting was
taken down, carefully wrapped by the
mailing department, and placed, pro-
visionally, in the safe deposit vault.
When a high drawer was installed
behind the railing, the supporting
boards sandwiched the painting in,
giving it real "protection." And there
it remained for a decade.
The years and the climate had not
been kind to the Goethals portrait, but
its rediscovery was greeted \with joy in
at least one segment of the Canal or-
ganization. The staff of the Canal
Zone Library-Museum wanted very
much to display it in the library-and
with good reason.
On August 24, 1914, 9 days after
the Canal had been formally opened
to world commerce, Colonel Goethals
issued a circular to all heads of de-
32 WINTEn 1976


The "Genius of the

Panama Canal" was also

the founder of the

Canal Zone Library


I, Il/.W l,:"r:" ,:'t il,.' ,b ..iiil tr .1 C ,ii, .;I Z,.i." L ,ibririi-AIi,.i o :, G : iI-/l^' lia ir,..I
)i ,' l,,i,/ !- .I ,I. ,,, l .', i.,,,il. .. r j,,,l ,,. l, .,,,l l" k; T l .,:l n. Ill 11 j, ,.,ti I 1 _
". li.. ,h 'll ll..- i i!l!, i ,. I t,, ll llr Ill.. l r I .H l ',,iu C_ lIll .\;: I.' T '\ii'l Q_ C l.:',It .
f ulll'.. C.:. r r,.lr :",t. rli. l .-l ullr Ii ,h..itu l .o r lll,'lrl iC lll.: r ,l, f r.ll' f I:.."I

O -. 1 ..l ... i,:' l il: ll .. i. w t,- a. HI i Ir.'l.ll 1--l'jl:r : *:llll i t,'l d a'.'l; i; l


~sy










Governor Harding's daughter returns after 56 years


Kathryne Harding Deeble takes the wheel
of the tug, which was named for
her father who served as Governor of the
Canal Zone from 1917 to 1921, on
her recent cisit to the Canal Zone.
Mrs. Deeble christened the tug in
New Orleans in October 1970. She was
accompanied on her visit to the
Isthmus by her son, William.


DURING A NOSTALGIC VISIT
to the Isthmus a few months ago,
Kathryne Harding Deeble, daughter of
Maj. Cen. Chester Harding, construc-
tion-day chief of dredging and marine
operations, Atlantic Division, and later
the second Governor of the Canal Zone,
recalled a happy childhood at Catun
from 1907 to 1913. The Hardings lived
in a wooden structure she referred to
as a "bird cage." It was on stilts, had
a wrap-around veranda and windows
that had to be nailed shut during the
dry season trade winds.
Children spent most of the day out
of doors. Being from the north, and
missing the fun of snow and sledding,
they devised sleds of cardboard boxes
and soon were sliding down the hills
to the trenches, often dodging the
sanitation men with their oil cans as
they were spraying for mosquito
control.
Mrs. Deeble spoke of the constant
stream of visitors who came to sec the
Canal and how her father very often
brought unexpected guests for dinner.
Comparing the Canal construction to
today's space projects, she recalled the


esprit de corps and the pride of
involvement.
The Hlardings left the Isthmus in
1913, returning in 1915, after the
opening of the Canal. Harding was
appointed Governor in 1917, serving
until 1921.
It was during his tenure of office
that Kathrvne married the young Army
officer she had met at West Point who
later was assigned to Fort Sherman.
Capt. William Decble proposed under
the big tree that still stands in front of
the Governor's house and they were
married on April 14, 1920. It was a
simple but beautiful evening wedding
at the Governor's house. Following the
reception, the couple got into the
Governor's victoria which was drawn
by two matched bays. The driver,
immaculate in his white uniform and
pith helmet, drove them to the station,
where they boarded the "Yellow Peril"
for a trip across the Isthmus to the
Washington Hotel. They sailed the fol-
lowing day to the United States on a
United Fruit boat, stopping at Car-
tagena, Barranquilla and Jamaica.


apartments and divisions, announcing
that "in connection with the consolida-
tion of records, a library is being es-
tablished in the new Administration
Building at Balboa to provide for the
accumulation of official books, docu-
ments, reports, etc., which are indis-
criminately kept in the various offices
on the Isthmus at present."
From the nucleus of books contri-
buted by offices of the Panama Canal
and Panama Railroad grew the library-
museum we know today. For years, its
collection was housed in what is now
the Press Section of the Information
Office, and it was outside this area that
the Goethals portrait originally hung.
Then the library moved to the Civil
Affairs Building in Ancon, where its
quarters were recently expanded and
modernized.
Today, some 62 years after Goe-
thals started it, the library-museum still

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


serves the Panama Canal Company-
Canal Zone Government as an official
reference and technical resource li-
brary, while serving the general public
as well. It has grown to include the
main library, three branch libraries,
three small circulating libraries, and
two job-site libraries. Its collection com-
prises 305,000 items, including docu-
ments, pamphlets, bound and unbound
magazines, maps, prints, manuscripts,
photographs and microforms in addi-
tion to books. And it houses a world-
famous collection of material on early
surveys for a canal at-Panama, the his-
tory of the Panama Railroad, and the
construction of the present Canal.
The portrait was promised to the li-
brary, and restoration work was begun
by local artist Mrs. "Pete" Johnson.
General Harding's frame was repaired
by the Maintenance Division, and
within a year after its rediscovery the


restored portrait of George Washing-
ton Goethals was hung in the library,
where "the Colonel" is doubly hon-
ored-as the "Genius of the Panama
Canal" and the founder of the library.


Julie Ford and her son, Mark, check a list
of tnew hooks. The wicker table and
chair are from the old Tivoli Gucst House.


I



































C HosbIM ROOM



T HERE ARE MANY WAYS TO SAY MERRY CHRISTMAS
and Happy New Year but the mola with the Santa Claus design,
on the opposite page, says it in an art form unique to the Cuna Indians
of the San Blas Islands.

The special qualities of the Cuna art, which can be seen in this
Christmas mola, are produced by sewing several layers of contrasting
colored cloth together and cutting the design into each layer so that
the contrasting color underneath creates the desired effect. Then the
edges are carefully folded under and sewn by hand.

Perennially popular with local residents as well as tourists, molas
continue to stimulate new ideas for their use. The latest Christmas
gift idea is a wall hanging made from 12 to 24 molas.


34 WINTER 1976




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