Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00046
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: February 1970
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Matter
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text


Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


.... .........

....... .................. ..

\\. P. LEBEH, Governor-President

R. S. IIAHTLINE, Lieutenant-Governor

Panama Canal Information Officer

Official Panama Canal Publication
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.

M1oml. \N E. (CoO-Wi, I'ress Officer
tI'bliCatirnS Editors
News W\'riters
Luis C. NOLI

Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part witboul
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balhoa Heiciht,. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.


The XI Central American and Caribbean Games
Times have changed since Panama last hosted
the Olympic Games in 1938 when only 10 coun-
tries were represented. Now, more than 2,700
athletes from 22 countries are participating.
Canal Zone Observatory --------
Stargazers have an unusual opportunity to study
the array of heavenly bodies at the Observatory.
Snakes ___---- ---- --------------- -
Superstition and mythology have given the snake
a tarnished image. In the daily struggle of life,
the snake has the toughest time.
Shipping --- -- ---- ---------- -
W7ith the coming of new world markets, new
sources of supply, and the increasing size of
merchant ships, the shipping industry is taking
on a new look.
Directors Meet at Balboa Heights
Board members hold their quarterly meeting in
the Administration Building and tour the Canal
Decade of the '60's_ _
The 1960's seemed to be a time when everything
wLent up-satellites, astronauts, skirts, prices, and
the Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
Vocational School at Chapala_
Sponsored by the Panama Lions Club, the
school offers hope, future to delinquent boys.
The Mystery of "Maru"
The word Mlaru appears on nearly all Japanese
merchant ships. The meaning of the word has
been lost in time, but there are many theories.
Shipping Notes
Culinary Capers
Featured here are recipes from construction
days and a bit of history of the food situation
on the Isthmus driring those times.

Our Cover(

3 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW features on its coveCs the
XI Central American and Caribbean Games which bring
together in Panama City athletes from 22 nations of
this hemisphere.

5 Three posters, which con honorable mention in a
contest sponsored by the Games' Organizing Committee,
were used to create the covers' designs. The runners
8 were drawn byI Bolicar Ricera, the symbolic torch and
emblem of the Games, by Juan Carlos Marcos, and
the pole caulter is the creation of Cesare Motta, whose
12 discus thrower on another poster won him first place.
The runners symbolize the participants at the start-
ing point awaiting the signal which will bring them the
glory of triumph or the darkness of defeat.

14 The torch bearing the Olympic flame is carried by
relays of runners on its arrival at David from Mexico
City to the Olympic Stadium where the sacred fire is lit.

16 According to custom, a well-known sports figure of
the past will carry the Olympic flame to the stadinun.
Frank Prince of Panama, Central American and Carib-
bean champion of the 800 and 1,500 meter dash, will
I9 lae the honor on this occasion.

The pole vaulter is the symbol of human effort to
22 overcome obstacles while the pole denotes help which
is needed to overcome these obstacles.


M IF. iflh II. III lii I 1111N11111 M1m A1"111i

r L

q I

-.;""~~" Pt.Llr-~ L~

Basketball games for the XI Games will be held at the Olympic Gymnasium. The $2 million
gymnasium has a transparent dome and will be used for other athletic events.

By Tom.s A. Cupas

THE CENTRAL American and Carib-
bean Games, which brought together in
Panama athletes from 10 countries in
1938, will be held again this )ear at the
Crossroads of the World-this time with
competitors from 22 sister nations who
will strive during 2 weeks to win honors
for their respective flags.
Things have changed a lot in Panama
City in the 32 years between the I\
Games in 1938 and the XI Cames to be
held this year from February 28 to
March 14.
Then, there was only one Olympic
Stadium for track and field, basketball.
soccer, boxing, baseball, and tennis
events; one National Gymnasium for
volleyball, weight lifting and wrestling;
the Olympic Pool for swimming, high
diving, and water polo; the Miramar
Athletic Club for fencing; the old Juan
Franco racetrack for cycling events; and
a shooting range in Paitilla.

Modern Panama City now has a sta-
dium-gymnasium-swimming pool com-
plex in the Presidente Remon racetrack
area for track and field, basketball and
soccer. The old Olympic Stadium-no\
named "Juan Demostenes Arosemena"
after the ex-President of Panama who
was the patron of the IV Ganes in
I93S-will be the scene of baseball
games. The old National Gymnasium.
now named Neco de la Guardia after
the "Father of Panamanian Sports,"
will be the site of boxing events. The
old Olympic Pool, now named Adan
Gordon after one of the country's out-
standing swimmers, will be used for
water polo competition.
Other new installations include the
Stadium of the Melchor Lasso de la
Vega Arts and Crafts School, for soccer
games; the Tocumen Velodrome, for
cycling, and the Shooting Range in the
same area
(See p. 4)

They Strive For

Honor and Glory


Appearing almost like an artist's creation, the hanging roof of the Olympic Gymnasi
is supported by 92 cables which stretch from a reinforced concrete base to a central st
cylinder. The covering is of aluminum and an insulating material.

H. -

The Olympic Stadium accommodates 20,000 persons and will house the opening
closing ceremonies. Various events will be held there including the soccer and box
finals. The track is topped with a rubberized material for better traction. The only ot
track of this type in Latin America is in Mexico City.

The new $1 million Olympic Pool constructed specially for the XI Games has a capac
for 3,000 spectators to view the swimming competitions.

- .' .-.

n ,


Olympic cyclists take a practice run around the Velodrome near Tocumen Airport.
Velodrome has a 250 meter ring and a cement track with an inclination of from 12
45 degrees. Approximately 2,500 cycling fans can watch the races.




(Continued from p. 3)
Wrestling, judo, and weightlifting
events will be held in the Colegio
Javier Gymnasium; volleyball, in the
Colegio San Agustin; fencing at the
Colegio de las Esclavas del Sagrado
Coraz6n de Jests; and gymnastics in
the Colegio La Salle.

teel For the IV Games in 1938, athletes
came from Colombia. Costa Rica, Cuba,
El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicara-
gua, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Vene-
zuela. Twelve countries have been
added to that list for the 1970 Gaines:
.K Netherlands Antilles, Bahamas, Barba-
dos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hondu-
S- ras, British Honduras, Virgin Islands.
Dominican Republic, Surinam, and
Four years ago, at the X Games in
San Juan, Puerto Rico, there were 1,689
athletes from 16 countries. In Panama
this year there will be some 2,700 ath-
letes from 22 countries-a record num-
and ber of both competitors and countries.
xing The largest delegation to the Games
her is from Cuba, 372 athletes-277 men
and 95 women, who will compete in all
sports. Next is Panama's with 329
athletes-253 men and 76 women, while
Mexico's is in third place with 269
athletes, of whom 210 are men and
59 women.
a The smallest delegation comes from
Surinam, whose two athletes will com-
pete in track and field. They will be ac-
companied by one non-playing delegate.
Barbados, Guyana, and Surinam will
not be represented in women's sports.
city The only countries to compete in all
sports will be Cuba, Mexico, and Pan-
P ama. Puerto Rico will not participate
- in gymnastics and Venezuela will not
compete in water polo.
For two weeks, these young men and
women will be competing as friends,
fulfilling the vision of Baron Pierre de
Coubertin, who revived the modern
Olympic games. Thev will be inspired
by the traditional Olympic oath: "We
swear, that we will take part in the Olym-
pic Games in loyal competition, respect-
ing the regulations which govern them
and desirous of participating in them
The in the true spirit of sportsmanship for
to the honor of our country and for the
glory of sport."



The Greek philosopher Plato, nearly
400 B.C., must have had a vision of
the Twentieth Century when he said:
"Astronomy compels the soul to look
upwards and leads us from this world
to another."

By Louis R. Granger Isthmian residents have an unusual
WEATHERED FROM 40 years of use, opportunity to observe the mysterious
a small round building that sits atop a sparkling matter that makes up the uni-
hill overlooking Miraflores Locks con- verse. Living in latitudes just north of
tinues to function as one of the most the equator they have a favored position
useful teaching aids in the Canal Zone. to study the star-studded heavens.
The Canal Zone Observatory, only Oliver Bullock, a former electrical
16 feet in diameter, has given thousands supervisor for the Panama Canal organ-
of children and adults a glimpse into ization, was an early inmember of the
the future. As scores of satellites circle Canal Zone Astronomical Society and
the earth, and as man studies the moon drew a series of star maps for this hem-
firsthand, its value has become even isphere that eventually were incorpor-
more pronounced. ated into a booklet, "Panama Evening
Space programs of the United States Skies." Available in the Canal Zone
and Russia have made us more aware Library, it has been used for most
of the vastness of the universe and have astronomical observations made on the
put into realistic terms the possibility Isthmus.
of interplanetary space travel. In the book's foreword, Bullock
Nearly everyone during the course stated that "all the brighter stars and
of a dark night will glance upwards all the principal star groups which
to search for the groups of stars that make up that awe-inspiring, everchang-
make up the Great Bear and its Big ing, nightly procession of distant suns,
Dipper, Southern Cross, the Big Dog are visible from the Isthmus some time
and other well-known constellations. during each year.


Dry Season Offers Nightly

Panorama of Stars and Planets

The rings of the planet Saturn show up
clearly when seen through a telescope.

The Spiral Nebula Andromeda, one of the
most prominent seen in the tropical skies.

Children have always enjoyed looking for
the Big Dipper "Big Bear" in the sky.

This nightly panorama of stars and
planets is best viewed during the dr\
season when the sky is clear.
Astronomy lectures are given at the
Observatory on Sundays and Tuesdays
from 7 to 9 p.m. by J. Wes Seaquist,
coordinator of the Audio-Visual Cen-
ter of the Division of Schools who is
in charge of the Observatory, and B. J.
Brown, a long-time astronomy authority
who works in the Engineering Division.
Visitors are allowed to view the moon,
stars, and planets through the Observ-
atory's 5-inch equatorial telescope.
At this time of the year, Observatory
visitors can see six interesting constel-
lations directly overhead. The brightest
stars in these form what is known locally
as the Dry Season Circle. This huge
ring consists of seven bright stars called
Sirius, Canopus, Castor, Pollux, Capella,
Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse.
Many persons head for the Observ-
atory during a full moon thinking that
is the best time to view it. Actually it is
the worst time.
Seaquist explains that the ideal time
to see features on the moon is between
the new moon and when it appears
to be a half image. At this time the
sunlight strikes it from an angle which
accents the mountain ranges. During
full moon the sun is shining directly on
the moon and the appearance is flat
because there are no shadows.
One of the most interesting of the
planets is Venus. A few years ago a
security officer at Quarry Heights ex-
citedly called Seaquist about what ap-
peared to be a UFO (unidentified flying
object). The officer said that a bright
object disappeared on one horizon and
almost immediately appeared on the
other horizon indicating tremendous
speed. Seaquist investigated and dis-
covered that Venus, the brightest ap-
pearing planet, had moved below the
horizon, and Sirius, the brightest star,
had just come up.
Another incident involving Venus oc-
curred during World War II. A bright
spot continued to appear in the sky

within range of observers at a U.S. mil-
itary base in Costa Rica and caused
enough concern that the Canal Zone
Astronomical Society was asked to
Three amateur astronomers, Bullock,
Earl O. Dailey, and Clarence H. True,
packed up the telescope and headed for
Costa Rica. The uneasiness about the
strange object had increased consider-
ably when someone thought he saw
a basket hanging from it.
The local astronomers identified it
immediately -as the planet Venus and
another space mystery was solved.
The North Star which has guided
sailors to their destinations for ages can -
be seen every cloudless night. It is al-
ways 9 degrees above the horizon. For
persons south of the equator the South-
ern Cross is the navigational guide.
One of the most valuable constella-
tions for navigational purposes in this
latitude is Orion, the Great Hunter.
This group of stars can be seen through-
out the dry season in the early evening.
Once it's pointed out it becomes easy
to recognize and appears like a big com-
pass box in the sky. A group of stars
within Orion forms an arrow pointing
directly north.
Orion's belt acts as a pointer in two
directions. To the northwest, it points
toward Aldebaran in Taurus, the Bull.
In the opposite direction, the belt points
toward Sirius, the Dog Star.
Many other constellations, stars, and
planets can be seen from the Observ-
atory including the Spiral Nebula An-
dromeda beyond our own galaxy. It is
so far away it took the light from its
stars 2 million years to reach earth.
Located just off Gaillard Highway
near Miraflores Locks, the Observatory
is easily accessible and there is a large
parking lot for convenience of visitors.
Work on the edifice began in April
1930, and was completed that June.
All construction was carried on by what
was then known as the construction
quartermaster's force of Pedro Miguel.
Plans and specifications for the building


Weathered from 40 years of use, the Canal Zone Observatory

sits atop a hill overlooking Miraflores Locks and gives

thousands of Canal children a chance to observe the spar

matter that makes up the universe.

were drafted by former Panama Canal
Architect Meade Bolton.
The building is topped by a mobile
dome and equipped to travel on a cir-
cular track, making it possible to move
the telescope around to cover every
point of the compass and facilitate the
observation of the celestial bodies in
any part of the heavens.
Former Panama Canal towing loco-
motive operator, James A. Hess, is given
credit for bringing the Observatory to
the Zone. An amateur astronomer, Hess
obtained the telescope from the Naval
Observatory in Washington, D.C. It was
one of six built in Massachusetts to ob-
serve the rare transit of Venus across
the face of the sun in 1874 and again
in 1882.
It took more than a year for Hess to
wangle the telescope from the Naval
Observatory that refused to lend it to
the Canal Zone Astronomical Society
which had not been officially organized.
Finally, after much correspondence
and conversations with the superin-
tendent of the Naval Observatory, the
chief of the Panama Canal Washington
office, and former Canal Zone Governor
H. Burgess, it was agreed that the tele-
scope could be loaned to the Panama
Canal Government.
It was about this time that Hess
organized the society to care for and
control the use of the telescope which
was set up at the Hess home in Pedro
Miguel until a more suitable site was
After much pondering, it was decided
to house the telescope in a building
of its own. Approximately $1,750 was
spent from clubhouse funds to construct
the Observatory.
It is estimated that nearly half a
million persons have visited the Observ-
atory during the past 40 years. Many
Boy Scouts have received merit badges
in astronomy for their studies there and
students in Canal Zone Schools' sci-
ence classes are given a closeup look
at planets that they may be able to visit
some day.

-, I



4- m Z

The ideal time to view the moon is between the new moon

and when it appears to be a half image as the sunlight strikes

it from an angle at this time and accents the mountain ranges.




What are they

By Willie K. Friar
with venom. And walks upon its duo-
denum." So wrote Ogden Nash about
the cobra and the information which
most people have about snakes is limited
to this-his method of locomotion and
his venomous nature.
But superstition and mythology
abound and over the years have blended
with a few facts to give the snake his
tarnished image. His reputation began
to slip when he first encountered Eve
and it has continued to deteriorate ever
Movies set in the tropics often feature
oversized snakes festooned in the trees
or slithering at a fantastic speed in pur-
suit of the hero who more likely than
not ends up in a fight to the death with
an all embracing boa constrictor or is
gobbled up whole as an appetizer by
an anaconda.

Small wonder then that it comes as
a surprise to many) that there are more
snakes in the temperate zone than in
the tropics; that snakes are more in-
clined to run away from a man than to
pursue him; and that only two will even
consider man as a part of their menu.
The anaconda and the python can be
classed as possible people-eaters, but
they rarely choose humans, finding
smaller animals more to their liking.
The natives of South America call the
anaconda "the spirit of the Amazon"
and many believe that if you are
swallowed by an anaconda you live on
forever inside the snake.
But in the mutual eating of snake
and man, the snake gets the worst of
it, ending up being eaten by man more
often than the other way around. In fact,
the boa constrictor, which is referred
to by some as "a fine hunk of meat,"
is a regular part of the menu served to
students at the Air Force Tropical Sur-
vival School in the Canal Zone.
Exotic Cocktail
A somewhat exotic cocktail may be
concocted by adding boa meat to aguar-
diente, a local liquor. This is drunk by
some of the natives of Panama and
Colombia as a treatment for pancreas
ailments and malaria. One need not fear
eating snake meat or even drinking a
boa cocktail since all snakes are safe to
eat provided the head has been removed
and the meat cooked thoroughly.
Life is far from easy for the local
snakes. In addition to being eaten by
man, their worst enemy, the snakes in
Panama often fall victim to armadillos,
peccaries, skunks, and snake eating
falcons as well as other snakes, reducing
the snake population to much less than
that found in the temperate zones
There are more varieties in the tropics
but not as many individual snakes.

vl r

really like?

In his fight for survival, the snake is
up against tremendous odds for in addi-
tion to being eaten by other snakes and
animals, numerous parasites feed on
him. He has to contend with such things ,
as ticks and other small insects and he
sometimes carries lungworm which can
he fatal to him.
No Rattlesnakes
No snakes are vegetarians, but snakes
of one kind or another will eat almost
anything from insects to people. How-
ever, none of the man-eaters are found
in Panama and apparently neither is the
rattlesnake which is found in Colombia
and Costa Rica, but for some unknown
reason no specimen authoratively identi-
fied as native to Panama has been found
Through the ages the snake has held
a strange fascination for man. Jewelry
and pottery unearthed by archeologists
show that the snake was used as a sym-
bol and decoration throughout most
periods in history. Today it remains a
popular design for jewelry.
Still, the snake is more hated than
loved and though he is a household
word he shows up mainly in such
derogatory phrases as "snake in the
grass," "mean as a snake," and "a viper
in the nest." The one bright spot in his
murky public relations was being
chosen to grace the physician's insignia,
the caduceus, which features two snakes
entwined on a staff.
Snakes Helpful
Dr. Sam Tedford, herpetologist, now
doing research at the Gorgas Memorial
Laboratory in Panama, speaks out for
snakes, saying, "They are a group of
animals much misunderstood by the
public. They have a reputation which
they don't deserve; because a few of
them are dangerous all of them have
been maligned."


Always a popular design for

jewelry, snakes have appeared

on bracelets, necklaces, and

numerous other ornaments

since ancient times.

Dr. Telford points out that snakes are
very helpful to farmers in the control of
pests. They help keep the balance of
nature and without them the rodent
population would be much larger than
it is now. They also are useful in indus-
try where their hides are popular in the
manufacturing of belts, shoes, and bags
In Panama, where the chance of
being bitten by a snake is about the same
as being struck by lightning, only 21 of
the more than 125 species found here
are known to be dangerous. Actually,
most places have more harmless than
venomous types. Of the approximately
2,400 kinds of snakes in the world, there
are only about 200 venomous species.
(See p. 10)

Vicki Sizemore, of Balboa, models a brooch and ring featuring a
snake motif as she shops for jewelry at the Balboa Retail Store.


-Reprinted with permission of TRVE magazine.

"Rev it up and then let the clutch out fastl"


(Continued from p. 9)
Although the chances of being bitten
in Panama are not great there are several
snakes that it is wvise to know about.
Of Panama's venomous snakes the fer-
de-lance frequently is regarded as the
most dangerous, partly because there
are so many of them. This snake gives
birth to as many as 70 wriggling venom-
ous young at one time. From the
moment of birth they are dangerous.
The fer-de-lance gets its name from
the lance shape of its head. The name
is a Creole-French term widely used in
Martinique and St. Lucia where the
snake was once extremely abundant. In
Panama, it is often called "equis" (Span-
ish for "X") because of its X-like bod\
markings and is also known as "barba
amarilla" or yellow beard because of
the yellow hue of the mouth region.
This snake strikes so fast that the eve



can hardly see it. But the striking range
is very short, usually only about 6 to
10 inches. Although the mongoose
invariably masters the cobra, it has been
said that he has only a 50-50 chance
with the fer-de-lance.
The venom of the fer-de-lance is
mainly hemotoxic, breaking down the
blood-vessel walls and destroying the
red blood cells. The purpose of the
venom is to aid the snake in capturing
small animals for food and the serious-
ness of a bite is partly determined by
whether the snake has eaten recently
and used up much of his venom.
The chance of recovery from a fer-
de-lance bite is generally good if the
victim is taken immediately to a doctor,
but often among the natives in the bush,
superstition intervenes. There are those
who believe, among other things, that
you must not kill the snake that bites
you or cross a stream once bitten.
Among the Cuna and Choco Indians
numerous snakebite remedies are used.
All are applied externally. With the
Choco, ferns are often used in treat-
ment. The Cuna sometimes isolate the
victim on a small island in a special
bohio where a white flag flies until the
victim either recovers or dies. Some of
the Choco believe that when a snake
enters a bohio everyone in it will die
unless the snake is killed and rubbed
on the residents to rid them of the hex.
Of all the venomous snakes in the
world, the bushmaster is second in size
only to the king cobra, and unlike other
snakes he may not run awav. He has
been described by some as "sullen, fear-
less, and deadly," and "shy, inoffensive
and retiring" by others.
Because of the extremely rough scales
on his back he is called "Verrugosa," the
warty one, and in Panama, he is called
the king of the jungle. The bushmasters
found here seldom exceed 8 feet in
length. Since they lay eggs, 10 to 14 at
a time, which are often eaten by coati-
mundis, peccaries, and rodents before
they hatch, the bushmaster population
is not large. Once hatched, the young
live in the burrows of rodents and feed
on the young of these animals, spending
little time above ground. It's only when
they are quite large that they leave
these holes to feed on larger rodents.
The bushmaster's head is almost rec-
tangular in shape compared to the
pointed head of the fer-de-lance and on
the tail there is a growth similar to the
rattle on a rattlesnake's tail. His "spine"
may warn of a pending attack with a
noise similar to that of the rattlesnake.
The bushmaster may attack for no

apparent reason and with enough force
to embed its fangs deeply in its target.
Coral Snakes
The coral snakes of Panama are
similar to the coral snake of North Amer-
ica and are just as dangerous. The venom
of the coral attacks the nervous system
and can result in death within an hour
if the bite is serious and is not treated.
The coral is much smaller than the
fer-de-lance and the bushmaster, seldom
growing more than 4 feet in length. It
doesn't strike but will bite or chew if
it is stepped on or handled. The young
of the coral snake, like the bushmaster,
are hatched from eggs.
Its body is banded with various com-
binations of red, black, yellow, and
cream and is marked with a black band
from the tip of its nose to its eye.
Because of the beautiful colors, chil-
dren are inclined to pick it up and play
with it. Fortunately, it does not always
Pacific Sea Snake
A possible hazard to bathers along
Pacific coast beaches is the Pacific sea
snake, a small brightly marked black
and yellow snake. These snakes possess
a highly toxic neurotoxin for which no
antivenin is available locally. They
probably will not bite unless handled
or stepped on but it's a good idea to
avoid them when swimming.
Palm and Hog-Nosed Vipers
Other snakes that are poisonous but
not found in great numbers are the
palm and hog-nosed vipers. They are
short, slender snakes which seldom grow
as much as a yard in length and are
about as big around as a man's finger.
Their heads and fangs are large, how-
ever, and they are quite dangerously
venomous. The hog-nosed viper is found
under trees and rocks in the jungle and
on the savannas and will strike at a man's
foot or leg. The palm viper is found in
all types of trees and bushes, especially
certain palm trees. It will often strike
at a person's head or neck. Like the
fer-de-lance and the bushmaster, the
poison of both of these snakes attacks
the circulatory system but because of
the small size of the snakes, the victim's
chances for survival are much greater.
The rest of Panama's snakes may be
classified as either non-poisonous or
Although many are harmless and
some very attractive, it's best not to play
around with snakes. After all, statistics
show that most of the people bitten are
snake handlers. Innocent though a snake
may appear, it would seem there's no
predicting when one might get hold of
a "snake in the grass."

10 FEBRUARY 1970

r r


Prevention and Treatment

THE BITE of a poisonous snake ma*
be distinguished by the two distinct
lacerations that are produced by.
fangs but this is not an absolute cri-
terion. When there is doubt whether
or not the snake is poisonous, the
bite should be treated as possibly
poisonous until the snake can Ibe
properly identified.
To make sure of the identification,
a snake that inflicts a bite should be
killed and taken to the hospital along
with the victim so that the doctor can
identify the type and provide the
proper treatment for the bite. It
should be remembered that the fangs
of a dead snake are as dangerous as
those of a live one, so care should be
taken in the handling of the snake.
Mouth Suction
The victim should be rushed im-
mediately to a doctor and if a doctor
is an hour or less away, the vic-
tim should be immobilized, treated
for shock, and suction should be
started and continued until the victim
reaches the hospital.
The best method is to use the

mouth and attempt to suck out the
venom through the fang holes. Do
not cut the wound. This only spreads
the venom. The person applying
suction should make sure that his
mouth is free of ulcers or open sores.
If a doctor or hospital is 1 or more
hours away then treatment should be
as shown above but a tourniquet
should also be used. The tourniquet
should be loose enough that two
fingers can be forced underneath it.
The tourniquet pressure should be
relieved for a short time every 15
minutes to prevent damage from the
tourniquet itself.
Be Alert
The best way to avoid being bitten
is to be alert to the possible presence
of snakes and to exercise caution,
especially when working in the
garden, around trees, or shrubs or
when traveling in the bush. Care
should be taken at all times as the
fer-de-lancc, in particular, frequents
well populated places and may be
found even in the carport. Do not go

outside at night without shoes and
always carry a flashlight.
When working or traveling in the
jungle, be careful in using hands for
climbing or clearing brush. The per-
son who uses a machete correctly has
a bent stick in his other hand to hold
branches and small vegetation prior
to cutting it with his machete.
Always wear shoes or boots and tuck
trousers loosely into the top.
Estimate Situation
If you sec a snake, freeze in your
tracks until vou can estimate the
situation. The snake, ordinarily, will
not attack you since he will be as
surprised as you are. If you must
travel alone, make a lot of noise to
give snakes a chance to get out of
your way. Be especially watchful at
night. This is when hungry snakes
are out hunting for food. They will
he hunting rodents, not you, but they
might make a mistake.
It these simple precautions arc
taken the chance of being bitten may
be reduced to practically zero.




Belgian --_..
British _--
Chilean _-_____-
Chinese (Nat'l.)_
Cuban-- ..-- .-
Ecuadorean _-_-
Finnish _.
German, West--
Greek--___ .
Honduran ---.
Liberian -----
Panamanian _
Peruvian__- --_
South Korean--
Soviet -_- -
Swedish_ --__--
United States _
Yugoslavian ---
All Others _

No. of Tons of
transits cargo
69 241,471
777 6,687,097
58 358,117
69 497,150
103 263,662
33 286,279
35 331,135
215 1,031,080
34 54,870
35 194,526
122 460,386
549 2,222,759
267 3,439,293
75 50,048
46 210,722
137 763,729
580 5,276,848
787 12,776,623
47 298,488
243 1,392,450
646 7,934,316
387 2,179,714
100 492,013
57 330,475
40 404,449
73 510,270
33 126,150
238 1,534,958
759 4,015,349
20 307,111
126 1,067,630
6.760 55,739,168

No. of

Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1970 1969 Transits 1970 1969 Tolls
1961-65 1961-65
July--------------- 1,137 1,122 960 7,787 7,089 4,929
August 1,186 1,109 949 8,136 7,362 4,920
September .__-_- 1,133 1,115 908 7,870 7,473 4,697
October 1,089 1,138 946 7,771 7,472 4,838
November -- --- 1,060 1,103 922 7,401 7,279 4,748
December -1,155 1,119 946 8,059 7,571 4,955
January ----- --- 958 903 6,715 4,635
February___- 875 868 5,780 4,506
March 1,135 1,014 7,616 5,325
April-- 1,168 966 7,526 5,067
May--------- 1,200 999 8,109 5,232
June -- ------- 1,108 954 7,466 5,013
Totals for ---
fiscal year ___ 13,150 11,335 87,458 58,865
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
The following fable shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into 8 main trade routes:
First half, fiscal year
Trade routes Avg. No.
1970 1969 Transits
United States Intercoastal--_____ __-------- 201 196 231
East coast United States and South America .------ - 666 765 1,208
East coast United States and Central America------- 277 353 241
East coast United States and Far East ---------- 1,681 1,655 1,133
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia_ --- 232 237 171
Europe and West Coast of U.S./Canada ------------- 502 474 459
Europe and South America-- __ --- 616 616 592
Europe and Australasia_ ------- 210 198 176
All other routes ------------------------- 2,375 2,212 1,420
Total traffic -- ----- -- 6,760 6,706 5,631

I First half, fiscal year


1969 1961-65
Tons of Avg. No. Avg. tons
cargo transits of cargo
73,007 22 77,724
6,001,715 632 4,124,334
391,073 64 451,191
503,756 41 301,600
238,500 129 209,189
129,128 -_
244,460 2 5,369
1,184,859 154 725,383
34,251 24 27,366
126,433 11 41,202
535,235 66 364,357
2,264,784 558 1,687,827
3,096,111 316 3,077,249
75,433 105 80,942
396,184 34 128,409
831,446 97 561,167
4,622,648 433 2,542,668
12,126,913 458 4,416,239
196,778 12 29,179
1,165,276 294 1,346,865
7,106,639 695 5,078,587
1,347,241 221 959,816
413,628 58 296,697
278,068 33 135,090
183,792 4 24,027
327,519 6 48,219
116,115 8 31,538
1,698,578 181 1,026,269
4,386,105 877 5,259,746
199,290 7 53,543
788,107 89 306,362
51,083,072 5,631 33,418,154

New Shipping

Trends Eyed

by Experts

CHANGING TRENDS in shipping, the
shift in world markets and construction
of ports to handle the new giant con-
tainer ships and bulk carriers-these are
all factors that are affecting national
economies and the volume and type of
traffic the Panama Canal can expect
during the decade just beginning.
The experts, \\ho keep an eye on the
general trends of waterborne commerce,
predict that the growth in size of vessels
will have some effect on the type of
Canal traffic as well as the volume. The
Canal, however, will continue to be able
to accommodate the great majority of
ships in the world and will accommo-
date the new shipping innovations, such
as the container and the LASH or lighter
aboard ships, where speed and not size
will be the important consideration.
They point out that one of the most
important trends in recent years has
been the growth in the size of the bulk
carriers and crude oil tankers with the
emergence of the new ore-bulk-oil car-
riers and the need for construction of
ports able to handle the giant ships.
Bigger Ships
During the past 20 years, maximum
ship size has geometrically progressed
by doubling every 5 years. A typical
large crude carrier now has 16 times
the deadweight of vessels whose useful
operational years are just now expiring.
Some have already outgrown the Pan-
ama Canal and most of the world's ports.
Ships as large as 500,000 deadweight
tons have been designed by Japanese
shipbuilders and there are designs being
made in Great Britain for a million-ton
The same trend is occurring in other
cargo bulk trades. World shipping
figures show that in 1967 about 85
percent of the international iron ore
was carried in specialized bulk carriers.
More than half of this tonnage was in
vessels larger than 25,000 deadweight
tons and about 40 percent was being
carried in vessels larger than 40,000
deadweight tons. Today, there are ore
carriers exceeding 100,000 tons, but
they do not use the Canal. So far, the


largest vessel to use the Panama Canal
has been The Phillips Louisiana, an
oil-ore carrier, 80,261 long tons sum-
mer deadweight.
Scrap Metal Carriers
Figures quoted in a recent issue of
\VORLD PORTS showed that the move-
ment of fertilizer raw material has gone
from vessels of 10,000 to 15,000 tons to
vessels up to 40.000 tons in the past 4
years. And as a change from the days
when scrap moved in worn-out hulls of
tramps, special scrap metal carriers of
25,000 tons have appeared. There are
a number of old scrap carriers still
using the Canal today.
The movement of coal from Hampton
Roads, Va., to Japan in the "Panama"
type bulk vessels began 9 years ago.
They have carried through the Canal
bulk coal cargoes as high as 60,000 long
tons, the record for the Canal. The
aluminum trade also is using larger
ships, with 55,000 ton cargoes of bauxite
and alumina not unusual.
The emergence of the ore-bulk-oil
carriers with the capacity to haul full
cargoes of coal or grains; the capability
of these ships to stow and pump liquid
petroleum cargoes; and the strength to
load full dense ore cargoes while filling
only alternate cargo holds, probably all
will have great effects on shipping
150,000-Ton Ships
These giants, which have been in
existence since 1964, are getting to a
size that will not be handled by the
Panama Canal. Many of the new vessels
now scheduled for delivery in the next
2 years will be larger than 100,000 tons
with 150,000 tons not uncommon.
The transporting of coal on the
round-the-world voyage as bulk cargo
has brought the coal shipping rates
between Hampton Roads and Japan
down 50 percent and made it competi-
tive in the Japanese market with Austra-
lian coal despite the distance it has to
Last year the big vessels in the
100,000 to 150,000 ton range were
changing the whole operation by load-
ing coal into alternate holds in Virginia
and taking on iron ore in Brazil or
Angola. After discharging ore and coal
in Japan, these ships go on to the Per-
sian Gulf to load crude oil for the
Atlantic and start the cycle over again.
Now a new trend is being planned,
the shipping experts say. It will take the
bulk carriers from Hampton Roads to
eastern Canadian ports to load iron ore
for Japan. These ships then may pass
up the Persian Gulf oil and go to the ore
(See p. 31)

(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First half, fiscal year


Ores, various ----------------
Sugares -- ---------- -----------
Iron and steel plates, sheets
and coils__--- ---------------
Boards and planks ---------------------
Petroleum and products----------------
Iron and steel manufactures,
Metals, various---------------------.
Bananas - ------------
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)---------------
Fishmeal ----------------------------
Pulpwood ----------. ----------------
Plywood and veneers--------------- -
Petroleum coke------- ------------
Iron and steel wire, bars, and rods----
Canned food products------------------
All others--------------------------
Total -- ------------------











Atlantic to Pacific
First half, fiscal year


Coal and coke --.-----
Petroleum and products__. --------------
Corn _-- ------------- ------------
Metal, scrap --------------- -------.
Sorghum ---------------------------
Ores, various ------- -----------------
Sugar -
Metal, iron ---- ---------
Rice .-------------- --------
Paper and paper products..----- -------
Chemicals, unclassified------------------
Fertilizers, unclassified-----
Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts---------
All others_-- -----------
Total----- ---




First half, fiscal year

Commercial vessels:
Small *o_------------------ ---
Total Commercial -_ -_ --__---.
U.S. Government Vessels: **
Oceangoing ------- ------ ----
Small ----- -

Total commercial and U.S. Gov-






5-Yr. Avg.




5-Yr. Avg.


to Total





Avg. No.








635 709
35 75


Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


Atlantic to Pacific

First half, fiscal year









AN EXTENSIVE tour of the Canal
Zone facilities and a business meeting
held in the Administration Building at
Balboa Heights on January 28. were
among the highlights of the annual \ isit
to the Canal Zone by the Panama Canal
Company Board of Directors.
The quarterly winter meeting of the
Board was attended by seven business-
men and one businesswoman from vari-
ous parts of the United States who
were appointed to the Board during
1969.They are Ralph H. Cake, of Port-
land, Oreg., who served on the Board
previously from 1956 to 1961; A. Gray
Bovlston, of Fort Lauderdale, Fla.;
Albert B. Fay, of Houston, Tex.; Wil-
liam F. Price, of Pasadena, Calif.;
Webster B. Todd, of Oldwick, N.J.;
Einar Viren, of Omaha, Nebr.; W.
Walter Williams, of Seattle, Wash.;
and Mrs. Marjorie B. Shanard, of
Wayzata, Minn., the first woman ever
to be appointed to the Board of Di-

Members of the Board of Directors meet in the Board Room in the Administration Building at Balboa Heights. From left, clockwise,
they are: Webster B. Todd, Director; WV. Walter Williams, Director; A. Gray Boylston, Director; David H. Ward, Deputy Under Secretary
of the Army; Thaddeus R. Beal, Under Secretary of the Army and Chairman of the Board; Stephen Ailes, Director; Ralph H. Cake,
Director; W. M. Whitman, Secretary of the Panama Canal Company; William F. Price, Director; Albert B. Fay, Director; Philip L.
Steers, Jr., Comptroller of the Panama Canal Company; Cov. W. P. Leber, President of the Panama Canal Company: Lt. Gov. Richard S.
Ilartline, Vice-President of the Panama Canal Company; Mrs. Marjorie B. Shanard, Director; and Einar Viren, Director. Second row:
Paul M. Runnestrand, Executive Secretary; and Capt. Donald A. Dertien, USN Ret., Chief, Executive Planning Staff.


rectors of the Panama Canal Company.
Also attending was Thaddeus R. Beal,
Under Secretary of the Armv, who is
the Chairman of the Board; Governor
W\. P. Leber of the Canal Zone, who
is President of the Panama Canal Com-
pany; Charles IMever, Assistant Secre-
tarv of State for Inter-American Affairs;
and Stephen Ailes, of Washington, D.C.,
who is an incumbent member.
During his stay on the Isthmus, Sec.
Beal also visited Arm\ installations in
the Canal Zone accompanied by David
H. Ward, recently appointed Deputy
Under Secretary of the Army.
Governor Leber and directors of the
various Panama Canal bureaus briefed
members of the Board on the operation
of Panama Canal facilities during the
tour of the Panama Canal.
This was the first Board meeting to
be held on the Isthmus since January
1969. The next meeting will be held in
April 1970, in Washington, D.C.

The fine points of baseball are discussed by
Ralph H. Cake, a member of the Board,
and players of the Gibraltar Life Insurance Little
League Team. At right is F. A. Cotton, team
manager. Cake never misses a chance to greet Little
League members whenever he is on the Isthmus.

Capt. A. L. Gallin, Marine Director, briefs members
of the Board on the operations of the
Industrial Division, one of the marine repair units under
the direction of the Marine Bureau, in the main machine shop at
Mount Hope on the Atlantic Side of the Isthmus.

Mrs. Marjorie B. Shanard, the only woman
on the Board of Directors, confers at the La Boca
Printing Plant with D. C. Miller, left,
new Superintendent of the Printing Plant,
and Juan Fernandez, lithographer. Mrs. Shanard,
a former reporter, writer, and special correspondent for
newspapers, toured the Printing Plant
and was briefed on publications.

Board members inspect navigation facilities
aboard a Panama Canal launch passing through the main
Canal channel. A ship in transit is in the background.


-I ,-



Years of

Canal growth

challenge and change

As the decade of the 1960's came to a close, life
in the Canal Zone reflected some of the monumental
changes that shaped life in the United States.
Instantaneous television via satellite brought
Isthmians a clear view of man's first steps on the
moon and astronauts were seen in the Canal Zone
where they came for training and on good will tours.
Changing the local landscape were the new
multi-million-dollar Thatcher Ferry Bridge over
the Canal, a new hospital annex and new
schools-one with a geodesic dome building.
Computers took over the Panama Canal's payroll
and the conversion of electric power from
25 to 60 cycles brought widespread air conditioning
to public buildings and homes. New towing
locomotives replaced the "old grey mules"
and new tugs were put into service.
The Cut continued to be widened and the ships
transiting the Canal grew increasingly longer and wider.
On these pages are shown some of
the happenings that convey the changing times
of the '60's in the Canal Zone.



and UP

and up

Skirts went up

16 FEBRUARY 1970

erL'. jeV

On October 12, 1962, the new $20 million Thatcher Ferry Bridge was dedicated and used
by traffic for the first time. Soaring 201 feet above the Canal channel at Balboa at high
tide, the bridge is among the highest in the world over navigable waterways. It unites
two parts of Panama and two continents and is a link in the Inter-American Highway.

At left: Isthmians were not left out of the picture when the first astronauts landed on the
moon. Through the use of the communication satellite, local TV sets received a clear view
of man's first step on the moon. Some of the astronauts visited the Isthmus while on training
programs and good will tours during the 1960's. A geodesic dome was part of the new
multi-million dollar Curundu Junior High School built on the Pacific side of the Isthmus
in the mid 1960's. The architectural form seen in the foreground was originated by the
noted U.S. architect R. Buckminster Fuller. It houses the cafetorium, one of the units of
the Junior High School complex which is designed to accommodate more than 2.200
students. Several other new schools were built on both sides of the Isthmus and are being

The new Gorgas Hospital annex, the highest and the newest building in the Canal Zone,
was put into operation in February 1965. Alterations to the existing plant and construction
of this new S-story air-conditioned building were made to consolidate all Gorgas Hospital
activities into four buildings connected by two pedestrian bridges and a tunnel. Sections A
and B, two areas devoted to the care of internal medicine patients, were remodeled in
1969 at a cost of more than $1 million. Remodeling of Section O, which will house the
pediatric ward and several other units, is scheduled to be completed in 1970.

Four white gloved Canal Zone policemen
hoist the flags of Panama and the United
State side by side implementing a decision
announced by former President Dwight D.
Eisenhower. Flags of Panama and the
United States were raised on other build-
ings in the Canal Zone later. Panama
National Guardsmen stand at attention in
the foreground.

Computers took over the task of making
out the Panama Canal's payrolls in 1968.
The first of a series of new computers were
put into operation in the Payroll and Ma-
chine Accounting Branch. These computers
are used by the Data Processing Division
in the Administration Building, Balboa
Heights. A computerized marine traffic
control system is now being considered.

'R,"-LT --T _---

Tourists ride through Pedro Miguel Locks
aboard the sightseeing launch "Las Cru-
ces." The launch was put into service in
early 1962 to take visitors on partial tran-
sits of the Canal. The Canal Zone Guide
Service was inaugurated the same year. It
provides bilingual guides to explain oper-
ations of the Panama Canal to visitors on
both the Atlantic and Pacific sides.




Improvements to the Canal which increased the capacity of the
waterway opened the way for such giants as the bulk carrier
"Scenic" which heads through Miraflores Locks with a cargo of
coal from Newport News, Va., to Japan. She is one of an increasing
number of longer and wider vessels now using the Panama Canal.

r. &.

One of the new giant ships, this one a Sea-Land Service vessel
named for Panama, passes through the Canal loaded with con-
tainer vans. The containers, a relatively new method of shipping
goods, are taken to port where they go back on wheels for the
overland delivery to consignees. Sea-Land has an office in Balboa.

One of the fast new towing locomotives built in Japan to replace
the more than 50-year-old "mules" constructed in the United
States in 1914, moves up the incline at Gatun Locks passing one
of the old towing locomotives. The powerful new engines are one
of the many improvements designed to speed up Canal transits.

The multi-million-dollar widening of Caillard Cut began in the
1950's and continued to progress as the decade of the '60's came
to a close. By the end of 1969, the project of widening the Cut
from 300 to 500 feet had entered its final stage. The entire project
presently is scheduled to be completed by the middle of this year.

r 'I

Lights illuminating banks of the Canal make a fairyland of the
waterway at night. Installed along the approaches to the locks,
they provide valuable assistance to pilots on ships entering and
leaving the locks and help make possible the 24-hour schedule
of operation which the Panama Canal began in the early 1960's.

The "Julianl L. Schley" is one of the fleet of new tugs being
purchased by the Panama Canal for use in Cristobal and Balboa
harbors to help with the increasing traffic. The replacement of the
tug fleet started early in the 1960's and is continuing in the '70's
as one of the plans to help increase the capacity of the Canal.


The 1960's

Increasing Canal C

pi ^i-.


rn -rEp


Boys Find Hope and a New

Beginning at Chapala School

By Luis C. Noli
THE YOUTHFUL delinquents belong
to either the Section of Hope or to the
Section of Perseverance. From one to
the other lies the path of regeneration.
This is the Vocational School at
Chapala, a correctional institution for
boys 12 to 18 that began operations
barely 8 months ago in a 42.5 acre site
in the hills beyond ArraijAn, a half
hour's drive from the capital city. It is
21/2 miles off the main highway.
Lion's Club Project
For the Panama Lions Club, which
conceived and carried out the $1 million
project to completion, it won the title
"The Best Lions Club in the World"
a second time. (The Panama Lions won
that designation from the international
headquarters for its $500,000 Children's
Hospital project in Panama City.) Pan
ama's National Government contributed
about half the funds, but without the
Lions' drive the Chapala School would
not be what it is today: an up-to-date

center for rehabilitation of boys who
have had an early start in crime.
The formal opening of Chapala on
June 20, 1969, was the successful cul-
mination of 7 years of dedicated effort
by the Panama Lions.
Chapala was conceived in early 1962.
Lion Federico Humbert, a charter mem-
ber of the Panama Club, had become
deeply concerned over the wave of ju-
venile delinquency sweeping the coun-
try, particularly the principal cities. He
suggested to Lion Clarence Marquez,
then president-elect of the club, to
build his platform around the project.
MArquez accepted the suggestion.
Then came a forum on juvenile de-
linquency, sponsored by the Lions, to
awaken the commniity to the magni-
tude of the problem. Statistics cited at
the forum showed that between 1951
and 1961 there were 7,170 minors
brought before Juvenile Court in Pan-
ama City, the only one of its kind in
the country. Many of them were repeat

The Chapala project was formally\
launched by MIrquez in mid-1962.
Six succeeding presidents devoted theii
energies to it-Stanley Fidanque, Henr\
Maduro, Guillermo A. Cochez, Oscar
C. Townshend, Dr. Rodolfo V. Young,
and Ra6l Cochez. Through six admin-
istrations, ex-Lion Rieardo Arturo Me-
lnndez was chairman of the Chapala
Set Aside
When the Lions chose the Chapala
land for the school project after an
inspection of several other possible lo-
cations, the site already had been set
aside by the National Government fni
a reform-type school. But onl\ one bar-
racks-type building had been erected
and less than a score of boys were
lodged there, assigned to rudimentary\
farming activities. There was no reha-
bilitation program as such.
Now nine large buildings are clus-
tered in the Chapala complex. Two are
(See p. 20)

TI-I i'

Three of the seven members of the board that runs the Chapala Vocational School are shown with two of the Capuchine priests assigned
to the institution. Lett to right: Juan Aeuirre R., treasurer, representing the Panama Lions Club; Rev. Jos6 Ainsa; Ram6n I. Ramirez, repre-
senting the Panama 20-30 Club; Rev. Benedicto Quiroga, principal at Chapala, and Tomis G. Duque V., secretary, representing the Pan-
ama Rotary Club. Not in picture are Stanley Fidanque of the Panama Lions Club, who is vice president of the board, and the represent-
atives of the Ministries of Education, Government and Justice, and Public Health. The board is presided over by the Minister of Education.


* *

iF LA 4 1 -

Belarvino Reyes, center, cabinet-making instructor at the Chapala Vocational School, shows
two young inmates how to cut a board using an electric circular saw.

Chapala vs. Delinquency

(Continued from p. 19)
dormitories, another is the administra-
tion center, a third houses workshops.
There is a separate building for dining
rooms, kitchen and laundry. Buildings
for the students under observation and
for those who have difficulty in adapting
to the school's disciplinary system, a
chapel and a gymnasium-swimming pool
complete the installations at Chapala.
Fund Raising
How did the Lions Club raise the
funds for the Chapala project? Four
mammoth raffles, each offering a multi-
story apartment building as the main
prize, provided the bulk of the money
raised by the Club. The last raffle
was held in December 1969. There was
also an unexpected windfall of $125,000
from an estate bequeathed for distri-
bution by the National Government.
which itself provided nearly half a
million dollars.
Built to accommodate 300 boys, Cha-
pala had 128 pupils by the end of last
year-most of them from broken homes.
Their usual crime is larceny or robbery.
Some of them go to Chapala with .
background of drug addiction. Enroll-
ment is expected to reach 240 this year.
Admission to Chapala is by order of
the Juvenile Court only. No boy is

sentenced in the strict sense of the
word, as no term is fixed for his stay
in Chapala. He is released when he has
given evidence of readjustment to so-
ciety-learning a gainful skill in the
process. This takes, on the average,
2 or 3 years.
The school is run by 10 priests of the
Order of Tertiary Capuchines, which
specializes in the rehabilitation of de-
linquent youth. The Capuchines run
similar institutions in Spain, Germany,
Italy, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina,
and the Dominican Republic.
The Rev. Benedicto Quiroga, who
spent 13 years in Colombia, is the prin-
cipal of the Chapala School.
Every boy committed to Chapala is
assigned to either an adolescent or a
youth group-a division that is carried
through the entire process of re-educa-
tion-and housed first in the Observa-
tion Section. Here he spends 3 months,
undergoing psychological and other tests
which determine how he is to be han-
dled and what his aptitudes are. If the
boy shows signs of rebellion in his new
environment, he is placed in isolation
for individual treatment until he be-
comes adjusted. The Isolation Section
has a capacity of 20 inmates.

Section of Hope
After the initial period of observation,
the boy is assigned to the Section of
Hope where the process of reform ac-
tually starts. For the next 3 months
he is graded on work, learning, be-
havior, and culture. If he obtains pass-
ing grades, he is advanced to the Sec-
tion of Perseverance. Now he is on his
own, to a certain degree. He is accorded
certain privileges, depending on his rec-
ord. He mav smoke, he may chat in
the dining room, and he is on pass 1 day
a month. But, as Father Quiroga stresses,
these privileges are offered as incen-
tives and can be retained only on the
basis of a good record.
The last stage in the reform process-
vet to be reached at Chapala-is the
Section of Confidence, which is marked
by a system of complete freedom for
the young inmate on the school grounds
in preparation for his return to society.
The re-educated inmate leaves Cha-
pala upon an order of the Juvenile
Court issued on the recommendation of
the supervising priests.
Shop Training
Throughout his stave in Chapala,
every boy receives shop training from
7:30 a.m. to 10:45 a.m. and attends
classroom instruction from 1 p.m. to
5 p.m. Monday through Saturday. Every
waking hour of the day-whether he
realizes it or not-he is under the watch-
ful eyes of one of the priests (who gen-
erally wear sport clothes). Each group


Shopwork is stressed in the re-education
program at the Chapala Vocational School.




The chapel at Chapala helps fill the spiritual needs of the boys. It is also a place where the youths can meditate and reflect.

of adolescents or youths in every section
is assigned to a priest. Trained instruc-
tors impart practical training in the
shops. At night, three watchmen are
on duty in the dormitories. The school
provides food and clothing for the bo\ s
Family visits are permitted once a
There is no fence around the Cha-
pala grounds and escape attempts are
frequent, especially among the new-
comers. As many as nine boys have
run awav at one time. But Father Qui-
roga says this poses no problem-even-
tually every escapee must get on the
main highway and is usually recaptured
within 24 hours.
No attempt is made to impose religion
on the young inmates. As Father Qui-
roga points out, the present student
population includes several boys of Pro-
testant faiths. But the attendance to

Sunday Mass is surprisingly large, he
The Chapala shops are expected to be
fully equipped by the end of March.
Geared to job needs in Panama and to
accelerated training, the crafts taught
or to be taught at the school are ma-
chine shop, locksmithing, welding, spray
painting, automobile repairing, electron-
ics, printing, and cabinet making. If and
when land becomes available, farming
and poultry raising also will be taught.
When the shops are in full operation,
orders from outside for jobs such as
furniture making and machinery repair
will be accepted. One third of the
money will go to the school fund, one
third will be set aside for shop improve-
ments and one third will be paid to the
students doing the work. The idea is to
teach the boys to become self-sufficient.
Chapala is operating now with a
$240,000 annual subsidy from the Na-
tional Government. The overall man-

agement of the school is under a board
composed of one representative each
from the Ministries of Education, Gov-
ernment and Justice, and Public Health,
the Panama Rotary Club, the Panama
20-30 Club, and the Panama Lions Club.
The board meets every Monday with
Father Quiroga and his assistants.
Return To Society
By the time it is in full operation,
the Vocational School at Chapala will
be returning to Panamanian society re-
educated youths at the rate of 100 a
year-young men who have been led
away from the path of crime and given
a chance to become useful citizens.
Thus, it will be fulfilling the pledge
made when the cornerstone for the pro-
ject was laid: "The Lions Club of Pan-
ama, with the full support of the Na-
tional Government and the community,
is building this school which will reha-
bilitate young men to serve and enhance
the nation."




NJa 7

Ships named Maru Follow

ancient Japanese tradition

HUNDREDS OF Japanese ships, from
Aizu Aarn and Bridgestone Maru to
Zao Maru and Zuiyo Maru, ply the
world's oceans, proudly bearing the
word "maru" on their bows and sters.
When asked why "maru" is used on
Japanese merchantmen, men in the ship-
ing industry will proffer many explana-
tions. "It means ship in Japanese." "It's
a sacred word that has always been
part of the name of Japanese ships."
"They put it on for good luck; the word
doesn't really mean anything itself." "It
refers to castles because ancient Japa-
nese ships used to resemble fortresses."
Japanese shipbuilders and shipowners
concur in saying: "Using 'maru' in the
name of a Japanese ship is an ancient
tradition. How the tradition arose is
shrouded in the past."
So, the only certainty is the diversity\
of opinion existing about what the word
maru" means and where it originated.
It is likely that in some measure all
these opinions, as well as many others.
are correct.
A Circle
Literally, the modern Japanese char-
acter "maru" A. means small ball,
sphere, or circle. Taking the last mean-
ing, it is suggested that traditionally
"maru" is attached to ship names be-
cause the ship embarks on a voyage to
distant ports and returns, her trade
route forming a circle. Following this
line of reasoning, use of a word mean-
ing "circle" in a ship's name will bring
good luck to the ship, since it implies
that the ship must return to her home
port to complete the circle and justify
her name.
A related explanation, focusing on
"maru" meaning "circle," points out that
a container or article in a circular or
spheroid is sacred in oriental religions,

symbolizing the unity of heaven and
earth. And since feudal ship hulls were
roughly spheroid, ships were associated
with this concept, leading to the use
of "maru" in ship names.
But citing religious philosophy as an
explanation for the word's origin also
raises a three-part supposition linked
to the fact that in Japan ships aro
referred to in the male gender rather
than the feminine, as is the practice in
westernn countries. Thus. the Japanese
describe ships in terms of masculine
The three-part supposition states that
in the past, it was customary to call a
boy "-Maru" or "-Maro" for three rea-
sons. First, "maru" was easy to pro-
nounce, the sound was smooth and sug-
gested a feeling of warmth. Secondly,
"maru" means a smooth form without
corners or edges, suggesting a sense of
beauty and simplicity. Thirdly, "maru"
has another meaning, perfection, and
applied to a boy was meant to serve as
inspiration and encouragement to help
him develop and live an exemplary life
as a man facing temptation and vicis-
situdes. These three connotations are
thought to be applicable to a ship when
maru" is included in its name; it is
pleasant to hear, it implies warmth, and
the strength needed to survive the rigors
of ocean voyages.
Another hypothesis with a religious
overtone is that "maru" was first used
in China. According to legend, during
the reign of Emperor Ko (3,000 B.C.)
a man named Hakudo Maru descended
from heaven and taught men to build
ships. It then became common practice
to include his name in the name of
ships. Though "maru" has the same
literal meaning in Chinese as Japanese,

the Chinese do not use the word in any
way associated with ships. In addition,
Japanese historical records show that
when Emperor Ojin (370 A.D.) ordered
a ship built it was named Karinu.
In 760 A.D. Emperor Junjin named
two vessels for transporting government
emissaries between China and Japan,
llarima and Hayatori. So it seems that
the introduction of the word came later
in Japanese history.
Feudal Practice
Another explanation centers on the
feudal practice that forbade Japanese
merchants to use surnames. It therefore
became customary to call men by the
names of their shops for identifica-
tion. "Maru was alternatively a name
applied to a shop or family; for ex-
ample, a shop might be "Fushimi-ya"
or "Fushimi Maru" and the owner sim-
ilarly identified. This name would also
be applied to a ship owned by the same
family. Later, the name of the family,
shop or business was not necessarily
used but the term "maru" remained as
the second part of a vessel's name. The
first part of the ship's name continued
to follow the practice of being called
after a person, place or thing.
Another theory is that "maru" derives
from an earlier word "maro," thought
to be a personal pronoun for "I," which
changed usage. Eventually "maro" was
placed after a personal name. As an
example, emperors used it in their names
as "Kakinomotonohito Maro" (about
690 A.D.) and "Sakanoueno Tamura
Maro" (about 800 A.D.). Later this
custom was extended to the names of
pets or prized objects but using the
word "maru" as a dog, "Kisaki Maru,"
and a sword, "Hiza Marn." However,
a person retained the form "marn" in
his name. Gradually "maru" became


popular in the names of ships. As fleets
grew in number, use of "maru" became
habitual, as noted in the names of ships
built during the Toyotomi Era (1582-
1615 A.D.) and Tokugawa Era (1616-
1867 A.D.). Examples were Nippon
Maru and Ataka Maru. This practice
continued to modern times.
The Nippon
A corollary to this explanation is the
idea that "maru" came into popular
usage because it functioned as a defi-
nite article, in the sense that Nippon
Maru is the Nippon.
As a kind of 16th-century dread-
nought, the Nippon Maru may have
been a turning point in the popular use
of the word. This ship was 100 x 31 x 10
feet, and powered by sail and 100 oars
manned by a crew of 180. She was fitted
with three or more cannons and many
scatter-shot guns and her principal hull
parts were covered by iron plates. Nip-
pon Maru was the flagship of the fleet,
made up of 700 warships and several
thousand supply ships, which unsuccess-
fully attacked Chosen (now Korea). It
is suggested that since this ship was a
marvel of her time successive ship initial-
ly were named "maru" out of respect to
her, and that gradually the word be-
came traditional.
However, a more popular theory cen-
ters on 16th-century ships, including the
Nippon Maru, which looked like forti.
fled castles, and the actual character
A. which in old Japanese means
castle, or more precisely, inner fortress
of the castle. So, the theory suggests,
"maru," meaning "castle," was applied
to ships that resembled castles. Though
ships gradually lost that resemblance,
"maru" became traditional in ship names
from the late 16th century to the pres-
ent. Ironically, "maru" is not used for
modern warships.
These explanations, from Japanese
and Western scholars and shipping men,
represent only some of the prevalent
suggestions of the meaning and origin
of "maru." It almost seems that for each
person asked, there is a different ex-
planation. And it seems unlikely that
the one correct meaning-if indeed there
is one-will be found soon.

This article is a reprint from the
American Bureau of Shipping maga-
zine SURVEYOR which gave permission
to use the story.


The "Daigoh Maru," a gigantic bulk carrier squeezes
through Pedro Miguel Locks, March 5, 1969, on her first
voyage from Japan to the United States. The ship is owned
by Mitsui O.S.K., and Boyd Brothers are the agents.


/ -


The "Amanogawa Maru," with a poop deck reminiscent of sterns of Japanese ships of
feudal times, squeezes through Miraflores Locks. Much larger than her predecessors of
the Middle Ages, the bulk carrier is a regular Panama Canal customer as she carries coal
from the Atlantic coast of the United States to Japan. Owners are Kawasake Kisen Kaisha
of Japan. The Royal Netherlands Steamship Co. represents the ship at the Panama Canal.



New Container Ships
SOME OF the longest ships to use the
Panama Canal are included in an order
for new container ships made recently
by the East Asiatic Co., Inc. in a $73.2
million shipbuilding program.
According to a recent issue of SuIP-
PI.G DIGEST, the company management
located in Copenhagen has announced
that the two larger ships will be built by
Burmeister and \Wain, world known
Danish shipbuilders in Copenhagen, and
will operate on the company's Far East
to Europe route. Specifications for the
new Far East ships are 900 feet in length
and 106 feet beam at 29,630 deadweight
tons. Capacity will be 1,700 containers
of 20 by S by 8 feet.
Two other ships that will call on the
west coast of the United States and
Canada will be built by Nakskov ship-
yard in Denmark and will operate in
conjunction \ith three existing ships
that were partially converted for con-
tainerized cargo in 193j. These ships
will be rat.d at 15,750 tons deadweighi
with a length of 654 feet and an 84-foot
beam. They will have a cargo capacity\
for 820 standard 20-foot containers.
Delivery for all the ships is scheduled
for the second-half of 1971 and the first-
half of 1972. C. B. Fenton & Co. are
agents for the line at the Panama Canal.








Engines for Formosa
T'VENTY-E1CHT diesel electric rail-
road engines went through the Canal re-
cently as deck cargo aboard the SS Union
Friendship. They were making the long
journey from Chicago, through the St.
Lawrence Seaway, down the east coast
of the United States, through the Pan-
ama Canal and across the Pacific to

TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1970 1969
Commercial 6,760 6,706
U.S. Government 635 709
Free----- 54 33
Total 7,449 7,448
Commercial.... $47,037,608 $44,262,477
U.S. Government 3,595,286 4,471,273
Total. --$50,632,894 $48,733,750

Commercial 55,739,168
U.S. Government 2,359,144
Free --- 81,538
Total 58,179,850


SIncludes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
0 Cargo figures are in long tons.

Formosa. The engines are to be used as
replacements on the Nationalist Chinese
railroads of Taiwan. The engines were
being carried on deck but the rest of the
3,000-ton cargo consisted of engine parts
which were carried in the ship's hold.
The Union Friendship is a Liberian flag
ship with a Chinese crew. Payne &
Wardlaw is agent for the ship.
All-Water Route
DOW CHEMICAL Company is using
the all-water route from Michigan via
the St. Lawrence Seaway and through
the Panama Canal to the Pacific coast
of the United States, and despite the
greater distance, is saving money.
The tanker Leland I. Doan is passing
through the Canal every 2 weeks on a
round trip run between San Pedro,
Calif., and gulf ports. On her southbound
transit, she carries approximately 14,000
long tons of jet fuel additive for delivery
to west coast oil refineries. The product
is manufactured in Midland, Mich., and
barged from Chicago to Texas where it
is loaded aboard the ship at either
Houston or Corpus Christi. Recently
Dow announced that a new lake-river
barge was built for shipment of the
liquid chemicals between Michigan and
the gulf coast. The 2,400-ton barge,
upon completion at New Orleans, went
into service before the Great Lakes froze
for the winter.
According to THE NEW YORK SHIP-
PING DIGEST, Dow Chemical cited cost
savings as the reason for Dow's increased
use of water transportation by barge
to the east coast as well as to the gulf
coast and by oceangoing ships from gulf
ports to the west coast.
Panama Agencies handle the ships at
the Canal.

500 1 I I I I I






50 Years Ago
CANAL RECORDS were broken right
and left in 1919 when the Panama Canal
was only 5 years old and beginning to
revert to peacetime status after World
War I. More ships passed through the
Canal during December 1919 than in
any preceding month and new records
were established for net tonnage, tolls,
and cargo. A total of 281 oceangoing
ships, of which 261 were commercial,
carrying 931,203 tons of cargo, made the
transit during the month. This surpassed
the previous commercial record of Maa
1918 when there were 200 ships carry-
ing 775,357 tons of cargo.
0 0
The SS Orca of the Pacific Steam
Navigation Company, passing from the
Pacific to Atlantic on December 18,
carried the largest amount of cargo
taken through the Canal on any one
vessel since the Canal opened in 1914.
It amounted to 15,735 long tons and
consisted of general cargo from Chile
and Peru for Liverpool.
0 0 0
The first oceangoing vessels to pass
through the Canal under the German
flag were the tugs Einigkeit and Schelde
which went from the Atlantic to the
Pacific on January 2 on their way from
Hamburg to Valparaiso. They were on
their way to tow disabled ex-German
vessels from Valparaiso to Liverpool foi

The French cruiser Jeanne d'Arc, an
active participant in naval operations
during World War I, arrived at Cristo-
bal January 26 and spent several days
in port on an official visit.

25 Years Ago
THE EFFECTS of World War 11, then
in its final stages in Europe, were felt in
the Canal Zone 25 years ago with war-
work continuing through the holiday
season. The Governor of the Canal Zone
said that Christmas would be celebrated
as a holiday but that work of high
urgency would go forward on Christ-
mas Day. Monday, January 1, however
was a regular workday in accordance
with instructions from the President of
the United States.
0 0 0
A warning was issued in the Canal
Zone that car owners with Canal Zone
privileges who permit their tires to be
worn down to the tread, thus making

them unfit for recapping, would not be
eligible to receive tire replacements.
The names of 37 Panama Canal em-
ployees, all in the 26- to 37-year age
group, were received bv the Selective
Service office at Balboa Heights in
January 1945 as having been classified
1-A. This was the largest single group
of Canal employees to be reclassified
and the first in this age group to be
reclassified after deferment as a result
of the decision of the War Manpower
Commission and Selective Service Sys-
tem to call into service men under 38
years of age.

10 Years Ago
HEAVY DECEMBER rains disrupted
all traffic on the Bovd-Roosevelt High-
way 10 years ago and a slide derailed
a Panama Railroad train. Until repairs
were made to the railroad bed and the
highway, mail, supplies and personnel
were shuttled back and forth between
Gamboa and Gatun by Dredging Divi-
sion launches. Rainfall was so heavy
that all of the 14 gates at Gatun Spill-
way were opened for the first time in
16 years.

In January 1960, the new $1%2 million
Cristobal Junior-Senior High School at
Coco Solo was formally dedicated b)
Gov. \V. E. Potter, Dr. James Ray
Graham, Director of Special Education
in Illinois, Canal Zone school officials
and several hundred Atlantic side resi-
dents. The school, a former U.S. Navy
barracks, was remodeled into a first-class
modern school plant to replace the Cris-
tobal High School, located in Colon on
property which had been formally re-
turned to the Republic of Panama a veal

One Year Ago
THERE WAS a surge of traffic through
the Canal 1 year ago as ships departed
from New York and other east coast
and gulf ports to escape a tie-up by
the longshoreman's strike. Despite the
heavy traffic, both lanes at Gatun were
closed to traffic from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
daily during the last 2 weeks in Jan-
uary to permit installation of curtain
wall panels on the north approach wall.
Draft limitations started in mid-January
1969 when the draft allowance of 40
feet given large vessels during the rainy
season, was cut by 6 inches.

Carnival, 1920 Style

This was J Street at Central Ave. in downtown Panama City a half-century ago this month
during the Carnival festivities of 1920. Thousands lined the streets to watch the parade.




"Those were the days"

By Fannie P. Hernandez
REMINISCING ON the little things
in life during the early construction
days, Canal builders who are still with
us recall a familiar picture of men going
to work carrying round yellow food
tins. The food, which played an impor-
tant role in building the Canal was
"Crapenuts," the only cereal which,
because of its baking process and pack-
aging, withstood the effects of the trop-
ics. The Canal workers frequently ate
the food dry and enjoyed its sweet
crunchy flavor.
Closely related to what seemed in-
surmountable obstacles in constructing
the Panama Canal was the problem of
food. If men could not be fed, there
would be no Canal. No food was ever
accumulated on the Isthmus, and in
the summer of 1905, this disastrous
situation was made even more serious
by the almost total failure of crops for
2 preceding years. Farm laborers had
abandoned the fields for work on the

Canal and a quarantine was in effect at
the Port of Panama on the Pacific side
because of bubonic plague, temporarily
preventing the delivery of food from
neighboring countries.
Feeding Was A Problem
The United States was faced with
the problem of feeding 12,000 men
and their families. To do this, stores
were opened at every labor camp,
mess-houses were built, and food was
furnished to all employees at cost.
Living conditions for the Canal
builders had improved considerably by
1909. New quarters had been con-
structed and the area had been freed of
pestilential tropical diseases. The Pan-
ama Railroad had built a cold storage
plant, bakery, laundry, and wholesale
warehouse at Cristobal. Refrigeration
facilities were provided on the Panama
Railroad ships and from three to seven
carloads of meat were shipped weekly

from the United States to the Canal
Zone. The cars were loaded with beef
hindquarters, hickory-cured hams and
bacon prepared from the finest young
porkers, sausage, barreled pork, and
lard. Large quantities of canned meat,
beef extract, and barreled beef also
were shipped to the Canal. Eggs, fowl,
and butter arrived regularly; between
25,000 to 30,000 cases of eggs were
shipped annually. Barrels of flour, cof-
fee, tea, cocoa, and spices arrived in
great quantities.
Inadequate Facilities
In the beginning of the construction
era, facilities for fresh milk were in-
adequate and large quantities of dry
milk were consumed.
Fruit was an important item in the
diet of the Canal workers and enormous
quantities of both fresh and canned fruit
were consumed during the construction.
A New Orleans firm supplied fruit and


C --

market produce. Refrigerated cars had
been put into service by the Panama
Railroad and supplies were distrib-
uted early each morning at Gatun, Gor-
gona, Empire, Culebra, Pedro Miguel,
Ancon, and Balboa. The factory at Cris-
tobal was making 100 tons of ice daily
and the bakery was supplying 20,000
loaves of bread which were sold at cost.
Until the North Americans flocked to
the Panama Canal, butter was little
known in Central America and the Isth-
mus, and odd as it may seem, nearly all
the butter which was consumed on the
west coast of Mexico and Central Amer-
ica came from Europe. According to
records, the first shipment of U.S. but-
ter to Panama was at the beginning of
1909. Large amounts of syrup also were
consumed in the Canal Zone during the
construction days.
Wholesale Food Prices
The housewife bought groceries at
the commissary store at wholesale
prices. Fresh meat included lamb chops
at 29 cents a pound, veal shoulder for
roasting for 15 cents, beef sirloin steak
for 22 cents, and tenderloin was 27 cents
a pound. A large roasting chicken cost
about $1.50, and potatoes were 3 cents

a pound; onions, 3 cents, and tomatoes,
7 cents. Although prices were reason-
able enough, a common complaint of
the construction day hostess was "what
is the fun of giving a dinner party if
all the guests know exactly what the
menu will be and how much it cost."
The U.S. Government provided free
housing, furniture, electricity, water,
cooking wood, coal, and ice. House-
keeping was comparatively easy. Most
households had a cook or at least part-
time help to cope with the wood
stove and woodbox in the 8 by 10-foot
kitchen of the family quarters along the
Although cooking did not run a
wide gastronomical gamut, the rugged
spirited men and women who built the
Canal ate wholesome meals. And not
all was dull and tasteless, according to
a cookbook of hints and favorite recipes
compiled by members of the Home
Department of the Canal Zone Federa-
tion of Women's Clubs residing on the
Isthmus during the years 1909-10. The
Home Department also covered such
subjects as the making of tea and coffee,
the evaluation of the kitchen, the study
of food values and the esthetic side of

homemaking. The wives of the Canal
builders took an active part in the
department, generously sharing their
recipes, some they had brought with
them and others of native foods they had
learned to utilize.
Trifling Things
The cookbook includes a section on
"Trifling Things Worth Knowing" and
informs the Isthmian housewife that "a
soda bath will relieve tired feet," and
"to keep lemons, cover with water,
changing it every week," and a dish of
water in a hot oven will prevent food
from burning."
A recipe for Christmas Pudding
signed Anonymous goes like this, "Take
five pounds of loving kindness, add one
pound leaven of common sense, two
pounds fruit of experience, one pound
of spice of cheerfulness, one dozen good
actions, two pounds sweet amiability,
one pound finely minced individuality,
essence of prudence, patience, and hos-
pitality, according to requirements and
some moderation seasoned with the
spirit of merriment."
(For other Construction Day recipes,
turn the page.)

-Sketches by Irene Gerdes.


------ ~

Here are a few of the recipes by con-
struction day housewives exactly as they
appear in the Canal Zone Federation of
Women's Clubs Cookbook of 1909-10:
Butter Bread
A recipe for Butter Bread which Mrs.
William C. Gorgas, wife of the sur-
geon general, refers to as a "good old
Southern recipe:" Two cups of fine
hominy or grits. While hot, mix with a
large tablespoon of butter, next add a
pint of milk, gradually stirred in, then
4 eggs beaten lightly, and last a pint of
cornmeal; the batter should be the
consistency of rich boiled custard; if
it thickens, add more milk. Bake in
a deep dish, cover with a tin plate which
is taken off in time to allow bread to
brown on top. Use as much baking
powder as for a pint of flour.
Brown Bread
Mrs. J. H. Higgins' recipe for Brown
Bread calls for 2 cups of cornmeal
(yellow is preferable), 2 cups of white
flour, % teaspoon salt, 1 cups molasses,
1 teaspoon vinegar, 1/ teaspoons soda,
dissolved in warm water, adding enough
hot water to make the batter drip from
the spoon. Steam 3 hours in baking
powder tins or lard pail. Place in mod-
erate oven 20 minutes before removing
from oven. (Mrs. Higgins' husband was
a craneman.)
Cocoanut Muffins
Cocoanut Muffins by Mrs. J. E. West-
erly: 4 teacups flour, 3 teaspoons baking
powder, cup sugar, a teaspoon salt, a
tablespoon melted butter, a medium
sized grated cocoanut, enough milk to
make a soft dough. Mix flour, baking
powder, sugar, salt, cocoanut, then milk
and butter. Bake in well greased muffin
tins about 5 minutes. This will make
3 dozen.

Here is a recipe for Chayote Pie by
Mrs. William L. Sibert, whose husband
was in charge of all the lock and dam
construction on the Canal: Pare and boil
your chayotes until soft enough to
be pressed through vegetable press

or strainer. To 1 cup of chayote pulp
take 2 eggs, 1 cup milk, 1/ cup sugar,
1 tablespoon melted butter, and cin-
namon and ginger to make it taste like
pumpkin pie, about z teaspoon cin-
namon and twice as much ginger. When
baked in a cover crust rather slowly it
can scarcely be told from pumpkin pie.
Apparently Mrs. Sibert enjoyed ex-
perimenting with the local produce as
her recipe for Chayote a la Eggplant also
is found in the cookbook: Peel chavotes,
slice them lengthwise in thin slices, lav
them in cold salt water for at least
2 hour, then dip each slice in rolled
bread crumbs, then in beaten egg, and
again in bread crumbs. Let them stand
an hour or so to stiffen, then drop in

hot deep fat and fry to a golden brown.
(Even better than fried eggplant, noted
Mrs. Sibert.)
Mrs. Chester Harding, wife of Major
Chester Harding, the distinguished en-
gineer who played an important role in
the Atlantic Division construction work
was a generous contributor of dessert
recipes. Here are a few of them:
Strawberry Parfait
Strawberry Parfait: Stir a cupful of
strawberry jam over the fire until hot,
then add gradually to the stiffly beaten
whites of 2 eggs. Beat until cool, then
add a tablespoonful of lemon juice, a
few drops of vanilla, and stand aside
until quite cool, then fold in two cupfuls
of thick cream, beaten until stiff and

dry. Put into a mold, pack in ice and
salt and allow to remain for 3 or 4 hours;
turn out and garnish with whipped
cream and strawberry jam.
Chocolate Pie
Her Chocolate Pie calls for 1 coffee-
cupful of milk, Ii cup of sugar, 2 table-
spoonsful of grated chocolate, 3 eggs,
% teaspoonful of salt, vanilla to flavor.
Beat yolks of eggs until light and add to
them 2 tablespoons of milk. Heat the
chocolate and rest of milk together, put
in salt and sugar and when scalding hot
add the yolks of the eggs. Let the mix-
ture cook for 2 minutes, remove from
the fire and when cooled add the
flavoring. Line a pie plate with crust,
turn in the filling and bake 20 minutes
in a quick oven. Beat the whites of the
eggs very light, sweeten with a teaspoon
of sugar and spread them over the pie,
then brown the eggs slightly and serve
Sponge Cake
Hot Water Sponge Cake: Whites of
3 eggs beaten stiff, and 1 cupful of
sugar, yolks of 3 eggs beaten light and
thick, add 1 teaspoonful lemon juice,
and Y4 cup hot water gradually, and
continue beating; pour gradually into
the whites and sugar, then gently fold
in a cupful of flour. Bake in an oblong
loaf in a moderate oven.
Orange Sauce
Here is Mrs. Harding's recipe for
Orange Sauce: Juice and grated rind of
1 orange, V lemon, teaspoonful of
cloves or cinnamon extract, 1 teaspoon-
ful cornstarch, 1 cupful water; bring
slowly to a boiling point, strain and
Also among the dessert recipes is this
one for Kisses by Mrs. H. J. Slifer whose
husband was the general manager of the
Panama Railroad: Whites of 4 eggs,
1Y4 cups powdered sugar, 1 teaspoon
vanilla. Whip eggs and gradually add
sugar; add vanilla last. Dip out and
place on glazed paper. Bake in very
low oven 30 minutes or a little over.


Con-5truction ~Dap Aetipev


(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Laurence D. Duncan
Omer N. Laval
Shipwright (Maintenance)
Samuel B. Lashley
Augustus A. Nelson
Food Service Worker
C. Leroy Cockburn
Assistant Milk Products Plant Manager
Cuthbert C. Rowe
Retail Complex lnager
C.- cr. Th.:-rb-:.IIt '
C...... p .:.r

Clyde A. Sea .
Clerk (Typing)
Samuel H. Blenman
Meteorological Technician (General)
William Downs
Laborer (Cleancr)
Clarence A. Hope
Pipe Coverer and Insulator
Daniel E. Nicholas
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Alfred C. Williams
Vernon L. Dalhoff
Supervisory Electrical Engineering Technician
Winifred W. Gray

William S. Wigg
Administrative Services Officer
McDonald Brathwaite
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Genrge H. Moore
Payroll Clerk
Elmer J. Kruska.
Payroll Clerk
Stuart Wallace
Budget Anal\st
Richard W. Cov
Operating Accountant
William B. Lloyd
Supervisory Budget Analyst
Woodrow G. Tnrbert
Staff Accountant
Rathburn A. Springer
Clerk Typist
C. N. Brathwaite
Messenger (Motor Vehicle Operator)
Lennard A. Johns
Photographer, Laboratory
Jerry WV. Detamore
Printing Specialist
Victor L. Williams
M Gessenger
RWilfred A. Pond
Mail Clerk
Victor Johnson
Helper (General)
Alfred W. Lilly

Earl W. Worrell
Gilberto Escobar
Vincent C. Lashley
Time and Leave Clerk
Garfield Mayers
Glenn D. Redmond
Lead Foreman. Welder
Raymond W. Honker
Maintenanceman (Boats)
William 11. Keller. Jr.
General Foreman, Lock Operations
Leon R. Thompson
Rafael V. Alleyne D.
Arnold Jones
Motor Launch Operator
Zephaniah C. Rowe
Leader Seaman
Jos6 A. Cristobal
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Jay A. Elliott
Oiler (Floating Plant'
Nevel 0. Burnett
Leader. Line landler (Deckhand Boatswain)
Felix A. Julienne
George L. Rrosin
Preservation Mechanic
Martin Griffith
Preservation Mechanic
Rupert A. Sobers
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Ernest Verley
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Cyril Williams
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Eric A. Francis
Line Handler tDeckhand)
Ewart E. Marson
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Joseph T. McDonald
Oiler (Flnating Plant)
Albert A. Stewart
Alfred Palmer
Claude A. Smith
Motor Launch Operator
Winston L. Piggott
Motor Launch Operator
Rereslord A. Royce
Automotive Crane Operator
Aurelio Yeaza
Crane Hookman
Alfred C. Goodridge
Towing Locomntive Operator (Locks)
Rolivar Gordon
Helper Lock Operatnr
Edwin Baptiste
Boiler Tender
Frank F. Chase
Eduardo .Mluiioz
Elrain A. Spaing
George R. Williams
Toolroom Mechanic (Maintenance)
Adolphus J. Cole
Machinist (Marine-Maintenance)
Mary L. Peterson
Occupational Ilealth Nurse
Henry M. Leon
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Juan Gonzalez M.
Edward B. Callomn
Stanley C. Francis
Truck Driver
Olrick O. Alleyne
Fitz G. Perrott
Oiler (Floating Plant)

Stanley W'. Gunn
Horace A Elvy
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Arthur H. E. Curtis
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Johino Hurtadn
Jose F. Robinson
Pedro Cafiate
Rufrence Ilemmings
Helper Operating Engineer (Hoisting
Victor Archibald
Telety pist
Alfonso Rowland
Supervisory Supply Clerk
Dathan Martin
Toolroom Attendant
Fillmore Archibaldo
Wharlbuilder (Maintenance)
Juan Melgarejo, Jr.
\aintenanceman (Rope and Wire Cable)
Gladstone L. King
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Lloyd G. Lessey
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Henry D. Luscap
Helper (General)
Canute S. Cockburn
Supervisory Cargo Clerk
Fitz Charles
Messenger (Motor Vehicle Operator)
Roge JY Adam<
flr.. i-i..p.:.r llh.:.n Operations Officer
j c 0it).,.r,.
a l.:.:.- Lhcl. ),.r..tcher

II l pi, R -I

i L.-.1 lro".in Cirr-rnter
M vFiin E.' C.l-in
11 at r _' .:.:,r.:.r
F ,llr.rbgteg t* il F.h
fiX i il o -n ,. enman
Aaron N. Spalding
Truck Driver
Lorenzo DeGracia
Tnrck Driver
Pablo Carrillo
Truck Driver 'He.i\'y Trailer)
Halph F. Rowland
Automotive Mechanic (Maintenance)
Joaquin Rivera R.
Truck Driver
Dennis E. Clarke
Liquid Fuels W\harfman
Andreas Nicolaisen
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher
Warden E. French
General Foreman, Fuel Operations
Edwin Cobham
Carpenter (Maintenance)
Pablo Reyes A.
Samuel Grant
Helper Machinist
Cyril J. Myers
Messenger (Motor Vehicle Operator)
Ilugh P. M. Sealey
Kenneth L. Reid
Supervisory Cargo Checker
William W'. Campbell
Cargo Checker
Veska E. Eastman
Automotive Crane Operator
Clifford E. Ros
Ashby Graham
(See p. 30)



(Continued from p. 29)

Percival A. Appleton
Truck Driver
Daniel E. Gerald
Materials Handling Equipment Repairman
Sidney Crawford
Centrifuge Operator
Damaso Riquelme
Railroad Trackman (Main Line)
Albert D. Lord
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher
William B. Huff
Cargo Checking Officer
Herbert W. Rose
Yard Locomotive Engineer
A on R. Farnum
Helper (General)

Alfred A. Shoy
Nephi O. Harding
Telephone Operator
Arthur L. Betty
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
John H. Stevens
Procurement Officer
Clifford C. Reid
Supply Clerk
Kenneth O. Blackman
Supply Clerk
Ernesto L. Fields
Supply Clerk
Rostrom A. Alleyne
Supply Clerk
Alberto E. Caballero
Tree Trimmer
Walter E. Clarke
Lead Foreman (Grounds)
Nehemiah Moodie
High Lift Truck Operator
Josephine Bravo
Marker and Sorter
Ena M. Elliott
George W. Anderson
Sidney C. Thompson
Nicanor Torres
Scrap Materials Sorter
George Chambers
Truck Driver
Gabriel Mendoza
Garbage Collector
Stanley A. Griffith
Lead Foreman Laborer (Cleaner)
Jorge C. Evers
Laborer (Heavy)
Verona Grant
Sales Store Checker
Winston M. Haye
Supervisory Distribution Facilities Assistant
Albertha L. Martin
Supply Clerk
Allen T. Hamlin
Clerk Typist
Conrad E. Frederick
Leader Cook
Francis A. Cadogan
Utility Worker
Felipe Aguilar
Garbage Collector
Victor Salazar
David A. Hector
Sydney E. Jones
Laborer (Cleaner)
David H. Gayle
Laborer (Cleaner)
Arthur B. Boyd
Leader Washman
Evadney O. Green
Marker and Sorter

Claudio Gil
Nashbert Holmes
Superisory Clerk
Ivan J. Stephens
Carlos M. Badiola
Supervisory Civil Engineer Technician
Elmer Kanz
Supervisory Hydrologist
William A. Greenidge
Helper, Electronics Mechanic
Vicente Pinillo
Helper Electrician
A. F. Scantlebury
Helper Electrician
Edwin S. Aopl.white
Cement Finisher
Gilberto Budil
Alcibiades De Le6n
Eustace A. Laurie
Leader, Battery Services
Charles G. Brown
Gilberto Llerena
Painter (Sign)
Arthur W. Trottman
Leahunte R. Straker
Wallace Cameron
George A. Morgan
Maintenanceman (Dock)
Robert C. Herrington
Chief Foreman, Facilities and Equipment
(Maintenance and Operations)
Alcie, Alcare

Fe si Ms r ri ( -s
I e. ,,o kn d,,
Btletr end-'
Ir urtad. O
Martin r, JI un ad )
0".irr. 3r

EF-k CrL'oIit.Plsnt Opernlor
lrA ikA linbont

&ster, p'rT Driged

O.lfr IFloar.ng Plant-Boom)
Josh D. Calame
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Octavio E. Benitez
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Atkinson Myles
Leader Seaman
Percy Arthur
Edward Shuffler
Motor Launch Operator
Wilfred B. Maynard
Residual Fuel Treatment Plant Operator
Milton Horter, Jr.
Chief, Power Plant (Diesel)
Wilbur B. Fall
General Foreman (Facilities and Equipment
Rupert V. Arthur
Lead Foreman (Highway Maintenance)
Lionel E. Fardin
Rupert A. Phillips
Thomas McGowan
Helper Welder
Gabino Morales A.
Francisco Pefialosa
Asphalt or Cement Worker
Jacob Murillo
Irvin D. Armtrong
Abner E. Smart
Laborer (Heavy)
Cecil A. Gavle
Helper Cable Splicer
Louis A. Browne
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)

John N. Prince
Electrician (Lineman)
Eugenio D. C. Jones
Helper Electrician
Julian F. Scott
Helper Electrician
Alfred A. Bonnick
Dispatcher (Floating Equipment)
Levy M. Evelyn
Surveying Aid
Marcos Reyna
Surveying Aid
Joseph M. Watson
Administrative Officer
Frank A. Anderson, Jr.
Inspector (Plumbing)
Filos H. Ward
Electrical Equipment Repairman
Vivian E. Wilson
Toolroom Attendant
Jose D. Ortiz
Laborer (Heavy)
Leonard A. Jackson
Rock Crushing Plant Operator
Harold M. Cummings
Anel I. Ruiz
Jos6 N. Rodriguez
Louis E. Sprauve
Arthur N. Rice
Helper Electrician
C. E. Haywood
Accounting Clerk
Cleveland A. Jordan
Electrician (Lineman)
Isaiah C. Prosser
Helper Cable Splicer
Louis G. Small
Lloyd W. Wade
Surveying Aid
Clifford O. Samuels
Leader Seaman
Donald G. Brewster
Gerald Wilson
Clarence H. Fonseca
Gladstone C. Bellamy
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)
Kelvin S. Barnett
Clerk (Work Order)
Ethelbert Howell
Harland V. Howard, Jr.
Supervisor, Generation and Transmission Plant
(Power System)
P. M. Disharoon, Jr.
Test Operator Foreman (Mechanical Power
Mario Calleja
Supervisory Civil Engineer
Joseph M. Evelyn
Helper Machinist (Maintenance)
James E. Steams
Teacher (Sr. Hi. U.S. Schools)
Alfred C. Bushell
Contraband Control Officer
Arthur Baptist
Swimming Pool Operator
Joseph A. Forde
Viola B. Duncan
Teacher (Jr. High-Latin American Schools)
Rexford R. Inniss
Clerk-Typist (Correctional)
John H. West
Recreation Assistant
Alherta Tonge
Dressing Room Attendant
John R. Bovell
Guard (Correctional)
Fred E. Perra
District Police Commander
Lealand A. Larrison
Finance Branch Superintendent
James L. Phillips
Fire Protection Inspector
(See p. 31)


(Continued from p. 30)
Viviana N. Marlin
.Superisory Clerk-Dictating Maclhine
Raymond G. Bush
Supenrisory Sanitation Inspector
Norman walker r
Nursing Assistant
Lillith NM. Black-ood
Medical Technician
Cliffnrd Pierre
Medical Aid (Amnbulantes)
Jos6 NM. Santimateo
Lahorer (Heavy-Pest Control)
Ivan S. Johnson
Allan A. Spencer
Leader Sandhlaster
Ilenry Johnson
Medical Aid (Ambulances)
Winston O. Thomas
Nursing Assistant (Operating Room)
Louise E. Griffon
Secretary (Stenography)
(uillermo L. Di\on
Admitting Clerk
Aston C. Philpotts
Admitting Clerk
Charles Heath
Nursing Assistant (Medicine aod Surgery)
Louise L. Knight
File Clerk
Alfredo Archibald





TAKING ADVANTAGE of balmy dry season weather, tourists play shuffleboard on the
deck of Ihc "Kungsholm" tied up at Balboa. The Swedish liner is one of many large ships
bringing thousands of tourists to the Isthmus during the winter cruise season.

". '-.4:

-- A

LOADED TO CAPACITY with cargo containers, the Sea-Land container ship "Long
Beach" moves souli through Caillard Cut. It is one of several ships of this type
transiting regularly.

Shipping Trends

(Continued from p. 13)
ports of West Australia to load ore for
the Atlantic hasin provided the western
Atlantic ports are deep enough to
accommodate these cargoes.
New Ports Needed
MuIch of the success of this new trend
in world commerce will depend on the
construction, in the near ftiture, of new
deep \\ater ports. This, as much as the
gli\\th in the size of tie carriers, will
ha\e( an elhect on Panama Canal traffic.
For instance, the foresight of the Ca-
madians in the constuitieion of a new
mammoth terminal complex at Roberts
Bank, a site south of Vancouver, has
gicvn access to (th large tne\\ western
Canadian mines x which produce high
quality' cotl. This cold take some of
the market Irom \est Virginia.
This new port will be serviced with
vessels of 150,000 tons which will be
able to haul coal profitably to Japan,
even with a ballast return voyage, at
rates under 82 per long ton.
\Vhen more steel mills are built on
the U.S. west coast, as they will be
soon, this same Canadian terminal could
enable coking coal and limestone to be
transported to a U.S. west coast plant.




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