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in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
\V. P. LEBER, Governor-President
R. S. HARTLINE, Lieutenant-Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer
Official Panama Canal Publication
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
MORGAN E. GOODoVN, Press Officer
Iouls R. CHANGER, TOMAS A. CUPAS
EUNICE RICHARD, FANNIE P. HERNANDEZ,
JOSE T. TUION, WILLIE K. FRIAR, and
Luis C. NoLI
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Chaquiras __ -------------------
From the wilds of western Panama comes the
Chacluira. Once an Indian warriors' ornament,
it has become a part of modern-day jewelry.
Panama Independence ___---- ---------------
The Republic of Panama has two independence
days in November. Here is all the intrigue of the
historic events leading to those important days.
Section I _------------ -------------
It's the flea market for the Canal Zone and has
everything from junked jeeps to bowling pins.
Mosquito Pest ___-------------------
Research by Canal Zone mosquito fighters may
some day lead to control.
Anniversaries -------- -
Radar Imagery _________ -------------
Mapmakers have discovered a new tool which
literally cuts through the fog.
Shipping Statistics________----------_ _
Thanksgiving Panama style is what we feature
on our food pages this month.
The skyways to Panama's progress opened on
March 11, 1947, when COPA's flight number 1
departed from Albrook Air Force Base for To-
cumen International Airport.
The Olympics --_ --_______--_ ___-- ___
The XI Central American and Caribbean Games
will bring up to 20,000 sports fans to Panama.
About 3,000 athletes will participate.
Florida State University-------------------
It has no football team, fraternities or snack bar,
but it provides the civil servant, the soldier,
and the citizen of Panama an opportunity for a
S OUT OF THE high tropical forests and from the lowland
coast of northwestern Panama comes the chaquira-one
of the most colorful pieces of jewelry worn by modern
women. Made by the Guaymi Indians, the chaquiras of
5 historic times were made of bone, shells, stone, and seeds
and were not as colorful as they are today.
With the invaluable assistance of Dr. Reina Torres de
Arafiz, director of the National Museum of Panama, we
8 were able to invite a Guaymi family to display some of
the handmade chaquiras. The setting is in a wing of the
museum. In the background are ancient stone statues
12 discovered on the slopes of Bard volcano at Barriles.
The Indians are Mr. and Mrs. Dionisio Santos and their
infant daughter who travel to Panama City from their
15 highland home in Veraguas Province to sell the neck-
16 laces. He is wearing a ceremonial hat and a chaquira
which the Guaymi men wear during festive occasions.
The back page shows a layout of the chaquiras on top
18 of a large Guaymi ritual stone table. The photographs
20 were taken by Panama Canal photographers Melvin D.
Kennedy, Jr. and Alberto Acevedo.
Historically, November is the most important month
22 for Panamanians. On November 3, 1903, the area which
is now the Republic of Panama gained its independence
from Colombia. November 10, 1821, was the first time
any community (Los Santos) in Panama had declared
freedom from Spain. And on November 28, 1821, Pan-
24 amanian independence from Spain was proclaimed. For
the November REVIEW, we chose the chaquira to symbol-
ize the historic past of Panama, and the Guaymies who
typify the spirit of freedom by never having been
26 subdued by either the conquistadors or modern man.
f rv s, ;um
Siunay j P- :-" P'
Mayr I. C le o ','.,-:-, :
Panama City adjusts her
.FASu4IOA LS. CaAQUrRA.
festive occasion, a Guaymi
ceremonial hat and I
BOTTOM: A mirror adds
double beauty as pretty
Mayra I. Calder6n of
Panama City adjusts her
(See p. 4)
By Jose T. Tufion
AN INDIAN warriors' ornament has
made its way from the primitive envi-
ronment of the mountains of western
Panama into the world of feminine
fashion, and it is winning women's
The ornament is the chaquira, a
shoulder-wide collar of brightly colored
beads arranged in geometric designs
now used by women for both daytime
and evening wear. It is also still worn
todav by the Guavmi Indian men,
whose ancestors were the formidable
fighters the conquistadors rated among
the most skilled of all the warriors in
the Western Hemisphere.
No longer the fierce warriors of yore,
the present-day Guaymies, some 35,000
in all, live under the laws of Panama in
the provinces of Veraguas, Chiriqui, and
Bocas del Toro. Their children attend
Panama schools, but they still keep
aloof from people not of their own cul-
ture and retain many of their aboriginal
customs and practices.
The chaquira was first mentioned
by European historians in documents
dating back from the early part of the
17th Century. It was quite different
from today's ornament. The colors were
dull and it was not so tightly beaded as
modern-day ones. It was fashioned of
pebbles, pieces of bone, seeds, and sea
shells which the Indians colored with
Sold In Shops
The brightly colored beads and varied
designs of the chaquiras now being sold
in the shops reflect the Indian's present-
day ability to buy beads of whatever
shape, size, or color needed.
Fray Adrian de Santo Tomas, who
ran a mission in 1622 in what is now
the town of Remedios, Chiriqui Pro-
vince, described the chaquira as the
ornament worn b GCuavmi men during
their major festivals-a sort of emblem
of Guavmi nationality.
The Spanish conquistadors found
three distinct Guavmi tribes in western
Panama; each named after its chief:
each spoke a different language. The
three big chiefs were Urraca, who ruled
in what is now Veraguas Province:
NatA, in the territory of the Province
of Cocl6; and Parita, in the Azuero
Of the three, Urraci is the most
famous. He not only defeated the Span-
iards several times, but was the only
one among the rebel Indian chiefs who
m T n n m . A .A
FASHIONABLE-Three Panama Canal employees pause to talk about the chaquiras they
have bought in various parts of Panama. Left to right are: Judith H. de Vasquez, Edna A.
Kovel, and Carolyn L. Twohy.
forced a captain of the Spanish Empire,
Diego de Albitez, to sign a peace treaty.
This was approximately 1522.
A measure of Urraca's temper is
provided by the account of his feats
after Albitez's successor betrayed and
imprisoned the Indian chief.
Sent in chains to Nombre de Dios
on the Atlantic coast, probably for
transfer to Spain-according to historian
Bartolom6 de las Casas-Urraci escaped
and made his way back to the moun-
tains, vowing to fight the Spaniards
unto death. And he fulfilled his vow.
In his last ears, Urraci's name was
so feared by the Spaniards that they
avoided combat with his men. When
UrracA died in 1531, surrounded by
friends and relatives, he was still a free
man. He probably was laid in his grave
with a chaquira covering his shoulders.
After Urraci's death, the other Indian
chiefs carried on the fight against the
white invaders, taking refuge in the
steep mountains of Veraguas and the
TabasarA Range where the Spaniards'
cavalry could not maneuver.
By the 18th Century, the Guaymies
were divided into two large groups:
those of the tropical forest (in the high-
lands of Veraguas and Chiriqui) and
those of the lowlands (along the Atlan-
tic coast, from Rio Belen to Bocas del
Toro). They never surrendered, fight-
ing until the collapse of the Spanish
domination in the Americas.
When Panama broke away from Spain
and joined Colombia in the early 19th
Century, the Gua\mies remained in
oblivion in their mountain villages.
Slowly they are now being incorpo-
rated into the national fold. Guavmi
teachers and law-enforcement officers
help the effort. At the last graduation
of the Felix Olivares High School in
David, Chiriqui, an honor graduate was
a Guavmi student, Miss Matilde Salinas.
Her ambition: to study medicine and
to return to the mountains to work
among her people.
Other young Guaymies are leaving
their mountain homes in increasing
numbers to work in the banana plan-
tations in Chiriqui and Bocas del Toro.
They bring back new things and new
ideas which they share with their elders
-transistor radios among them.
While the chaquira remains a symbol
of the Guavmi culture, it is no longer
a treasured warrior's ornament fash-
ioned painstakingly by female hands
within the closeness of the family circle,
but a vastly sophisticated commodity
to which mass production techniques
are being applied. Its production is an
established source of income for the
In olden times, it took perhaps as
much as 4 months to fashion a single
chaquira. Today, in much less time,
dozens of the collars are produced in
small shops to fill orders from the cities.
And men now work side by side with
women turning out the ornaments.
Along the Inter-American Highway
near Tole, the town closest to the Taba-
sara Range, Guavmies and boys from
Tole peddle chaquiras of all sizes and
colors, starting from about $6. In fash-
ionable Panama City shops, the collars
sell for $15 and up.
Perhaps the very masculinity that the
chaquira symbolized centuries ago is the
intangible lure that has made it an orna-
ment prized by women in modern times.
The noted U.S. historian and arche-
ologist Samuel K. Lothrop, in his "Ar-
cheology of Southern Veraguas, Pan-
ama," rated the Guavmi warriors thuslv:
"In the opinion of many, the natives
of Veraguas should be ranked with the
famous Araucanians of Chile as the out-
standing fighters of the New World, a
judgement shared by Spanish veterans
who had served in both regions."
Stirred by thle Winds o( 1.iberte
Jithmians Called joz independence
From the early Nineteenth Century, Isthmians felt the stirring
of independence-first from Spanish domination and then
from a Colombian Government which was draining the Isthmus
of its resources. In the early years, the valuable geographical
position of the Isthmus became the yoke that tied it to gold
hungry conquistadors. Later, that position became one of the
Isthmus' most valuable assets for independence.
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FREEDOM FROM SPAIN and voluntary union with the Gran Colombia Federation was
declared in this colonial town hall in Panama City on November 28, 1821. The town
meeting, called by the City Council, brought to an end :300 years of Spanish nrle.
By Luis C. Noli
F THE PLAN for Panama's secession
from Colombia in 1903 had been car-
ried out as originally designed, Pan-
amanians would have one instead of
two independence celebrations in the
month of November. For the leaders
had fixed November 28 of that year-the
anniversary of independence from Spain
82 years earlier-as the date on which
the new Republic would be proclaimed.
Though 82 years apart, the two
independence movements show inter-
esting similarities. Both were carried
out without discontent over the lack
of benefits to Isthmians from their coun-
try's privileged geographical position;
both were helped by fortunate breaks
that assured swift success when every-
one despaired; both were affirmed by
The Nineteenth Century was still
young when the winds of liberty reached
the Isthmus from the south.
"This important Isthmus of Panama
was a degraded colony, debased, be-
reaved of representative government,
of civil liberty, of political rights," the
late Mariano Arosemena, a signer of
the 1821 Declaration of Independence,
Sealed To Trade
"Despite its immense importance for
communication between the oceans, it
was hermetically sealed to trade and to
foreign contact. As vassals of the King
of Spain, we Isthmians lived miserably,"
"Other Spanish colonies in the Amer-
icas had revolted, but the Isthmus,
though longing to become independent,
could not possibly do so. His Catholic
Majesty kept this post of military strat-
egy bristling with bayonets and besides
had made it the obligatory route for
the war expeditions to Ecuador, Chile
and Peru and for replacements of naval
casualties, as well as of naval supplies,
armaments, munitions, equipment and
all that was required to supply his
armies in the armed conflict between
the government of the metropolis and
the countries under its domination in
the new world, which had rebelled
The first step for independence,
(See p. 6)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
DURING the War of the Thousand Days which was draining the Isthmus of men and resources, a detachment of Colombian Govern-
ment troops prepares to enter Colon. It was led by Commandant Esteban Huertas, immediately behind the handle of the machine gun
to the left. According to Panamanian historians, Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro and Ruben D. Carries, the photo was taken late in 1901. The U.S.
flags at the top of the buildings indicate that the establishments were neutral in the conflict. The civil war was a leading contributor to
Panamanian independence in 1903.
(Continued from p. 5)
according to Arosemena, was the found-
ing in Panama City of a weekly newspa-
which we openly fought absolute rule,
lack of civil and political liberties, bad
and depressive colonial laws, and the
abominable slave traffic . "
The break in 1821 came when a
Spanish expeditionary force set out
from Panama for Ecuador. With the
Spanish garrison depleted, the planners
in Panama City moved quickly. A
fund was raised to bribe the remaining
The independence fever had spread
to the interior of the colony and on
November 10, 1821, the Municipal
Council of Los Santos adopted a Decla-
ration of Independence from Spain. The
anniversary of this first cry for inde-
pendence on the Isthmus is observed
as a national holiday in the Republic
and is the first, chronologically speak-
ing, of the independence holidays falling
The Los Santos' declaration embold-
ened the leaders in Panama City and on
November 28-the day after the last of
the remaining Spanish soldiers had quit
the garrison-the City Council called a
town meeting at which independence
There was an important difference,
however, between the Los Santos and
Panama City declarations. The former
called for a republican regime; the
latter provided for voluntary union with
the Gran Colombia Federation that the
"Liberator," Sim6n Bolivar, had forged
from the South American colonies he
The Panama City declaration pre-
vailed and the Isthmus thus joined
neighboring Colombia, bringing to an
end 3 centuries of Spanish rule.
Within a decade, however, the Gran
Colombia Federation had broken up,
but Panama remained as a department
(state) of Colombia which had now be-
come New Granada. Isthmians, already
regretting their union with Colombia,
chafed at the bit. Independence at-
tempts actually were carried out, though
with little permanent success, in 1830,
1831, 1840, and 1861.
By the turn of the century, Isthmians
were thoroughly fed up with conditions
and genuinely concerned about their
future. Construction of an interoceanic
canal across the Isthmus had become a
definite possibility, but:
-The millions collected from the
Panama Railroad had vanished to Co-
lombia without benefit to the Isthmus
-A Colombian civil war between
Liberals and Conservatives, the War
of the Thousand Days, had spread to
the Isthmus, draining it of blood and
-Worse vet from the Isthmians' stand-
point, the Colombian Government was
preparing to reject a treaty with the
United States for the construction of an
interoceanic waterway across Panama.
The actual plans for independence
in 1903 began around the month of
June. A telegram signed by more than
2,000 residents of the Isthmus was dis-
patched to the Colombian Government
in BogotA, warning of "anti-patriotic
sentiments" if the treaty was rejected.
By October, the revolutionists had set
November 28 for the coup in order to
have it coincide with the anniversary
of independence from Spain.
But at daybreak on November 3, word
reached Panama City that a Colombian
cruiser had anchored off Colon and 500
troops had disembarked to take over
the Isthmian garrison.
That was what precipitated the
events. For the men in Panama had
learned that the Colombian Govern-
ment, aware of the move for independ-
ence, had decided to send a large armed
force to the Isthmus to replace the Co-
lombian battalion that had been on
duty on the Isthmus for many years.
While the alarmed schemers in Pan-
ama City rushed about to consolidate
their plans, Panama Railroad officials
denied passage by train to the Colom-
bian troops which were forced to remain
The commanders, however, decided
to travel to Panama City immediately,
with or without their troops. That was
to prove the break in 1903.
The Colombian expeditionary force
was commanded by Generalissimo Juan
B. Tovar and a staff of six general of-
ficers. At 11 o'clock that morning, they
were received with military honors at
the Panama City train station.
WVith the populace sensing that the
hour to do or die was approaching, the
day's key man made his decision and
He was General Esteban Huertas,
commander of the Colombian garrison
in Panama. He was a self-made man
Born in Colombia in 1876, he had been
placed by his parents in a seminary at
the age of 8 to study for the priesthood.
But at 14 he ran away and joined the
army as a drummer. He was first as-
signed to Panama in 1890 as a sergeant
Here he befriended boy's of his age
who as men were to be among the lead-
ers of the independence plot in 1903.
Huertas' first tour of duty in Panama
lasted 4 years. He was transferred to
Colombia and when he was reassigned
to the Isthmus in 1896 already had
won a lieutenant's commission. The
outbreak of the bloody civil war in 1899
found him an artillery captain. His gal-
lantry in action in some of the 35 com-
bats in which he fought-15 of them
at sea- won him quick promotions and
by 1902-at age 26-he held the rank
of general and was in command of the
Batallon Colombia, garrisoned in Pan-
ama City. He had lost his right hand in
combat, had been wounded four other
times, and had been decorated five times
for valor and heroism.
In January, 1903, he married a Pan-
amanian girl in Panama City and his
only son from this marriage was born in
October-both of which circumstances
were to weigh heavily on his decision
of November 3.
For weeks prior to the coup, the Pan-
amanian patriots-his boyhood friends-
had been sounding out Huertas for sup-
port, but he had not committed himself.
When the Colombian generals ar-
rived in Panama City and Huertas'
removal from command-and probably
his imprisonment for not having moved
against the plotters sooner-appeared to
be a matter of hours, Huertas knew his
moment of truth had come.
He himself related in his memoirs
that decisive moment:
"Alone, I walked to the walls of Las
Bovedas (the colonial seawall fortress
that served as his headquarters) and
with only my conscience as witness, I
began to reflect. I realized that the
Panamanian people were right and had
ample reason for wanting freedom and
"I remembered that here I had my
home, my son, my best friends, and
that I had come to this land while still
very young. I remembered also that
all the Panamanians, without social or
party distinction, had shown me sincere
affection from the moment 1 stepped
on Isthmian soil. And I arrived at the
conclusion that neither my sword nor
my men could stain themselves with the
blood of a generous people who had
given me their friendship and who now
asked my help to achieve their frce-
dom. . When I walked down from
Las Bovedas, I had already planned all
that I would do about an hour later."
Huertas assembled his officers, told
them of his decision and, having re-
ceived assurances of their lovalty to
him, ordered the arrest of the restless
Colombian generals who already- had
come into Las Bovedas to remove
Huertas from command and order the
Gen. Esteban Huertas
It was around 5:45 p.m., November
3, when Huertas made his move. The
populace, already gathered in Santa
Ana Plaza-the traditional rallying point
of Panamanians-began advancing on
Las Bovedas. Huertas ordered his men
to rest arms and the civilians entered
the garrison to arm themselves.
The Colombian warship Bogotd, an-
chored in the bay, fired three shells into
the city in a parting gesture of defiance.
The sole casualty was a Chinese shop-
As in 1821, the City Council made
the formal proclamation of independ-
ence, which was ratified the following
day at a town meeting.
There remained the threat of resist-
ance by the 500 troops who had landed
in Colon. All day on the 4th, Col. Eliseo
Torres, in command of the troops in
Colon, had been demanding the return
of the imprisoned generals. He had de-
ployed his forces in the Atlantic side
city and had threatened to open fire on
the civilian population.
But the arrival of the U.S.S. Nashville
off Colon with orders to keep the Isth-
mus open to traffic proved the final break
the patriots needed, even as prepara-
tions were being made in the capital
to send an armed force to Colon.
The presence of the warship is be-
lieved to have influenced the decision
by the commanding officer of the Co-
lombian vessel that had brought the
troops to Colon to weigh anchor and
head back for Colombia, leaving the
Realizing his now desperate position,
Col. Torres finally yielded to the propo-
sal by leaders of the conspiracy to take
his men back to Colombia aboard the
steamship Orinoco upon receipt of 8,000
pesos in gold with which to pay the
troops, the generals to follow in a short
time. The steamship Orinoco, with the
Colombian battalion on board, sailed
from Colon at 7:25 p.m., November 5.
"Only now, at 6:30 p.m.," read a
telegram from the leaders of the inde-
pendence movement in Colon to the
newly established Government Junta
in Panama City, "can it be said that
Panama's independence is assured."
W r A .1 i -- AI -
ABOVE: Margit L. Csighy, acting
disposal manager, shows how surplus
bowling pins can be glued together
and refinished to make a room divider.
BELOW: Mrs. Joseph Casey of An-
con, a regular customer, searches
through a pile of insulators for the
right one to adapt for use in her home.
BELOW RIGHT: Michael N. Ste-
phenson, left, of Gatun, and Dr. Mel-
vin Ottis, of Ancon, look for parts for
the Army jeeps they are rebuilding.
Flea Market and
By Willie K. Friar
"HANDS OFF, please. These are our
files. They are not for sale."
Such signs as this are a necessity in
the Excess Disposal Unit of the Panama
Canal's Storehouse Division as enthu-
siastic customers bent on the search for
bargains try to buy everything in the
building, even to the chairs and benches
used by the office employees.
Miss Mlargit L. Csighv, acting dis-
posal manager, is no longer surprised
to look up from her desk and find an
avid bargain seeker opening and closing
the doer to the office refrigerator and
asking, "How much?"
Located on Diablo Road, in a large
warehouse known to everyone as Sec-
tion I, the Excess Disposal Unit is the
Canal Zone's "flea market" with a con-
stantlv changing stock of surplus or
junked items collected from Canal and
Section I is actually the Storehouse
Unit for supplying paints, acids, limes,
fiberboard and other new building ma-
terials. The Excess Disposal Unit and
the Scrap and Salvage Unit are sep-
arate, but customers have labeled the
whole operation Section I because that
appears in large letters on the building.
Prices are low and there are bargains
to be had whether one is looking for
a marine clock or a weather balloon,
bowling pins or junked jeeps.
Hundreds of used library books sell
steadily at 10 cents each, and brand-
(See p. 10)
ABOVE: The base for this table lamp is
a filter from a diesel engine which has been
covered with a layer of tan straw matting.
BELOW: This filing cabinet support. was
transformed into an oriental type table by
simply adding heavy wire mesh to the top.
Mrs. William Tope is a familiar shopper around "Section I." She and her husband,
Brig. Gen. William A. Tope, director of J-5, U.S. Southern Command, have used
the surplus items she bought there to make interesting decorative lamps, tables, and
other useful articles for their quarters at Quarry Heights. Above, Mrs. Tope displays
portable bar made from a mop cart. Below, she explains how she turned diesel filters,
which sell for 50 cents, into Danish style hanging lamps by using hooks made from
coat hangers and inexpensive chain, and then spraying all with gold paint. Other
attractive and practical items which she and General Tope made in their spare time,
to add a more homelike atmosphere to their military quarters, are shown at left.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
SECTION I is actually the Storehouse
unit for supplying paints, acids, limes,
fiberboard, and other new building
materials. Here workmen unload lum-
ber at the warehouse on Diablo Road.
(Continued from p. 8)
new filing drawers, the 6 inches wide
variety, are available for only 50 cents.
Bowling pins go for 25 cents each.
\\hat do people do with all these
things? Miss Csighy often wonders
about some of the items, but customers
have reported that bowling pins make
excellent lamps and with a little sand-
ing, glue, and paint can be made into
Large, heavy coil springs have been
turned into candle holders, the filing
drawers into receptacles for dress pat-
terns, color slides, music tapes, an'l
plants. Discarded light fixture covers
have been bought for bird baths and
feeders, and glass window louvres for
Military ammunition boxes are always
in demand to be used as tool or shoe
polishing kits, and not even the most
ancient and delapidated chair stays long
on the floor before it is claimed and
restored with tender care.
-Carts designed for carrying mops,
buckets of water, disinfectant, and de-
tergent for cleaning hospital floors, give
no hint of their past use when, with
only slight alterations and refinishing,
they turn up in homes as portable bars.
Filters for diesel engines have been
transformed into Danish style hanging
lights and bases for small tables. Elec-
trical insulators have been made into
water fountains for gardens.
Surplus weather balloons, which are
turned in by the military from time to
time, are a surprisingly popular item.
Sixty sold recently in less than a week.
The customers, for the most part, were
children, and one little boy spent an
entire week blowing up the 6-foot bal-
loon and then hung it from the chande-
lier in his room where it served as a
rather bulky partition to separate his
bed from that of his younger brother.
Another youngster, with much effort,
inflated his on the second floor of his
home and when he started outside to
play with it, discovered to his dismay
that there was no way to get it down the
stairs without letting out the air.
A group of Girl Scouts used one to
mark the site of their summer camp.
With new, strange, and unusual sur-
plus and damaged merchandise coming
in all the time, there are regular cus-
tomers w'ho come by often just to see
what is new. These include men and
boys who have bought the bodies of
junked jeeps, which sell for $40 each,
and are constantly looking for the parts
they need to reconstruct the vehicles
and put them back in working condition.
One jeep rebuilder, Dr. Melvin Ottis,
of the Gorgas Hospital Opthalmology
Service, dashes in frequently, straight
from work at the hospital. He's often
seen, still in his white uniform, search-
ing in the scrap for that particular part
he needs at the moment.
Outside the building is the yard of
the Scrap and Salvage Unit with masses
of scrap metal which to the untrained
eye appear to be "junk piles."
Those piles of "junk" are veritable
metal mines providing a valuable stock
of reclaimed iron and steel, and on
closer inspection it is easy to under-
stand why John J. McConaghy, foreman
of the Scrap and Salvage Unit, refers
to the yard as a metals supermarket.
"Here the metals are separated, classi-
fied, priced, and placed in bins for sale
in much the same way as products are
put on the shelves in the retail stores,"
Mr. McConaghy explains.
Each bin contains a different size
ahd type of scrap metal classified for
customers' convenience. Most of these
ferrous metals are sold to Panama.
In another building are barrels filled
with small bits of nonferrous metals.
Lifting the top on one reveals bright
brass scrapings salvaged from the
sweepings of Canal Zone machine shop
floors. In the scrap and salvage business
nothing is wasted. Once a year these
barrels of nonferrous metals are put up
for worldwide bids.
At another site in the vard, an elec-
trical cable stripper rips open the lead
covering of discarded cable and out
pops long ribbons of shiny copper wire.
Here, also, a baling machine is hard at
work pressing mounds of metal drums,
doors, and an assortment of bulky items
into small square bales.
High above the work area in the seat
of a giant crane equipped with a 3,'-ton
magnet, Leavell Kelly, leader, operat-
ing engineer, pushes levers and lifts
different sizes of scrap pieces and places
them in the right bins. A scale built
into the crane weighs the loads.
Pigs and Ingots
Salvaged bolts and nuts are separated
according to size and are sold by the
ton. Stacked in a shelter are neat rows
of "pigs," silver colored bars formed
by melting down various items made
of lead. Articles made of aluminum are
melted into ingots, which are about
one third the size of a lead pig.
The most valuable metal processed
here is monel, a combination of copper
and nickel selling currently for 61 cents
a pound. About 1,000 pounds of this
highly prized metal are salvaged, pro-
cessed, and sold annually.
Both the Scrap and Salvage Unit
and the Excess Disposal Unit provide
a worthwhile and remunerative service
for the Canal organization, the Navy,
Army, and Air Force through the pro-
cessing, reclaiming, salvaging, and sell-
ing of items and materials that, other-
wise, would be not only a total loss
but would litter the landscape.
And it is only incidental that in the
process they provide a happy hunting
ground for the treasure hunter or an-
tique collector and stimulate the imagi-
nation of those who just want to make
something unusual out of something
ordinary or something ordinary out of
Lw iv AP dP vib~
1W 40 -. 0.. i* .
THE SURPLUS AND SALVAGE YARD
ABOVE LEFT: John J. McConaghy, left, foreman, Scrap and Salvage Yard, looks on as Esau Young, center, foreman non-
ferrous metals, and Telmo GonzAlez, right, burner, operate the cable stripping machine in the yard.
ABOVE RIGHT: The baling machine presses a large pile of bulky scrap into a compact cube in one quick operation.
LOWER LEFT: Clarence Markland, scrap sorter, looking like a space traveler in his protective helmet, melts down aluminum
and molds it into ingots. The aluminum ingots, some still in the molds, are seen behind him.
LOWER RIGHT: Leavell F. Kelly, leader, operating engineer, sorts scrap using a crane equipped with a 3z-ton magnet.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
A SUBTLE WAR AGAINST
THE ELUSIVE MASONIA
Sd '- -
.- ... ,- -
% .;' ." ; i
MOSQUITO COUNTRY- The Chagres River near Gamboa.
"Mosquitoes: Flying insects with
a damnably poisonous bite, which
every one except hotel managers
has seen, heard, or suffered from."
Wanderings and Diversions:
THE CONTINENTAL DICTIONARY.
WITHOUT THE NEED for even a
smidgen of proof, it can be said for
certain that everybody on the Isthmus
of Panama has seen, heard, or suffered
from the mosquitoes-including hotel
But what to do about them? Give up
and give the spindly legged devils their
bucket of blood? Fight them with slaps
and spray? Or follow in the footsteps
of one of the most famous mosquito
battlers of all time-Col. William C.
Corgas-and fight the mosquito on his
During the earl\v Panama Canal con-
struction days, Colonel Corgas and his
staff won the war over Aedes aegvpti.
the yellow fever mosquito, with his
arm\ of sanitation workers. And he all
but conquered the Anopheles malaria
But there lurked in the dark, damp
of the jungle another clan-one of
the most voracious yet discovered-the
This ., comprises the most comn
mon of the mosquito species in the
Canal Zone and lives in close associa-
tion with various aquatic plants around
the shores of Catun Lake, especially in
the Chagres River near Gamboa.
Successful at controlling yellow fever
and malaria species in the Canal Zone
and in many places in Panama, mos-
quito fighters are being met with new
problems in the battle against Mansonia.
The best type of mosquito control is
that which attacks the immature forms
before they reach adulthood. This has
been accomplished in the past by apply-
ing a toxic dust or suffocation oil to the
surface of the water where most mos-
quito larvae and pupae must go for air.
But immature Mansonia do not go
to the surface to breathe. Instead, they
remain several inches to more than a
foot below the water's surface attached
to the aerated roots of floating aquatic
These creatures have special breath-
ing tubes which they can insert into
the oxygen-rich centers of the hollow
plant roots. Here they remain attached
for a month or more feeding on micro-
organisms and decayed plant tissue
until their development to the adult
Mansonia mosquitoes had been con-
sidered primarily of pest importance
The importance of these mosquitoes
came to the forefront as the result of an
epidemic in 1967 of Venezuela Equine
Encephalitis in the vicinity of Cali, Co-
lombia. Many horses died and some
humans became ill. In Panama, most
horses are immune to the disease.
Investigations led to the Mansonia
mosquitoes as the responsible carriers
during this outbreak, giving even greater
emphasis to the present studies being
made by the Division of Sanitation.
Mansonia became the target of Canal
Zone mosquito fighters in the early,
1960's. The mission was to devise a
naturalistic method of controlling the
voracious pest insects which breed by
the millions in the Chagres River.
Natural control got off to a disappoint-
ing start when an experiment using ten
manatees or "sea cows" to gobble up
plants supporting Mansonia mosquitoes
The manatees could not eat the pro-
liferous aquatic vegetation fast enough.
It was estimated that up to 2,000 of the
curious looking sea cows would have
been required to do the job-an unreal-
Not willing to declare the mosquitoes
the winners, in June 1968, Melvin M.
Boreham, the Canal Zone medical en-
tomologist, submitted a proposal to the
Health Bureau to carry out a research
project to find out the basic biological
0 ... .
LEFT: Mass of about 200 eggs on float of a water primrose plant. CENTER: Mansonia larva attached to water lettuce root to obtain air
from hollow interior. RIGHT: Arrow points to scar on the ovarian follicle tube of a Mansonia mosquito.
information necessary for the develop-
ment of an effective Mansonia control
program. The same month, Health Di-
rector Col. H. Haskel Ziperman gave
his full support to the project.
At the outset of the investigations,
very little of a biological nature was
known about the Mansonia in the Canal
Some of the questions which needed
to be answered were: Which plants
were utilized by each of the seven dif-
ferent species of Mansonia? How long
do the immature forms take to develop
into adults? How long does the adult
female live and how many times does
she lay eggs? How far below the surface
do the larvae attach to the plant roots?
A bit of intrigue has entered the
mosquito investigations. A new species
of Mansonia never before known to
science was discovered in July 1968
living in the Chagres River.
While collecting larvae near Gamboa,
immature mosquitoes were obtained
which could not be identified. More
of them were collected and raised to
maturity. Boreham took the samples to
the University of California where Dr.
John N. Belkin, a world famous mos-
quito expert, confirmed that the species
was indeed new.
A technical description is now being
written by Boreham and a scientific
illustrator is finishing drawings. The
description will be published in an en-
tomological journal in the near future.
The new species will be named in honor
of Canal Zone Governor W. P. Leber
The front line in this war against'
mosquitoes is the Chagres River, from
Gamboa to the Chilibre River.
Without the Chagres and its inex-
haustible water supply the Panama Ca-
(See p. 14)
MANSONIA TEAM-After setting up Mosquito collection tent in the damp jungle near
Gamboa, three members of the NMansonia research team pose for the photographer. From
left arc: Pastor Chavez, Melvin M. Boreham, and Inocencio Leguia.
(Y It, : I
Inocencio Leguia holds
a cage over the head
of Pastor Chavez who
with a battery-
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 13)
nal would not have been possible. But
it has always been a giant insect incu-
bator, and human habitation along its
shores is, to say the least, uncomfortable.
Research activities are carried out at
the main Medical Entomology Labo-
ratorv at Coco Solo Hospital and at a
small field laboratory located in the
Camboa Health Center.
Boreham has three biological aides
to assist him plus a student assistant
during the summer. Pastor ChAvez and
Inocencio Leguia are stationed at the
main laboratory while Luis Palma works
at the Gamboa facility. Michael King
worked as a student assistant during the
summer of 1968 and Rhoda Gordon
worked last summer.
Twice a week Boreham and some of
his aides make field trips along the Cha-
gres collecting live adult mosquitoes
and larvae. On arrival at one of the
several collection sites, temperature and
humidity readings are made and a re-
cording thermograph is checked.
Newly emerged adult mosquitoes are
collected from cage-like traps which
had been placed over the aquatic plants
on the previous trip. A battery-powered
vacuum device is used to suck the mos-
quitoes into a small screened container
at its tip.
At one point the men walk into the
jungle and allow hungry Mansonia fe-
males to attack. The vacuum device is
used to capture the mosquitoes-hope-
fully before they have a chance to bite
All of the specimens are taken to
the main laboratory for identification
A laboratory technique has been
developed by the entomologist so that
larvae hatched from eggs collected in
the wild can be reared to adults. It has
been found that it takes from 23 to 40
days before the adult is ready to emerge.
Most other mosquitoes need only a week
or so for this development.
Another phase of the study is to find
out how long the female mosquito lives
in nature and how many times she is
capable of laying eggs.
Dr. Lewis T. Nielsen, a mosquito
expert from the University of Utah,
came to the Canal Zone in December
1968 as a consultant to the Mansonia
project. He and Boreham developed a
technique involving the dissection of
the female mosquito to examine the
ovary tissue for scars left by previous
Each time eggs are developed, a
scar forms on the small tubes through
which the eggs must pass. By examin-
ing these tubes under a powerful micro-
scope these scars can be counted making
it possible to estimate the approximate
age of the mosquito.
Miss Gordon dissected approximately
1,400 mosquitoes last summer and
found that Mansonia mosquitoes were
capable of laying eggs at least two
and possibly three times during their
The female mosquito feeds on blood
only to provide food for her eggs. Af-
ter her blood meal, she rests in the
vegetation and develops the eggs. She
then lays them on the leaves of aquatic
plants in masses of up to 200 or more.
These hatch in about a week to start
the cycle again.
The basic Mansonia project is ex-
pected to be completed by the end of
1970. But then what? Will Mansonia
ever be controlled?
Boreham thinks control is possible.
"New insecticides continue to be
developed along with more effective
methods of application, most of which
haven't been tried on Mansonia mos-
quitoes," lie said.
"It's also possible that we can work
LEFT: Mel Boreham points to a photo
enlargement of Mansonia larva.
BELOW: Luis Palma examines insects at
Gamboa laboratory, and Miss
Rhoda Gordon carefully dissects
a female Mansonia mosquito.
A ', I e -" ' ,
together with the Dredging Divison's
Water Hyacinth Control people who
are interested in controlling many of the
same plants which support Mansonia
Mel Boreham and his team of mos-
quito fighters may never attain the
romantic aura that history gave to
Gorgas and his men, but thousands of
area residents-U.S. and Panamanians
alike-will owe a debt of gratitude to
them if a successful control method can
Manufacturers of insect repellent, and
the insects, max be the only losers.
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
Donald P. Peart
Bindery and Finish Worker
Ronald A. Archbold
William B. Davis
Helper Lock Operator
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Alexander A ol er
Lead F n, ru ain nce
E era r E
ENCI L ICNSTUy ION
Joseph C. Stair
Motor Launch Operator
Reginald H. Lloyd
Richard Stephens B.
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Kenneth A. Brathwaite
X-Ray Film Developer
Eathon G. D. Bruce
Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry)
Lionel D. Best
Leader, Duplicating Machine Operator
Harold I. Perantie
Office Services Manager
Chief, Administrative Services Division
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Elmer J. Nordstrom
Hugh W. Cassibry
Ira N. C. Read
Robert D. Kelly
Employee Relations Clerk
Winston E. DaCosta
Motor Launch Operator
Agustin C. Gibbs
Helper, Lock Operator
Ralph G. Small
Alfred C. Blackman
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Seymour A. Price
Lloyd A. Gilkes
Line Handler (Deckhand)
M. de J. Chiquilani
John F. Meehan
George J. Booth
Herbert A. Greene, Jr.
Cleveland A. Dennis
Joseph E. Jones
Motor Launch Operator
Claude E. Burgess
Time and Leave Clerk
Alfred L. Springer
Towing Locomotive Oe cks)
John A. Bowen
Time and Leave Cler
Vincent D. Ridge
Foreman-Marine Woodworki a
Master-in Charge, To t
Eugene E. Hamlin, Jr.
George T. Fitzgerald
Chief Engineer, Towboat
Angel M. Sanchez
Lackland A. Manning
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Aubrey R. Sealey
Motor Launch Operator
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Erick H. Henry
Motor Launch Operator
Byron A. Morean
Joseph E. Best
Crane Hookman (Heavy)
Marcelino F. Gournet
Crane Hookman (Heavy)
Charles R. Klumpp
Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks)
Kasper G. Alleyne
Frank J. Brennan
Leader, Flame Cutter, Scrap
George L. Smith
Ruben A. Padmore
Marine Traffic Clerk
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Percival A. Shan
Clifton O. Bailey
Rupert L. Bovell
Carl E. Jordan
Messenger (Motor Vehicle Operator)
Donald C. Parker
General Foreman (Fuel Operations)
Rupert G. Lindsay
Conrad A. Williams
Mobile Equipment Mechanic
Ric haLA. Parkins
4foilerr Tnder IHigh Pressure)
T Ft er rdan
jTroolr nm lterndnt
t er ie is
,.tsdia Han dling Equipment
Reynolds M. Dixon
School Bus Driver
School Bus Driver
Ignacio M. Grant
Rodolfo Z. Wilson
Theodore A. Lewis
Liouid Fuels Valve Manifold Operator
Manuel J. Muiioz R.
Fred L. Raybourn
General Foreman, Automotive
Cleophus A. Parris
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher
Louis B. McGoff
Supervisory Cargo Checking Assistant
Gornett H. Hartley
(See p. 30)
TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
A RADAR image of the Canal Zone shows the Pacific entrance to the Canal at far right.
THE MAPMAKER'S FRIEND
and coastlines realigned,
and natural resources are
identified by the new
technique of Side Looking
Airborne Radar-or SLAR
for short. Its results turn
into radar imagery. SLAR
can see through clouds and
pinpoint geographic sites
never before recorded.
By Jean Bailey
FOR YEARS, the constant cloud cover
and smoke haze over parts of Panama
and Colombia have defeated aerial
photographers trying to get the photo
coverage necessary for modern topo-
Now, a new technique. Side Looking
Airborne Radar (SLAR), is being used
through the efforts of the U.S. Army In-
ter American Geodetic Survey (IACS).
This SLAR process results in what ap-
pears to be an aerial photograph, but
actually is radar imagery.
The eternally cloud-covered swamp-
lands and mountains of Darien Province
in the Republic of Panama were se-
lected as the site of the first radar map-
ping effort in Latin America. Early
in 1967, Westinghouse Electric Corp.,
working with IAGS, the U.S. Army
Topographic Command, and the In-
stituto Geogrifico Nacional "Tommy
Cuardia" of Panama, obtained a radar
mosaic of this important area, which
is adjacent to one of the proposed sites
for a new sea level canal.
Although the preparation and ground-
work took much longer, the actual fly-
ing time on this project was only 6 da\s.
The end result showed some significant
errors in earlier maps.
Off 90 Degrees
For instance, it was found that a
short mountain range had been mis-
alincd about 900 and, in two locations,
mountains hitherto unrecorded now
could be plotted.
The mosaic corrected alignment of
major river valleys, and depicted the
coastline, one river and a peninsula with
Further investigation disclosed that
some information on vegetation types,
water supply, geology, and other natu-
ral resources data could be interpreted
from the new product.
Radar imagery is a record of the
interaction of electromagnetic waves
transmitted to earth and received in
nonuniform radar return. The natural
surfaces of the terrain break up the
radar scan of overlapping strips. The
moisture content of soil and plant life,
the degree of vegetation and its surface
contour all affect the radar return.
To map in detail, Side Looking Air-
borne Radar scans in overlapping strips.
A converter aboard the airplane changes
the radar signals into electro beams,
which flash across a display cathode-ray
tube. A special camera records each line
on moving film to produce an image
which resembles a photograph.
Bodies of water are very "photogenic"
on Side Looking Radar. They are well
defined, "no return" areas due to their
smooth horizontal surfaces. Water re-
flects the radar beam smoothly while
banks and swampy vegetation cause
the beam to rebound and produce a
As in all mapping operations, me-
chanically obtained data must be related
to known locations on the earth's sur-
face. Aluminum radar reflectors, each
one consisting of a cluster of four corner
reflectors measuring 5.5 feet on a side
S-. r aand 3.9 feet high, were used to posi-
tion the aircraft. Each reflector of each
cluster gave coverage of 600 in the azi-
muth plane and from 15' to 750 in the
AMfe ADuring the work on the Darien, eAGS
was responsible for clearing and erect-
ing these reflectors on existing geodetic
control stations located throughout tohe
area. This involved clearing the jungle
growth around each station to provide
line of sight visibility to the aircraft.
Where trees were taller than 25 feet,
..... .. .. a circular area of 360 feet in diameter
had to be cleared around each reflector.
THE SUN shines on Gamboa, but clouds cover Gaillard Cut and Gatun Lake. Fog and ato lae
clouds are common during much of the rainy season and prevent aerial photography. By Cayuco
M any of the stations could onlu' be
reached on foot after traveling the
w aterwaYs by cayuco. Wherever pos-
sible, helicopters from the IAGS Avia-
a h tion Element were used to haul the
h reflectors and personnel.
As a direct result of the success of
the Darien radar mosaic, Westinghouse
Smosaics of the other "gap" areas in the
.Panama photo coverage plus Pacific
coastal area of Colombia. This has now
f --been completed with most of the prac-
S. members of the Instituto Geogrefico
Ii 'of 3aNacional "Tommy Guardia" of Panama
-n and the Instituto Geogrifico "Agustin
Codazzi" of Colombia.
At last, after years of trying to over-
sicome the obstacle of continuous cloud
cover, mapmakers have a new tool
which literally cuts through the fog.
Mrs. Jelan Bailey ism the technical
info ation officer for the Army
A MOSAIC is put together by Josk N1. Sienz, left, director of the National Geographical Inter American Geodetic Survey.
Institute of Panama, and George Richardson, IAGS project engineer.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Cuban --- -_
Danish.- _- -
Israeli _--- ---
South Korean- _-
All Others __
No. of Tons of
No. of Tons of
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1970 1969 Transits 1970 1969 Tolls
July--------------____ 1,137 1,122 960 7,787 7,089 4,929
August -. 1,186 1,109 949 8,136 7,362 4,920
September- 1,133 1,115 908 7,870 7,473 4,697
October-- 1,138 946 7,472 4,838
November 1,103 922 7,279 4,748
December -____. 1,119 946 7,571 4,955
January -----_ 958 903 6,715 4,635
February --------. 875 868 5,780 4,506
March --- -- 1,135 1,014 7,616 5,325
April -_ 1,168 966 7,526 5,067
May_----___---- 1,200 999 8,109 5,232
June __-.------- 1,108 954 7,466 5,013
fiscal year 113,150 11,335 87,458 58,865
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transit of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over).
First Quarter, Fiscal Year 1969
Trade routes Avg. No.
1970 1969 Transits
United States Intercoastal -- _______ 126 102 116
East coast United States and South America 336 411 590
East coast United States and Central America 140 177 124
East coast United States and Far East 861 821 566
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia 120 117 87
Europe and West Coast of U.S./Canada 252 232 215
Europe and South America -_ __ 325 312 303
Europe and Australasia ______ __ 87 91 85
All other routes _ ----- .. __ 1,209 1,083 731
Total traffic 3,456 3,346 2,817
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
SEVERAL THOUSAND TOURISTS
aboard 18 or more luxury liners sched-
uled to call at ports on both sides of
the Isthmus will be visiting Panama
and the Canal Zone during the 1969-70
winter-spring cruise season which began
Isthinians look forward to the arrival
of these majestic cruise ships whose pas-
sengers will spend a day or a few hours
shopping and visiting places of interest
Of special interest this cruise season
is the transit through the Canal of the
SS United States, the largest and fastest
passenger liner under the U.S. flag. The
United States will be the longest pas-
senger ship ever to transit the Panama
Canal. The 990-foot liner is to arrive at
Cristobal January 24 and transit the next
day continuing a 55-day cruise from
New York to the South Seas. The beau-
tiful United States, one of the great
liners of modern times, will again tran-
sit the Canal March 14 on her return
voyage to New York.
Panama Agencies, local representa-
tives of the United States, have an-
nounced that several other luxury cruise
ships will be coming to the Isthmus
during this winter-spring cruise season.
The Lurline, carrying 400 passengers
on a round South America cruise origi-
nating at San Francisco, is to berth at
Balboa on November 26 after transiting
the Canal. She will return to the Isthmus
February 25 on another South America
The President Roosevelt of the Pres-
ident Lines will visit the Isthmus No-
vember 24 and December 5, and then
again March 13, April 2, and May 19
of 1970. The President Cleveland, also
of President Lines, is scheduled to
call at the Isthmus January 20 and 31
on a Caribbean cruise. She will dock
Noteworthy among the many cruise
ships are the steady, regular sailings of
the faithful Grace Line which include
the increasingly popular 19-day trips
through the Panama Canal to Ecuador,
and the 44-day cruises down South
America's Pacific Coast. These ships
include the Santa Maria, Santa Magda-
lena, the Santa Mariana, and the Santa
Mercedes two of which pass in the Pan-
ama Canal, one going north and one
going south, every weekend during the
entire year. These vessels stop at Balboa
on each trip.
Largest In World
The France, the largest passenger ship
in the world in active service, will arrive
at Cristobal February 3 on a Caribbean
cruise which starts in New York. Ap-
proximately 1,500 passengers will be
making the cruise aboard this magnifi-
cent ship. On March 2, the Renaissance,
another French liner, is due to call at
Cristobal with approximately 300 pas-
sengers on a Caribbean cruise. The Re-
naissance will stop at the San Blas Is-
lands for a visit.
Italy's two largest passenger liners,
the Michelangelo and the Raffaello of
the Italian Lines, both of 45,000 tons.
will be coming to the Isthmus. The
Michelangelo is due to arrive at Cris-
tobal February 7, on a Caribbean cruise
originating at New York. The Raffaello,
on a similar voyage, will arrive at Cris-
tobal April 2 and plans to stop at the
San Bias Islands for several hours. She
will be the largest passenger liner ever
to stop at the islands.
Italian Lines' Leonardo Da Vinci of
33,000 tons will transit the Canal for
the first time March 8, southbound, on
a Caribbean cruise and Pacific voyage.
She will return to the Isthmus March
30 and berth at Balboa and transit
the Canal the following day, continu-
ing through the Caribbean on her re-
turn to New York, where all Italian
cruise ships begin and end their trips
Andrews & Co. has announced that
the Empress of Canada is scheduled to
make two stops at Cristobal this season
as part of its winter cruise. The Empress
will dock at Cristobal on February 24
and again on March 19.
Shota Rustaveli, a Russian liner, is
due at Cristobal December 3 and Feb-
ruary 9, on cruises organized by an
Aranda of the Shaw Saville Lines is
coming to Balboa November 25 and will
transit the Canal the following day and
continue on her regular voyage from
Australia to the United Kingdom. The
Southern Cross, also of Shaw Saville,
will make the same voyage and arrive
at Balboa November 26.
Other cruise ships, represented locally
by Pacific Ford, S.A., are the Stella
Oceanis, which will dock at Cristobal
on December 30, and depart on a Car-
ibbean Cruise 28 hours later. On Jan-
uarv 20, 1970, and on February 10, this
(See p. 29)
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodity 1 5-Yr. Avg.
1970 1969 1961-65
Ores, various ---------------------- 1,214,546 1,231,354 282,514
Boards and planks------------------------ 748,327 806,677 N.A.
Sugar. -_________-- ---- 735,529 741,682 693,908
Iron and steel plates, sheets
and coils ___-------_--_--_ -- ------- 689,053 820,697 N.A.
Petroleum and products------------------ 534,979 150,126 490,599
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous----------------- --- 371,343 315,711 N.A.
Metals, various------ ---- ------- 369,575 329,865 274,741
Bananas ----- -------------- ----- 303,068 296,801 274,753
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)---------------------- 291,200 274,150 196,404
Fishmeal -------------------- 288,192 414,055 N.A.
Pulpwood ___--------- _--------------. 278,237 282,618 130,271
Plywood and veneers --_----_ -------- 260,527 208,441 N.A.
Petroleum coke------------------------ 242,136 86,530 N.A.
Salt _---------_ ------------- ----- 233,872 65,351 N.A.
Iron and steel wire, bars, and rods----- 174,657 146,094 N.A.
All others---- ----------------- -- 2,989,886 2,658,063 5,000,241
Total -------------. 9,725,127 8,828,215 7,343,431
Atlantic to Pacific
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
Commodit1970 1969 5-Yr. Avg.
Coal and coke ..- ------ -- -- 4,837,780 3,544,096 1,521,383
Petroleum and products--------------_ 3,826,069 4,199,180 2,848,139
Corn -------------- --------------- 1,199,726 736,428 299,197
Phosphates -------------- ----- 963,716 1,225,062 497,992
Metal, scrap ------------- ---- 932,041 704,733 812,008
Sorghum--------------------- 653,914 556,250 N.A.
Soybeans ------------------------------- 548,990 486,988 279,937
Ores, various -- --------------- 517,309 397,495 70,671
Sugar ---------------------- 506,271 262,432 367,986
Metal, iron _- -2--------58,322 373,884 48,694
Rice--------------------------- 238,662 149,353 28,632
Chemicals, unclassified ---------- -- 227,763 161,048 161,332
Paper and paper products----------------- 225,808 227,536 108,532
Fertilizers, unclassified-------------------- 163,660 123,103 103,381
Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts ---- 155,868 141,227 72,861
All others----------------- 2,846,387 3,117,337 2,205,883
Total ----------------- 18,102,26 16,406,152 9,426,628
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First Quarter, Fiscal Year
1970 1969 Transitl
to to Total Total Total
Oceangoing _- --- -- 1,744 1,712 3,456 3,346 2,817
Small --- -- -- -- 64 54 118 135 146
Total Commercial -------- 1,808 1,766 3,574 3,481 2,963
U.S. Government Vessels: **
Oceangoing ------ -- ---- 187 187 374 381 57
Small* -- ---- ------- 8 9 17 40 38
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment _ 2,003 1,962 3,965 3,902 3,058
o Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
By Fannie P. Hernandez
THANKSGIVING, the day we give
thanks for the many blessings of the
past year, is just around the corner. In
many homes preparations already have
begun for this event which is the "eat-
ingest" day of the year. Whenever there
are U.S. citizens, housewives are busy
with plans for family reunions, lavish
dinners, and rejoicing with friends and
The turkey-traditional symbol of the
feast-is in the freezer. Pumpkin and
mincemeat pies have been baked. Cup-
boards overflow with fruits and nuts,
cranberry sauce, jars of pickles, relishes
and olives, small white onions for cream-
ing, and other trimmings. All await
the expert hand of the hostess for the
The adventurous cook or hostess who
is not too timid to draw on another
cultural heritage for culinary inspira-
tion may enjoy preparing a Thanks-
giving dinner Panama style. The ob-
servance of this happy day is as good
as any to learn of native favorites and
food features of the locale.
Adapting some of the native foods
of Panama to the Thanksgiving menu
which North Americans have preserved
since Colonial times may be a challenge,
Panama's cooking has been influenced
over the centuries by the people of
many nations. The Spanish settlers, the
Negro slaves, the French, Italians,
Chinese, Hindu, and since Canal con-
struction days, the Yankees, have left on
the Isthmus vestiges of their cultures
and their kitchens.
The culinary habits of Panama have
been shaped by the fruits, vegetables.
and herbs native to the country, the
abundance of fish, and local animals
The even, tropical temperature per-
mits a large number of fruits and vege-
tables to be available throughout the
year in Panama markets and at stalls
along the roadside in the Interior. Meat
and fowl are plentiful all year.
Down through the )ears, Panama
has developed its own "cuisine" replete
with delicious dishes that are appetizing
and distinct. Seasoning is the secret in
Panama's kitchens just as it has been
since primitive cooks added a bit of this
and that to enhance the flavor or tex-
ture of the daily nourishment. Two
flavoring agents work near miracles
in Panama cookery, the "recao verde"
The mere aroma of "recao verde,"
which fills the air with a sweet pungent
bouquet, lifts ordinary food into the
realm of epicurean pleasure. "Recao
verde" is a combination of herbs-sweet
basil, culantro, parsley, and thyme,
chopped onion, tomatoes, green pepper,
and crushed garlic cooked in a little
oil or butter. It makes the difference
when added to sauces, stews, meats,
fish, fowl and vegetables.
Achiote, the brownish-red seeds
found in the market and cooked in a
spoonful of lard, adds the magic of
color and mild flavor much like that
imparted by paprika and saffron.
A menu for a special holiday dinner
in Panama may include hors d'oeuvres
of sweet sausages cooked in Malaga
wine, pejibaye-the red or yellow fruit
that grows in clusters on a palm tree-
or the favorite of favorites, seviche,
fish "cooked" in lime juice and hot pep-
pers. There may be a roast turkey or
arroz con polio, tamales steamed in
tender banana leaves, baked plantain,
mashed yucca and a dessert of "glory
soup" or "flan."
Here is the recipe for the sweet
sausages in wine, which are really little
meatballs with a taste that's different.
lb. lean pork
cup Malaga wine
tsp. black pepper
1 tsp. salt
% tsp. nutmeg
! tsp. cinnamon
S cups brown
1 stick cinnamon
Grind the pork with the garlic,
onions, sprig of parsley, and powdered
condiments and one tablespoon of wine.
Mix well and let stand for 2 hours.
Take a level teaspoon of the mixture
and roll into balls the size of a marble.
In a heavy frying pan place the water,
stick of cinnamon, cloves, and brown
sugar. When this boils, drop in the
meatballs and add the wine. Cook
slowly, stirring often until the meat-
balls have absorbed the liquid and are
dark brown. Remove and insert tooth-
picks. Spear a little parsley through the
toothpick first to give it that gourmet
Here is one guaranteed to add zip and
even a little "fire" to your holiday
Cut up 2 pounds of corbina into bite
size pieces. Put the fish in a glass bowl
and cover with a dressing made of
lime juice, ,2 teaspoon sugar, a dash of
Worcestershire sauce, salt, and pepper
to taste. Add two medium onions, sliced
very thin (a potato peeler works just
fine as it shaves the onion) and 4 or 5
little, yellow hot peppers without the
seeds, slivered very thin. Mix all to-
gether, cover the bowl and let stand in
refrigerator overnight. Stir and taste.
Add more salt if necessary, or more
peppers if it isn't hot enough. Or re-
move bits of pepper if it is too hot!
Serve with saltines.
Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia,
each claim seviche as their very own.
No matter where the first seviche was
concocted, it is by far the most pop-
ular "bite size" food in Panama. Any
white fish or seafood will do to make
seviche and there are many versions
for making this gastronomic delight.
To prepare the "bocas" (as hours
d'oeuvres are called in Panama) of peji-
bave, boil them in salted water for half
an hour and peel. Cut in half, discard
the pit and fill the cavity with mayon-
naise or butter. The nutty flavored fruit
which is available from September to
December, has the meaty taste of sweet
potatoes or chestnuts and a slight flavor
of peanuts. It is especially good as a
snack with cold drinks.
Tamales are made of rice or corn
and are a typical dish of Mexico, Cen-
tral America, Panama, Colombia, Vene-
zuela, and the Caribbean area. Each
country has its own version of the tamale
and may call it by another name. They
are a little time consuming to prepare,
but the end result is well worth the
effort. Small tamales are served as
hors d'oeuvres at Panamanian cocktail
parties and sometimes at teas.
To prepare Panamanian tamales,
which are made of corn, first make a
good stew with I pound of pork and
I, pounds of chicken. Cut the meat
into chunks and add the ingredients of
"recao verde" such as chopped toma-
toes, onion, garlic, oregano, green pep-
pers, salt, and pepper. Add a small can
of tomato paste and a little water. Cook
slowly until the meat is tender.
While this is cooking, wash 1 pound
of crushed grain corn and boil until soft.
Drain and grind it to make a dough.
Add 4 pound lard to the corn dough
and knead well. Pour a little of the
sauce from the stew in the dough and
stir until the dough is soft and manage-
able. Add salt to taste. Put a portion
of the dough on a piece of banana leaf
which has been dipped in boiling water
to tenderize it. (First grease the leaf
where the dough is to be placed). Spread
the dough, put pieces of meat, olives,
capers, pickles, prunes and a little sauce
on the dough. Cover with more corn
mixture. Wrap the tamales as you would
a package, tying with string to make
sure they are sealed. Place in boiling
salted water and cook for 3i hour.
One of the most important contribu-
tions to Isthmian cookery is the plantain,
the big banana-like vegetable in season
all year. This versatile vegetable should
always be cooked whether green or ripe.
It is used in soups, stews, fried, mashed
or baked. For a delicious treat serve
baked plantain in place of candied
sweet potatoes with your Thanksgiving
dinner. Plantains may be baked in the
skin or peeled. Here is a recipe for the
Remove the skin from 2 or 3 ripe
plantains, depending on the number of
dinner guests. Partly split through the
center lengthwise and remove the dark
vein. Fill with pieces of butter and
brown sugar. Pour a cup of sherry over
the plantains and bake for I hour at
350 degrees. If liquid should evaporate
before the plantains are soft, add a
A turkey will grace a Panamanian
dinner table only on the most special
occasions such as Christmas and New
Year's. For a culinary adventure and a
tasty treat, try this Panamanian-style
dressing for the Thanksgiving turkey.
The following recipe should be suffi-
cient to stuff a 14 pound bird.
2, lbs. fresh lean pork, cut in pieces
1 chopped onion
1 chopped tomato
1 tsp. oregano
culantro, a few leaves
1 tsp. soy sauce
1 tsp. Worcestershire sauce
1 tsp. vinegar
salt and pepper to taste
Mix all the ingredients and place in
refrigerator for about 4 hours. Then
cook over medium heat until the meat
is tender. When cool put through a
meat grinder and add:
1 cup raisins
4 hard cooked eggs, chopped
2 tbsp. capers and 2 tbsp. juice
Mix well and stuff turkey and roast
according to usual method.
To bring the Thanksgiving feast to
a grand finale, here is the recipe for
"Sopa de Gloria" which is not a soup
at all but a delicious cake with custard
sauce and rum or port wine.
2, 8-inch sponge cakes
1 quart water
1 large can condensed milk
1 large can evaporated milk
3 eggs, separated
2 tbsp. corn starch
1 tsp. vanilla
i lb. sugar
i cup rum or 1/3 cup port
EI tsp. almond extract
3 sticks cinnamon
a pinch of salt
Put the water, milk, sugar salt, corn
starch and cinnamon stick in pan and
cook over low heat for 10 minutes.
Beat egg yolks in cup and add 2 tbsp.
water. Remove milk mixture from fire
and add egg yolks, stirring well. Add
vanilla and let cool. Cut sponge cake
into squares and place in a pyrex dish.
When mixture is cool, add rum or wine
and cover pieces thoroughly. Make a
meringue with the egg whites and 1i lb.
sugar. Cover cake with meringue and
place in hot oven for 2 or 3 minutes to
brown slightly. Serve cold.
(Illustrations by Carlos MWndez)
THE PANAiA CANAL REVIEW
MECHANIC works on COPA plane at
Tocumen International Airport. Most
maintenance work is done at night.
"COPA, COMPA-IA PANAMERA de
Aviaci6n, announces the departure of
its flight to David, Panama."
The announcement over the loud-
speakers in the terminal building of
Tocumen International Airport in Pan-
ama City on August 15, 1947, sig-
naled the first official flight bv Panama's
first scheduled domestic airline. Signif-
icantly, the start of COPA's operations
coincided with the 34th anniversary of
the opening of the Panama Canal. Over
the years, both the waterway and the
airline have been active ingredients in
A few months prior to COPA's first
official flight, on March 11, 1947, the
loudspeakers in the Civil Air Terminal
at Albrook Air Force Base, in the Canal
Zone, had carried a historic announce-
ment: "COPA, Compafia Panamefia de
Aviaci6n, announces the departure of its
flight number 1, to Tocumen, Panama."
Aboard the airline's DC-3 were the
President of Panama, Enrique A. Jim&-
nez, and other high officials on their
way to participate in the dedication of
Panama's first truly international air-
port. It was also the first time that an
aircraft bearing COPA's emblem-now
widely known throughout the country
and famiilar also in airports in Central
America, Colombia, and the Caribbean
area-flew across Isthmian skies.
That Albrook-Tocumen flight by
COPA opened the skyways to Pan-
Operating from Albrook for the next
5 months, pending the opening of To-
cumen Airport to commercial aviation,
COPA flew the northwest route to Da-
vid, near the boundary with Costa Rica.
It was a vital route, for at that time
there was no modern highway linking
Panama City with the capital of the
country's richest province of Chiriqui.
Travel by automobile to David took
10 difficult hours.
COPA shortened the trip to 1M hours
and quickly built up a large business.
It later extended its flights to Changui-
nola and Bocas del Toro, on the western
Atlantic coast. Even today, the island
capital of Bocas del Toro Province, iso
lated from the rest of the country and
with access by sea a dangerous one, gets
most of its supplies by air.
COPA's cargo manifests reflect the air-
line's importance for these regions. High
grade poultry, refrigerators, stoves, tele-
vision sets, watches, blood plasma, and
the mail are some of the many goods
flown daily from Panama to David.
A much wider variety-even cement
sacks-goes to Changuinola and Bocas
On their return flights to the national
capital COPA's aircraft bring flowers
22 NOVEMBER 1969
and vegetables from Panama's high-
lands along with medical samples used
by the Gorgas Memorial Institute for
its research into tropical disease.
COPA flies regularly to Managua,
Nicaragua; San Jos6, Costa Rica; Kings-
ton, Jamaica; and Barranquilla, Colom-
bia. But whenever there is need, it flies
to other parts of the continent. It has
hauled pedigreed horses from Chile to
Panama and dressed beef from Panama
COPA began operations with Douglas
DC-3 airplanes. Today, its fleet in-
cludes two radar-equipped AVRO-748
jet-props with Rolls Royce turbines
which are among the most modern air-
craft of their type. Negotiations are
underway now with the Hawker Siddelv
factory in England for the purchase of
a third 52-seat AVRO, at a cost of $1.5
million. The rest of the fleet is made
up of one 44-seat CONVAIR-340 and
One reason for COPA's popularity
with Isthmian air travelers is that it
flies on schedule. Businessmen have
no trouble keeping appointments when
they flv COPA. But above all, the air-
line's outstanding safety record is one
of its distinguishing credits. It has never
had a major accident, a record that
has been made possible by painstaking
maintenance of its aircraft.
Of the stock of COPA, 76 percent
is owned by Panamanians, the balance
of 24 percent by Pan American World
Airways. All its personnel-from pilots
to porters-are Panamanians. The pres-
ident is Dr. Mariano Oteiza.
"We are a group of men dedicated
to a single purpose and responding to
a single responsibility: the growth of
the company to serve the growth of
Panama," says Capt. Hermes Carrizo,
general manager of COPA. "We're all
one team with but one job-to make
COPA, which is 'proudly Panamanian',
bigger, and to carry on 'COPA's cordial
wings' a message of friendship and a
projection of the culture and capability
of Panamanians to the sister nations it
serves." In his remarks, Captain Carrizo
stressed both of COPA's slogans.
A former COPA pilot now tied down
to an executive's chair, Captain Carrizo
speaks with enthusiasm of the airline's
In 9 months this year, COPA has
flown the same number of passengers-
84,000-that it carried during its first 15
years of operation. At the present rate.
by December 31, COPA will have trans-
ported 110,000 passengers in a single
year. From January to September 1969,
RIGHT: Passengers receive help in plan-
ning their trips at Copa's busy office in
BELOW: Captain Hermes Carrizo, general
manager of Copa.
the airline has carried more than 5 mil-
lion pounds of cargo. By' the end of
1970, it expects to have an all AVRO-
748 jet-prop fleet and in the near future
Captain Carrizo expects to see jets on
all COPA routes.
He speaks with pride of the training
provided for flight personnel. "Our pi-
lots start their training in Panama. Then
they are sent to England, Curacao and
other places to specialize in flying out
aircraft. We are extremely proud of
their skill. So far we have trained our
stewardesses locally, all of whom are
Panamanians. Starting next year they'll
train in Florida."
But it is COPA's safety record that
makes Carrizo proudest. "This is a
credit to the skill of our pilots and
the continuous maintenance program
carried out by our ground personnel.
Every night, all our aircraft are checked
to assure perfect mechanical conditions
for the following day."
COPA's maintenance hanger at Tocu-
men International Airport is indeed a
busy place at night. Under bright lights,
mechanics and technicians work fever-
ishlv on the silvery planes to keep them
fly ing safely carrying a message of pro-
gress on "the cordial wings of COPA."
FLIGHT completed, members of Copa crew head for home. Left to right: Capt.
Isauro Carrizo, pilot; Nilka Recuero, and Estela Villarreal, stewardesses; and co-pilot
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
By Tomas A. Cupas
THE BIGGEST sports festival ever
held in the Republic of Panama-the
XI Central American and Caribbean
Games--will bring to the Isthmus an es-
timated 3,000 athletes from 20 Western
Hemisphere nations next year.
An invasion of 15,000 to 20,000
sports fans is expected from Central
America, the Caribbean, and Mexico.
To cope with this unprecedented influx,
authorities are conducting a housing
survey to determine how many private
residences will be available to accom-
February 28 to March 14, 1970, are
the dates for the games, which started
44 years ago.
It will be the second time that Panama
hosts the Central American and Car-
ibbean Olympics. The fourth Olym-
pic games, held here in February
1938, brought 1,325 athletes from 10
Will Send Athletes
Participating this time will be the
Bahamas, Barbados, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic,
the Netherlands West Indies, El Salva-
dor, Guatemala, Guayana, Haiti, Ja-
maica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico,
Trinidad, Tobago, Venezuela, the Virgin
Islands, and of course, Panama.
The largest delegations-400 athletes
for all 14 sports-are expected from
Cuba, Colombia, Mexico and Panama.
Venezuela is sending 360 men and
women to compete in 13 sports events.
The Central American and Caribbean
Games date back to 1926 when the
first of these competitions was held in
Mexico City after official approval from
the International Olympic Committee.
Only three countries-Cuba, Guate-
mala, and Mexico-took part in the first
event, then called the Central American
Games. Caribbean was added to the
official designation in 1935, when the
third Olympic event was held in San
Scheduled every 4 years, the games
have been held only twice in off-years
-in 1935 in San Salvador because of
an earthquake the previous year, and
COME TO PANAMA
in 1959 in Caracas, Venezuela, because
The second was held in Havana.
After the fourth regional Olympics in
Panama City in 1938, there was a 4-year
break because of World War II. The
fifth event was hosted by Barranquilla,
Colombia, in 1946; the sixth, by Gua-
temala in 1950; the seventh, by Mexico
City in 1954; the eighth by Caracas in
1959, the ninth by Kingston, Jamaica,
in 1962, and the 10th by San Juan,
Puerto Rico, in 1966.
Puerto Rico collected the largest num-
ber of medals in the 1966 games. The
home team garnered 28 gold, 28 silver,
and 29 bronze medals-a total of 85-
to edge Mexico by 3. The latter, how-
ever, won 39 gold prizes and Cuba 34.
Panama is well along in its prepara-
tions for the regional sports festival. The
area adjacent to the Presidente Remon
race track, some 8 miles from downtown
on the Juan Diaz highway, is the site of
the main installations under construc-
tion. There is a new 20,000-seat Olym-
pic stadium for soccer and track and
field events; an indoor Olympic gym-
nasium for basketball which will seat
10,000 spectators; and an Olympic pool
for swimming and diving events which
will accommodate 3,000 spectators.
A pistol range and bicycle race track
are under construction near Tocumen
The old Olympic stadium, one block
off National Avenue (Automobile Row),
which was built for the 1938 games, is
being reconditioned for baseball and its
capacity is being increased for 13,000
The Olympic pool on Justo Arose-
mena Avenue will be used for water
polo in 1970. Boxing events will be held
in La Macarena bull ring, in suburban
San Francisco de la Caleta, and at the
national gymnasium on "A" Avenue,
opposite National Guard headquarters.
Fencing events will be held at the
old Union Club; judo, weight lifting
and wrestling at the Colegio Javier gym-
nasium, on Via Espaiia; gymnastics, at
the Colegio La Salle gymnasium in El
Cangrejo; volleyball, at the Colegio San
Agustin, on Balboa Boulevard at Paitilla.
Opening and closing ceremonies are
scheduled in the new Olympic stadium ''
the afternoon of February 28 and the "
evening of March 14, respectively. i f t
All athletes will be housed in the '
Central American Villa, which will be T.
located in the Paitilla school complex .*'
that includes the city's three largest ------ .- ': ---
high schools. The dates for the games
occur during Panama's dry season -. ~sr. .
A large center will operate in the
Justo Arosemena Institute, also in Pai-
tilla, and will be provided with com-
munications facilities for quick coverage
of the competitions by the hundreds of
newspapermen expected for the games.
Including the cost of construction, li
Panama is spending $13 million for
the Central American and Caribbean 7
Games. Coaches have been brought
under contract from the United States, -
Japan, Italy, Chile, Mexico, and other
countries to train Panamanian athletes.
Held under the supervision of the
Central American and Caribbean Sports
Organization (ODECABE), composed
of the Olympic committees of the area
countries, the Central American and
Caribbean Sports Games pursue the
Olympic ideal of fostering friendship
among nations. -
Panama is concentrating its efforts
to maintain the reputation it earned
back in 1938 as a fine host for the
Central American Olympics.
TOP: An architect's drawing of the new .
Olympic gymnasium which will have the
capacity to seat about 10,000 spectators.
CENTER: The gymnasium under construc-
tion. Cables will support the ceiling from
a cylinder in the center of the building.
BOTTOM: Inauguration and closing cere-
monies of the games and various athletic
events will be held at the Olympic Stadium
which will accommodate 20,000 sports fans.
Biggest Sports Spectacle
In History of the Republic
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 25
Students register at Florida State University
in the Canal Zone. The school is accredited
to grant the 4-year bachelor degree.
Miss Gloria B6squez, left, office
manager, and Mrs. Hald6e
De Espino, secretary,
check student's records.
Dr. Horace Loftin, assistant
professor of biology at Florida' ,*
State University, Canal Zone
Branch, looks over a
topographical map of Panama.
WHEN LOUIS Morano graduated from
Buffalo's Canisius High School in 1943,
a black-robed Jesuit priest handed him
a diploma and advised him to go out
and learn more about the world. For
some students, this meant a college
education. But for others-including
Morano-it meant service in the
Armed Forces of the United States, then
engaged in World War II.
Following the armistice, Morano
joined the foreign service, in which he
later served at many American embas
sies around the world. But he wanted
more than a job-he wanted an educa-
So he began his college work in 1956.
through a University of Maryland exten-
sion program in Athens, Greece. He
continued his studies for 2 years, until
he was transferred to another post, and
his studies lapsed until 1967. Then, an
assignment to Panama allowed him to
resume his education at Florida State
University's Canal Zone Branch.
Dr. Corin arrived on the Isthmus in
the summer of 1968, shortly after the
Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools had approved conversion of
the F.S.U. Canal Zone undergraduate
program into a fully-accredited, degree-
granting branch. Since that conversion,
enrollment at the school has sharply%
"We've grown so fast since I got here
a \ear ago," says Corin, "that not only
have we failed to keep up, but we've
The statement is misleading. For
although Corin may lament unread
novels, lagging social obligations, and
the ever-shrinking hour, his school is
progressing fast, and the growing enroll-
ment-now 1,000 strong-proves it.
Florida State University was estab-
lished in the Canal Zone in 1957 on
the invitation of the U.S. Army Forces
Southern Command (USARSO) when
Louisiana State University closed its
make tremendous progress toward a
degree. "The military man can achieve
up to 2 years of college work during a
normal tour, and the civilian can easily
get his bachelor's.
"Our 4-quarter calendar system and
the diverse course offering permits a
prospective student to begin at almost
any time," he adds.
Tuition at F.S.U. is $18 per quarter-
hour, or $54 for the typical course.
Military students receive 75 percent
tuition assistance, and for approved
courses the Panama Canal Company
pays the full cost for its personnel-if
they achieve a "C" grade or better.
"Our goal here is to make the student
a better person and citizen. Secondly,
we strive to effect occupational im-
provement. But, if wve fail in the first
then we fall short as an institution of
higher learning." said Corin.
Florida State University-Canal Zone
currently offers the bachelor's degree in
No Football Team, Fraternities or
Snack Bar, But FSU Fills the Bill
By Jay Anthony Kerans
Last August, Louis Morano walked
to the front of an F.S.U. classroom in
its main building at Albrook Air Force
Base, turned in an examination, and
qualified for a bachelor's degree in
social sciences. It was his last class. He
graduated several weeks later.
At The Embassy
"For me, it was a real opportunity,"
Morano says. "I tell the other employees
here at the embassy that the opportu-
nity is there-take it!"
Morano is now one of 12 individuals
who have received their college degrees
from Florida State University-Canal
Zone, the only school in the Zone
accredited to grant the 4-year bachelor's
degree. It has no football team, frater-
nities or snack bar, and it operates from
World War II buildings, but it performs
its assigned function-education.
The resident director of Florida State
University-Canal Zone is 41-year-old
Theodore S. Corin, educated at the
University of Miami and the parent
F.S.U. campus in Tallahassee, Fla.,
where he received his doctorate.
extension program here. It was done
primarily to provide undergraduate
education for U.S. military personnel.
But from the first, there was a significant
civilian enrollment, now accounting
for almost half of the total student
population. This has enhanced the pro-
gram and made possible a wider range
F.S.U. was chosen by USARSO be-
cause the school originated the "Boot-
strap" concept of continuing higher
education for military personnel in 1949
at Tyndall (Fla.) Air Force Base.
Bruce Blevins, education director for
USARSO, explains the school's mission:
"We work directly with Florida State
University-Canal Zone on the curricu-
lum, shaping it to meet the demands of
the military and other students."
Blevins provides an example of the
school's responsiveness: "We developed
weekend classes, enabling a man to take
up to 9 hours by attending Friday
night and all dav Saturday."
Corin says the average student can
five areas: social science, inter-American
studies, English, Spanish, and a com-
bined English business program. A ter-
minal program in law enforcement and
corrections is also available and has
drawn wide response from civil and
Applicants must complete an applica-
tion for admission and have an academic
interview with an F.S.U. counselor.
Transcripts of high school and college
work are also necessary. College en-
trance examinations may be deferred
up to one full quarter to facilitate
Each academic quarter at Florida
State University runs for 10 weeks, and
the student may take up to 18 hours
per quarter. There are 5 full-time and
20 part-time instructors currently teach-
ing a total of 33 courses at the main
Pacific campus in Building 808 at Al-
brook Air Force Base, plus 10 courses
at the smaller Atlantic campus in
Building 32 at Fort Davis.
All F.S.U. teachers must hold at least
a master's degree in their fields.
(See p. 28)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 27)
A typical full-time member of the
F.S.U. staff is biologist Dr. Edwin
Tyson. Tyson has a full course load
and also assists fellow biologist Dr.
Horace Loftin in operating the Florida
State University Center for Tropical
"\e operate three field stations in
the interior," says Tyson. "These sta-
tions can accommodate a total of 16 per-
sons at one time." F.S.U. has extended
its administrative and logistical support
to nearly 100 researchers since the
center was founded in 1961.
Tyson went to a filing cabinet and
took out several letters. One was from
Korea, another from Vanderbilt Univer-
sity, and a third from an order of Cath-
olic priests-all wanting to send men to
Panama for research.
The assistance the University offers
in this regard can be very practical.
"A fellow wanted to come here to study
the horsehair plant," says Tyson. "We
saved him a lot of trouble-told him it
wasn't to be found in Panama.
Tyson shares office space with Loftin,
another full-time teacher and director
of the Center for Tropical Studies.
Loftin has received several grants for
his research in Panama, dealing with
the migratory habits of birds.
Other full-time teachers include Dr.
Eneida Avila, professor of sociology
and Spanish; Richard Koster, professor
of English and humanities; and Dr.
Helen Delpar, professor of history.
Assisting the full-time staff are the
University's adjunct professors, men
and women employed as specialists in
another job, whose background and
education qualify them for teaching.
Typical of this group is Dr. Victor
Slater, chief of psychiatry at Gorgas
Hospital, who teaches criminology and
Dr. Slater came to the Isthmus 3
year's ago, following 7 years at the
University of Miami's Jackson Memo-
rial Hospital, where he became skilled
in forensic psychiatry, which deals with
criminals and the law.
He speaks of his teaching in earnest:
"It's very gratifying," he says. "In ad-
dition, 1 think it's good for the po-
liceman, the housewife, everybody to
become more acquainted with this field
of mental health."
One of Slater's students is John Gil-
bert, a Canal Zone police sergeant with
17 years on the force. Gilbert is par-
ticipating in the F.S.U. accreditation
program in law enforcement and cor-
"I'm taking courses for promotional
reasons," Gilbert explains bluntly.
"Right now, I'm in my fourth. What
you take has got to be useful to the de-
partment. I've had courses in race rela-
tions, minority groups, criminal and
delinquent behavior, and now, juvenile
So far, 70 Canal Zone policemen
have taken courses at F.S.U., which is
26 percent of the total uniformed force.
Of these, 17 have earned the Certificate
in Law Enforcement and Corrections.
One, Detective Jack L. Gregory, also
earned his bachelor of science degree,
graduating with honors.
The curriculum for police officers
first began in 1964, when a Canal Zone
policeman, enrolled in regular courses,
advised Florida State that many of the
Canal Zone police lacked academic
training. His question was, could the
school do anything to meet this need?
The main Tallahassee campus was
already offering both terminal certifica-
tion and criminology degrees. This pro-
gram was expanded to the Canal Zone
with immediate success.
Until F.S.U. began offering these
courses, all Canal Zone policemen
chosen to receive additional training
were sent to the States.
Canal Zone Police Chief Caddis Wall
is enthusiastic about the Florida State
program. "The education of our police
has definitely improved," he says.
In addition to its civilian and military
students from the Canal Zone, F.S.U.
has a Panamanian enrollment compris-
ing 8 percent of the total student body.
A program of scholarships for Pan-
amanian students was established in
1965. administered by the Institute for
the Formation and Utilization of Human
Resources (IFARHU), an agency of the
Panama Government. Florida State also
has been linked with Panama via a
faculty exchange program with the
University of Panama.
Students at Florida State have access
to nearly all the libraries of the Canal
Zone, with more than 300,000 books
on hand. In addition, F.S.U. maintains
a special "core collection" of 4,500 vol-
umes at the Fort Clayton Library,
purchased by USARSO to support the
curriculum offerings at the school.
The Albrook Air Force Base campus
contains 10 classrooms and a small audi-
torium. In addition, there are two lang-
uage laboratories accommodating 48
students. On the Atlantic side at Fort
Davis, there are three classrooms and
one language laboratory.
This then, is Florida State University-
Canal Zone, providing the soldier, the
civil servant, and the citizen of Panama
an opportunity for a college degree.
Dr. Slater, makes this observation:
"I see the development of a university
much like that of a human being. There
are crises, traumas and growing pains.
"1 don't know what crisis stage we're
in right now," he confesses, "but we
And the one dozen graduates of Flo-
rida State University-Canal Zone, re-
cipients of the first bachelor's degrees
ever granted in the Canal Zone, will
agree to that.
Jay Anthony Kerans is a former
broadcaster in St. Louis, Mo. He is
now in the Canal Zone serving as an
enlisted man with the Army, and has
attended Florida State University's
Canal Zone Branch.
Dr. Theodore S. Corin, director and professor of higher education at Florida State
University, Canal Zone Branch, is shown at his desk on the Albrook Air Force Base campus.
-... / i
New Fishing Trawler
THE U.S. MARITIME industry has
come up with a new type fishing trawler
designed to compete with foreign flag
fishing vessels. The ship, named Sea-
freeze Pacific, transited the Canal south-
bound in October on her way to the
Pacific fishing grounds. Her builders call
her the world's most modern and effi-
cient factory stern trawler to enter open
competition with foreign maritime na-
tions which have dominated the world's
The Scafreeze Pacific is only 295 feet
long, but she packs a lot of "firsts" in
her 1,593 gross tons. With a 50 percent
construction differential subsidy pro-
vided by the U.S. Department of the
Interior under the Fishing Fleet Im-
provement Act, the new pioneer trawler
was built by the Maryland Shipbuild-
ing and Drydock Co. in Baltimore, the
first U.S. shipyard to produce this class
of vessel. A sister ship, the Seafreeze
Atlantic, will soon go into service.
The ships were designed to make
maximum use of the sea's fish resources.
Inedible or trash fish and waste from the
cleaning process are converted to fish
meal. Valuable fish oils are extracted
on board. Refrigerated holds maintain
packaged fish at -200 Farenheit in the
finest reefers the refrigeration industry
Equipped for both bottom and mid-
water trawling, these sturdy ships can
fish under all weather conditions, short
of hurricane. Stabilizing systems lessen
severe rolling to provide greater com-
fort and more stable working conditions
for personnel. Each vessel has the ca-
pacity to process and take to market
2 million pounds of fish on a single
voyage. And before leaving the ship,
each pound is washed, filleted, skinned,
inspected, frozen, packed, wrapped, and
Foreign Flag Carriers
THE NUMBER OF U.S.-owned ocean-
going foreign-flag merchant vessels, most
of them regular customers of the Pan-
ama Canal, has substantially increased
in the past year.
The U.S. Maritime Administration
said the tonnage of this type ship as
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 3 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1970
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial ---------_ 3,456 3,346
U.S. Government-------- 374 381
Free_---__- -------- 26 19
Total-----_---- 3,856 3,746
U.S. Government 2,075,254
Total- $-- $25,875,616
U.S. Government 1,400,274
Free ------- 34,753
Total _--- 29,263,975
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.
of January 1 this year increased by
2.3 million deadweight tons over that
of January 1, 1968. At the beginning
of this vear, there were 436 of these
U.S.-owned, foreing-flag vessels aggre-
gating more than 18 million deadweight
tons, as compared with 429 ships total-
ing 15.7 million tons on January 1 of
These ships are registered mostly
under the Liberian, Panamanian, and
British flags. Most of them are engaged
in the worldwide transport of liquid and
dry bulk commodities which requires
their operators to transport these com-
modities as cheaply and efficiently as
their foreign competitors.
(Continued from p. 19)
vessel will visit Cristobal for an identical
stay. Her last visit to Cristobal during
this season will be on March 3.
On Caribbean cruises, the Hamburg
will dock at Cristobal for 12 hours, on
February 6, February 23, and March 31,
1970. The Carmania, also represented
by Pacific Ford, S.A., will dock at Cris-
tobal for a stay of 17 hours on February
11, transit the Panama Canal the next
day for the Caribbean.
The Holland-America Line's Staten-
dam is to arrive at Cristobal December
18 from San Francisco on its Golden
West Cruise which will stop at nu-
merous ports of the Pacific and the
Caribbean. The Statcndam will visit the
Isthmus again on December 31.
The Hanseatic, under the German
flag and chartered by the Holland-Amer-
ica Line, will touch at Cristobal De-
cember 23 during a Caribbean cruise
and will return to Cristobal on February
C. B. Fenton & Co., local agents for
the Swedish-American Lines, Norwe-
gian American Lines and Costa Arma-
tori Lincs, also announced the arrival of
other luxury liners this season.
The Kungsholm of the Swedish-Amer-
ican Lines, stopped at Balboa October
28 and left the following day on her
around South America cruise which
originated in New York. She will return
to the Isthmus April 13, 1970, on her
voyage back to New York.
The Gripsholm, also of the Swedish-
(See p. 30)
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
- (AVERAGE 1951 1955) --
(Continued from p. 15)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Cecil G. Springer
Winston S. Johnson
Furniture Repairman (Maintenance)
Horace D. Cooper
Sales Store Clerk
Eduardo C. King
Extractor and Tumblerman
Fitz H. Grant
Inventory Management Specialist
Henry H. Lee, Jr.
Horace A. Nurse
Supply Clerk (Typing)
Alfred A. Barnett
Ted O. Gill
Felton L. Gill
William H. Marshall
Food Service Worker
Lyle M. Daniel
Clarence C. Bailey
Leader Laborer (Cleaner)
Samuel C. Squires
Supervisory Sales Store Checker
Enid H. Henry
Sales Store Checker
Cuthbert C. Butcher
Henry Mh. Catherwood
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Stephen H. Roach
Benjamin J. Waterman
Mobile Equipment Mechanic
George M. Clarke
Harris W. Hardy
F. C. Treleaven
Paint and Varnish Maker
Martin L. McNaughton
Gordon O. Small
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Hopeton W. Simms
Augustus C. George
Supervisory Construction Engineer
Senior Operator (Generating Station)
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Asphalt or Concrete Mixing Plant
Carol A. Scott
Automotive Equipment Operator
Natiel S. Douglas
Hilario L. Campo
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Hugh A. Fletcher
Herbert J o
Supervisory Civil Engineer
Mechanical Engineer (Utilities)
Joseph M. Lavalas
Water Tender (Floating Plant)
Edwin N. Perryman
Motor Launch Operator
Clifford E. Cox
Phillip H. King
Robert R. McCoy
Chief, Power Plant ( Steam and Gas
Ellis B. Alleyne
Cleveland J. Trowers
Walter G. Nicholls
Arnold L. Brown
James H. L. Thomas
Louis H. Charles
General Foreman Painter
Rudolph A. Richards
Javan E. Smith
John L. Joshua
Harold G. Walkes
Carlyle S. Babb
Clerk (Water Meters)
Goldburn P. Maynard
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Swimming Pool Operator
Curtis B. Darden
Supervisory Customs Inspector
D. A. Waddell, Jr.
Edward S. Greaves
Swimming Pool Operator
Joseph B. Clemmons, Jr.
Assistant Director, Civil Affairs Bureau
Joseph N. French
Decontaminating Equipment Operator
Raymond G. Bush
Supervising Safety Inspector
Lesep L. Barrett
Jos6 Ortega R.
(Continued from p. 29)
American Lines, will transit the Canal
January 29 and depart the following
day for the Pacific on an around the
The Sagafjord, of the Norwegian
American Lines, which stopped at Cris-
tobal November 3 on a round South
America cruise, will return January 12
and transit the Canal on her world
cruise. While on the world cruise, the
Sagafjord will return to the Isthmus on
March 28 and again April 3, while on
her around South America cruise.
The Carla C., Federico C., and Italia
C., of the Costa Armatori Lines, will bc
making regular stops at Cristobal and
Balboa during their Caribbean cruises
from December until May 1970. $
^ < '-- -. -
a .h '" . i -." ,' -
*I r -fl
The U.S.S. Mississippi, shown in the east chamber of Pedro Miguel Locks on July 26, 1919, was one of 33 vessels of the U.S. Pacific Fleet
of the U.S. Navy which went through the Canal 50 years ago on their way from the Atlantic, where they had served in the war zone,
to their stations in the Pacific. The Mississippi and her sister drcadnaught, the U.S.S. New Mexico, were the largest ships ever to pass
through the Canal or visit this part of the world at that time. They were 624 feet long and had beams of 97 feet 4v4 inches with a displace-
ment of 32,000 tons. The Mississippi had a draft at the time of her transit of 32 feet, 8 inches. Before that, the largest ship to pass
through the Canal was the merchantman Minnesota with 622 feet in length. The transit of the Pacific Fleet was the largest operation
taken on by the Canal to that date. The transit was handled smoothly and without mishap or delay in 2 days. The destroyers were
handled in groups with a Canal pilot in charge of three destroyers. In the passage through the locks, six of these 310-foot vessels were
placed in one chamber together in ranks of three each, lashed together. Other ships were handled individually with a Canal pilot on each.
25 years c4go
IN THE FALL of 1944, apprehension
was growing among Canal Zone res-
idents as U.S. military leaders forecast
the shift of emphasis to the Pacific
theater of World \Var 11. The collapse
of Germany seemed eminent.
One Army general called for increased
alert on the part of Isthmian residents
and said "the enemy would take any
risk involved in order to knock out any
installation in this area which would
impair the operation of the Canal."
0 0 0
In fiscal year 1944 there were 5,130
oceangoing transits of the Canal in-
cluding commercial, U.S. Government
and free transit ships. (There were
14,602 oceangoing vessels that transited
in fiscal 1969).
It was estimated that more than 37
million hyacinth plants were destroyed
in 1944. Nearhl 21 million were pulled
out mostly by hand.
0 0 *
By order of Governor J. C. Mehaffevy,
56 persons were deported from the Ca-
nal Zone during the fiscal year. Twenty-
seven were convicts who had served
sentences in the penitentiary and 29
were persons whose continued resi-
dence was regarded as undesirable.
There were 764 traffic accidents re-
ported during the year, or an average
of 64 a month. These accidents resulted
in the deaths of 13 persons and injuries
to 355 others.
10 ?Iears c4go
IN THE FALL of 1959, Panama Canal
employees were talking about the all-
time record-breaking traffic through the
Canal during the fiscal year. The rec-
ords set were attributed to the con-
tinning recovery from the economic
recession in the United States; the eco-
nomic growth of Japan; an unusually
heavy flow of residual oil shipped from
the United States' west coast to the east
coast; and unusually large shipments
of barley and other grain to Europe
from the west coast of the United States
Modernization and improvement of
operating conditions of the Canal were
moving forward at a fast rate. The
power conversion program for locks
machinery was just completed. Bids
were being made for a lighting system
for Gaillard Cut and the locks, and a
performance contract had been signed
for the design and installation of a
modern traffic-control system.
Work was proceeding on the complete
renovation of the Tivoli's first floor pub-
lic rooms including the lobby, service
desk and merchandise section.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW