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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00043
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: February 1969
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00043
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Matter
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text











UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
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\V. P. LEBHn. Governor-President

R. S. II NTLINE, Lieutenant-Governor

FRANK A. BALDW.I
Panama Canal Information Officer


Official Panama Canal Publication
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.


Molot.\N E. GooDWIN, Press Officcr
Publications Editors
LoluS R. GHANM.EIH, TOMA1. A. CUPAs
News Writers
EUNICE RICIutl), TnB1 BITTEL, FANNIE P.
HIERNANDEZ, JOSE T. TU.Os, and
Luis C. NOLI


Printed at the Printing Plant, Lo Boco, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal mones orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box .f, Balboa Heights. (.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balhoa Heights, C.Z.


Coral


A yellow grunt scarehcs for food in a bed of brain coral and fire coral. Thousands of fish inhabit the stone-like formations in the sea.


FEBRUARY 1969







CORAL





M LURIE










U IDER










SEAS


index

Coral Collectors

Canal Zone ROTC

Learning Espafiol

Anniversaries

Abacus vs. Adding Machine

Shipping. Statistics

Panama's Horatio Alger

Shipping Notes

Canal History


A TROPICAL sini cast golden shadows
on the gentle rolling waves as the swim-
mer suddenly broke the surface of the
clear, placid sea off a small island of
the San Bias Archipelago in the Carib-
bean. Tiiunmphant, she held up a greyish
lettuce-like stoii formation she had
robbed from the fringing coral reef.
: . Carefully, she placed it in the boat be-
side the machete she had used to pr\
V.. '.l loose the flower-like coral from its parent
.tttached to the rockhard reef.
The swimmer. wearing mask and
4'1 'snorkel, fins and sturdy gloves, calls her-
S. self a timid member of the Canal Zone
diving family. She is petite and come\
:. Mrs. Lois Harrison. Clerk of Court. U.S.
Y. District Court. She had just acquired
,- another specimen to add to her already
the most beautiful of tropical sea
animals.
Mrs. Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. AnthonN
.Mann, well-known divers and skilled
underwater photographers, Mr. and
Mrs. Ted Williams and geologist Robert
Stew art, one of the first coral collectors.
are among the Canal Zone residents who
(See p. 4)


Cover Story
OUR COVER shows a collection of treasures of the
marine world, most of which are found in the waters that
bathe the Isthmus. Decorative, graceful, lacy seafans.
lettuce coral, staghorns, and fire coral, exquisite stone-
like blooms from the coral gardens on the fringing reefs
found locally in the warm waters of the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans, dominate the display.
Like porcelain sculpted by the expert hand of nature,
the sea shells' delicate colors and variety of shapes and
designs add to the grandeur found in the sea. The conchs
shown are abundant in the area. Frequently, rare speci-
mens are iound by coral divers in the crevices of coral
beds. The spiral shaped chambered naiitilis is a native
of South Pacific waters and belongs to U.S. District Judge
Cuthrie F. Crowe.
A crystal clear fishnet float, sea urchins, starfish, sea
horses, and beautifully barnacled old bottles, not usually
denizens of the sea, complete the composition which is
actually table-top photography created by Cleve Soper.
chief of the Laboratory Section of the Panama Canal
Craphic Branch.
Photographers may be interested to know that the
photograph was taken with a 4 x 5 Super Graphic on
Ektachrome Film, type B. using 2 color corrected 3200 K
lamps. The exposure was 3 seconds at f.5.6.
The display is part of a collection of marine life owned
Iy \Mrs. Lois garrison, Clerk of Court. Ancon District.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










p -

--C


Brain coral and staghorns with a background of gorgonian shown here are all common corals found in Isthmian waters.


(Continued from p. 3)
have been attracted by the two oceans
that bathe the Isthmus.
On weekends, these divers head for
the coral reefs in the areas of San Bias,
Bocas del Toro, Las Perlas, Taboga
Island, and near Fort Sherman to pur-
sue their hobby. Skin diving or snorkel-
ing, they explore the grandeur of the
world below the sun-washed seas off the
coasts of Panama. These diving excur-
sions have yielded scores of shells, sea
horses, starfish, a multitude of fishes
and a myriad of marine crustaceans as
fragile and beautiful as old porcelain,
and a variety of corals of breathtaking
beauty.
From time to time they come up with
unusual objects-large green glass fish-
ing floats that have broken loose from
Japanese fishing nets in the Pacific or
small multicolored ones that have
slipped Portuguese nets in the Atlantic,
a case of crystal champagne glasses
(most of them in perfect condition), ex-
quisitely barnacled hand-blown bottles,
and other articles which may have come
from the remains of Morgan's pirating
ships. B1 ':t is corals that beckon them.


The Ocean s

Treasures

Corals, which are living animals and
not plants as many would believe,
belong to the most primitive of multi-
cellular and tissue-carrying creatures.
The)' live in warm moving waters which
bring them food. The algae living in
the coral beds supply them oxygen.
A living coral is a colony of simple
animals called polyps. The skin covering
the lower part of the polyp forms into
a stony layer much as the shell grown
by an oyster. The animals build skel-
etons around themselves, producing new
polyps. The skeleton of the polyp
is built by cells that extract calcium
carbonate from the sea and deposit it
as limestone, building from the bottom
upward. As the polyps grow, they con-
struct their own limestone partitions,
multiplying and forming branches up
and out, or growing sideways into
lobes and eventually flower-shaped, or
rounded as in the case of the brain
coral. Polyps grow in complex ways


forming corals that vary greatly in
appearance and nature.
Corals forming living reefs must have
sunlight and they grow beautifully with-
in 90 feet of the surface. They are not
found below 150 feet where light is
too weak to reach them. Low tempera-
tures also kill corals. Though corals are
found in all the world's oceans, coral
reefs exist only in tropical waters.
Reef corals are divided into a great
number of different species, divisions
and sub-divisions. There are soft corals,
like the graceful seafans and seawhips.
Seafans have the shape of a large lace-
like leaf, consisting of numerous short
branches interlaced and fused together
to form a filigree network. They may be
lavender, blue, or yellowish in color. The
seawhip has skeletal arched branches
whose surface is covered with polyps
that are barely visible. These may reach
enormous heights, forming a virtual
jungle in the sea.
One specie known as the "black coral
of the Caribbean area," usually found
in depths below 100 meters, according
to an expert of the Smithsonian Institu-
tion, has been discovered by skin divers


FEBRUARY 1969






in the Atlantic near Cristobal at a depth
of 70 feet.
The hard corals include varieties such
as the finger coral, like stubby fingers;
leaf coral; staghorns and elkhoms, so
named because they resemble antlers:
star coral, closed up tight during the
dav with its polyps opening up at night;
and brain coral, which gets its name
from its amazing resemblance to the
surface of the human brain.
Each species has within its polyp the
inherent ability to develop in a given
manner.
Isthmian divers collect corals at


Canal Zone divers select coral specimens.


Stewart has found at least five types
of these solitary corals attached to
lock gates at Miraflores Locks. He has
labeled more than 40 species of coral
from the Atlantic-many of which are
not described in scientific literature and
half as many from the Pacific Ocean.
Among his favorites is a beautiful ma-
genta coral found only in the inside of
the mouth of caves or on coral over-


hangs. Stewart has given a large coral
collection to the La Salle High School
Museum in Panama City.
Petrified corals, which are prized by
the local rockhounds for making jewel-
ry, book ends and table tops may be
found in such areas as Rio Gatuncillo,
Madden Lake, Farfan beach, Monte
Lirio, Nuevo San Juan (near Cemento
(See p. 22)


Stone-white jewels from the gardens in the sea are these staghoms, fire corals and Atlantic
and Pacific finger corals brought up from the deep by Mrs. Lois Harrison holding sea urchins.


Resembling a flower burst, a spiny sea
worm nestles in a cluster of finger coral. Sea
worms are among most common of marine
organisms found near coral.

depths from a few feet to approximately
40 feet from the surface, encountering
greater growths on the landward side
of the outer reef. More varieties are
found in the quieter lagoons behind the
reef.
Large coral reefs found on the Atlan-
tic side of the Isthmus are the result of
a small tidal variation and a nearly
constant high water temperature. On
the Pacific side, the growth of reef-type
corals is inhibited because of the yearly
upwelling of the water in the bay that
brings cold deep water to the surface.
and the high tide differential.
Solitary-type corals, much more re-
sistant to cold water, are abundant
in the Pacific. Geologist diver Robert


TIE PANAMIA CANAL REVIEW




























4 1. . . .

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Band commander Cadet Lt. Alfred L. Huish III, leads the ROTC band during "sound off" at the New Year Review.



CANAL ZONE ROTC BUILDS



OUTSTANDING TRADITION


A TRADITION of outstanding per-
formance already marks the Reserve
Officers Training Corps (ROTC) pro-
gram in the U.S. high schools in the
Canal Zone.
Now in its 20th year, the Balboa
High School ROTC Unit has won the
Honor Unit designation awarded b\
the Department of the Army for 19
consecutive years. The Cristobal High
School Unit, which is in its 18th year,
has failed to win it only once-and that
because its enrollment was under the
required minimum strength of 100
cadets.
Inspection
The Honor Unit designation is not
easy to attain. It is awarded on the
basis of a full-fledged inspection car-
ried out by a U.S. Army team of officers
and noncommissioned officers who spe-
cialize in inspecting regular military
units. It covers students' records, train-
ing schedules and equipment, and an
inspection of the cadets, usually by the
Commanding General of U.S. Army
Forces Southern Command.
Behind the record of the two Canal


Zone ROTC Units-outstanding among
all-is a spirit of competition and
achievement that has been passed from
class to class, something akin to the
tradition that inspires cadets at the U.S.
Military Academy, according to Maj.
Hugh M. Fisher, U.S. Army, professor
of military science in the Canal Zone
Schools.
That spirit has been fostered by the
ROTC program itself for the cadets
advance only by volunteering or by
competing. Joining the ROTC is volun-
tary-it's a regular elective course with
one credit per semester-but the cadet-
to-be has to meet age and physical
standards set by the Army. Promotion
is competitive, and even in the cases
where ranks have to be filled by appoint-
ment (particularly at the start of the
school year), the cadets keep them
only if they stay at the top of their
respective groups.
Two Flags
A good example of the extent to
which competition pervades ROTC
activities is the daily raising and lower-
ing of the Panamanian and U.S. flags


displayed in front of the two schools.
This is a very rigid and formal cere-
mony conducted by a uniformed cadet
guard detail of six privates and one
commander immediately before the
start of classes and just after the school-
day ends. Two battalion staff officers-
the duty officer and his assistant-ob-
serve the ceremony and grade the detail
performing it. The guard details are
assigned from the company which has
the duty for the week. The grades are
posted and the detail with the highest
score wins the Honor Guard Ribbon.
Basic Goal
The ROTC record in the Canal Zone
is all the more impressive because the
student cadets run themselves, so to
speak. True, a cadre of two officers
and five noncommissioned officers of
the U.S. Army provides instruction and
guidance and reviews important deci-
sions. But the initiative is left largely\
in the hands of the cadets, for a basic
goal of the program is character build-
ing. The student cadets themselves
solve their problems of personnel, of


FEBRUARY 1969






organization, of conduct, and of plan-
ning. Thus the leaders emerge.
Established at the request of the
Schools Division, the ROTC program
began at Balboa High School in 1948.
It proved so successful, that 2 years
later it was extended to Cristobal High
School.
Each unit constitutes a battalion, the
1st at Balboa with 353 cadets and the
2d at Cristobal with 115. The respec-
tive strengths of the two battalions are
in proportion to the total enrollment
at each school and represent over 50
percent of the total number of eligible
boys.
Incidentally, both battalions have
tuition students, including non-U.S.
citizens in their ranks-31 at Balboa and
11 at Cristobal. And at times special
education students have been accepted
as cadets and have benefited greatly
from the program.
Merits, Demerits
\ith its larger strength, the 1st
Battalion is organized into four com-
panies, as compared with two for the
2d Battalion. Each battalion has its own
command and staff. The Army instruc-
tors grade the cadets in class and inspec-
tion, assisted by the cadet chain of
command. The grading for drill per-
formance and the merit-demerit system


are administered by the cadet non-
commissioned and commissioned offi-
cers. Merits or demerits can affect a
cadet's final mark by one letter grade
in either direction. The system includes
a review board to hear appeals.
As a regular course, ROTC training-
which is offered for 3 years-has a
weekly schedule of one period every day
devoted to drilling, instruction in basic
military subjects, physical training, or
to inspection (every Friday). As with
any other course, there are quizzes and
examinations.
Special Training
A unique feature of the ROTC pro-
gram in the Canal Zone is the avail-
ability of training facilities of all the
components of the U.S. Southern Com-
mand. Such opportunity is not generally
available to ROTC units in the United
States. Canal Zone cadets, for example,
have received tactical training at the
U.S. Army's camp at Rio Hato, in Pan-
ama; have gone through a shortened
course at the Jungle Operations Train-
ing Center, and have attended orienta-
tion sessions at the Parachute Jump
School.
The support provided by the U.S.
Armed Forces to the ROTC program
in the Canal Zone has played an im-


"KI M'
... w .... .... ..... ..


Cadet Pfc. Eric Runnestrand, representing the newly organized Balboa High School ROTC
Theodore Roosevelt Cavalry Troop (Rough Riders), demonstrates a jump for Maj. Hugh M.
Fisher, PMS, left, and Maj. Gen. Chester L. Johnson, at the New Year Review.


Balboa High School ROTC cadet S/Sgt.
Ronald Romo cleans his rifle making sure
the job is done to perfection.

portant part in making it strong and
active over the years.
Incidentally, not too many ROTC
units-even in the United States-have
the distinction of being reviewed by a
four-star general as have the Canal
Zone units.
The reviews-there are four of them
in the school year-provide the cadets
with the opportunity of showing them-
selves in public in full splendor. At two
of these, in December and in March,
the two battalions participate jointly
as a brigade. Highlight of the December
review is the presentation of the Army
and Navy Legion of Valor-the highest
award that can be earned in the ROTC
program. The award is sponsored by
the Army and Navy Legion of Valor of
the United States, Inc., an organization
composed of winners of the Congres-
sional Medal of Honor and the Distin-
guished Service Cross. A U.S. Army
board selects the winner from among the
two Canal Zone battalions.
Field Night
The March review is the annual Field
Night, which is the climax of the com-
petitive phase. It features competition
at all levels-individual, squad, platoon,
company and, the most impressive of all.
the head-on contest between the two
battalions' drill teams.
The teams, one in each battalion,
actually are separate companies made
up of successful volunteers from the
leadership school conducted in late
July. Sixteen cadets are chosen for the
marching drills and are backed up by
eight to ten alternates. The drill team
(See p. 8)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










































Maj. Gen. Chester L. Johnson congratulates Cadet S/Sgt. Brett Patton, outstanding NCO for the first semester,
during the New Year Review. From left beside Patton are: Cadet S/Sgt. Gregory Gillis, outstanding NCO for
the second 9 weeks; Cadet Cpl. Edwin Murdock, outstanding first year cadet for second 9 weeks; Cadet S/Sgt.
Harland V. Howard III, squad leader of the Honor Guard Squad for the second 9 weeks. At extreme left is
Cadet Sgt. Maj. Donald St. John. Maj. Hugh M. Fisher, PMS for Canal Zone Schools, is standing next to
General Johnson.


(Continued from p. 7)
members average some 12 hours of
extra practice every week to sharpen
their spectacular precision marching.
This is the night also when the drill
teams, the pretty battalion and company
sponsors and the band and its majorettes
shine.
There is a girl sponsor for each bat-
talion and each company. They are
chosen by vote by the second-year
cadets from among volunteers for serv-
ice in the following school year. Their
duties are not limited to strutting in
reviews, for they handle all the secre-
tarial duties of their respective outfits
throughout the school year-and are
graded on it.
Cadet Band
Only the 1st Battalion has its own
band-understandably so because of its
large strength. A cadet with experience
in instrument playing is automatically
assigned to the band, which has an
authorized strength of 28 members. The


Balboa High School ROTC band plays
at battalion and brigade reviews. The
cadet musicians practice during the
drill and physical training periods, held
for the rest of the cadets, but are
required to pass inspection on Fridays.
Not too long ago, the cadet band filled
in for the 79th U.S. Army Band at
a graduation ceremony at the U.S.
Army Forces Southern Command's
Noncommissioned Officers Academy.
It also has serenaded the Governor of
the Canal Zone and the U.S. Southern
Command component commanders on
special occasions. Last Christmas it
provided a surprise carol concert at the
Governor's reception.
Cavalry
The Balboa battalion has added
something new-a cavalry troop which
still is in the training stage. Composed
of five cadets and their mounts, it
has been designated appropriately the
Theodore Roosevelt Cavalry Troop
(See p. 22)


FEBRUARY 1969







Sarp(IIg(I,


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..~ ...


HAS IT EVER occurred to you why so
many Americans in the Canal Zone are
able to converse in Spanish?
One of the main reasons is the Spoken
Spanish Program carried on within the
Panama Canal organization by the
Personnel Bureau. It is set up to guide
the student from a basic course through
intermediate and advanced stages utiliz-
ing a streamlined method of language
instruction developed by one of the
instructors.
- The student is able to assimilate a
greater quantity of instruction in a
shorter period of time, as his progress
is noted throughout all phases of the
program. Assurance is made that he
has grasped the mechanics of the lan-
guage while developing basic vocab-
ulary, along with personal confidence
in his ability to carry on a conversation
in Spanish.

Started in 1957
The program was started in 1957
by the then Gov. William E. Potter
and Panama Canal Personnel Director
Edward A. Doolan. Doolan has taken
an active interest in developing the pro-
gram over the years, from its modest
beginning as an eight-member class
to its present level of some 100 students.
These make up several classes daily.
When the Spoken Spanish Program
was initiated, the original class con-
sisted of key executive personnel whose
positions required frequent contact with
persons who spoke little or no English.
It was taught by Carlos Garcia de
Paredes, who today is chief of the Span-
ish language program. Among the mem-
bers of his first class were Governor
Potter and Paul Runnestrand, Executive
Secretary of the Canal Zone. Through
the years, as the success of the program
became more evident, it was expanded
to include middle management and top
* lpervisory personnel. The curriculum
's patterned after the "guided imitation"
method developed by the Foreign Serv-
ice Institute of the Department of State
in 1953. The use of textbooks is mini-
mized and the student must rely on
acquiring knowledge through the use
of sound patterns by imitating the
spoken words of the instructor.


The differences in the sounds of certain letters is pointed out by Carlos Garcia de Paredes,
who has been instructing in the Spoken Spanish Program since its inception in 1957.


"By-Ear" System
This method was recently modified
by Garcia de Paredes. He compares
the change to the "by-ear" system
of teaching music: "In music, a student
who learns to play an instrument by
reading notes can later develop his skill
so he can play any sheet music but
usually he cannot adapt to playing by
ear. With my modification of the FSI
language training program, the student
learns Spanish through association of
sounds, along with basic oral skills, in
much the same way that an aspiring
musician may learn to play an instru-
ment by ear," he says.
This student, although unable to read
music, can later develop his musical
ability to a degree whereby he is able
to play almost any composition by ear
alone. Similarly, the language student
is better able to adapt and is much more
flexible in this "by ear" method of learn-
ing than the student who has learned
strictly by reading.
On the Pacific side, classes are held
at the Administration Building, the
Training Center, and Gorgas Hospital.


On the Atlantic side they are conducted
at the Industrial Division and the
Civil Affairs Room. Assisting full-time
instructors Carlos Garcia de Paredes
and Mrs. Frances Enyart at Balboa,
and Rolando Linares at Cristobal,
are part-time instructors Antonio Lina-
res (Balboa) and Dolores Suarez
(Cristobal).

Three Categories
The Spoken Spanish Program is divid-
ed into three categories, depending on
several factors, the need for Spanish-on-
the-job being foremost. The level of
training for each student depends on
his progress in the program. The cate-
gories are Spoken Spanish Management
Trainee Program, Special Groups (for
those requiring Spanish for job utiliza-
tion, such as hospital interns and resi-
dents, admeasurers, and policemen) and
Special Management Program.
In the Special Groups category, hospi-
tal personnel participate in a program
(See p. 10)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


- .-, - -- F-







The Accent's on Spanish


(Continued from p. 9)
which early in the course introduces
medical terms used in day-to-day con-
tact with Spanish speaking patients.
Phrases such as, "\\here does it hurt?"
and "Ho\\ long have vi I been feeling
this way?" would lbe some of their first
phrases.
The third category. Special Man-
agement Program, is designed for
key personnel. This course, in three
phases. allo\\s the student to train
quite rapidly whilee losing little of the
basic knowledge acquired in the pre-
liminarx stages of instruction. Students
begin with a preparator.N course of
about 3 weeks duration in which the\
receive personal instruction in Spanish.
English is spoken only when necessary\
in this first phase of training.


Phase II
Phase 11 consists of a 2-week total
immersion course in Spoken Spanish at
the Berlitz School in Guadalajara,
Mexico. There, the student is lectured
throughout the day by several instrue-
tors, in Spanish only. He must ordei
his meals, ask directions and, even after
school is out, rely on his knowledge
of conversational Spanish to see him
through the 2-week sta\ in that city.
The Guadalajara school has a definite
advantage over similar schools in the
United States, since in Miiami, Ne\\
York or \ashington the student would
revert to English to get along when he
was out of school for the dav. In Mexico,
it becomes a case of sink or swim. Hap-
pily, PanCanal students have been able
to swim and quite well at that.


Phase III
Upon returniing to the Isthmus. Phase
Ill begins-consisting of a follo\\-up
refresher course in which the instructor
evaluates the degree of proficiency at-
tained bY the student and polishes up
any ro gh edges in the latter's conver-
sation. Thereafter, the student continues
to receive further advanced instruction
until the desired degi ee of fluency is
attained.
The Special Management Program is
limited because of the great expense in-
volved. Expense, however, is one of the
fe\\ limiting factors. Rank is not always
a determinant in whether or not an
emplo yee receives training in a partic-
ular category. The needs of the em-
plovee for language capability in job
utilization, and the particular level
)f proficiency of each student deter-


Illustrating a point in pronunciation is Mrs. Frances Enyart, instructor in the Spanish IInguage program at Balboa Heights. The students
are, left to right, Carroll B. Robertson and Willard Percy.


10 FEBRUAnY 1969











Q.


'-:


Recitations are an important part of learning any language. Here instructor Garcia de Paredes listens as Paul Ficzeri, 2d from right, recites
from a lesson. Other students are, left to right, Henry Makibbin and Larry Corrigan.


mine where he will be placed. In addi-
tion, personnel from each of the three
categories form some groups in order
to utilize more effectively available
vacancies in each class.

Largest Group
The largest single group of employees
enrolled in the Spoken Spanish Program
is in the Management Trainee Program.
designed primarily for middle manage-
ment personnel and employees who
have direct contact with employees on
the job who speak little or no English.
English-speaking personnel unable to
attend day classes, because of job
requirements such as shift-work, are
encouraged to take evening courses at
the Canal Zone College or the Florida
State University Extension Braneh un-
der the Personnel Bureau's Tuition
Refund Plan for Job-Related Courses.
A large number of those eligible for
this training take advantage of it and
acquire a working knowledge of Span-
ish. Similarly, Spanish-speaking person-
nel in this category who obviously do
not need Spanish instruction, take ad-


vantage of the Tuition Refund Plan
and enroll in English courses at local
institutions of higher learning.
Spanish is taught also in the Canal
Zone's U.S. grade schools and high
schools.

Bilingualism Increase
Thus, bilingualism in normal opera-
tions of PanCanal is on the increase.
An awareness of the need for better
communication, foreseen by top man-
agement, is what led to the start of
the program. It undoubtedly has been
one of the most rewarding for employees
in the Canal organization. During the
almost 11 \ears since it was started,
more than 1,500 Canal employees
requiring Spanish in their jobs and all
of the organization's key management
personnel have been exposed to this
program-with gratifying results.
Classes meet for an hour, 5 days a
week, on both sides of the Isthmus,
and the original 3-year course of in-
struction has been modified to cover
the same material in 1 year. This modi-
fication has increased the effectiveness


and reduced the overall cost of the
program in terms of man-hours. Also,
it has stimulated greater interest in the
program on the part of the students.

Program A Success
Perhaps the best yardstick for meas-
uring the success of the program is
contained in the words of one of the
students currently enrolled in the
Spoken Spanish Program, who says:
"Now that I can get along in Spanish,
I've found many things I can do with
my friends in Panama that I was too
shy to attempt when I couldn't com-
municate very well with them. Being
able to carry on a conversation has
opened many doors for me, and per-
mitted me to participate in several
activities I greatly enjoy. And what I
consider to be the greatest compliment
paid me occurred recently at a part\
when I was introduced to a fellow, who.
immediately started talking to me in
English. My friends laughed, and told
him. 'Don't talk to him in English. He
speaks better Spanish than you do.' "


TIIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Kenneth R. A. Booth
Supervisory Rates Analyst
MARINE BUREAU
Irwin S. Small
Time and Leave Clerk
Alfredo E. Garnett
Lead Foreman (Operations-Lock Wall)
Leonard V. McLeod
Motor Launch Operator
Constant H. Claveau
Teletypist
George Williams
Linehandler (Deckhand)
William Davis
Motor Launch Operator
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS


ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Clement C. Bell
Motor Launch Operator
Calvin E. Bourne
Carpenter
Clarence S. Spence
Lead Foreman (Operations-Lock Wall)
Arthur L. Shanyfelt
Towing Locomotive Operator-Locks
Cunrado V. Brown
Carpenter, Marine
Kenneth N. Sullivan
Lead Foreman (Operations-Lock \all)
Hercules E. Searles
Seaman
Gilbert S. Kirkaldy
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Joseph F. S. Ford
Seaman
Francis P. Washabaugh


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
George NM. Standard
Laborer (Heavy)
Edward Rodvin
High Lift Truck Operator
Seabert Haynes
Commissary Store Department Manager
Livingston W. White
Clerk
Alfred L. Bullen
Laborer (Cleaner)
Vivian E. Brooks
Extractor and Tumblerman
Norbert NI. Schommer
Supervisory Operating Accountant
Adelaide U. Niccolls
Sales Store Clerk


LeaI eRea.d | I
Allorie Earle
Cargo CI ~
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Edward L. Inniss
Retail Complex Manager
William A. Thorms
Lead Foreman High Lift Truck Operator
Wilfred C. Adams
Supervisory Supply Clerk
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Lee Redman
Oiler
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Roy M. Walther
Finance Branch Superintendent



PANAMA CANAL INFORMATION
OFFICE
Robert J. Byrne
Supervisory Canal Zone Guide
(Interpreter)
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Winston V. Bell
Supervisory Accounting Technician
PERSONNEL BUREAU
Harold Gibbs
Service Tracer
MARINE BUREAU
Clement Jackson
Helper Lock Operator
Leopoldo Shepherd
Carpenter
James A. Jones
Leader Painter
Ruben G. Cox
Carpenter


Admeasurer nose iv. rarKer
Rudy Mh. Wieland Clerk-Typist
Leader Lock Operator (Electrician) Dora Mh. Lozano
Wilfred A. Alleyne Presser (Garment)
Leader Linehandler (Deckhand-
Boatswain) ENGINEERING AND
Fitzgerald Holder CONSTRUCTION BURE
Helper Machinist (Marine) Edmund R. Macittie
Edmund R. AlacVittie
Chiarles Small
C ader Painter Supervisory Architect
Leader Painter Ed stdo Andrades
Eward A. Cole a aintenanceman
Towing Locomotive er






Herman G. Edwards ha T urns
Time and Leave Cl;k i Operator
Eliot Howell Snchez
Automotive Mechanic (Radiators) Electrician (Lineman)
Dunstan C. McCourty George S. Rachel
Truck Driver (Heavy) Electrician (Lineman)
Jasper A. McLeod Joseph A. Husband
Chauffeur Leader Carpenter
Herman Providence Charles B. Springer
Truck Driver Laborer (Heavy)
Erie Malcolm Wesley II. Bailey
Lead Foreman Dock Stevedoring Lead Foreman Pipefitter
Leopold Douglas Charles S. Howe
Truck Driver Construction and Maintenance
Clyde D. Lashley Superintendent
Guard Lionel A. Perry
Lionel Thorne Leader Seaman
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher Emelio Archbold
Hubert Brands Oiler (Floating Plant)
Linehandler Elbert A. Belgrave
Albert B. Collins Helper Armature Winder
Lead Foreman Electrician Elwin C. W. Conliffe
Philip A. Hale, Jr. Seaman
Assistant Freight Agent Isaae D. Clinton
James S. Williams Painter
Stevedore Joslyn C. Duncan
Miguel W. Oruitiner Leader Painter
Supervisory Cargo Checker Albert T. Smith
Benjamin P. Soley Boiler Tender
Chauffeur Lmbin L. Theresia
Oscar W. Layne Carpenter
Truck Driver (Heavy Trailer) (S


AU











































ee p. 23)


FEBRUARY 1969







AncIEnT ABACUS is



KEY TO mODERn mATH


MAN-MADE SATELLITES are rock-
eting into space, carrying astronauts
beyond the earth and to the moon-in
large measure because of mathematics.
\e live in a mathematized culture
today. There are uses for mathematics
that were unheard of or even thought
possible a few year ago.
Chemists and physicists have found
new uses and interpretations for mathe-
matics; biologists are applying math-
ematics to the study of genetics;
businessmen are using mathematics to
project production and sales.
Today's technological advances have
opened up numerous opportunities for
the girl or boy with mathematical abil-
ity. Today's children talk about sets,
the binary number system, structural
patterns and inverse operations-all part
of the mathematics taught in their
schools.
It's different, indeed, from the mem-
orizations their parents knew.
But even with all this modernity, an
ancient device known as the abacus,
that was familiar to school children in
Rome 1,500 year ago, is becoming well-
known to Canal Zone sixth graders. It
has returned to use in today's classroom.
Described as one of the first "digital
computers," the abacus is a simple
instrument for performing rapid arith-
metical calculation. It consists of an
oblong wooden frame or board holding
a number of vertically arranged rods
on which wooden beads, balls, or coun-
ters slide up and down. A beam running
across the board divides the rods into
two sections: upper and lower.
The imperfect numerical notation and
the scarcity of suitable writing materials
in ancient times are presumed to have
given rise to the need of devices of
mechanical calculation. The first abacus
probably was a slab or board on which
a Babylonian spread sand so he could
trace letters. The word is believed
derived from the Phnenician "abak"
describing sand strewn on a surface for
writing. As the abacus came to be used
solely for counting and computing, its
form was changed and improved. \ax-
covered boards were introduced, and
later a counter abacus was devised in


which loose counters of bone, glass or
metallic disks or rods were placed on a
ruled table drawn on the board.
There arc several references to the
abacus in Roman literature. Cicero
speaks of the counters as aera (bronzes)
but the common name was calculi-
pebbles-or abaculi.
Fifteen hundred years ago, when
little Caius of Rome was learning to
add: CCL VII and CCCL XIX (257+
369) he drew lines on a bronze or wood
board. Grooves were cut in the board
and small round pebbles, or calculi,
were placed in these grooves to repre-
sent units, 10's and so on to get his
answer: DC XXVI (626).
At the same time, in another part of
the world, a Chinese boy was employ-
ing a similar system, but instead of


X


j 4Lkj


pebbles he used rods of bamboo. More
than a thousand years after bamboo
rods were used, the Chinese adopted
the old Roman idea of having the cal-
culi fastened to an abacus, known in
China as suan pan. The rod-and-bead
variety of abacus, is in use in schools,
banks and shops throughout China to
this day. A dividing bar separates sets
of two beads and five beads on each
bar. Each bead above the bar has asso-
ciated with it a value five times that of
the bead below the bar on the same rod.
The active position for the beads is
toward the dividing bar.
Some 300 years ago, the Japanese im-
proved on the Chinese abacus and this
instrument, known as the soroban, is still
in use in modem Japan. The soroban
(See p. 14)









P ^\,
Bag
*_ JR.


C. ~J


A member of the sixth generation in his family to use the abacus, W. T. Lum of Casa Lum
in Panama City says he finds the instrument practical for business use. "There's no need
for paper, pens, nr pencils. And there's no breakage or maintenance expense," he says. As
nimble and effortless as the fingers of a pianist, his fingers swiftly fly over the beads of the
abacus as he tackles adding, subtracting or dividing problems. Great-great-great grandson
of a Viceroy of China, he has been a resident of Panama since 1906.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


-*'.







ABACUS


(Continued from p. 13) e
is very similar to the Chinese abacus
except that instead of five-t-vo bead
arrangement on each rod, the Japanese
model is generally of the four-one or
five-one bead arrangement .
About 400 "years ago Robert Record
was born in tEngland. When he went
to school he was taught to use Roman
numerals, and added, subtracted, mul-
tiplied, and divided numbers xverx much
as Caius had learned to compute with
the aid of calculi about 1,500 years
earlier. Two important changes had
been made in that length of time. In-
stead of having places on the computing
table for only units, 10's, 100's, and so
on, the spaces between the lines ,were
used for 5's, 50's, 500's and similarly for
all other 5's, and the lines were now
horizontal. These changes came in what
are called the Dark Ages.
Record xrTote several books to in- Discovering patterns is a key activity in a modem program of arithmetic. The value of a
fluenee the English people to give up symbol depends on the place it occupies, says Don K. Miskovsky of the Diablo Elementary
the Roman numerals. School faculty, who finds the abacus helpful in developing Sixth Graders' concept of place
value. At left is Jeff Fiser, son of Major and Mrs. John Fiser of Albrook and at right is Shawn
An expert in the use of the abacus Daniell, son of Senior M/Sgt. William James Daniell of Howard Air Force Base.
can compute with speed and accuracy
that compares favorably with results ob-
tained by an experienced operator of
an electric calculating machine. This
fact was proved in numerous tests and is
well-documented by Takashi Kojima,
author of The Japanese Abacus, Its Use
and Theory.
An interesting contest between the :
Japanese abacus and the electric cal- -
culating machine w,'as held in Tokyo on
November 12, 1946, under the sponsor- .. -
ship of the U.S. Army newspaper The "
Stars and Stripes, which remarked: "The
machine age took a step backward .
yesterday at the Ernie Pvle Theatre as ./
the abacus, centuries old, dealt defeat
to the most up-to-date electric machine
now being used by the U.S. Government
. the abacus victory was decisive." 1,
The Nippon Times reported the con- a 1,
test as follows: "Civilization, on the .
threshold of the atomic age, tottered
Monday afternoon as the 2,000-year- ,
old abacus beat the electric calcu-
lating machine in adding, subtracting, .msl
dividing, and a problem including all
three with multiplication thrown in, .
according to the United Press. Only
ini multiplication did the machine
triumphh. ."
The abacus is generally associated A mathematical race between abacus-wielding Joby Vanya, left, and Janet Hloward at the
blackboard was easily won by Joby. Both girls are pupils in the Sixth Grade at Diablo
with the Orient. Actually, the abacus Elementary School. Joby is the daughter of Lt. Col. and Mrs. Joseph J. Vanya of Albrook.
in one form or another was used Janet's parents are Col. and Mrs. Hubert C. Howard of Fort Amador.


FEBRUARY 1969






























THE winnER


throughout Europe and Asia until peo-
ple came to know and accepted the
Hindu-Arabic system of 9 figures and
zero and associated methods of com-
putation. The abacus was last generally
used in Spain and Italy in the 15th
century, in France in the 16th century ,
and in England and Germany in the
17th century.
Changes didn't take place rapidly.
There were those \ho favored the use
of other systems of numeration and the
use of the abacus in computation. These
were called the "abacists." Opposed to
these were the advocates of the Hindu-
Arabic system with its algorithms, or
procedures, for computations. They
were called the "algorists." The algorists
campaigned for approximately 500
vears to gain general acceptance of
techniques in computation. By the year
1,600 they) achieved their goal and
established the arithmetic techniques
which have remained in general use up
to the present time.
Teaching Aid
The abacus was then placed in a
semi-retired status, but this ancient
device is finding its way back into the
classrooms of today. Teachers are find-
ing it a real aid in the teaching of place
value, addition, and subtraction.
A significant goal of contemporary
programs is to help children develop a
wholesome attitude toward mathemat-
ics. Traditionally, many students regard
mathematics with considerable distaste,
but this is changing as children are


learning that this subject can be exciting
and interesting. They are given oppor-
tunities to be creative and develop
original solutions to problems They
learn they can solve problems through
their own efforts, instead of relying on
rigid techniques or memorized rules.
More new mathematics has been
created in the 20th century than in all
previously recorded history. Entire fields
of mathematics that used to be the
exclusive domain of a few experts just
a half a century or so ago are now being
taught in high school; some are even
beginning to enter the junior high
school classrooms, thus making room at
the upper end of the curriculum for
some of the newer, contemporary math-
ematics that modern society demands
of its productive citizens.
Aware that tie people in tomorrow's
society will have to compete with auto-
mation as well as with other people.
the school programs of today endeavor
to see that creative imagination and
productive thinking are developed in
each of the students to the limits of
his capacities.
The modern mathematics program
helps pupils learn to add, subtract, mul-
tiply and divide through the study of
numbers and relationships that exist
among numbers. Discovering patterns
is a key activity in a modern program
in arithmetic. A characteristic of the
decimal numeral system that must be
understood by the pupil is place value,
and he must know that in our Hindu-
Arabic system the value of a symbol
depends upon the place it occupies.


This is where the age-old abacus comes
into the modern-day school picture. The
operations of addition, subtraction, mul-
tiplication, and division must be ex-
perienced before they can be under-
stood. The abacus board allows children
to handle and see the processes for
themselves.
Abacus Advantages
Advantages of the abacus are hardy
construction, portability, and ease of
operational methods, the latter a sim-
plification of the four processes of
arithmetic.
A peculiar advantage of the abacus
is that a problem in addition and sub-
traction is worked from left to right,
instead of right to left, as in the case
with written arithmetic, and so har-
monizes with the normal way of read-
ing and writing numbers. One disad-
vantage is that the instrument produces
only a final result without preserving
a record of the intermediate steps. If
an error is made, the whole calculation
must be done again from beginning
to end.
Don K. Miskovskv, teacher at Diablo
Elementary School, has been giving his
Sixth Grade pupils some pointers on
how to use the abacus since he returned
from military duty in Korea. It is used
widely there and Miskovskv became
fascinated with its use.
His students have become so profi-
cient in using the oriental adding ma-
chine that they held a junior version of
the Tokyo contest. The result was the
same now as then: The abacus won.


TImE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW'





CANAL COMM-ERTi AFIC BY NATIO.f '' OF VESSELS

First half, fiscal year-


T"-~ea~ d
ea 1


Nationality


Belgian --.--_
British _-------
Chilean ......
Chinese (Nat'l.)_
Colombian --
Cuban_ -----
Danish_ -----
Ecuadorean ----.
Finnish --__-..
French_________
German -----.
Greek ---
Honduran ---
Israeli__--
Italian__ -__--
iapanese ----_-
Liberian ---
Mexican -----
Netherlands ---
Nicaraguan .__.
Norwegian -__-
Panamanian ____
Peruvian ----
Philippine ------
South Korean__ -
Soviet --______
Swedish -----.
Swiss__ -----
United States __-
All Others _---
Total --


1969
No. of Tons of
transits cargo
60 73,007
719 6,001,715
59 391,073
68 503,756
95 238,500
24 244,460
209 1,184,859
28 34,251
20 126,433
125 535,235
570 2,264,784
284 3,096,111
119 75,433
55 396,184
127 831,446
551 4,622,648
807 12,126,913
58 196,778
230 1,165,276
29 56,461
678 7,106,639
313 1,347,241
93 413,628
50 278,068
22 183,792
46 327,519
254 1,698,578
20 13,191
839 4,386,105
154 1,162,988
6.706 51.083.072


No. of
transits
54
738
56
51
112
15
238
73
19
103
623
202
99
53
121
513
765
25
204
39
763
244
85
44
13
36
219
44
822
133
6,506


1968
Tons of
cargo
148,864
5,950,994
315,395
386,850
214,570
156,314
1,236,995
70,676
107,141
528,534
2,508,724
2,139,597
60,694
241,166
971,506
3,835,187
9,825,326
45,887
900,514
62,413
8,177,184
1,321,944
427,079
185,555
45,775
265,124
1,367,393
57,346
4,343,733
1,037,823
469 3.'f3i 0


1961-65
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
21 77,724
632 4,124,334
64 451,191
41 301,600
129 209,189
2 5,369
154 725,383
24 27,366
11 41,202
66 364,357
558 1,687,827
316 3,077,249
105 80,942
34 128,409
97 561,167
433 2,542,668
458 4,416,239
12 29,179
294 1,346,865
28 41,772
695 5,078,587
221 959,816
58 296,697
33 135,090
4 24,027
6 48,219
181 1,026,269
19 42,611
877 5,259,746
58 307,060
5 R11l *W AlfSI^


,''-,, ., COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal rs

Transits Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1969 1968 Transits 1969 1968 Tolls
1961-65 1961-65
Tuly---------- 1,122 1,177 960 7,089 7,400 4,929
August------------ 1,109 1,117 949 7,362 6,751 4,920
September_.___. 1,115 1,023 908 7,473 6,370 4,697
October---------_ 1,138 1,048 946 7,471 6,754 4,838
November--______ 1,103 1,041 922 7,279 6,672 4,748
December------- 1,119 1,100 946 7,571 7,133 4,955
lanuary------- 1,094 903 6,916 4,635
February-------__ 1,055 868 6,686 4,506
March --------- 1,132 1,014 7,027 5,325
April--_________ 1,132 966 7,300 5,067
ay----------- 1,168 999 7,493 5,232
Tune-------------- 1,112 954 7,405 5,013
Totals for __
fiscal year -- __ 13,199 11,335 83,907 58,865
SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MO'V;MFNT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into 8 main trade routes:

First half, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1969 1968 Transits
1981-65
United States Intercoastal----__-------------_ -196 201 231
East coast United States and South America --_--- --- 765 762 1,208
East coast United States and Central America ------- 353 299 241
East coast United States and Far East------------- 1,655 1,470 1,133
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia ----. 237 222 171
Europe and West coast United States/Canada -------- 474 484 459
Europe and South America------- ------------ 616 680 592
Europe and Australasia---- ----__-----------_ 198 204 176
All other routes --------- -------------__ 2,212 2,184 1,420
Total traffic_---------------- ___--- 6,706 6,506 5,631


I - -


1g


S--ttched



DESPITE EXTENSIVE discussion in
shipping circles in the United States
and Canada, the land-bridge concept of
moving container cargo from coast to
coast probably will never become seri-
ous competition for the Panama Canal,
shipping experts believe.
The idea has been of interest locally
since the publication recently of the
Litton Systems Inc. report which pre-
dicted that a tie-in with railroads and
ship operators might divert considerable
traffic from the Panama Canal.
Canal spokesmen say that if the plan
is successful, it would have some effect
on Canal traffic which presently de-
pends mostly on ships carrying bulk
cargoes which cannot be containerized.
Furthermore, with the continued growth
of world trade, any diversion of cargoes
through the land-bridge plan would be
insignificant.
The whole land-bridge concept of
moving container cargo by trains be-
tween the east and west coast ports in
Canada and the United States is one of
the results of the growth of container-
ization which, the Journal of Commerce
of New York says, has taken over the
"penthouse of the transportation edifice"
in just 2 years since the concept was
introduced on a major world trade route.
The container service operators still
confront serious problems, but con-
tainerization as an operating concept
appears well on its way to proving
itself.
The Litton report forecast that by
1973, an estimated 23 percent of total
U.S. liner cargoes would be traveling
on containerships and by 1983, the
average of 41.5 percent would be on
containerships.
The future of the container concept
of transporting cargo, just as the future
of the land-bridge traffic across the
North American continent, will depend
on how much trade can be stimulated
by making movement of goods easier,
faster, and possibly cheaper.
Several railroads including the Cana-
dian National Railroad, the Canadian
Pacific Rail of Montreal, the Penn-


FEBRUARY 1969






Central and the Santa Fe of the United
States, have made proposals on the
land-bridge movement of cargo across
the United States and Canada and so
far the results remain somewhat un-
certain.
Details of the proposed land-bridge
train between California ports and New
York were revealed by John Reed, Pres-
ident of the Santa Fe Railroad. They
called for an 80-car train capable of
carrying 160 40-foot or 320 20-foot
containers between New York and Cal-
ifornia ports on a schedule of approxi-
mately 5 days in each direction. Reed
said that a similar service could be
offered between California ports and
Texas ports.
The Santa Fe would operate the train
between California and Chicago and
the Penn-Central between Chicago and
New York.
The Canadian National Railroad said
the extremely low transcontinental rail
rate required to promote land-bridge
traffic could be obtained only by using
all-container trains.
The traffic required to justify all-con-
tainer trains, however, need only be a
volume sufficient to utilize one set of
rail equipment. As the round-trip cycle
time between Halifax and Vancouver,
for example, would be approximately
2 weeks, 200 to 220 20-foot containers
every 2 weeks could initiate the land-
bridge scheme immediately.
A preliminary analysis made by the
Federal Maritime Commission did show
that this type of proposal, if used
between ports in the United States from
Japan through the west coast to the
east coast consignee or from the United
Kingdom through the east coast to the
west coast consignee, might result in
lower landed costs.
The report said "The savings in tran-
sit time in these movements to and from
the east and west coast as compared to
a movement via the Panama Canal are
significant. A land-bridge movement
from the west coast to the United King-
dom via the land-bridge takes 11 days.
This represents a saving of 13 days
over the all-water route with resultant
economies such as those of a smaller
inventory and lower warehousing and
insurance charges."
In any case the future of containeri-
zation and the movement of cargo over-
land bears watching especially in view
of the possibility that there may be an
early end to the hostilities in Southeast
Asia. This would add to overcapacity
and would push the containerships now
engaged in the Far East traffic into
other trade routes.


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo in long tons
to Atkmtie

First half, fiscal year-
Commodity 1969 1968 5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65

Ores, various___---- --------- ----- 2,146,711 2,333,031 519,996
Boards and planks ---------------- 1,757,183 674,707 N.A.
Iron and steel plates, sheets
and coils---------------------- 1,590,737 449,826 N.A.
Sugar---------------------- ------ 1,513,091 1,508,080 1,235,175
Fishmeal ------------------ 941,870 743,348 N.A.
Metals, various--------------------------- 677,888 655,592 566,481
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous_ ------- ---------- 599,006 1,027,070 N.A.
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas) ---- --- -- 595,417 584,308 394,842
Pulpwood --------------- --- 588,836 445,236 249,504
Bananas --------------------- ---- 571,631 621,336 565,876
Plywood and veneers -- ----------- 471,100 270,950 N.A.
Potash ------------------ ------- 367,554 227,752 17,035
Canned food products----------------- 350,309 400,763 517,232
Petroleum and products---------------- ---- 320,674 972,583 1,024,347
Wire. hars and rods ------------------- 292,302 72,579 N.A.
All others----------------- ----- 5,213,004 5,930,655 9,792,781
Total--------------------- 17,997,313 16,917,816 14,883,269

Atlantic to Pacific

First half, fiscal year-
Commodity 1 5-Yr. Avg.
1969 1968 1961-65


Petroleum and products____ _______
Coal and coke-----____ -
Phosphates ----------------
Metal, scrap--------------------------
Corn ------------------------
Soybeans___---- --------
Sorghum
Ores, various --- -----------
Metal, iron_______---- __----------
Wheat ___---------------------
Sugar_ t__--------------
Paper and paper products----------------
Chemicals, unclassified----------------
Rice ---------------
Autos, trucks and accessories__--- ---
All others_ -----------------
Total---- -------------------


7,652,739 7,679,111 5,484,146
6,940,886 5,594,979 2,925,019
2,649,308 1,903,848 1,046,645
1,647,713 1,970,588 1,527,264
1,515,820 1,090,297 636,706
1,477,776 1,221,905 735,645
1,113,801 667,075 N.A.
949,468 996,158 147,988
791,536 1,572,123 100,447
745,964 474,913 335,771
529,297 529,853 516,556
445,800 348,310 225,987
345,313 451,217 318,745
303,246 372,532 56,257
295,936 239,492 160,582
5,680,156 4,906,086 4,317,127
33,085,759 30,018,487 18,534,885


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First half, fiscal year-
Avg. No.
1969 1968 Transits
1961-65
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing --- --
Small --------------------
Total Commercial----------


3,354
140
3,494


3,352
125
3,477


6,706
265
6,971


6,506
286
6,792


5,631
286
5,917


U.S. Government Vessels: **
Oceangoing ----- ----- 404 305 709 700 124
Small ---------- -- 45 30 75 66 82
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment 3,943 3,812 7,755 7,558 6,123
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
* Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






FROM WA TERBOY TO


SUPERMARKET KING


MENTION THE name Tagar6pulos in
Panama and most people immediately
will think of supermarkets. The reason
is simple: For 57 years it has been
associated with the business of selling
food.
Today the Tagar6pulos enterprises
have expanded to other fields, but super-
markets still are a substantial part of
their business.
The man who made the Tagar6pulos
name a household word in the country's
two terminal cities-Don Antonio Taga-
r6pulos-still keeps busy at 76, oversee-
ing the varied operations of the business
organization he created from one small
grocery store in Colon.
Employ 1,500
Seven separate firms with holdings
valued at $6.5 million comprise the Ta-
gar6pulos organization today. Three are
in the grocery business. Empresa Taga-
r6pulos, S.A., Colon-Panama, handles
the wholesale end, supplying the chain
of 10 supermarkets in Panama City and
one in Colon operated by La Economia,
S.A. and Internacional Tagar6pulos
S.A., in the Colon Free Zone, which is
the ship chandlering company. Then
there are Industrias Tagar6pulos, S.A.,
which operates a plant in Colon for the
manufacture of products such as vanilla
concentrate, cleaning solutions and soy
sauce, Inmobiliaria Tagar6pulos, S.A.,
in the real estate field; Urbanizaci6n
Tagar6pulos, S.A. which is developing
a housing project in Sabanitas, near
Colon, and FAbrica Panamefia de
Products Sanitarios, S.A., which man-
ufactures sanitary products.
The seven companies employ a total
of 1,500 persons.
Other Interests
In addition to founding the Tagaro-
pulos organization, Don Antonio also has
played a leading role in the development
of the bottling industry in Panama.
Compania Panamericana de Orange
Crush, S.A., bottles Orange Crush,
Pepsi Cola, Old Colony, and Squirt in
its modern plant in Panama City.
He also was among the first to envi-
sion a free trade zone in Colon and as
far back as 1938, when he was president
of the Colon Chamber of Commerce,
became one of its prime advocates. The


Colon Free Zone is today a mainstay ot
economic activity in the country.
At one time he operated a fleet of 14
coastwise schooners that picked up
native products along the Atlantic coast
for export. There were "tagua," a hard
nut used for the manufacture of but-
tons, tortoise shell and, of course,
bananas. The advent of synthetics
finished the "tagua" and tortoise shell
exports; the banana business-which at
its peak reached a volume of 150,000
stems a week-eventually died out on
the Atlantic coast. While his boats
operated, Don Antonio was dubbed the
"commodore of the mosquito fleet" in
the local press.
While Don Antonio won't even think
of moving from Colon, the center of
operations of the Tagar6pulos organi-
zation inevitably has shifted to Panama
City. Just last year, Empresa Tagar6-
pulos, S.A., Colon-Panama, moved into
its spacious new headquarters in La
Loceria, just off the Trans-Isthmian
Highway opposite the National Brew-
ery. The most impressive section is a
cavernous warehouse with approximate-
ly 100,000 square feet of floor area. It
includes five cold storage rooms for
perishables of all kinds in which tem-
peratures are maintained at precise
levels. The warehouse, praised by State-
side visitors as one of the most modern
in Latin America, has a capacity for
3,400 tons of goods.
Modest Start
All this had modest beginnings.
In a manner of speaking, the Taga-
r6pulos enterprises owe their start to
the Panama Canal. For Don Antonio,
then a lad of 15, came to the Isthmus
because in his native Greece he saw
evidence of the wealth flowing on the
Isthmus during Canal construction days.
It was the year 1908. Young Antonio
and two cousins, then living in Chalkis,
were impressed by the fact that an aunt
always was supplied with money to buy
them goodies. They knew her husband
was in Panama and they suspected he
was the source of her wealth. Their
suspicions were confirmed by a letter
which the trio managed to purloin from
her.
From that moment they did not stop


Don Antonio Tagar6pulos


until they obtained parental consent-
given reluctantly-for the trip to
Panama.
That year the three cousins landed in
,what was to become the city of Colon.
each with 7 napoleons-S.35-in their
pockets.
Young Antonio went to work with
the Isthmian Canal Commission as a
waterbov-hauling drinking water to
the ditch diggers. His pay: 21 cents an
hour.
Stays On
His cousins left the Isthmus for the
United States within a few months, but
young Antonio stuck it out. He had
vowed to succeed or bust. Nine months
after his arrival, he quit his job as water-
boy and went to work in a bakery in
Colon owned by a countryman. Another
9 months went by before he had man-
aged to save $900-enough to open his
own grocery shop.


FEBRUARY 1969










































This is part of the cavernous warehouse of Empresa Tagar6pulos, S.A., Colon-Panama, just off the Transisthmian Highway opposite the
National Brewery in Panama City. It has 100,000 square feet of floor area, five cold storage rooms and a capacity of 3,400 tons of goods.


Tagar6pulos, center, founder of the Tagar6pulos enterprises in Panama, reviews plans for a
new supermarket with Alexander Psychoyos, right, president of Empresa Tagar6pulos, S.A.,
Colon-Panama, and Azael IIernando, secretary of the board of directors, at the company
headquarters in Panama City.


"I've always liked food," he says by
way of explanation for his choice of
business.
The shop was located in the present
Colon Post Office building, then the
public market. It had two employees
besides young Antonio, the proprietor.
"Business was so good," Don Antonio
recalls with a heart) laugh, "that we
didn't count the money-we weighed
it."
Then the first of three conflagrations
in Colon wiped him out-"lock, stock.
and barrel"-in 1915. But the day after
the fire young Antonio was at what was
left of his place of business, selling
hard-boiled eggs, burnt salt and every-
thing else he could salvage from his
stock.
With the help of businessmen friends,
he opened a new and larger grocery
store, this time on Sixth Street.
"This was a much better one," he
recalls fondly. "We didn't wrap things
in old newspapers like we used to; we
had decent paper."
That store, too, was wiped out b\
fire about 10 years later. But Don An-
tonio managed to make another start
(See p. 20)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19






,. ij
I- '


;'e of


(Continued from p. 19)
and by 1940, when the third conflagra-
tion swept the Atlantic side city, he had
a chain of nine grocery stores going in
Colon. By that time, it was Tagar6pulos,
S.A., with two brothers and several
brothers-in-law as the company officers
and major stockholders. The 1940 fire
caught the firm in the process of read-
justing its insurance coverage, so that
its losses were not covered. Practically
the entire chain of stores went up in
smoke. It took a while for the Tagar6-
pulos organization to recover from that
heavy blow, but recover it did to
become the flourishing business complex
it is today. Don Antonio went to Greece


and returned with "fresh blood"-his
three brothers-in-law-to reorganize the
company, which then became Tagar6-
pulos, S.A.
As he rose in business, Don Antonio
extended his hand to the less fortunate.
"One must help his fellow beings," is
his terse comment on his philanthropic
activities. He is known to be among the
principal supporters of the Asilo Santa
Luisa, a home for the aged, and of pro-
jects for blind children. He is reticent
about this aspect of his activities.

Official Honors
Nevertheless, he has received official
recognition, from both his native and
his adopted countries, for his achieve-
ments and contributions. Among others,
he holds the Order of Vasco N6fiez de
Balboa, of Panama; Greece's Order of
King Paul, which was personally pre-
sented by the sovereign, and the
Christian Stewardship of the Greek
Orthodox Archdiocese of North and
South America.
At 76, a grandfather six times, Don


Antonio remains active in the business. -
He goes every morning to his office in
Colon and periodically travels to Pan-
ama City to keep in touch with opera-
tions of the Tagar6pulos firms in the
capital. Whenever possible, he spends -
the afternoons on his farm near Colon
where he is raising both beef and dairy
cattle.

Surprise
Twice since 1908 he has returned
to his native Greece on extended visits.
On his second trip, he discovered a
savings account in his name in a Greek
bank. It had been started by his father
with $25,000 Don Antonio had sent
him earlier as a gift. The account had
grown to $35,000 because of the ac-
cumulated interest.
Sixty years after his arrival in Pan-
ama, Don Antonio abides firmly by
the creed that kept him going in mis-
fortune and drove him to become a .
captain of industry in Panama-"ambi-
tion. faith in God, and love of work."


At-


The Tagar6pulos enterprises employ 1,500 persons in Panama City and Colon. This is part of the office staff at the organization's
headquarters. Tagar6pulos, standing left, who resides in Colon where he started in business, periodically visits the Panama City office.


FEBRUARY 1969


A-.".~







qI,
i,.j ii


Super Tanker
ANOTHER MONSTER ship that will
be unable to use either the Panama
or Suez Canal was completed in Japan
recently and christened the Universe
Ireland by Gulf Oil Corp. The 312,000-
ton ship will be the first of six which
will carry crude oil from Kuwait,
the tiny Middle East country with the
big oil reserves, to new refineries in
Ireland and Okinawa.
The Universe Ireland is 1,135 feet
long and 174 feet wide. She is 10 stories
high and on each trip will haul 2.3
million barrels of oil. Gulf is chartering
the big vessel on a long-term basis from
Bantry Transportation Co., a Bermuda
subsidiary of National Bulk Carriers
Inc., an American firm.

Caronia on New Service
THE FORMER Cunard luxury liner
Caronia, which was sold recently to
Greek interests under the management
of A. Constantinides, has been fitted
out for Caribbean cruising. She started
her new service in December, sailing on
a regular schedule from New York to
the Caribbean on high-class pleasure
cruises. The crew is Italian and Greek
and the commanding officer is a former
British admiral.
Under Cunard ownership the Caronia
was one of the first of the luxury cruise
liners. She was built for round-the-
world cruising and made regular trips
through the Panama Canal for many
years.


Swedish Ships Converted
BY MAY 1969 all five of the Swedish
Johnson Line vessels of the Rio de
Janeiro class which transit the Panama
Canal on an average of one a month,
will be lengthened to provide special
facilities for transportation of contain-
ers. The vessels are in trade between
European ports and the west coast of
the United States and Canada. The
conversion is being carried out in
Gothenburg, Sweden.
Each of the five 490-foot vessels is

PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST HALF
OF FISCAL YEAR 1969
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1969 1968


Commercial
US. Government-
Free
Total


Commercial -
U.S. Governmn
Total


6,706 6,506
709 700
33 55
7,448 7.261


TOLLS
$44,262,476 S
nt 4,471,272 4,339,125
S 748 845,437,755


CARGO "
Commercial 51,083,072


U.S. Government
Free -- --- ---


4,167,389
57,360


4,133,583
274 -,


Total 55,307,821 51,344,412
SIncludes tols on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
** Cargo figures are in long tons on all vessels,
oceangoing and small.


1200 N
U
1100 M
B
1000 E
R
900 0
F
800 T
R
700 A
N
600
T
S


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN


MONTHS


being cut about midships to permit the
insertion of a 79-foot section. The new
midships section, prefabricated at the
shipyard prior to the arrival of each
ship, will be equipped to carry 90
20-foot containers. A high speed Asea
deck crane with a capacity of 25 tons
also is being installed.
The deadweight capacity of each
vessel is being increased from 8,980
tons to 12,000 tons and the cubic ca-
pacity from 496,000 to 650,000 cubic
feet. All will retain their present speed
of 19)i knots after conversion.
The first conversion was started in
August and each lengthening operation
is taking approximately 30 days. The
ships are the MS Montevideo, MS Bra-
silia, MS Bahia Blanca, MS Rosario
and MS Santos.
The Johnson Line was established
in 1914 following the opening of the
Panama Canal to provide service be-
tween Scandinavia and the U.S. west
coast and Canada. Today it operates
40 cargo vessels, including 5 fully re-
frigerated vessels. The line also pro-
vides regular service from Scandinavian
and continental ports to Central and
South America. The Central American
service was joined recently with the
Mamenic Line of Nicaragua.

New Lykes Cargo Carriers
LYKES BROS. SS. Company Inc. of
New Orleans, which operates a fleet of
cargo ships through the Panama Canal,
has contracted for the construction of
three of the worlds largest cargo trans-
ports of a revolutionary design. They
will be built at the Quincy, Mass., ship-
yard of General Dynamics Corp. at a
cost of $32,617,333 each. The ships are
scheduled to enter service in 1971.
According to the announcement
printed in SHIPPING DIGEST, each ship
will be 875 feet long and 106 feet wide,
making them the largest common car-
rier freight ships ever built anywhere
in the world. They will be able to
transit the Panama Canal.
Not only will these ships be big and
powerful but they will represent a new
concept in ocean cargo transportation.
They also will provide the U.S. Navy
forces with vital auxiliary power as
assault ships, capable of carrying and
handling helicopters and transporting
landing craft as well as vehicles.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


It.


R


N


1968

1969












(AVERAGE 1951 -1955)

I I I
































Elkhorn in foreground, brain coral, right, sea fans and a cluster of staghorns make up this
underwater garden.


Coral is Jewel of the Sea


(Continued from p. 5)
Panama) and the dredge dumps near
the Canal.
Corals have been living in this area
for the past 50 or 60 million years. The
The natural bridge on the Rio Puente,
one of the tributaries of Madden Lake,
is formed by an Eocene coral reef
approximately 45 million years old.
Additional reefs of early Miocene age
(approximately 25 million years ago)
were formed along the banks of the
present Canal and can be seen in the
sides of the new cuts at Las Cascadas
Hill, site of the present cut-widening
project.
Different species of coral adapt to
different sections of the reef and the
conglomeration of the many varieties
creates a seascape of spectacular beauty.
The combination of soft and hard
corals and their helter-skelter position-
ing, plus the seaweed, sand and rock,
produces a multitude of coves, crevices,
gaps, nooks and corners providing a
haven for thousands of tiny brightly
colored fishes and some not so tiny,
like 30 and ()-pound red snappers.
groupers, jewfish, amberjack, and tuna.
Marine Community
Divers are sure to find at least one
vic ious-looking inorav eel linking among
thie rocks. Turtles, shrimp, snails, crabs


and hundreds of other marine orga-
nisms. in red, orange, purple, green
-bright and muted-inhabit this glorious
coral limestone community in the aqua
sea. Sharks and barracudas may swish
by in search of pre\. The mere possi-
bility of their presence in the vicinity of
the coral reef is reason enough for the
diver to keep a sharp lookout for the
boat above.
Reef corals, most of which are sharp
as a knife, are firmly attached to the
formation and collectors are required
to use a strong prying or hacking tool
to break them off. Some Isthmian coral
collectors, like Mrs. Harrison, find that
a machete does the job quite well.
Bad Odor
\Vhile still in the water, corals are
greyish, brown, green or yellowish in
color and have a rather disagreeable
odor. The polyps die soon after the
coral is taken from the water. About
1 month of good, strong sun is required
to get rid of the offensive odor after
the corals have been \washed in fresh
clean \water and dried. Some collectors
prefer to first keep the corals in a solu-
tion of commercial laulndrl bleach for
24 hours.
By either method the result is beau-
tiful white corals-jewels from the flower
garden in the sea.


ROTC RATES


HIGH In


EnTHUSIASm


(Continued from p. 8)
(Rough Riders). It made its first public
appearance at the December 13, 1968,
brigade review which honored Gen.
Robert W. Potter, Jr., Commander-in-
Chief. U.S. Southern Command. If the
troop becomes permanent, it will present
equestrian demonstrations at the cadet
reviews.
ROTC cadets also appear at com-
munity functions, acting as ushers at
official receptions, at athletic events.
and participating in observances such
as Memorial Day and Veterans Day.
Main Reasons
"The thing that makes my job easy."
says Major Fisher, a two-tour veteran of
Vietnam, "is the very high enthusiasm
of the students themselves. Their atti-
tude and performance are the primary
reasons why the ROTC program has
been so very successful here."
Right now, cadets of both battalions
have their eyes set on April 17. That's
the date for the 1969 inspection that
will determine whether they will add
another Honor Unit designation to their
already distinguished record.







rAAiNAL H1S 'rY


50 Year c4go
THEODORE ROOSEVELT, in whose
presidential administration the United
States began work on the Panama
Canal, died at his home at Oyster Bay,
Long Island, 50 years ago in January
1919. The employees of the Panama
Canal sent the family their deep sym-
pathy. Memorial services were held on
both sides of the Isthmus attended by
Acting Governor W. J. Douglas, Frank
Feuille, Special Attorney for the Pan-
ama Canal, and William J. Price, U.S.
Minister to Panama.
As World War I came to an end
50 years ago, the complete text of
Cov. Chester Harding's report to the
Secretary of War on the part played
by the Panama Canal in the conflict
was published in the Panama Canal
Record. The Governor reported the
Canal was operated and maintained
during the period of the war without
mishap or delay to vessels using its
facilities; that no acts of injury or de-
struction were committed and that there
were no strikes or other significant labor
troubles.

25 yJeari a oo
SELECTIVE SERVICE registration in
the Canal Zone and in Panama of U.S.
citizens 18 to 44 years old was com-
pleted. The number of C.Z. registrants
as of December 1, 1943, totaled 2,744
according to the Executive Secretary's
report.
Black days were ahead for Canal
Zone motorists 25 years ago unless the
tires on their cars could be recapped
since the chance of obtaining new tires
was very remote, said E. C. Lombard,
then Chairman of the Canal Zone
Rationing Board. The quota of new tires
allowed to the Canal Zone had been cut
by two-thirds.
Allied victories and the changing
fronts of World War 11 made themselves
felt on the Isthmus. The Canal, the most
vital link in U.S. communications, grad-
ually moved into the background in the
overall war picture. In December 1941,
the Isthmian situation had been de-
scribed as precarious. For the first few
days, no one knew whether an attack
on the Canal would follow the raid on
Pearl Harbor. At the end of 1943, no
sirens had sounded in the Zone for the


whole year although there was a full
scale serious alert October 29 after
reports of possible trouble along the
Central American coast. Only one seri-
ous situation arose to menace the secu-
rity of the Canal as a line of communi-
cation. This was increased activity of
enemy submarines in the Caribbean.
At the end of the year a Colombian
schooner and two U.S. vessels were sunk
and a Panamanian ship was reported
overdue.
A storm described as a norther closed
the new Transisthmian Highway to
traffic 15 miles east of Madden Dam.
At one time more than 200 cars lined
up waiting for the road to be cleared.
During the storm a U.S. merchant ship
ran aground off Cristobal.

10 YearJ d4o
THE BIGGEST single excavation job
in the Canal Zone since the Canal was
opened was ready to start 10 years ago
in January. The job was the widening
of the channel in the Paraiso and Cuca-
racha Reaches in Gaillard Cut from 300
feet to 500 feet. It was one of the
principal projects of the Short Range
Improvement Plan developed and ap-
proved by the Board of Directors the
previous year.
Bids for the remodeling of three large
former Navy barracks into a first-class
modem school plant were advertised
in mid-December 195S. The school
became the new Cristobal Junior-Sen-
ior High School.
The largest single job in the project
to place all frequency-sensitive equip-
ment in the Canal Zone on 60-cycle
power-the conversion of the Canal
locks machinery-was started in De-
cember 195S. The work was done
by Consolidated International Electric
Company of New York at a cost of 82
million.
Construction of the half-mile-long
approach to join the proposed high level
bridge over the Canal with Thatcher
Highway, began during the dry season
months 10 years ago. The official com-
mencement of actual construction of the
bridge took place the last of December
when former President Ernesto de la
Guardia and Former Governor W. E.
Potter lifted the first spadesful of earth
for the west approach. Members of the
President's cabinet and other distin-
guished guests from Panama and the
Canal Zone attended.


One year .4o
LOCKS OVERHAUL in progress at
Gatun Locks 1 year ago moved into
the second phase the last of February
with the east lane being flooded to
permit the floating crane Hercules to
enter and replace miter gates Nos. 13
and 14 on which overhaul had been
completed. Miter gates 5 and 6 were
removed the following week and set
on keel blocks within the locks chambers
for overhaul.
The Panama Canal asked residents to
cut use of electricity. Continuing dry
weather had reduced water inflow into
Catun Lake to a record low in January
and by February, it was imperative that
water conservation policies be con-
tinued. Canal residents helped by using
large electric appliances prior to 10 a.m.
and after 2 p.m. thus reducing the mid-
day peak load.
New 10-cent and 25-cent airmail and
6-cent ordinary postage stamps were
placed on sale at the Balboa Post Office
last year.


ANNIVERSARIES
(Continued from p. 12)
Eloy Arrocha
Oiler
Carlos Hinojozo
Maintenanceman (Boats)
Albert E. Johnson
Motor Launch Operator
Juan D. L6pez
Seaman
Samuel B. Goode
Painter
Alsibades Escobar
Seaman
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Louis A. Austin
Distribution and Window Clerk
William W. E. Hoyle
Supervisory Customs Inspector
Ben B. Gupton
Customs Enforcement Officer
Alfhild Maedl
Teacher, Elementary U.S. Schools
Carl F. Maedl
Principal, Senior High Schools
Clinton L. Parris
Recreation Assistant. Sports
HEALTH BUREAU
Cynthia S. Soberanis
Nursing Assistant
Ruby E. Radel
Supervisory Clinical Nurse


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




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