Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
W. P. LEBEl, Governor-President
H. R. PAtFITT, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
.MORGAN E. GOOnwIN, Press Officer
PANA A Publications Editors
THEODORE BARRINGTON, TONIAS A. CUPAS
anal In n fficr Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE jICHARD, OBI 51TI
nal Informaon Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa lleights, C.Z.
EL, FANNIE P.
A HOI[ 101 1OT ROUB[[...
A Hole Lot of Trouble - 2
San Miguelito --
The Art of Repairs__
La Arena Pottery-
Port Kobe, Japan
OUR COVER of the recent repairs at
Gatun locks, as well as the sketches
printed on pp. 9-11, are the work of
Artist Al Sprague, a Curundu junior
lligh School teacher. His paintings and
sculpture have enjoyed wide shootings
hothl in the United States and the Canal
Zone, and he is on permanent display
at Amnherst College in New England
and in the Union of South Africa.
The SHOZAN MAU at Baltimore drydock, after PanCana expertise got her floating again.
-The SHOZAN MARU at Baltimore drydock, after PanCanal expertise got her floating again.
The SHOZAN MlARU at Baltimore drydocek, after PanCanal expertise got her floating again.
Robert W. Lowry, left, Assistant Chief of
the Dredging Division, and Capt. Richard C.
Sergeant, the then Captain of the Port,
Balhoa-two of the key men in resolving the
Shozan Maru crisis.
...SO[V[D ON TH[ DOUB[[
The terse announcement that the Panama Canal was open
to ships again conveyed none of the drama and anxiety
through which the organization had just lived: "The Pan-
ama Canal is now back in operation after having been
closed to traffic by a ship accident in Gaillard Cut," the key
The interim of that stoppage was among the most dramatic
in the history of the Canal, and the refloating operation which
was accomplished in the period ranks with the most notable
achievements of the men whose job it is to keep the waterway
The events that led to the unexpected-a super bulk carrier
sunk in the middle of Gaillard Cut-began on February 25.
It was Carnival Sundav on the Isthmus, one of the year's
most festive days. An added attraction was the third round
of the 1968 Open Golf Tournament at the Panama Golf Club,
an event which particularly attracts Canal Zone residents.
At the Canal, operations were apparently calm. But in
transit was a 746-foot bulk carrier, the Shozan MAaru, of 55,000
deadweight tons and laden with 51,806 tons of iron ore. She
was approaching the midway point of her Pacific-to-Atlantic
transit, and was already in the Cut. Suddenly, the Shozan
lari struck the bank of Las Cascadas Reach.
The vessel started taking water badly, and soon David
Sullivan, in charge of dispatching in the Gamboa Field Office
of the Dredging Division, had his hand full-literally-a micro-
phone in one and a telephone in the other. There was equip-
ment to be mobilized, personnel to he located, instructions
to be conveyed, innumerable queries to be answered. The
seriously damaged Shozan Marn kept moving in a game effort
to reach Gamboa and the safety of a beaching area, a
tantalizing three miles away.
Shortly after the initial report of the accident-the worst
had materialized. From the nearby launch Shearwater came
word that the Shozan Maru had sunk approximately one mile
from Gamboa. Confirmation came quickly from the tug
Stcvens, which had rushed to assist the stricken vessel. The
message from the Stevens' master, Riggs Forest: "The Shozan
Maru is very definitely and very firmly grounded by the head
at Station 1515 and the Panama Canal is blocked."
Among the first to arrive on the scene was R. \. Lowr\,
Assistant Chief, Dredging Division, who had been summoned
from home where he was operating his ham radio. With
Capt. Arthur L. Logan, Sr., Assistant Port Captain, Balboa,
he went to the Shozan Marn by launch from Gamboa.
"It was a shocking sight," Lowry recalls. "The ore carrier
was aground with the forward portion of the ship consider-
The grounded ship became the rendezvous for key Canal
officials; Col. James A. Betts, Engineering and Construction
Director; Capt. Donald A. Dertien, Marine Director; Capt.
A. L. Gallin, Chief, Navigation Division; and Capt. Richard
A. Sergeant, the then Captain of the Port, Balboa, who joined
Lowry and Logan on the bridge. By then, a preliminary
estimate of the situation was available. The ship's forepeak
and No. 1 ballast tanks were flooded, but no water had
entered the cargo holds.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Ashore, men and equipment were being mobilized for what
officials already knew could be a round-the-clock operation.
The buoy tender U.S. Atlas was ordered to the grounded
ship. Victor C. Melant, the Dredging Division's Construction
and Maintenance Superintendent, joined the Atlas. Even at
this early stage, a critical order went out: put plenty of air
hose aboard the Atlas.
Aboard the Shozan Maru, a plan of action emerged from
the conference. It consisted of three alternatives-dewatering
the flooded compartments with the ship's pumping gear, forc-
ing the water out of the hole in the bottom by compressed
air, or jettisoning cargo as necessary to refloat the vessel.
Gov. W. P. Leber went to the bridge of the Shozan Mariu,
followed a short time later by Lt. Gov. H. R. Parfitt.
With three alternatives now endorsed by the Canal's two top
officials, the salvage operation drew nearer to execution. Ar-
riving on the scene were the then Acting Chief of the Indus-
trial Division, Julius Grigore, Jr., Salvage Master Burt Powell,
C. W. Field, Dennis Gilbert and Earl Robbins, also of the
Industrial Division, and diver Ralph Morales.
By this time the situation had grown more acute with the
report that the No. 2 starboard ballast tank of the Shozan
Manru was flooding. The go-ahead came from Canal officials:
"We are placing the carrying out of this mission in the hands
of a team of two men-Burt Powell and Bob Lowry."
The news that the Canal was blocked already had spread.
Local correspondents of stateside wire services converged on
the Information Office in the Administration Building. Mrs.
Tobi Bittel, who was in the office, bore the brunt of the initial
queries until the arrival of the then Press Officer, Robert D.
Kerr. By evening, the Press Office staff was answering
telephone calls from news media in Miami, New York, and
Chicago, keeping local reporters informed of developments
and arranging for on-the-spot coverage by Isthmian newsmen,
network film correspondents and local television cameramen.
The Panama Canal Information staff was to keep on the job
through the next day.
Aboard the Shozan Maru, word was anxiously awaited from
diver Morales, down inspecting the damage. His report im-
mediately eliminated the first alternative in the plan of action;
the rupture in the skin of the ship was too big to be sealed with
collision mats and permit use of the ship's pumps to dewater
flooded compartments. But the damage was located far enough
below the waterline to attempt the second alternative-use of
Even so, preparations were made to be ready for the third
alternative-jettisoning cargo. Walter Malone, master of the
250-ton floating crane Hercules, began rigging Derrick Barge
No. 157 for clamshell operation if needed.
In the Gamboa shops, B. M. Parmentier, John Farrow and
Noel Gibson went to work cutting steel plate flanges to blank
Other key members in the massive team effort to refloat the Shozan Maru were, from left, Burton L. Powell, Salvage Master; and Carley R.
May, Ralph Morales, and Elbert T. Chappell, Jr., Industrial Division divers.
The Shozan Maru ed up at Gamboa after refloating was completed.
The Shozan Maru tied up at Gamboa after refloating was completed.
off vent pipes on the ship. Aboard the Shozan Alaru, the crew
of the Atlas lent a hand with the removal of deck vents. When
the vent pipes were sealed and the air hose connected, the
compressor aboard the Atlas began pumping air into the
To force out the tons of water that had poured into the
vessel through the gash in the forward peak above the keel,
11 pounds of air pressure per-square-inch would be required.
The forepeak tank-tops of most seagoing ships are tested to
six pounds per-square-inch. No one knew the construction of
the Shozan laru's tank-top. Could the ship's deck stand the
pressure of millions of pounds of compressed air pushing
against it? Everyone on the job knew it was a gamble.
The answer was not long in coming. Almost imperceptibly,
the bow of the huge vessel which had been resting on the
bottom of the Canal, started to rise. Eventually, the com-
pressed air pushed the water in the peak tank vertically down-
ward by 24 feet-and the air was bubbling through the
ragged gash below. The bow had been raised two feet:
But then, another crucial decision had to be taken. Should
the ship he moved now? The consensus was that it was worth
another gamble. Should it fail, the situation would be no
worse than when the refloating operation had begun. Canal
officials acted decisively, and the order was given: "We take
full responsibility. Captain Sergeant, proceed to Camboa
moorings under tug power without using ship's propeller."
With four tugs assisting, the Shozan Maru began inching
forward, its keel close to the bottom of the Canal. But Captain
Sergeant, drawing on a lifetime of experience in putting ships
through the waterway, maneuvered the large vessel success-
fully over the last critical mile. As if symbolically, dawn was
just breaking-and the Shozan Mlaru was safe at mooring. The
Panama Canal has shaken off its "darkest night," said officials
involved in the refloating operation.
But still there were problems. With the waterway blocked,
ships had lined up along the Canal at both entrances awaiting
transit. When the Canal was declared reopened to traffic, the
backlog numbered 84 vessels. The problem was compounded
by the fact that the blockage occurred while one lane at
Gatun Locks was out of service for overhaul.
Then the Locks and Navigation Divisions swung into action.
Equipment was moved to Gatun Locks, including the Dredg-
ing Division's floating crane Hercules, to reopen the east lane,
and the final push came on February 29 when 65 oceangoing
ships were transited-an effort which required, among others,
the varied skills of pilots, marine traffic controllers, admeas-
urers, deckhands, tug and launch crews, operations and
maintenance supervisors, control house operators, lockmasters,
towing locomotive operators, line-handlers, and helpers.
Thus, three days after that fateful February 25, the Panama
Canal had left crisis behind and was basking in congratulations
pouring in from the shipping world. Official praise was be-
stowed on the Navigation, Dredging and Industrial Divisions,
and commendations were extended to Captain Sergeant, to
Lowry and Powell. The highest accolade embraced the entire
Panama Canal organization, one from Secretary of the Army
Stanley R. Resor, in a letter to Governor Leber:
"Dear Governor Leber:
"Please accept and convey to the members of your staff and
to the employees of the Panama Canal Company my highest
respect for your outstanding achievement in handling this past
Sunday's mishap. Your actions in averting a near disaster once
again remind us all of our continued pride and esteem for
your entire organization. In recognition of the professional
competence and devotion to duty of all, Well Done!"
TIlE PANAIMA CANAL REVIEW
iaunZCAL C/ a mecu ;ctiVe fcadt/
The Holy Mass has reached a
climactic moment-the Communion by
the celebrant and the assembly. God
has accepted the sacrifice of Christ
just offered to Him, and gives back
Christ Himself, dead and risen, as
the nourishment of Christian life.
A guitar caresses the silence, and a
high-pitched Panamanian voice with an
accent of the Interior rises in a song of
joy, joined by hundreds of other voices
in a "torrente paso trote."
This is part of the Panamanian Mass,
sung with the music and words of
Panama's folklore, in a hymn of praise
which brings forth all the fervor of
Why the gay rhythm?
"Because no one is sad when he eats,"
is the simple explanation by Jos6 Nelson
(Pepe) Rios, composer of the music
and words of the Native Panamanian
Mass of San Miguelito.
And the torrente paso trote pro-
." I N
Francisco Medina: the drums speak of joy.
ceeds vibrantly through the Eucharistic
Everything about the Native Pan-
amanian Mass is impressive. The temple
where the service is offered, Church of
Christ The Redeemer, was built only
three years ago and does not follow con-
ventional lines. It is shaped like a
gigantic tent-just as the earliest tem-
ples were in the Bible. The circular,
galvanized iron roof, about 150 feet
in diameter, rests on rectangular pillars
and, at opposite ends, on two structures
that serve as chapel and storage
"This represents the real concept of
a church and a people on the move,"
according to Father Leon Mahon, 42,
a priest of the new breed. He came
from Chicago five years ago to direct a
pilot project based on the new system
of the Catholic Church for the forma-
tion of laymen as the basis for the
survival of the Church itself.
The Native Panamanian Mass is an
expression of that new concept. And
the singer-composer Pepe Rios, with
his simple enthusiasm born of deep
faith, is an example of the new Catholic
in Panama who believes, understanding
what he believes. Born in Chitr6, he
works as an accountant with the
National Service of Volunteers, Pan-
ama's Peace Corps. With his wife
Silvia and four children, he has lived
five years in San Miguelito, the mush-
rooming community of low'-income
people on the Tocumen Airport Road
at its intersection with the Trans-
isthmian Highway. He is just over 30.
His passion for native music (and
dancing) has always been strong.
The idea of the Native Panamanian
Mass came to Pepe while attending a
cursillo (a modified form of weekend
retreat) on Christian initiation, one of
the many which the team of priests of
the community, aided by a group of
Maryknoll Sisters, has organized for the
residents. On the second day of the
retreat, Pepe-whose restlessness is
betrayed by his eyes-broke with tradi-
tion. He brought along his guitar, and
Jos6 Nelson Rios, composer-musician.
instead of spending the evening crack-
ing jokes the 40 men in the retreat put
on a native dance. The next day, instead
of a dance, it was a serenade.
Through Pepe and his companions
at the retreat, grassroots Panamanians
again had expressed their joy through
the means best known to them-folk
music. Encouraged, Pepe Rios then
composed what he entitled, "Classical
Panamanian Melody" which he sang
for the first time at Mass in October
1965. The purpose of the hymn was
to prepare the assembly for the Com-
munion. This "Classical Melody" re-
mains a part of the Native Mass.
Panamanians who hear it recognize
its tune immediately-the tamborito
"Hojita de GuarumA."
But with what solemnity it is imbued
through the slowest of rhythms given
by Pepe Rios to this peak moment of
acclamation! And, as in many of his
other verses, Pepe Rios retained much
of the words of the liturgy:
Holy, Holy is the Lord
And of the universe He is God;
Blessed is he who comes
In the name of the Lord.
Holy, Holy is the Lord
And of the universe He is God.
Heaven and earth are filled
With Thy Glory, Great Lord.
"Anb thye people...
rose itp niub ue oTCe."-E.od"
The simplicity of the words is in
keeping with the acclamation in the
Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God
Heaven and earth are filled with
Hosanna in the highest!
Blessed is he who comes in the
name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.
Encouraged by Father Mahon, Pepe
Rios devoted himself to composing the
full Native Panamanian Mass. By Christ-
mas, 1965, he had finished the Invita-
tion, the Glory to God, the Alleluia
Hymn and the Creed. By the middle of
1966, the Lamb of God, the Offertory,
and the Communion and the Dismissal
hymns were ready.
The Native Panamanian Mass of San
Miguelito consists of 13 hymns. The first
five correspond to the Entrance Rite.
As Pepc Rios explains, the music of
the first two is gay, as befits the joy of
those who go to meet the Lord. The
Introduction is a saloma and the Invi-
tation a tamborito, both original com-
positions. But in the third hymn, the
music turns solemn and reverent. It is
a torrent de llanto.
As the Mass proper begins, the plain-
tive, repentant notes of the imploring
"Capricho Montafiero" rise from the
z- a2r. 4 *,
,,. t . ;r ... ,
The statue of Jesus rises above San Miguelito.
assembly in the Kyrie Litany, imploring
the Lord's forgiveness:
Lord have mercy
Have mercy upon us.
Ouo, uo, ouo, uo.
But the music turns exultant again
for the Glory to God, a hymn of exal-
tation sung with a tuna beat: "Glory
to God in Heaven and His peace for
him who loves Him."
"It's the song of a man who feels he
has been pardoned," Pepe Rios explains,
"and longs to exalt the dignity of God."
The Mass then enters into the Liturgy
Father Leon prepares to give communion to a young couple during Mass.
of the Word, in which God transmits
an actual message of life through the
Scripture. This message reaches the
assembly with special efficacy when the
Church proclaims the Word of God in
And this, which Pepe Rios describes
as "the most mystical part of the Mass,"
begins with a torrente valdivieso for the
Alleluia which precedes the word of
the Son of God. Then, the sung Creed,
in which the assembly replies to the
Word of God by proclaiming its
We believe in God,
We believe in Him,
In our Father the Creator,
Hey, hey, ho, we believe.
It is a slow cumbia, neither gay nor
sad, but sung with fervent enthusiasm.
The "Choral Punto" announces the
Liturgy of the Eucharist. For the Offer-
tory, Pepe Rios chose the music of
the classic Panamanian punto, which in
years past was the favorite of the
Bless the bread and the wine,
Most Loving Lord,
And become the body and blood
Of the Redeemer Teacher.
is the final stanza of the "Choral Punto."
And responding to the celebrant's
The congregation singing with the musicians during services.
invitation to recite the Eucharistic
Prayer, the assembly chants, "Holy,
Holy, Holy is the Lord" to the slow
beat of "Hojita de Guaruma."
This moment of intense devotion,
perhaps the deepest of all spiritual
emotions for the participants, is pro-
longed by the "Slow Lament," a gallino
which is the hymn of the Breaking of
the Bread-the rite which reproduces
the gesture of Christ breaking the bread
at the Last Supper, as the father does
at the family table when he breaks the
bread for his children:
Lamb of God
Who takes away
The sins of the world,
Have mercy on us.
And as participation in the Mass
culminates in communion by the cele-
brant and the assembly, the two
Communion hymns ring out joyfully...
a torrente paso trote and a torrente Maria
which close with the stanza:
Through this pure morsel,
In your promised kingdom,
I hope to have earned
Lord, come to our people,
Who long for Thee. Come.
As the blessing of the Almighty
descends upon the assembly, imparted
by the celebrant to conclude the Rite
of Dismissal, the faithful sing a torrente
zapatero, whose final saloma-"ouo, uo,
Alleluia"- lingers on after the Native
Panamanian Mass has come to an end.
All this Pepe Rios composed by ear,
for he has had no formal music educa-
tion. He hopes to attend the National
Music Institute soon.
From the very beginning, the Native
Mass has enjoyed wide acceptance in
the San Miguelito community. Com-
posed in antiphonal form (repetition of
music and words) to facilitate memoriz-
ing, all the regular participants in the
9 a.m. Sunday Mass sing it by heart.
Generally, the accompaniment is
with a large guitar (played by Pepe
Rios, who also plays the smaller banjo-
like mejaranera and is a fine singer)
and one native drum. When possible
a violin is added. Recordings of the
Mass are available at the Rectory.
For those who hear the Native Pan-
amanian Mass of San Miguelito for the
first time, the experience is unforget-
table. One is gripped by the intense
spiritual emotion that radiates from the
assembly from the very moment the
spacious temple is filled with song-a
saloma that is reverent invitation:
Let's go, sir, let's go, let's go
Let's go, compadres, let's go.
let's go to Mass.
Let's go, comadres, let's go.
let's go to Mass.
TO THE LAYMAN'S eye, there may be little art to "repairing"
something-until that precise moment when he sets out to do the
repairing himself. He may then get a painful hint of what craftsmen
learn through long experience-that to a greater or lesser degree,
everything is an art. The art of repairing Canal locks is one art:
sketching the task is another. To celebrate the former, Artist Al
Sprague undertook our cover, and these sketches on this and the
following two pages-various impressions of the recent overhaul at
Gatun Locks, repairs which quickly devastate illusions about the
simple ease of skilled labor. The overhaul involved not only money,
time, and the most expert of timing, but extraordinary men.
Secretary of the Army Stanley R. Resor expressed this view
in a letter to Canal Zone Governor \V. P. Leber: . .the manner
in which this difficult and dangerous task was accomplished reflects
that dedicated and efficient performance of Canal personnel which
is a source of great pride to the Nation . it was especially gratify-
ing that the overhaul was accomplished with minimum impact on
Canal traffic operations . "
Riggers direct a crane atop I
Installing funnels, in preparation for pouring babbit behind
'. '-' -,
V Nd .. ,
Lock gates open slightly.
Above, men paint underside of vehicular crossing at lower end of Gatun. Below left, men work on bearing plates at miter end of gate.
At right below, the intermediate gate is being painted.
Ernest C. Bryan
Lester G. Williams
Charles A. Gordon
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Cecil F. Haynes
Distribution Facilities Assistant
Oscar D. Cr
Motion Cre roje o st m)
Assi afteail NraMInager
TRANSPO TR A T UE NALS
Harold L. Shaw
Supervisory Cargo Checker
Reuben F. Ellis
INTERNAL SECURITY OFFICE
William E. Lebrun
John A. Michaelis
Cylinder Pressman (Large)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
John W. Dwyer
Distribution and Window Clerk
OFFICE OF TIE COMPTROLLER
Margaret F. Wiggin
General Claims Examiner
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Henry J. Jempierre
Rowland N. Brown
St. Clair A. Husband
Helper Armature Winder
Oiler (Floating Plant)
William K. Renner
Chief Engineer, Dipper Dredge
James E. Huddleston
Senior Operator (Generating Station)
Raymond L. Watson
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Joseph N. Edwards
George C. Bannister
Leharfbuilder maintenance )
e r Blac it ( he ires)
Fred R. Trout
Oiler ( oating Plant)
Joseph N. Edwards
George C. Bannister
Fred R. Trout
Lead Foreman Welder
Lesley A. White
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Gilbert E. Manning
Lead Foreman (Grounds)
Herman K. Laing
Clarisa M. Depass
Oscar B. Lowe
Cleveland A. Johnson
Leader Laborer (Cleaner)
Eliseo Gonzalez M.
Laborer (Heavy Cold Storage)
Supervisory Sales Store Clerk
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Joseph E. Grant
Robert A. Barbet
Joshua E. Robinson
School Bus Driver
12 AUGUST 1968
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
J. Bartley Smith
Supervisory Electrical Engineer (General)
Victor L. Sanger
Lead Foreman (Public Works,
Construction and Maintenance)
you 'II are well at
The Tower of the Americas Dominates the fair.
IMAGINE a picturesque waterway
boasting a profound depth of 32 feet,
with a staggering supply rate of 750
gallons a minute (vs. 3 million for the
Canal). Add to this a few gondolas,
flower boats, dining barges-plus foun-
tains, artesian wells, and various landing
Where are we? On a miniversion of
the Panama Canal? Or perhaps in
Venice, one hemisphere removed?
Not quite-merely a couple of thou-
sand miles away-at Hemisfair, San
Antonio, Tex., which numbers among
its many proud boasts, "Nothing suc-
ceeds like access." Part of Hemisfair's
charm is the ease with which fair-goers
can enjoy all the attractions, and a
mile-long "canalito," in combination
with a 7,000-foot-long minirail, is
seeing to this. Sited 150 miles from the
closest navigable water, landlocked
Hemisfair has more water traffic than
the Panama Canal, though admittedly
the vessels which travel on the 330- by
210-foot artificial lake are slightly
smaller. The winding lake is also an
extension of the San Antonio River
which means that visitors can depart
from downtown, a la gondola, right to
the canal and fair itself in a matter of
minutes-somewhat quicker than a Pan
Almost paralleling in miniature the
Panama Railroad, Hemisfair has a
7,000-foot-long minirail which not only
passes by the exhibits but actually
enters the interior of a few. Its major
stopping places are the private exhibits
and foreign government sectors. Eighty
feet above it is erected a skvride
which for a quarter-mile offers the
visitor a panoramic view of the entire
Hemisfair itself, which includes the
elaborate pavilions of 34 nations and the
exhibits of many others, has as its cen-
tral theme, Confluence of Civilization
in the Americas. The theme is graph-
ically presented by Confluence Cos-
mos, a unique thematic delineation
which is the latest in audio-visual pre-
sentation. Through films with sliding
screens and panels, an artificial sky and
other motifs, the viewer vicariously
experiences Man's past-recent and
distant-and gets a generous glimpse of
what the future might hold. In this way,
the $7 million exhibit of the United
States extolls Hemisfair's three sub-
themes, the Legacy, the Harvest, and
The Legacy honors the early ex-
plorers and discoverers who opened the
way to the New World, emphasizing
particularly the courageous dreamers of
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
BRIDGE OF THt A
MN-wNI .. lll I-
Panama's exhibit attracted a large number of Heisfair visitors.
Panama's exhibit attracted a large number of Hemisfair visitors.
Spain, Portugal, and Italy who were
undaunted by the fears which intimi-
dated most navigators of the day as
they pondered what lay far beyond the
horizons of the sea. Also as part of the
Legacy, there is a simulated ocean
crossing on the "All Peoples' Ship." This
symbolic vessel has projected on its
sails the various ethnic groups who
came together to form the confluence
of what is now America-a various
mixture of racial genes and cultural
The Harvest, besides describing our
current national purposes in accordance
with the Preamble to the Constitution,
shows how the Legacy is realized in a
harvest of employment opportunities,
homes and property, and freedom of
movement and recreation, with em-
phasis on individuals working toward
common goals as the formula for suc-
cess-despite differences in background.
From the Harvest, the visitor is taken
to the Promise, where the problems as
well as the achievements of today are
presented in relation to the future. The
viewer is reminded that a confluence
of cooperative action must continue
to prevail if progress is to remain
Architecturally symbolizing the fair's
theme is the gigantic Tower of the
Americas, a 622-foot structure complete
with observation decks, elevators, and
a revolving restaurant at the top. Con-
structed at a cost of more than $5
million, the tower is 67 feet higher than
the Washington Monument and is in
the very center of the 92-acre fair site,
logically joining together the various
architectural components of Hemisfair.
Panama is colorfully represented at
Hemisfair with the theme, Panama-
Bridge of the Americas. In four sectors
covering 3,000 square feet, the pavilion
includes displays of Panamanian pot-
tery, handicrafts, and native costumes.
Live presentations feature folkloric
dances and the music of various regions
of Panama. Also highlighted are con-
temporary paintings by nationally
known Panamanian artists, as well as
an exhibit showing the vital economic
forces present in the Colon sector.
The Canal itself is depicted by an
elaborate topographical display which
takes the viewer on a simulated trip
through the waterway. The narrated
presentation is cued to a relief map
with a complex lighting system that
spotlights each feature as it is men-
tioned. As the fair-goer moves through
the Canal on a make-believe crossing
to the Pacific, a daylight-to-nightfall
transition is simulated. When darkness
has fallen, about halfway through the
crossing, the Canal itself suddenly
comes alive with lights of ships, buoys,
and lighthouses which flash along the
banks of the waterway. The presenta-
tion was built for the Panama Canal,
using as a mold an exhibit which has
been on display at the Canal Zone
Library for many years.
By the time Hemisfair is over on
October 8, more than 7 million visitors
will have attended. Besides the exhibits
mentioned-and there are innumerable
others-nationally known entertainers
will be performing, including Bob New-
hart, Jimmy Dean, and others. The fair
is a $156 million project which places
it in a category high on the list of
national exhibitions. And besides its
elaborate attractions, there also are
those two little canalitos-the one
through the fair, and the other a micro-
cosm of your own tropical habitat.
If you are planning a trip to the
States soon, Hemisfair is a fair bet to
prove a delightful experience.
CANAL HI S'7QRY:
50 y1earj 4go
CANAL ZONE Governor Chester
Harding issued an order that no pas-
senger should be allowed to carry cam-
eras aboard any boat or vessel in waters
of the Canal Zone. Such camera equip-
ment was to be turned over to the Canal
Zone customs inspector, who delivered
it to the purser or other officer of the
vessel with instructions that it must not
be returned to the owner until the
vessel was out of Canal waters.
Instructions to passengers intending
to leave the Canal Zone, in order to
enforce provisions of the Espionage Act
and the Trading With the Enemy Act,
of June 15, 1917, and October 6, 1917,
respectively, said "It is unlawful for any
person to send, or take out of, or bring
into, or attempt to send or take out of
or bring into the Canal Zone any letter
or other writing, or tangible form of
communication except in the regular
course of mail. Penalty for violation of
this statute is a fine of $10,000 or 10
years imprisonment, or both."
Canal Zone commissaries were show-
ing a wartime novelty, a "Hoover Bread
Board," to be used to further the saving
of bread "which may then be cut during
the meal instead of being sliced too
plentifully before mealtime."
The Panama Canal Record of
August 21, 1918, featured "Meatless
Recipes." These included peanut loaf
with cream sauce; bean and nut loaf
with Italian sauce; and Liberty loaf
with McAdoo sauce. The consumption
of cornmeal in preference to other sub-
stitutes was requested by the Food
Administration as a patriotic duty.
25 Vearf cdlo
"ITALY'S FEAR of Nazis Blocks Road
To Peace-Talks for Peace Underway
In Vatican, Rome" were the Star &
Herald's top of front page headlines on
August 1, 1943.
Mooring facilities in Balboa inner
harbor were practically doubled with
completion of a Dredging Division
project and installation of anchors and
buoys. The work was in progress, inter-
mittently, the past year and more than
1 million cubic yards of earth removed
to enlarge the anchorage near the
The quarantine period for dogs and
cats brought into the Canal Zone will be
raised to 6 months, effective Sep-
tember 1, as a measure of prevention
of introduction of rabies on the Isthmus,
according to a circular issued by
Col. H. C. Dooling, Acting Chief Health
Officer. The quarantine period, at the
time, was 3 months.
10 year c4go
A TOUGH CRACKDOWN on mos-
quitoes in the Canal Zone, including an
aerial spray assault, was announced by
Gov. W. E. Potter following a horse-
back survey of the Mindi Farm dairy
area with Col. Charles Bruce, the Zone's
Health Director. This was probably the
first time in a quarter of a century a
Zone Governor and his top medical
executive made a first-hand study of a
field problem on horseback. The)y were
accompanied by L. A. Ferguson. The
extermination program was planned in
cooperation with the U.S. Armed
Forces, the military to supply the plane
and the Zone Government to supply the
A slide involving 50,000 cubic yards
of material occurred on the east bank
of the Canal, at La Pita bend, just
below the La Pita Signal Station. The
slide caused no interference with ship-
ping. It is believed the slide was
triggered by an earthquake and tor-
rential rains. The slide at La Pita was
the first of any magnitude since 3 years
ago when an earth movement involving
60,000 cubic yards occurred just north
of the La Pita break.
Free bus transportation was provided
for Canal Zone school children for the
first time this year.
One year c4o
WITH A DAILY average of 42 ocean-
going ships during the month of July,
more ships are being put through the
Panama Canal than at any other time in
the history of the waterway. The record
breaking traffic of April, May, and June
continued into July and increased an
additional 6 percent. The 31-day period
ended with a total of 1,302 blue-water
ships, the highest single month's total
Hail was reported in Los Rios, Coro-
zal, and Diablo Heights on July 18 and
again September 6 . the 11th and
12th instances of hail in the Canal Zone
since the phenomenon was officially
noted at Cucaracha in 1908.
DAMP RESPITE-Steamshovel No. 254's efforts at Culebra Cut in 1911 are slightly
dampened by one of Panama's notorious rainstorms.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
It's More than Pot Luck at
AN ART practiced millenniums ago in
the storied lands of Egypt, Chaldea and
Crete is opening new horizons for the
village of La Arena, some 250 kilo-
meters southwest of Panama City.
Work in ceramics has been known
in La Arena, a community of less
than 3,000 population, from time im-
Most of the residents now engage in
cattle raising, which is the main occu-
pation in the Azuero Peninsula in
southwestern Panama, or in agriculture.
But even before the time of the conquis-
tadores, what is now known as La Arena
was the place where first the In-
dians and then the settlers supplied
themselves with clay utensils: bulging
tinajas to keep the water cool on warm
days; round pots to cook the daily
meals, and a variety of other utensils
all made in La Arena. Of course, the
baking and the finishing were primitive,
but customers in those days were not
as exacting as now.
From the very beginning, women
took over pottery work in La Arena for
reasons no one can explain. Their prim-
itive ovens can still be seen in the
outskirts of the village.
During the thirties, a young woman
from the nearby, progressive city of
Chitre, Miss Diana Julia Chiari, was
appointed a schoolteacher in the vil-
lage. She quickly became enthusiastic
over ceramics, which she learned from
the village women. Every day after
school, she studied books on pottery'
and ceramics, and soon she became
more adept than her instructors. She
turned the tables-teaching the residents
how to improve their techniques, how
to apply decorations with clays of
various colors and artificial coloring,
the method for building indirect heat
ovens and generally improving the qual-
itv of their ceramics. The glazing pro-
cess, in its primitive form, was another
forward method taught by the young
teacher to the people of La Arena.
Miss Chiari, by then a key community
leader, turned her energies to having a
pottery school established in La Arena.
One of Panama's presidents, Dr. Juan
Dem6stenes Arosemena, turned the
young teacher's dream into reality by
founding the National Pottery School in
La Arena. Miss Chiari was the first
Diana Julia Chiari was married years
later to Victor Cruber, an American,
and moved to the Panama Canal Zone.
But she never forgot the village of La
Arena. She took friends from Panama
and the Canal Zone on weekend trips
to La Arena to see the work done there.
Another Canal Zone resident, Mrs.
Theresa Lutz, visited La Arena, accom-
panied by an official of the Canal Zone
schools. They were amazed at the work
turned out from the little pottery school
despite the lack of modern facilities
and with only a firewood oven. On her
return to Balboa, Mrs. Lutz aroused the
interest of Mrs. Emily C. Bolton, then
president of the Balboa Women's
Club, in La Arena's pottery school.
The result was that the Club donated to
The Finishing Room at La Arena. With vegetable and synthetic hues, workers apply the various decorations which grow brighter with time.
WSLi limur ^*i
the school a fine ceramics electric oven.
The only condition stipulated by the
Balboa women was that the oven should
be used exclusively for the benefit of
the community. Even today, the oven
donated by the Canal Zone ladies is
still the best piece of equipment in the
oven room of the ceramics center in
A little over three years ago, the
Ministry of Agriculture of Panama,
with United Nations assistance, estab-
lished in neighboring Chitr6 the Na-
tional Handicraft and Small Industries
Service-SENAPI-for the purpose of
encouraging the development of small
industries in various communities of the
central provinces of the Republic. It
has become a large organization, di-
rected by Pedro Bolafios of the Minis-
try of Agriculture, Commerce and
Industries of Panama, and Jean Barroux
of the International Labor Organization.
From the outset, SENAPI centered
its attention on La Arena. Panamanian
and United Nations experts were as-
signed to the town to help the National
Pottery School progress scientifically
and to serve as a model for other com-
munities which might develop ceramics
as a small industry. The National Pot-
tery School became the La Arena
Center under SENAPI in Chitrd.
The project is supervised by Pana-
manian and United Nations experts:
Ivan Zachrison, a Panamanian artist
who has specialized in ceramics, and
George Cuielle, a French expert in ce-
ramics who also is with the United
Nations. They taught the first 16 stu-
dents who reported to the Center.
Currently they are training more than
30 other apprentices. The ceramic
pieces are designed by Alberto Chan
and Rene Diaz, both Panamanians, and
Malcolm Benjamin, another U.N. expert
from the United States.
One of the most important phases of
the project was to develop the La
Arena Center as a cooperative. This
was the job of Franz Helm, a German-
born authority on cooperatives from the
Cuielle points out that top-quality
clay is abundant in Panama, especially
in the central region. "It is a good in-
dustry for the inhabitants of the re-
gion," he remarks. "The raw material is
quite available and costs them nothing.
They have only to manufacture a va-
riety of utensils for which there is a
Fifteen-year-old Luis Calder6n, the youngest of the workers at La Arena, utilizing a
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
La Arena now
demand, and they have a means of
The La Arena ceramics shop is on
a par with the best, thanks to the help
of Panamanian and United Nations ex-
perts and the equipment furnished by
the world organization. It is supplied
with indirect heat ovens, including the
first one using wood, others em-
ploying gas, and the electric oven
donated by the Balboa Women's Club.
An air compressor facilitates the enam-
eling process which precedes the
baking. In a finishing room, residents
create bright adornments along the lines
of the Indian designs found in the
Conte Site in Code province.
All types of fine vessels, dishes, and
decorative pieces are turned out in a
lathe room. Everything from simple
dishes to amphoras of pre-Columbian
design are produced in this room. Sev-
eral of the amphoras which are replicas
of those found in the Conte Site, com-
plete with designs, have been displayed
by SENAPI in the Panama Pavilion at
Hemisfair in San Antonio, Tex. They
have attracted considerable attention
and already European and United
States importers are showing an interest
in the ceramics from La Arena.
The impact of the La Arena Center
(the official designation of the coopera-
tive project in SENAPI is "La Arena
Ceramics Industries") has been tre-
mendous in the three short years since
its establishment. Its direct sales in
1967 amounted to $16,000. These are
handled in the Center offices in La
Arena and through SENAPI in Panama
City and Colon, the Canal Zone and
other areas of the Republic.
The Center's influence touches most
residents of the town. Brothers Victor
and Ernesto Murillo are typical exam-
ples. The former lives in the center of
town and spends his spare time decora-
ting and turning on a lathe vessels
and pots. Ernesto owns an indirect heat,
firewood oven on the outskirts of town.
.L 11 FL
Mateo Batista removes from the gas-electric kiln a newly baked pot. The oven was donated
to Cooperative Ceramic Industries of La Arena by the Balboa Women's Club in 1963 when
the center was still called the National Pottery School.
He built it under the direction of a
Peace Corps volunteer. Both brothers
learned the art in the La Arena Center
and in a few months after striking out
on their own, Ernesto had saved enough
to buy a small $1,000 delivery truck.
The annual impact on the town from
the ceramics industry is estimated at
more than $20,000, since other families
besides the Murillos work at it during
their spare time.
The results at La Arena have been
so encouraging that SENAPI officials
organized another ceramics shop in
Chitri under instructor Toribio Ruiz
Avila, a native of La Arena. Ruiz al-
ready is training the first five of a group
of 20 young men from La Pefia, Vera-
guas Province, 254 kilometers west of
"The talent for ceramics of these
young people is marvelous," Ruiz
says. "After two weeks training, they
were fashioning delicate clay figures."
The young men will form the nucleus
of the La Pefia Center.
Ruiz was a student under Mrs.
Gruver, whom he recalls affectionately.
"All I know, I owe to her," he said,
recalling his school days.
The La Pefia Center is being
equipped with a $16,000 donation from
the Panama National Lottery. Labor for
the building is being furnished by resi-
dents of the town. The Center will
specialize in fine ceramics, copying the
pre-Columbian gold huacas. Because of
their small size, there will be no diffi-
culty in shipping these items to prin-
cipal markets in the United States
Thanks to the dedication of a young
teacher imbued with the ambition to
help others, a small town in Panama-
aided by the Government and by the
United Nations-is now pulling itself
up by its own bootstraps. La Arena has
become a stopping point for travelers
and visitors, most of who come away
carrying a fine ceramics piece decora-
ted with Indian motifs and labeled,
Made in La Arena-Panama.
20,000 First Transits
MORE THAN 13,000 ships making
their first transits have been measured
at Cristobal, and more than 7,000 at
Balboa in the past 30 years during
which the present Panama Canal rules
for determining tolls have been in
Panama Canal admeasurers, the men
who compute the ship tolls, made an
informal check recently and came up
with the above figures. They pointed
out, however, that these did not include
every measuring job their offices had
done in the past 30 years. These figures
included only ships making the Canal
transit for the first time. There were
thousands more that had to be meas-
ured again because they had undergone
structural changes since their previous
transit which might have changed
The admeasuring office also said that
more new ships were measured on the
Atlantic side than on the Pacific side
since most new ships were constructed
in European shipyards or on the east
coast of the United States. The bulk of
the new vessels coming into Balboa
have been built in Japanese shipyards,
and there was a considerable increase
in the number of these in the past
Second Billionth Ton
WITH CARGO going through the
Panama Canal at a record rate, Canal
statisticians estimate that it will not be
more than two or three years before
the second billionth ton makes its tran-
sit through the waterway. This year,
for the first time in history, cargo car-
ried on ships using the Canal reached
the 100,000,000 long-ton mark.
The first billionth ton of cargo to pass
from ocean to ocean via the Panama
Canal moved from Atlantic to Pacific
on December 12, 1956 after the Canal
had been in operation 42 years. At that
time, it was estimated that the second
billionth ton would arrive sometime in
1975 or 1976. This schedule possibly
would have still been in effect if the
traffic had not taken a sharp rise due
to ocean movements to and from the Far
East and the closing of the Suez Canal.
Cargo moving in all other routes through
the Panama Canal actually declined in
the past fiscal year, figures show.
New Coastal Freighter
THE 240-FOOT Dina U which was
launched May 24 at Lemmer, The
Netherlands, will join in August a fleet
of three coastal vessels that ply U.S.
Gulf ports and ports on the west coast
of Central America. Operated by the
Azta Line, the Dina U will make reg-
ular trips through the Panama Canal
with cargo for Central America, Pan-
ama and the United States. Of her
76,000-cubic-foot bale capacity, 25,000
feet are fully refrigerated in two
hatches, one forward and one aft.
The ship is fully automated and can
be operated from the bridge. The very
latest nautical instruments have been
installed as well as the most modern
/ 1000 E
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
cargo gear, including two heavy lifts
of 20 tons each. It has a well-appointed
owner's quarters and crew accommoda-
tions, all air-conditioned. Pacific Ford
represents the line at Panama.
Direct N.Y. to N.Z. Service
A DIRECT sea link between New
Zealand and New York will be estab-
lished later this year by the Chandris
Lines when the SS Ellinis begins calling
at New York on its around-the-world
voyages. The vessel will pass through
the Canal in October northbound on its
way from New Zealand to Europe via
Andrews and Company, local agent
for the Chandris Line ships, say that
the SS Queen Frederica, latest addition
to the fleet, is due here the same month
on its first around-the-world trip. The
Australis, formerly the SS America,
made the trip northbound in June, also
on a regular around-the-world voyage
with a stop at Port Everglades, Fla.
THE P. & O. LINES' Oriana returned
to Balboa July 10 from the U.S. west
coast on her first visit since suffering
propeller damage in Gatun Lake early
in April. The ship received permanent
repairs in Southampton and then con-
tinued her around-the-world voyage
from England May 19. She skipped New
Zealand on this voyage in order to re-
turn to her original schedule.
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FOURTH QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1968
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial --------- 3,412 3,310
U.S. Government-- -- 416 269
Free------------------ 21 24
Total --------- 3,849 3.603
Commercial- $22,208,172 $20,658,173
U.S. Government_ 2,541,393 1,676,191
Total --_$24,749,565 $22,334,364
Commercial--- 25,688,151 22,757,829
U.S. Government_ 2,289,625 1,825,283
Free -.---.- 113,766 171,570
Total 28,091,542 24,754,682
a Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
00 Cargo figures are in long tons on all vessels.
oceangoing and small.
TIlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Officers of the Board, from left: Thomas C. Peterson, Vice President; William A. Sullivan, President; and Janet Stanford, Secretary.
INSURANCE PROVES POPULAR
FEW EMPLOYEE programs in the
Panama Canal organization have at-
tracted as wide a participation as
the group health and life insurance
plans which now protect approximately
Premiums totalling $2,409,000 are
paid annually by Panama Canal em-
ployees and nearly 4,000 participants
from other local agencies.
The five health and life insurance
plans are open to U.S.-citizen and non-
U.S.-citizen employees of all agencies,
but Canal employees comprise the bulk
A unique aspect of the insurance
programs is that they are managed by
the employees themselves through an
elected board-the Group Insurance
Board of the Canal Zone. The Board is
composed of 21 representatives of em-
ployees of the Canal organization, the
three military branches, and the Feder-
al Aviation Agency-all but one elected
by the employees. In addition, the
board accepts non-voting members rep-
resenting the Canal Zone Civic Coun-
cils, labor unions and Federal agencies
having under 100 persons enrolled in
Elections for board members are
held every 3 years (the next one is
scheduled in November 1969). In the
Canal organization, bureaus nominate
two candidates each. Ballots are distrib-
uted and collected by timekeepers. U.S.-
citizen employees elect five members
and three alternates; non-U.S.-citizen
employees, six members and three alter-
nates. The reason for the difference in
the number of elected representatives
is that the Panama Canal organization
has accepted the responsibility and ex-
pense of providing office space, person-
nel, materials and services to implement
the actions of the board, and is there-
by authorized to appoint one voting
member to the Board.
Of the five insurance plans admin-
istered by the board, only one is not
under its exclusive supervision. That is
the Canal Zone Benefit Plan (U.S.
Health), the contract for which is nego-
tiated by the U.S. Civil Service Com-
mission under the Federal Employees
Health Benefit Act of 1960. The Presi-
dent of the Group Insurance Board
travels annually to Washington, D.C., to
participate in the contract negotiations.
The other four plans are operated
solely by the Group Insurance Board.
They are the Canal Zone Benefit Plan
(non-U.S. Health), the U.S. Citizens
Supplementary Life Insurance Plan,
the non-U.S. Citizens Life Insurance
Plan and the Group Indemnity and
Supplementary Health Plan.
Mutual of Omaha and United of
Omaha underwrite the health and life
insurance plans, respectively.
The U.S. Citizens Health Plan is
audited by the U.S. Civil Service
Commission; the other four plans by
Arthur Andersen & Co., which is a
consultant firm under contract to the
Employees of the following Federal
agencies on the Isthmus are covered by
one or more of the insurance plans:
Panama Canal organization, U.S. Army,
U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, Federal
Aviation Agency, Smithsonian Institute,
Fort Gulick Officers' Open Mess, Army/
Air Force Exchange, Middle America
Research Unit, Army/Air Force Motion
Picture, and American Embassy. The
number of participants per agency
ranges from two in the non-U.S. Life
plan for Army/Air Force Motion Picture
to 8,781 in the non-U.S. health plan for
the Canal organization.
The Group Insurance Board is
charged with "assuring that the most
beneficial and effective results to the
participating members are obtained."
To carry out its mission, the board holds
frequent special meetings in addition
to regular quarterly sessions.
Officers of the board are: William A.
Sullivan, president; Thomas C. Peter-
son, vice president; and Janet Stanford,
Honda. Sony. Canon. Toyota.
Japanese names? Yes.
Well known? Quite.
Ah-so, but not always. For decades, the only Japanese
familiar to the Western ear were Fuji, Yokohama, and Tokyo
Rose-points of interest or siren nicknames-and later, the
terrible names of Suribachi, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Even
after World War 11 was over, brand names of Japanese goods
hardly became household words overnight in any place but Ja-
pan. What manufactured goods did find their way into export
were generally cheap, non-competitive items which tended
to lend a twist of derision to the phrase, Made in Japan. It
was as though Japan produced nothing but toys, firecrackers
Time has erased this myth. Little by little, tariffs were
lifted, other commercial barriers removed, and the eyes of
the world opened to a vital, reconstructed Japan that in two
decades rose from the ashes of defeat to become one of the
major industrial powers of the world. Japan now challenges
world markets with quality cameras, television, automobiles,
motorcycles-and practically dominates the field of small tran-
sistorized components. The nation has even threatened the
long-time supremacy of other nations in basic industries such
as steel, metallurgy, and shipbuilding.
Sharply increased Japanese exports and shipping both owe
an enormous debt to the Port of Kobe, an ancient site which
dates back to the eighth century as an important center of com-
merce and now celebrating its I00th anniversary as a formal
international port. It is today the first port of Japan in terms
of value of trade ($3.9 billion in 1966) and covers a sprawling
5.4 square miles in water area alone. Its chief product move-
ment involves steel, rubber goods, sake, machinery, books,
and last, but extremely prominent-ships.
The port is also a city which is an international and cosmo-
politan one-no recent development but having evolved from
the assimilation of varied foreign cultures which began to
settle in Kobe from the 19th century on. The port attracted
commerce, commerce bred wealth, and the resultant stability
nurtured the seeds of a flowering city.
Kobe is an excellent natural port, surrounded by various
mountains. Wada-misaki Point shields the harbor from the
high, western waves, the Rokko summits protect it on the
north, and the port thus requires breakwaters in only two
directions-east and south-to be secure from high seas. This
has made the massive expansion undergone since World War
II far less expensive than it would have been otherwise. As
to future growth, this includes a port island currently under
construction which will berth 30 additional ships. Other ex-
pansion projects, including those to take care of the new con-
tainer ships, are either on the drawing board or already begun,
to keep pace with Kobe's apparently endless increase in pro-
fitable ship traffic. To lend an idea of this constant growth,
from 1955 to 1966 Kobe more than tripled the number of
ships handled, from 20,328 to 73,164.
In its long and varied history, Kobe has passed through
the traditional growing pains of large commercial ports, but
has had additional difficulties to overcome which go back as
far as the 15th century. From the 15th through the I8th
centuries, for example, armed patrol boats maintained vigi-
lance around the port to control the many pirates who roved
the inland seas in search of booty. The port also suffered a
a major earthquake in the 16th century, and had to be di-
verted to military use during the Sino-Japanese and Russo-
Japanese wars. In addition, Japan did not willingly open its
portals to trade with the West, and the initial result of Com-
modore Perry's two visits to Japan in the I850's was merely
an agreement which permitted Western ships to refuel and
take on supplies at Japanese ports. By the I860's, however,
Japan's commercial isolation from the Occident was beginning
to crumble, and in 1868 Kobe became a port of international
scope. It has been such ever since.
Whether Japan's ever-increasing varieties of export will
make even more of its product names world famous, only
time will tell. But if they do, you can be sure the Port of
Kobe played a large part in it.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Just one segment of the huge Japanese port.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
I -Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
South Korean --
United States --
All Others ---
No. of Tons of
No. of Tons of
transit of cargo
I Transits I
February ---- -----
fiscal year _---
Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)
1968 1967 Tolls
7,400 6,205 4,929
6,751 6,392 4,920
6,370 6,057 4,697
6,754 6,157 4,838
6,672 6,028 4,748
7,133 6,084 4,955
6,916 6,318 4,635
6,685 6,049 4,506
7,028 6,831 5,325
7,301 6,823 5,067
7,493 7,005 5,232
7,405 6,820 5,013
83,908 76,769 58,865
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into eight main trade routes:
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
United States Intercoastal--____ ________ 123 134 115
East coast United States and South America __---__- 380 398 583
East coast United States and Central America --~__- 183 175 128
East coast United States and Far East _______- 807 756 565
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia --- 86 112 80
Europe and West coast United States/Canada__..._. 248 229 235
Europe and South America- ____ 329 474 328
Europe and Australasia._ _______ 121 99 112
All other routes ------------------. --.__-_ 1,135 932 773
Total traffic -__ ----.___-- _--- ____--- 3,412 3,309 2,919
A Busy Man
NOT LONG ago when the British
cruise liner Oriana, en route to England
with more thai, 1,000 passengers, dam-
aged her port propeller as she was
passing through Gatun Lake, one of the
first men to board her was C. H.
Haman, Senior Survevor for Lloyd's
Register of Shipping in the Canal Zone.
Getting on the ship at Gatun Locks,
Haman made a thorough investigation
of the damage which, in the language of
Lloyd's, had put her "out of class" (not
seaworthy). In this case, the Oriana got
temporary repairs and was given an in-
terim certificate to proceed on her voy-
age with one engine, provided that she
get permanent repairs on arrival at her
home port of Southampton. The Oriana
sailed from Nassau, where she unloaded
her passengers and later was repaired
This was only one of the many duties
that keep the Surveyor for Lloyd's on
24-hour call seven days a week. In
fact, he is one of the busiest men at
the Canal, where more than 13,000
oceangoing ships cross each year.
Most of the work concerns regular
run-of-the-mill ships that limp into
Balboa or Cristobal any time of the day
or night or suffer damage while making
the Canal transit. In case of trouble.
the man from Lloyd's or his counter-
part from the American Bureau of Ship-
ping, which also maintains a full-time
surveyor here, is one of the first men
to be called.
Haman, who is retiring this year. is
a native of Holland. A naturalized U.S.
citizen, he has been on the job for
Lloyd's at the Panama Canal for the
past 18 years. He received his educa-
tion in the United States, holds a Chief
Engineer's license, and is a member of
the U.S. Society of Naval Architects
and Engineers and of the Northeast
Coast Institution of Engineers and
Shipbuilders of Great Britain.
Prior to joining Lloyd's Register of
Shipping in 1947, he was Superintend-
ent-engineer of the Middle Eastern
area with Lumberman's Mutual Cas-
ualty Company, and port engineer for
the War Shipping Administration in
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)
C. H. Haman
Naples and Port Said. He came to Bal-
boa from Baltimore as ship and en-
gineer surveyor and subsequently was
appointed senior surveyor. During his
years here, Haman has attended ships
classed in Lloyd's Register of Shipping
in ports of Central and South America
and has supervised ship construction in
Peru and Mexico.
Haman and his successor John
Charlton, a British engineer who came
here from Mobile, Ala., are two of a
group of permanent surveyors ap-
pointed to the Canal by Lloyd's. The
society, however, has been represented
at the Canal since it was opened to
traffic in 1914. At that time, Lloyd's
surveying work was handled by E. S.
Humber, head of a well-known local
British family, who also was agent for
the Corporation of Lloyd's, the sister
organization that transacts ship insur-
ance. Humber in turn, appointed en-
gineers who did the actual inspection
In 1922, Lloyd's announced that they
had decided to station in the Canal
Zone one of their own engineers as ex-
clusive surveyor for Lloyd's. Following
the arrival of George Allan from New
York, the office on the second floor of
the Terminals Building in Balboa was
opened. It is manned by the surveyor
and Fred Ramdeen, the staff clerk and
accountant who has worked there since
1924 and has been right-hand man to
all nine of the former surveyors.
The society known as Lloyd's Reg-
ister of Shipping, with headquarters in
London, England and branches in prin-
cipal ports throughout the world, has
been engaged for the past 200 years
in the classification of ships. The
phrase, "A-1 at Lloyd's" has become a
byword of quality in countries all
around the globe.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 5-Yr. Avg.
1968 1967 1961-65
Ores, various__ -__-__---------- ------- 1,103,983 1,077,762 246,962
Boards and planks ----------- --------- 1,029,546 N.A. N.A.
Sugar ------------------------------ 724,440 700,662 593,689
Iron and steel plates, sheets, coils ---- 642,998 N.A. N.A.
Fishmeal-------------------- ---- 461,577 391,831 N.A.
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous ---- ------------ 413,503 N.A. N.A.
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)___--------- --- 377,920 268,024 239,518
Bananas -- 354,613 380,903 302,024
Metals, various _-------------- -- 313,004 310,406 316,863
Pulpwoud ------ 288,851 200,254 141,437
Potash ---_---------------------------_ 260,579 98,589 1,956
Plywood -------- -------------------- 210,467 N.A. N.A.
Lumber, miscellaneous---_ 169,059 N.A. N.A.
Canned food products --------------------- 155,309 153,596 217,725
Iron and steel wire, bars, and rods__--- 149,882 N.A. N.A.
All others ----- --------- 2,684,027 4,378,962 5,939,749
Total ----- ---------- 9,339,758 7,960,989 7,999,923
Atlantic to Pacific
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 196 1967 5-Yr. Avg.
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)__ 4,575,163 4,412,152 3,032,710
Coal and coke_ --- ----- 3,866,856 2,527,935 1,630,663
Phosphate ----------------------- 1,246,581 865,414 553,806
Corn ----------------------------- -- 793,888 545,273 368,977
Soybeans -672,205 427,349 332,040
Metal, scrap ---- --------- ---- 407,077 1,291,156 669,565
Ores, various --------------------- 365,525 331,333 86,020
Metal, iron ---------- ------ 278,974 276,196 52,629
Sugar ------ 267,705 319,352 320,063
Rice --- --------------- ---------- 257,422 248,327 63,341
Sorghum ---------- 202,437 192,117 N.A.
Paper and paper products__---- --- 197,843 153,019 115,754
Wheat ---- -------- 193,491 146,892 147,473
Fertilizers, unclassified ----- --------- 190,594 155,850 104,308
Cotton, raw ------ ------------- -- 181,895 122,465 105,447
All others ---------------------- 2,648,794 2,779,444 2,312,641
Total --- ------ 16,346,450 14,794,274 9,895,437
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
1968 1967 Transits
to to Total Total Total
Oceangoing ---------- 1,705 1,707 3,412 3,310 2,919
Small --.---- ------ 80 74 154 175 134
Total commercial ------ 1,785 1,781 3,566 3,485 3,053
U.S. Government vessels: 00
Oceangoing 232 184 416 269 64
Small ---------------- 16 15 31 33 37
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment_----------- --- 2,033 1,980 4,013 3,787 3,154
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1. 1951, Government-operated ships
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW