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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00040
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: May 1968
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00040
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Matter
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text
















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalremayl 968pana



















































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W. P. LE
H. R. PAHF
FR
Panama C


ress Officer
tions Editor
nts
EL, FANNIE P.
T. TUNON


bout Our Cover

THE COLOR photo on our cover shows picturesque
Goofy Lake in Cerro Azul, about 25 miles east of Pan-
ama City. The highest point in Cerro Azul is 3,700 feet
while the lake itself is 2,150 feet above sea level, altitudes
that provide an invigorating, cooling change from Pan-
ama City. From the paved road that winds its way up,
the motorist is treated to sweeping views of the rolling
green mountains and of the lake.
Cerro Azul is but one of several areas of natural
beauty near Panama City worth the effort of driving.
There are others which, without the benefit of ballyhoo,
await the visitor. A few of these locales are discussed in
an article beginning on page 10.
Veteran sea captains who command huge tankers are
learning more about their profession at a small, man-
made lake in the foothills of the French Alps. It may
sound a bit farfetched at first but in reality is a cleverly
engineered operation that sharpens the skills of the
captains selected for the program. The story of the
school for skippers is an intriguing one and begins on
the opposite page.
The hobbyist who collects objects-whether they be
stamps, coins or whatever-builds a vast knowledge of
geography, history, and other matters through his collec-
tions. So it is with the collectors of bottles, who dig the
bottles from the soil, retrieve them from the ocean floor,
and occasionally even uncover them at dumps. An account
on the active Isthmian bottle collectors begins on page 6.
Computers have been put to work to solve some of the
problems concerning slides in the Panama Canal. Start-
ing on page 16 is a report on how the Canal's Civil
Engineering Branch is using these ultramodern machines
to answer questions that have plagued engineers since
construction days.
Cockfighting is the topic of an illustrated article that
begins on page 21. This pastime flourishes today in Latin
America, though it is banned in many nations of the
world. The fans in Panama are perhaps as avid as lovers
of cockfighting anywhere; there are cockrings in almost
every town and city in the Republic.


index


School for Skippers -___


Bottle Buffs_


Views of Panama______

Shipping Notes

Anniversaries --- ---


Canal History_

Computers Solve Slide Problems

Shipping Story _

Shipping Statistics______


----- 16

18


Cockfighting


d


f ~1


James P. MacLaren displays several of his old bottles in a bamboo
bottle tree. Bottles on the table include case bottles, patent medicine,
food, gin, whisky, bitters, French mustard, Scotland beer, and other
relics. MacLaren hccame a bottle collector by chance when he
was lost while reconnoitering for pieces-of-eight on the Las Cruces
trail. He found an early handblown bottle and was hooked!


MAY 1968


BER, Governor-President MORGAN E. (OODWIN, P
ATTr, Lieutenant Governor TOMAS A. CUPAS, Publica
N A. BALDWIN Editorial Assista
ANK A. BALDWIN
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITr
anal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.



































Esso tanker captains maneuver their precisely scaled models during lake exercises at Grenoble. The models represent ships of 38,000,
80,000, and 191,000 deadweight tons, which the student-skippers learn to command. *
Pholo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.)



Set in the Jrench c4lp




School for Ship Captains


(The following article appeared in
a recent issue of The Lamp, Stand-
ard Oil Company (New Jersey) pub-
lication, which granted permission for
this reprinting in THE PANAMA CANAL
REVIEw.)
By Robert K. Bruce
"NEVER THOUGHT I'd be going back
to school on a ruddy little inland lake,"
said the British sea captain with a laugh.
For the past 6 years he had been a
pilot for Esso at the Libyan oil port of
Marsa el Brega on the Mediterranean.
guiding tankers to their moorings in all
weather. But at the moment he was
taking part in a 2-week course in ship-
handling at the Esso Marine Research
and Training Center, a unique institu-
tion located 35 miles northwest of
Grenoble, France.
On arriving at the center, he and his
seven classmates, all of them tanker


captains, displayed a certain skepticism
toward the program that awaited them.
After all, their seagoing experience
ranged from 14 to 30 years, and each
had established his competence beyond
question. Why, at this advanced stage
of their careers, had they been asked
to this secluded spot in the foothhills
of the Alps to pilot model ships on a
man-made lake?
The answer lies in the dramatic
growth in the size of tankers being built
in recent years and Jersey Standard's
recognition of the need to develop
training techniques to help its captains
and harbor pilots make the transition
from smaller ships to the supertankers
coming into service. In the past, tankers
in the Jersey fleet grew in relatively
small increments, and it was possible
for captains and pilots to predict ma-
neuvering and navigating characteristics


of each bigger ship on the basis of ex-
perience with the next smaller class. At
191,000 deadweight tons, however, the
recently completed Esso Malaysia is
100,000 deadweight bigger than the
largest Jersey tanker before her and is
the first of six ships of this class. The
current building program also includes
13, 240,000-deadweight-ton vessels,
with the first one due to enter service in
1969. There are few guides for han-
dling such vessels, and thus it is im-
perative to give shipmasters as much
knowledge as possible about proper
handling before they ever set foot on
the actual ships.
"Before the first group got here, we
knew what the initial reaction of the
men would be," acknowledged Capt.
Alf Lindh, one of the center's three
instructors and himself a veteran ship-
(See p. 4)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Ship Models



Perform Like



Big Vessels


(Continued from p. 3)
master and pilot. "They have every
right to question our methods and our
ability to teach them something they
don't already know about shiphandling.
I think we would be disappointed if
they didn't."
Capt. Joe Johnston, who played a
major role in developing the training
program and who now teaches at the
center, goes a step further. "The skep-
ticism these men bring with them is
actually an advantage. It makes all the
more meaningful the moment when
they discover for themselves the remark-
able similarity between handling a
model on the lake and a full-sized
tanker at sea."
There are four models. The largest
is the Esso Brittany, a 1 foot to 25 foot
scale copy of the 191,000 deadweight
Esso Malaysia. It is 42.5 feet long, has
a beam of 6.5 feet, draws slightly less
than 2.5 feet, weighs nearly 14 tons,
and will hold three men. Another 1 foot
to 25 foot model is the 38,000-dead-
weight Esso Berlin. It is 26 feet long
and holds two men. The Esso Grenoble
is also a model of the Esso Malaysia
class but on a scale of 1 foot to 40 foot.
It is 25 feet long and, like its larger
sister, holds three. The Esso Pembroke-
shire, a 1-foot to 40-foot model of its
80,000-deadweight namesake, is 20.5
feet long, and holds two people.
The models are not intended as exact
miniatures in every detail of their full-
sized counterparts. There are none of
the pipes, walkways, ladders, and
hatches that clutter a real tanker deck.
The normally flat deck is broken by
places for the helmsman and-in the
two 191,000-deadweight models-the
"deckhand" to sit.
But meticulous care has been taken
to make the models perform exactly
like the big ships. For example, the elec-
tric drive motors produce the precise
scale equivalent power as the big ships'
engines. It takes a while to reverse the
engine of a ship or to increase or de-
crease its speed. Electrical relays simu-
late this time lag in the models. Similar-


As the Brittany eases toward a model of the Esso mooring tower at Marsa el Brega, its
deckhand gages the remaining distances.
Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.)


ly, a series of relays times the movement
of a model's rudder to correspond with
that of the real ship.
In all the models, the captain sits
with his eyes at the level they would be
if he were standing on the bridge of a
full-sized ship. If the bow of his model
blocks the view of a buoy, he'll know
that the big ship will restrict his vision
in exactly the same manner. So detailed
is the simulation of performance that
the model's anchor chains will break
under a strain equivalent in scale to
that which could snap a full-sized chain.
A visitor to Esso REM (For Rech-
erche et d'Essais pour la Marine) can
detect none of this realism as he watch-
es the models maneuvering on their 9-


acre sea. But he can sense it in the
animated conversations of the captains
during the classroom sessions and at the
excellent family-style lunches served in
the weathered farmhouse that is head-
quarters for Esso REM. And, seeing the
fatigue on the men's faces at the end
of a day of lake practice, he can well
understand Captain Johnston's remark
that 2 weeks at the center provide the
captains with years of additional ship-
handling experience. But even these im-
pressions in no way prepare the visitor
for the astonishing illusion that sailing
in one of these models creates.
Occupants of the helmsman's and
deckhand's positions in all but the larg-
est model half recline in their seats, their


MAY 1968






eyes at approximately the same level
as those of a man standing on the deck
of a full-sized tanker. Seen from this
position, the water stretches away for
great distances, the now remote shore-
lines blurred by heat waves rising from
the surface. The lake's 9 acres suddenly
become the 30 square miles of ocean
they represent in scale with the model.
From his forward seat in a 191,000-
deadweight model, the visitor can look
back along the broad main deck and
appreciate fully the tremendous size of
the 1,062-foot giant after which it is
patterned. He experiences the same
feeling, watching the gray hull of an-
other model glide past, that he would
meeting a ship at sea.
Added to his visual impressions are
the dimensions of motion and sound.
The model's speed and the way it re-
luctantly begins a turn, then swings with
increasing speed as the rudder over-
comes the vessel's forward momentum,
have the feel of a real tanker. The mo-
tion produced by a wave-making ma-
chine evokes vivid memories of tankers
churning through heavy seas. The elec-
tric motor's high-pitched whine, which
has no place in the steadily building
illusion, is soon forgotten. Another


sound replaces it, the half-heard, half-
beat of the propeller. Each model is
equipped with a radio system that per-
mits conversations between crew posi-
tions on the model, with other boats on
the lake, and with the instructors, who
oversee the exercises from outboard-
powered launches. Conversations are
crisp and professional. Listening to
them, one might easily be picking up
messages from the waters around a busy
tanker terminal.
Participants in the program must pay
unceasing attention to the operation of
their ships. An Italian captain summed
it up at the conclusion of an exercise.
"You can't relax a minute. You have to
concentrate all the way."
The lake, shaped like a dented oval,
is about 900 feet at its longest point and
600 at the widest. It was built by Trap-
pist monks in the 17th century to raise
fish for the tables of French monarchs,
was redesigned and enlarged for Esso
REM. After the lake had been drained,
its bottom was carefully shaped to form
shoals, bays, channels, and deep-water
areas, all in 1 foot to 25 foot scale. A 400-
foot-long replica of an actual bend in
the Suez Canal was carved out of
the western bank. Scale hydrographic


charts, used throughout the training
program, show depths ranging from
250 feet in the center to 40 feet near
the northern entrance of "Suez." In
actual fact, these represent water depths
of 10 feet and 1.6 feet. These latter
figures are not likely to be heard at the
the center, however, for a reason that
was explained to a visitor by Joe John-
ston during an early morning walk from
the office to the boathouse. The route
passes a small dam built to help keep
the lake at a constant level. This sum-
mer, however, the problem was one of
too little water, rather than too much.
Unusually dry weather had reduced the
inflow to a trickle.
"The lake is really low today," Cap-
tain Johnston commented. "It's down
about 7 feet." When his companion
mentioned that it looked to be only
about 2 inches below the spillway, the
captain smiled and said, "We don't like
to talk in inches or centimeters here.
As long as we can keep the captains
thinking in terms of feet, those are
real ships they're in and the training
will work."
Equipment on the lake includes a
replica of the unique Esso-designed
(See p. 13)


~r '. 4
-'.',-. *
1-11-5 , o sn.

tia
-y .~j ; %
:7-~


Win

.~c, b.-..


The 42.5-foot Esso Brittany negotiates a difficult turn at a bend in the channel.
Photo by Standard Oil Co. (N.J.)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




































Elizabeth Robinson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Robinson, holds a beautiful black glass specimen from the collection of magnificent
case bottles found in Robinson's collection. Robinson began collecting bottles in 1950 and his parents were collectors.


THE CLINK of a spade striking glass
is music to the ear of the bottle buff
digging in hard ground. Carefully, di-
ligently, and expectantly, he digs away
not to break or mar the object which
may be a rare specimen-or just an-
other piece of broken glass. Search-
ing for bottles which are no longer
in use can be great fun and working
toward a collection, an absorbing and
satisfying hobby.
More than a dozen bottle enthusiasts
in the Canal Zone pursue this fascinat-
ing activity. They are unsung historians
who, by piecing together bits of in-
formation on bottles, are digging out
facts about different areas and eras of
culture. They experience the thrill of
finding something that once served and
lay buried and untouched, perhaps for
many years. They have the fun of buy-
ing and selling or swapping their loot
which may have come from the dump!
Bottle collecting is becoming more
and more popular on the historically
colorful Isthmus where Spanish, Eng-
lish and French pirates trod the trail
from the Chagres River to Panama City.
Years later, the 49'ers used the same
route to go from New York to the gold
fields of California.
Many tossed their empties of whisky


Bottle Buffs


Read History



In Old Glass



in the brush after quenching a tropical
thirst. Later still, thousands of con-
struction workers on the Canal added
their depleted bottles of bitters, whis-
ky and patent medicines to the debris
on the Isthmus. Much of this accumu-
lation of bottles which was not broken
or pulverized, plus bottles which once
contained food, cosmetics, and house-
hold liquids, now lie half buried in the
jungle, in the sea, in old dumps, and
anywhere that man paused to feed
himself and administer to his ailments.
Collectors rummaging for these early
day bottles on the Las Cruces trail have
found hand blown bottles dating back
to the 1860's, and flaws and color of


several finds indicate much older bot-
tles. Very often they pick up pieces,
necks and bottoms with blob seals.
Finding one of these often gets a person
hooked on bottles. More fortunate col-
lectors have found valuable coins
without too much effort.
Bottle collecting on the Isthmus does
not involve a great deal of back-break-
ing digging. On weekends, collectors
may be found scavenging old dumps,
uncovering jungle growths, and even
donning scuba diving gear to search in
the ocean. Remains of the original 25
Canal construction townsites are the
most fertile grounds and have exposed
many rare old bottles. Areas such as
Gorgona, Culebra, Matachin, San Pablo,
Las Cascadas, Lion Hill, Nombre de
Dios, and many other Canal construc-
tion sites once inhabited by workers
have left a legacy of beautiful black
glass, clay, stoneware, aquamarine, and
other crudely made bottles. They have
been found under sidewalks, beneath
fallen tree trunks, in the water and in
old bottle dumps. A collector knows
that pieces of broken glass glistening
in the distance may be the key to an
old dump and a depression near an old
building may have been a garbage
dump and yield rare old bottles.


MAY 1968






Taboga Island with its historic past,
has rewarded collectors with perhaps
the most valuable specimens in terms
of years. As far back as the 16th Cen-
tury Taboga and its surrounding islands
supplied provisions for Panama City.
Galleons for the conquest of Peru were
built here and these same ships, laden
with gold treasures, stopped here where
the riches were unloaded for an over-
land trip to the Atlantic coast of the
Isthmus, and from there on to Spain
aboard ship.
Later Taboga harbor was a hive of
activities offering snug mooring, fresh
water and supplies for vessels plying
the Pacific. Ships from many nations
stopped at the Pacific Mail Steamship
Company coal houses and machine shop
and took on or deposited Welsh coal
and bottles of medicine potions (some
made by a Scotchwoman there). Canal
Zone bottle collectors diving in Taboga
Bay bring up these bottles of medicine
potions, compounds of castor oil, soda
water and whisky.
The soda water bottles, called tear
- drops by collectors, were often used as
ballast in ships from England and Scot-
land. Several of these, filled with dirt,
marine life and bearing barnacles are
now in the possession of Canal Zone
collectors. Some of the oldest Taboga
bottles have been found by scuba diver
collector Sgt. Dion Daugherty. One of
the finest specimens has been found
by shell-collector Elizabeth Ballerini
(wife of a Gorgas Hospital doctor) on
Kobbe Beaoh across from Taboga.
On the Atlantic side, bottle collectors
Luke Palumbo and Jim Collins search
for old bottles out toward Fort Sherman
and San Lorenzo. Palumbo's collection
contains several handblown bottles,
black glass square bottles, inkwells and
a variety of medicine containers. Bottle
collecting is a family project with the
Collins family which includes 5 children
-all avid collectors. Their collection of
approximately 300 specimens includes
bottles and inkwells from many parts
of the world. Of particular interest are
several one gallon moonshine jugs from
Jamaica, France, and the United States
and medicine bottles which are em-
bossed with porcelain. Several bottles
date prior to 1849, probably 1830's and
early 40's and some bottles Collins dug
in a village, which according to maps,
dated back to 1763.
One of the first Canal Zone collectors
was Adrien Bouche, member of a well-
known Canal Zone family, who began
digging about 20 years ago when bottle
collecting was little known on the Isth-
mus. His collection, relatively small in
number, is compensated by the high


,) P



~i t
I


Scuba diver-collector Sgt. Dion Daugherty holds a French ink and a Taboga bottle from
his collection of antique bottles. His are some of the oldest found near Taboga.


quality of his selections. Bouche be-
lieves that the most valuable bottles
come from deep in the ground and
that is where most of his come from
-the old townsite dumps at Gorgona,
La Pita, the Las Cruces trail and the
sites of towns in existence before Canal
construction days.
A Chinese rice vinegar jug and two
lovely Chinese bottles which look like
vases, and probably contained wine, are
outstanding in the collection. These bot-
tles may be an indication that Chinese
had once established themselves as mer-
chants in food in these areas. Several old
beer bottles he found in La Pita (a signal
station on the Cut), and labeled Drew's
Doppell Kronenbier, are the only ones
of this type to be found in the Isthmus.
Perhaps a La Pita resident had a par-
ticular fondness for that German brew


and imported it for his exclusive
drinking pleasure.
A handblown bottle he picked up in
Boquete showing the whittle marks of
a wooden mold is truly a collector's
treasure. Two dog-bottles (having pic-
tures of dogs) Bouche picked up in a
drainage ditch excavation in Bocas del
Toro, marked JJW Peters, one with a
dog's head and the other plain, are
more than 100 years old.
In digging up these relics Bouche has
exposed such articles as old wood and
coal burning stoves, grates, coins, iron
beds, springs, high-button shoes, spit-
oons, clay pipes and many other objects
of a bygone era. Some of the bottles
found in the entanglement of these ar-
ticles have a film over the glass caused
by the action of water seepage on the
(See p. 8)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


ar M



























Broken concrete slabs near a large tree root at Gorgona have been lifted to reveal these
clay bottles which were used as a base under the concrete. Usually the bottles were placed
neck down, side by side to make a firmer base. They were used also to outline graves.




ottlei ZJell Jitstory



O( Jt 9tmui and World


(Continued from p. 7)
old imperfect glass. The glazed clay
bottles he has found buried deep in the
earth have an etching caused by alka-
line substances which has worked on
the glass over the many years.
It is apparent that a large number of
clay bottles (some made by Doulton)
reached the Isthmus from England and
Scotland. They are the most common
bottles found in the Canal Zone col-
lections. These hardy empties were used
(upside down) to outline graves and
gardens. Their ruggedness is responsible
for their surviving the ravages of time.
Frank Robinson, who is with the
Hydrology Section of the Interoceanic
Canal Studies, and his brother John,
who began collecting in 1950, are
among the early Canal Zone bottle buffs.
Their parents also were Canal Zone bot-
tle collectors before them. Frank Robin-
son's collection includes a variety of
magnificent case bottles, the very dark
bottles whose square shape allowed 12
bottles to be packed in a case. The
elegant large bottles contained gin from
Holland. Among his outstanding and
beautiful case bottles is one picked up


by a friend at an old abandoned tin
mine in Australia.
James Fulton, a newcomer among
the bottle collectors, has amassed a col-
lection of approximately 1,500 speci-
mens in about I year of bottle hunting.
His most recent acquisition is a lovely
demijohn found in the Interior of Pan-
ama which could be 150 years old. His
large collection consists of every varie-
ty of bottle on the Isthmus. There are
clay beers, rum, whisky, gins, dog-
bottles, taper gins, bitters, cosmetics,
Paraiso Springs Coca-Cola, wines, black
glass, blue medicine, inks and many
others. His favorite is the square Aro-
matic Schnapps bottle from Holland.
Fulton has found most of his bottles
along the Canal and not more than 2
inches below the ground.
J. P. MacLaren, Chief of the Sanita-
tion Division, an enthusiastic collector.
is currently displaying a bottle collec-
tion at the Canal Zone Library-Museum.
His remarkable collection of approxi-
mately 500 quality bottles includes bev-
erages, household and patent medicine
bottles from many parts of the world
-the U.S., the Caribbean, many Euro-


pean countries and from as far off as
India. He points out Canal Zone bottles
which are collectors' items simply be-
cause they are bottles of this area. One
of the oldest is a Niagara bottle em-
bossed with the names J. E. Duncombe,
Canal Zone, R.P. and I. L. Maduro,
Canal Zone, which contained soda
water, lemonade and other sweetened
carbonated beverages, and has a mar-
ble in its pinched top to let out a jigger
at a time. The same bottle has been
found embossed "Isthmanian Aerated
Water Factory, Colon" showing the
wide usage of all bottles for different
beverages.
Medicine bottles in the MacLaren
collection bear such names as Pink Pills
for Pale People, Lydia Pinkham's Blood
Purifier, Benjamin's Lung Balsm, Davis
Vegetable Pain Killer, Chamberlain's
Colic, Cholera and Diarrhea Remedy,
and Morses Indian Root Pills.
It is interesting to note that the patent
medicine habit was a serious and dan-
gerous one in the United States at the
turn of the century. A mother who gave
her child a dose of Mrs. Winslow's
Soothing Syrup was actually doping
the child to sleep with opium! When
our grandmothers nipped a bottle of
Ayer's Cherry Pectoral for their colds,
they were drinking a mixture of 34
percent heroin! A large number of
these products found their way to the
Canal Zone.
Bottle collectors usually classify their
bottles according to the contents they
once contained. Bottles for beverages
probably have the most extensive as-
sortment with bitters bottles taking the
lead. When a stiff tax on the sale of
gin and the number of pubs went into
effect in England, a surprising number
of apothacary shops came into existence
selling medicinal gin to help cure the
ailments of the day. The practice carried
across the Atlantic to the United States
and a new product, bitters, was born
and became very popular. More than
400 kinds of bitters were put on the
market to relieve the aches, pains and
thirst of our ancestors who enjoyed their
liquor under the guise of cure-alls.
Many of these are found in the Canal
Zone bottle collections.
Dating a bottle and getting the facts
of a find may involve considerable re-
search such as writing to companies,
researching lists of businesses which
have been inactive for many years, and
contacting other bottle collectors.
The actual value of a bottle is not
necessarily determined by age. A col-
lector may be interested in embossed
bottles, bottles of a certain age, color,


MAY 1968





shape or height, bottles of a particular
method of manufacture, or other cate-
gories according to his whims. Collec-
tors know that bottles made from earli-
est times to about 1860 were free
blown, made by a glassblower who
dipped the end of his blowpipe into a
pot of molten glass and the size and
shape of the bottle was determined by
blowing and reheating the bubble at
the end of the blowpipe. The worker
cut the glass from the blowpipe leaving
a rough scar referred to as a pontil
mark. This mark is the surest sign of a
valuable collectable bottle. Free blown
bottles were never alike. They were
often lopsided, had uneven walls and
crudely applied lips, as the lip was ap-
plied after the bottle was shaped. An-
other sure sign of a very old bottle is
a "sheared lip" (before 1840). The lip
was formed by simply cutting the glass
free of the blowpipe with a pair of
shears, leaving the lip with a stovepipe


look. After 1840, bottle makers applied
a ring of glass around the sheared lip.
Wooden molds were used from about
1800 to 1860. These molds were whit-
tled from apple or maple wood and the
bottles cast in these carved molds have
the telltale whittle marks which col-
lectors look for. The molds were in two,
three, four or five pieces. The glass-
blower blew a few puffs lowering a
glass lump into the hollow mold and
then continued blowing into the tube
until the glass was forced against the
sides of the mold. Raised letters were
whittled in the molds and the molten
glass took the shape of the container.
Ninety percent of the bottles made
before 1904 were not embossed. Before
the Civil War, instructions for taking a
medicine or the name of a firm was
written on a piece of paper and tied to
the neck of the bottle.
Molds were replaced by semi-auto-
matic machines and then in 1903 an


automatic bottle-making machine came
into existence. But it was 10 years
before machinery replaced hand blown
mass production of bottles.
The fascination of searching for these
bottles that reveal what our Isthmian
forefathers drank, ate, and used to cure
their ailments, has captured the fancy
of several other Canal Zone collectors
such as, Alwyn Sprague, Carl Glass,
Kenneth Manthorne, Al Chandler,
Robert Stewart, Edward McFarland,
Charles Rheberg, Gustave Bliss, Karl
Longley, Lois Harrison, and Judy
Williams.
Bliss, who is with the 352d, U.S. Army
Aviation Detachment at Fort Clayton,
has found the subject of glass recovered
on the Isthmus so intriguing that he
is writing a historical narrative with
pictorial views of the bottles found in
the Canal Zone and vicinity. Bliss'
efforts are sure to be invaluable to
future collectors and historians.


__ A


/I^


t


AI


Pati and Doree MacLaren hold an early French wine bottle found underground along the Las Cruces trail. The assortment of bottles in
front includes "tear drops," round bottom sodas, French champagnes, raboga dark glass, food, beverages, and medicine bottles.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


-~JF"


-"


.41
"jr .*


' t,


,. t







Vistas Abound



In Panama's



Countryside



UNSUSPECTED NATURAL beauties
lie within easy distance off Panama's
main highway.
Picturesque towns and sights abound,
to be sure, along the Inter-American
Highway from the boundary with Costa
Rica to Chepo, 37 miles east of Panama
City. But for the motorist willing to
exert a little effort, the reward can be
an unforgettable sight or spot.
A dirt, gravel or macadam road
branching off the pavement usually
leads to such a reward.
Goofy Lake in Cerro Azul, El Chorro
in La Chorrera, and La Angostura in
Penonom6 are three examples of spec-
tacularly beautiful places off the beaten
path.
Cerro Azul is 25 miles east of Panama
City, an hour's drive. The turn-off is
roughly midway on the road between
Tocumen Airport and Pacora.
The development started in 1943
when Juan Euribiades Jim6nez, a prom-
inent Panama City businessman, pur-
chased a 3,000-hectare (7,500 acres)
tract. He became interested in the place
when he was told by a visiting German
urbanization expert that an area with
Alpine climate lay close to the capital
city and would provide an ideal de-
velopment area. Later a road was built
from the Pacora Highway to Cerro
Azul. The name, incidentally, was
inspired by the Blue Ridge Mountains
in Virginia.
When Jim6nez purchased the land,
there was no lake. About 3 years after
he acquired the property, he was on
a hunting trip with a guide from the
area and they came onto a marshy
valley. The guide told him the area
flooded during the rainy season, be-
coming a lagoon. He said he was
sure if a retaining wall were built,
the waters would be trapped and a
year-round lake would be formed.
That's how Goofy Lake was con-
ceived.
Jim6nez decided to tackle the project.
A Panamanian engineering firm drew


"...- "i~u ,--~-'II-w .a
La Angostura, a miniature Grand Canyon, is approximately 100 miles from Panama City
on the road between Penonom6 and La Pintada, in CoclC Province. It is one of the most
scenic spots in Panama's interior but is known by few Americans.


the plans and carried out the construc-
tion of the dam, which is a terraced dirt
structure with a rock reinforcement in
the middle.
Friends called Jim6nez "gufy" (a
phonetic Spanish adaptation of "goo-
fy"), he recalls now, "so I decided that
if I was goofy, then it should be called
Goofy Lake."
The project was begun in 1945 and
the lake was ready in 1950.
"The wall is still there," Jim6nez
says with a smile.


Goofy Lake covers 25 hectares (62.5
acres) and its average depth is 33 feet.
It is 2,150 feet high (the highest point
in Cerro Azul is 3,700 feet).
Shortly after the lake was ready,
Jim6nez had it stocked with 200 big-
mouth bass which he imported from the
United States by air. To feed the bass,
he later put in bluegill which he ob-
tained locally. Anglers who visit Goofy
Lake now catch the descendants of the
original 200 big-mouth bass.
Today, scores of families have per-


,- ..'.. .


Beautiful homes have been built in Cerro Azul, from where residents commute the 25 miles
to their places of work in Panama City.


MAY 1968








Scenery Charms Motorists


inanent or weekend homes in Cerro
Azul.
The possibilities for the future are
promising. Two large coffee plantations
are flourishing in Cerro Azul. One,
owned by Agro, S.A., a firm established
with U.S. capital, has 128,000 coffee
trees growing and is planting 100,000
more in May. Pastures already are
being developed for cattle raising.
Five thousand acres are still to be
developed.
The time will come, Jim6nez is
confident, when the long-planned road
connecting Cerro Azul and Mandinga,
on the San Bias Indian Reservation on
the Atlantic mainland, will be a reality.
When that happens, he says, Cerro Azul
will be the ideal place for a first-class
tourist resort. Already there is a project
for a motel atop Cerro Jefe, the highest
point in the area.
In the opposite direction-west of
Panama City-is La Chorrera, a thriving
town only 25 miles from the capital.
The route to El Chorro (literally The
Gush) traverses the central part of the
town, on the outskirts of which it be-
comes a hard-packed dirt road leading
directly to the edge of the falls, about
15 minutes by car.
At this spot, the Caimito River falls
33 feet into a natural pool 130 by 195
feet and 14 feet deep. At their widest
point, the falls measure approximately)
65 feet.
Some of the natural charm of the spot
has been marred by the intrusion of
progress-a small power generating
plant that combines hydroelectric and
thermic installations. Rut it still is a
natural beauty worth seeing.
La Angostura (literally The Narrow-
ness) is different from El Chorro in a
breath-taking way. It can be likened to
a miniature Grand Canyon.
The spot is approximately 100 miles
southwest from the capital on the road
between Penonom6 and La Pintada,
two of the most attractive towns in
Panama's interior. La Pintada, inci-
dentally, is famous for its hand-woven
"montuno" hats.
The mile-long detour to La Angostura
requires very slow driving (in the dry
season, a grader usually levels the dirt
road). Or you can walk in. Whichever
way is used, the trouble is well worth it.
The PANAMA CANAL REVIEW asked


one of Penonom6's outstanding citizens,
Sr. Simeon Conte, who" is well known
as a writer, for a description of the
place. This is what he wrote:
"The Zarati River springs from the
Isthmian Andes, north of Penonome, in
the Trinity Mountain in Capira district.
At Penonom6, where it turns into a gi-
gantic horizontal 'S,' the river rushes
southward into the strangling walls of
La Angostura.
"La Angostura is a rocky canyon
about 1 mile long that narrows at the
bottom from 10 feet to 3 feet. It is a
scant 3 miles from Penonom6, on the
left from the road linking Penonom6
and La Pintada.
"According to 'The Ancient Civiliza-
tions of the New World,' written by
North American archaeologist A. Hyatt
Veryll around 1924, the Guacamaya
Mountain, which towers over the south-
ern of horizon of Penonom6 and La Pin-
tada, was an active volcano about 4,000
years ago. The author is of the opinion
that the Guacamava's eruptions account
for the present topographic features of
certain areas in Cocl] Province.
"Be that as it may, La Angostura is
one of the most scenic spots in the in-
terior of the country. The Zarati River


flows between huge rocks marked by
projections so precise in their geometric
profiles that they strike the viewer as
having been chiseled by man himself.
On sunny afternoons, the falling water
and its curtain of mist glisten with the
polichromy of the rainbow.
"The place is romantic and evocative.
'Penonomefios' of all times have made
it a favorite spot and by the banks of
the foamy torrent many maids have
murmured 'yes' to the suitors who
became their husbands.
"At sunset, the panorama in La An-
gostura becomes extraordinarily beau-
tiful. The sun, dipping behind the
Guacamaya peak, throws its dying rays
into the torrent itself, piercing the length
of the canyon and casting about
tonalities of incredible beauty.
"One lives a moment of poetry in
the brief twilight.
"At the peak of the dr, season, in
April, the charm of La Angostura is at
its best. The river, running low, hurls
itself into a hole carved in the rock over
the centuries and gushes out from a
lower opening in the rock.
"That is La Angostura-a song of
water flowing from an impressive rocky
throat."


Chorrera Falls has been a favorite swimming hole for generations of Panamanians. Here,
the Caimito River plunges 33 feet into a natural pool.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










N


i


New Maersk Freighter
THE MAERSK Line's newest cargo
ship, the Cornelia Maersk, a blue-hulled
addition to the Maersk fleet, is arriving
in Balboa the first part of June on her
second visit to the Canal after making
her maiden voyage to the Far East via
New York and the east coast of the
United States. The 11,000 deadweight
ton ship is the second in a seven-vessel
series of new Maersk line ships, three
of which are being built in Bergen.
Norway, and two others in Sweden.
Very highly automated, the Cornelia
.laersk can sail with an unmanned en-
gineroom while the main engine is
controlled from the bridge. All instru-
ments and controls are centralized in an
insulated, air-conditioned control room
on the third deck.
C. B. Fenton and Company, which
handles the Maersk Line at the Canal.
announced that the Cornelia would join
the Maersk Line services between east-
ern Canada, U.S. ports on the Atlantic
and Pacific, the Far East and South-
east Asia. These services are being
maintained by 16 to 18 vessels at the
present time.

New Lykes Liner
THE NEW $12 million SS Letitia
Lykes, a highly automated Gulf Clip-
per added recently to the Lykes Broth-
ers Steamship Company fleet, passed
through the Canal in February on her
maiden voyage from the U.S. gulf to


G


I-


ports in Japan, Korea, Okinawa, For- Capt. R. J. Wesley, President of the Canal
mosa and Hong Kong. She is the 32d Zone Pilots' Association, right, presents
new ship to join the Lykes Line fet Commodore George Campbell of the Shaw
new ship to join the Lykes Line fleet Savill Line, an honorary membership in
in the company's fleet replacement pro- the. Canal Zone Pilots' Association. The
gram which will ultimately cost an Commodore, who will retire when the SS
estimated half billion dollars. The Le- Gothic returns to England, also received a
Panama Canal Honorary Marine License
titia replaces a new ship of the same from Capt. A. L. Gallin, Panama Canal Nay-
name which was battered and sunk by igation Director, left. The framed copy
hurricane Betsy in 1965 while outfitting of the license is held by Mrs. Campbell.
in New Orleans. The ceremony took place on the bridge of
n to an a i B the Gothic as it passed through the Pan-
According to an article in Brandn's ama Canal recently. Commodore Campbell
joined the Shaw Savill Line in 1927. His
(See p. 14) first command was the Samsylvan.


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN

MONTHS


1200 N
U
1100 M
B
1000 E
R
900 0
F
800 T
R
700 A
N
600
I
T
0 S


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR THIRD QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1968
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1968 1967
Commercial 3,281 3,090
U.S. Government 388 212
Free 28 21
Total. 3,697 3,323
TOLLS0
Commercial $20,636,139 $19,205,955
U.S. Government- 2,330,702 1,342,326
Total $22,966,841 $20,548,281
CARGO"*
Commercial 23,928,842 21,854,242
U.S. Government 2,074,013 1,558,097
Free 94,191 150,937
Total 26,097,046 923,563,276
o Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.


MAY 1968


196




1967






(AVERAGE 1951...1955)

-(AVERAGE 1951 1955)-


. ~P11111~~

r:"nnh~ a\








Skippers

(Continued from p. 5)
bow-mooring tower at Marsa el Brega.
A mooring buoy, held in place by an-
chors buried in the lake bottom, floats
a short distance away. Such devices,
located in deep water several miles from
shore, are becoming more and more
common as tanker size increases. Ships
are held by mooring lines led out from
the bow and are free to swing 360 de-
grees to allow for wind and current va-
riations. Tankers using bow moorings
generally load or discharge their cargoes
through floating hoses connected to
submarine pipelines.
A floating pier, held by one anchor
to permit it to swing with the wind, is
used to simulate ship-to-ship berthing.
The need for ships to tie up alongside
one another in open water is rare but
occasionally occurs when a very large
tanker must pump part of its cargo into
a smaller ship before the former can
enter a relatively shallow harbor.
A similar pier, this one immobile,
provides experience in putting a ship
alongside a dock. Traffic lights at each
end are wired to shock-measuring de-
vices on the fendering system of the
pier. If a captain brings his model along-
side as he should, the lights stay off. If
he gives the dock a gentle nudge, the
green light goes on. A harder jolt results
in a yellow light and tells him that a
full-sized pier would have been dam-
aged. When the red light goes-accom-
panied by a nerve-shattering klaxon-


he can be thankful strength of tl
isn't in scale to that of an actual o
red light means he probably
have demolished the dock und
mal circumstances. The klaxon
sounds, incidentally.
Also on the lake are two convey
sea berths. These consist of there
arranged in a semicircle. To
ship must drop both anchors, th
toward the buoys, paying out
chain as it goes, until mooring w
be carried from the ship's stern
buoys. The mooring wires at th
and anchors at the bow hold t
in a fixed position during the
of cargo.
The experience of two mem
a recent training group at one
sea berths helps illustrate the a
with which the models simulate
conditions. One captain, a Fren
commands a 697-foot tanker of
tional design. The ship's bridge
ated atop a midships house,
halfway between bow and ste
other captain is an American
master of an "all-aft" tanker.
design, which has grown in po
during the last 5 years, there is
ships house. The bridge sits a
"afterhouse" on the ship's stem
has been heightened by two d
hold the accommodations form
ated amidships. Although the
can's tanker is only 100 feet lon
that of his French colleague, I
down from the bridge on 600


The lily-pond stillness of this lake may not look much like an ocean but the captain
trained here are impressed with how much they learn in the lake about ship 1
Photo by Standard Oil C


S-.
1 i I I" ."! ,


he dock main deck. The French captain sees
ne. The less than half as much.
would During their work at the sea berth,
ler nor- in a model of the all-aft Esso Malaysia,
seldom the French master consistently went too
far into the berth before dropping his
national anchors. The American, accustomed to
e buoys gaging distances from a point far back
noor, a from his ship's bow, had little diffi-
en back culty, even though he had never seen
anchor a full-sized sea berth and the real
ires can Esso Malaysia is 265 feet longer than
to the his own ship.
he stern The story-and the fact the French-
he ship man mastered the maneuver before
transfer his 2-week stay ended-also demon-
strates the primary reason why Esso
ibers of REM exists.
of the The construction and maintenance of
accuracy the training center and its facilities
e actual were entrusted to Sogr6ah, a world-
ichman, renowned hydraulic research company
conven- which has its base in Grenoble. Sogr6ah
is loc- (an acronym for Soci6t6 Grenobloise
roughly d'Etudes et d'Applications Hydrauli-
r. The ques) is no stranger to the Jersey orga-
who is nization, nor, indeed, is the concept of
In this using scaled-down tankers to simulate
puarity actual operating conditions.
no mid-
top the In 1959 the company was contem-
Swhich plating construction of its first 80,000-
ecks to deadweight tankers. Since the vessels
erly loc- represented, at the time, a significant
Ameri- increase in size over existing tankers,
ger than there was a question regarding their
e looks ability to negotiate such restricted
feet of waterways as the Suez Canal. To deter-
mine how manageable the new ships
would be, Jersey contracted with So-
gr6ah to construct a scale-model bend
of the Suez and a self-propelled model
of the proposed tankers. A specially
trained Sogr6ah engineer, his eyes
where those of the ship's captain would
be, piloted the model tanker through
the model canal again and again.
Wind direction and speed, water depth,
i-- current, all were in exact proportion.
- Test results showed the new design
to be a fine-handling ship. The tank-
ers were built and, on subsequent
voyages through the Suez, confirmed
the remarkable accuracy with which
1 their handling characteristics had been
reproduced at Grenoble.
Although no one knew at the time,
the existence of the world's most un-
Susual marine training center had been
assured and, with it, the continued
ns being safety and efficiency that have always
handling. characterized the operation of Jersey's
o. (N.J.) tanker fleet.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Clarence W. Marshall
Detention Guard

MARINE BUREAU
Kenneth L. Jamieson
Truck Driver

E C I N Efi AN S ACTION
BURA I
Carl.'SHwCatrlIo
M: hie C r
C C. Cnlch.low m .
Motor Launch Operator
John A. Everson
General Foreman Electrician

HEALTH BUREAU
Percival L. McDonald
Hospital Attendant


(Continued from p. 12)
Shipper and Forwarder, the Letitia
Lykes and her sister ships are the largest
cargo vessels ever built in New Orleans,
as well as the largest and fastest ships
ever to join the Lykes fleet. They have
a deadweight of 14,000 tons, a cargo
capacity of 750,000 cubic feet and a
speed in excess of 20 knots. The cargo
transports are completely air-condition-
ed, have accommodations for four pas-
sengers and are equipped with the
latest and finest cargo handling and
stowing equipment available.

P & O. Cruises
TWO OF the largest of the P & O
passenger ships arrived at the Canal
during April from the west coast of the
United States on 3-month cruises, one
called Springtime, the other Jolly Swag-
man. They were the superliner Oriana
and the 45,000-ton Canberra with more
than 1,800 passengers each. The Oriana
arrived April 6 and the Canberra April
27. Both docked in Balboa and Cristo-
bal and left for Europe including Eng-
land, France, Spain and Portugal. On
the homeward voyage around the Cape
of Good Hope and across the Indian
Ocean to Australia, the Orianas spring-
time itinerary includes calls at Sydney,
Auckland, Suva, and Honolulu. The
Canberra is following a similar schedule
but the passengers are being offered
optional tours to South Africa and to
the Australian Outback. Norton Lilly
represent the line at the Canal.


ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Ralph F. L. Blades
Photocopying-Equipment Operator
Arnold W. Marshall
Clerk-Photography

MARINE BUREAU
Aston T. Greene
Oiler-Floating Plant
Ernest B. Rainier
Captain of the Port
Richard T. Baltozer
Leader Lock Operator-Machinist
Richard C. Sergeant
Captain of the Port
Rudolph Young
Asphalt or Cement Worker

COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE
Daile D. Keigley
Supervisory Staff Accountant

ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Glenn H. Burdick
Administrative Officer Lr
AdAn Castillo
Lead Foreman-Paver
Dcroteo Hernmndez
Paver
German C. Lambridge
Maintenanceman-Distri
Norman S. Lewis
Boilermaker
Frank G. Layne
Helper Electrician
Aston S. Smith
Electrician-Lineman
Richard A. Armstrong
Helper Central Office Repairman
Arthur W. Davis
Carpenter
Miguel De la Rosa
Seaman
Ira M. Payne
Construction Inspector-General
Luis Sam
Electrician-Lineman
Arthur B. Butcher
Boiler Tender-High Pressure
Enrique Charles
Oiler-Floating Plant
Joseph M. Evelyn
Helper Machinist-Maintenance
Cleofas G6mez O.
Winchman


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
John E. Hogan
Supervisory Supply Clerk
Arthur Hilton
Leader Milk Plant Worker
Arthur W. Smith
Supervisory General Supply Specialist
L. M. Elliott
Laborer
Ephraim R. Innis
Guard
F. D. Stewart
Lead Foreman Laborer-Cleaner


TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
BUREAU
Benjamin S. Shoy
Cargo Checker
Herman J. Feurtado
Time and Leave Supervisor
Juan R. Griffin
Bus Service Inspector
Noe lyJames









Lillian R. Gibson
Teacher-Elementary L.A. Schools
Hamilton H. Lavalas
Junior High Teacher. L.A. Schools
Clyde E. Thomas
Detention Guard
Alfred A. Douglas
Clerk
George A. Martin
Police Captain
Howard J. Toland
Police Sergeant
Erell C. Alexis
Detention Guard


HEALTH BUREAU
Pedro VAsquez
Leader Exterminator
Iris A. Crichlow
Nursing Assistant-Medicine and
Surgery
Eric A. Edwards
Diet Cook


MAY 1968







CANAL HISTORY


50 year c4go
SOCIAL ACTIVITIES in the Canal
Zone 50 years ago were geared to the
war effort and the Committee for the
War Fund of the American Red Cross
sponsored its first entertainment trip
through the Canal April 28, from Cris-
tobal to Balboa. Lady Mallet, wife of
the British Minister in Panama and
founder of the Panama Red Cross,
made an urgent call for books and mag-
azines for wounded New Zealand sol-
diers who were to transit the Canal
aboard a hospital ship.


An item in the local press said that
due to increased requirements of the
U.S. Government, prices of tobacco
and cigarettes went "sky high" in the
commissaries and clubhouses and no
more of a popular chewing tobacco,
would be shipped to the Isthmus for
the remainder of the war. According
to the Panama Canal Record, wheatless
Monday established March 18 in the
Canal Zone, produced a 31 percent re-
duction in the consumption of flour in
1 month.


A news item in the Star and Herald,
May 7, stated 21 members of The Incas,
the oldest society in the Canal Zone,
composed of "oldtimers" who came to
work for the Canal within 3 months


after the purchase of the French Canal
properties, celebrated their 14th annual
banquet at the Century Club. The menu
included such delicacies as canape of
caviar Romanoff, broiled spring chicken,
and other gourmet delights.
*0
According to the Panama Canal Rec-
ord, the construction of the nurses'
home, Colon Beach, was completed
during the month of May by the Con-
struction Division and turned over to
the Health Department.
*0
The Colon correspondent reported
that residents of Gatun were scared by
a queer looking object on horseback
which turned out to be a policeman
wearing a blue veil as a protection
against the hordes of mosquitos that
come out at the beginning of rainy
season.

25 year c4go
THE CANAL ZONE traffic laws and
regulations were amended April 1,
1943, making effective on April 15 a
change from left-hand to right-hand
driving on Canal Zone streets and high-
ways. The change was made simultane-
ous with that in the Republic of Pan-
ama. The accepted explanation of the
origin of left-hand driving on the Isth-
mus is that it was established by Brit-
ish West Indian carriage drivers who


I. ~


-m- -a:.._ -
Two motorists stop for a chat on Gaillard Highway on the approach to Pedro Miguel
in 1917. Notice that the road was much narrower then but traffic was lighter and the pace
of the motorist, perhaps life in general, was more leisurely.


came to the Isthmus in early construc-
tion days.

Coincident with the establishment of
right-hand driving in the Canal Zone
and Panama, the Trans-Isthmian High-
way linking the two terminal areas of
the Canal was officially opened to the
public April 15, 1943.
0
A messenger at the Balboa Heights
Administration Building, Hopeton
Simms, claimed to be the first cyclist
to cross the Isthmus on the new Trans-
Isthmian Highway. He made it in
2 hours and 45 minutes, according to
an item which appeared in the
local press.

More than $1 million was invested
in War Bonds by Canal Zone buyers
during April and total sales reached
$12 million as of May 11, 1943.

10 year 4go
A THREE-SPAN arch truss type bridge
design submitted by Sverdrup & Parcel
Engineering Co. of St. Louis, was se-
lected for the permanent Canal crossing
after preliminary designs for the bridge
were reviewed by the Board of Consul-
tants here April 10, 1958.
*
An emergency repair job on approx-
imatey 8,000 sq. ft. of floor slab in the
east chamber of Pedro Miguel Locks
curtailed transit operations for the first
time in 44 years of Canal operations
10 years ago.
*
Domestic conversion to 60-cycle cur-
rent began on the Pacific side and the
Central Labor Office Branch of the
Personnel Bureau moved from Building
69 to Ancon.

One year c4go
APRIL 1967 was another record month
for Panama Canal traffic with a daily
average of 39.6 ships passing from
ocean-to-ocean.
*
A May 1 report on the Cut widening
project which had been underway for
a little over 3 months showed that ap-
proximately 400,000 cubic yards of
Zone 1 (above elevation 95) material
had been removed by the Foster Con-
struction Company.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Computers Give Answers



To Canal Slide Problems


ONE OF man's newest technical tools
-the computer-is now being used to
solve one of the oldest problems of
the Panama Canal-slides. The results
are greater safety and economy for
the Canal.
Landslides have long been one of the
most vexing of engineering problems.
The Panama Canal made world head-
lines because of the disastrous slides
which delayed construction at a cost of
millions of dollars and even closed the
Canal after it was opened to traffic. Sta-
bility of the channel slopes still requires
the constant attention of engineers
and geologists.
Laymen may justifiably wonder why
engineers have been unsuccessful so
often in designing excavation slopes or
building embankments safe against
sliding. The collapse of a building or


a bridge is a rare occurrence compared
with the frequency of landslides. The
basic reasons are simple.
The designer of a steel bridge knows
a great deal about his construction ma-
terial. He knows how strong the steel
is and how much it will bend or stretch
under the weight it must bear. Also, the
properties of steel are constant because
it is man-made; its manufacture is
closely controlled and the final product,
in the form of beams or girders, is
inspected and tested before the structure
is built.
But the engineer who designs a
structure of soil or rock, such as a dam
or a railroad embankment, is dealing
with raw materials as provided capri-
ciously by nature. He may grade the
rock and compact the soil, but the final
properties of these materials-no matter


how closely construction is controlled-
usually vary from point to point and
can be only approximately determined.
Also, whereas concrete and steel have
one kind of strength called "cohesion,"
soil and rock have two distinctive types,
cohesion and friction. These act to-
gether in an extremely complex way,
and, in addition, are greatly affected
by ground water.
In the design of excavation slopes,
such as in the widening of the Panama
Canal, the engineer's challenge is even
greater than when building the dam
or railroad embankment. For here he
does not build the slopes but only shapes
the materials already constructed by
nature so that the slope will hold up
safely, without requiring unnecessary
quantities of costly excavation.
For help, the engineer turns to the


This rock slide at Culebra (Gaillard) Cut during construction days smashed and partially buried a steam shovel. At left, a crane moves in
to remove the debris from the slide, which occurred on the south end of Gold Hill in 1913. Slides were common in those days.


MAY 1968







geologist who examines the surround-
ing terrain, drills holes, samples and
tests the sub-surface materials and de-
termines changing levels of ground
water and patterns of seepage. He also
plots the joints, faults and bedding
planes that criss-cross the earth's crust.
However, the geologic program, no
matter how extensive, gives the en-
gineer only an approximate picture of
the actual strength, elasticity, porosity
and other rock or soil characteristics
upon which his design must depend.
From this incomplete data, the en-
gineer has to define conditions, make
analyses and calculations. He focuses
his attention on two basic characteris-
tics: the stresses in the ground caused
by the forces of gravity which tend to
flatten the slope; and the strength of the
soil and rocks that will sustain the slope
against these forces. Both of these
properties are highly complex.
Further difficulties arise because these
stresses are not evenly distributed. As
to the forces of resistance, the engineer
concerns himself primarily with what is
known as shearing strength-the strength
which materials possess to prevent one
portion of a mass from sliding along
an adjacent portion. This is the type
of material failure that occurs in
landslides. Shearing and other types of
strength, plus the effects of water and
its movements all must be taken into
consideration by the engineer.
When the Panama Canal was built,
very little progress had been made in
solving these problems and the planning
of excavation slopes was largely a mat-
ter of intuition and experience. Catas-
tropic slides were the result. They not
only played havoc with cost estimates
and construction schedules but they
also added greatly to the final cost of
digging the Canal because when the
slopes failed the natural rock structure
was destroyed and the resulting final
slopes had to be excavated much flatten
than if they had been properly designed
in the first place.
Since then, slope stability has been
subject to intensive study and a high-
ly specialized field of engineering,
known as soils mechanics, has been
developed to attack this problem.
Judgement must still be exercised but
new methods and theories have resulted
in tremendous progress. Slopes and
embankments are far safer and great
excavation economies are being realized.
During the past decade, computers
have contributed dramatically to pro-
gress in soils mechanics and slope sta-
bility. Now even the most complex en-
gineering calculations can be performed
in a fraction of the time formerly re-


TYPE AN ESTIMATE OF THE FACTOR OF SAFETY.
1.1
1.10000 0. -.976E 04 .383E 05
1.06769 -.44629 -.976E 04 .383E 05
1.08384 -.22315 -.268E 04 .146E 05
1.09626 -.30176 .155E 04 -.497E 03
1.10216 -.29094 .842E 02 -.340E 02
1.10250 -.29026 .272E 00 -.133E 00
FS- 1.10250
LAM8BA- -.29026
00 YOU WANT DETAILED FORCE OUTPUT....
no
CALCULATIONS HAVE BEEN COMPLETED. TYRE A NUMBER.
1 TO CHANGE THE SIDE FORCE ASSUMPTION
2 TO ADJUST THE FAILURE SURFACE
3 TO INPUT AN ENTIRELY NEW FAILURE SURFACE
4 TO CHANGE SOIL PROPERTIES
5 TO CHANGE THE PHREATIC SURFACE
6 BOTH (4) AND (5)
7 WHOLE NEW PROBLEM
8 TO TERMINATE.


X-COORO
252.00
280.00
292.00
320.00
356.00
382.00
400.00
420.00
440.00
468.00
494.00
520.00
545.92
560.00
580.00
600.00
621.92
640.00
662.00
684.00
720.00
750.00
773.89
776.00
795.95


YTL
137.00
181.10
200.00
200.00
200 00
212.00
218.70
226. 14
233.58
244.00
254.23
26.4 6
274.66
280.20
288.07
295 94
304.57
311.69
320.34
329.00
332.00
348.07
360.87
362.00
362.00


YTRAR
137.00
101.29
-855.22
127.15
142.141
146.71
150.08
154.90
159.68
167.79
176.83
186.15
198.30
202.19
209.61
216.94
227.86
236.98
250.73
265.87
301.44
328.12
339.62
341.75
362.00


YFS RATIO
137.00
131.46
129.92
176.33 .nil
124.42 .238
125.08 .249
125.54 .263
127.71 .276
129.88 .287
134.84 .302
141.63 .313
148.43 .325
157.90 .346
163.04 .334
172.04 .324
181.04 .312
194.01 .306
204.71 .302
220.47 .303
236.24 .319
267.92 .523
299.52 .589
332.00 .264
334.87 .253
362.00


ERAR
.000E 00
.217E 02
.230E 01
.36E 03
.282E 03
.311E 03
339E 03
.354E 03
.368E 03
.369E 03
346E 03
.321E 03
.276E 03
.272E 03
.253E 03
.234E 03
.196E 03
166E 03
.122E 03
817E 02
.776E 02
.400E 02
.417E 02
.343E 02
966E-03


NBAR
.347E 01
.636E 01
.747E 01
.703E 01
.690E 01
.760E 01
.731E 01
.769E 01
.748E 01
.708E 01
.730E 01
.664E 01
.662E 01
.594E 01
.588E 01
.483E 01
.466E 01
.381E 01
.353E 01
.231E 01
.123E 01
.128E 01
.261E 01
.126E 01


XN
278.03
287.15
306 40
338.29
370.24
391.43
410.41
430.39
454.56
481.33
507.32
533.03
552.98
569.91
589.91
610.56
630.68
650.26
672.20
695.09
730.07
761.20
774.92
779.28


CALCULATIONS HAVE BEEN COMPLETE. TYPE A NUMBER.
1 TO CHANGE THE SIDE FORCE ASSUMPTION
2 TO ADJUST THE FAILURE SURFACE
3 TO INPUT AN ENTIRELY NEW FAILURE SURFACE
4 TO CHANGE SOIL PROPERTIES
5 TO CHANGE THE PHREATIC SURFACE
6 BOTH (4) AND (5)
7 WHOLE NEW PROBLEM
8 TO TERMINATE.
QUIT,
R 19.533+31.183

To the layman, this may look like gobbledygook. But it is actual input-output data printed
by a keyboard console of the large IBM 7094 Computer at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology for the stability analyses of Las Cascadas Hill. The engineer operates the
computer through the keyboard, typing in data and instructions in accordance with the
computer program, and receiving the results of lengthy computations in a matter of seconds.
Thus the engineer actually converses with the computer in this operation.


quired. This is a great advantage when
innumerable, time consuming trial and
error computations have to be made.
Entirely new methods of analysis,
formerly of theoretical interest only be-
cause of the mathematical complexity,
suddenly became the practical design
tools of the soils engineer. In ad-
dition, the speed of the computer has
enabled the engineer to study a wide
range of possible conditions affecting
his problem.
For example, if the presence of an
important geologic fault is suspected
but not definitely confirmed, he can
solve his problem to include the fault,


or to exclude it, thus establishing its
relative importance to the stability of
his slope. The results might lead to
further work for the geologist in the
field, or it may be found that the sus-
pected fault is relatively unimportant
due to its position and the conditions
surrounding it.
Though his knowledge of subsurface
conditions remains limited, and always
will, the engineer can analyze a far wid-
er range of possible conditions and
thereby make design decisions which
are much more valid.
The Civil Engineering Branch of the
(See p. 20)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS


Nationality


Belgian ---__-__.
British __-----__
Chilean-------
Chinese (Nat'l.)___
Colombian ----.
Danish ______---
Ecuadorean ----_
French------_
German _------
Greek_.__. ____-
Honduran .--_
Israeli-----
Italian--------
Japanese ----.----
Liberian --___-
Netherlands _-
Nicaraguan-----
Norwegian ------
Panamanian --
Peruvian ----.-
Philippine ----
South Korean- .
Soviet -----
Swedish ------
Swiss ----
United States -..
Yugoslavian --_.
All Others-..--
Total -- .


Third quarter, fiscal year-
1968 1967
No. of Tons of No. of Tons of
transits cargo transits cargo
27 72,295 15 76,232
347 2,538,600 329 2,366,928
30 188,840 30 181,790
27 163,099 23 183,482
43 111,530 59 106,725
106 709,101 112 748,850
51 52,907 9 11,924
49 270,328 67 277,384
351 1,355,738 343 1,258,789
110 1,214,532 104 1,045,652
42 18,600 50 34,443
27 179,112 23 172,409
76 566,145 54 389,765
262 2,121,405 208 1,744,606
379 5,188,554 332 4,706,798
130 558,395 127 445,316
18 28,632 15 31,869
354 3,935,911 388 3,704,979
129 693,823 126 558,547
47 193,968 36 181,013
25 120,040 24 128,378
15 69,926 10 28,074
30 172,911 10 64,083
121 849,395 95 606,110
14 11,550 15 28,212
386 1,942,918 413 2,303,617
12 140,885 6 78,525
73 458,514 67 387,080
3,281 23,927,654 3,090 21,851,580


1961-65
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
12 51,936
330 2,081,299
26 184,584
17 114,964
62 91,143
71 368,953
8 10,236
37 186,983
279 828,327
154 1,494,286
50 40,194
15 62,797
44 267,283
192 1,101,520
234 2,364,967
163 728,725
10 15,039
370 2,882,728
115 493,209
28 112,826
18 85,503
3 12,443
10 74,618
94 581,913
9 11,857
396 2,337,656
3 25,202
35 188,204
2,785 16,799,395


Month


July ---------
August------------
September-----------
October-------------
November----------
December_-----
January- _____
February---
March __----
April--------------
May--------------
June----------------
Totals for
fiscal year-------


1968

1,177
1,117
1,023
1,048
1,041
1,100
1,094
1,055
1,132


Transits


1967

1,039
1,008
988
1,005
985
987
1,043
968
1,079
1,094
1,128
1,088
12.412


SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.


Avg. No.
Transits
1961-65
960
949
908
946
922
946
903
868
1,014
966
999
954
11.335


Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)


1968

7,400
6,751
6,370
6,754
6,672
7,133
6,916
6,685
7,028


1967

6,205
6,392
6,057
6,157
6,028
6,084
6,318
6,049
6,831
6,823
7,005
6,820
76,769


Average
Tolls
1961-65
4,929
4,920
4,697
4,838
4,748
4,955
4,635
4,506
5,325
5,067
5,232
5,013
58,865


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transit of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into 8 main trade routes:
Third quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
1961-65
United States Intercoastal------------------------ 78 112 99
East coast United States and South America ------. -- 405 434 563
East coast United States and Central America--------- 171 171 131
East coast United States and Far East------- ------- 763 657 522
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia------- 90 105 70
Europe and West coast United States/Canada--------- 260 279 260
Europe and South America----------- ----------- 363 348 316
Europe and Australasia -------- ------------ 126 102 110
All other routes.. ----- ----------------------___ 1,025 882 715
Total traffic ____----------------__ 3,281 3,090 2,786


Ships Growing



Too Large for



Many Harbors


THE PANAMA Canal is not alone in
facing a growing number of ships too
large to transit. Ships now are being
built in many parts of the world that
are too big to enter most harbors.
A recent issue of the German Tribune
reported Germany's largest vessel, the
192,000-ton Shell tanker Myrina, had
docked unladen in Hamburg. As yet,
no port in the Federal Republic could
handle a laden tanker of this size.
What is the point of building a tanker
of this size to fly under the Federal
Republic ensign when it will never be
able to berth in its own country, the
writer asked.
"Shipping nowadays is so interna-
tionally minded that a narrow national-
istic outlook is outmoded. The Myrina
was built in Northern Ireland and
docked in Hamburg only to have its
hull painted in the giant Elbe 17 dry
dock originally built to handle Third
Reich destroyers.
"Belfast has no dry dock large enough
to handle a vessel of this size. The new
tanker was, incidentally, built in a Brit-
ish yard partly because of the offset
agreement for the foreign exchange
costs of Britain's Army of the Rhine.
"At Kiel's Howaldt yard, on the other
hand, another super-tanker commis-
sioned by Shell of England is nearing
completion. Because of new regulations
of maximum draft the second tanker
will have 210,000 deadweight tons.
"Is this utterly illogical? Far from it.
It is one of the reasons why closure of
the Suez Canal has had so little effect
on the oil market in Germany. Federal
Republic tankers happened at the right
moment to be conveying oil for other
countries while tankers that are in the
eyes of Arab countries neutral, shipped
petroleum for Germany. Oil is an
international business."
The Myrina, the largest ship to be
launched to date in Europe, is a turbine
drive tanker 1,050 feet long and with
a beam of 155 feet. Sweden has a
230,000 tonner due for delivery at the
end of 1969 and Germany is building
three of 240,000 tons for delivery in
1969 and 1970.
The Marine Engineering Log of


MAY 1968


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)







November 1967 said two more tankers
of 240,000 and 130,000 tons are under
construction in Italian shipyards. The
larger of the two will be the biggest
ship ever built in Italy. Like the other
ships of her class, the largest single
screw ships ever constructed, she will
be highly automated and will feature
the bulbous bow designed by Esso en-
gineers to improve speed and economy
of fuel consumption. She will be 1,100
feet long and have a beam of 170 feet
and draft of 48 feet, with a service
sped of 17 knots. She is scheduled for
completion in 1969.
The same magazine said the world's
largest tanker is under construction at
the Ishikawajima Harima shipyards in
Yokohama. Of 276,000 deadweight tons.
she is the first of six to be used by Gulf
Oil's Bantry Bay operation. She is owned
by National Bulk Carriers and chartered
to Gulf.
But bigger tankers are still to come.
Mitsui Zosen, one of Japan's leading
shipbuilding companies, recently dis-
closed the basic design specifications of
a mammoth 400,000 deadweight-ton
tanker it is offering to ship operators.
A company spokesman said many
problems, such as hull vibration and
the relationship between main engine
output and ship's speed, still had to
be solved. And the location of the bridge
would have to be decided by the owners.
The end is still not in sight. Daniel
D. Stohmeier, vice president of Beth-
lehem Steel Corp., in charge of ship-
building, said in an interview appearing
in the American Bureau of Shipping
Surveyer that to say ships will stop
getting bigger after a certain point is
reached is like talking about limits to
track records.
"When Bethlehem built a class of
28,000 deadweight-ton tankers in 1948,
they were heralded as supertankerss' by
the press. When we brought out the
World Glory in 1954, we were told
that a ship of 45,500 deadweight was
too big for any practical use. Then we
built the Manhattan, more than twice
as big. There is no practical limit to
the size of ships."


Correction
Some of the transit figures for the
second quarter of fiscal year 1968 ap-
pearing in the February issue of THE
PANAMA CANAL REVIEW were incor-
rect. Total figures should have been:
commercial vessels, oceangoing, 3,189;
small, 116; total commercial, 3,305;
U.S. Government vessels, oceangoing,
350; small, 30; and total commercial
and U.S. Government, 3,685.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic

Third quarter, fiscal year-


Commodity


Ores, various------------------- --
Boards and planks --------------
Metals, various-------------------------
Sugar_--------------------------------
Fishmeal------ --------- -------
Iron and steel plates, sheets, coils-------..
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)-----------------
Bananas------------------------------
Lumber, miscellaneous-----------------
Iron and steel manufactures,
miscellaneous ----------------------
Wheat----------------- -----------
Petroleum and petroleum products ---
Pulpwood---------------------------
Plywood--- ---------------------
Canned food products-- ----------
All others-------- ---- -----
Total-------------- -------


1,271,059
646,072
629,669
502,219
495,547
459,150
435,017
353,780
351,331
322,394
251,555
247,476
239,348
177,403
153,752
2,396,700
8.932,472


1,164,642
N.A.
311,820
432,293
310,136
N.A.

341,895
364,031
N.A.
N.A.
54,112
268,076
203,589
N.A.
200,181
4,729,843


5-Yr. Avg.
1961-65
1,669,063
N.A.
304,018
467,720
N.A.
N.A.
264,520
293,481
N.A.
N.A.
467,292
410,399
126,688
N.A.
222,514
3,585,694


8,380,618 7,811,389


Atlantic to Pacific


Third quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 5-Yr. Avg.
1968 1967 1961-65
1961-65

Coal and coke----- --------------- 3,680,929 2,838,219 1,505,514
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)__. 3,630,113 4,041,140 2,867,923
Phosphate----------------------------- 1,077,614 917,366 537,037
Corn ._--------------------------- 947,100 636,400 496,187
Soybeans---------------------------- 600,673 447,225 381,430
Ores, various _--_---------. 463,560 412,173 75,586
Metal, scrap-------- --------------- 422,687 719,540 466,944
Sorghum-------------------------------- 289,662 97,862 N.A.
Wheat ----- ----------- ----- 248,258 111,972 82,552
Metal, iron-------------- 233,026 55,761 45,571
Rice --------- -- -------------- 218,441 155,463 34,651
Sugar-- ---------- ------- 191,045 153,016 174,394
Paper and paper products ----- -173,867 137,876 87,202
Cotton, raw. ------- 170,380 157,909 118,155
Chemicals, miscellaneous ------------------. 145,171 253,997 159,238
All others ----- ------------------- 2,502,656 2,335,043 1,955,621
Total -------- 14,995,182 13,470,962 8,988,005

CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

Third quarter, fiscal year-


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing -------
Small --
Total commercial
U.S. Government vessels: *
Oceangoing--------------___
Small ---------------- -
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov
ernment_ _____.- ___ ____


1968
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic

1,659 1,622
81 50
1,740 1,672

224 164
9 15

1,973 1,851


Total


3,281
131
3,412


1967

Total


3,090
128
3,218


388 212
24 26


3.824


3.456


Avg. No.
Transit
1961-65

Total


2,785
126
2,911

61
39

3.011


o Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


-I-


I


1-1


I


I I I













ir. ..*
C



-I


ii l^ I
^ac~lil L S^Iaj]1 1


'S Sa'^3 -


Inspecting computer output results is Gary Guazzo, right, soils engineer of the Civil Engineering Branch, while Tony Mann, chief of the branch,
studies the problem plans. Mrs. Naomi Wright, computer programmer with the IBM Company, is seated at the computer control console.



Computers oost Canal egticiency


(Continued from p. 17)
Engineering Division, which is respon-
sible for slope stability problems on the
Canal, is applying the latest develop-
ment in computer methods of analysis.
On the Canal widening project now
underway, the highest soft rock slopes
on the entire Canal are being excavated
at Las Cascadas Hill. Improper design
of these slopes could cause failures
dwarfing even the worst slides of
construction days.
After lengthy geologic investigation
of this problem, it became evident that
the complex conditions existing in this
hill could be adequately analyzed only
by computer methods.
Assistance was obtained from slope
stability experts at Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology in adapting com-
puter programs for applications to the
problems. Several methods of analysis


were run on the IBM 7094 computer
at MIT to evaluate specific factors and
to determine conditions which should be
defined for the design analysis.
When these basic problems had been
resolved, the actual slope design was
undertaken by the Civil Engineering
Branch, with successive design problems
run on computers at the McDonnell
Automation Center at St. Louis.
Tony Mann, chief of the Civil En-
gineering Branch, ran several of the
problems at MIT and coordinated the
project with university experts. Mann,
who provided the information for this
article, did much of the computer work
at St. Louis, also.
Major slope changes resulted from
this study and excavation is now under-
way in the field with far greater confi-
dence in the safety of the new Canal
slopes.
Meanwhile, the Civil Engineering


Branch proceeds with the development
and application of computer methods
on the continuing slope problems of the
Canal widening project, the analysis of
old and new slides in the Canal and
the evaluation of excavation cost and
methods on other Canal improvements
as well.
Many computer solutions now are
being handled entirely in the Canal
Zone by use of the IBM 1130 machine
operated by the Schools Division. This
machine is proving capable of handling
a wide variety of analytical meth-
ods and expanded magnetic storage will
soon increase the range of problems
which can be processed. At the same
time, new computer programs constant-
ly are being obtained, evaluated and
adapted for use on Canal problems.
The use of computer is part of the
continuous, overall task of upgrading
the efficiency of the Panama Canal.


MAY 1968







Panamanians


Avid Fans of


Cockfighting



THE SMALL winged gladiators charge
each other furiously and viciously. With
each flurry of wings, wicked dagger-
like spurs flash as beaks clamp tightly
on skin or feathers for a hold. Shouting
themselves hoarse, spectators lay wagers
as they follow the combat in the pit
with eyes wide from the excitement.
The combatants display incredible
courage. Biting, beating their wings Cockfights are fast and furious. The gamecocks use beaks, wings, and spurs.
and stabbing, they are intent only
on killing. Ti __ ""
Suddenly, one falls mortally wounded. -
Even in the throes of death, spur-heeled
legs beat wildly, seeking out the foe. A '
The scene might well be from the
days of the Roman Empire. Or from ,
ancient China, long before the Chris-
tian era. But no. It's from today, as it
has been over the centuries and it re-
mains a spectacle not recommended
for the squeamish.
Cockfighting dates back to the 5th
century before Christ, when it was in- .
produced by Themistocles into Greece,
whence it spread throughout the Roman
Empire. It originated in the Orient.
Today, cockfighting or cocking is
popular throughout Latin America,
where the sport was brought by the
Spaniards. For years it was widespread
in England, Ireland, Belgium, India,
and Asia and flourished in parts of the
United States. Now though, it is illegal
in England, the United States, and some
other countries.
Practically every city or town in
Panama has cockfights on Sundays or
holidays. In the capital city, the main
cockpit is at the Club Gallistico, located ..........
on Via Espafia opposite the National .
Guard booth at the entrance to the Old
Panama road.
The gamecock, which is a distinct
variety, closely resembles the wild jun-
gle fowl of India. Instinctively pugna- ill
(See p. 22) Referee is custodian of bets between owners of gamecocks. His decisions on fights are final.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Gamecocks


Are Trained


For Battle


(Continued from p. 21)
cious and courageous to the point of
exaggeration, the gamecock has been
bred for thousands of years but for one
purpose-to fight to the death.
Of the more than 100 recognized
gamecock breeds, the small Spanish
fighting cock is favored in Panama be-
cause of breed, aggressiveness and, of
course, heritage. Its weight fluctuates
between 2 pounds 15 ounces and 3
pounds 12 ounces, in contrast with the
giant Belgian gamecocks of 12 pounds
or more.
After the gamecock, the principal
figures in cocking are the breeder and
the pitter or handler. The former de-
votes time and money-for sport rather
than for money-to the breeding of the
fowl. The latter trains them for combat.
Generally, the breeder keeps the chick
for 12 months or until the spur is %-
inch long; then the pitter takes over.
The pitter removes the comb, shaves
and feeds and trains the bird. After 6 to
8 weeks, the gamecock goes through
"exercise No. 8," which is the decisive
test. The pitter passes the gamecock
around and between his legs, describing
a figure eight, again and again. If by
the 150th turn, the cock has not opened
its beak, it is ready for the pit.
Weight is the decisive factor in a
match, for the combatants must have
identical weight. This is determined on
the scales in the cockring. The match
includes the amount of the wager be-
tween the owners, which is held by the
referee. Should one of the gamecocks
fail to appear in the pit, its owner loses
half the wager.
In Panama City, cockfighting is
governed by municipal ordnance.
When a contest is about to start, only
the owners are allowed in the pit. They
set the gamecocks to bite each other
on the head, as an incitement to com-
bat. After a few seconds, the cocks are
released and the owners leave the pit.
From then on, no one is allowed inside,
except when the referee-who is the
supreme authority-calls for a "careo"


MAY 1968


Weight is the main factor in matching gamecocks. Weigh-in takes place on scales at cockring.


or confrontation. This occurs if both
gamecocks cease fighting for 1 minute
or if they draw apart 1 meter without
attacking each other. When a "careo"
is ordered, the handlers come into the
pit, pick up their animals and are given
2 minutes to revive them, each accord-
ing to his method. Only if both game-
cocks have been deprived of sight in
combat are the pitters allowed to stim-
ulate them by hand when the contest
is resumed.
The referee also acts in cases where
the combat does not end in death. He
may award the fight to the gamecock
which has beaten down its foe and the
latter offers no opposition for I minute,


or he may call a draw if neither bird
can keep on fighting either because of
exhaustion or because of the extent of
its wounds.
In combat, the fighting cock uses the
wings to beat down its foe, the beak
to hold on, and the spur to stab. Game-
cocks in Panama are heeled with nat-
ural spurs, in contrast with other places
where steel gaffs are used. The game-
cocks are pitted shaved and combless.
The former may be compared with the
attire prizefighters wear in the ring; the
latter is due to the fact that the comb
would provide a very vulnerable target.
A cockfight lasts from a few seconds
to as long as 15 minutes.


Handlers incite their birds to fight before releasing them in arena.
Handlers incite their birds to fight before releasing them in arena.






Spectators sit or stand on tiers around
the circular pit. which measures be-
tween 18 and 20 feet in diameter and
has a 1'2-foot barrier. Wagers are made
throughout the course of the contest and
the bettor can "cover up," as the fight
progresses, by betting on the cock hav-
ing the advantage if his original choice is
doing badly. Of course, at that stage,
he must offer odds.
Among cockfight bettors, it is a
matter of personal honor to pay off
without argument. In Panama, inci-
dentally, bets still are laid in silver
"pesos" worth 50 cents each. In the
case of inter-province or international
tournaments, bets usually run into the
thousands of dollars.
Cocking is surprisingly widespread
in Panama. Until relatively recently, it
was a sport for the wealthy because
gamecocks were imported and the price
of the birds ran high. But as restrictions
increased over the importation of fowl,
gamecock breeding became more and
more popular. An idea of how wide-
spread the sport is, is provided by the
fact that in the Club Gallistico alone
some 80 matches are fought weekly on


Saturday, Sundays, and Mondays dur-
ing the season which lasts from January
through April. This means that weekly
there are 160 gamecocks available for
fighting, of which approximately half
are new birds. If it is remembered that
there are other cockrings in the city
and that cockfights are held in many
other places in the country, one can get


an idea of how deeply the sport runs.
Very distinguished names in Pan-
amanian society have been linked with
cockfighting.
From a pastime for nobility, cock-
fighting has grown into a sport in which
the rich can envv the humble for the
possession of a fighting cock, whose
crowing in the pit is a clarion of victory.


t.. .
j', ? t

F-t i t_ _- .1
,' ..


Gamecock on sign marks site of Club Gallistico on Via Espaiia,


in Panama City.


4 -


TAr .i. i i.


Spectators sit or stand on tiers around circular cockring. Man pointing is shouting out his wagcr to any taker.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




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