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PAAMAr.I) CN. L
W. P. LEBER, Governor-President ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
PANAMA Publications Editors
H. R. PARFITT, Lieutenant Governor MORGAN E. GOODWIN and TOMIAS A. CUPAs
FRANK A. BALDWIN Editorial Assistants
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BTTrEL, FANN1E P.
Panama Canal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE T. TURON
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should he mailed to Box hM, Balhoa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balhoa Heights, C.Z.
c4bout Our Cover
EIGHT FAMILIAR highlights of the Canal Zone scene,
from the Atlantic to the Pacific and points between,
grace the cover of this issue of THE PANAMA CANAL
The townsites of Balboa and Gamboa, Summit Gardens,
Gaillard Cut, Gatun Dam and the lockage of a ship all
represent integral parts of the work and play on the
Isthmus. The two photos taken at night showing the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge and a lighted ship in Canal
waters also fit into this overall pattern.
On the facing page is an article dealing with the
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, many of whose grad-
uates perform vital roles in the Canal operation. Accord-
ing to a recent survey of approximately half of the
academy's 12,913 graduates, 2,806 are in the maritime
industry, including 1,511 men who are currently sailing
as licensed officers in the U.S. Merchant Marine or serv-
ing as officers in the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard. A total
of 205 American vessels have Academy graduates.
One company, United States Lines, employs almost
as many as the Academy now graduates in a year
33 shoreside employees, including 3 vice presidents and
132 licensed mates and engineers at sea, many masters
and chief engineers.
The Federal Aviation Administration's task of keeping
the airways safe throughout the Panama area is discussed
in words and pictures starting on page 10.
For sports fans, we are previewing the 1968 Panama
Open Golf Tournament which is to be held this month.
It will he the 14th renewal of the Open, a tourney
that has earned popularity with the visiting and local
amateurs and professionals.
A pair of Canal employees who made a 10,000-mile
economy tour of South America returned with interesting
experiences. An article beginning on page 19 describes
their trip and has a few words of advice for anyone
considering a similar journey.
Other articles in this edition pertain to: the Panama
Guardia Nacional Highway Patrol, a relatively new
organization of highly trained men whose job it is to
aid the motorist; a multi-talented Canal Zone art teacher;
and reports on shipping activities.
Kings Point Academy_____
- --- --- ------ _--- 6
Panama Open Golf Tournament _______
Federal Aviation Administration _____________
Container Ships .... ..
Shipping Statistics--_________ _-------
Guardia Nacional Highway Patrol
Canal History -__________
Economy Tour of South America_ ------
Shipping Notes --- ___-- _-
Abandon ship! It's only a drill t the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
where midshipmen are being prepared for their lifeboat certificates
issued by the U.S. Coast Guard. This is part of the extensive training
of midshipmen. An article beginning on page 3 gives a closer look
at the education of the young men who attend the Academy.
THE PANAMA CANAL, the U.S. Gov-
ernment in general and the Nation's
shipping industry are harvesting rich
crops annually from a 65-acre plot of
land on the north shore of Long Island,
N.Y. This is the site of the U.S. Mer-
chant Marine Academy, provider of
highly-trained men who look to the sea
for their careers.
Frequently called Kings Point after
its location name, it is one of the five
Federal academies and is operated as
part of the Maritime Administration of
the U.S. Department of Commerce. In
short, it is to the Merchant Marine what
West Point is to the U.S. Arm), and
Annapolis is to the U.S. Navy.
Kings Point is a degree-granting
institution fully accredited by the Mid-
dle States Association of Colleges and
Secondary Schools. Though a relatively
new school, the Merchant Marine Acad-
emy has graduated men destined to be
high ranking officers of the U.S. Navy,
commanding officers of merchant ves-
sels, presidents of shipping companies
and many in other equally prominent
More than two dozen Kings Point
graduates are filling key positions with
various units in the Panama Canal
organization. The largest concentration
serve as pilots-the registered ship mas-
ters who take command of transiting
vessels and guide them through the
waterway. Others have been in manage-
ment positions in the organization's
shipyard facility, the Executive Plan-
ning Staff, on the General Counsel's
staff and in the Safety Branch.
The attractive campus with 38 build-
ings and marine facilities is situated on
the former Walter P. Chrysler estate
where the Chrysler mansion, renamed
Wiley Hall, serves as the main admin-
Dedicated in 1943, the academy was
made a permanent institution by Con-
gress in 1956. Kings Point rapidly ma-
tured into a school that has earned the
respect of educators, U.S. Navy officials
and the country's shipping industry.
Many of the accolades won by Kings
A regimental review at the Merchant Marine Academy is a colorful event. The academy
flags are lowered in salute as Vice Admiral Harold T. Deutermann, Commander, Eastern
Sea Frontier and Chairman, United States Delegation to the United Nations Military Staff
Committee, passes the color guard
Point can be traced to the efforts of
its superintendent, Rear Adm. Gordon
McLintock, USMS, who has been at the
academy's helm for the past 20 years.
The atmosphere at Kings Point is one
of military discipline. The regimental
ship's position at sea.
Shooting the sn A mishipma uehs
ship s position at sea.
life is designed to instill the students
with the standards of efficiency, leader-
ship and .skills needed aboard ship.
These are essential for both the welfare
of the crew and the effectiveness of the
Each 300-man entering class is made
up of young men between the ages of
17 and 22 who are in excellent physical
condition and who have completed high
school with sufficient credits in English,
mathematics and science. Nominating
authorities-members of the U.S. Con-
gress, governors of the Canal Zone,
American Samoa and other areas-sub-
mit names of youths to be considered
for admission. Quotas of appointments
are assigned each region. For example,
the Canal Zone has a quota of two.
In addition, all applicants are requir-
ed to qualify in the College Entrance
Examination Board tests. No waivers
are granted for the general, scholastic
or physical requirements. Candidates
are carefully evaluated so that the
most promising youths are awarded
Once admitted, the young man is
designated a cadet-midshipman and for
the first year is considered a plebe. He
learns military courtesies, marches to
class, practices close-order drill, stands
watches and has daily inspections. He
is expected to keep his uniform and
(See p. 4)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 3)
room, which he shares with another
cadet-midshipman, in a high degree of
He is, however, free from hazing.
The pace at the academy is a stren-
uous one. The day starts at 6 a.m. with
reveille and ends with taps at 11 p.m.
Classes run from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., allow-
ing 1 hour for lunch. From 4 p.m. to
dinner time at 6:30 p.m. the midship-
man may engage in athletics or extra-
curricular activities; the evenings are
reserved for study. A welcomed change
of pace comes after the noon meal on
Saturday when the academic week ends.
A wide range of intercollegiate and
intramural sports gives a needed extra
dimension to this routine. Also, there
are numerous extracurricular activities
such as publications, glee club, debating
team, hobby and special interest groups
plus social affairs. Chaplains attend to
The academic curriculum emphasizes
technical subjects essential in the
atomic age but is well balanced with
humanities. As a plebe, the midshipman
is provided with the basic skills in sea-
manship, navigation, boat handling and
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Lt. Commander A. Stwertka, Professor of Nuclear Physics, demonstrates a problem patch
bay on one of the two analog computers associated with the NS Savannah main control
console simulator in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory.
related subjects. He studies college level
English, mathematics and .science.
His second or sea year is spent aboard
a merchant ship, with a classmate, gain-
ing practical experience in the operation
of ships. It is during this phase of his
training that he is given a .sea project,
a manual with assignments concerning
the ship's structure, equipment and
practices. At the end of each 3 months
of shipboard training, his assignments
are sent to the academy for grading.
Reports from the ship's officers concern-
ing his work are also taken into account.
The last 2 years of study at Kings
Point are devoted to extending practical
experience in the laboratories as the mid-
shipmen further their knowledge of
theory in professional subjects.
Navigation, marine electronics, as-
tronomy, meteorology, oceanography,
hydraulics, economics, labor relations
and marine machinery repair are a sam-
pling of the courses taught in classrooms
I m ;
Dr. Otis A. Singletary, chancellor of the University of North Carolina, addresses the Executive Seminar Center at Kings Point, N.Y. He
spoke on "Creating New Federal Program: A Recent Experience." Dr. Singletary is one of the many educators who have spoken at the center.
at the academy. The undergraduate nas
a wide range of electives to choose from
as well. Numerous laboratories used to
simulate actual working conditions
aboard ship contribute greatly in pre-
paring the future officers. A few of .
these are for firefighting, cargo handling,
diesel, electrical, steam laboratory and
boiler room, and meteorology.
The academy boasts a Nuclear Study
Center with a Nuclear Reactor Simula-
tor Laboratory. The simulator is almost E
an exact duplicate of the control console
of the Savannah, the world's first nuclear
The academy is closely linked to the
Savannah in other ways. The school has
lent personnel to the Savannah project
and several groups of Savannah trainees,
all with at least 3 years of sea time, have
taken nuclear training at Kings Point.
Normally upon graduation, the mid- t_. '4W
shipman receives a Bachelor of Science
degree and a license either as a third e
officer or third assistant engineer,
depending on whether he has selected..
the nautical science course to be a Y,
deck officer or the marine engineering ".
The academy has installed a pilot,
dual license program under which se-
lected midshipmen take a combined
Capt. Julius Grigore, Jr., USNR, left, Assistant Chief of the Industrial Division, completed his
(See p. 9) studies at Kings Point in 1946. With him is David Miller, class of 1962, and a plant engineer.
Panama Canal pilot Capt. J. J. Bonanno, class of '43, issues
instructions to a tugboat captain while berthing a ship at Balboa.
Capt. Bonanno is president of the Canal Zone Chapter of the
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy Alumni Association.
Attorney J. W. Mitchell, who was graduated with the class of '46
at Kings Point, serves in the Canal organization's Office of the
General Counsel where his knowledge of admiralty law is used
in many types of litigation.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Is Artist of
STARTING BACK with a grandfather
who was a jewelry designer in Austria,
artistic talents seem to have no limit in
the Sprague family. One of the descend-
ants who has been particularly blessed
by this heritage is Alwyn Sprague, a
Curundu Junior High School teacher
who lives in Balboa with his wife and
young son. His paintings are found in
North America, South America, and
Sprague was born in Colon and
attended Canal Zone schools, graduat-
ing from Balboa High School in 1956.
He received a bachelor in arts in 1962
and a master's degree in 1966 from
American University, Washington, D.C.
He teaches art, English, and shop at
Curundu Junior High School and draw-
ing, painting, water color design, and
art history evenings at Canal Zone Col-
lege. During his spare time he paints,
carves in wood, writes, makes ceramics,
turns out toy soldiers for son Mark,
makes chessmen and has time left
over for gardening, bottle-collecting,
The multi-talented young man who
looks even younger than his 29 years,
has an extraordinary sense of realism in
his art. Paintings in his home and at the
Panama Canal Housing Office are tes-
timony of his high artistic ability.
Sprague, who is writing a book about
his happy childhood in the Canal Zone,
shows his love for the area in his paint-
ings of Canal Zone scenes.
Favorite subjects are the old wooden
houses whose charm and warmth he
captures in simple pure tones. One,
among several attractive paintings at
the Housing Office, shows an old French
Canal type house built in 1907 which
is still standing near Corgas Hospital.
His art works include landscapes.
seascapes, and portraits.
Sprague's art works grace the homes
of art lovers on three continents. His
paintings and carvings have been dis-
Working with chisel and mallet, Alwyn Sprague follows a drawing as he sculpts a woman
in mahogany. Note the perfect balance of the head which gives an impression of life.
played at the Smithsonian Institution;
the Eric Schindler Gallery, Richmond,
Va.; Channel Gallery and Art of All
Nations Gallery in Washington, D.C.
and Emerson Gallery in McLean, Va.,
where art critics praised the quality of
his work. His paintings may be found
at Amherst College, Mass., and in
private homes in the United States
and the Canal Zone.
His painting of the Venado Mud
Flats has recently been purchased
through the Eric Schindler Gallery by
Dr. Linda Proctor, an art collector from
Johannesburg, South Africa. Dr. Proctor
is a good friend of Dr. Christian Bar-
nard who has performed the world's
first heart transplants in Cape Town,
Sprague's sculptures in wood have
the same realistic quality as his paint-
ings. A bowed head, a bent arm, the
curve of a smile are as natural as on
the living model. For these near life
size wood carvings, Sprague prefers
the beautiful native hardwoods. Trunks
of teak, mahogany and ilang-ilang are
found in his workshop waiting to be
turned into works of art.
As a model for his wood sculpture he
follows a drawing he has designed. After
studying the shape and form of his
R 6A&AM 1II
subject, he begins the "cutting away"
with chisel and mallet. He also makes
the carving tools, the chisels and mallets
of hickory, lignum vitae and almendro,
in different sizes and weights. Of special
sentimental value is a mallet he made
from an old mule bumper.
When he isn't painting or carving,
Sprague may, be working on a set of
chess pieces he is making as a gift for
his father-in-law, or he may employ his
skill in ceramics. Aside from the book
he is writing, Sprague and a friend have
collaborated on a comic strip which he
feels sure will one day be purchased
by a publishing firm.
Sprague's wife, Barbara, also is a
graduate in arts and is a talented artist
in her own right. He is the son of Mr.
and Mrs. Howard Sprague of La Boca.
His mother is well known in the Canal
Zone community as an artist and
designer. His father is a supervisory
auditor in the General Audit Division.
Sprague is about to begin work on
jungle paintings and paintings of na-
tive fishermen and shrimp boats.
Sprague and his painting of the French Canal type house built in 1907 and still standing
near Gorgas Hospital. The work hangs in the Panama Canal Housing Office.
A favorite subject for Sprague's paintings are Canal Zone houses and streets such as these two shown at the Panama Canal Housing Office.
Virginia A. Peterson, secretary to the Housing Office Chief, is at the desk.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Panama Open, February 22-25
WILL TRY RUGGED COURSE
golfers from at least nine countries plus
dozens of Isthmian amateurs will pit
skill-and perhaps luck-at the Panama
Golf Club later this month in the 15th
annual Panama Open Golf Tournament.
The more than 60 pros expected to
participate will compete for a total of
$15,500 in prize money with $3,000 and
the Viceroy Trophy going to the winner
of the 72-hole match. For the amateurs,
it means an opportunity to play along-
side the professionals and to share in
non-cash prizes and trophies. Social
events and a show by trick-shot artist
Paul Hahn will round out the program.
Tournament Director Dick Dehlinger
reports that club pro Alberto Serra has
the course in excellent condition. The
6,600-yard layout is regarded as one
of the toughest courses in Latin America
and offers as much of a challenge as
most courses in the United States.
Local amateurs will tee off Sunday,
February 18, for the Shotgun Tourna-
ment, a friendly, get-acquainted type of
match enjoyed by duffers and sharp-
shooters alike. A shotgun will be fired
to start and to end the tourney so that
all golfers begin and finish together. A
total of 18 players from each participat-
ing golf club will be competing, each to
tee off at a different hole when the shot-
gun is fired. That evening there will be a
cocktail party featuring the rhythms of
Panama's Mr. Music, Lucho AzcArraga.
All contestants are invited to the 6-8
p.m. social affair.
Many of the professional participants
will arrive February 19, and the next
day they will be practicing for the
Pro-Am Tournament, scheduled for
This is the highlight of the tourna-
ment from the standpoint of the ama-
teurs. Besides competing for $1,500
in merchandise prizes, it will give them
a chance to play next to visiting, top-
flight professionals. The 18-hole Pro-
Am is a best ball tournament in which
two amateurs will join forces with one
pro to form individual teams. Full hand-
icaps are to be taken into account when
Canal Zone Gov. W. P. Leber, Lt.
Gov. H. R. Parfitt and high ranking
(See p. 23)
Winning trophy for the 1967 Panama Open Golf Tournament is accepted by Bert Weaver, extreme right, who also collected a $3,000
check as the victor's share of the purse. Presenting the trophy is Geoffrey Lee, general manager for Viceroy cigarettes in Panama, one of
the sponsors of the tourney. Others are, left to right: Billy Booe, tournament director of the Professional Golfers' Association; Robert
Creasey, executive director of the PGA; and Dick Dehlinger, director of the tournament.
At K(ing Point
(Continued from p. 5)
deck-engineer course that qualifies them
for both licenses. Academy officials feel
this voluntary program will form the
basis for a broader technical education
while allowing more flexibility for future
The Kings Point graduate is obligated
to serve at least 3 years as a licensed
officer in the Merchant Marine. At
graduation also, the new officer may be
granted a commission as an Ensign in
the U.S. Naval Reserve.
The U.S. Merchant Marine is not a
component of the Armed Forces but is
composed of the ships and men engaged
in the Nation's waterborne foreign and
domestic commerce. However, the Mer-
chant Marine is justly referred to as the
"fourth arm of defense." Graduates and
midshipmen alike gave their lives dur-
ing World War 11, thereby adding
even greater meaning to the Kings
Point motto Acta, Non Verba, deeds,
The 1966 class was graduated
2 months ahead of time because of
the shortage of trained officers to take
ships to Vietnam. Last year's class
was graduated 4 months ahead of the
standard June graduation to help meet
this growing need.
A newer and lesser known educa-
tional activity carried on at Kings Point
involves the training of mid-level U.S.
Government executives through the
Executive Seminar Center Program.
The center was established in 1963 by
the U.S. Civil Service Commission with
the assistance of the Interagency Ad-
visory Group as Interagency Training
Facilities of the U.S. Government. A
similar center was set up at Berkeley.
Calif., in 1966.
So far, the Kings Point center has
graduated more than 2,000 persons, all
of whom were selected by their agencies
to attend. They represent a cross section
of Government agencies and several
Panama Canal organization officials are
numbered among graduates of the
Key Government officials and leaders
of the business and academic worlds
appear at the center to deliver talks
Sister ships T/V Guglielmo Marconi (above) and T/V Galileo Galilei (below), of Lloyd
Triestino of Trieste, are scheduled to transit the Canal this year. The 27,900-ton vessels
are usually operated on the Italy/Australia service but are making special trips and returning
to Europe via the Canal. They will visit Acapulco, Kingston and Lisbon on the way home.
The Guglielmo Marconi is expected to arrive in Balboa February 23 and the Galileo Galilei
will arrive at Balboa October 26, according to their schedules.
~iC.~;=S=S ~L~- ~.~r~l
and to engage in freewheeling question-
The "students" are housed at the
Merchant Marine Academy and take
their meals in the cadet dining room.
The library and other facilities of the
academy are placed at the disposal of
the student executives.
Student bodies are broken down into
teams assigned hypothetical govern-
mental problems based on authentic
information. Members of the groups
must develop programs to resolve
the problems and as part of the
exercise are expected to make a convinc-
ing, oral presentation of the programs.
The center encourages the pupils to
explore and to challenge existing con-
cepts and policies; it urges them to
search creatively for solutions to prob-
lems facing their particular offices and
The seminar center is directed at
improving the Government's service
to the Nation in general while the
Merchant Marine Academy concerns
itself specifically with shipping. But
both are designed to meet the in-
creasingly complex challenges of the
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
jet cge c4r Sajety
iJJ Challenge of Jl74c
THE ARRIVAL of the jet age fulfilled
predictions of aviation pioneers whose
vision once was looked upon as mere
daydreams. Huge planes whisk travel-
ers over continents and oceans at speeds
once thought impossible; the number
of airplanes, commercial, military and
private alike, is greater now than
But as the improvement and greater
popularity of the auto led to traffic-
choked highways, so has advances in
aviation meant crowded skies.
Air safety has become a pressing issue
with everyone from the casual airline
passenger and the commercial pilot to
the businessman who flys a small plane
of his own. It is this subject of safety
in the air that is the main concern of
the Federal Aviation Administration.
The FAA operates primarily in the
United States but under the terms of
a series of bilateral agreements with the
Republic of Panama, the FAA handles
air traffic control, radio aids to naviga-
tion and aeronautical communication
functions in this area. The best evidence
of the results of the accords is that the
Panama Control Area has the finest air
safety record in Latin America.
Panama's strategic location, noted in
its motto "Bridge of the World, Heart
of the Universe," means that the Isth-
mus is a busy north-south link between
the Americas in addition to the nautical
gateway between oceans as provided
by the Panama Canal.
Through long range, and terminal,
radar facilities, navigational aids, radio,
teletype and other highly technical ap-
paratus, FAA serves local military,
commercial and private aircraft that
traverse the Panama Area. It is in direct
communication with all aviation facili-
ties in the area including Tocumen
International Airport, Paitilla, David
and, in the Canal Zone, Howard and
Albrook Air Force Bases.
Aircraft from some 35 nations are
served by the men and machines of
the FAA in Panama whose responsi-
bility covers an area of 240,000 square
miles-400 miles north and south of
Tocumen and just wide enough to in-
clude the entire Republic of Panama.
Planes entering this area are given in-
structions and information needed for
safe flying. Those leaving this region
are "passed off" to agencies responsible
for the respective adjacent area.
The 7-day-a-week, 24-hour-a-day
operation of the FAA is divided into
categories or types of help designed to
provide a safe and efficient service to
the flying public.
An ultramodern building in Ancon
has served since 1963 as the FAA's
headquarters in Panama and is the
workshop for most of the more than 170
FAA employees on the Isthmus. This
building houses the offices of the FAA
area manager, James S. Beasley, the
Air Route Control Center RAPCON,
Airways Facilities Branch, and Inter-
national Flight Service Station.
Much of the precision communica-
tions and air navigational equipment
essential to effective air safety is found
in the headquarters building. Installa-
tions representing a considerable portion
of FAA's $15 million investment in
Panama are maintained by personnel
of the Airways Facilities Branch.
This branch, employing the largest
number of FAA personnel in the Balboa
Area, is comprised of highly skilled
specialists including electronic engi-
H K &-^
James S. Beasley is the FAA area manager.
neers, a civil engineer, electronic tech-
nicians, logistics personnel, mechanics
and clerical staff.
Of equal importance to the safety
of the flying public is the work these
specialists perform. Outages of equip-
ment are minimal through a constant
evaluation and preventive maintenance
Working directly under the branch
chief are the sector chiefs, who are
responsible for one or more facility's
sate and reliable operation. These ex-
tend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and
include air ground transmitter-receiver
facilities on Ancon Hill and Cerro Ga-
lera; a transmitter site at Telfers Island
At work in the Air Traffic Control Center are, left to right, Joe Bosley and John McClure.
Bosley watches the terminal radar scope while McClure keeps in touch with another
aircraft by radio.
on the Atlantic side, and a receiver site
at Chiva Chiva. At Senaphore Hill,
behind Summit Gardens, is located the
big dome housing, a long range radar
site, and in the former gun emplacement
on Perico Island is the surveillance
radar equipment. France Field and Ta-
boga Island have navigational aids
which serve both long range and short
range air traffic. The sector chiefs are
custodians of all equipment at these
locations and are charged with the re-
sponsibility of maintaining it to a high
degree of reliability. It is a tribute to
their professional ability that the Ancon
facility reliability exceeds the FAA
In addition to providing logistic
support and property management to
the area, supply personnel of the Air-
ways Facilities Branch also handles the
Public Information Affairs of the FAA
Its International Flight Service Sta-
tion (IFSS), known to pilots as "Radio
Panama," gives pre-flight weather brief-
ings and in-flight following service
when requested, transmits local and
area weather reports and broadcasts in-
formation concerning temporary restric-
tions at airports, changes in radio fre-
quencies, and other data of interest to
pilots. Also, direction finding assistance
is given to aircraft uncertain of their
position by orienting the pilots and
directing them to emergency airports.
One of the most important functions
is its search and rescue operations put
into effect if a plane is overdue at its
reporting station or destination.
The IFSS operates an automatic tele-
type switching system linked to Lima,
Miami, Curacao, Tegucigalpa, plus the
major airline offices in Panama, Howard
Air Force Base, and the Panama Gov-
ernment Communications Center at
Tocumen International Airport. Radio
telegraph circuits are maintained with
stations in Ecuador.
The work carried out by the IFSS is
as impressive in volume as it is in va-
riety. Each month, it averages 3,500
aircraft contacted and 3,000 flight plans
handled. The automatic teletype switch-
ing center handles about 240,000
messages each month.
The Air Route Traffic Control Cen-
ter/RAPCON is responsible for the
operation of all aircraft flying under
Instrument Flight Rules within the Pan-
ama Air Traffic Control Area/Flight
The Air Route Traffic Control Center,
the nerve center of the FAA operation.
is a large, dimly lighted room where
(See p. 12)
Airway Facilities Branch Chief Hal Culp, third from left, reviews plans with Asst.
Branch Chief Clinton Murphy, maintenance representative Frank A. Rybicki and Jim Wilkie,
Marvin P. Moultrie, operations officer, Air Traffic Control Center, indicates location of the
FAA facilities on map. Heavy vertical lines represent boundaries of the 250,000-square mile
area controlled by the FAA.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
FAA CONTROLLERS DIRECT
TRAFFIC IN CROWDED SKY
(Continued from p. 11)
radar scopes provide most of the illu-
mination. Controllers, administrators
and other highly trained specialists
working in shifts form a 25-member
team that keeps the Air Route Traffic
Control Center operating day and night,
holidays and weekends. Several of
the controllers are bilingual though
English is the universal language used
A pilot flying under Visual Flight
Rules when the weather is clear is
responsible for the safety of the aircraft
and its occupants. This responsibility
lies with the FAA Air Route Traffic
Control Center RAPCON, however, for
planes proceeding under Instrument
Flight Rules, as do most planes, regard-
less of weather. The Air Route Control
Center/RAPCON will also provide in-
formation and other assistance upon
request by pilots flying under Visual
The main job of the controller is to
provide for each plane its own block
of moving airspace 50 miles wide and
1,000 feet deep with a 15-minute inter-
val of separation from other aircraft.
Before taking off, the pilot or airline
files a flight plan with the center, giving
such information as the pilot's name,
aviation company, type of aircraft, des-
tination, route, speed, estimated time
of arrival and alternate landing field.
Before departing, he must be given
: 1 4
Electronics technician Don Gehrke at work repairing equipment in the International Flight
clearance from the center which, be-
cause of heavy traffic, may instruct him
to use a different route or altitude than
he had first selected.
Equipped with the most modern
instruments available, the controller
gives the pilot radio or radar service
throughout the Panama area. All radio
conversation between the controller and
pilot is tape recorded and kept for 15
days. The controller "picks up" the air-
craft first with the terminal, or short
range radar, and follows its movement,
later switching to long range radar.
The International Flight Service Station Plan 59 automatic switching teletype equipment
handles some 240,000 messages each month. At work on the equipment are, left to right,
Virginia Chaney and Pat Stenhauer.
A flight progress board located ad-
jacent to the radar is marked with the
aircraft's route, altitude, and other
information. At designated reporting
points, the pilot contacts the center by
radio, gives his position and estimates
his time over the next reporting point.
As the plane leaves the area under the
responsibility of the Balboa FAA, the
controller "hands over" the craft to the
adjacent air route control center, which
would be Kingston, Jamaica, on a typi-
cal flight from Panama to Miami. The
Kingston station would then take over
responsibility of the plane's progress
to the next adjacent control area.
The process is reversed on a flight
entering this area, assuring the pilot
that he will be brought safely to his
destination. When the plane gets within
8 miles of landing at Tocumen, it is ad-
vised to contact Tocumen Tower Con-
trol for landing instructions. These
transfers are swift and efficient, typify-
ing the cooperation of Panamanian air-
port controllers in Tocumen Tower and
FAA Center RAPCON personnel.
FAA's Panama team, like its parent
organization in the United States, con-
tinuously seeks out new techniques and
methods to improve and further assure
safety of the airways. Constant revision
is necessary for maximum air safety and
the jet age requires nothing less.
12 FEBRUARY 1968
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
John F. Hern
Lead Foreman, Sheetmetal Worker
Joseph N. Goddard
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Allan A. Francis
Alexander W. Webster
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Horace M. Roberts
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Henry L. Rose
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Roberto B. Castillo
Walter E. Colclasure
Harry D. Foster
Water System Operator
Laborer (Highway Maintenance)
F. H. Smith, Jr.
Supervisory Electrical Engineer (General)
Ernest NI. Straker
Automotive Equipment Operator
T. A. Williams
Alfonso E. Alexis
Clerk (Work Orders)
Jose R. Gonzflez S.
Motor Launch Operator
Motor Launch Operator
Eric J. Walton
Ernest W. Zelnick
Supervisory General Engineer
Jorge C. Cailizales
Richard G. Dinkgre % Mo
Office Services Supr\ isortb.
Harold L. Fairclough
Cornelius B. Gilling
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Alfredo C. Newball
Leon S. Drayton
Helper Machinist (Marine)
Helper Lock Operator
George P. Allgaier
General Foreman Machinist
Randolph L. Green
Ivan Ashley Sealey
Daniel P. Kiley
General Foreman (Lock Operations)
Julio Magan O.
Hilary L. Maynard
Maintenanceman (Rope and Wire Cable)
Henry Me D. Powlett
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Miriam A. Gittens
Card Punch Operator
Arch D. Bishop
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Edgar E. McGill
Leader Laborer (Cleaner)
Dalton A. Robinson
Samuel D. Toppin
Hubert A. Mason
Cyril D. Adams
Leader Ice Cream Maker
Ugent NI. Lord
General Foreman Laborer (Cleaner)
Clebert E. Sainten
Sales Store Clerk
Rupert A. Shoy
T'-ANSPO STATION AND TERMINALS
l L REAU
I ffiWff'rn%% n
R. C. Wellington
Motor Vehicle Dispatcher
Laurie A. Whittaker
Liquid Fuels Wharfman
C. E. Carmichael
Helper Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic
George A. Douglas
Julio F. Justiniani
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Carmen A. Butcher
Teacher, Junior High, Latin American
Wm. T. Halvosa, Jr.
Postmaster, First-Class Office
Edward G. Moran
Special Postal Clerk
Winnifred E. Seeley
Public Health Nurse
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
S Second quarter, fiscal year-
Norwegian --- --
South Korean -__
United States -
All Others ---
No. of Tons of
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
July_-- _____ _--
fiscal year __---
Gross tolls* (Thousands of dollars)
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net tons or over)
segregated into 8 main trade routes:
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1968 1967 Transits
~~~_____~~______________________ ___~______ _1961-65
United States Intercoastal ___--___-- -- __----- 102 125 115
East coast United States and South America---------- 369 437 618
East coast United States and Central America ----- 140 137 117
East coast United States and Far East---------------- 740 699 567
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia -- 119 132 84
Europe and West coast United States/Canada--------- 257 245 244
Europe and South America--- ---------- 319 323 289
Europe and Australasia ---.- ---------------- 89 92 29
All other routes- -------------- --------- -- 1,054 787 689
Total traffic -- -- -- ------- 3,189 2,977 2,814
To World Ports
\VILL THE present boom in container
ships have any effect on the Panama
Canal, its traffic and the port areas?
This question is not a pressing one
at the moment despite the growth in the
number of container ships used in the
North Atlantic trade. But at present
approximately 15 ships built especially
to carry containers use the Canal and of
these, about 6 unload container cargo
here on a regular schedule. Approxi-
mately 15 more passing through at ir-
regular intervals, can be classed as
ships built with accommodations for
Use of the Panama Canal by container
ships or part container ships began only
in the last few years since the new Grace
Line ships, serving South America, and
the Sea-Land trailer ships on an inter-
coastal run, started their vessels on
So far there have been no radical
changes necessary in the local port fa-
cilities, but in other parts of the world,
the increase in the number of container
vessels is bringing about a revolution
in the ports where container cargo is
handled on a large scale.
Something similar could happen to
the ports of Balboa and Cristobal. Al-
ready there have been suggestions that
an international container depot be built
on the Isthmus with equipment and
storage space to handle container cargo
from all over the world. This could
mean development of the land bridge
concept in Panama.
Changes brought about to the Port
of New York by the addition of $500
million in container equipment is de-
scribed in an article in a recent issue
of the Marine Reporter and Engineer-
The Elizabeth-Port Authority Marine
Terminal, the world's largest and most
modern containership facility, has cel-
ebrated its fifth birthday. The terminal
opened August 15, 1962, when Sea-
Land Service's SS Elizabethport was
the first vessel to call at the seaport,
thus heralding a new era in shipping
transport. The marine terminal then
had but four berths along its new Eliza-
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over-(Fiscal years)
beth Channel, 25 acres of paved upland
area and one small structure. During
its first full year of operations in 1963,
it handled 1,504,021 tons of cargo on
242 vessels and employed 730 people.
Today, 10 deep-sea vessel berths
and 158 acres of paved upland area
have been completed with another 10
berths and 185 acres of land under
construction. There are 12 cargo dis-
tribution buildings with more than a
million square feet of space for handling
of waterborne cargo. Over the past 5
years, tonnage at Elizabeth has increas-
ed by nearly 75 percent. The 919-acre
terminal is to be completed in 1975.
Six of the ten completed berths at
the showcase of the world's maritime
industry are occupied by Sea-Land
Service Inc. Recently, Atlantic Contain-
er Line Ltd. began Transatlantic con-
tainership operations from Elizabeth
with the MS Atlantic Span, the first ship
built from the keel up for Transatlantic
container service. It will be followed by
three other new ACL containerships
operating on a 28-day round trip be-
- tween seven U.S. and European port
cities. At each port unloading of cargo
containers, trucks, autos and rolling
stock will be accomplished in one-fourth
the time require by conventional vessels.
The Atlantic Container Line Ltd. is
a consortium of six major steamship
lines including Cunard Steamship Co.,
Ltd., the French Line, Holland America
Line, Swedish American Line, Swedish
Transatlantic Line and Wallenius Line,
most of whom have ships which use the
While Elizabeth is growing on the
east coast, the port of Los Angeles has
launched a $5,500,000 modernization
Program to accommodate containerized
cargo. This initial phase of a long-range
expansion program calls for construc-
tion of new wharves and the develop-
ment of 94 acres to serve as container
The need for special pier areas and
port facilities to handle container ships
and their cargo may limit the number
of container ships in operation for
awhile. But if the method of transport-
ing cargo, as it seems at present, con-
tinues to be cheaper, safer and faster,
piers will be built to accommodate them.
There may be changes in trade routes
as indicated by talk in Japan of sending
containers from the U.S. west coast to
the Midwest or Atlantic States by trans-
continental railroads and Japan-London
shipments via the U.S. continent, thus
avoiding the Panama Canal.
Containerships are presenting a prob-
lem to all ship operators, especially
(See p. 23)
Ores, various __ ____ _____
Boards and planks _____________-
Lumber, miscellaneous ______._.
Iron and steel manufactures,
Petroleum and petroleum products.
Bananas ____.- ______ ____
Iron and steel plates, sheets..______
Metals, various_ .-
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas) _______
Wheat -.._____-. .._...- ......
Canned food products _______.. _-
Plywood _-- _--_-_________ -- -
All others ___________
.- ---- 471,851
--.-_-- - 353,722
.... .---. 293,529
1967 5-Yr. Avg.
Atlantic to Pacific
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity -Y A
1968 1967 5-Yr. Avg.
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)_ 4,084,479 3,441,944 2,636,007
Coal and coke__ 3,102,185 2,093,692 1,403,636
Phosphate_....------------------- ____ 972,826 940,131 548,653
Metal, scrap---------------------------- 710,453 880,515 715,256
Soybeans -- ---- ---_____ 667,517 6,517 665,690 455708
Metal, iron- ---- --- ---___- 603,087 90,070 51,753
Ores, various -----------_______ __ 564,528 274,989 77,317
Corn ----- 483,219 462,750 337,509
Sorghum _________ 301,864 44,504 N.A.
Rice _____----.. _____-__________. 287,156 39,411 27,625
Sugar _... _________232,790 120,446 148,570
Chemicals, miscellaneous... --------- ___. 198,511 237,797 157,413
Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous_-.. 182,614 N.A. N.A.
Paper and paper products ...- .... 180,522 201,929 117,455
Wheat ... __ .. 178,190 523,593 156,103
All others -_.- __ ..__ _... 17,268,546 2,796,939 2,275,252
Total ----------------_____------ 30,018,487 12,814,400 9,108,257
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
Total commercial -
U.S. Government vessels: *0
Total, commercial and
Second quarter, fiscal year-
1968 1967 Transits
to to Total Total Total
560 540 1,100 2,977 2,814
22 16 38 120 140
582 556 1,138 3,097 2,954
56 58 114 209 67
1 4 5 27 44
639 618 1,257 3,333 3,065
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
FIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Panama Highway Patrol,
A Friend of Motorists
THE JANUARY-April dry season, with
its sunny and breezy days, beckons
motorists on the Isthmus of Panama to
hit the open road. It's the time of the
year when the Panamanian section of
the Inter-American Highway, traversing
the interior of the country from the
Costa Rican boundary to Panama City,
is most traveled.
Because of the lure of the road, the
dry season is also the time when most
motorists are apt to become aware of
Panama's Highway Patrol-the elite
unit of the National Guard charged
with keeping the highways safe. Under
study since 1957 and organized March
19, 1964, it is among the first units of
its kind created in a Latin American
country, according to its commanding
officer, Captain Luis O. Nenzen, who
trained with the California, Oklahoma,
Arizona and Texas Highway Patrols.
This dry season, the Highway Patrol
force is being increased to extend its
operations along the entire length of the
Inter-American Highway in Panama.
The Patrol's present force of 70 men
and 29 cars is deployed from Panama
City westward to Rio Viqui, on the
boundary of Veraguas and Chiriqui
Provinces, and northward to Sabanitas,
near Colon. Forty men and 16 radio
patrol cars are being added to the
Patrol to reach as far as Paso de Canoa,
the Panama-Costa Rica border crossing
point for vehicles.
The image of a tough traffic cop.
hiding behind a billboard to pounce
upon motorists, is anathema to the men
of Panama's Highway Patrol who are
proud of their role as the motorist's
friend, not his nemesis.
Every member is representative of
the new breed of National Cuardsman
-trained, efficient and aware of his
responsibilities to the public. Personally
selected by Capt. Nenzen from among
National Guard trainees, the patrolmen
are required to take intensive special
courses in police operations, criminal
and accident investigation, contraband
control, radio communications, personal
defense, fire control, motor vehicle
maintenance, basic English and-believe
it or not-public relations and tourist
Every patrol car can ies a first-aid
kit, a CO., fire extinguisher, a full 5-gal-
lon gasoline container (to assist cars
that have run out of fuel), pick, shovel
LJLJ,---~ _CI '-.--,'
Outside the Chame station of the Panama Highway Patrol, Sgt. Juan Estehan Lasso, right, and Cpl. Teudolo Gonzalez check a patrol car
assigned to District 4. The building, which serves as offices and living quarters, was constructed by men of the Highway Patrol.
16 FEBRUARY 1968
and axe (to remove obstructions from
the road), at least one stretcher, and
blankets (for accident victims in shock).
Every man knows when and how to
use each piece of equipment.
One rule constantly impressed on the
patrolman is never to conceal himself.
He is instructed to choose a parking
station that will make his grey patrol
vehicle with its bright orange winged
wheel insignia plainly visible from afar.
And he knows the reasoning behind this
practice: the best way to make the
roads safe is to prevent accidents and
nothing will restrain a restless motorist
as the presence of a highway patrol car.
Some may be surprised to learn that
the widespread practice of blinking the
headlights to warn of a patrol car ahead
is welcomed by the Highway Patrol.
The warning serves to slow down traffic.
The Highway Patrolman also learns
that it is his duty to assist the public,
both drivers and pedestrians. Many a
stranded motorist has been put back on
his wheels by the helping hand of the
Highway Patrol, changing a flat tire,
providing gasoline (which is returned
at the nearest service station), making
minor repairs, or getting help when the
trouble is serious. And many an eager
driver, caught in a minor traffic viola-
tion, has been pleasantly surprised by
being released with a firm but courteous
admonition, instead of being slapped
with a ticket.
In their daily rounds, the patrolmen
assist Interior residents. Their cars carry
children to school, particularly on rainy
days; take the sick to medical attention;
transport health teams to outlying com-
munities; and, through their radio com-
munications system, summon help
quickly in case of a major emergency.
Assisting women at childbirth is com-
monplace for men of the patrol. They
have saved lives through mouth-to-
mouth resuscitation. And once a patrol-
man prevented disaster in an Interior
town by putting out an incipient fire
in a 2,500-gasoline tank truck which
had struck a power line.
The patrol is on duty 24 hours a day.
Generally, each car is assigned a 10-
mile section of the highway and, de-
pending on the location, carries one or
two men. The patrolmen cruise back
and forth on their sector for one hour,
then rest for ten minutes at a parking
station at the road. Each shift lasts
eight hours. On weekends and rush
hours, the number of patrol cars is
Highway Patrolman Clementino Becerra, on station on the Inter-American Highway, talks by
radio with his district headquarters. The patrolmen cruise their sectors for 1 hour, then
take a 10-minute break at a parking station in full view of drivers.
increased on accident-prone sections of
In case of accident or trouble, the
Highway Patrol advises: stay put be-
cause sooner or later a patrol car will
come by; and if possible, send word
with a passer-by.
The Panama Highway Patrol is or-
ganized into a headquarters in Panama
City and control points in Sabanitas
near Colon; in Arraijan and Chame in
Panama Province; in Anton, Cocle Prov-
ince; and in Divisa, serving Veraguas
and Herrera Provinces. With the pro-
posed expansion of the patrol, control
points will be set up also in David,
Chiriqui Province, and Paso de Canoa,
on the Panama-Costa Rica boundary.
Each control point is responsible for
one or more traffic districts.
Capt. Nenzen takes pride in the fact
that the Patrol, which started from
scratch in regard to facilities, now has
comfortable station buildings at four
control points (Arraijan, Chame, An-
ton and Divisa), all built by men of
At each control point there is an
administrative office which handles the
paper work for the traffic districts,
including the processing of tickets issued
As it nears its fourth anniversary, the
Panama Highway Patrol already is look-
ing upward. It has begun studies for
patrolling traffic from the air in prepara-
tion for the time when funds and
equipment become available.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
50 year c4go
THE PANAMA Canal Commissary
Division was affected by the German
submarine war at sea. A note appearing
in the Panama Canal Record advised
that a large shipment of Royal Doulton
China consigned to the Commissary
Division had been lost at sea, presum-
ably torpedoed. On the same boat
were several thousand dollars worth of
notions and a shipment of khaki cloth.
The last traces of the Gamboa dike
disappeared when 6,400 cubic yards
of rock were removed from the site by
the dredge Marmot in October. The
dike was blown up in October 1913
and the greater part of the material re-
moved by dredges as soon as possible
to open the Cut to navigation.
Fifty cans of food and game fish
minnows, supplied by the Bureau of
Fisheries, were liberated in Gatun Lake.
They were black bass, sunfish, carp and
Press reports state the establishment
of a new record for quick passage
from Liverpool to Callao, Peru-19
days-by a ship which passed through
the Canal. The distance of 5,936 miles
was said to have been covered in 19
days, a rate of 312.4 miles a day.
The record for length of .ships tran-
siting the Canal was broken in Decem-
ber with the passage of a vessel having
a length of 655 feet.
25 Yeari 4.o
EMPLOYMENT OF women as Canal
Zone Customs guards for part-time
work was authorized by C. H. Calhoun,
Chief of the Civil Affairs Division, at
Balboa Heights. Duties performed by
these women, especially at the airport,
permitted regular customs officers to be
assigned to more arduous work.
More than 350 Balboa High School
students were employed in work con-
tributing to the war effort during the
last summer vacation. Their total earn-
ings were more than $50,000, most of
which was invested in war bonds.
Recognize anyone? These budding scientists are recording what they find under the lenses
of their microscopes in biology laboratory at Canal Zone Junior College in 1936.
A total of 6,000 magazines for the
Red Cross, 1,200 bottles for the Health
Department and hundreds of coat
hangers for the Ancon Laundry were
among items collected by Balboa High
School students in their effort to save,
serve, and conserve. And Canal Zone
Boy Scouts salvaged more than 11 tons
of material valuable to the war effort.
Outside Christmas lighting was
banned because of blackout regulations.
10 year 4o
THE OCTOBER 1957 Panama Canal
Review cover featured Grace Line's
Santa Mercedes, which won the nu-
merical honor of making the 200,000th
transit of the Canal by an oceangoing
Canal Zone hospitals celebrated, on
November 17, the 75th Anniversary of
the founding of Gorgas Hospital. It was
the first time in the history of the Canal
Zone that a general observation of
Hospital Day was held.
Several million dollars worth of Pa-
nama Canal property on the Atlantic
side was transferred to Panama in
accordance with the 1955 Treaty.
The Mandinga, a midget shallow-
draft dredge, the first dredge ever built
by the Canal organization, was christ-
ened, launched, and put to work on
its first job in the East Diversion on
the Atlantic Side.
One Year c4go
THE CROWNING of Lucy Benitez as
1967 Pacific Side Canal Zone Carnival
queen highlighted the social activities
in the first week of February last year.
Isthmian residents were impressed
by the sight of the stately 27-year-old
Queen Elizabeth, the largest passenger
liner in the world, and the U.S. flag
United States, called the fastest ship
in the world, docked at Cristobal at
the same time.
"I am glad to be back and highly
honored by this appointment," said
Gen. Walter P. Leber as he was sworn
in as the 15th Canal Zone Governor
February 21 in a brief ceremony in the
Administration Building at Balboa
18 FEBRUARY 1968
budget ConJclouj Canal Cmployees
hAake grand ZTour of South c4merica
TRAVELING BY air, land, water and
sometimes on foot, two Panama Canal
employees covered 10,339 miles on a
a recent journey through South Amer-
ica. Their goal was to see as much as
possible while keeping a sharp eye on
Walter Bottin, Wage and Classifica-
tion specialist in the Personnel Bureau,
and William Andrews, Gamboa School
principal, visited Argentina, Chile, Uru-
guay, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador on the
51-day tour. George Rahn, instrument
machinist in the Water and Laboratories
Branch, started out with Bottin and
Andrews in Panama and visited most of
countries but ended his trip earlier
after reaching Peru.
Their travels took them to many of
the most scenic areas of South America.
They were awed by breathtaking sights
as they bussed along cliff-hanging roads
in the Andes and bounced over trails
never meant for man or the vehicle
carrying them. They sailed on Lake
Titicaca, the highest navigable lake in
the world. They rode on the world's
highest railroad system, crossed the vast
expanse of the Argentine pampas and
walked to the equator.
Transportation costs for getting there
and back, and for side trips to special
places of interest in each country ranged
from 250 for a bus and foot trip in
Ecuador to $179 for the air fare from
Panama to Santiago, Chile.
With economy in mind, they shunned
the luxury hotels and restaurants, stop-
ping at modest establishments which
usually were clean and comfortable.
Overnight accommodations ranged from
900 in Mendoza, Argentina, to $3,
a day (with meals) in Riobamba, Ecua-
dor, to $3.92 for a night in La Paz, Bo-
livia. First class accommodations on an
overnight trip by river steamer from
Lima to Guayaquil cost $1.25 including
a hammock for sleeping. A stateroom
was 750 additional.
By eating the food of the localities
they visited, meal expenses were kept
at a minimum and amounted to approx-
imately $123 per man for the 51 days.
Daily food costs ran from 67e for
a four-course meal in Andahuaylas,
Peru, to a $2.25 table d'hote in Tucu-
man, Argentina. The table fare in Ar-
gentina and Uruguay often consisted
of 2-inch thick "baby beef" steak with
all the trimmings, wine included-all
The variety of climates they encoun-
tered ranged from hot and muggy in
the lowlands of Guayaquil to cool chills
which became frigid at night in the
highlands of Bolivia and Peru. They
encountered no rain during the trip.
The first leg of the trip-Panama to
Santiago-3,110 air miles, was the long-
est and most expensive, $179. A 116-
mile train trip, Santiago to Valparaiso,
was $1.35, and the return by bus, 750.
They traveled from Santiago to Men-
doza, Argentina, 235 miles over the
cordillera by car, using the train tunnel
at Caracoles since the road over the
mountains was snowbound. From Men-
doza, at the foot of the Andes, it was
a 23-hour bus ride across the 638 miles
of flat pampas to Buenos Aires.
After exploring the splendors of
Buenos Aires, the largest city in South
America, they took a side trip to Tigre,
a resort 18 miles from the city.
Taking the daily river boat, they
crossed the Rio de la Plata, arriving at
(See p. 20)
" -' :S
.. .. ..'
--- .- .
.. " 5 1
Inca ruins of the fortress of Sascuhuaman in the environs of Cuzco, Peru. Stonework
construction in pyramid shape shows the unusual engineering competence of the Incas.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Of S. Americ
(Continued from p. 19)
Colonia, Uruguay, where they cau;
a connecting bus for the 110 miles
Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay a
one of the great cities in the south
From Montevideo they' traveled
bus through 254 miles of cattlelands
the industrial city of Paysandu on
east bank of the Uruguay River. TI
spent one night there and resumed th
journey to Tucuman in the north,
part of Argentina. It was a 39-hi
trip, first by launch across the Rio U
guay, then bus, launch again across
Parana River and finally bus.
Tucuman, known as the Garden
Argentina, is on a plain, but behind
towers the Sierra de Aconquija. Strea
flowing from this mountain irrig
more than a million acres of sugar ca
After enjoying the subtropical dim
in the mountainous atmosphere, td
traveled 24 hours to reach La Quiaca
bleak and barren town on the Boliv
border 398 miles away.
There were water stops for the ste
engine; stops for food; and many oti
^-- 1 W'-
George Rahn, left, and William Andrews pretend to hitch a ride from Valparaiso to
Santiago, Chile. They took a train to Valparaiso and returned to Santiago by bus.
ru- interruptions for unknown reasons. As
the a respite to the long train ride, the
travelers walked the 2 miles from La
of Quiaca, to Villazon, the border town in
I it Bolivia. Here, at an altitude of 11,115
ms feet, began the high, bleak, windswept
te altiplano region of Bolivia.
ate The Indians on the street spoke little
ie, or no Spanish, jabbering in their Aymara
Sa and Quechua dialects. The women were
ian rather comical looking in their peculiar
bowler-type hats. Travelers checks are
am of no value here. Only dollar bills and
her Argentine pesos are accepted from the
TT -- -
The Central Railway from Huancayo to Callao, Peru, snakes through the Andes traversing
66 tunnels, 59 bridges and 22 switchbacks. Snow-capped Andes tower above Galera, the
highest railroad station in the world at an altitude of 15,681 feet above sea level.
tourists who want to buy blankets to
keep from freezing on the train to Po-
tosi. They boarded the train for the 438
miles to Potosi, 27 hours away.
The 108-mile stretch from Rio Mu-
lato to Potosi took more than 9 hours.
of riding, almost straight up. They
reached Condor at an altitude of 15,705
feet, one of the highest points in the
world's railroad system.
From cold and barren Potosi, which
is 13,700 feet up, they saw the awesome
Cerro Potosi looming skyward 15,680
feet above sea level. Once this was
known as the foremost silver producing
region in the world. Today the Bolivians
mine tin ore here.
Next, they took a bus to Sucre, the
official capital of Bolivia. Another bus
took them the 256 miles to Cochabam-
ba, the summer capital of Bolivia and
second largest city. At an altitude of
8,570 feet and surrounded by rolling
hills, Cochabamba has perhaps the most
pleasant climate in Bolivia. From here,
they traveled to La Paz, the capital
280 miles away by ferro-carril, a bus
adapted to the railroad track.
After 4 days of visiting the museum,
cathedral, government palaces and the
picturesque streets in the Indian sector
of La Paz, they took another ferro-carril
to Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable
lake in the world'at 12,500 feet. It was
a 140-mile steamer trip across the lake
and despite the altitude, the weather
The 244 miles to Cuzco, Peru, once
the capital of the Inca empire, was
reached by train. The entire trip from
La Paz to Cuzco, the ferro-carril, the
steamer (including cabin and two
meals) plus the train fare to Cuzco was
From Cuzco they visited the lost
city of the Incas, Machu Picchu, and
explored the remnants of the strange
city between 10,000-foot peaks. The
magnificent 146-mile journey from Cuz-
co took them through the Valley of the
Incas and panoramic views of Indian
terraces, fortresses and aqueducts dating
back to the Inca period.
Returning to Cuzco they took a
mini-bus to Abancav and the next
morning they started out for Andahuay-
las 90 miles away, making the 6-hour
trip by pickup truck. After bouncing
along for 4 hours they could still see
the town of Abancay as they spiraled
up through one of the three mountain
ranges between Cuzco and Huancavo.
They spent 2 days at Andahuaylas
and then took a bus for the 160 miles
to Avacucho, the colonial city of cobble-
stoned streets, numerous churches, and
ruined colonial mansions. A substantial
meal in Avacucho cost them 670. Two
days in Avacucho and they were off on
another bus to Huancayo, an old market
town 162 miles away.
The rough roads and other incon-
veni nces were ignored as they viewed
some of the most magnificent mountain
scenery in South America on this trip
from Cuzco to Huancayo.
The 260 miles to Lima, the cosmo-
politan capital of Peru, was by train
and it was on this part of the journey
that they sped by the highest railroad
station in the world at Galera, 15,681
feet. After visiting the colonial palaces,
cathedrals and plazas of Lima, they'
took a short, 12-mile ride to San Isidro,
one of the beautiful residential areas of
The trip from Lima to Guayaquil,
Ecuador, a distance of 968 miles, was
made via bus, taxi, foot and steamship,
all for $18. Spending a full day in
Guayaquil, the chief seaport and com-
mercial city of Ecuador, they went by
train to Riobamba, 150 miles away.
Riobamba is not far from Cerro Chim-
borazo, the great snow-capped volcano.
Sometimes the streets of Riobamba are
strewn with ashes from the volcano. At
9,020 feet above sea level, the climate
was mild, the food was good and
They proceeded to Quito, the capital
Bottin and Rahn cannot resist being photographed with these well-preserved oldtimers. Many
such automobiles are seen on the streets of Montevideo, Uruguay.
? Ia '.P '. --
A bowler-hatted Andean Indian woman drives her llamas to market at Ayaviri, Peru, a train
stop on the Puno to Cuzco railway from Lake Titicaca.
sitting almost 2 miles high and over-
shadowed by the sleeping volcano Pich-
incha. They spent 4 days in the city
The tour ended as they boarded the
plane at Quito's modern airport for the
650 miles to Panama. Bottin and An-
drews each had spent $368.46 for
transportation, S104.80 for accommo-
dations and approximately 8123.15 for
food and miscellaneous items.
They recommend this trip to the
hardy traveler with an open mind and
plenty of patience. Buses never leave
on time, trains never arrive on schedule;
time is not of the essence.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
New Maersk Customer
A SLEEK 23-knot air-conditioned ad-
dition to the Maersk Line fleet made
its first transit through the Panama
Canal December 31 en route from New
York to Japan. She was the Cecile
Maersk, recently built by A. F. Moeller
in Sweden and will continue to make
regular transits on her service from the
U.S. east coast to the Far East. The
Cecile Maersk is the first of a series of
six new cargo liners to be built by
Maersk for this trade. They are all
13,000 gross tons, which is somewhat
larger than the usual general cargo
ship. C. B. Fenton and Co., agents for
the line at the Canal said Maersk has a
fleet of 90 ships, most of which use the
Canal on a regular schedule.
MORE THAN 400 passengers making
a "Cruise of a Lifetime" to the South
Sea Islands and the Far East, passed
through the Canal January 12 aboard
the luxurious Swedish American Line
cruise ship Kungsholm. This was the
second transit through the Canal for
the big ship which entered service last
year, and her second cruise to the
One of the newest of the cruise ships
to use the Canal, the Kungsholm is
completely air-conditioned. After cruis-
ing more than 30,000 miles, the liner
will return to the Canal in early April
and dock in Cristobal before returning
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR SECOND QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1968
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial__ 3,189 2,977
U.S. Government _-- 350 209
Free 28 21
Total ----- 3,567 3,207
Commercial __ $20,567,864
U.S. Government_ 2,054,147
Commercial __ 23,538,189
U.S. Government 1,779,920
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
*0 Cargo figures are in long tons.
to Port Everglades and New York. She
is scheduled to leave New York April
10 on a Spring Adventure Cruise that
will take her to the Azores and three
ports in Europe. C. B. Fenton and Co.
represents the Swedish American ships
at the Canal.
A MAMMOTH 400,000 deadweight-
ton tanker, almost twice the size of the
world's largest tanker, is on the drawing
boards of a leading Japanese shipbuild-
1\-968 1200 N
1967 - R
-(AVERAGE 1951-1955) -- 600
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
ing company and is being offered to ship
operators, according to a recent New
York Times article.
Mitsui Zosen announced that it has
a 1,990 foot-long ship that would be
almost twice as long as the largest ship
afloat, the 206,006-ton Idemitsu Aaru,
which is 1,122 feet long. The Empire
State Building is 1,472 feet high-if one
needs a comparison. The vessel will
have a twin-screw, twin engine propul-
sion system to give it a 15-knot service
speed. Because its 80-foot draft would
be too deep for passage through the
Strait of Malacca, between Sumatra
and the Malay Peninsula, the vessel
would be unsuitable for Japanese
owners and its primary market would
be among the shipowners and oil
companies operating to Europe.
A LUXURY cruise liner which has
been visiting the Canal since she en-
tered the cruise service in 1949, has
been sold to Yugoslavia for use as a
floating hotel. She is the green-hulled
Caronia, built in England for the Cun-
ard Line especially for cruising. Her
first visit to Cristobal was on a Carib-
bean cruise in 1949 and since then has
been making regular transits through
the Canal following her annual round-
the-world cruise. During her career,
the 34,172-ton air-conditioned liner
made 17 round-the-world voyages, one
long Pacific cruise and at least one long
Scandinavian and two long Mediter-
ranean voyages each year. She has ac-
commodations for 528 first-class and 332
tourist class passengers and a speed of
22 knots. When she left New York
November 18, she was on her way to
Southampton, England, and would be
put on the second-hand ship market.
CAPT. GEORGE Campbell, master of
the passenger-cargo liner Gothic, has
been appointed Commodore of the
Shaw Savill Line and his commodore's
pennant was flying from the Gothic
when it went through the Panama Canal
in January. Captain Campbell joined
the Shaw Savill Line in 1927 as a junior
officer and his first command was the
Samsylvan in 1947. The Gothic brought
Queen Elizabeth 11 of England and her
husband Prince Phillip to the Canal
Zone in 1952.
(Continued from p. 8)
military officials will be among the many
Canal Zone residents playing in the
tournament. Both the Governor and
Lieutenant Governor participated in last
The amazing Paul Hahn takes to the
course at 5 p.m. that day to entertain
the crowd with his precision shoot
ing and zany tricks which have as
wounded golfers-and non-golfers- in
more than 40 different countries where
he has performed.
Another reception in the Club House
and a sport dance featuring Lucho
AzcArraga and his conjunto cap the
President Marco A. Robles or his
representative will officially inaugurate
the tournament at noon February 22 by
presenting the first ball to defending
champion Bert Weaver who will be
back to seek another victory. Other
Panamanian and Canal Zone dignitaries
will be on hand for the inauguration
and the first 18-hole round will be
played that day.
Governor and Mrs. Leber will host
visiting golfers and their wives aboard
the Las Cruces, in the evening.
The last three rounds will be played
February 23. 24 and 25 with the awards
to be presented immediately thereafter.
As an added attraction of the tourna-
ment, high caliber Isthmian amateurs
with handicaps of five strokes or less
may play along with the pros for the
four rounds but will be competing only
with other non-professionals.
The Panama Open is sponsored joint-
ly by the Panama Golf Club, Viceroy
Cigarettes and the Panama Tourist
Institute (IPAT). This year, tourna-
ment officials have received firm com-
mitments of participation from profes-
sionals representing Panama, United
States, Guatemala, El Salvador, Argen-
tina, Peru, Colombia, Mexico, and
Besides Bert Weaver, leading pros
who will be on hand to compete in-
clude former Panama Open winners Art
Wall, Jr., and Antonio Cerda, Florentino
Molina, Dow Finsterwald and Butch
Baird who last year won both the Bo-
gota Open and the West End Classic in
Canal Zone Governor W. P. Leber checks his club while he and Lt. Gov. H. R. Parfitt
prepare for the next hole in the 1967 Pro-Am. Both are expected to be back again to
participate in this year's tournament.
(Continued from p. 15)
those in the United States who are con-
cerned with replacing an aging mer-
chant fleet. They must decide now
whether to invest large sums to develop
new systems for handling unitized cargo
or to remain with the general cargo
ship utilizing existing facilities.
Recently the Lykes Brothers Steam-
ship Co., Inc. of New Orleans made a
decision in favor of all-purpose barge
carrying ships to be known as the Lykes
Seabee class. They are to be placed in
service between the Gulf and the Euro-
pean continent but will be of a size that
will enable them to pass through the
With a length of 875 feet and a
beam of 106 feet, these ships can carry
either 38 fully loaded barges or a total
of between 1,500 and 1,600 cargo con-
tainers of the standard size. They can
accommodate special heavy lift cargo of
up to 2,000 tons and handle vehicles,
roll-on, roll-off cargo and unitized loads
with equal facility. In addition, each
ship can take about 15,000 tons of liq-
uid cargo in deep tanks and travel at a
speed of 20 knots.
Lvkes officials, who revealed that
the construction of the Seabee class ves-
sels will represent a total expenditure
of $90 million, said that this is not just
another new ship but a whole new
method of ocean transportation based
on a new method of handling shipboard
Statistics printed by the Maritime
Reporter and Engineering News show
there are 14 new container ships of
1,000 gross tons or more and 17 partial
container ships under construction in
U.S. shipyards as of June 30, 1967.
Merchant vessels converting to contain-
erships in U.S. shipyards totaled seven
with two more for Matson Navigation
Company being converted in Japan.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW