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PN k%( tc-% CA N A L
W. P. LEBER, Governor-President
H. R. PARFrIT, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer
ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
PAZ~ / Publications Editors
MORGAN E. GOODWIN and TOMAS A. CUPAS
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, FANNIE P.
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE T. TUNON
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
C/ "cCf Our Cover
TWO OF the Panama Canal's reg-
ular customers are shown on the
cover of this edition of THE PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW. They are the New
Zealand Shipping Company's Hunt-
ingdon, coming southbound in Mi-
raflores Locks, and the Texaco Com-
pany tanker Texaco New Mexico,
traveling northbound en route to
Venezuela to pick up a cargo of
The Huntingdon was built in
1948 and has a gross tonnage of
11,281 tons. She carries refrigerated
and general cargo, with refrigerated
taking predominance on her voyages
from New Zealand to England.
She has been making regular trips
through the Panama Canal since
1948 and is one of 41 cargo and 3
passenger ships maintained by the
New Zealand Shipping Company on
the United Kingdom to New Zealand
run via the Panama Canal.
The Texaco New Mexico, despite
her name, flies the Panama flag and
is 10 years younger than the Hunt-
ingdon. She was built in 1958 and
has spent most of the years in ser-
vice between Venezuela and the
United States west coast.
Crane Hercules lifts a 64-ton "knuckle" section of prefabricated softnose from Dock No. 7.
This was placed aboard the crane boat and floated to Miraflores Locks center wall where it
was put into place as part of an entire softnose that was replaced this spring. The project
was carried out after the wall was damaged in November when it was struck by a ship. The
purpose of the softnose is to protect ships from damage if they veer toward the wall.
THE BAT is a symbol of darkness and
eerie mystery in most western civiliza-
tions and denotes happiness, good for-
tune, and longevity in Far Eastern
But to scientists, the bat represents a
health menace of unknown magnitude
to human beings, one about which
relatively little is known in an age of
heart implants and artificial kidneys.
Efforts to fill this informational void are
being made at Building 265 of the Canal
Zone, the headquarters for the U.S.
Middle America Research Unit.
Bats are receiving considerable atten-
tion at MARU because frequently they)
are infected with and spread histoplas-
inosis, a fungus disease that the unit is
doing extensive research on. A staff
member of Dr. William C. Gorgas, who
led the hard-won fight against yellow
fever and malaria when the Canal was
being built, described the disease during
Canal construction days. He thought it
was a parasitic disease but later it was
learned to be a fungus.
Though usually not fatal, it mimics
tuberculosis by causing pulmonary in-
fections and leaving lesions that for
years radiologists reading X-rays mis-
took for tuberculosis. In the 1930's, it
became a serious problem in the Ohio
Federico Valencia Jr., supervisor of serology, and Dr. Karl NM. Johnson, director of MARU,
view towns in Guatemala showing high prevalence of arthropod virus antibodies. Other
maps show villages studied in regions of Central America.
and Mississippi River basins and today
is very common in Panama. The fungus
can grow in soil under certain conditions
and in dry season turns to spores that are
blown about by the wind.
Areas in Panama having limestone
caves inhabited by bats are "crawl-
ing" with histoplasmosis, according to
MARU's director. Dr. Karl M. Johnson.
"Man must know more about the
habits of bats," Dr. Johnson emphasized
in a recent interview. "Scientifically, not
much has been done about bats since
the 1940's when their built-in radar and
sonar systems were studied. They are
difficult to catch and to colonize. Some
eat nearly their own weight in insects
every night. They are difficult to keep
alive, hard to feed; some eat only when
MARU has succeeded in keeping fruit
eating bats alive but to date has been
unable to colonize the insect-eating
varieties. Some knowledgeable people
contend that bats are the most common
mammals in the tropics. Also they
possess a greater life span than rodents.
occasionally living up to 20 years. It
has been confirmed in the United States
and elsewhere that bats excrete viruses.
Added to these items is a strong suspi-
cion among medical men that some bats
may be migratory from the tropics to
the temperate zone.
Why has this area of study been
neglected or avoided?
"Bats are not conspicuous like birds
and not as much is known about
them," Dr. Johnson points out. "There
are no batwatchers as there are
(See p. 4)
Middle America Research Unit
3 Canal History
5 Sinking of Submarine "Surcouf"
Panama's New University
12 The Sport of Kings
12 Shipping Notes
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 3)
The investigation of bats is but one
segment of work done by the 60
MARU staff members, including 8 to
10 professional scientists.
The unit was established in 1958
under the joint sponsorship of the
National Institutes of Health, which is
the research branch of the U.S. Public
Health Service, and the Walter Reed
Army Institute of Research. The two
organizations work together on many
projects and collaborate with other
agencies such as Corgas Hospital,
Corgas Memorial Laboratory, the Pan-
ama Canal organization, Paramedics
and other branches of the Armed Forces
in the Canal Zone or affiliated with the
U.S. Southern Command.
The reason for its establishment was
a sharp rise in yellow fever which
traveled up Central America, reaching
Mexico in the 1940's and 1950's.
Monkeys died by the thousands, human
cases numbered in the hundreds with a
few deaths, touching off fears of
another yellow fever epidemic that ac-
tually never materialized. MARU has
never worked on the disease it was
originally set up to fight but this does
not mean that it will not be called on to
combat it later. Urban yellow fever was
wiped out here but the jungle vectors-
mosquitoes which transmit the illness-
are still present.
Contrary to what some Isthmian res-
idents may believe, MARU's well-
equipped laboratories are not being
used for cancer research or to find a
cure for heart disease. These and similar
projects are handled by the U.S. Health
Service and other organizations within
the United States.
One of the major fields of work at
MARU is the study of arthropods-
spiders, ticks, ants, etc.-and arthropod
transmitted viruses. Yellow fever and
encephalitis are examples of these.
Members of the MARU team have dis-
covered new viruses and are continuing
their investigations with much of their
effort devoted to blood samples. For it
is in these blood samples that the scien-
tist finds the antibodies, "footprints" of
Questions unit doctors and techni-
cians hope to answer involve the role of
wild creatures in the transmission of
viruses. Some viruses, for example, can
infect birds without making them ill.
"Since birds migrate and many of them
pass through this part of the world,
what is learned here can show and
predict how we have epidemics in the
United States and other parts of the
world," Dr. Johnson related.
A classic, and probably the most
dramatic, example of the accomplish-
ments of MARU concerns the hemor-
rhagic fever epidemic that ravaged a
rural province in Bolivia. The first death
occurred in the village of San Joaquin
in 1959 and the MARU investigation
began in 1962, after it was found not to
be a form of typhus fever as originally
suspected. It almost cost the lives of
Dr. Johnson and two associates.
MARU epidemiologist Dr. Ronald
MacKenzie was in La Paz making a
(See p. 10)
The Elusive Bat
Mrs. Martha H. Shacklette, assisted by Raymond Cameron, checks culture tubes for histo-
plasma in bat tissues. Map in background is that of Fort Clayton, one of several Isthmian
communities surveyed for fungus infection in bats.
Robert Sawyer with Panamanian marmoset,
one of many wild animals used for work
in laboratory experiments at the Middle
America Research Unit. The availability of
the great variety of wildlife is one of the
advantages of the unit's location in Panama.
A Ship That
(EDITORS NOTE: The following article
appeared in the Spring, 1967, issue of Tote
Line, which is published by the Moran
Towing & Transportation Co., Inc. It deals
with the SS Hope, a ship that has transited
by Jeff Blinn
Her name is an abbreviation for
"Health Opportunity for People Every-
where". Wherever she voyages she
brings knowledge, compassion and a
hope for a better tomorrow through
better health. She is the SS Hope.
More than 1 million people in seven
countries of Asia, South America and
West Africa have benefitted directly
through immunization, medical treat-
ment (including some 8,300 major sur-
gical operations) and instruction since
her maiden voyage for the People-to-
People Health Foundation in 1960.
The story of this amazing hospital
ship and her more amazing complement
of doctors, nurses and paramedics began
in 1958 with President Dwight D.
Eisenhower's desire to promote inter-
national goodwill and understanding
through personal contact. Asked by the
President to initiate such a project, Dr.
William B. Walsh submitted his plan to
provide the world with its first peace-
time hospital ship. He was given the
The chosen ship was the Navy's
Consolation, commissioned in 1945 as a
station hospital ship for the Fifteenth
Fleet and launched a year earlier as the
Marine Walrus. She was the first hospital
ship to serve with the United Nations
forces in Korea, was awarded the Repub-
lic of Korea's Presidential Unit Citation
and all of the 10 authorized engagement
stars for her service in that conflict. She
later distinguished herself in evacuating
civilians from North Vietnam in "Opera-
tion Passage to Freedom".
In 1960 the Consolation was refitted,
chartered to the People-to-People Health
Foundation and renamed Hope. Jam-
med to the gunwales, she boasts 230
hospital beds, 3 operating rooms, a milk
plant equal to a herd of 2,500 cows,
an electric generating plant sufficient to
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SS Hope passes under Thatcher Ferry Bridge after transiting the Canal en route to another
mission of mercy. This vessel has helped more than a million persons in seven nations by
providing medical care and instruction.
light a city of 12,000 and a galley serv-
ing 400,000 or more meals on each
At the warm invitation of Indonesia,
the Hope began her first mission of
mercy. Crewed by the American Pres-
ident Lines, she sailed from San Fran-
cisco September 22, 1960.
"The East forgets many things," edi-
torialized the Times of Indonesia, "but
never, never loses its reverence for a
teacher. Those on the Hope will live
long in our memory."
Teaching is the primary aim of Hope's
permanent staff of 95 doctors, nurses
and medical technologists. (She carries
a crew of 94 men, including officers.)
To aid the permanent staff, volunteer
teams of specialists are flown to the
Hope for 2-month tours of duty. They
bring the newest skills, techniques and
knowledge developed by the American
medical, dental and paramedical pro-
fessions and serve without pay. Selected
from applicants across North America
who are outstanding in their specialties,
many have taken time out of their prac-
tices to serve on several voyages.
From Indonesia, after training some
500 Indonesian doctors and nurses,
treating some 18,000 patients and com-
pleting the first mass chest X-ray pro-
gram in that country's history, the Hope
moved on to Saigon, South Vietnam.
There, oral surgery was introduced and
a mass immunization of a quarter of a
million children was completed before
her return to the United States.
The Hope was refurbished in San
Franciso after having been gone a year
on her first voyage.
Grace Line then acted as her agent
for the next two voyages-crewing the
vessel, handling her freight and helping
in all matters marine. She sailed from
San Francisco to Salaverry, Peru, May
9, 1962, at the invitation of the Peruvian-
North American Medical Association.
When she left that country ten months
later, 40,000 grateful Peruvians lined
the shore to see her off.
Voyage 3 was to Guayaquil, Ecuador,
from New York where she established
another ship-and-shore teaching service
in cooperation with the medical and
nursing professions and the faculty of
the University of Guayaquil.
Farrell Lines, thoroughly familiar with
African countries, handled her next voy-
(See p. 6)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
,,p~-~ -~---r ,~~
HOSPITAL SHIP :
(Continued from p. 5)
age from New York to Conakry, Guinea, -L_
September 30, 1964. Before her arrival
in that emerging nation, 10 physicians
and 1 dentist were ministering to 3.5
million people; she left behind 600,
trained physicians, dentists, nurses and
Voyage 5, was completed when she V"
returned to New York, November 30, S .
1966 from Corinto, Nicaragua, and Voy-
age 6, on which she embarked February
7 from Philadelphia for Cartagena, Col-
ombia, were again under the nautical
aegis of the Grace Line.
At the request of every country vis-
ited, teams of teachers have remained
behind to conduct continuing programs
in hospitals, medical schools and local
health departments. Thus, the good work
of those modem medical pioneers con- -
tinues to grow.
To sustain the Hope and the Founda-
tion's land-based programs, contribu-
tions are the primary support. Time, These Nicaraguan youngsters listen attentively to a b
talent, cash and the product of American the SS Hope. The wall murals are the type that can lig
industry, help from organized labor and I i PI-
the generous support of individuals, plus ] 1 I
financial assistance from the Government ""-
in lieu of a maritime subsidy have thus
far managed to balance the program's
$5 million annual operating budget.
Some steamship lines operating lux- .. L
urious passenger liners have discovered '
an excellent "end use" for their slightly
worn towels, washcloths, sheets, pillow-
cases and silverware. These are the most
consumable items aboard the Hope, and
they are gratefully accepted.
Dr. Walsh, founder, president and
Medical Director of Project HOPE, has
documented some of the Hope's work
in two books: "A Ship Called Hope,"
and "Yanqui Come Back," both publish-
ed by E. P. Dutton & Co.
In 6 voyages in 7 years, the good
ship Hope has lived up to the dreams
of Dr. Walsh. It has been suggested that
another naval vessel be sponsored to Doctors at work in the ship's well-stocked library u
augment the SS Hope. We vote, AYEI nurses and medical techr
edtime story in the pediatric ward of
ghten the hearts of the young patients.
sed to serve the vessel's 95 doctors,
A New Center
On the Move
THE FUTURE of Panama is in its
youth; and the future of the youth is in
This is the motivating theme behind
dynamic Santa Maria La Antigua Uni-
versity of Panama City, a university
that is striving to achieve a high goal
in the years ahead, while actively
engaged today in living up to the stand-
ards that will make the university's goal
Everything about Santa Maria La
Antigua University, the first private
institute of higher learning in the Re-
public of Panama, is unusual. The build-
ing in which some 20 classes are meet-
ing temporarily is the Archbishop's
Palace, one of the stately old buildings
in Cathedral Plaza, Panama City, not
far from the Presidential Palace. The
Most Rev. Tomas A. Clavel, Arch-
bishop of Panama, in March 1965,
donated the four-story building, his offi-
cial residence, as temporary quarters for
Classrooms now honeycomb the
Palace and the graceful marble stairs
that once knew only measured, dignified
tread today are used by youth in a hurry,
boys and girls who are studying and
training to take their place in Panama's
Typical of the startling contrast
afforded by classrooms in the Arch-
bishop's Palace is the library, where
functional book stacks are arranged in
business-like order under a handsome
crystal chandelier, reminiscent of other
days. The room where dignitaries once
gathered for receptions now is filled
with tables at which students silently
sit and study.
The students and professors of Pan-
ama's new university represent many
races, nationalities, and creeds, and are
accepted solely on the basis of academic
record and character recommendation.
The faculty roster underscores the
international aspect of Santa Maria La
Fifteen members of the present
faculty of forty-three received degrees
in the United States. Through the coop-
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7
Ss -.; ..
A small scale model of the projected $25-million new campus is closely examined by the
Rev. Benjamin Ayechu, O.A.R., Rector, at right, and Philip Curley of New York City,
who has been at Santa Maria La Antigua University during the past year raising funds.
eration of the U.S. Department of State,
Prof. Richard Landborg of Sioux Falls,
Iowa, has been a member of the faculty
for about 2 years. A professor of chemis-
try, he received a master of science
degree from the University of iowa in
1957 and a doctor of philosophy degree
from the same university in 1959. Three
members of the U.S. Peace Corps,
Stephen Coyne, Fred Lazarus, and
Anne Louise Verbrugge, each holding
a master's degree, are faculty members,
as are two nuns from the United States.
Sister Mary Edith of the Maryknoll
Sisters has a doctor of philosophy degree
and Sister Rosa Anita of the Sisters of
Charity of New Jersey has a master's
degree in languages.
Six members of the faculty received
their degrees from the University of
Panama and five received degrees from
universities in Spain. Other faculty
members are graduates of universities
in Canada, Austria, Italy, Sweden, Peru,
Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador,
Colombia, Mexico, and Cuba.
At present, due to lack of dormitory
facilities, all the students are from the
Panama area, but future plans for the
new university buildings include dor-
mitories for men and women to accom-
modate students from all the Provinces
of the Republic.
Until the founding of Santa Maria
La Antigua University in 1965, there
was but one institution of higher learn-
ing in the entire Republic of Panama,
the National University located in Pan-
ama City, which had extension courses
in other cities. The enrollment at this
university over the past 20 years has far
surpassed the increase in facilities and
from 1945 to 1965 the enrollment
increased from 752 to 6,705. More-
over, there is a projected university
population of 14,000 by 1970.
Since the rate at which the Panama
Government could provide funds for
additional educational facilities was not
adequate, a group of educators and
parents of students became concerned
over prohibitive costs of sending stu-
dents abroad for their education and
the idea of establishing a private
university in Panama was born.
The donation of the Archbishop's
Palace gave the new University a
temporary location for classes.
The Rev. Benjamin Ayechu, O.R.A.,
was appointed Rector of the university
and on April 27, 1965, the establish-
ment of the Santa Maria La Antigua
University was officially approved by
the Panama Government. The direction
of the university is under the Arch-
bishop of Panama as High Chancellor,
an Episcopal Council consisting of six
Bishops of Panama, a Board of Directors
for academic matters and a Board of
Trustees for financial matters.
Santa Maria La Antigua University
(See p. 8)
Enrollment Is Soaring
(Continued from p. 7)
has set as one of its primary goals the
task of providing training businessmen,
administrators, and industrial tech-
nologists and teachers for these fields.
The undergraduate degree program is
5 years, or 10 semesters, and bachelor
of science and bachelor of arts degrees
will be awarded.
The university began its first year of
operation in 1965 with a freshman class
of only 230 students. The first year
faculty numbered 17 professors.
The student population explosion
sent the enrollment up to 350 for the
second year, and this year the university
has a capacity enrollment of 418 in
freshmen, sophomore, and junior classes.
The Archbishop's Palace cannot accom-
modate all classes, and lab students have
to travel, usually by bus, to Panama's
St. Augustine School for this phase of
"The university's most pressing need
is bricks and mortar," said the Rev.
Benjamin Ayechu, O.R.A., Rector. But
a good part of the present fund-raising
efforts are geared to obtaining scholar-
ships and establishing scholarship funds.
The present tuition is $350, and addi-
tional expenses for lab fees and books
send the yearly cost to $450 or $500.
The university must be made available
to all qualified Panama youths, the
Rector pointed out, and even to those
who find the $450 cost prohibitive. The
pace of Panama's economic develop-
ment will be determined by how
steadily qualified personnel can be
supplied for every type of job from
skilled laborers to administrators, he
pointed out, and added that while
human resources to fill these positions
are plentiful in Panama, the facilities
and personnel for teaching have not met
the demand. One of the university's
primary immediate goals is the task of
providing trained businessmen, admin-
istrators, industrial technologists and
teachers for these fields.
The university has drawn up a master
plan and inaugurated a 10-year, $25-
million development program for a com-
plete new campus, to be located at Villa
CAceres and Miraflores, bordering the
Canal Zone. With construction of the
new highway in that area, Santa Maria
La Antigua University will be less than
5 minutes by car from Panama National
University, so that the immediate area
will he an educational center. Gifts of
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Santa Maria La Antigua University is housed, temporarily, in the former Archbishop's
Palace in busy Cathedral Plaza, not far from the Presidential Palace.
Alert faces on youth eager to learn, a trademark of the student body at Santa Maria La
Antigua, listen intently during a lecture delivered by one of the university's teachers.
adjacent property have been received
from the Most Rev. Clavel and from
the Government of Panama. U.S. Armn
tractors graded the land and work has
started on construction of the first
classroom and humanities building.
It is hoped the first new building will
be ready by April 1968.
The master plan calls for construction
of a science building, classroom build-
ing, library, student union building,
exact sciences building, administration
building, business administration build-
ing, auditorium, medical science build-
ing, fine arts building, law and political
building, laboratory building, men's
dormitories, women's dormitories, open
air theatre, men's gymnasium, women's
gymnasium, and playing fields for base-
ball, soccer, track, tennis, etc. There will
be even a lake for boating.
When finished, Santa Maria La
Antigua University will be able to
accommodate 3,000 students.
Philip Curley of New York City, rep-
resenting Martin J. Morgan Co. of New
York, professional fund raisers and
development consultants came May 27,
1966, and has spent a year in Panama,
organizing an intensive fund-raising
campaign for construction of the science
building, classroom building and library
under Phase 1 of the development
The appeal for funds is being con-
ducted primarily in Panama. All Pan-
amanians, individuals, organizations,
businesses, and industries are being con-
tacted, as well as those who have vested
interests in Panama and who are inter-
ested in the progress of Latin America.
Many friends of Santa Maria La Anti-
gua University, working on behalf of
the new school, are making appeals in
North America and in Western Europe.
At present, of the 418 students
enrolled, 82 are on scholarships pro-
vided primarily by Panama business-
men. Santa Maria La Antigua Univer-
sity also has received 12 full 5-year
scholarships from the U.S. Bishops
Committee for Latin America.
Under a contract with the U.S.
Agency for International Development,
the university will receive technical
assistance for its overall development
including organization, administration,
curriculum, instruction, and academic
facilities of the new campus.
Any boy or girl may apply directly
to Santa Maria La Antigua University,
but a letter from the high school
attended is required. Scholarships are
awarded on the basis of the economic
need of the student.
Classes start at 7:30 in the morning
and the last night class is over about
9:30. The evening classes are attended
by men and women between 25 and
35 who hold responsible positions
during the day. The most popular
courses with these latter students are
English and business administration.
The regular classes follow the basic
curriculum of Panama National Uni.
versity, but one big advantage at Santa
Maria La Antigua is that classes are
small with a ratio of 10 students to a
When Panama schools open in April
1968, it is hoped to have the university's
first new building ready for day classes.
Night classes will continue to meet in
the Archbishop's Palace until more of
the university's buildings are completed.
There's a red circle on Santa Maria
La Antigua's calendar for December
1969-that is when the first graduation
of the new university will be held.
One coed opens her book to the chapter and verse to make a point during a discussion with fellow students in the university's cafeteria.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Hundreds of Central American human serums are being tested for antibodies to arthropod transmitted viruses. Left to right are MaPria Teresa
Delgado, Gloria de Cisneros and Gricelda Licona.
Two MARU Scientists Stricken
Fighting Bolivian Epidemic
(Continued from p. 4)
nutritional study when the Bolivian
Ministry of Health notified him of the
outbreak of a strange disease and asked
his assistance. To MacKenzie it re-
sembled hemorrhagic fever contracted
by many U.S. servicemen during the
As hundreds of persons became in-
fected and scores died, fear bordering
on panic swept the population of Beni
province, where San Joaquin is situated.
The Bolivian government asked for help
from the United Nations. It was decided
that a team of MARU people would go
to Bolivia following a meeting of offi-
cials of the National Institute of Allergy
and Infectious Diseases, the World
Health Organization, the U.S. State
Department, and the Bolivian Embassy.
MARU was given a blank check in terms
of support for the project.
A team of doctors went in; a labora-
tory was set up to study the natural
history of the disease, its means of trans-
mission, and ways to break the chain of
the epidemic. Laboratory equipment
had to be transported to San Joaquin
which had no telephones, no plumbing,
no autos, and a meagre source of elec-
tricity barely sufficient to light the
village's small hospital for a few hours
Early suspicions of the MARU phy-
sicians were that the great number of
rodents and the lack of cats in the village
had a relationship with the epidemic.
Before this or any other hypothesis
could be proved, however, MacKenzie
and Johnson had to be flown back to
the Canal Zone when they became
stricken with the disease. After treat-
ment in Corgas Hospital and convales-
cence, they recovered and returned to
their work in Bolivia.
The MARU scientists ultimately\
traced the disease to mice which were
spreading hemorrhagic fever virus by
contaminating food left in the open.
A rodent control program all but elim-
inated the disease from the areas around
San Joaquin. Smaller outbreaks were
reported months later as the vigi-
lance on sanitation apparently relaxed.
San Joaquin and similar villages do
not have unlimited funds for elaborate
sanitary and rodent control programs.
The disease could break out again in
even greater intensity in another village,
province or nation. With this in mind.
MARU is working to produce a vaccine
as permanent protection against the
The entire project in Bolivia could
not have been carried out without the
MARU laboratory in Panama and with-
out the cooperation of other groups.
such as the U.S. Air Force providing
Parasitic diseases is another broad
category in which research is being
carried out at MAHU. Most of this
work is handled by the Army group
under the Walter Reed Army Institute
of Research while the anti-virus projects
are the responsibility of the Public
The parasitic diseases being studied
include toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease,
and leishmaniasis. Their common de-
nominator is that all are protozoans, the
smallest parasite. Malaria, for example,
also is a protozoan.
Toxoplasmosis causes congenital mal-
functions, such as blindness, stillborns,
and heart defects when the mother is
apparently healthy. It can infect both
wild and domestic animals but it is not
known how the disease is transmitted.
The American tropics seems to be the
real home for this sickness which has
an infection rate of up to 50 percent in
"By studying the patterns of light and
heavy areas of infection, how an area
of high incidence differs from an area
of low rate of infection and by studying
the natural history of the disease, doc-
tors hope eventually to find some clues,"
Dr. Johnson explained.
More is known about Chagas disease
and leishmaniasis, both of which are
transmitted by arthropods. The culprit
in the case of Chagas is a large blood
sucking insect, the "kissing bug," that
lives in roofs and walls of primitive
houses and bites humans while they
sleep. Domestic animals play a part in
k, eping the cycle of infection going.
Chagas can affect the intestinal tract; it
can produce enlarged hearts. An expen-
sive disease to study and one requiring
sustained investment, Chagas disease
may cause very serious illness in one
locale of infection and only a minor
fever in another.
The Army people at work on this are
Capt. James Ryan, 8th Special Forces, U.S. Army, and Sgt. Miguel Villalobo, Bolivian
Air Force, vaccinating children near San Joaquin, Bolivia.
attempting to standardize tests to deter-
mine what people have been infected,
how many' and where. Their study is
being carried on in five Central Amer-
ican nations and in cooperation with
the Pan-American Health Organization
in Guatemala. Many blood specimens
are being collected, more than 15,000
to date, so that an accurate map of the
areas of infection may be drawn. The
samples are catalogued and indexed on
IBM cards for future use. By using
standardized bases, more detailed inves-
tigations can be carried out to deter-
mine the relationship between infection
The third type of parasitic disease,
leishmaniasis, can be fatal. Transmitted
Ib sand flies, it begins as an ulcer and
sometimes progresses to hideous dis-
figurement, attacking mucous mem-
brane areas of the body. No test yet has
been devised for antibodies in the blood
to give needed information. It is
believed that this disease also produces
Research going on at MARU is unique
in that it would be difficult if not
impossible to duplicate in the United
States. For example, the unit has access
to tropical wild and domestic creatures
necessary for the work. Some diseases
have environmental characteristics and
conditions that cannot be found in the
United States. Agencies in Washington
may not even be aware of such dis-
eases as hemorrhagic fever let alone do
anything about them.
"Therefore," Dr. Johnson noted, "the
scientists must go where the action is."
TnlE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW\
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
I Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
South Korean ___.
United States ---
All Others .----
1 -- __
December--.-__ _- -
January ------- -
fiscal year ------
12,412 11,925 11,335
* Before deduction of any operating expenses.
(In thousands of dollars)
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
United States Intercoastal-------------_____________
East coast United States and South America----------
East coast United States and Central America --------
East coast United States and Far East ---
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia .-----
Europe and West coast United States/Canada -----
Europe and South America --------
Europe and Australasia --_ _
All other routes-_
Total traffic _______
quarter, fiscal year-
transits of cargo
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
MENTION THE word Montreal to
the man on the street and what does
he think of first? Expo '67-the spec-
tacular exposition that is attracting
millions of visitors from every continent.
But it's the Port of Montreal that
comes to mind for persons engaged in
shipping, international commerce, and
related matters. Expo '67 is appropri-
atel\ located on St. Helen's Island
within Montreal Harbour.
The Port of Montreal lies on the
southern portion of Montreal Island on
the St. Lawrence River about 1,000
statute miles from the Atlantic coast.
Here the St. Lawrence Seaway begins,
providing a vital link 1,200 miles fur-
ther inland to the very heart of North
Montreal has a colorful history dating
back almost five centuries. It was from
the present port area that such men
as Frontenac, La Salle, and Le Moynes
launched their birch canoes to explore
Swirling current waters inhibited
development of the port and vessels
could not negotiate the waters without
the help of oxen to draw them through
on a long rope from the river's edge.
After deepening of the channel, Mon-
treal came into being as a world port
with the 1853 inauguration of the first
steamship service direct to Liverpool.
It matured rapidly and in some respects
overtook other ports that had earlier
starts. For example, the Port of Mon-
treal was the world's first port to be
lighted by electricity.
The growth pace quickened and its
traffic and facilities grew. In 1912,
some 736 vessels carried slightly more
than 2 million tons of cargo into the
harbor. In 1966, a record year, alm, st
25 million tons were received ai-l
shipped from Montreal. A ship arrivLs
or departs on an average of every 19
minutes during a busy day.
Like other Canadian ports, the Port
of Montreal is administered by the
National Harbours Board, a permanent
Crown Corporation responsible to the
Minister of Transport. The port has its
own railway system which maintains
61 miles of track. It distributes electri-
cal power, purchased from Hydro-
Quebec. Its own water distribution
system supplies water to ships and for
fire protection. It also has harbor police
and an emergency telephone network
linking 56 strategically located call
boxes directly with the harbor's police
Among the leading commodities pass-
ing through the Port of Montreal are
grain, petroleum and petroleum prod-
ucts, iron ore, gypsum, raw sugar,
cement, flour, motor vehicles, chemicals,
coal, phosphate rock, salt, iron and
steel, nickel, glass, machinery, sulphur,
molasses, copper, and lumber.
Total berthing length is more than
13 miles, with 96 berths having mini-
mum depths of 30 to 35 feet, while 50
berths are shedded. Several berths are
equipped with specially designed ma-
terial handling equipment for bulk
commodities such as grain, coal, sugar,
cement, and petroleum products. Tran-
sit sheds have a combined floor area of
more than 4 million square feet.
The port's five grain elevators have
storage space for more than 22 million
bushels and receiving or shipping ca-
pacity of 3 million bushels per 13-hour
day. There are 25 grain berths, 18 of
which are shedded, permitting a ship
to take on general cargo and grain with-
out moving. In addition, there is a
cold storage warehouse of 3 million
The terminal railway boasts 8 diesel
electric locomotives, a switching capa-
bility of 1,500 cars to and from berths
per day and rail connections with the
two main national railways, Canadian
National and Canadian Pacific. Cranes
found at the port include a floating,
self-propelled crane rated at a 275 short
ton capacity, another floating crane that
can lift 90 short tons, a 120-ton capacity
stiff leg derrick and smaller locomotive
and diesel crawler cranes.
As for repair facilities, there are three
floating drydocks with maximum lifting
capacity of 300,000 long tons that can
accommodate ships up to 750 feet long
and with beams of 106 feet. The port's
bunkering equipment is capable of
delivering oil direct to vessels at a
number of berths and also deliver by
tanker to ships at any berth in the
harbor. Tugs and marine salvage
vessels also are available.
Montreal's harbor is operating fully
8M to 9 months of the year and during
the winter months, roughly from Decem-
ber 15 to April 15, the harbor is open.
But due to winter conditions on the
St. Lawrence River, navigation in these
waters is restricted to ships reinforced
for navigation in ice.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Ores, various _________-- ____ ______
Iron and steel manufactures---------_____-
Fishmeal_ __ _____________________
Bananas_ _____ ______________
Metals, various --------------------
Food in refrigeration
(excluding bananas)-------__ --_--------_
Nitrate of soda___ __ __-___ ____
Canned food products _______________
Wheat --- -----
All others -----___-- __----
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)__-
Coal and coke- __.__ _
Metal, scrap--- ____ ___-- _______
Corn --_____--_ _____- ___________
Iron and steel manufactures ---_ __-- .----
Soybeans ----- ___-__ ________
Sugar-----____-_------ _____-- ___---
Chemicals, unclassified _--____-____
Metal, iron ___- _______- ___--___ _
Rice ----- ___--
Sulphur ____ __ ----______-______-
Fertilizers, unclassified __.__-- ____-----
All others-------- ----------------__
h quarter, fiscal year-
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
U.S. Government vessels: *
Small *___--- __ ---------.
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
Fourth quarter, fiscal year
1967 1966 Transits
to to Total Total Total
1,650 1,660 3,310 3,042 2,919
94 81 175 170 134
1,744 1,741 3,485 3,212 3,053
189 80 269 141
17 16 33 34
O Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Atlantic to Pacific
50 yiearJ 4o
AS PART of the local war effort 50
years ago, the local Panama Canal
Zone residents were encouraged to grow
fruits and vegetables. The stewards of
the Canal restaurants were instructed
to save the seeds of papayas consumed
at the hotels and forward them to the
district Quartermaster for distribution
to employees who desired them for
planting. Commissaries were carrying a
line of garden vegetable seeds and fer-
tilizer could be purchased through the
Quartermaster at 10 cents a sack plus
the charge for a team of horses if
delivered at the point designated by the
employee. Boy Scouts of the Canal Zone
undertook gardening with the slogan
"Every Scout to Feed a Soldier."
Graduation exercises for the class of
1917 of the Canal Zone High School
were held at the National Theater in
Panama June 22, 1917 for the graduat-
ing class of 11 members, 6 of whom
were boys and 5 girls. Free train service
was arranged for those who wished to
attend from stations along the line of the
Panama Railroad with special coaches
attached to some trains and a special
train returning graduates and friends
from Panama to the Atlantic side.
The USS Shaw, a new U.S. Navy
destroyer, made a record breaking pas-
sage through the Panama Canal in early
June 1917 in 5 hours and 45 minutes.
The best previous time was 6 hours and
20 minutes. The Shaw also made a r
ord run from the Pacific coast to
Atlantic, distance of approximate
5,850 miles in 14 days and 10 ho
and 20 minutes. The Panama Ca
Record said that if the Shaw had gi
by way of Magellan, the distance wo
have been 13,500 nautical miles and
time required would have been in
than 36 days.
25 YeariJ d4o
EARLY JUNE of 1942 saw a tighter
military alert in Panama as the Japan
war effort was felt on this hemisphe
Pacific coast. After the June 3d bomb
raid on Dutch Harbor, Alaska, I
Secretary of War Henry L. Stin
warned that further blows might be
anywhere between there and the P
ama Canal. In the Zone, soldiers'
sailors' leaves were being canceled
all personnel were sticking close
their posts. Despite wins over
Japanese, warnings continued to
frequent through that summer.
During the summer of 1942, a I
conservation order was requiring An
icans to save and return all empty too
paste, shaving cream, and other collar
iblc tubes to places of purchase.
the Canal Zone, containers were
vided in all commissaries for patr
to return tubes coated with tin or ot
alloys. During the war, such collar
ible containers were being re-used
Ready to roll. Gasoline driven motor cars at the Canal's Balboa garage in 1915. Tl
were used by Canal officials during construction days and for a period thereafter to
worksites. At the right is Motor Car No. 1, nicknamed The Yellow Peril and The Brain Wag
which was the car used hy Col. George W. Gocthals, chief engineer and first governor
the Canal Zone. Col. Goethals frequently rode the car on his inspection trips.
containers for medicinal or pharmaceu-
A Defense Wardens' Basic Training
Course opened in June to coordinate
the various civilian defense services in
the Canal Zone. The course was held at
Cristobal High School twice a week
after working hours. It was announced
that this was the only further step
necessary for complete readiness against
emergency on the Atlantic side. By July,
Zone-\ide success in the conduct of
alert tests was bringing praise from the
Civilian Defense organization.
re's 10 yIearS 4go
ing THE FIRST experimental lighting
).S. system for the banks of Caillard Cut
son was planned during the summer of
felt 1957. It was to call for installation of
an- lights for a distance of 3,400 feet, pro-
and hiding good visibility of both banks and
and mild illumination of the waterway with-
to out glare. A section of the Cut between
the Culebra and Empire Reaches was select-
be ed for the experiment. It included a
curve and a part of the channel measur-
J.S. ing from 300 to 500 feet in width.
ler- Early summer, 1957, found Canal
)th- Zonians favorably discussing the forma-
Ips- tion of a United Fund organization.
In Articles and bylaws for the fund raising
)ro- campaign were soon adopted.
ons The first air shipment of fresh fruits
her and vegetables, not available on the
ps- Isthmus, was placed on sale in Panama
as Canal Retail stores in late June, 1957.
The produce, handled through Tocu-
men Airport from Florida produce bro-
kers, was to arrive each week and be
placed on sale immediately.
The work of converting Panama
i Canal power from 25 to 60 cycles was
begun that summer, to be completed
within 3 years.
One year c49o
I LAST YEAR Cristobal had the driest
June in 96 years. A record-breaking low
of 3.38 inches of rainfall fell during that
month, 9.71 inches below normal. This
vear Cristobal had 18.06 inches during
June and Gatun reported 19.36 inches
At the end of July, 1966, plans for
the final phase of the Gaillard Cut-
widcning project were given the go-
ahead. This was the last and largest
contract advertised for bids in the long-
range widening project which began in
iese 1959. The new phase of the $44 million
visit effort called for the excavation of 9.5
gon, million yards of earth in the 3-mile Bas
World War II Sea Tragedy
That Made No Headlines
**'%.*.". V' --
:" ,:',, ,, . . -- "- .,.,k '
; ~ : -.
-. - --' -
The Surcouf is underway with her armament bristling, She was one of the few important French naval vessels still working with the Allies
when the end came for her in 1942. Aboard were 207 men when she went down in the Caribbean en route to the Canal.
LONDON, April 18, 1942-The
giant submarine "Surcouf," the
largest in the world, "is consider-
ably overdue and must be consider-
ed lost," Free French headquarters
announced today. There was no
indication of where the vessel
went down, when it happened, or
whether it was the result of enemy
action or an accident.
-New York Times.
At 5 o'clock on the night of Feb-
ruary 18, 1942, the SS Thompson Lykes,
a hard working merchant ship owned by
the U.S. flag Lykes Line of New Orleans,
sailed from Cristobal with wartime
cargo for Guantanamo, Cuba.
It was a typical dry season evening
with sunset followed by the swift dark-
ness of a tropical night. There was no
moon and, as the vessel moved out into
the Caribbean, officers and men reported
later that the night became exception-
ally dark, in fact one of the blackest
they) had seen at that time of the year.
Visibility, even aboard ship, was a
near zero since, according to wartime
restrictions, the ship was traveling with-
out lights and with all portholes blacked
Capt. Henry Johnson, master of the
vessel, made a mental note of the poor
visibility when he made a routine check
of the ship about 10 p.m. He was not
concerned since he felt that the night
provided some measure of security. In
those early days of World War II, the
Caribbean was a happy hunting ground
for German submarines that some-
times sank ships within a few miles of
He noticed before he turned back to
his cabin that the ship was on course at
a speed of about 15 knots. He then sat
down at his desk to decode a message
just received which would change his
Research for this story was done
by Julius Grigore, Assistant Chief of
the Industrial Division, from records
provided by the U.S. Departments
of Defense, State, and Treasury; the
National Archives; the British Im-
perial War Museum; and the French
Admiralty. He also interviewed Capt.
Henry Johnson, former master of the
Thompson Lykes who is now retired
and living in New Orleans. Pictures
were provided by Captain Johnson,
The Lykes Company Public Informa-
tion Office and the U.S. Navy.
course from Guantanamo to Cienfuegos,
But Capt. Johnson was fated never
to reach Cienfuegos or any other port in
Cuba-not this trip anyway.
While he was busy with his message,
he heard a tremendous crash. The ship
shuddered. Capt. Johnson got to the
bridge in time to see what he thought
was the bow of a ship standing straight
up in the air and going down fast. Later
there were reports that faint cries for
help had been heard and that the third
mate believed he saw a blinking light,
which might have been a flashlight,
moments before the collision.
Capt. Johnson immediately notified
port authorities in Cristobal and, despite
the danger involved, ordered the
Thompson Lykes to circle the area. The
search continued until daylight but no
survivors and no signs of wreckage were
found. A search later by air and surface
craft from the Canal Zone also was
Captain Johnson thought his ship had
hit a German submarine. When the
vessel returned to Cristobal, there was
no doubt that from the size of the dent
(See p. 16)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Called a submarine cruiser, the Surcouf was the largest submarine of her time. She was designed to sail for as long as 3 months without
refueling and her armament included 2 eight-inch guns and 10 torpedo tubes. In addition, she carried a scouting plane in the watertight
hangar shown in the photo.
SurcouF Was Pride of Free French
(Continued from p. 15)
in her bow, that she had hit something
large. Naval authorities on the Isthmus
said, however, there were no German
submarines in the west Caribbean at the
time. But the French submarine Sur-
couf, expected in Cristobal February 19
on her way from Bermuda to Tahiti via
the Panama Canal, was overdue.
The Surcouf, with 207 officers and
men aboard, was one of the few impor-
tant French naval vessels still working
with the Allies. She was one of the aces
in the hands of the Free French group
and came to symbolize the French naval
forces, the greater part of which had
remained with Vichy after the fall of
The massive submarine, nearly twice
the tonnage of the average World
War II destroyer, even carried a recon-
naissance seaplane. Shortly after the
outbreak of war, she had captured a
German merchantman 1,000 miles out
The Surcouf was one of three French
naval vessels named after a famous
French privateer who made his fortune
by raiding British merchant vessels at
the end of the 18th century.
The first ship to bear his name was a
628-ton vessel that was built in 1858
and served with the French Navy until
1878. The second Surcouf was one of
six torpedo cruisers. Launched in 1888,
she saw service in Morocco in 1907-08
and in the English channel during
World War I.
The 352-foot submarine Surcouf
was launched in November 1929 in
Her armament consisted of 2 water-
tight gun turrets, 2 8-inch cannon,
2 machine guns and 10 torpedo tubes.
She carried 22 torpedoes and a sea-
plane. Her surface displacement was
At the time of her launching, naval
experts considered she represented too
many eggs in one basket and that her
loss would be a great blow to the French
Navv. She was too large and too cum-
bersome for fleet work and to act single-
handed on the ocean was her purpose.
At the time of the Oran ultimatum
to the French fleet, the Surcouf was
lying in the English port of Portsmouth.
Through a misunderstanding, there was
a scuffle incidental to her seizure by the
British and a French officer and a
British seaman were killed. The vessel
was turned over later to the Fighting
Under the command of Capt. Louis
Blaison, the Surcouf took part in the
seizure of St. Pierre and Miquelon in
December 1941. She previously had
been reconditioned at Portsmouth, N.H.,
after cruising more than 22,000 miles.
In early February, 1942, she was
ordered to sail from Bermuda to Tahiti
through the Panama Canal. She was
routed to Panama via Caicos Passage
and the Windward Passage, adjusting
speed to arrive in Cristobal at 0900
According to a U.S. Navy report
issued after the disappearance of the
French submarine, the Thompson Lykes
"accidently rammed and sank a craft
believed to be a submarine in latitude
100 40" north and longitude 790 31"
west at 0330 GCT, February 19."
The report further stated that if the
Surcouf had been 55 miles behind the
position last reported by the British
Admiralty on February 18, she would
have been in the area where the mer-
chant ship reported her ramming and
sinking of a craft believed to have been
But the U.S. Navy considered evi-
dence as to the manner of the sinking of
the Surcouf as circumstantial. In a letter
to the U.S. Secretary of State, the U.S.
Navy Department said that "although
the Commandant of the 15th Naval
District in Balboa apparently believes
that the evidence shows the Surcouf was
sunk by collision with the Thompson
Lykes, there is a possibility that the
Surcouf may have been sunk in some
It was requested that the Secretary
of the Navy's sympathy in the loss of
the Surcouf and her crew be expressed
to the Free French authorities. This was
The remains of the world's largest
and most unusual pre-nuclear sub-
marine and members of her crew, appar-
ently lie some 1,800 fathoms or 10,800
feet below the surface of the Caribbean
along with any clue as to what actually
happened before she sank.
Even today, after 25 years, the files
of three major naval powers remain in-
complete and there is no one who can
add anything to the information given
by the men actually involved in the
affair at the time.
Her sinking with 207 men aboard
makes it one of the major sea tragedies
of World War II. But because of
security reasons no publicity was given
at the time of her disappearance and the
crew of the Thompson Lykes were
warned not to talk. Wartime restrictions
prevented anyone from keeping per-
sonal records or a diary. Thus news of
her loss became buried and quickly
forgotten after the war.
The Thompson Lykes was absolved
of all blame in the accident, received
temporary repairs in Cristobal and per-
manent repairs in New Orleans. She
continued service during the war as a
cargo carrier and in 1945 was reported
to have collided with a U.S. Navy des-
troyer in Boston harbor during a heavy
She was retired from service in 1960
and traded in to the U. S. Maritime
Administration which has the ship in
the U.S. Government reserve fleet in
A new Thompson Lykes, which is the
name of one of the original seven found-
ing brothers of the Lykes Line, re-
placed the old ship and is now making
regular trips from Gulf ports through
the Panama Canal.
Master of the SS Thompson Lykes at the
time of the collision was Capt. Henry John-
son. Moments after the impact, he rushed
to the bridge in time to see what appeared
to be a ship's bow standing straight up in
the air and going down fast. Capt. Johnson
notified the Cristobal port authorities and
ordered his ship to circle the area, disre-
garding the danger involved. But this and
later searches were fruitless.
it.:,,..- -... S B-. V - -^,. -" -'
Steaming to another port is the Thompson Lykes which was absolved of all blame in the collision with the giant submarine. She continued
service after the accident and was retired in 1960. A new Thompson Lykes is now making trips through the Canal.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
1 'ftl ^ *"* ,
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
William H. Gordon
Motor Launch Captain
Carlton C. James
Motor Launch Operator
Angel J. Peiia
Everett E. Dudley
Accounting k O *,
Leader Laborer (Heavy)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Francis A. Brown
Contraband Control Officer
Carmen de Phillips
Teacher-Elementary (Latin American
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Horace B. Headley
Raymond W. Matson
Philip T. Green
Supervisory Training Instructor
Oiler (Floating Plant)
Robert L. Knapp
Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks)
Wilson B. Lawrence
Henry J. McElhone, Jr.
Planner and Estimator (Marine Machinist)
Leslie A. McLean
Helper Lock Operator
David E. Coffey
General Foreman (Metal Working)
Edwin G. Gayle
Halstead C. Hodgson
Leader Linehandler (Deckhand
Teddy A. Marti
Leader Lock Operator (Machini
R. H. McConaughey
Lock Operator (Pipefitt
Grafton M. Boyce
James E. Farrell
Lamar M. Lavender
Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks)
Sydney T. Lindh
Lead Foreman Machinist (Marine)
Joseph W. Riley
Leader Linehandler (Deckhand
Martin E. White
George L. Lowe
Truck Driver (Heavy)
John A. McLain, Jr.
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher
Clement C. Phillips
Railroad Trackman (Mainline)
S Leonel S. Boyce
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Edward S. W. Mendez
Water Service Man
Harry G. Crawford
Truck Driver (Heavy)
Luke M. Levy
SUPPLY AND CONIMUNITY SERVICE
Clyde MN. Francis
James A. Phillips
High Lift Truck Operator
Ethelbert C. Roach
Wilford R. Dixon, Jr.
Commissary Store Manager
Earle G. Moore
William L. Benny
Sales Store Manager
Clifford T. Chandler
Messenger (Motor Vehicle Operator)
Elliott L. Morris
Pedro P. Peralta
ng Machine Operator
E INEE N AND CONSTRUCTION
Do Id Da iel
d ec cian (Lineman)
d .D son
Lead Foreman (Public Works,
Construction and Maintenance)
S. J. Campbell
Clerk (Work Order)
Helper Machinist (Marine)
Harlan P. Crouch
Leader Central Office Repairman
Robert B. Grier
Leader Machinist (Maintenance)
Howard W. Osborn
Supervisory Maintenance Engineer
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Clifford U. Williams
Woodford M. Babbitt
Leader Core Drill Operator
Adolphus 1. Beckles
John W. Muller
Supervisory General Engineer (Estimates)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Richard C. Hogan
Assistant Foreman (Mailing Division)
John S. Pettingill
Education Specialist (Administrative)
18 AUGUST 1967
Horesroud he en ona ypialrae dy t Pesden RmonRaetrckwhle th crw intestnscee ntei.ao"ts h
Horses round the bend on a typical race day at President Remon Racetrack while the crowd in the stands cheer on their favorites. The
near capacity crowd in the stands is an indication of the popularity of horseracing in Panama where many outstanding jockeys began.
They're Off and Running
At President Remon Track
THE THUNDER of hoofbeats and the
roar of the crowd punctures the after-
noon calm at Panama's President Re-
mon Racetrack every weekend of the
year and on most holidays.
The Sport of Kings, accompanied by
the thrills of parimutuel wagering,
boasts as intense a following in Panama
as it does in North America, Europe
and in other Latin American nations.
Horseracing in Panama dates back
to 1922 when Dr. Belisario Porras, dur-
ing his third term as President of the
Republic, officially opened the Juan
Franco Hippodrome, located in what to-
day is the Obarrio section of Via Es-
pana. On hand for the inauguration
of the track were, besides President
Porras, the U.S. Minister to Panama, Dr.
John C. South, president of the first
Jockey Club of Panama, Raul Espinosa,
and other personalities of the social.
political and official circles of Panama.
Records show the first race had seven
entries with a total of $775 in prize
money. It was won by the mare Lead
Us and another mare, Sonrisa, captured
the first "Classic" stake race.
One of the nation's first jockeys was
Rail Arango Navarro. who is now
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19
Second Vice President of the Republic
and Panama's Ambassador to Spain.
Remembered as some of Panama's first
racehorses are Manua, Factor Ruso,
Reina Mora, Copiapo, Burlesco, Pierrot,
Abel and King Sceptre.
Horseracing faced many financial
The late Francisco Arias Paredes who helped
pioneer horseracing in Panama.
problems during those early days in
Panama and could have died out as
a sport had it not received the enthusias-
tic support of businessmen Raul Espi-
nosa, Ernesto de la Guardia, Francisco
Arias Paredes and other men. Espinosa
served as manager of the track from
1935 to 1943.
When the National Horseracing
Company took charge in 1943, horse-
racing received another needed boost
through several capital improvements
that were initiated. Old fashioned start-
ing barriers were replaced by automatic
starting gates; an electric totalizator
supplanted the existing simple tote
boards; there were changes in the
methods of betting.
The daily double was initiated as was
the 1-2 and being considered for the
future is the 5 and 6 betting, the latter
two of which are unfamiliar to most
U.S. turf fans. To win a 1-2 wager.
the bettor must select the winner and
place, or runnerup horse, in the proper
order in a race. He tries to pick the
winners of six pre-named races in the
5 and 6 betting.
Panama's Constitution of 1946 estab-
(See p. 20)
c4re among ejt
jider in World
(Continued from p. 19)
lished that all games of chance involv-
ing betting would be operated by the
Government. The National Horserac-
ing Company was obliged to sell its
interests to the Government which, in
turn, became responsible for all the
obligations of the selling firm, partic-
ularly in relation to paying the rental
of the land used by the racetrack.
Another important change was the
establishment of the Board of Trustees
for Games of Chance. The operations
of the racetrack became one of the
responsibilities of the new group.
In 1956, the President Remon Race-
track was opened. It was named after
the late President Jos6 Antonio Rem6n
Cantera, a great horseracing enthusiast
who was responsible for the construc-
tion of the new hippodrome. This facil-
ity is located on the outskirts of Panama
City at the site where Charles A. Lind-
berg landed the Spirit of St. Louis dur-
ing a goodwill tour one year after his
memorable flight across the Atlantic
This monument to horseracing has
Tojo, the first native horse to win the President of the Republic Classic, is shown with jockey
Guillermo Milord and the owners William Ross and his wife, Reina. Tojo's victory was worth
$15,650 to Mr. and Mrs. Ross. The purse was $15,150, plus $500 for being a native.
two courses, one for the races them-
selves and an inner track for practice.
In the center is an artificial lake that
has been used for boat racing. The
track's automatic totalizator is as mod-
ern as any in the world and the grand-
stand can accommodate 15,000 specta-
tors. A family parking area has space
for 200 cars for families to watch the
races from their autos.
The President Remon Racetrack
has produced a number of fine jockeys,
many who are prominent on race cours-
es of the United States, Mexico, Puerto
Rico, Colombia and other nations. Most
famous of all are Manuel Ycaza and
A view of the old Juan Franco Racetrack. On the left was the "clubhouse" and on the right, the "big pool," the grandstand.
Braulio Baeza, the latter of whom
earned $2.9 million in purses last year
on U.S. racetracks.
Baeza has brought home the winners
in two of the principal races in the
United States, the Kentucky Derby and
Belmont Stakes in 1963 with Chateau-
gay, and earlier in the 1961 Belmont
Stakes aboard Sherluck.
Both in 1959 and 1960, Ycaza rode
Bald Eagle to victory in the Interna-
tional Classic of Washington at Laurel,
Md., and in 1964 took the Belmont
Stakes with Quadrangle.
The first Panamanian jockey to ride
in the U.S. was Gustavo "Chichi" Moore,
today a prosperous horse trainer in
Miami, Fla. Another of the first Pan-
amanians to ride in the United States
was Hernani Mora. Alfonso Carbonell
was for many years outstanding in
Besides its importance as a sport in
Panama, horseracing contributes to the
material betterment of the country by
providing hundreds of jobs to those
directly or indirectly involved. More
than $148,000 in prizes to horse owners
is distributed through a well organized
annual program of Classics.
There are 18 horse breeding farms in
the provinces of Panama, Chiriqui, Co-
cle, and Colon. Since 1963, only pure-
breds are registered in the Stud Book,
according to law. Imported horses are
used for breeding on the different farms
and their offspring are later sent to the
hippodrome to compete for purses.
But the quality of local horseflesh is
rapidly improving through careful
breeding. The main event of the year,
the President of the Republic Classic,
was won the past May by Tojo, the
first native horse to win this event.
Tojo outraced some highly-regarded
Contributing greatly to the popular-
ity of the sport is the fact that four radio
stations in Panama transmit the races
on Saturday, Sundays and holidays
and one television station carries the
Sunday races. Radio transmission of the
races dates back 24 years when only
the main race of the day was announced
on the air. Later, two races were
broadcast and eventually, the entire
Well-known horseracing enthusiasts
of the Juan Franco Racetrack days
may be seen at the President Remon
Racetrack. Among these are sportsman
Carlos "El Indio" Campbell, business-
men Pedro Chaluja and Felipe Motta,
turf writer Prospero Royo, sports col-
umnist Ernesto Enrique Argote and
announcers Pacho Ycaza, Arquimedes
Fernandez and Chelo Gonzalez-all
faithful bangtail fans.
Manuel Ycaza is today an outstanding A famous Panamanian jockey in the United
jockey in the United States. He has ridden States, Braulio Baeza, won the Kentucky
more than 2,000 winners, which earned Derby and Belmont Stakes in 1963. His
some $15 million, during his career, mounts earned $2.9 million last year.
.. ..- .-.. -
Horses breaking from the electrically controlled starting gate at President Remon Hippodrome.
The racers get off on even terms-a guarantee for the bettors.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
AFTER SOME months of planning, the
Lvkes Bros. Steamship Company, Inc.
of New Orleans announced recently
that it expects to issue invitations to
U.S. shipyards for bids on the construc-
tion of three new large, all-purpose
barge-carrying ships for the U.S. gulf
ports and European trade.
Novel features of the new Lykes ves-
sels, according to the president of the
line, are a stem elevator having a total
lift capacity of more than 2,000 tons, a
way of moving barges or other cargo,
in wheeled hydraulic transporters from
the elevator into cargo decks, and open
decks allowing cargo to be rolled rather
than lifted and stowed into its final
resting place aboard ship.
The new ships, capable of transiting
the Canal, will be 875 feet in length and
have a beam of 106 feet. They would
be capable of carrying either 38 fully
loaded barges or a total of 1,500 to 1,600
8' by 8' by 20-foot cargo containers.
The cargo capacity of the vessels is
to be about 1.5 million cubic feet. In
addition to this the ships can accom-
modate about 15,000 tons of liquid
cargo in deep tank spaces. With a speed
of 21 knots, the ships could provide
service at 10-day intervals between gulf
ports and Europe. Each of the 38 barges
carried by the ships would measure 97.5
in length and would have the cargo
delivery capacity of 12 modern freight-
ers of conventional design. Each of the
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FOURTH QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1967
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial-____ -- 3,310 3,042
U.S. Government ___- 269 141
Free ______------- 24 22
Total ------ 3,603 3,205
U.S. Government 1,676,191
Total $.___22,334,364 $18,621,141
Commercial-____ 22,757,829 20,756,671
U.S. Government_ 1,825,283 898,255
Free _-------- 171,570 122,280
Total ___24,754,682 21,777,206
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
** Cargo figures are in long tons.
barges could be loaded or unloaded in
as little as 25 minutes.
New Fast Freighter
THE STRATHCONON, newest of the
P & O Lines fast cargo liners built re-
cently 'in Japan, passed through the
Canal late in July on her maiden voyage
from the Far East to European ports.
The ship was originally scheduled to
make the voyage via the Suez Canal.
The new freighter is the second of
three high speed cargo liners designed
specially for carriage of general and
refrigerated cargoes, oils, containers,
explosives, cars, bullion and a variety
S__ 000 M
-(AVERAGE 1951-1955) 600 S
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
of other cargoes. Like her sister ships
the Strathbora and Strathardle, she has
a service speed of 21 knots. They form
the Strath Express Service operating
between Europe and the Far East with
P & O's other two services, the Japan
Express and Japan Mail.
In order to maintain peak efficiency,
the ships are designed to run on a rigid
schedule and are equipped with stabi-
lizers so that this schedule can be main-
tained even under adverse weather
conditions. Norton Lilly, local agent for
the line, expects that the Strathardle
will pass through the Canal in the near
No Canal Customer
THE ORIENTAL PIONEER, a new
combined ore-oil carrier built to carry
oil from the Persian Gulf to Brazil and
iron ore from Brazil to Japan, will make
the round-the-world voyage without
using either the Suez or Panama Canals.
It is understood, according to an article
in SIPPING WORLD AND SHIPBUILDER,
that this new vessel will travel around
the world by way of the Cape of Good
Hope and Cape Horn. Although each
voyage will total almost 30,000 miles,
the route taken will be shorter than if
the two canals were used.
The ship was built by the Sasebo
Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. of Japan for
Eastern Bulk Carriers and Tankers Inc.
of Liberia, a member of the C. Y. Tung
Group. She is under a long time charter
to Companhia Vale de Rio Doce, a
Brazilian Government controlled con-
cern handling mining, transportation,
and trade in iron ore and associated
products. If necessary, she could use
the Panama Canal. Her length overall
is 738 feet 2 inches and her beam is
105 feet, 7 inches.
New Queen to Use Canal
THE $75 MILLION nameless flagship
of the Cunard Line, which is now being
constructed at Clydebank, Scotland, will
be a regular customer of the Panama
Canal during the winter cruise seasons,
if present plans for her use are carried
out. The successor to the Queen Mary,
is to have a gross tonnage of 58,000
compared with the Queen Mafry's 81,237
and the Queen Elizabeth's 82,997 and
she will be short enough and narrow
enough to fit in the Canal's locks. She
will be one of the biggest ships to use
1ii h e L
II., L j
A I, -
A youth splashes in the pool at Goethals Monument while his dog and companion watch. The boy seems to be exhorting his canine friend:
"Come on in . it's nice and cool." But the dog appears to be somewhat wary. Perhaps he knows the pool is for ornamentation and was
not built as a swimming pool for poodles . or collies.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23