Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00036
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: May 1967
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00036
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
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Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17-20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Matter
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text


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J9t Vtii J 9ue:

couernor W. P eber
Aiercado 9jrande

MAY 1967
? '

V. P. LEBER, Governor-President
H. R. PARFITT, Lieutenant Governor
Panama Canal Information Officer

Subscriptions, $1

ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
Publications Editors
Editorial Assistants
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, FANNIE P.
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE T. TUNON
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.

". ..
" "U

c4bout Our Cover

THE PHOTOS on the cover depict scenes found in many
nations of the world, almost any country that has a sea-
coast. These pictures, however, were taken on some of
Panama's finer beaches.
Surfing is a sport that captures the imagination of
participants, photographers and less ambitious, but fas-
cinated, observers. An illustrated article on page 18
focuses on the intricacies of this sport which has gained
considerable refinement since it was originated in the
South Pacific.
An extended article on the Canal Zone's new chief
executive, Governor W. P. Leber, begins on page 11.
Gov. Leber's assignment to the Canal Zone returned him
to some old friends, made when he served here previ-
ously as Lieutenant Governor. The article takes a close
look at the Governor and reflects many of his most
noteworthy impressions.
Some of the other features of this issue of the PANAMA
CANAL REVIEW are stories on Barro Colorado Island,
Panama's Mercado Grande, the Canal Zone training
programs that benefit individuals and the Republic of
Panama. and the first auto trip across the Isthmus.


Barro Colorado Island

Mercado Grande ----------
Benefits to Panama ---- ---- -

Governor Leber___


Russ Herrington eyes the wave ahead and waits patiently for the
correct moment when he can walk forward for a good nose ride.

--- ---- 11

Canal Telephone System ---------------------- 14
Transisthmian Auto Trip --------------------- 16
Surfing ------------------------------------ 18
Shipping Trends, Statistics ----------- ------ 20
Anniversaries ------------ ------- 22
Shipping Notes ---------------------------- 23
Canal History --------------------------- 24

MAY 1967

Animal behaviorist Dr. Michael Robinson peers at a spider which has built its web on a circular wooden frame placed inside the cage.

Barro Colorado Island

Draws Eminent Scientists

A MERE mention of the Isthmus of
Panama suggests to many of the world's
leading scientists an inconspicuous,
3,600-acre island sitting in Lake Gatun.
Barro Colorado Island, which some
Isthmian residents are barely aware
exists, is a biological reserve and re-
search station where scientists may
study, observe and experiment in ideal
The island was formed in 1914 during
the Canal construction days when the
Chagres River was dammed and the
entrapped water became what is now
Lake Gatun, the principal source of
water for the Canal. For the past 21
years, the Island, as the Canal Zone
Biological Area, has been operated by
the Smithsonian Institution.
It is part of the Smithsonian Tropical

Research Institute which includes also
two marine biological laboratories and
a small forested area, all in the Canal
Zone. Director of the Institute is Dr.
Martin H. Moynihan.
More than 100 scientists visit the
island each year to carry on work that
keeps them there for periods ranging
from a few hours to several months.
Rich tropical foliage growing without
restriction, an outstanding selection of
wildlife, especially mammals, that can
be observed in their own habitat, plus
laboratory facilities, and simple but
wholesome living conditions are some
of the characteristics making the pre-
serve so valuable to the trained scientist.
Once open to the general public,
Barro Colorado Island officials now do
not encourage visits by non-scientists.

Years ago, when tourists were invited,
they were faced with one imposing
deterrent that still exists-a narrow and
steep stairway of more than 200 steps
leading from the boat dock up the hill-
side to the research station that over-
looks the Canal. The only elevator is a
small, makeshift affair for cargo.
BCI is strictly off limits to hunters
who have been known to covet game,
particularly the paca and tapir. Em-
ployees of the Smithsonian Institution
patrol the 30-mile irregular shoreline in
cayucos to guard against poachers.
When apprehended, violators face pros-
ecution and stiff sentences.
The sweeping variety of animals
found on the island is attributed to the
hunting prohibition. Contrary to what
(See p. 4)


Wide Variety

Of Animals

Found on BCI

(Continued from p. 3)
some may tend to believe, the animals,
birds and insects found loose are indig-
enous to the area and did not flock
there in desperation when the waters
of Lake Catun rose.
Dr. Neal G. Smith, a staff zoologist
who spent 2 years on the island, believes
that in no other tropical region can
scientists interested in animals find them
so easily.
Creatures not native to the island are
sometimes taken there in cages for
observation but are not released. Those
which are or have been indigenous to
the area are, at times, restocked.
The layman fortunate enough to make
a brief visit finds many animals and
insects in cages, and hears their sounds,
such as the ear-shattering call of the
howler monkey. But he does not see
them when strolling through the more
than 40 miles of trails-each named
after a scientist and each marked
every 100 meters-which provide access
to various parts of the island.
The animal population includes more
than 250 species of birds, 65 species of
mammals, 22 lizards, 37 snakes, 5 tur-
tles, 2 crocodiles, 15 toads, 16 frogs,
2 salamanders, and 22 fishes. These
figures do not take into account the
spiders, insects, other arthropods, and
mollusks common to the island.
Comprising the island staff are a
manager, a full-time librarian, cook,
cleaning woman, carpenter, mechanic,
boatmen, woodsmen, and animal keep-
ers. Two full-time staff scientists cur-
rently working on the island are Dr.
Michael Robinson, a British animal
behaviorist, and Dr. A. Stanley Rand,
a herpetologist from the United States.
There are four interns, three from
the United States and one from France,
engaged in varied projects as part of
pre-doctoral degree work. The Smith-
sonian Institution internship program
allows selected budding scientists to
work on the island, usually for I or
2 years to prepare for their doctoral

Nicholas Smythe, who is doing pre-doctoral work on the island, craddles a paca, also known
as a conejo pintado, in his arms. The paca is a large rodent common to the Isthmus and
indigenous to the island.

dissertations. A similar program has
been set up in cooperation with the
Organization of American States under
which some Latin American students
already have participated.
Behavior of wasps, white-faced
monkeys and rodents and the digestive
track of monkeys are a few of the
investigative areas being probed by the
current group of interns.
The excellent facilities and working
conditions are highly valued by visiting
scientists, some of whom bring their
wives and even children to the island
while they carry on their experiments.
At present, there are three children, all
of pre-school age, living on BCI.
A fine air-conditioned library empha-
sizing ecology, behavior, and systema-
tics, has more than 5,000 volumes and
receives some 85 journals. Equipment
includes photographic darkroom, type-
writers, microscopes, canoes, binoculars,
balances, flight cages in the forest, field

camping, and laboratory equipment.
Supplies of wood, wire, screen, glass-
ware, preservative, photographic chem-
icals, and certain other supplies are
Air conditioned laboratory space has
sinks, benches, electrical outlets, and
shelving while animal houses provide
cage and aquarium space.
The research station, usually crowded
during the summer months but much
less so during the winter, can accom-
modate approximately 20 research peo-
ple at one time. Living quarters include
a dormitory and three comfortable but
unpretentious two-room cottages; meals
are served in a common dining room.
Living conditions are generally
healthful, thanks partially to reliable
electricity, pure drinking water and
other amenities usually not available to
the scientist working in the field. A
shortwave radio provides communica-

MAY 1967

Dr. Robinson observes the behavior of assorted animals in cages on Barro Colorado Island.

tion with the mainland and by speedy
launch residents of BCI are only 25
minutes from the townsite of Gamboa.
The islanders make weekly trips to
Panama City for purchases of cigaret-
tes, film and other items. This also pro-
vides opportunities for some relaxation
and a break in routine with a movie
or dinner in a downtown restaurant.
In addition to projects being carried
on by individual scientists staying on
the island, there are continuing exper-
iments such as those of the Tropical
Research Branch of Eastman Kodak
which is testing tropical effects on
paper, film, lenses, glues, and other
Military people involved in jungle
survival training have been taken to the
island for intensive briefings and to
The island's emergence as a highly
regarded scientific installation came
It began with Dr. Thomas Barbour
of the National Research Council who
came to the Isthmus in 1922 to find a
site for a zoological research laboratory.
He met entomologist James Zetek who
was to put years of work developing
Barro Colorado Island.
Zetek knew the region well. He had
worked for the Panama Canal's Sanitary
Department, the Repuhlic of Panama,
the Board of Health Laboratory and


the U.S Department of Agriculture.
Together, they decided that BCI was
the most suitable area for the research
laboratory. All hunting was banned
there in 1923 when Gov. Jay J. Morrow
proclaimed the island a natural park.
The next year, the first buildings
were officially dedicated but distinguish-
ed men of science studied and observed
on the island long before adequate
facilities were built.
Financial problems plagued the Island
for years and it had to rely on gifts
from scientific institutions, universities,
philanthropists and other sources to meet
expenses. A ray of sunshine appeared
when in 1940 the U.S. Congress passed
a bill authorizing the setting aside of
an area within the Canal Zone to pre-
serve its natural features for scientific
study. The bill also authorized
$10.000 a year to be given for the
project's support but the appropriation
was not made.
Several Government agencies pro-
vided funds to support highly confiden-
tial projects during \orld War II. And
in 1946, the Canal Zone Biological Area
became a Bureau of the Smithsonian
Institution, thus bolstering its shaky
economic foundation. Scientific groups
and universities still assist the island
financially and moderate fees, just suffi-
cient to cover board and lodging, are
charged scientists.

It's a long, steep walk up a narrow stairway
from the boat dock to the upper hillside and
the main part of the island. There is a
makeshift elevator but this serves only for
the luggage.

A pile of fresh Panama pineapples, the fruit
newcomer, catches the eye of the shopper who
to make the best selection. To the left are papay
tropical and semitropical count

Bananas and more bananas. Many species
of both the eating banana and the cooking
type (plaintain) abound in Panama. And
while they are sold at virtually every store
and roadside stand in the Republic, the
Mercado Grande offers an outstanding
choice of varieties, including the tiny,
luscious primitivos.

Al ercado grande

JJ Place Vo Shtop

') WHEN AN ISTHMIAN housewife needs a particular ingre-
*' dient for that special meal and isn't sure if she can find it
in the quantity and quality desired, she usually goes to the
Mercado Grande.
It is Panama's largest single food market, being composed
of several departments-fish, fowl, poultry, fresh tropical
fruits and vegetables-all under one roof. The location is
Calle 11 to 13 east, at Avenida Norte, near the Plaza de la
Loteria in Panama City.
The fish department outdraws all others in terms of
numbers of shoppers. Tables heaped with pink and white
Panamanian shrimp, filleted and whole fish, lobster, mol-
lusks, squid and crabs freshly caught by local fishermen are
not easily passed up by customers.
Open every day except important holidays, the Mercado
Grande is popular with both the average housewife and the
fastidious hostess recognized for her delectable cuisine.
that delights every Most shoppers get there before 8 a.m., assuring themselves
seems to know how of the best selection of merchandise. The Mercado Grande is
as, enjoyed in many .'
ries. valued by those in search of hard-to-find items but the prices
alone justify a visit.
Small and large stalls, bins, counters, and cubicles cluster
together in general categories. The atmosphere is friendly and
relaxed, never subdued.
The market also boasts personalized service rarely found
in the coldly efficient supermarket or chain store. Good
natured haggling is an accepted part of a day's shopping at
the Mercado, though some vendors never waiver from their
original prices.




Chickens hang by hooks in the poultry section. The men behind the counters cut up the
fowl and dispense other services usually associated with the corner butcher during the
"good old days" rather than in this era of frozen foods and ultra efficient supermarkets.

MAY 1967

"I'll take it," the lady tells the fish vendor who holds up one of his fresh wares. On the counter there are piles of both uncleaned fish
and those cut into fillets and ready for the skillet.

This wise shopper includes a quantity of fresh shrimp on her shopping list knowing that it
can be used in a sweeping variety of dishes. First time visitors to the fish counter of the
Mercado Grande are often astounded at the size of the Panamanian white shrimp. About
six of these make a pound.

"What else was it that I needed?" Our
shopper seems to be lost in thought as she
strolls past the counters.



Canal Profit

By Training

MANY AREAS of activity in the Canal
Zone have produced an upward trend
in economic benefits to Panama.
More Panamanians are being brought
into employment and into training pro-
grams in the Canal organization. The
average wage has been rising steadily
for this group of employees, anld
tinues to rise. Aid in the form of loans
and direct grants has also brightened
the economic picture in the Republic,
and this program is continuing.
In July of 1964, there w ere 10,272 full
time non-U.S. citizens employed by the
Canal organization. By October, 1966,
this had increased to 10,75S and is con-
tinuing to grow. These figures do not
include the approximately 6,000 U.S.
Armed Forces and U.S. agency contract
employees. The average annual salary
has increased $722 since 1963. Today
it is $3,238, or $1.56 per hour. Since
1961, the average hourly rate has in-
creased more than 60 percent. There
are non-U.S. citizen professional work-
ers who earn more than $10,000 an-
nually. The growing group of skilled
employees includes automotive machin-
ists, boatbuilders, cablesplicers, electri-
cians, welders and many other classfi-
cations. These workers averaged, as of
July. 1966, $3.02 per hour. Training
programs now in effect will put increas-
ing numbers of Panamanians into these
positions, and into professional levels.
An example of the rising averages is
in the employment of Panamanians by
the Canal Zone Police Division. which
has 40 Panamanians who average $5,977
annually. In the Schools Division, 121
Panamanian teachers average $6,293
annually. They are employed for 9
and 10 months, because of the school
vacation period.
Five percent of the professional
level positions wcre held by non-U.S.
citizens in June of 1959. By June of
1966 this had increased to 22 percent.
and the percentage is still growing.
There are seven programs designed
to further skills and experience of Pan-
amanians. and each one emphasizes
progressive achievement for the more
than 500 young people involved in
both full-time and part-time work. The

The Canal's Apprentice Program turns out journeymen craftsmen who have learned their
trade correctly and completely. Here, apprentice Calixto J. Fabrega makes an adjustment
on a piece of equipment at the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Shop at Balboa.

largest is the Latin American Student
Assistant Program. During summer va-
cation periods, some 250 youngsters
in secondary schools and universities
are employed. The program gives
them training and experience at a pre-
professional level.
The Apprentice Program is enjoying
mounting success. It is aimed at train-
ing young men in various crafts used
by the Canal, and several classes
have graduated. There are now 82
Panamanians employed through the
The Craft Learnership Program, with
36 Panamanians now employed, is de-
signed to prepare young men for work
in the manual category, at a level
under the journeyman. This meets the
need for a pool of capable employees
for apprentice consideration. The Non
Craft Learner Program, with 49 em-
ployees, offers training for various
There are now 61 non-U.S. employees
in the Office Service Intern Program.
The objective of this program is to pro-
duce well trained personnel skilled in
stenography and tvning. There is a
shortage of qualified workers in this

area. In the Cooperative Education Pro-
gram, qualified university students are
employed, and they are provided train-
ing with a view toward preparing them
for professional careers in administration
and technical areas. Currently, there are
27 students in this program. In another
program, there are 9 university students
in varying fields. Qualifications for this
program are different than those set up
for the Cooperative Education effort.
Panamanians employed by the Canal
enjoy a variety of "fringe" benefits. Em-
ployment entitles the workers to partic-
ipate in life and health insurance pro-
grams endorsed by the Canal organiza-
tion. These programs are widely used
by Panamanians, who pay low pre-
iniums through a group rate.
There is retirement, of course, where
the employee and the U.S. Government
each contribute 612 percent of the em-
ployee's basic salary to the Civil Service
retirement fund. There are several
types of retirement, and there is, in cer-
tain cases, a survivor annuity plan.
Under this. 55 percent of the annuity
that the employee had earned is paid
to the widow (or widower) and de-
(See p. 10)

MAY 1967

They Learn By Doing

.,,5~T"~' rl~EF

c i-

Serving as an efficient, cordial receptionist at Gorgas Hospital
laboratory is Lea Middleton, learning the job as an office service

Alertness is seen on the face of student trainee Mayra Calderon, who
is studying business administration at the University of Santa Maria
La Antigua while serving in the Panama Canal Supply Division
under the Cooperative Education program.

Preparing to strike an arc at the Industrial Division in Mount Hope
where he is employed under the Craft Learnership Program is
Luis H. Ramos.

Sizing photographs is one of the techniques learned by Ramon
Almengor who works in the Panama Canal Information Office
under the Cooperative Education Program. Almengor majors in
English at the University of Panama.


Employee Jenetit c4re AWany

(Continued from p. 8)
pendent children. Under ordinary retire-
ment, an employee who retires for age
can draw up to 80 percent of the basic
salary that he was paid during his
highest 5 consecutive years of service.
Other benefits include the 208 hours
(26 working days) of paid leave earned
by all non-U.S. employees each year
and 10 paid holidays. And all em-
ployees of the Canal organization are
eligible to use the facilities of Gorgas
and Coco Solo Hospitals.
Some $115 million annually reaches
the Panamanian economy through the
Panama Canal, Armed Forces. and other

U.S. agencies located in the Republic.
An example of direct economic
impact by the Armed Forces and the
Panama Canal are payrolls. The Armed
Forces annual payroll to non-U.S. cit-
izens amounts to more than $18 million
while the Panama Canal payroll, in-
cluding pensions and retirement, paid
to Panamanians is nearly $40 million.
Several areas of economic activity in
the Canal Zone contribute significantly
to Panama's economy. These include
direct purchases in Panama by U.S.
Government agencies of $14.4 million;
the purchase in Panama of goods by
private organizations operating in the
Zone, $9.2 million; contractors' pur-

chases in Panama of goods and services
for Canal Zone projects, $5 million; and
the total expenditures in the Republic
by Canal Zone residents, $21.4 million.
Panamanians play an important role
in the operation of the Canal and its
related activities. Many also are taking
advantage of the opportunities offered
by the Canal Zone training programs
to learn specialized skills. Panamanians
working and studying in the Canal Zone
are making significant contributions to
the economic development of their
own country and increasing Panama's
pool of highly trained technicians vital
to the continued economic growth of

Under the watchful eye of machinist maintenance-instructor John A. Selstad, 4th year apprentice machinist Roland S. Joseph cuts a pinion
gear for an arbor on a milling machine at the Industrial Division's machine shop.

MAY 1967

Governor Leber's View:

Canal's Future Role Vital

THERE IS one common denominator
of the men who have governed the Canal
Zone: all have been career officers, w ith
a background in Army Engineering and
administration. The new governor brings
these qualitiess to his position, but his
point of view suggests a great deal
more-the inquiring mind of the scholar,
the open mind of the judge, the stu-
dent's ability to listen, and when the
facts are in, the executive's ability
to decide.
That's a tall order for a leader to fill.
But the adjectives people use to de-
scribe Gov. Walter P. Leber tell you
that he measures up to it. He is ener-
getic, but not boisterous. When he lis-
tens, whether in an interview or a con-
versation, he is not merely being polite-
you have his full attention. His answers
and comments reveal an honesty that
comes from thoroughgoing considera-
tion and careful judgement. A thought-
ful analyst, he is not noted for tossing
off pronouncements. When he does
speak, people feel compelled to listen,
not because he is the governor, but
because they respect his knowledge and
have confidence in his ability.
Two years as Lieutenant Governor
(1961-6.3) grounded Governor Leber
in Canal operations. He views his
return in terms of its challenge and is
impressed by the changes since his de-
parture in 1963. "I noticed significant
progress when I visited David recently,"
lie said. "That area has come a long
way in 4 years and the people there
have a real understanding of progress
and its benefits."
He also is struck by the construction
that mushrooms over the Republic. "You
see it quiicklv in Panama City, where
an amazingg growth has taken place in
the past 4 years.
"More people should see Panama: its
potential for tourism is very high. All
the ingredients are here-weather, fine
fishing, historical sights, facilities and
easy access. But I wish more people
would discover this mecca. As Panama
improves its roads and other facilities.
an improved tourist picture will follow.
Of course, tie Canal is an attraction,
and we have a role in supporting efforts
to attract more visitors.
"The flow of people is increasing, and
this is encouraging. I wish more would

come, particularly leaders from the
United States and elsewhere. Panama
Ind the Canal are vital places, and the
situation here should be familiar to as
inam leaders as possible. I have talked
to people who have an idea that Pan-
ama is all an undeveloped jungle. These
are intelligent people, but they have
never been here. We want them to come,
and learn, so that they can develop a


thorough and honest view of the area
and its problems."
An outdoor type tourist himself, the
governorr likes to get about, and while
lie isn't the "desperate" type fisherman,
he enjoys immensely the blue waters,
sunshine and scenery of a fishing
trip to the Pearl Islands. He likes to
fish "when thel are biting." but it's
(See p. 12)


Governor Leber shown with Mrs. Leber, their son, Philip Kevin, 11, and their pet boxer, Erie.
Daughter Bonnie Cay, 14, and Randy, 21, a business administration major at the University
of Ohio, were not on the Istlmus at the time this photo was taken.


"More people should see Pan-
ama; its potential lor tourism
is very high. All the ingre-
dients are here-weather, fine
fishing . facilities . ."

"A man wonders 'What about
my family? My job? What's
going to happen to me?' . .
But I think some people are
overly apprehensive. .. We
need these fine people."

Governor Leber gestures
while making a point during
an interview. He discussed
some personal views, his
family and the Canal's future.

"I'm optimistic. I think the
United States and Panama
will come up with a satisfac-
tory agreement that will meet
the approval of most people."

Lebers Happy

To Be Back

(Continued from p. 11)
about half and half with him-half
relaxation and soaking up the view and
half fishing. He also likes to play golf.
There isn't enough time, of course, when
you hold a demanding job, but Gov-
ernor Leber makes the most of his spare
hours. "The job takes more than 8 hours
a day but I'm not complaining. This
means your job is interesting. And in
the Army, your job changes every few
years and you have to spend time learn-
ing the ropes in a new situation." And
le reads. "There is never time to do all
the reading you'd like . ." Not inci-
dentally, a Governor who is also the
father of 3 children admits with some
pride: "Three kids take up a lot of
time. As a result of all this, I run into
a few complaints at home-generally
along the line that I am not around as
much as I should be." But when he is
around, say on Sunday, he likes nothing
better than a trip to Gatun Lake "which
is another reason why 1 like it here.
Where else can you go water skiing on
Sunday afternoon and be home in time
for dinner?"
The 15,000 people who operate the
Panama Canal also enjoy life here, and
their problems and welfare are at the
top of Governor Leber's agenda. He is
aware of their preoccupation with im-
pending change, and his view of the
future is summed up in a word: opti-
mism. "I understand this overriding con-
cern, particularly when there are talks
in progress. A man wonders "What
about my family? My job? What's going
to happen to me?"
Ile has a strong opinion on the mettle
of the Canal family : "These people have
done an outstanding job in operating
the Canal, keeping it modern, clean and
efficient. The United States can be noth-
ing but proud of them, and I think other
countries, particularly maritime nations,
must also have a great respect for their
"But I think some people are overly
apprehensive: I don't believe the
changes are going to be drastic, or detri-
mental. And I don't forsee there will be
any great change in employee benefits,
such as wages and the fringe benefits.
\e need these fine people; more and
more ships must be put through, and
for a long time. That isn't going to

MAY 1967





change and you need the talent to get
the job done."
Still, people speculate "What will
happen if my job is gone?" Governor
Leber replies, "I don't believe this will
happen, or that it's something to worry
about. The President and the Congress
will stand behind Americans, no matter
\\here they are. When the treaty comes,
some people will leave, regardless of
what is agreed upon. But I hope not.
If the\ go we'll have to recruit others,
train others, and this means time and
"I don't know what will come out of
the negotiations or when, but one of
my goals is to find out what people are
concerned about and discuss these issues
while the talks are in progress. For
example-retirement, or benefits. How
would the employees like to see things
set up? There's no guarantee, but I
think the negotiators would appreciate
these ideas. These talks should be in
the open but at the same time, they
shouldn't interfere with the negotiations.
"I expect that some of the basic
concern centers about facilities and
services. I have no doubt that the wor-
ry over schools, or hospitals, is excessive.

I am certain that a school system with
U.S. teachers will continue to provide
an education with a U.S. cultural base.
\e have to provide these services be-
cause they are necessary to operate the
Canal. I really can't see any reason to
suppose that medical services would not
continue. You hear a lot about the law.
We have and will continue to operate
under the law here, and I am sure
provisions will be made for continuing
a good legal system.
"The scope of these negotiations is
very involved, very broad. It reaches
into the futuie as far as anyone can see.
The sea level canal is an example. His-
tory tells us that prior to the present
Canal there were talks for some time.
My point is that we should not get too
impatient with this business. Talk and
debate must take place, and complex
issues requiei time."
The Governor sums up, "I'm opti-
mistic. 1 think the United States and
Panama will come up with a satisfactory
agreement that will meet the approval
of most people."
Recently arrived to join Governor
Leber are his favorite people-Mrs.
Leber, and son Philip Kevin, 11. Daugh-

ter Bonnie Gay, 14, will finish her term
in the ninth grade in a few weeks, and
son Randy will finish his sophomore year
at the University of Ohio at the same
time. Randy, 21, is a business admin-
istration major. Hand)' and Bonnie will
join the family here in June. The family
enjoyed the first tour here and is look-
ing forward to this one, the Governor
said. Family friends also have arrived-a
boxer dog and two siamese eats. Mrs.
Leber, who likes birds and enjoys gar-
dening, will probably resume her in-
terest in birds with some type of small
aviary, and a good deal of her time \\ill
lie taken up in getting settled, he added.
For Governor Leber, the time ahead
will be challenging. He accepts that
challenge in much the same spirit lie
has applied to his career in the Arm\
"I have thought many times about my
years in the Army, opportunities else-
where, and the meaning of what one
does in life. After all, what is really
valuable? I think a man has found the
value and purpose in his life when he
can look back over the years and
feel that perhaps he has contrib-ted
something worthwhile to others, and
to society."


At the Central American Fair in David, Governor Leber visits the Kodak pavilion where Humberto A. Young, Kodak's publicity director
in Panama, briefs the Governor. The fair at David was one of the many functions the Governor attended shortly after returning to the Isthmus.


PC Telephone

System Begun

By the French

CANAL ZONE history does not state
whether Col. George Washington Goe-
thals, builder of the Panama Canal and
first Governor of the Canal Zone, ever
listened in on a teenager's telephone
conversation; or tried to contact some-
one by telephone only to receive a
continuous busy signal.
There's no doubt, however, about
his order issued July 12, 1912: "Tele-
phone conversations will be limited to
5 minutes." In this same order, unlimit-
ed ser ice-telephone calls to anywhere
in the Canal Zone--was restricted to
heads of the four Isthmian Canal Com-
mission divisions and their chief clerks,
who were also exempt from the 5-minute
time limit.
The Canal Zone's telephone history
dates from 1882 when the first conver-
sation, in French. crackled over the
newlv installed lines. La Compagnie
Nouvelle du Canal de Panama, succes-
sor to La Compagnie Universelle du
Canal Interoceanique, was proud of
the installation of this new invention,
and reported on the arrival of the ap-
paratus in an 1882 issue of a French
Canal publication.
The first models to arrive on the
Isthmus consisted of a walnut case
mounted on an adjustable stand to
make one of the earliest desk sets.
Shortly thereafter, the instrument was
encased in oak and was one of the first
side-winder models on which a crank
turned to signal the operator.
The Isthmian Canal Commission
inherited the Canal's telephone system
in 1904 when President Theodore
Roosevelt appointed Adm. John C.
Walker first chairman of the First Isth-
mian Commission for the construction
of the Panama Canal.
Only a few telephones were permit-
ted to be installed in residences when
the building of the Canal began. They
were for the 1CC chairman, the chief
of the Health Office, the superintendent
of the Panama Railroad and a few offi-
cials who were on call for emergencies.
Bv that time, there were probably
about 2 dozen telephones in the
Canal Zone and all were free. In 1909.

Mrs. Fay R. Stanford, a native of Harleton, Tea., formerly served as a long distance operator
with Southwestern Bell in Marshall, Tex. She has been with the Canal organization as an
operator since 1963.

however, Colonel Goethals permitted
the installation of residential telephones
at the expense of the applicant and a
residential rate of $2.50.
All telephone and telegraph facilities
of the 1CC were turned over to the
Panama Railroad in 1909. The tele-
phone system was operated and main-
tained bv the Electrical Division there-
after and in 1950 possession of these
facilities went to the Panama Canal
organization. It now forms the Com-
munications Branch of the Electrical
Beginning in April 1914, applications
for installation of telephones had to be
made by letter to the employee's depart-
ment head, who referred it to the gen-
eral manager of the railroad. The appli-
cant then was furnished an estimate of
the cost, which he had to pay in
addition to the $2.50 monthly rental.
Personal phone calls. Governor Goe-
thals ordered also in 1914, were not to
be made during working hours. At this
time, Class A (residential) and Class B
(official) telephones were established.
Class A cost $2.50 per month with a
25-cent additional toll charge for trunk
calls, and Class B cost $7.50 per month
for unlimited service. Both classes were
restricted for 5-minute conversations
during working hours.
The Electrical Division took over the
cost of all official telephone installa-
tions, changes and removals in 1915.
No charges were made to subscribers
for installation of private phones unless
the cost was excessive, but residence

phone calls continued to be limited to
5 minutes during working hours.
A monthly rate of $3 was set for
residence phones in 1917 when all
residence phones were granted unlimit-
ed service privileges. The congestion
of trunk lines caused by long distance
calls across the Isthmus became so
troublesome, however, that 3 months
later all phone users were requested to
confine social calls between the hours
of 4 p.m. and 9 a.m. and 11 a.m. to
1 p.m.
With the opening of the Canal, the
telephone system began to expand.
Telephones were provided to all ex-
ecutives, pilots and local personnel on
call, followed by utility workers on call
for emergency service.
There was still an air of adventure
in the use of Canal Zone telephones in
1925 when the dial telephone system
was installed. This converted the Pan-
ama Canal system from a manually
operated system to the dial telephone
and to use of automatic telephone
Today's maze of wires, automatic
switches equipment and microwave
installations make almost instant service
possible. To call a number by means
of a dial, to have the telephone being
called continue to ring until answered.
to be notified instantly if the line is
busy and to have a connection kept
throughout a conversation, are all taken
for granted.
Currently there are more than 10.200
official and residence telephone instru-

14 MAY 1967

ments in service in the Panama Canal
telephone system, excluding the Armed
Forces. The telephone system has 6
automatic telephone exchanges, the
2 major ones being in the Administra-
tion Building, Balboa Heights, and in
Building 1907 at Cristobal. Four
remote-controlled exchanges are locat-
ed at Gamboa, Gatun, Coco Solo and
Pedro Miguel. The Locks Division and
Pedro Miguel, Miraflores and Gatun
has its own telephone system, which
is linked to the regular Panama Canal
automatic system.
The Panama Canal telephone system
is manned by 63 employees, including
18 information operators-4 are regular,
3 are relief operators and 2 are night
operators on each side of the Isthmus.
Panama Canal information operators
still provide the personal touch in many
areas that, elsewhere, have been taken
over by automation. Dial 112 and a
pleasant voice gives the time of day; dial
114 and the same pleasant voice may
help find an elusive telephone number
or help establish a telephone contact;
110 emergency calls to the Canal Zone
Police and 119 emergency calls to the
Fire Department are monitored until
the operator is certain the contact has
been made.
Despite the fact that the Poison
Center telephone number is on Page 1
of the telephone book, the information
operators continue to receive despera-
tion calls on 114 from persons who
have found Johnny eating some strange
berries, or Susie chomping on frothy
The information operators have to
be mind readers sometimes, too. One
day a frantic woman dialed informa-
tion and cried: "We need a vegetarian.
Quick!" She actually wanted to con-
tact a veterinarian and the correct con-
nection was swiftly made by the alert
telephone operator.
Not all the calls for help come from
people needing the police, fire depart-
ment, poison center, or a doctor or
ambulance. Mrs. Lillian E. Rvan re-
members one call for help from a couple
who wanted to get married. The pro-
spective bridegroom had received his
overseas military assignment orders
sooner than he had expected and all
offices were closed for the day. Mrs.
Ryan had never played Cupid before,
but she provided the right answers
and wedding bells soon rang.
Panama Canal telephone operators
have "the voice with a smile" and all
the spirit de corps and personality that
goes with it. They are the "unseen peo-
ple" in the organization and except for
coming to work and departing for
home, seldom leave their work area.

Peter W. Foster, left, leader Central Office repairman, and Frederick R. Walker, Central
Office repairman, shown with new communications equipment that has been installed in the
Administration Building. Foster, with 17 years Panama Canal service, is a graduate of the
Canal's apprentice program, worked in Cristobal and came to the Pacific side office 2 years
ago. Walker served his Canal apprenticeship in Cristobal and has been on the Pacific side
about 2 years also.

In the Administration Building in Bal-
boa Heights, unlike other employees
whose 1-hour lunch time permits a
leisurely lunch in the building's cafe-
teria or at home, the information oper-
ators have only 20 minutes for lunch.
Every 2 hours they have a 5-minute
break. The operators on duty at the
Cristohal telephone exchange have the
same 20-minute lunch period and 5-
minute breaks. Few know the Canal
operators by name, but there's scarcely
a person in the Canal Zone or Pan-
ama City who hasn't had contact and
received assistance from them.
Typical of the efficiency of these
operators is an incident which occurred
in 1962 when a Canal organization em-
ployee had placed an official telephone
call to New Orleans via Tropical Radio.
The call concerned the purchase of
some medicine and was urgent.

The caller asked that he be reached
at his residence upon completion of the
call because the hour was late. Arriv-
ing home, he found his telephone out
of order and used a neighbor's phone
to report it.
Before service was restored, his call
from New Orleans came through to
Balboa Heights exchange. The operators
on duty, Mrs. Mary \V. Hall and Mrs.
Lillian T. Sieler, held the Tropical Ra-
dio operator on the line and determin-
ed the location of the telephone nearest
to the caller's home where the man
making the call was reached.
A subscriber can call to anywhere in
the Canal Zone or to the cities of Pan-
ama or Colon without an extra charge,
regardless of the distance. This is an
advantage over telephone service in
the United States where you must pay
extra for calls outside an exchange area.


They Rode

The Rails

In An Auto

OLD TIME race car enthusiasts
may recall 1916 as the year the
Indianapolis "500" was a 300-mile
race won by Dario Resta, averaging
an astounding 84 miles per hour in
a Peugeot.
No one had yet heard of Juan
Fangio, Sterling Moss or Jim Clark
but it was a big year automotively.
It was the year a Panama Canal
motor car inspector became the first
man to drive across the Isthmus.
From the Pacific to the Atlantic by
car in just 1 day.
The great event was duly recorded
with a 3-page, illustrated article in
the August, 1916, issue of Motor
Samuel Grier, Jr., had for years
aspired to be the first motorist to cross
the Isthmus, probably from the time
he arrived in Panama in 1906 from the
United States where he had done con-
siderable automotive machine work.
Upon reaching the Isthmus, he went
to work as a machinist in the Gorgona
shops and in 1912 became the motor-
man of the "Ycllow Peril," the official
inspection car of Chief Engineer Col.
George V. Goethals, during Canal
construction days.
Grier. accompanied by R. M. McKen-
na and Grier's bull pup Marnique, had
to drive his 1912 Havnos on the bed
of the Panama Railroad as far as he
could because there was no road span-
ning the entire distance at the time.
More than 23 jolting miles of the trip
was made on the track itself.
It was 6:25 a.m. when he dipped
the rear wheels of his car into the
Pacific; then he proceeded from Pan-
ama City to the Canal Zone roads,
passing through Ancon and Corozal.
The first stop was at Pedro Miguel, a
function point on the railroad. The main
line went to Colon and the branch line
to the west side of the Canal by means
of a pontoon bridge, going to the com-

The "Go-Go" boys of 1916-Samuel Grier and his companion, R. M. McKenna, set out
for their ocean-to-ocean auto trip across the Isthmus. Here they are shown in Ancon at the
beginning of the feat which was accomplished by using the Panama Railroad bed for part
of the way.

munities of Culebra. Empire and Las
From Pedro Miguel, Crier drove
along the east bank of the Canal on a
road which had recently been finished.
Near Paraiso, the road led up and over
Gold Hill, the highest hill on the Isth-
mus and from which they could look
across to Culebra on the other side of
the Canal. The road from Gold Hill
narrowed sharply so that for some
3 miles it was almost impossible for
two cars to pass.

Approximately 2 miles before Cam-
boa, Grier had to leave the road and
move to the railroad bed where he was
handed the train order "Haynes Special
Number 6," which controlled him while
he was on the right-of-way.
From this point, it was a continuous
series of jouncing and bumping over
ties, tie plates, spikes, ballast bridges and
switches-all 23 miles to Gatun. From
time to time he had to leave the track
to make way for the Transcontinental

MAY 1967


and mining and manufacturing would
record a gain of around 14 percent."
M1TI forecasts that the biggest in-
creases will be found in imports of raw
materials and fuel. The growth of min-
ing and manufacturing and the growing
market for food and manufactured items
also would record an overall gain. The
demand for consumer goods, spurred by
increasing prosperity, also will push up
From increased imports of raw mate-
rials and fuels and manufactured goods,
it is anticipated that in the last half of
the current fiscal year as compared to
the first half, the increase would amount
to 11.1 percent.
The increase in imports in the first
half of the current fiscal year will be
for food and lumber associated with
higher consumer consumption, for
greater housing construction, and for
increased industrial activity.
The MITI report said indications
were that foods, raw materials and fuel
and finished manufactures all were go-
ing to show an increase of more than 10
percent as compared to the correspond-
ing period of the preceding fiscal year.
Conspicuous is the anticipated increase
of 21.3 percent for raw materials
and fuel.
Imports of fuel are figured at $359
million and foods and beverages at
$369 million, up 69.3 and 18 percent
Canal figures showed an increase of
11.5 percent in the amount of coal ship-
ments alone destined for Japan passing
through the Canal from the U.S. east
coast during the first 6 months of the
present fiscal year as compared to a
similar period in the previous fiscal year.
From this it would appear that the out-
look for Canal traffic is most promising
for the immediate future.

Miami to Chile Service
A MONTHLY service from the Port
of Miami to Cristobal and down the
west coast of South America to Chile,
was started in April by the West Coast
Line, a 120-year-old shipping company
which also has service from the Gulf
ports and to the Pacific ports of
Miami is the final port of call in the
United States for the five 10,000-ton
vessels on this new run. They carry
refrigerated and general cargo. It is the
first time Miami has had regularly
scheduled sailings, not only to Valpa-
raiso, but to southernmost Puntarenas.
Fernie & Company act as local agents.

(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic

S Third quarter, fiscal year-


Lumber__ -- --------- -------- .
Ores, various -
Iron and steel manufactures -- ----------
Sugar --
Refrigerated food products
(excluding fresh fruit) __- ____-------
Metals, various
Fishmeal --- -----
Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)
Pulpwood --
Canned food products
Nitrate of soda
Potash ---------------
All others ------------








8,993,421 I

5-Yr. Avg.

Atlantic to Pacific


I Third quarter, fiscal year-


Petroleum and products (excluding asphalt)__
Coal and coke----- ------------ ---
Phosphate___-- ----------------
Scrap metal--------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures--------------
Soybeans .----------------
Ores, various---------------------
Chemicals, unclassified-----------------
Sulphur _---------- ------------
Cotton, raw--------------- -------
Sugar ---------- ----- -
Paper and paper products---------
All others----------------
Total-----_ ------------------




13,470,962 I 11,663,417

5-Yr. Avg.


Third quarter, fiscal year-
Avg. No.
1967 1966 Transits
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic
Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing ---- ----------- 1,563 1,527 3,090 2,957 2,785
Small *--- ------------- 79 49 128 133 126
Total commercial ------ 642 1,576 3,218 3,090 2,911
U.S. Government vessels: 00
Oceangoing -------------- 160 52 212 162 61
Small ------------------ 12 14 26 26 39
Total, commercial and U.S. Cov-
ernment .._- ------- 1,814 1,642 3,456 3,278 3,011
o Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
00 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.


Third quarter, fiscal year--

(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Caliman Bernard
Leader Linehandler (Deckhand
Eduardo L. Melbourne
Clerk Typist^

Time and Lav Cler
Hubert L.
Clerk (Water Meters)
Harold L. Duncan
Oiler (Floating Plant)

Mary F. Anderson
Secretary (Stenography)
Daniel i
Oper i on ta
Charles .
Supervisor u an
John Na

Harold L. Anderson
Office Services Manager
Egbert E. Turpin
Mail Clerk

Ira D. Paddyfoot
Leader Carpenter
Leonard A. Barret
Helper Lock Operator
Granville Ottey
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Allan A. Joseph
IN Linehandler (Deckhand)
Stanley S. Anderson
File Clerk
Cordon L. C. Alleyne
Toolroom Attendant
Joseph U. Henlon
Joseph Crosdale
Maintenanceman (Dock)
S Ivanhoe Moffatt
Candelario Espada
Liquid Fuels Valve MNh Oper r
Lucius C. Powell
Sigbert Roberts
High Lift Truck Operator
Clannis Cheltenham
Laborer (Heavy)
Evelyn A. Hinds
Lead Foreman Meat Cutter
Oscar S. Butler
Louis H. Schmidt, Jr.
Retail Store Department Manager (Cas
David S. Beckett
Restaurant Manager


What's all the excitement? It's the pay car at Culebra January 12, 1908.

Atanacio Ramos
Laborer (Heavy)
Arthur Hilton
Leader Milk Plant Worker
Alfred W. Anderson
Joshua U. Robinson
Sales Store Manager
Joseph N. Alleyne
Personnel Clerk
R6mulo Palacio
Laborer (Heavy)
Edger Ogarra
Sales Store Clerk
Cayetano De Sedas
Garbage Collector

otor un Operator
W ert J. esfi d
battery rvi r
L oldo C cia
ment in er
e eO a inger
an, Refrigeration and Air
ing Mechanic
JVilam Will
Construction Inspector (General)
Joseph Amantine
Leader Seaman
Claude S. Brathwaite
Helper Electrician
James A. Leach
Helper Machinist (Maintenance)
Alexander James
Vincent E. Trotman
F. C. Willoughby
Foreman (Mechanical) Power Station
Hilton S. Nurse
McCurdie Robinson
Motor Launch Operator
Victor N. Burrows
Carmen Batista
Electrician (Lineman)
Melvin M. Julie
Supply Clerk
Byron E. Brooks
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Alejandro A. Hunt
Larry J. Miller
Milton J. Halley
Finance Branch Superintendent
Leo NI. Blades
Detention Guard
William K. McCue
Finance Branch Superintendent
James A. Rodgers
Dressing Room Attendant
Earl S. WValrond
File Clerk
Hubert Edwin Yard
Industrial Hygienist
Ivy NI. Thompson
Nursing Assistant
Joseph P. Thomas
Meat Cutter

MAY 1967



Anniversary Medallion
CAPT. MAFFEO ZONCA, who recently
made his last visit to the Panama Canal
this year as master of the Italian cruise
liner Federico C., has received a Panama
Canal Anniversary Book and a silver
50 year anniversary medallion from
Capt. E. B. Rainier, Cristobal Port
The farewell presentation was made
in the Captain's office aboard the ship
in the presence of Donald Francey,
representative of C. B. Fenton & Com-
pany, agents for the ship here.
Captain Zonca has made 4 visits
to Cristobal this year bringing to Pan-
ama more than 2,000 tourists. The ship
made I more visit to Cristobal early
in April. Next year the Federico C. is
expected to make 9 calls at Cristobal
as part of her West Indian cruise
Captain Zonca is returning to the line's
home office in Genoa and is expected
to be transferred there to the command
of the Eugenio C., the new flagship of
the Linea Costa Fu Andrea which runs
between Europe and South American
ports. She may join the Federico C. in
Caribbean cruising next year.

Yacht Due on Freighter
THE 12-METER yacht Dame Pattie,
Australia's newest contender for the
America's Cup Race to be sailed off
Newport this September, is expected to
come through the Canal sometime in
June as a most distinguished passenger
from Australia to New York aboard a
cargo liner of the Columbus Line. An
article in a recent Shipping Digest
savs the vacht should arrive in New
York at the end of June. After that the
Dame Pattie will be fitted out and start
tune up trials during July and August
off Newport. The first race of the Amer-
ica's Cun is scheduled to begin Septem-
ber 12. The America's Cup Challenger
Syndicate, a group of yachting enthu-
siasts and businessmen who are send-
ing Dame Pattie, nominated the Co-
lumbus Line to represent their contend-
er in New York. The line, represented
at the Canal by C. Fernie & Company,
will work with the Australian consulate
and other government representatives
as well as the yachting press in New
York and Australia.

TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1967 1966
Conunercial -- -- 1,079 1,060
U.S. Government ------ 77 50
Total----------- 1,156 1,110
Commercial --- $6,833,708 $6,048,482
U.S. Government_ 491,960 257,000
TotaL --.-$7,325,668 $6,305,482
Commercial_--- 7,909,287 7,192,934
U.S. Government- 521,522 176,811
Total-- 8,430,809 7,369,745
O Includes lolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.

Japanese Floating Fair
A JAPANESE floating trade fair aboard
the 12,611 ton liner Sakura Maru is
scheduled to visit the Panama Canal in
July following a cruise including calls
at Montreal, Houston, New York, and
New Orleans. The ship, after leaving
the Canal, will go to Los Angeles, San
Francisco, Portland, Seattle, and Van-
couver, the last port of call before she
returns to Tokyo.
United States Popular Liner
largest passenger liner in the United
States merchant marine and the fastest

in the world, carried a total of 52,109
passengers eastbound and westbound
on the North Atlantic service in 1966-
more than any other single vessel oper-
ating on the route, according to a note
in a recent issue of the Shipping Digest.
The 52,000 ton ship also carried 4,044
passengers on West Indies cruises for
a combined total of 56,153 persons. The
United States, which has made several
visits to Cristobal, made 40 Atlantic
crossings and 4 West Indian cruises
in 1966. In 1967 she will make 38
Atlantic crossings and 5 cruises.

Another Non-Customer
THE WORLD'S largest ship the
210,000 deadweight tanker Idemitsu
Alaru was delivered in December 1966
to her owner the Idemitsu Tanker Com-
pany, Ltd., a subsidiary of Idemitsu
Kosan KK. With a length of 1,122 feet
and a molded breadth of 163 feet, the
ship will join the growing fleet of bulk
carriers and tankers too big to transit
the Panama Canal.
According to an item in the Maritime
Reporter, the Idemitsu Aaru is the first
vessel in the world to pass the 200,000
dwt mark. Her 122-foot bridge equals
the height of an 11 story building and
her molded depth is 76 feet but she is
one of the most economical and efficient
tankers afloat. On her maiden voyage
in mid-December, the ship, whose crew
numbers only 32, carried a full load of
crude oil from Kuwait for Idemitsu
Kosan's refinery at Tokuyama, Japan.

1000 M
1966 / B
900 E
800 F
700 R
(AVERAGE 1951 -1955 ) 600 S






50 year 4go
THE U.S.-FLAG steamship Minnesota,
which made the transit of the Canal
February 27, 1917, was the largest ship
to have used the Canal to that date.
The Minnesota also was the largest ship
under the U.S. flag at that time. Her
cubic capacity was 1,191,000 cubic feet
and her deadweight capacity 22,500
tons. Her operators said she had great-
er cargo capacity than any other ship
in the world. Prior to the passage of
the Minnesota, the record for size of
ships using the Canal was held by the
Finland and Kroonland, each with a
length of 560 feet and beam of 60 feet
2 inches.
A second group of ward buildings of
the new Ancon (now Gorgas) Hospital
was finished in April 1917 and were
thrown open to public inspection. A
group of hospital employees conducted
visitors through the new buildings ex-
plaining the various conveniences and
giving them an opportunity to see the
advanced sanitary construction.
According to the Panama Canal Rec-
ord, the buildings, erected on the north-
east slope of Aneon Hill within the
grounds of the old hospital, were ar-
ranged to make the most of thee view
over the city of Panama and across the
hills to the north and the Bay of Pan-
ama. Two other groups of buildings,
each to accommodate 190 beds, and a
separate building for contagious dis-

t' -. .

eases, were still to be built. The Admit-
ting Office and the Board of Health
Laboratory were practically completed.
The Panama Canal Record of April
25 prints the declaration of war by the
United States against the Imperial
German Government.

25 year 4do
WORLD WAR II was beginning to
play a larger part in the day-to-day
lives of the people who lived in the
Canal Zone 25 years ago.
Instructions were issued to civilian
and military personnel on how to recov-
er barrage balloons which had escaped
from their moorings around vital instal-
lations. In the Canal Zone 431 air-raid
shelters had been completed or were
under construction. Strict regulations
governing the taking of photographs
and possession of cameras in or about
the Canal Zone were issued. Some 250
local students began turning out the
scale model planes to be used in aircraft
recognition training.
The razing of a number of buildings
at Gatun and Pedro Miguel was started
by the Panama Canal. Tests had shown
that buildings burning on or above the
level of the locks would light up the
locks and possibly aid in accurate bomb-
ing. "Light fences" 26 feet high were
built along the locks.
As an indirect result of war conditions,
the Panama Railroad announced that
the color of its passenger coaches was

.. ..--.

A coodii. tw2-
--- ..
.. -
*- .. . -A -- '-- -- -- -'

A cool dip in the Balboa pool was just as welcomed in 1922 as it is today.

to be changed from the oldtime maroon
to a new Pullman green. The maroon
paint had been made with a cadmium
base which, became expensive and
difficult to obtain because of the war.

10 /earJ 4 go
THE ANSWER to the Panama Canal's
most pressing problem-how to fit more
and larger ships in the Panama Canal
without making changes that would
cost billions of dollars-was being sought
10 years ago by a special committee
known officially as the Ad Hoc Commit-
tee headed by former Gov. William E.
Potter. Its members included two direc-
tors of the Panama Canal, Maj. Gen.
Julian L. Schley, a former Governor of
the Canal Zone, and Ralph A. Tudor,
well-known consulting engineer from
San Francisco.
The committee developed a program
aimed at eliminating delays to the
Canal's continually increasing traffic and
to consider improvements needed dur-
ing the next decade to provide efficient
and safe transits. The movements of
commodities which make up 75 percent
of the cargo passing through the Canal
were studied for their past, present
and expected performance. Officers of
more than two dozen shipping com-
panies, banks, industries and foreign
trade associations were questioned to
obtain this information and their reports
correlated with past Canal movements.
Group health insurance for Canal
employees became an accomplished fact
10 years ago when more than 50 percent
of the Canal force was enrolled in a
group plan underwritten by Mutual of
Omaha and administered by an em-
ployee Group Health Insurance Board.
Both U.S.-citizen and non-U.S.-citizen
employee groups met the 50 percent
goal. The Health Insurance plan was
the first such available to employees as
a whole.

One year .4go
THE SUCTION dredge Alindi was put
to work last March in the narrow con-
fines of Gaillard Cut to dredge a 50-year
accumulation of silt. It was part of a
long-range program of sweeping the
entire Cut bottom using the Mindi and
other dredging equipment. The work of
dredging in this area was made feasible
by modification of the Alindi pump to
provide a higher discharge pressure,
and by the progress in widening of the
Cut, which permits the big dredge to
remain in position without interfering
with ship traffic.

IMAY 1967

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