Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
H. R. PARFITr, Acting Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer
ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
MORGAN E. GOODWIN and TOMAS A. CUPAS
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, FANNIE P.
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, and JOSE T. TUNON
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearar ce. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
c4boul Our Cover
THE FACE OF the man on the cover is familiar to
thousands of residents of the Isthmus.
Canal Zone Cov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., has just closed
out his career as chief executive for the Panama Canal
organization after a 5-year stay, longer than that of any
predecessor. Before departing Panama to take a highly
responsible position in Florida, Governor Fleming also
rang down the curtain on his outstanding military career.
Governor and Mrs. Fleming, both of whom were deco-
rated with Panama's Order of Vasco Nfiiez de Balboa,
will be missed by their friends and acquaintances.
Governor Fleming's Legacy_
Panama Canal Pilots
Battle of the Bugs__
Ports of the World-
Shipping Trends ___-
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- - - - - - - - - - - - 2 0
Among the many prominent visitors to the Governor's office was this charming young miss who was presented a gold charm in 1962 for
winning the contest to name the two popular burros at Summit Gardens. The young lady is Suzanne Bomford, daughter of Mr. and Mrs.
Douglas Bomford of Panama City.
It was early in Governor Fleming's term when he made this inspection trip of the Canal, which was changing in appearance at the Pacific
terminal with the construction of the $20 million Thatcher Ferry Bridge, seen near its completion in the background.
Governor Leaves Job Well Done
To Take Up New Challenge
FIVE YEARS of action and accom-
plishment-that describes in a phrase
the administration of Canal Zone
Governor Robert J. Fleming, Jr., who
on January 19 left behind him an out-
standing record as Governor of the
The Governor goes on to another
challenge, this one in Miami, Fla.,
where he will take a $30,000 a
year post with Interama, the Inter-
American Cultural and Commercial
Center being built in Miami. He was
appointed by Florida Governor Claude
Kirk on January 12 and will direct
construction, operations, and mainte-
nance of the enterprise.
The 14th man to hold the governor-
ship of the Canal Zone was a man who
promised first to learn-thoroughly,
quickly, and firsthand-what was going
on in the organization. He kept that
promise and soon things were in high
gear. His office was the only one in the
tropics where "snowflakes" could be
seen-these were the many memos that
kept people hopping to get things done,
to clean up, improve, innovate, plan,
explain, and change.
Governor Fleming was supposed to
retire from the U.S. Army as a Major
General on the 28th of February, 1966.
With the lowest serial number in the
line of active Army at that time, he had
given a lifetime of service to his coun-
try. But when President Lyndon B.
Johnson requested him to continue as
Governor, he stayed an additional year.
He was awarded the Distinguished
Service Medal, the nation's highest mil-
itary award for meritorious service, dur-
ing a joint honor and retirement ceremo-
ny at Albrook AFB. Maj. Gen. Fleming
was presented the award by Gen. Rob-
ert W. Porter, Jr., Commander-in-Chief,
United States Southern Command.
"When you serve your country
abroad, you should know the people
and the language of the country in
which you work," Governor Fleming
had said. His interest in Panama and
Panamanians was intense, and when
he left, his knowledge of the country
matched that of scholars who had
studied it for years. And he could carry
on a conversation in Spanish.
The esteem in which he was held by
Panama was demonstrated when he
was decorated with Grand Cross of the
Order of Vasco Nfiiez de Balboa. Pres-
ident Marco A. Robles made the award
at the Presidential Palace. At the same
ceremony the First Lady, Mrs. Petita
Saa de Robles, decorated Mrs. Fleming
with the Order of Vasco N6fiez de
Balboa in the Grade of Grand Officer.
He wanted better understanding, and
this theme was carried out in his un-
counted trips into Panama City and
towns in the Interior. He went to fairs,
special events, conferences, and carni-
val functions. He spoke to numerous
groups and unless duty interfered, he
was always available to the press.
Panama Canal employees, a major
responsibility of the Governor, were
always close to his thoughts. He was
(See p. 4)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
JiJ Ieegacy of
(Continued from p. 3)
insistent that they should not suffer
because of political relations between
the two nations-matters over which
they have no direction.
To insure continued Canal operation,
the Governor said, "requires the loyal
work of dedicated people who now
operate the Canal. These people will
be needed for many years to come."
He particularly emphasized this to all
officials involved in negotiations with
the Republic of Panama, and as a result
guarantees were issued in a joint state-
ment by the President of the United
States and the President of Panama on
September 24, 1965.
Governor Fleming spelled out his
theme early. There would be changes,
he said. A wide viewpoint and an open
mind, he counseled, are important. He
discussed the duty of every American
to raise his sights and mind to meet the
future, and laid the emphasis on human
values. "They are the important ones,"
Within 2 years of taking office, he
was faced with a major crisis in the
January 1964 events. He maintained
Canal operations, and when calm was
restored he spared no effort in stim-
ulating cooperation in official life, social
events, and community events where
progress could be made. He thanked
both Panamanian and U.S. employees
for their restraint and forbearance.
Governor Fleming helped direct
organization of the sea-level canal
studies. He also brought to a conclu-
sion several programs already in prog-
ress, including the $20 million That-
cher Ferry Bridge over the Canal at
Balboa, construction of Gorgas Hospital
Annex, and placing into operation new
towing locomotives and a new traffic
control system. One of his last official
acts was the awarding of the contract
for widening from 300 to 500 feet the
last 3 miles of Caillard Cut.
He initiated many projects and nearly
every area of Canal operation was
affected. By 1966 the average ship was
spending 13.8 hours in Canal waters,
compared to 15.5 in 1962. This saves
shipping interests money, and they
saved much more when draft was
increased by 2 feet by removal of bat-
ters from locks, removal of unused
A good will embrace. Panama's President Marco A. Robles congratulates Governor Fleming
after decorating him with the Order of Vasco Nffiez de Balboa during a ceremony at the
Presidential Palace. At the right is Panama's First Lady, Sra. Petita Saa de Robles, who
decorated Mrs. Fleming.
emergency dams, and other technical
Deep draft experiments continued,
and recently the San Juan Merchant
broke a record when it moved through
the locks at 40 feet, the deepest draft
on record in the Canal. Fiscal year
1962 saw 12,106 ships use the Canal;
by 1966 that had risen to 13,304,
with the increased traffic handled by
The Personnel Bureau was reorga-
nized. Employment and promotion op-
portunities for qualified Panamanians
were increased. The Learnership and
expanded Apprentice programs are
proving very successful, and an office
trainee program operates for high
school and business school students
in Panama. Students from the Univer-
sity of Panama are gaining work expe-
rience in their professions in another
program which allows them to con-
tinue at the University. The Panama-
nian Student Assistant program was
launched, and has been expanded.
Civic Councils were supported by
Governor Fleming, who met with them
regularly. He also appointed a Com-
munity Relations Assistant from the
Latin American communities to serve
on his staff.
A social worker program was launch-
(See p. 17)
,rt, Valor, Ylory
SOME CALL bullfighting a sport, others compare it with
the ballet and many consider it a compelling spectacle
which, at its best, combines stirring music, almost hyp-
notic grace, brilliant costumes and undeniable courage
It is not simply an armed man, with superior intelli-
gence, pitted against a hapless beast, aficionados (fans)
contend; rather it is the torero (bullfighter) matched
against himself, testing just how close he will work to the
bull's horns to please the crowd.
In all probability, bullfighting is not the exclusive claim
of Spain but in the Spanish speaking countries it has
received those embellishments and support that make it
the attraction it is today.
The history of bullfighting can be traced as far back as
prehistoric Crete, and imperial Rome, where Julius
Caesar imported men from the Iberian peninsula. Today
the bullfight, or corrida, is found not only in Madrid, and
other major cities of Spain but also the capitals of Spanish
America. During patron saint days one
can see primitive-frequently hilarious-
bullfights in remote villages of Panama
and nations to the north and south.
Southern France and parts of Italy
have bullfights. Portugal also is famous
for the corrida but law prohibits killing
the bull in the Portuguese rings. In -
southern California and Texas sizable
audiences have turned out to watch
Six bulls are dispatched by three
toreros during a corrida which officially
begins with the colorful grand entrance
of the procession of participants. The ..
torero, picadores, peons and others, each .
with his own appropriate uniform, is
called the paseillo.
t 7y Imiv
..4 4 i .. -
. .-.- ,
S ; -* ;
With the sword in his right hand, torero uses muleta to lead the
charging bull inches past his body during the execution of a "natural."
- E ; a.'.
^^~' ^ ^i fe'
The resplendent torero, or matador, '
is the most striking with short jacket, .
waistcoat, knee length, skin tight trou- V
sers of silk and satin elaborately embroi- -
dered with gold and silver, dress cape '
also beautifully embroidered, coral pink *
stockings, black, kneeless slippers and
black, semispherical hat, the montera.
The banderilleros wear similar uniforms
but without the gold embroidery.
The procession goes across the arena
Grimacing, Spanish torero Victoriano Valencia appears to have his eyes on the horns of his
(See p. 21) adversary during a corrida in Panama City.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
THERE'S NOTHING provincial about
a Panama Canal pilot. He is able to
give steering orders in Greek, French,
Spanish, and Italian, and some can give
these instructions in 10 languages.
He meets Masters and crews of
thousands of foreign-flag vessels which
transit the Panama Canal annually, and
Panama Canal pilots take in their stride
compliments on their diplomacy, tact,
Ten pilots were on the Panama Canal
roster in August 1914 and the Captain
of the Port, Balboa, said he believed
"it will not be practicable to put more
than three ships through daily, north-
bound. And if it takes a pilot 48 hours
to complete this duty, it would require
six pilots as a minimum to perform this
A thousand ships a month broke
transit records the past year. Today's
pilot roster lists 138, the peak figure in
pilot force in Canal history. Transits
of vessels of sizes unheard of a decade
ago have more than doubled, and con-
tinued efficient operation in the Canal
requires constant efforts to develop bet-
ter means and more effective procedures
for transiting vessels expeditiously from
deep water to deep water. Transit
time in fiscal year 1966 has been cut
to about 10 hours, and the Canal now
is in operation 'round the clock. The
pilot force, besides providing enough
pilots to handle current traffic, must
allow, too, for anticipated retirements
and take care of traffic increases fore-
seen in the future. The Panama Canal
is now planning to increase its staff to
The Panama Canal pilot shares a
time-honored heritage with pilots of
other maritime nations, and fills a role
unparalleled in the world. The pilot's
role in world shipping, and the neces-
sity for pilot services, are recognized
and appreciated by all who know the
hazards of navigating ships in confined
waters. The pilot has responsibility for
insuring the safety of the vessel.
The Panama Canal is the only place
in the world where, in accordance with
applicable regulations, the pilot who
I - "n._ I
Going up ... or down ... a ship's ladder is all part of a day's work for Panama Canal pilot.
The Panama Canal is the only place in the world where, in accordance with applicable
regulations, the pilot who boards a vessel in Canal waters assumes full responsibility for
the movement and navigation of the vessel.
boards a vessel in Panama Canal waters
assumes full responsibility for the move-
ment and navigation of the vessel.
With the increase in size of vessels since
World War II, the work of the Panama
Canal pilot has become an even more
Panama Canal pilots have a tremend-
ous sense of pride in their job, know
they have to perform at peak, and have
a deep interest in the Canal operation.
One of the proud possessions of the
Panama Canal is a scroll dated 1943,
at a prisoner of war camp at Marlag
and Milag Nord, Germany, which states
that the Master Mariners who affixed
their signatures to the scroll have, "dur-
ing enforced leisure in Germany, held
many discussions on the subject of the
world's greatest engineering achieve-
ments and unanimously agree that the
Panama Canal . is one of the great-
est." In addition, the scroll says, the
Master Mariners agreed that this is the
most efficient organization of its kind
and they placed on record their appre-
ciation and gratitude to the Panama
Canal pilots for their efficiency, cour-
tesy, and reliability in providing a safe
and swift passage through this strategic
Panama Canal pilots represent many
areas of the United States and their
wives, one pilot pointed out, could make
up a small United Nations. Four of the
pilots brought Japanese wives to the
Zone and many, in his or her own
way, make a significant contribution to
Nearly all the Panama Canal pilots
are family men. One of the advantages
of holding a pilot position in the Canal
Zone is that they are able to live
ashore with their families and see their
Schooling, although thousands of
miles from continental United States,
is no problem. The Canal Zone has
an excellent school system, from kinder-
garten through Canal Zone College.
Pilots may live in Panama City if they
wish, and there they may choose from
any number of attractive single homes
or apartments. In the Canal Zone newly
arriving employees may expect to start
their residence in the older type houses,
because assignment to housing is made
on the basis of seniority of service with
the Canal organization. New employees
generally are assigned off-the-ground
frame houses built between 1935 and
1943. Some of these contain four apart-
ments and others 12 apartments.
Most Panama Canal pilots are pro-
fessional sea-going men. Some attended
academies directly after completing
high school, and then went to sea.
Others went to sea, in the fo'c'sle, as
seamen and progressed to deck officer
The Canal Zone is particularly con-
ducive to developing hobbies, or to
carrying out a pet hobby. Usually when
a pilot takes up a hobby he excels in it.
Panama Canal pilots hold trophies as
champion marksmen. There are pilots
who have studied art and are engrav-
ers; pilots who are qualified as divers;
pilots who were salvage masters before
they came to work as apprentice pilots;
pilots who have distinguished them-
selves for community service as ham
radio operators; and pilots who have
piloted planes, and still do. Of the lat-
ter, Capt. Irving G. Hay treasures his
plane pilot license as signed by Orville
Wright. Captain Hay was a commercial
pilot in the pioneering days and at one
time was with an airline in Peru. Pilots
in the early Canal days even gave auto
drivers' tests. The theory then was, ap-
parently, that if a man could operate
a ship, he certainly could drive a car.
Pilots on a busman's holiday build
boats. They may be seen on the beauti-
ful golf courses of the Isthmus, when
their work schedules permit, and they
are expert at refinishing furniture and
helping add the special touches that
make their living quarters more attrac-
tive. A number of pilots are authorities
as collectors, from antique guns to coins,
and are active in fraternal and com-
munity life. For 9 years the Panama
Canal pilots sponsored two Sea Scout
ships but for lack of time, when the
Panama Canal transit operation went
on a 24-hour day, turned ships and
treasury over to the Navy.
The Panama Canal pilots have their
own Canal Zone Pilots Association,
Local 30 of the International Organiza-
tion of Masters, Mates and Pilots, char-
tered in 1920. The original Panama
Canal Pilots Association was organized
50 years ago in 1916. The purpose of
the association is the improvement of
economic status of members, and eleva-
tion of their professional standing. The
association supports all measures that
have for their objective the upbuilding
of the profession, promotes advanta-
geous legislation and work rules and
regulations favorable to the pilots.
The Canal pilots have their own
blood bank, own legal assistance for the
association, and their consideration ex-
tends even to having a portable tele-
vision set at each terminal of the Isth-
mus for use of the pilot or member of
his family who may be hospitalized.
The Panama Canal pilots, highly
skilled, well-trained intensely profes-
sional men, have a record of safety un-
surpassed anywhere in the maritime
world. The basic reasons for this are
(See p. 8)
A Panama Canal pilot at home: Capt. Theodore F. Jablonski centerr) holds Kathleen, who was 2 years of age on September 18. At
left is Mrs. Jablonski and at right is Mary Lou, 5. Seated, in front, from left: Stephen Douglas, 6; Michael, 4; and Brian who was 3 on
July 22. Stephen is enrolled in the second grade at St. Mary's Parochial School and Mary Lou started classes there when school opened
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
High for PC Pilots
(Continued from p. 7)
the high qualifications and excellent
caliber of men selected for pilots-in-
Qualifications for the job of Panama
Canal pilot always have been high.
From the day the Panama Canal was
opened in 1914, qualifications were
rigidly set. A pilot candidate was re-
quired to hold a U.S. Coast Guard
master's license as "Master of any
ship, any tonnage, on any ocean," have
7% years' deck officer duty prior to his
35th birthday and experience aboard
a maritime ship for 1 year as master.
In recent years the Panama Canal orga-
nization amended these qualifications.
Today a U.S. Coast Guard master's li-
cense is required, but only 1 year of
service on ship as chief mate and no
experience as master, although master's
experience is still desirable. The min-
imum requirements for a Panama Canal
pilot today are that he will not have
reached his 40th birthday at the time
of employment as pilot-in-training by
the Canal organization. He must hold
a license issued by the U.S. Coast
Guard as master of steam or motor
vessels, anv gross tons, any ocean,
and have served at least 6 months
as chief mate (or master) of ocean,
steam or motor vessels of 1,000 gross
tons or over. Prior to receiving his
license as pilot, he must pass prescribed
examinations. Upon successful comple-
tion of a 19-month formal training pe-
riod and examinations, he is presented
an unrestricted license as pilot, Panama
Canal, and promotion to the pay grade
of Pilot, Qualified, Step 1. The most
significant change is the establishment
of two limited license levels of experi-
ence between pilot-in-training and pilot-
A pilot-in-training is paid approxi-
mately $12,000 annually for a minimum
of 4 months.
A pilot is paid $15,617. After 3 years'
service, through periodic step increases
he receives $17,915.70. Top salary is
For piloting in excess of 40 hours a
week, they receive time and one-half
as overtime and additional compensa-
tion for work at night, on Sundays and
Many years of training and tradition
are behind the Panama Canal pilots.
In four families in the Canal Zone a
son followed in his pilot father's foot-
steps. The Panama Canal's second
generation pilots are Capt. Sidney W.
Peterson, son of Capt. W. Z. H. Peter-
son; Capt. T. C. Makibbin, son of Capt.
H. S. Makibbin; Capt. J. L. McDaniel,
son of Capt. A. R. McDaniel; and Capt.
John J. Connard, Jr., son of Capt. John J.
Connard. In the latter family, an uncle,
Thomas Connard, also was a Panama
Besides the father-son pilot combina-
tions, the Canal roster also has identical
twin pilots, Capt. Albert L. Wilder and
Capt. Arthur T. Wilder.
CAPT. R. J. WESLEY
President of the International Organization
of Masters, Mates, and Pilots, Local 30.
CAPT. IRVING G. HAY
Whose license as plane pilot was signed by Orville Wright, was a commercial pilot in the
pioneer days of aviation.
50 Years c4go
NEW RECORDS for passage through
the Canal were set in December, 1916,
when the steamship Balboa made the
transit in a total of 6 hours and 25
minutes. The vessel entered from the
Pacific at 11:35 a.m. Sunday, Decem-
ber 3, and reached Cristobal at 6 p.m.
On the same day the vessel Cauca made
the transit in 7 hours and 9 minutes and
the San Juan in 8 hours and 5 minutes.
The Panama Canal Record remarked,
however, that all these ships were
relatively small and were the only
vessels going northbound on that day.
The largest motorship to use the
Panama Canal made the transit south-
bound December 22, 1916. She was
the George Washington of the Norway-
Pacific Line, operated by Fred Olsen,
which was under charter to the
U.S. Government to carry coal from
Norfolk to Tiburon. With a length of
445 feet and a 55-foot beam, she was
the largest motorship to use the Canal
up to that time. She was carrying, on
her first trip, 9,121 tons of coal.
As a result of the improved condi-
tion of the channel in the Cut. dredg-
ing on Sundays and holidays was dis-
continued beginning December 3, 1916,
according to the Panama Canal Record.
Continuous work, Sundays and holi-
days included, three shifts a day, had
been carried on steadily since June 1,
1915, when trouble with the east and
west Culebra slides became imminent.
25 year cago
FOLLOWING THE attack on Pearl
Harbor by the Japanese Navy on
December 7 and the U.S. declaration
of war, the Canal Zone went on a war
footing 25 years ago. In one of his first
press conferences, Lt. Gen. Frank M
Andrews said that immediate evacua-
tion from the Canal Zone of women,
children and non-essential males was
not being contemplated at present,
since it was felt generally that the war
situation did not warrant it.
The following day there was a report
that a Japanese fleet was sailing for the
Panama area and the first genuine air
raid warning was sounded. This proved
to be a case of mistaken identity. Zone
and Panama blackouts were pronounc-
ed a partial success. Citizens in the
Canal Zone began a series of civil de-
fense meetings to discuss air raids,
blackouts, volunteer work, and air raid
shelters. The U.S. Army issued rules
for censorship affecting letters, tele-
phone calls and conversation in public
places. The Superintendent of Store-
house and Oil Handling Plants issued
instructions to discontinue the sale of
tire casings and tubes for private
By December 13, the Governor of
the Canal Zone, Glen E. Edgerton, said
that there was no good reason to fear
an immediate attack on the Canal Zone.
The opportunity for a surprise attack
on the Panama Canal was gone, he said.
10 UearS c4go
BOTH TOLLS and traffic through the
Panama Canal during November 1956
were lower than for the previous
month but higher than the correspond-
ing month a year ago. The total of 654
oceangoing ships was 45 less than the
previous month and the decline was
blamed on the shipping strike which
paralyzed east coast and gulf ports
in the United States.
The billionth ton of cargo rode
through the Panama Canal December
12, 1956, stowed in the holds of the
U.S. flag steamship Edward Lucken-
bach. The milestone was marked by
one of the most festive transits in the
history of Canal operations. During
the 9 hours and 2 minutes the ship was
in Canal waters, the "billionth ton"
vessel received official tribute, salutes,
and cheers. It was one of the few occa-
sions in the waterway's history in which
all ships in Canal waters were invited
to dress ship.
Two 60-cycle generating units, the
first major powerplant units to be com-
pleted under the Panama Canal power
conversion project, were placed in
regular operation at the Gatun Hydro-
electric Station early in October 1956.
A third and fourth were to follow in
3 months. The completion of these
first generating units under three sep-
arate contracts, in addition to work
by the Panama Canal forces, was an-
other milestone in the extensive power
conversion program then in progress.
One Year c-go
WEATHER WAS being discussed as
usual 1 year ago in the Canal Zone.
For the first time in 13 months of un-
precedented dry weather, the Mete-
orological and Hydrographic Branch
issued a warning on November 12, that
spillway operations at Gatun and Mad-
den Lakes might become necessary at
any time. Heavy rains during the first
part of November brought the eleva-
tions of Gatun and Madden Lake to a
point where it might become necessary
to open the spillway gates.
As late as October 22, 1965, the
level of the two lakes was a matter of
concern to Panama Canal engineers.
Gatun Lake hovered around the 84.50
foot mark, approximately 2 feet
below its level at the same time the
vear before and nearly 3 feet below
maximum. Madden Lake stood at
232 feet, or more than 11 feet below
the previous year and 20 feet below
It may look old fashioned now, but in 1936 it was the latest thing in home economics.
It went by the title of "Foods Laboratory" and the girls pictured here were students at
Balboa High School, learning the domestic arts that they are practicing today as mothers,
cr maybe even as grandmothers.
TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Mosquito Hunters Stalk
Disease on the Wing
"HUNTERS" ARMED with weapons
resembling a Buck Rogers ray gun
recently began making twilight trips to
a rural Canal Zone area where game is
abundant and there's no bag limit.
The "hunters" are associated with
what is called the Club 22-14, taken
from the serial number of the railroad
utility pole marking the area, about
22 miles south of Colon near Darien.
Actually, they are not sportsmen
but serious-minded scientists collecting
specimens of mosquitoes, both the
disease vectors and the less harmful
but annoying pest varieties.
James P. MacLaren, chief of the
Sanitation Division, organizes the trips
to orient new personnel, military asso-
ciates and interested individuals. They
arrive at the chosen site about dusk
carrying vacuum suction guns that
collect mosquitoes as efficiently as a
vacuum cleaner picks lint from a carpet.
Some use the old mouth-held mosqui-
to aspirators, glass tubes with rubber
pipes for snapping up the mosquitoes.
A screen protects the collector from in-
haling the mosquitoes into his mouth.
MacLaren explains that these trips
allow him and his companions to ob-
serve and evaluate the jungle surround-
ings, especially the mosquito situation
by studying the density and species of
mosquitoes present. "At 6:30 there are
no mosquitoes," MacLaren says. "But
in 5 or 10 minutes they seem to rise out
of the jungle" in great quantities.
"Any individual who remains in a
mosquito-free townsite inside the Canal
Zone can't really know the mosquito
situation or be able to combat them
unless he goes outside, into the jungle,"
Club "members" wear heavy clothing
and use insect repellent to protect them-
selves against bites. Because of these
precautions, MacLaren discounts the
danger of contracting malaria as a result
of these field trips.
Mosquitoes are collected by the Sani-
tation Division also by means of light
traps and horse traps set in townsite
locations throughout the Canal Zone.
The insects are attracted to the traps
by the light or by a live horse, but once
inside thev can't find their way out.
Information derived from the various
collections is correlated with the time
of the year, temperature, humidity,
rainfall and other factors. This data is
plotted on mosquito indice graphs so
that corrective action, such as stepped
up spraying or issuing alerts, may be
The most striking pattern illustrated
by these graphs is that a greater mos-
quito density is noted during the rainy
season, May to December, when more
watery breeding grounds are available.
For example, the Northern Sanitation
Area, using light traps four nights
weekly reported catching a record high
of 23,601 mosquitoes in April 1963.
Normally a weekly catch is about 100.
This record was set at a time when the
Canal Zone, particularly the Atlantic
side, was invaded by Aedes taenior-
hynchus, a pest insect sometimes refer-
red to as the 25-mile mosquito because
of its flight range. Most mosquitoes are
not nearly as mobile and usually travel
less than a mile.
The Canal Zone's vast mosquito
eradication program was originated by
Dr. William C. Gorgas whose first hand
experience with yellow fever and ma-
laria in Cuba prepared him for his term
of duty during Canal construction days.
The ravages of these two diseases had
cost thousands of lives to the French in
their unsuccessful attempt to build the
Canal and later to the Americans. Until
Gorgas had absolute authority to launch
his all-out war against mosquitoes, the
death rate continued to mount.
Melvin Boreham, Division of Sanitation medical entomologist, picks off
gun, from the arm of Claude Allen, Division of Sanitation Inspector,
mosquitoes with his
during Club 22-14
The results of his tremendous cam- measures, in and around Canal Zone disease vectors and such pests as mos-
paign to wipe out the insects and their townsites, the jungle populations would quitoes, cockroaches, bats, snakes and
breeding places stand as testimony to move in. other unwanted creatures from the
his skill and determination. In 1906 These populations would include nearby tropical environment.
there were 821 cases of malaria per
1,000 employees; in 1913, thanks to
Gorgas, there were only 76 per 1,000.
The scope of the Sanitation Division
program is broad and the cost is high
($450,000 in 1966), almost 90 percent
of which goes for personnel. The Canal
Zone's remarkably low level of mosquito
and general insect population despite
the ideal natural conditions has earned
recognition from afar.
City managers and other officials of
local governments in the United States
frequently request the Division of Sani-
tation to send informational help to
solve their mosquito problems. The
concise, factual replies do not include
broad information covering what must
be done continuously here to inhibit the
growth of the insect population.
Drainage ditches must be maintained,
swamps sprayed with larvicide, DDT
and keresone, harboring places cleared
of underbrush, insecticidal fogging and
insecticidal residual applications carried
out. Blood smears are taken regularly
from all land licensees in the Canal
Zone. Countless other tasks must be
Medical entomologist Melvin Boreham of the Division of Sanitation demonstrates the highly
If these were neglected or curtailed, efficient mosquito gun used to collect specimens. Developed in California by Richard C.
the menace of yellow fever and malaria Husbands and Jim Holten of the Bureau of Vector Control, California Department of Public
would again sweep the Canal Zone. Health, the gun is a portable vacuum device that sucks the insects into a detachable tube.
Using this method, the scientist can pick mosquitoes off himself as he would pieces of lint
Without the appropriate maintenance from his clothing.
AIO5ES TAENIORHNCHY .
Weekly Mosquito Indices
Northern Sanitation Area
4 IGHTS WEEKLY
Weekly Mosquito Indices
Southern Sanitation Area
4 NIGHTS WEEKLY
A I 1v 0 T
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SIPT OCT NOV DtC
Two simplified versions of mosquito indices charted by the Sanitation Division. The graph on the left covering the Northern Sanitation
Area on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus shows a sharp rise in the total mosquito count in April 1963 when there was a record high influx of
Aedes taeniorhynchus, a pest insect nicknamed the 25-mile mosquito because of its flight range. The graph to the right shows the Southern
Sanitation Area, on the Pacific side, during the same year. The high in the Southern District was in June when the weekly count rose to
1,000 compared with the Northern District's April high of 23,601. The more comprehensive charts of the Sanitation Division include such
items as humidity, temperature and disease vectors as well as total mosquito count.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
WITH A burgeoning national merchant
fleet that is already one of the world's
largest, it follows that Japan must
provide vast, up-to-date port facilities
to accommodate the vessels and their
Tokyo, having a population of 10
million and a multitude of growing
industries, is the country's leading pro-
ducing and consuming center. And as
an "import excess" port handles more
than 25 million tons of cargo each year,
the larger part of which is consumer
To meet the challenge of the future,
the Port of Tokyo is in the midst of an
immense, 10-year construction plan that
began in 1961 and will cost approx-
imately a third of a billion dollars.
Financed chiefly from bond issues, the
Revised Port of Tokyo has two major
to create 22,400,000 square meters
of land reclaimed from the sea in order
to construct an international port pro-
vided with facilities capable of func-
tions three times those of the present
ones; and to realize a "redevelopment"
of the city in order to eliminate a traffic
jam and various other obstacles arising
from the city.
The Port of Tokyo will handle up to
47.5 million tons of cargo annually after
the ambitious plan is completed.
Overall responsibility of the Port of
Tokyo is that of the Tokyo Metropolitan
Government but the Bureau of Port
and Harbor is the organization that
administers these affairs through its
1,100-member staff serving 5 divisions,
2 branches and 22 separate sections.
Some of the functions of the admin-
istrators of the port are: designation of
berths; provision of tugboats and water
supply; cleaning the port area; admin-
istration and management of mooring
facilities, cranes, public sheds, stevedor-
ing offices and stevedoring equipment
installations and of welfare facilities.
The port is located at the farthest
end of Tokyo Bay in about the central
part of the Japanese archipelago at the
eastern tip of the Pacific belt zone.
A view of just one part of the Port of Tokyo. Note procession of ships at top of photograph.
The steamer lane runs for more than
3.75 miles with a waterway 665 feet
wide and 32 feet deep, extending into
the port from the Tokyo light boat sta-
tioned some 12 nautical miles off the
Port of Yokohama. Shore facilities con-
sist of 6 wharves equipped to accom-
modate two 20,000-GT class passenger
ships and 10,000 D\VT-class ships with
modern stevedoring facilities, port sheds,
port railway freight lines, roads, timber
basins and shipyards. Towing, water
supply, piloting, ship passage and com-
munication services are carried on by
the Port of Tokyo.
Five minutes by car from the
Ginza, Tokyo's leading shopping center,
is Harumi Wharf, a foreign trade
wharf capable of handling two 20,000-
GT class cargo-passenger ships, eight
10,000-DWT class ships and one 2,000-
DWT class vessel.
The wharf is divided into public
sundries and exclusive purpose special
goods. The sundry goods berth boasts
eight 5-ton traveling cranes, sheds and
warehouses while the exclusive purpose
berth is used for unloading wheat,
marine products and cement. Behind
the berths are modern factories where
wheat is made into flour and processed
marine products are frozen and stored.
The Toyosu Wharf, diagonally oppo-
site the Harumi Wharf, handles the
landing of coal, iron-steel products,
heavy oil, liquefied gas and similar
materials. Here there are modern steve-
doring facilities, including four bridge
type cranes for landing coal, four other
cranes exclusively for landing iron and
steel and special cranes and movable
conveyors for the gas and power plants.
The nucleous of domestic trade in
sundry goods is formed by Takeshiba,
Hinode and Shibaura, the first wharves
built in the Port of Tokyo. Takeshiba
Wharf is used also as a berth for steam-
ers plying between Tokyo, Oshima,
Mivake and Hachijo Island. These
wharves can accommodate 15 3,000-
6,000 ton ships simultaneously for
More than 40 percent of Japan's
imports of timber and lumber-from
the Philippines, North Borneo, the
United States and other countries-
passes through the Port of Tokyo and
is the fourth largest of all goods handled
At the Shinagawa Wharf a foreign
trade pier is being built following the
construction of a domestic trade quay.
The plans call for 3 berths of 6,000 tons
of domestic trade goods and 6 berths
for 15,000 tons of foreign trade goods.
Japan's oldest shipyard, also at the
Port of Tokyo, has a capacity for repair-
ing more than a million GT of ships
and for building 130,000 GT of ships
Japan leads the world both in the
registry and building of the new
giant ships-those of 100,000-DWT and
above. One of these is the Tokyo Mlaru,
a huge tanker of 150,000-DWT which
is so highly automated that she needs
a crew of only 29 men. Another new
giant to slide down the ways recently
was the Idemitsu Maru, an even larger
tanker of 205,000 deadweight tons.
The wheat wharf where stevedoring operations are being carried out. Wheat is sucked up
by pipe and sent into the silo at the extreme left.
The Central Wholesale Market and the shipyard where work is being carried out on the construction of a ship.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
CANAL ZONE residents are joining
the international migration to the
dreamy, dazzling world of underwater.
Skin diving, the passport to exploring
the deep, has come a long way from
the days when the only equipment con-
sisted of poorly fitting goggles. Aided
by fins, face mask and snorkel or air
tank, the diver can safely explore the
ocean in search of fish to spear, shells
to collect or just to sightsee in one of
man's beautiful last frontiers.
Documentary films and books, par-
ticularly those by French underwater
expert J. Y. Cousteau, and newly-
acquired technical knowledge have
touched off an explosion of underwater
interest. Periodicals dealing exclusively
with skindiving are read widely and
vast new industries are busy develop-
ing better paraphernalia for a growing
In the United States alone, there are
an estimated 8 million skin divers.
South and Central America, Asia, Africa
and Europe all have their great flocks
Here in Panama, with its two inviting
coastlines, skindiving has logically
"caught on." In the Canal Zone, where
many residents are for the first time
Offers Key to
living in the tropics, all water sports
are immensely popular.
Innumerable accidents, some of them
fatal, marred the early emergence of
skindiving as a sport. Imprudent begin-
ners cast caution aside and reached out
for every exhilaration the sport could
offer, regardless of the risk.
A mounting accident toll pointed
up the need for a responsible group to
take over teaching SCUBA (self con-
tained underwater breathing apparatus)
diving and free diving, which involves
use of fins and face mask with, or with-
out, a snorkel attachment for breathing
while the swimmer is just inches under
In 1956, the YMCA was selected as
the group to teach the sport and all the
safety precautions. The "Y," with its
pools and lake dotted camps, teaches
hundreds of persons a year to enjoy
diving with the utmost pleasure but
with a minimum of hazards. YMCA
SCUBA certificates are issued to those
who attend classes and complete
courses set up by the organization.
Because skindiving is popular year
round here, both teenagers and adults
can earn SCUBA certificates at Balboa,
unlike the usual practice of restricting
this to the adults while admitting the
young set only to free diving classes.
Instruction at the Balboa YMCA is
giving by Abelardo "Chico" de la Las-
tra, a nationally qualified instructor and
himself an alumnus of the "Y." The
25-hour course costs $30 and includes
provision of all needed equipment, a
trip to open water at the conclusion of
the course and cost of certification.
This program is a sport diving course
and does not include salvage work,
underwater welding and similar com-
mercial type activities. The novice
diver is taught diving physiology, chem-
istry of oxygen and how to avoid oxygen
NATIONAL N A A pO .
T. S,., 4t If I.(R-qI.ICE
"- "- "'..-.-- -- :
1 S f a
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. o MW..
Aspiring SCUBA divers listen intently to a lecture by instructor Chico de la Lastra, who himself is a graduate of the course offered at the
Balboa YMCA. Classroom instruction precedes practical experience in the swimming pool.
and carbon dioxide poisoning and
The latter, also known as "rapture of
the deep," is highly dangerous because
it gives the diver a drunken, lightheaded
feeling that may prompt him to discard
his face mask and be on the brink of
drowning without knowing or, in his
condition, even caring.
A trained diver free from acute sinus,
respiratory, ear or heart problems and
who complies with established safety
standards is unlikely to encounter diffi-
culties he can't handle. New students
must get physical check-ups before
enrolling in the course.
"They also have to know how to
swim . not like an expert but well
enough to be able to handle themselves
in deep water without SCUBA equip-
ment," Chico points out.
Much of the SCUBA training is
devoted to learning the characteristics
of underwater pressure. Some physi-
cians recommend a depth limit of 30
feet for beginning skin divers, 100 feet
for SCUBA divers after adequate train-
ing and a maximum of 130 feet for ex-
pert SCUBA divers. The duration of
submersion and the speed of ascent as
well as depth are factors that must be
taken into consideration. Pressure in-
creases by one atmosphere every 33 feet
Buddy breathing-two persons using
only one air tank-hand signals, recov-
ery work, search patterns and consider-
able theory are covered in this safety-
emphasized course. Use of various types
of spear guns, masks and other equip-
ment is explained. Chico says he also
teaches his charges "what to avoid
when diving; fire coral, for example,
can give you a painful sting if you
should brush against it."
Mobile marine life-sharks, barracuda
and moray eels-is of a great, perhaps
undue, concern to novice divers. In his
book, "Basic SCUBA," Fred M. Roberts
says: "All potentially dangerous marine
life should be kept under surveillance
when you find yourself with them. Look
for trouble and you may find it.'" Many
experienced SCUBA divers contend that
most marine life is not dangerous unless
The course entails considerable swim-
ming to acquaint the student with prop-
er kick techniques using fins. De la
Lastra throws in self-devised drills to
develop well qualified SCUBA divers.
For example, to instill confidence in
themselves, he sends them to the bot-
tom of the training pool and has them
(See p. 16)
Underwater photographer Tony Mann, chief of the Panama Canal's Civil Engineering Branch,
looks at the birdie while another SCUBA diver snaps his picture.
Mrs. Anna Mann reaches down for a brain coral to add to her extensive collection.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Club Outings Part
Of Local Diving Fun
(Continued from p. 15)
take off their fins, air tank, face mask
and air hose. They surface for a gulp
of air and return to the bottom to don
the equipment underwater.
In a "black water diving" exercise,
he gives them face masks with black
painted, opaque glass to discourage div-
ing in murky waters which can create
dangers not present when visibility
Some students are slower than others
adapting to breathing underwater. The
regulator, the heart of any SCUBA out-
fit, provides air only on demand, when
the user inhales through the rubber
mouthpiece. An occasional beginner
must pinch his nose to force himself to
breathe through the mouth until he
becomes acclimated to the system.
Upon successful completion of the
course, the newly-qualified SCUBA
diver can join the Balboa Diving Club
which is registered with the National
Council of YMCA's, Skin Diver Maga-
,---: -m:. ::
zine and Universal-International Skin
Members of the club carry on more
advanced phases of open water diving
from the Sea Scout ship Argonaut, a
56-footer that club members use for
about three trips a month, two for local
diving excursions within 25 miles of
Balboa. Once a month they go further
out to such places as the Las Perlas
Islands for overnight trips, returning
with baskets of fish and lobster.
The past April, the Balboa Diving
Club and the Club de Pesca Submarina
of Panama City co-sponsored a spear
fishing tournament that attracted a large
turnout. Participants landed some out-
standing gamesters but the competitors
were limited to free diving. Another
tourney is scheduled for this year.
The basic equipment for the SCUBA
diver including face mask, regulator,
air tank, fins and knife can be purchased
for about $115. Wet suits, more elab-
orate gear and such accessories as under-
Down and under. A diver goes below with
his face mask, air tank strapped to his back
and fins on his feet. It looks like he left his
spear gun behind . but maybe this time
he just wanted to explore.
water cameras can run into several
hundreds of dollars for the diver with
the funds and inclination.
Between dives, spearfishermen ready their gear for the next
A satisfied SCUBA diver emerges from the water after spearing
himself a fair sized catch.
(Continued from p. 4)
ed and old age assistance increased.
There were 4,000 non-U.S. citizens
who left Canal service before there
were laws to give them retirement
benefits. In 1962, CARE food allot-
ments were started for this group.
The Governor set up a recreation
council and appointed a special services
officer to manage new boat ramps
and picnic areas, and he brought
Summit Gardens into its own as a Canal
Out of concern for workers' health,
the Industrial Health Program was
started under the Division of Preven-
tive Medicine and Quarantine. It
works through inspections, tests, con-
ferences, and meetings with em-
ployees. The Governor also established
the Division of Mental Health under the
Health Bureau, bringing together for
maximum use the services and resources
of both Gorgas and Corozal Hospitals.
Under Governor Fleming, the Police
Force was expanded, gained in mobil-
ity, and improved communications.
Panamanian policemen were hired
under a new program and there are
many now on the force. Fire protec-
tion increased, too, as more companies
were formed and nearly all the old
To meet the increase in school
enrollment, new teachers were hired
and a school plant expansion program
carried out to provide more classrooms.
"When I got here the Canal discour-
aged visitors," Governor Fleming had
said. His imprint is strong here-he
initiated the Guide Service and the
pavilions for visitors at Miraflores and
Gatun, and he introduced the popular
cruise boats Las Cruces and Reina Ma-
nuelita. Mancha and Gato, the burritos
that small fry love to ride, were
given to the children of the Isthmus by
the Governor and former Ambassador
When the Panama Canal observed
its 50th Anniversary in 1964, Governor
Fleming hosted a luncheon for former
governors, Panama and Canal Zone
officials. He canceled the first stamps
of a special issue commemorating the
event and presented to dignitaries
copies of the 50th Anniversary book
published to coincide with the occa-
sion. A silver 50th Anniversary medal-
Mrs. Fleming accepts a bouquet of roses from a member of the Canal Zone Girl Scouts
of which she was Honorary President. The Canal Zone's First Lady took an active part in
various projects and gave her patronage to several others during her 5 years here.
lion was struck to mark the historic date.
Oldtimers were invited, and honor-
ed with the dedication of a plaque
imbedded in a rock monument unveiled
in front of the Administration Building.
Governor Fleming cast the mold for
the present Information Office organi-
zation. He guided establishment of the
weekly Spillway, and news output was
accelerated. Public relations functions
were expanded and to aid visitors there
are even points of interest signs posted
throughout the Canal Zone, another of
During his 5-year administration, the
payroll jumped from $60 to $83 million.
Labor cost increases pushed up the bill
for housing maintenance but much of
this was absorbed, causing only mod-
erate rent increases. Food prices, close
to everyone's thoughts, were put on a
base that ties Canal Zone prices to those
charged in New Orleans supermarkets.
Under this arrangement, the housewife
was assured of some price stability.
And over the years, Governor
Fleming welcomed hundreds of offi-
cials, diplomats, journalists, and VIPs
from a hundred countries. He partic-
ipated in numerous ceremonies, gave
countless talks and speeches, and
traveled to and from the States many
times. Still, he kept pace with a heavy
schedule of official functions.
Governor Fleming has been both
inquisitive and well informed. He look-
ed problems in the eye and was most
pleased when. he was getting them
solved, because most of all, he was a
man who got results, a man of action.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Philippine --_ .
South Korean--- .
All Others.___-- __
Number Tons Number
of of of
transits cargo transits
12 66,634 20
311 2,057,509 311
34 210,418 33
25 163,192 39
63 121,622 63
103 680,050 98
24 24,235 10
63 183,469 61
277 968,599 294
124 1,300,840 113
51 32,768 24
24 111,971 17
57 338,534 48
216 1,720,154 196
315 3,887,428 320
115 471,917 148
18 25,791 22
394 3,661,013 357
92 359,976 147
35 160,330 33
24 118,089 24
12 64,037 1
10 78,350 14
125 819,505 114
16 29,748 19
395 2,304,565 393
42 294,776 54
2,977 20,255,520 2,973
transits of cargo
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Month Avg. No.
1967 1966 Transits
July -------------_ 1,039 993 960
August_------------- 1,008 983 949
September----------- 988 977 908
October------------- 1,005 1,034 946
November----------- 985 990 922
December----------- 987 949 946
January -----------1,001 903
February __--------- _ 896 868
March -------- _-- 1,060 1,014
April ____---- ------_ ---- 989 966
May ------_---------__ 1,043 999
June---------------- ------ 1,011 954
fiscal year ..---__ 6,012 11,926 11,335
* Before deduction of any operating expenses.
(In thousands of dollars)
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
SSecond quarter, fiscal year-
United States Intercoastal ..... _. .
East coast of United States and South America---
East coast of United States and Central America--------
East coast of United States and Far East- ----------
East coast United States/Canada and Australasia -----.
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada--------.
Europe and South America---------------------
Europe and Australasia -_______ ______________
All other routes--_________- ___.. _________________
Total traffic--- -----------___________
New Type of
RECENTLY THE Japanese shipbuild-
ing firm of Nippon Kokan Kabushiki
Kaisha (the Japan Steel & Tube Com-
pany) announced completion of a new
standard cargo ship design which it
says will take advantage of the Panama
Canal size limits.
The latest design in standard bulk
carriers is to be known as the Panamax
and will be a 65,000 to 69,000 dead-
weight-ton vessel with a maximum
beam of 106 feet. Actually, the Pan-
amax will have a 105.9 foot beam and
a length of 774 feet, a size which the
shipbuilding company thinks will per-
mit the lowest ton-mile costs of any ship
allowed to pass through the Canal.
Other design statistics announced
by the company are 7 cargo holds,
as compared with 5 or 6 for the
more conventional bulk carriers. This
arrangement, the company said, was
selected because it offered improved
trim and stability conditions, the more
even distribution of cargo making less
demand on the longitudinal strength
of the vessel.
Automation systems have been wide-
ly adopted to permit its operation by
11 officers and 23 other personnel. The
minimum crew is made possible by use
of mooring appliances, automatic bilge
and ballast water handling, tempera-
ture controls, oil purification, and air
compressors. All the living quarters are
to le air-conditioned.
The Panamax is designed to carry
bulk cargoes of coal, grain or iron ore.
To provide self-trimming characteris-
tics, the ship has continuous topside
ballast tanks or void spaces throughout
the cargo spaces under the upper deck,
port, and starboard. Topside tanks are
so constructed as to eliminate the need
for grain shifting boards when the holds
arc filled to capacity with loose grain
No price has been quoted for the
Panamax, according to the Fairplay
Shipping Journal. But bulk carriers of
about the same deadweight tonnage
have been ordered in Japan in the past
year at about $6 million.
No ship officially of the Panamax
class has used the Panama Canal so
far but a number of vessels this size
and larger have passed through the
waterway in the past few years. The
largest was the Japanese-built Melodic,
which made her first transit in Novem-
ber 1966. Her length of 845.8 feet and
beam of 105.85 feet made her one of
the largest customers, although the old
German passenger vessel Bremen, with
a length of 936.8 feet, still holds the
record for the longest ship to transit
During the calendar year 1966,
58 transits were made by ships with
beams measuring 104 feet or more,
compared with 15 for the previous year.
There were 131 transits by ships with
beams measuring from 100 to 103.9
feet, an increase of 16 over the previous
year. All transits by ships in 1966 with
beams of more than 80 feet totaled
1,130, compared with only 958 in 1965.
Despite the increase in traffic from
33.6 to 35.1 ships per day and the
steady increase in the size of ships,
official figures show that the time spent
by vessels in Canal waters during calen-
dar year 1966 was reduced to 13.8
hours, from the 15.6 hours of 1965.
The Panama Canal reported recently
that the transit average is expected to
increase by another ship a day or to 36
during the present calendar year, while
time spent in Canal Zone waters will
be reduced to about 13 hours. Large
ship transits can be expected to con-
tinue increasing at the same rate since
there are many more 104- and 106-foot
beam ships coming off the ways this
year and the number of transits in this
category may well reach two a week.
Meanwhile, another broad-beam type
of cargo vessel being designed for the
U.S. gulf ports and European trade-
one which will be able to use the
Panama Canal-is being planned by
Lykes Brothers Steamship Co. Inc. of
It is a giant oceangoing barge carrier,
875 feet long and with a beam of 106
feet. This type of vessel could revolu-
tionize commercial freighter transpor-
tation and at the same time provide the
United States with an adaptable cargo
carrier for instant military use.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 1966 5-Yr. Avg.
Ores, various----------- ---- 1,422,663 1,896,804 1,827,470
Lumber------------------------------- 792,459 1,169,405 917,257
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ... 208,968 432,585 533,748
Molasses--------------------------- 203,347 91,737 47,702
Sugar---------------------------------- 463,471 573,956 541,267
Canned food products-------- --------- 217,819 226,980 263,845
Nitrate of soda--------------------------- 120,673 182,822 157,654
Coffee------------------------------ 90,694 99,213 103,149
Bananas ------------------------- 300,527 326,770 291,123
Metals, various --------- ---------- 311,987 292,927 291,740
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)------------------------------- 232,633 230,002 198,438
Pulpwood ---------------------- -- 151,303 127,661 119,233
Chemicals, unclassified------------------ 81,860 64,950 44,617
Iron and steel manufactures----------------. 856,162 781,087 257,627
Fishmeal--------------------------- 290,632 111,535 N.A.
All others------------------------------- 1,695,922 2,311,693 1,944,968
Total ------------------- 7,441,120 8,920,127 7,539,838
Atlantic to Pacific
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity 5-Yr. Avg.
1967 1966 -
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) -___ 3,441,944 3,510,522 2,636,007
Coal and coke ----------------------- 2,093,692 1,610,018 1,403,636
Phosphates ------- -------- 940,131 986,684 548,653
Soybeans ------------------------- 665,690 724,866 455,708
Iron and steel manufactures ---__------- --496,701 349,261 373,533
Corn --------------------------- 462,750 668,776 337,509
Ores, various_------ 274,989 484,453 77,317
Metal (scrap) -------------------- 880,515 260,845 715,256
Paper and paper products ---------- 201,929 131,217 117,455
Chemicals, unclassified -- ------------- 237,797 230,426 157,413
Wheat ----------------------------- 523,593 270,067 156,103
Sugar -------------------------------- -- 120,446 112,861 148,570
Sulphur----------------------------- 153,007 96,571 95,218
Machinery--------------------- ---119,370 116,182 109,548
Automobiles and accessories ---------- 137,534 118,523 87,721
All others---------------------------- 2,064,312 2,005,535 1,688,610
Total --------- ----- 12,814,400 11,676,807 9,108,257
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Atlantic I Pacific I
U.S. Government vessels: 0**
Oceangoing ----- -- 159 50 209 139 67
Small ------------------------- 14 13 27 35 44
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment c--S---- 1,743 1,590 3,333 3,273 3,065
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
Talbert S. Spence
Bindery and Finish Worker
Sydney D. Lovell
Lithographic Pressman, 22 x 29 and
Adolphus M. Ricketts
Edward V. Robinson
Ahon E. Jones
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Walter G. 14e '
Chief -- r Fi, 0 t It ,
Le R II r
SUPPI A. rD ''
Anita A. Burke
Luciano C. D. Sablo
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Walter A. Amantine
Percival G. Piggott
Physical Therapy Assistant
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR
Floyd R. Johnson
Management Analysis Officer
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
E. A. M. Operator
Gordon M. Frick
Deputy Personnel Director (Operations)
Huntley F. Mignott
Howard L. Clarke, Jr.
General Foreman Rigger
Cardinal A. Powlett
Helper Lock Operato
Joseph A. Sargeant
Fitz R. Spooner
Motor Launch Captain
Helper Lock Operator
George J. Kredell 3
Helper Lock Operator
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Leopold V. Dutton
Herbert C. McKesey
Samuel A. Palmer
Raymond M. Schneider
Sugar cane, a product that gives the economy of the Republic of Panama a lift, is getting a
lift into a grinder in one of the many areas where the product is processed. It is turned into
sugar for tables over the Republic and in the United States, and it is also made into rum.
Jos6 M. HernAndez
Raymond D. Parker
Kenneth E. Sealey
School Bus Driver
Sidney G. Smith
Sydney O. Smith
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Sydney O. Cook
Alfred L. Grimes
Service te Manager
vy R. Fergu n
Sales Sec n ead
Sales Sto hecker
ENG ERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Bernard J. Brown
Supervisory Civil Engineer
Franklin H. Donickle
Ralph J. Flemming
Thomas B. Idol
Mortimer H. Jordan
Supervisory Procurement Clerk-Typing
Scott J. McKay
Electrical Equipment Repairman
Clarence E. Holder
Whitfield E. Riley
Jasper H. Failey
Frank A. McIntosh
Rex M. Sealey
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
A. H. Boxswill
David C. Rose
Postmaster-First Class Office
Pal, D. Richmond
Paul W. Morgan
Supervisory Medical Radiology
Wilbert O. Gittens
Harold W. Griffin
Splendor Ignites Corrida
(Continued from p. 5)
to the box of the municipal president
to whom they pay their respects. He
serves as a representative of the mayor
and because he acts as a judge or referee
usually is a person well versed in bull-
fighting. The participants then take
their respective positions and prepare
for the start of action.
A loud roar from the crowd can be
heard as the first bull, with ribbons of
his farm colors pinned to his back, bolts
through the door into the arena. The
spectators assay his size and ferocity.
The bullfight is on. The moment he
enters the ring, the torero's assistants
cape the bull with one hand so
the matador can observe charging
style, tendencies to hook in any one
direction and other immensely impor-
This is all included in the first
of three parts, tercios. In this first
part-Tercio de Varas-the torero per-
forms the initial passes, usually the
basic veronicas which are the most pop-
ular moves. Swinging his cape slowly
away from the bull while he keeps his
feet in one position, the matador calls
to him and by graceful hand move-
ments, he draws the bull into the
position he wants.
Entrance into the ring next is made
by the picadores, wearing broad-rim-
med, low crowned beige hats, simple
jackets and waistcoats. Also, they have
hip to ankle armor of steel on the right
side and knee length on the left leg.
Their mounts are padded heavily on
the right side to protect them from
charges by the bull. Using long piked
poles the picadores fend off the attack-
ing toro which may upend the horse and
unseat the rider. By placing the pikes
into the bull's back, they weaken the
neck and shoulder muscles and put the
bull into position for the matador.
The three matadores vie in the
quitee" or passes, taking turns accord-
ing to seniority to draw the bull away
from the horses. These quites give the
matador an opportunity to display his
ability with the capote, the large red
work cape. This color is used because
it adds to the splendor of the occasion.
All cattle are color blind.
The second tercio is the Tercio de
Banderilla, when banderilleros, assist-
ants on foot, plant three pairs of color-
fully decorated and barbed staves-
banderillas-into the bull's shoulders
near the neck. The purpose is to correct
defects of the charge or to observe the
bull's charging style.
Placing the banderillas requires both
dexterity and courage. The banderille-
ros attract the bull's attention with
gestures and shouts from about 20 yards
away. As the animal charges, the bande-
rillero sprints toward him but slightly
to one side, planting the staves and
deftly spinning clear of the horns.
Next, the piercing sound of the coret
signals the final tercio, the Tercio de
Muerte, the most important part of the
program and the time when the matador
proves himself. First, though, he ap-
(See p. 22)
This is the start of the "Tercio de Varas" during a corrida in la Plaza La Macarena in Panama City. Using his work cape, a torero approaches
the bull while a picador, mounted on his padded horse, approaches from the left of the photo.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 21)
pears before the president's box with
montera held aloft in his right hand
and muleta and sword in the left, ask-
ing for permission to dedicate the bull
to a friend, sweetheart or dignitary in
He performs several close passes with
the red muleta, a heart-shaped cloth
folded lengthwise over a staff: the
"derechazo," done with the muleta ex-
tended bv the sword; the "natural," the
matador thrusting the muleta with the
left hand and holding the sword in the
right. Some of the passes are graceful
and dangerous while others are for show
only and used sparingly to liven up
what may be a lackluster corrida.
When the "hour of truth" arrives, the
torero tries to make it swift. Urging the
muleta forward with the left hand,
causing the hull to lower his head, the
matador plunges the sword between the
If he has done well, the matador is
given wild applause and showered with
flowers as he circles the arena. He may
be awarded an ear for a good perform-
ance, two ears for an outstanding one
and if he has been magnificent, he may
be presented with the ultimate prize,
both ears and the tail, and sometimes
even a leg for his trophy room.
What happens to the bull's carcass?
It's usually given away to the poor or
sold. Bulls never are used for a second
corrida. Their memories are keen and
should one be used for a later corrida
he would not respond to the cloth but
would go directly to the man.
A disappointed crowd will berate the
matador without mercy. Cushions, fruit,
bottles and other litter may rain down
on him, particularly in cities where
aficionados are notoriously intolerant of
a mediocre or poor showing. Every mat-
ador, including the great Manolete and
Belmonte, must accept this burden of
But this is a minor irritant compared
with the danger of the horns which
virtually every matador feels during his
career. Belmonte, for example, was
gored more than 50 times during his
long span in the bullring.
Top flight matadores can retire young
with vast sums of money to raise fight-
ing bulls or to enter another business.
But frequently they are drawn back into
the ring, to recapture the spotlight or
for other nebulous reasons.
- Li C~
..- r. .. -
"i. 2 .
*-.'... A .--'" ..- - 1-. ...
". ,. .1 - . . -
C6sar Gir6n, the famous Venezuelan matador, executes a "pase de pecho" in la Plaza
S.-.. . A ....
~ - j.
r '; ~ .v. *. ,
Gir6n lifts his cape as the bull charges past during the third and final portion of a bullfight
in Panama City.
New Express Service
A NEW express service between the
U.S. east coast ports to the Far
East via the Panama Canal was
started last November by the Amer-
ican Export Isbrandtsen Lines, one
of the largest steamship companies
in the United States. These vessels,
in addition to the line's regular
round-the-world cargo ships, pass
through the Canal eastbound on an
average of once each month. They
are the line's most modern, high-
speed freighters and offer deep
tanks, refrigerated space and heavy
lift facilities. Scheduled transit time
from the last east coast port to the
first Japanese port is 3 weeks.
The Export Ambassador, which
inaugurated the passenger service,
sailed from New York November
27, and will be in monthly service
with her sistership Export Adven-
turer. Both are modern, completely
air-conditioned vessels built in 1960.
They provide superior accommoda-
tions for 12 passengers in outside
single and double cabins with pri-
C. B. Fenton, local agent for
American Export lsbrandtsen, says
that the ports of call on the east
coast in addition to New York in-
clude Baltimore, Norfolk, Philadel-
phia, Charleston, Savannah, and
Boston. In the Far East the prin-
cipal ports are Yokohama, Kobe,
Pusan, Inchon, Manila, Hong Kong,
and Keelung. Ships return from the
Far East via the Panama Canal
direct to U.S. east coast ports.
EIGHTEEN 70-TON diesel electric
locomotives en route from Newark
to Pusan, Korea, made up one of the
unusual cargoes carried through the
Panama Canal during recent months.
The engines, produced at the
Schenectady, N.Y., plant of Alco
PANAMA CANAL TR.
STATISTICS FOR SECOND
FISCAL YEAR 19
AFFIC to the Shipping Digest article, they
QUARTER are the first of 49 locomotives to be
Vessels) supplied by Alco to the Korean
1967 1966 National Railroad under a $6.5
2,977 2,973 million contract financed by AID.
U.S. Commercial 1,300,912
Total $ 19,579,230
U.S. Government 1,612,369
Free---- --- 166,894
Total __ 22,038,218
o Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.
Products, Inc., were deck cargo
aboard the Central Gulf Lines cargo
vessel Green Harbor. Officials of
the Alco Company said they thought
the 18 locomotives composed the
largest such shipment ever exported
aboard a single U.S. flag vessel.
Valued at approximately $2.5
million, the engines were protected
during their journey against salt
water corrosion by a sprayed-on
cocoon of vinyl material. According
Johnson Line Split
THE SWEDISH flag Johnson Line,
which has been in service between
Europe and the west coast of the
United States and South America
for nearly as long as the Panama
Canal has been open to the traffic,
recently split its Pacific Coast-Euro-
pean service into two operations.
One became a North Pacific service
between the Pacific coast and Europe
and the other a West Indies, Cen-
tral America service from the west
coast of Central America and the
West Indies to Europe, with some
stops at northern South American
ports. The Central American service
will include calls at such Central
American west coast ports as Pun-
tares, San Juan del Sur, La Union,
Acajutla, and Champerico. It ex-
tends no further north than Mexico
and is designed to provide faster
service to Europe.
JULAUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
SH I PPI