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DLOC PCANAL



Panama Canal review
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00034
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publication Date: November 1966
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00034
Classification: lcc - HE2830.P2 P3
ddc - 386/.445
System ID: UF00097366:00034
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Main
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Back Matter
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/panamacanalrevienov16pana









PANAMA CANAL


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ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-Presid
H. R. PAPFrrr, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer


Subscriptions, $1


lent ROBERT D. K
Publical
MORGAN E. GOOD
Editor
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD,
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ, a
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.


About Our Cover


PHOTOGRAPHED AT THE ruins of the Cathedral of
O'ddim a and wearing the costumes which portray
the rich folklore of Panama are members of the conjunto
ftitthms of 'fnama, a dance group directed by Professor
Petita Escobar of Panama City.
Standing on top of the ruins are the "dirty devils,"
wearing trousers and shirts of rough muslin dyed red and
black, and terrifying masks with multi-colored feathers.
They hold castanets and inflated bull bladders which
they use as accompaniment to their dances. The dance
of the "dirty devils" originated from the colonial era and
still is seen at the religious festival of Corpus Christi in
the town of Los Santos. Brought to the Isthmus by the
Spaniards, it recalls the dances held in the Cathedral
of Sevilla.
The five masked men in the center are the "cucuas"
who live in the Code Mountains in central Panama. Their
costumes are made of the pounded bark of the cucuia
tree. The masks imitate deer heads; the whips they carry
mark the rhythm of the dance.
In the center, wearing dyed feathers on his head and
a silver eagle on his chest stands a Doraz Indian chief,
a haughty tribe that lived in the Chiriqui area and has
long been extinct.
Seated in the foreground are eight young women, also


wearing typical Indian dress. The two at either end are
wearing the dress of the guaymi Indians who inhabit the
high mountains of Veraguas and Chiriqui. Next to them
and the two in the center are cuna Indians from the
San Bias Islands, the tribe never conquered by the
Spanish and the members of which still live and dress
as they did before Columbus' discovery of America.
Between the San Bias Indians are two girls from the
rural area of Ocu. The women of that area, the most
central of Panama, in the cool lands of Herrera Province,
dress as their ancestors during the Spanish colonial days.
There has been no change in their dress since then; and
when tourists go to Ocu for the San Sebastian Fair,
January 20, they are transported to the days when the
Spanish hidalgos ruled on the Isthmus.
Lovely sefioritas wear the present typical costume of
Panama. Five at the extreme left wear the montuna, a
wide skirt of printed chintz with white embroidered
appliqued blouse, hatless or wearing the typical straw
hat, and generally barefoot. The others are wearing
Panama's national costume, the elegant and elaborate
pollera, which has won international acclaim.
In the center, majestically beautiful, is Miss Brenda
Arosemena wearing the colors and stars of the
Panama flag. (Photo courtesy of Kodak Panama Ltd.)


Ever since the opening of the Panama Canal more than 50 years ago, people have flocked to see this engineering marvel. Today, a staff
of trained, multi-lingual guides welcome visitors to the locks areas. These visitors pictured above, part of a Congressional party, were
not greeted by uniformed guides but obviously were fascinated by what they saw at Gatun Locks, March 13, 1925.


NOVEMBER 1966


-- -~


:ERR, Press Officer
tions Editors
'IN and TOMAS A. CUPAS
al Assistants
ToBI BITTEL, FANNIE P.
nd JOSE T. TUWON







It's Panama's


63d Birthday


AS OUR COLORFUL cover symbolizes, the Republic of
Panama is celebrating its 63d anniversary this month.
Panama's destiny began millions of years ago with the
formation of continents and oceans, the Isthmus becoming
part of the chain that united the great land masses of
North and South America.
The Isthmian territories came to serve as a pathway
for the multitudes of mules that transported Inca treas-
ures ultimately bound for Spain. Pirates and privateers
also were attracted to the Isthmus where they left
bloody footprints.
The men who settled the Isthmus decided November
28, 1821, to separate from Spain. Guided by General
Jos6 de Fibrega, the creoles-Spanish descendants born
here-then began calling themselves Panamanians, like
their native brothers.
Panamanians later realized that because of its unique
geographical assets, Panama deserved a place on the
maps of the commercial world. The January 1855 comple-
tion of the Panama Railroad-the first transcontinental
rail line of the Americas-strengthened this conviction.

Thousands of men of varied races and nationalities
crossed the Isthmus in wagons to share in the wealth of
gold that had been discovered in California. Ingots of
the precious metal were transported by the Panama Rail-
road and, for the first time, large ships of many flags
anchored off an Atlantic coast port that had not been
mentioned for centuries-the port of Chagres. The main
Atlantic port was later established a few miles away at
what today is Colon.

The Panamanians were prepared to become one of
the nations of the world November 3, 1903, when they
severed the ties that bound them to Colombia. Eleven
years later, the Panama Canal was opened to traffic,
benefiting commerce of the entire world.

In this anniversary of Panama's independence, THE
PA.AMA CANAL REVIEW salutes Panama, which has been
appropriately described as "the bridge of the world, the
heart of the universe."


Fort San Lorenzo__


Physician-Metallurgist


Governor's Driver _


Panama Museum___-


Anniversaries__ __


World Ports___-


Canal History---


Shipping Statistics


Shipping Trends __


Anglers' Retreat ___-


Shipping Notes _._


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


3ndex


S 20































.. ..

o..* ", ..y J -A... ., %,-' ^ 1 ..-...s,,.... ..... --.
... ,.. ,' .__ ., ......


Fort San Lorenzo as seen from the air today. It was built almost 4 centuries ago by the Spanish to guard the mouth of the Chagres River.
It was protected on 3 sides by sheer cliffs and on all 4 sides by cannon but it fell twice to invaders.



A New Look Being Given



To Old Fort San Lorenzo


A LONG awaited face lifting is being
carried out at historic Fort San Lorenzo,
built by the Spanish in 1597 at the
mouth of the Chagres River on the
Caribbean side of Panama.
Boy Scouts from Panama and the
Canal Zone plus Latin American stu-
dents at the U.S. Army School of the
Americas volunteer their time and
efforts to rehabilitate the fortress which
is situated on the Fort Sherman Military
Reservation.
Fort San Lorenzo, partially because
of its vital position, was the target of
sorties by pirates and enemy navies in
a turbulent era when privateering and
raiding were the leading sports in this
hemisphere. People like Drake, Morgan,
Hawkins, Blackbeard, Avery, Anne Bon-
nv, and Mary Read terrorized shipping
on the Spanish Main.
Spain's King Philip II saw the impor-
tance of a fort on the sheer cliff guard-


ing the mouth of the Chagres and com-
missioned Juan Bautista Antonelli to
carry out the project. Ships began to
use the port developed at the entrance
to the Chagres where small vessels
moved up river to the town of Cruces.
There they met the road which
took them to Panama via muleback
in 8 hours.
From the east side of the river mouth,
the fort commanded a sweeping view
of the sea and the abutting cliffs pre-
vented access except from the east. Here
a drawbridge above a 30 feet deep ditch
led to the single gateway. The defenses
included artillery guarding land and
sea approaches while stores of muni-
tions and food provided essentials to
withstand extended sieges.
For years, Fort San Lorenzo remained
unmolested while most ports in the
Caribbean, including others on the Isth-
mus, were attacked and pillaged or


were forced to win hard-earned victories
against the invaders.
Peace came to an end at the bastion
in December 1670 when buccaneer
Henry Morgan set up a plan to raid what
is now Old Panama. First, however, he
considered it necessary to take Fort San
Lorenzo and for this task delegated Col.
Joseph Bradley.
While Morgan and the balance of his
party remained at Santa Catarina Island,
Bradley departed with 4 ships and 400
men to attack the fort. The desperate
battle ended 1 day after it had started,
giving victory to the attackers despite
the determination of the defending
314-man garrison.
Only 30 men were found alive inside
the fort where, according to one account,
several Spaniards threw themselves into
the sea rather than ask for mercy. The
buccaneers lost 100 men and suffered
70 additional casualties, including Brad-


NOVEMBER 1966






ley, who died from a wound received
in the battle.
A few days after the victory, Morgan
and his main body of forces joined the --
others and together made their way to .
Panama. They reached the city in a "-.W
famished condition, having found little .
food on the way. Morgan captured
the city, left it in flames and returned
to Fort San Lorenzo with 600 pris-
oners and 175 pack animals laden .,
with plunder.
Old Panama residents abandoned the -
place and moved to the site of the. "
present city. Morgan next destroyed
Fort San Lorenzo, later rebuilt by
the Spaniards.
Before leaving, he doled out 200
pieces of eight to each of his men as
their share of the loot, but when the men
threatened mutiny over charges of being
short changed he slipped away one night
with a few ships and a small number
of trusted comrades.
While England and Spain were at
war in 1740, a British naval officer,
Admiral Edward Vernon, sailed into
Chagres Bay and bombarded the fort
until it surrendered. Vernon burned the
town of Chagres and blew up the fort
but in a few years it was again repaired
by the Spanish. Two sightseers explore the ruins of the old fortress where they show particular interest in
Merchant ships from Spain found the the artillery. Volunteers are building models for carriages to mount the old guns.
Caribbean too risky during the war with
England so as a result began using the
old, longer route around Cape Horn.
-.. The Caribbean ports remained almost
S-"s u .. .dormant.
S... For years afterwards the fort was
.-.. .used as a prison by the Spanish and later
by Colombia. The discovery of gold in
California pumped new life into Cha-
gres as thousands of miners crossed the
Isthmus over the 300-year-old Spanish
route-the Chagres River to Cruces and
from there to Panama via muleback.
The usefulness of Chagres ended
abruptly with the construction of the
trans-Isthmian, Panama Railroad in
the 1850's.
The area became part of the military
reservation of Fort Sherman in 1911
and the fort became overgrown with
vegetation. A radio listening post was
set tip at the fort in World War I and
a searchlight and 3-inch anti-aircraft gun
emplaced during World War II but they
were later dismantled.
The fort eventually became a sight-
seeing attraction, one which with some
sprucing up would have done greater
justice to its rich history. With this in
mind, in October 1965, Maj. Gen.
James D. Alger, Commander, U.S. Army
Forces Southern Command (USARSO),
directed the start of a l,,-.r,.ie
Tropical vegetation has had a free run of the fort for many years but now it is being hacked rehabilitation of the fort.
away. In the background is the water that borders 3 sides of the structure. (See p. 6)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Jungle Growth Being Cleared Away


(Continued from p. 5)
It was General Alger's thought that
the project should be a joint United
States and Panamanian undertaking
with the support of Canal Zone
and Panamanian Government officials.
USARSO Historian Hugh H. Gardner
was given responsibility for carrying
out the project.
Copies of 18th century charts of the
fort and other documents were obtained
through the efforts of His Excellency
Emilio Pan de Soraluce, the Spanish
Ambassador to Panama, and local
archaeologists who visited the ruins.
Among the advisers were: Dra. Reina
Torres de Ara[iz, Chairman of Panama's
National Archaeological and Historical
Monuments Commission; Dr. Ruben
Dario Carles, retired University of Pan-
ama professor of history; and The Ven-
erable Edwin C. Webster of Mount
Hope, who has made an exhaustive
study of the history of Fort San Lorenzo.
Dr. Teodoro Arias, Sr. Enrique
R,-< i, ,and Commissioner Carlos Gar-
cia de Paredes of Panama and Scout
Executive Ted Kellogg, Canal Zone
Ci..I11il. Boy Scouts of America, were
asked to enlist the efforts of the Boy
Scouts of both countries. Senior Scouts,
the Rovers of Panama, and the Explor-
ers of the Canal Zone volunteered for
the jungle clearing portion of the work.
The scouts were taken from the Pacific
side to Gatun Station each Saturday
morning where they met Colon scouts
and representatives of the Atlantic Area
Installation Command and were trucked
the 20-odd miles to the fort to work.
The clearing work by the scouts was
confined to what is known as the Outer
Bailev, a massive landward defense


position to the east of the main
fort. The clearing work progressed
when Latin American students from
the U.S. Army School of the Americas
volunteered their Saturdays to assist.
After almost 9 months of work, they
had finished the major portion of the
clearing; defoliants were immediately
applied to cleared areas to limit the
regrowth of jungle foliage. Archaeol-
ogical digging was performed by stu-
dents of Florida State University under
the direction of Dr. Hale Smith, head
of the Department of Anthropology and
Archaeology at the unii -erit\. Dr. Smith


was assisted by William M. Kosan, a
widely acknowledged authority on the
history of the fort.
Presently, volunteers are building
pilot models for carriages on which to
mount the old guns of the fort. Plans
are also moving ahead for installation of
safety fencing around the perimeter of
the fort and repair of areas where the
old walls have crumbled and threaten
to disintegrate.
A search of the waters surrounding
the fort is also being conducted in an
attempt to recover cannon, cannon balls
and other artifacts.


Canal Zone and Panamanian Scouts work side by side in clearing the dense undergrowth
from the Outer Bailey, or landward section of the fortifications.


SVeelation covered this guard tower, on the northeast corner of the The same guard tower and wall 6 weeks later, after the jungle
main fort, almost obscuring every portion of the structure-before growth was cut away.
the rehabilitation program began.


NOVEMBER 1966







Gorgas Intern


Is Graduate


Metallurgist


SER\ING HIS internship at Gorgas
Hospital is a many-talented medical
graduate who already had established
himself in one highly technical profes-
sion before deciding to carve out a
second career in medicine.
Prematurely gray-haired, Dr. James A.
Moseley came to Gorgas Hospital a
few months ago to begin his internship
at an age when most medical men have
finished this stage of work plus the
obligatory term as hospital resident.
Dr. Moseley was graduated from
medical school relatively late in life,
10 years after receiving a degree in
metallurgy from Massachusetts Institute
of Technology in 1956.
A native of Painesville, Ohio, Moseley
later moved to Fort Lauderdale, Fla.,
where he attended high school. After
2 years in the Navy, he entered
Georgia Tech to study engineering and
the following year transferred to MIT.
His first position was in Cleveland,
Ohio, with the Steel Founders Society
of America, serving as assistant to the
technical and research director. His
work entailed supervising steel and
foundry research projects but he also
traveled throughout the United States
delivering lectures on these programs.
And he published several articles in
steel foundry journals.
His next assignment was doing re-
search in a foundry in Buffalo, N.Y.
It was here that he found an outlet for
his seemingly unlimited energy. In his
spare time, he constructed a Moseley-
designed, five-bedroom house in down-
town Buffalo. He did everything from
the masonry to the carpentry, heating,
and electrical installation.
His wife, Joan, put her imagination
to work by acquiring the elegant ap-
pointments that later graced the interior
of their home. By following wrecking
crews that tore down old Buffalo man-
sions, she was able to bargain for old,
yet valuable items that might have been
ignored by less discriminating persons.


I




k. .
S10.1i

% t .
-M.U :


I- MTI 01


Dr. James A. Moseley, Gorgas Hospital intern and graduate metallurgist, examines John
Adams, a patient in the Pediatrics Ward. John is the son of United States citizens living
in Bolivia.


In 8 months, they were living in
a fashionable home adorned with Italian
marble fireplaces, marble bathrooms and
shelving, gold fixtures, and antique brass
door and window hinges.
After the birth of their first son,
Jamie, conversations with physician
friends gradually aroused Moseley's in-
terest in medicine. It reached a point
that it could no longer be pushed to the
back of his mind, despite the fact that
he was about to be elevated to a higher
position at the foundry.
Several medical schools attempted to
dissuade him and others actually turned
him down as too old to start a medical
career. He was 31 and numerous med-
ical schools have a 28 year age limit
for beginners.


One evening he and Joan weighed
the pros and cons of their situation and
at about 4 a.m. they reached their deci-
sion. Three days later he was taking the
medical entrance examination.
He resigned his position at the foundry
and began his medical studies at the
University of Buffalo Medical School
where for 2 years he served as pres-
ident of his class. Illness in the family
prompted him to leave Buffalo.
The home was sold and Mr. and Mrs.
Moseley and their sons, Jamie and Jon,
now aged 9 and 7 respectively, and
their golden retriever "Penuchi" moved
to Fort Lauderdale. They commuted
the 25 miles each day to Miami where
he attended the Unlliersitn of Miami
(See p. 8)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


~" 1

1







Dr. Moseley is a Family Man


(Continued from p. 7)
Medical School and Mrs. Moseley went
to a television studio where she appeared
as "Miss Joan" on "Romper Room," a
< llii.i 's program.
Mrs. Moseley, who has a master's
degree in education from Harvard Uni-
versity, had extensive television expe-
rience in New York City and Buffalo.
She had done news broadcasting, com-
mercials, weather reporting, and other
types of TV work. She also had been
dean and director of a Buffalo secretarial
school that later became a junior college.


Both in Buffalo and Fort Lauderdale
Mrs. Moseley arranged her work sched-
ule so that she could devote time to
her family and still provide the eco-
nomic assistance necessary during her
husband's second career training.
Dr. Moseley's interests are wide and
varied, ranging from amateur acting to
zoology. The entire family enjoys boat-
ing, fishing, skin diving, ph'it,,_'r.qp)l.,
and handicrafts. They participated in
these diversions in Florida and frequent-
ly piloted their 22-foot runabout across
the Gulf Stream to the Bahama Islands.


Dr. Moseley has at least one uncon-
ventional hobby, even for a doctor or
an engineer. Using an old sewing ma-
chine Mrs. Moseley's mother gave her
daughter, he became an expert tailor,
making his own suits, garments for
his wife and clothes for the children. For
the present, however, his busy sched-
ule restricts this hobby to occasional
mending jobs.
He is dedicated to his internship at
Gorgas Hospital. Later he hopes to
specialize in pediatrics. Vigorous health
for small children is first and foremost
in his plans for the future.


"'PIt nII ," the golden retriever, joins the family listening attentively as Dr. James A. Moseley, metallurgist and Gorgas Hospital intern,
strums his guitar, a gift presented to him when he graduated from the University of Miami Medical School last June. From left: son Jamie;
Dr. Moseley; his ilr.. Joan; and son Jon. "Little Whim for Dr. Jim" was painted on the guitar by a well-known Florida painter and muralist,
Leona Nicholls. The mola on the wall was made by the mother of a young patient from San Bias.


NOVEMBER 1966

























Ir;V




MT^rW


Alfonso "Smitty" Smith chauffeurs Queen Elizabeth and Panama President Jose Antonio Rem6n during an official visit to Panama by the
Queen and her husband Prince Philip. Smitty, whose face is barely visible in this photo, drove for six presidents of Panama and now is
the driver for Canal Zone Governor Robert J. Fleming, Jr.


Governor Fleming's Driver


Served Six Presidents


AS A SMALL BOY in Panama, Alfonso
Smith was the most popular boy in the
block when he rumbled up and down
the street giving rides to the neighbor-
hood kids in the wooden wagon he had
made of orange crates and odd wheels.
He was even more popular when at
13 he had a job as office boy and allowed
his friends to hop on the back of the
bicycle as he made his deliveries. In his
boyhood dreams he often thought how
wonderful it would be to drive an
automobile.
But never did he dream he would


someday be driving a sleek limousine
and have as a passenger a real queen;
or be driver for six Presidents of Pan-
ama and many other heads of State
visiting the Isthmus; or be what he is
today-driver for Canal Zone Gov.
Robert J. Fleming, Jr.
Smitty, as he is affectionately called,
was born in Panama in 1923. His father,
a U.S. soldier stationed at Fort Clayton,
was killed in a fall from a horse 8 days
before Smitty was born. His Colombian
mother had to go to work first in a dress


factory and later in a shoe factory to
rear her son.
To earn a few cents each day, Smitty,
at the age of 7, served as altar boy at
the early masses in Santa Ana and San
Jos6 churches before going to school in
the morning. He worked at odd jobs
to help his mother and at 13 had his
first steady employment.
Smitty began his working career in
the Canal Zone in 1940 when he worked
from 11 p.m. to 7 a.m. at 18 cents per
hour as a helper in the storehouse of
(See p. 10)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Feeding Dogs



Ice Cream Was



One of Jobs


(Continued from p. 9)
the Municipal Engineers in Pedro
Miguel. A few months later, he trans-
ferred to work on the Miraflores Bridge,
also as a helper. Smitty was a cement
checker in 1941 and then a driver for
the Department of Engineers (Army)
at Corozal.
He joined the U.S. Army at 18 and
was stationed in Fort Amador and
Quarry Heights. In 1947, with the rank
of sergeant, he left the Army and
returned to Corozal as a driver until
1949. (Smitty remained in the Army
Reserves until 1954.)
It was H6ctor (Rey) Vald6s, Panama
official and present director of DENI,
Panama's Department of National Inves-
tigation, who recommended Smitty as
driver for Panama President Alcibiades
Arosemena, the first of six Presidents
he served.
Jos6 Antonio Rem6n was the next
President Smitty drove for and it was
during this time that he chauffeured
Queen Elizabeth and her husband
Prince Philip who were official guests of
Panama. Driving the Queen remains as
the highlight of his career in Panama.
His duties with President Rem6n often
included other chores. One task he
recalls vividly was feeding cartons of
ice cream every evening to each of the
President's seven dogs.
President Jos6 Ram6n Guizado was
number three on the list of Panama
Presidents for which he drove. Then
came Ricardo Arias Espinosa, whose
administration hosted the 1956 Hemi-
sphere Presidents' Meeting. Smitty re-
calls that he spent most of his time
going back and forth to Tocumen Air-
port to receive the Presidents. And it
was Smitty who drove the Presidents
back to the airport on their departure
from Panama. He remembers that a
special jeep was outfitted for President
Eisenhower to play golf at the Panama


Golf Club but the President was kept
so busy during the week-long meeting
that he never was able to use it.
Smitty recalls that all the Presidents
were more than obliging when they
were asked for their autographs. Pres-
ident Anastasio Somoza gladly signed
everything put before him but the signa-
ture disappeared a few minutes later,
leaving not a trace. Apparently, the
Nicaraguan President was not too keen
on having his signature dispersed
so he used a special pen for autograph
signing.
Smitty also drove for President
Ernesto de la Guardia, Jr., and Roberto
F. Chiari was the last of the Panama
Presidents he chauffeured.
In 1964, Smitty became driver for
Governor Fleming. He works 5 days a


week and anytime the Governor needs
him. Smitty says his own name is the
first on the list of persons pleased
that Governor Fleming's tour on the
Isthmus has been extended.
Smitty is known also as "Gringo"
since he became a U.S. citizen a year
ago. When asked if he minded being
called "Gringo" Smitty said, "Of course
not, I'm proud of it."
As for a pastime-when he is not busy
driving Governor Fleming-he may take
his family for a drive, or putter around
his home in Villa Guadalupe, near the
Transisthmian Highway, where he lives
with his wife, Francisca, his four chil-
dren, Ernesto, Maria Felicidad, Mari-
sol, and Carmen Maria and his mother.
He also is an avid reader, especially
following reports from Vietnam.


NOVEMBER 1966


Behind the wheel of Governor Fleming's car, Smitty appears ready to roll.







PANAMA NATIONAL MUSEUM


A treasure-trove of Isthmian history
is on permanent display at the Panama
National Museum, dedicated to sciences
and arts, and located in Panama City.
Presiding as Director is Prof. Alejan-
dro M6ndez Pereira, courteous, unpre-
tentious, soft-spoken natural history spe-
cialist, who has devoted the past 41
years toward preserving Panama's past.
In his care at the Museum is a vast and
valuable collection of Indian artifacts
and he, himself, planned and executed
various archeological excavations that
unearthed many treasures that had been
hitherto unknown.
The Museum has been in its present
location, on Avenida Cuba between
29th and 30th Streets, since 1939.
In 1925, during the administration of
President Rodolfo Chiari, the Museum
had its beginning as a Natural History
section located in one of the salons of
the old Santo Tomas Hospital on West
16th Street, Panama City, and a section


Indian Cultures


Are Revealed by


Varied Displays


of Archeology and History installed,
temporarily, in a building in Panama's
Plaza de Francia. Another former pres-
ident, Dr. Juan Dem6stenes Arosemena,
arranged to have the two sections trans-
ferred under one roof, at the present
location, in 1939.
The displays in the Panama Museum
today are divided into five sections;
Natural Sciences, Art, History, Ethnol-
ogy, and Archeology.
The archeology section, on the main
Iq


Dr. Alejandro Mindez Pereira (left) points out some of the Museum's valuable archeological
treasures. These were discovered when Dr. M. W. Stirling of the Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C., directed an expedition in Herrera Province in 1947. The National
Geographic Society sponsored the expedition.


floor, is probably the most important
for its displays of handicraft of Indian
tribes who lived on the Isthmus long
before Columbus set sail for the New
World. Brief descriptions in Spanish
identify the ancient and valuable items
found in Panama's Veraguas, Chi-
riqui, Code, Los Santos, and Herrera
Provinces.
The Indian tribes that once inhabited
the Isthmus of Panama were not archi-
tects and mathematicians as were the
Mayans and Aztecs to the north, and
they did not possess the superior knowl-
edge of government or ceramics of the
Incas of Peru. Nevertheless, an exchange
between the civilizations of Central and
South America may be discerned in
the Museum's displays, with ample
evidence of an advanced civilization
whose people worked with stone, clay,
and gold.
The Panama Indians had no metal
tools other than a small gold and copper
alloy awl shaped like a horseshoe nail,
but they did have polished stone tools,
without handles, similar to hammers
and chisels with which they performed
everyday tasks and sculptured life-
size statues, idols, stools, and metates
of stone. A fine example of the latter
faces the visitor as he enters the
Museum.
This metate was primarily designed
for the kitchen, but was also used for
ceremonial purposes. It is a slightly
concave slab of stone, 18 by 30 inches,
chiseled with supporting legs dec-
orated with human and animal forms
carved from stone.
Eye-compelling, and a favorite with
Museum visitors, are the "Monoliths of
Barriles," stone figures believed to be
over a thousand years old and built in
what today is Chiriqui Province. One of
the huge figures depict what is believed
to be a chieftain carried on the shoulders
of a man of low echelon. The figures
were discovered amid the lava beds sur-
rounding El Baru, an inactive volcano,
and were brought to the Museum
in 1947.
The pottery fashioned by Isthmian
Indians hundreds of years ago is of
many shapes and sizes and is especial-
ly interesting for its different types of
decoration and many-hued designs.
Historians agree that the early Span-
iards found considerable gold among
the Indians in Panama, but there's no
certainty whether the gold was the
(See p. 12)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Panama .AuJeum
(Continued from p. 11)
result and accumulation of a long
time of patient panning of rivers and
streams, or whether the Indians operated
gold mines whose locations have never
been found.
The early gold work in the Museum's
collection indicates that the primitive
dwellers on the Isthmus were gold-
smiths. With stones for hammers, they
beat gold into thin sheets; they did re-
pousse work, mixed the gold with copper
to make it firmer, and quite evidently
were cognizant of the art of gold-
plating. With techniques that puzzle
historians today, the Panama Indians
produced the attractive and valuable
examples of goldsmith art known
as "huacas."
"Huaca" actually is the word for an
Indian grave containing treasure. Belief
in life after death caused primitive
people to bury their dead with all
worldly possessions, and the custom of
burying workday and ceremonial objects
with the body in the huaca was prac-
ticed for centuries locally. The early
Spaniards, however, learned the Indian


More than 50,000 years old, the fossils of a Perezoso Gigante or giant sloth of a past geologic
age, are displayed on the second floor of the Museum.


A huge painting of a giant-a giant sloth, that is-shows the animal as it may have looked
when it roamed the Isthmus. The painting is by Isthmian artist. Mrs. Elva Fairchild.


dead were buried with their ornaments
of gold, some solid, some gold-plated
and dug up "tens of thousands of
graves" in Chiriqui Province alone.
The Museum's history section has
historical relics and maps of the early
days of Panama. Here may be seen
rifles used in the Thousand Days' War,
swords and uniforms of General Este-
ban Huertas, worn in the days when
the Republic came into being; and,
among others, the manuscript of the
Panama National Anthem, Panama's first
flag, and the desk where the Act of
Independence of 1903 was signed.
In the Ethnology section are many
exhibits representative of Indian tribes
that still reside on the Isthmus, and the
exhibits are arranged to show the life
and customs of Panama's contemporary
Cunas, Chocoes, and Guaymies.
The second floor of the Museum is
largely given over to natural history
exhibits. Here are displayed the huge
bones of the Eremoterio, a gigantic sloth
that roamed Panama 50,000 years ago.
Over the display case, on the wall, is
a large painting of this prehistoric
giant, the work of Mrs. Elva Fair-
child, wife of Dr. Graham Bell Fair-
child, entomologist at Gorgas Memorial
Hospital.
On the second floor, too, is a display
of a collection of minerals and semi-
precious stones presented to the Muse-


NOVEMBER 1966






um by the Canal Zone Gem and Mineral
Society in 1961.
Prof. M6ndez is responsible for inter-
change with other museums outside
Panama, and in many problems of iden-
tification and classification of new speci-
mens that are part of the natural history
collection, the Smithsonian Institution
of the United States lent a hand.
Many Canal employees have taken
an intensive scientific interest in the
pre-Columbian and colonial history of
the saga-rich Isthmus and have contrib-
uted to the Museum collection.
Other Canal Zone residents have
expressed their interest by joining the
Friends of the National Museum of Pan-
ama. This group was organized some
years ago to assist the work of the
Museum by stimulating interest in the
Museum, providing extra funds and
personal service. The newly elected
president is Guillermo Herrera y Franco.


Part of the collection of minerals and semi-precious stones presented to the Panama National
Museum by the Canal Zone Gem and Mineral Society in 1961.


Panama National Museum Director Prof. Alejandro Mendez Pereira describes the fine work on a gold breastplate, and Mrs. Aurora
Illueca, secretary to the director and general factotum of the Museum, left, shows an unusual crested gold ornament, hundreds of years old.
The gold items are on velvet that covers a metate, a slightly concave stone slab whose supporting legs are decorated with carvings.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


;, "
~i~c ~ ,1
I~ ~







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Conrad S. Drew
Truck Driver
Winston J. Mask
Restaurant Manager
MARINE BUREAU
John A. Madison
General Fo n- tons
Lionel Jose
Mac tor
Cliffo I y

TRA S N

Vicente A aro
Supervisory Freight Assistant
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Horace V. Parker
Teacher-Senior High L.A. Schools
HEALTH BUREAU
James C. Haynes
Clerk


COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE
Mary W. Ewing
Payroll Control Assistant
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Clarence D. Bovell
Leader Laborer
Edward F. Drew
Meat Cutter
Eric S. Oakley
Assistant Retail Store anag
Cleveland Roberts
Snack Bar Operator
Ruthwin Samuels
Retail Store Department
Manager-General
Alexander Rogers
Leader Cook
Pedro A. Tufi6n
Meat Wrapper
Fulgencio P. Quifiones
Materials Inspector (Lumber)
MARINE BUREAU
John R. Bauer
General Supervisor
Hamilton Blanchard
Painter


T


Latest thing in the Panama Canal Zone. Youth points out for his younger, feminine
companion a cast iron lamp post installed as part of the new street lighting system in
May 1915. At that time it was the latest thing in the Canal Zone. Photo was taken on the
grounds of the Administration Building.


Silvestre Cafiizales
Maintenanceman-Rope and Wire Cable
Daniel A. Lawson
Leader Lock Operator-Machinist
David B. Marshall
Towing Locomotive Operator
Matias Moreno P.
Leader Line Handler (Deckhand
Boatswain)
Brewster
or (Operations-
oc a
aleb C.Cle e
I Lock Operor Pipefitter
Ralph A. Mor es
Welder
hoe S. o
oo an-Heavy
d M.
u ry Control House Operator
H. A. Sneckenberger
Foreman (Locks Maintenance)

ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
William L. Brooks
Administrative Service Assistant
Camilo Caicedo
Surveying Aid
Eric I. Jordan
Seaman
Frederick A. Ebdon
General Foreman Electrician
Charles H. Kissling
Mate, Dipper Dredge
Joseph S. Osborne
Residual Fuel Treatment Operator
James C. Payne
Carpenter
Salom6n Vergara
Paver

TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Selvin A. Bryan
Supervisory Cargo Checker
Hezekiah O. Murdock
Truck Driver-Heavy

CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Auvie H. Byrd
Budget Analyst
Charles L. Green
Police Private
Ruth L. Turner
Library Assistant
Norman J. Lewter
Police Private
Peter Unrau
Clerk in Charge, City Division, Balboa
Russel E. Hellmund
Relief Supervisor, Balboa
James E. Harrell
Relief Supervisor, Balboa
Walter G. McBride
Police Lieutenant
Maurice A. McLean
Teacher-Junior High L.A. Schools

HEALTH BUREAU
T. Zeballos
Laborer-Heavy Pest Control
Robert L. Thompson
Hospital Administrative Officer
Manuel C. Villeros
Laborer-Heavy Pest Control


NOVEMBER 1966







Porti of the World


Southampton Links Continents


THE UNITED Kingdom's principal
oceangoing passenger port and a
major cargo port owes much of its
importance to geography.
Situated a short distance from
London and the Continent and
being on the main shipping route
between the Americas and Conti-
nental Europe, the Port of Southamp-
ton conveniently links passengers
and freight with other major ports
of the world.
The Port lies near the center of
the south coast of England and is
separated from the English Channel


by the Isle of Wight, which forms
a natural breakwater shielding
Southampton water from Channel-
churning gales.
Vessels entering the Port of South-
ampton range from the huge ocean-
going Atlantic passenger liners such
as the "Queen Fliib, tli" and "Queen
Mary" of the Cunard Steamship Co.
Ltd. to the large passenger-cargo
carrying ships of the Union-Castle
Mail Steamship Co. Ltd., tramp
steamers, oil tankers and small pas-
senger steamers.
The Southampton Harbour Board,


a non-profit organization which orig-
inally was created in 1803 by an Act
of Parliament, bears much of the
responsibility in the operations of
the Port. The 26-member group is
responsible for widening, deepening,
and maintaining the main navigable
channels of the Port, also for the
provision and maintenance of all
navigational aids such as light buoys
and beacon lights.
The Board's area of jurisdiction
comprises 18/4 square miles, includ-
ing 45 miles of foreshore.
(See p. 16)


Southampton Harbour Board's Town Quay and a view of part of the city of Southampton.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








.**a~*~ l


-I-- fc---^ --- __ '^

-- *-- ~.-9>^I


RMS Queen Elizabeth sails from Southampton with Southampton Harbour Board's Signal Station in bottom left corner of photo, Esso
Petroleum Company's Marine Terminal in left background and Southampton Docks in far background.


(Continued from p. 15)
The 4,500-foot Town Quay and
Royal Pier are owned and operated
by the Board. Its Signal Station at
Calshot at the entrance to the
Southampton Water is equipped
with a harbor surveillance radar
and V.H.F. R T communication
system. Continuously manned, it can
provide information to ships, pilots
and shipping companies, concerning
tides, wind, weather, and details of
ship movements in the area.
Funds needed by the Board come
from dues, payable by all ships using
the port, and from loans obtained
through the stock market. Dues are
based on the net registered tonnage
of vessels and there are various
categories of dues rates.
The dues goes for management,
maintenance work, renewal of plant,
and similar functions whereas funds
acquired through loans, the terms
of which are subject to the approval
of the Government through the


Bank of England, pay for capital
expenditure.
Imports that pass through South-
ampton totaled almost 15 million tons
in 1964. They included such com-
modities as: fruit from South Africa,
North and South America, Spain,
Jaffa, France, Azores, and the Chan-
nel Islands; timber from North Amer-
ica and the Baltic; grain from Canada
and Australia; meat and dairy prod-
uce from South America, South
Africa, Australia, and New Zealand;
wool, hides, and skins from South
Africa and Australia.
The export trade is comprised in
part of steel, iron, machinery, hard-
ware, and rubber products from the
Birmingham area, woolens and wor-
sted from Yorkshire, cotton goods
from Lancashire; hosiery, leather
goods, motor vehicles, and manufac-
tured tobacco.
Oil is the largest single commodity
imported at the Port of Southamp-
ton. Tanker shipments are brought
in to the Shell-Mex and B.P. Jetties


at Hamble and the Esso Petroleum
Company's Marine Terminal at
Fawley.
That which is received at Hamble
is used for the bunkering of ships
and for general distribution while
crude oil delivered to Fawley goes
to the Esso Petroleum Co.'s huge
refinery. Twelve million tons of oil
and oil products were brought to the
refinery in 1964 by 2,218 tankers.
Since the opening of the refinery
in 1951, petro-chemical industries
have come to the area. They include
the International Synthetic Rubber
Co., the Union Carbide Co., and
Monsanto Chemicals Ltd.
The Esso Petroleum Co., in con-
junction with the Southampton Har-
bour Board, in 1963 undertook a vast
$5.6 million dredging program that
included dredging within the port
area. Now tankers of 80,000 dead
weight tons drawing up to 47 feet
may enter the port and lie afloat at
the Esso Marine Terminal regardless
of the state of the tide.


NOVEMBER 1966








CANAL HISTORY:


50 year c4ago
THE COALING PLANT at Cristobal
began regular operation in September
1916 for commercial use although not
all the contracting work had been com-
pleted. Up to that time, some Canal
customers had a bunkering problem.
Vessels were limited to the amount of
bunkers they could take on with suffi-
cient coal provided to make the next
port of call on their established route
where commercial coaling stations were
available. Vessels trading to South
American ports north of Valparaiso were
supplied sufficient coal for the return
'AI\.ir- to the Canal.
Slides were still a problem. Because
of a sudden forward movement of large
rock in the base of the Cucaracha slide
which had to be drilled and blasted
before dredging, traffic through the
Canal was suspended from August 30
to September 7, 1916, to ships drawing
more than 17 feet of water.
The Canal completed 2 years of oper-
ation on August 14, 1916. During that
time a total of 2,097 ships made the
transit with a total of 9,031,613 long
tons of cargo. The waterway was closed,
however, from September 15, 1915, to
the middle of April 1916, because of
slides. Almost as many sailing ships as
motor powered ships used the Canal in
the early days.
During October 1916, more than half
of the 158 oceangoing ships transiting
spent 9 to 12 hours in Canal waters. The
average time for all ships, according to
the Panama Canal Record, was 11 hours
and 40 minutes.

25 years c4o
PRIORITIES WERE issued in Sep-
tember 1941 for materials and ma-
chinery to construct the Pan American
Highway from Texas to Panama, for
building the Trans-Isthmian Highway
linking the Atlantic to the Pacific sides
of the Canal Zone and also for the high-
way from Chorrera to Rio Hato in Pan-
ama to connect Panama with the U.S.
Army Air Base at Rio Hato.
About this time the Panama Amer-
ican reported that it had heard from
reliable sources that a vehicular and
passenger tunnel was about to be con-
structed under the Pacific end of the
Panama Canal to accommodate the in-
creasingly heavy traffic to and from the
west side of the Canal. The construc-
tion of a tunnel would require the
appropriation of approximately $15
million.


Work on the Pacific side third locks
construction was inaugurated Septem-
ber 26, 1941, when Col. Joseph Mehaf-
fey, new Panama Canal Engineer of
Maintenance set off a blast on the site
of the lower chamber of the new Mira-
flores Locks.
The first series of the new paper
money issued by the Republic of Pan-
ama was placed in circulation October 2,
1941, with bills in denominations of 1,
5, 10, and 20 Balboas. The first bills
were presented to President Arnulfo
Arias. Meanwhile the Canal Zone issued
orders that the new paper currency be
accepted at face value.
Maj. Gen. Henry H. Arnold, Chief
of the Army Air Forces, came to the
Isthmus 25 years ago to inspect Canal
Zone installations. He returned to
Maxwell Field, Ala., in a history making
non-stop 10-hour flight.

10 years c4go
GEN. CHARLES DE GAULLE visited
the Isthmus in August 1956 and was
greeted by a letter from Gen. William
E. Potter, then Governor of the Canal
Zone. General de Gaulle was a passenger
aboard the French Line's SS Caledonia.
He was accompanied by his wife and a
party of three. They did not go ashore
during their brief visit and made the
Canal transit aboard the Caledonia.
The 50th anniversary of the opening
of the Tivoli Guest House was held
November 15, 1956, with many old-
timers present and a historical pageant
with music was presented as a highlight
of the evening It was recalled that the


first guests were President and Mrs.
Theodore Roosevelt who paid an un-
precedented visit to the Isthmus from
November 14 to 17 in 1906. Among the
prominent guests at the anniversary
celebration were President of Panama
and Mrs. Ernesto de la Guardia accom-
panied by Panamanian officials. Accord-
ing to an unofficial count, there were
more than 1,000 guests.
Several insurance firms were invited
by the Canal organization to submit
proposals on a broad hospital and med-
ical service group insurance plan to give
adequate coverage to Canal employees
and their families.

One year 4go
HUNDREDS of Panama Canal em-
ployees have reason to remember Betsy,
the hurricane that ran amok last year
thousands of miles from the Canal Zone
but which had some effect on most of
the passengers who returned from New
Orleans aboard the SS Cristobal. The
hurricane caught the Canal employees
in New Orleans as they were waiting for
transportation back to the Canal Zone.
Among the visitors to the Panama
Canal last year was one who had more
than an ordinary interest in the water-
way. He was Marc de Lesseps, great
grandson of Count Ferdinand de Les-
seps, builder of the Suez Canal and
initiator of the work on the Panama
Canal. Young Marc arrived here aboard
a freighter on which he was working
his way around the world before
returning to France to enter military
service.


.. ,--

- -

Parking spaces went begging in front of the Panama Canal Administration Building in 1922,
when this photo was taken. But of course there weren't as many cars then as there are now.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


L






PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic

First quarter, fiscal year-


Commodity


Ores, various -----------------------
Lumber -------------------------
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)__
Wheat __ __-------------------
Sugar-- -------------- --------
Canned food products---------
Nitrate of soda------ -----------
Fishmeal ---..- --------------------.
Bananas----
\I. tal. various----------------
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) -------------------------
Molasses-----------------------
Pulpwood --_-
Iron and steel manufactures----- --
Potash--------- --- ---------
All others-----------------------
Total_ ---_ -


Atlantic to P


Commodity


Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)
Coal and coke ---------------------
Phosphates___
Soybeans.------------
Iron and steel manufactures ----
Corn.__ ___ _________
Ores, various-- __--- ____
Metal (scrap) -- ___- _____
Sorghum ------ _____----___---_-
Chemicals, unclassified--- ---
Wheat_ ----------
Sugar--- -
Sulphur
Machinery ___--_ __ ___
Paper and paper products .____
All others _--_
Total .-----------.. --


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL


Atlant
to
Pacific

1,54'
Q


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing
Small


..... *--- ---------------------
Total commercial -- 1,63
U.S. Government vessels:
O, t.nenirc -------.----- 14
Small *-- -
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment 1,781
o Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacemel
"* Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to
transited free.


1967

1,541,587
1,055,021
174,887
111,011


1966

1,717,385
1,088,396
148,974
257,918


5-Yr. Avg.
1951-55
987,567
798,109
339,598
473,208


Cruise Ships



Will Bring in



Tourist Flow


874,014 840,926 346,218 TOURISTS BY the thousands will visit
223,401 256,459 309,830
163,067 133,473 250,095 the Isthmus of Panama during the next
294,364 229,073 N.A. few months when the big cruise liners
319,000 309,234 155,958 from New York, Florida and England
336,364 363,871 175,110 are scheduled to make their winter
235,650 179,443 142,823 calls at Canal ports.
158,478 58,517 According to a preliminary line-up
152,313 134,587 44,248 of vessels expected to include the Canal
907,339 856,840 39,171 as part of their cruise itinerary, the
117,264 40,494 -- 1966-67 cruise season will be the
1,755,433 1,644,292 807,817 cruise season wl e the
1,755,433 1, 2 biggest Panama has seen in some time.
8,419,193 8,259,882 4,869,750 Best known of the ships on the
advance schedule is the huge Cunard
liner Queen Elizabeth, the 83,673 gross-
acific ton giant, due to sail into Cristobal
harbor February 7 on one 6f her first
cruises to the Caribbean.
First quarter, fiscal year- Due in Cristobal on the same day is

1967 1966 5-Yr. Avg. the SS United States, making the first
1951-55 of two calls in February. On their reg-
4,039,479 3,484,786 709710 ular trans-Atlantic voyages, the Queen
1,617,581 1,713,914 539,013 Elizabeth can accommodate more than
745,854 778,403 156,591 2,000 passengers and the United States
436,813 411,888 43,705 more than 1,900.
505,236 436,755 376,917 In addition to the well known ships
1,006,719 825,376 12,729
445,065 121,765 53,676 which have visited the Canal in the
549,348 510,379 10,321 past, there are several new names this
160,197 149,740 N.A. season. Among them are the brand new
246,430 199,092 45,236 Swedish American Line's Kungsholm,
559,826 191,559 49,017
240,674 168,273 99,311 the largest passenger liner ever owned
130,205 118,208 96,831 by a Scandinavian ship line; the Italian
123,192 106,902 66,690 Line's Leonardo da Vinci, the Spanish
173,949 125,053 90,900 owned Cabo San Vicente, the Polish
1,945,814 2,096,613 1,282,253 flag Batory, the Italian cruise liner
12,926,382 11,438,706 3,632,900 Federico C., and two smaller Cunard
liners, Carmania and Franconia.
C. B. Fenton, agents for the Swedish
L AND U.S. GOVERNMENT American line and a number of other
cruise vessels, announced that the
First Quarter Fiscal Year Kungsholm will make two other Canal
Avg. No. visits in addition to the first which
1967 1966 Transits brought her southbound October 25 on
1951-55
ic Pacific a cruise around South America and the
to Total Total Total Caribbean. Her second visit January 11
c Atlantic also will take her through the Canal on a
cruise to the South Seas. She will return
7 1,489 3,036 2,953 1,680 to Balboa, April 3 on her way back to
7 60 147 115 304 New York.
S 1,549 3,183 3,068 1,984 The Gdynia America Line Batory
-- also represented by Fenton, is due in
4 44 188 149 201 Cristobal, February 2 on a Caribbean
8 7 15 40 89 cruise out of England. The ship is not
new and has been on a regular North
s 1,600 3,386 3,257 2,274 Atlantic service between New York and
1,600 3,257 24 Poland but this is the first trip to the
nit tons. first season for
July 1. 1951, Government-operated ships Caribbean and her first season for
cruising.


18 NOVEMBER 1966


I


---'



--1



--~i







The handsome Italian liner Leonardo
da Vinci, built in 1960 in Italy, is to
arrive here on her first trip December 14
on a Caribbean cruise, it was announc-
ed by the Italian Line. On her regular
\c'..itc between New York and Italy,
she can carry 1,326 passengers.
Pacific Ford, agents for the Cunard
Line, reported that the 22,000-gross
ton Carmania and Franconia would
call in Cristobal in February. Both ships
were converted about 3 years ago and
placed on a winter cruise schedule. This
will be the first year that either of the
ships have called at the Canal.
The SS United States will make her
second call at Cristobal February 27,
according to Panama Agencies. This
company also announced the arrival
December 31 of the SS President Roo-
sevelt, newest of the President Line's
around-the-world cruise liners, and the
Moore McCormack liner Argentine,
December 26 on a Caribbean cruise out
of Baltimore.
The Canadian Pacific liners Empress
of England and Empress of Canada are
due in Cristobal on cruises in January
and March, according to W. Andrews
& Co. Both former Canal visitors, they
are making winter Caribbean cruises.
The French Line's France will arrive
in Cristobal, February 19 on her one
and only winter visit to the Isthmus.
This ship has been to the Canal in
previous years and so far has been the
largest to enter Cristobal Harbor. The
France is outclassed in tonnage by the
Queen Elizabeth but at 1,035 feet is
still the world's longest ship.
The Holland America Line will be
represented this year by the Statendanm.
due December 3 in Balboa on a world
cruise; the Maasdam, due in Balboa,
January 13 for transit; the Rotterdam
due in Balboa, April 8 after a world
cruise and the Ryndam expected in
Balboa, February 15.
The Ryndam, Pacific Ford says, is
carrying the Chapman College Spring
Semester cruise from Los Angeles. She
will not stop at Canal ports but will
sail from Cristobal immediately after
transit for the east coast of South
America. Africa, and Europe.
The P & O-Orient Lines ships, rep-
resented by Norton Lilly & Co., have
announced a number of around the
world voyages which will bring some of
their largest ships through the Canal
during 1966-67 season. The vessels due
are the Orsova in Cristobal, Novem-
ber 18: the Himalaya in Balboa in
November, the Chusan in December
and March and the Canberra in April.
The Arcadia and Iberia are also on
this run.


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS


Nationality N

tr
Belgian ----. __-
British---------.
Chilean
Chinese (Nat.)
Colombian --
Danish-----
Ecuadorean -__
Finnish .- -_____
French -.----
German---------
Greek--- --
Honduran -------
Israeli-____-----
Italian --___
Japanese-------
Liberian __ -_
Mexican
Netherlands --.-
Nicaraguan_ ---
Norwegian ---___
Panamanian------
Peruvian--------
Philippine _______
Swedish ---_-_-_
United States __
All Others ----
Total..


Month


July ---
August -- -
September
October __-_-
November _-
December-----
January ---
February-
March-
April
May-------
June-_. -
Totals for
fiscal year


First quarter, fiscal year-


1967
umber Tons
of of
ansits cargo
17 69,371
329 2,389,969
28 165,545
26 208,041
57 111,549
104 566,499
12 20,884
16 71,151
57 162,077
285 951,609
143 1,195,989
29 13,933
24 142,960
49 371,267
220 1,783,601
343 4,597,731
11 44,282
124 442,033
18 30,060
382 3,584,161
121 467,118
35 164,713
25 142,036
100 775,931
423 2,344,131
58 528,934
3,036 21,345,575


Number
of
transits
14
309
23
35
58
100
7
7
52
310
126
50
23
56
223
294
14
150
17
393
133
33
20
103
338
65
2,953


1


1966
Tons
of
cargo
42,060
2,325,216
188,605
290,902
150,953
533,047
19,996
50,128
174,362
1,003,761
1,310,936
27,494
204,443
357,362
1,348,195
3,551,193
16,894
487,998
28,497
3,755,969
621,823
175,921
91,073
622,110
1,840,778
478,872
19,698,588


Average
number
transit
1
286
15
35

31
60
34

31


N.A
38

31
N.A
28
4
189
96
5
6
48
538
24
1,680


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal years)
GTr Cross tolls*
Transits (In thousands of dollars)


1967

1,039
1,008
989








3,036


1966

993
983
977
1,034
990
949
1,001
896
1,060
989
1,043
1,OU1
11,926


* Before deduction of any operating expenses.


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-55
557
554
570
607
568
599
580
559
632
608
629
599
7,062


1967

6,205
6,392
6,071


18,668


1966

5,604
5,488
5,457
6,068
5,878
5,614
5,903
5,239
6,044
5,887
5,935
5,983
69,100


Average
Tolls
1951-55
2,432
2,403
2,431
2,559
2,361
2,545
2,444
2,349
2,657
2,588
2,672
2,528
29,969


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
First quarter, fiscal year-


Trade routes


United States Intercoastal -. --- _------------
East coast of United States and South America-----
East coast of United States and Central America -__-_-
East coast of United States and Far East -.-.----.-.___.
East Coast United States/Canada and Australasia------
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada ------
Europe and South America-------------
Europe and Australasia ------ ------
All other routes -------------___- ..-- _------.
Total traffic--. ---


1967

127
465
120
684
118
237
235
92
958
3,036


1966

104
440
159
634
110
223
339
83
861
2 953


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-55
178
387
113
239
167
49
111
83
353
I 6Sfl


TIE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1951-55
e Average
r tons
s of cargo
2,307
1,753,044
67,567
28,206
40,056
220,751
20,882
129,938
85,956
221,195
131,492
N.A.
146,915
367,978
189,420
N.A.
131,769
3,288
723,252
548,900
13,392
30,561
183,337
3,364,851
97,633
1 8,502,690








Anglers Build Paradise



For Sport and Comfort


THE FISHERMAN'S enthusiasm is
legend, but it is still rare to find a group
of anglers who plan and build an island
paradise to further their pursuit of the
sport.
But that is exactly what has
happened in Panama. The story centers
on one of the best fishing spots in Pan-
ama waters-off the northeast coast of
Coiba Island. There, some 250 sea
miles from Panama City, is the lovely
island of Rancheria-245 acres of
beautiful terrain and beaches in the
midst of waters that abound with untold
challenges in fishing.
For many years, a group of Panama-
nians and some U.S. citizens who live
in Panama City had fished the waters
in this area, hooking "whoppers" and
always finding the fish plentiful and
eager to bite.
But there was one hitch: you had to
have a large boat and plan a trip of
several days because there were no
facilities-not even shelter. Your boat
was headquarters, hotel, and restaurant.


During a trip in 1965, some of the "old
gang" decided that Rancheria Island
would be an ideal site to build a place
where members could rest, cook and
use the beach, as well as dock their
boats, large or small.
The idea caught fire immediately
and an organization, Club Rancheria,
S.A., was formed to carry out the
project. The 33 members are from Chi-
riqui Province, Panama City, and the
United States. With the usual energy of
fishing addicts, they planned and
worked quickly and by July of 1965,
the facilities were largely completed.
Supplies were hauled in by the boats
of Club members, who had to keep a
close watch on progress because of the
problems involved in building in such
a remote area.
But with the exception of a landing
strip, the first part of which is now
under construction, and a pier, which
is in the planning stages, the project is
finished.
The facilities are first class. There are


six huge air-conditioned bedrooms, each
with a private bath and each able to
sleep four in great comfort. A central
kitchen serves the entire complex. It is
complete with all the cooking equip-
ment and supplies that anyone could
wish for. There is a large dining room,
and a bar, and for relaxing there is a
screened porch, 10 feet wide and 140
long across the front of the building.
Construction was carried out on a
plan that allows for orderly expansion
of the building, if the membership
decides to expand. The furnishings are
modern and all new. Each room has
been decorated to provide comfort and
beauty and each interior is different.
Power is furnished by a 33 kilowatt
generator, and there is a good supply
of fresh water. To maintain the facili-
ties, a caretaker and two helpers have
been hired by the membership. Supplies
are still brought in by private boats,
which means that the cost of supplies
is raised considerably because of the
transportation.


Awash in the afternoon sun, the Club Rancheria is a welcome and picturesque scene to members returning from a day's fishing. Its comforts
match the exterior beauty.


NOVEMBER 1966


- rI 1l ly n L L 4






.The fishing is superb. Wahoo is espe-
cially plentiful, and it can be caught,
along with bonita, dolphin, mackerel,
jack, snapper, corvina and grouper, less
than 5 minutes from the doorstep of the
club. And less than half an hour away,
there is the big game-marlin and sail-
fish. It goes without saying that, all the
members are "fishing bugs." But if they
have guests who are not, there is a
beautiful beach for swimming, and
water skiing and skin diving can be
pursued close by. For smoothing out the
tension wrinkles, a siesta on the long
porch overlooking the water or a bake
in the sun is just the thing.
When the airstrip is completed, trips
0 ,from Panama City and David will be
A .easier. By plane, the Island is an hour
from Panama City, about the same from
David. For Chiriqui members, the trip
from Pedregal is but 80 miles by sea.
And for members who go by land,
trailing a boat, there is a boat landing
at Guabala (near Remedios) that is 40
-miles from Rancheria Island.
The venture has proved a success.
Members find themselves taking advan-
tage of the facilities to get away from it
all and to do some angling where, at
On the cool veranda, members of the club enjoy a luncheon and conversation. These the end of a day of fishing thrills, the
combine with excellent fishing and lovely scenery to make Club Rancheria everything its
membership hoped for when they undertook the project in 1965. comforts of home are waiting.


All of this, needless to say, is not
inexpensive. The membership is com-
prised largely of businessmen. Among
the club members are Eduardo Con-
zilez, the Abadia brothers, Aristides,
F6lix, and George, and Ricardo Pgrez,
all of David, Chiriqui, and Arturo Vial
of Panama City, all businessmen. Don
Marco A. Robles, President of the
Republic of Panama, is a member, as
are Dr. Rogelio Arias, a physician on
the staff of Gorgas Hospital in the
Canal Zone, and Dr. Raymond Herold,
a California physician. These men and
the other 24 members have known one
another for many years and the amiable .
group finds much pleasure in being
together, relaxing and fishing. Each paid
a proportionate share of the cost of the
construction and through club dues,
each member pays a part of the cost
of maintaining the facilities and paying
the employees.
The membership feels that the
project has proved well worthwhile.
They are able to go to the island for
2 or 3 days-the traditional "long week-
end--or even spend a week or two Guide holds up gaffed wahoo landed by Julio Valdez, Panama city businessman, left, while
vacation there. Arturo Vial, right, waits for a similar strike.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










SH i'


P & O Orient
Round-World Trips
THE WELL KNOWN P&O Orient
Line ships will be passing through the
Canal at regular intervals during the first
4 months of 1967 on scheduled round-
the-world cruises.
According to a recent article in the
New York Travel Agent, the line will
offer monthly round-the-world depar-
tures from the West Coast with the
January and February sailings being
westbound and the March and April
sailings eastbound.
Leading the round-the-world sailings
is the Arcadia which came north through
the Canal in October on her way to
Europe and around the world. This ship
will sail from Vancouver January 22 on
her way to San Francisco and Los Ange-
les. She will then visit 23 ports with calls
at Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia,
Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaya, India,
E a'.pt. Italy, Portugal, Britain, France,
Florida, and the Caribbean, arriving at
the Canal April 25.
The Chusan will inaugurate the first
of two voyages arriving at Balboa
March 20 from the West Coast; she will
sail for Kingston, Nassau, Port Ever-
l.,id -s Bermuda and Le Havre.
Norton Lilly, local agents for the line,
announce other ships due in April and
June are the Canberra, April 29, the
Orsova, June 22, and the Oriana in June.

Super Auto Carrier
A RECENT Canal customer was the
Oppama Maru, Japan's first international
auto carrier, a 16,155 deadweight-ton
member of the Mitsui OSK Lines fleet,
that can accommodate 1,200 cars on her
six decks. Prior to unloading, cars are
unlashed from cables securing them to
the deck. Special auto shifters, built into
each deck, then move the vehicles
athwartships, permitting operators to
drive the cars into elevators opening
on the weather deck. Drivers continue
)by t..li,i, the cars across the covered
hatch and down an auto ladder, and a
ramp to dockside. To unload a full load
of 1.200 cars requires only 10 hours.

Japanese Fleet Grows
JAPAN'S MERCHANT fleet is now the
world's fifth largest and continues to


PPI N G


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1967
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1967 1966
Commercial ---- 3,036 2,953
J.S. Government .___--. 188 149
[7,-t, 0 ,


$479 million in the red. This was caused
by the combination of several factors
including a nearly 2-month long sea-
men's strike, a drop in both import and
export cargo carried and a slight drop
in loading rates.


I
F


Total --
TOLLS"
Commercial $18,680,187
U.S. Commercial 1,161,365
Total __$19,841,552
CARGO"
Commercial -- 21,345,575
U.S. Government 1,137,308
Free ----- 153,481


Total-- 22,636,364


o Includes tolls on all vessels,
small.
**Cargo figures are in long toi


grow. According to the Mi
the Ministry of Transport
Japan's merchant fleet as o
March 1966 totaled 11,97
tons. It accounted for 7.5 p
world's total merchant flee
The magazine went on
although Japan's fleet incre
million gross tons during
period ending March 31, J
national balance in ship


1967

. .


.. .T
. --- --- --- --


\\


(A


JUL AUG -


I 1100

r/ . ... 1000


NOV .. 'E i '.-'.' ,'" r ,' JUN


NOVEMBER 1966


N
U
M


B
E
900 R


800


R
700
A
N
600 S
I
T
n S


I1


ree I ----______- -__-__


32 Winter Cruise Schedule
3,252 3,113
A TENTATIVE schedule of ships due
to arrive at Canal ports between Nov-
$16,557,967 ember 1966 and April 1967 on winter
-9329 cruises follows:
$17,489,986 NOVEMBER 6-Constitution; 29-
Himalaya.
19,698,588 DECEMBER 3-Statendam; 6-Or-
814,148 sova; 14-Leonardo da Vinci; 26-Chu-
18,281 san; 26-Argentina; 29-Federico C.; 31-
20,531,017 President Roosevelt.
oceangoing and JANUARY 1l-Kungsholm;,13-Maas-
dam; 21-Empress of England; 22 Ber-
ni. gensfjord; 24-Sagafjord; 28-Cabo San
Vicente; 29-Empress of Canada.
FEBRUARY 2-Batory; 3-Iberia; 6-
arine Digest, Federico C.; 7-United States and Queen
reports that Elizabeth; 10-Santa Paula; 12-Car-
f the end of mania; 14-Hanseatic; 15-Ryndam; 18-
70,000 gross Franconia; 19-France; 21-Federico C.;
percent of the 27-United. States; 28-Hanseatic.
t tonnage. MARCH 2-Carmania and Empress
to say that of Canada; 5-Bremen; 14-Hanseatic;
ased by 1.16 20-Chusan; 20-Federico C.
the one-year APRIL 3-Kungsholm, Federico C.,
apan's inter- and Sagafford; 8-Rotterdam; 25-Arca-
)ing showed dia; 27-Caronia; 29-Canberra.





PANAMA CANAL MULES GUIDE

SHIPS THROUGH THE LOCKS






V


A Panama Canal locomotive or "mule" heads down the tracks at Gatun Locks to meet a southbound (Atlantic-to-Pacific) ship. Cables link
transiting ships with the powerful electric mules which guide the vessels through the lock chambers. Smaller type ships go through under
their own power. The mule shown above is about to pick up a ship waiting in the lock's north entrance. At left, in a parallel set of locks,
a Japanese vessel heads north to Cristobal, the Atlantic terminus of the Canal.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23






















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/









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Ilk *
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Date Due

Due Returned Due Returned

JUL o-!- "-"-





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---------------

---------





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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3 1262 04820 5123