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Front Cover 2
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Front Matter 2
Table of Contents
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] II | Ill Ill I I
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
ON THE INSIDE:
Doctor in the San Bias
Swimmers of the Canal
Ist Isthmian Pipers
-- S_ ---- --- .. ,#- |.a11. -
.. 1 --. .. ,.
ROBEERT J. FLEMING, Jr.,
H. R. PARFrrr, Lieut
FRANK A. BA
Panama Canal Infor
Governor-rresident R IOBERT U. .
:enant Governor p .. M o.c hN E. GOODW
DWIN Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD,
mation Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ,
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.
Ao-IIU )ur C' er9
THE COVER photograph shows Panama's unusual
mountain formation La India Dormida-the Sleeping Prin-
cess-around which a romantic legend has been woven.
This mountain is located about 76 miles west of Panama
City in a region called El Valle, a beautiful valley that
both Panamanians and foreigners alike visit to escape the
heat and jangle of day-to-day living in the city.
W legend, the mountain took the form of
rn Indian princess who fell in love with
er people. The mountain can be seen
El Valle's main road. Here also the motorist can
his eyes on miles of splendorous scenery.
There are many aspects of El Valle worth knowing
about. For more detail and photos of this lovely region,
turn to page 17.
A young physician, Dr. Daniel Gruver, and his work
with the Indians of the San Bias Islands is the topic
of an illustrated three-page article starting on page 3.
Dr. Gruver, affiliated with the Baptist Home Mission
Board, says he is in a general practice of the broadest
sort. That means he does everything from delivering
babies to pulling teeth.
Similar to Niagara Falls which has attracted numerous
stunt men who walk tight ropes or go over the falls in
barrels, the Panama Canal has received its share of
people who wish to be the first, or the fastest, or the best.
These were not daredevils but swimmers who began
transiting part of the waterway before it was opened to
On page 6 starts an article on those who have swum
the Canal, including some who were charged tolls for
The 1st Isthmian Highlanders, a newly-formed Scottish
bagpipe band that is rapidly gaining popularity through-
out Panama, is discussed in words and pictures beginning
on page 9.
And the Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club, which claims
to be the only Rotary club in this part of the world
flying two flags, is the subject of a two-page feature that
starts on page 11.
A modest summer home in beautiful El Valle de Ant6n nestles
between the mountains and an orange grove.
Doctor in the San Bias Islands___
Swimmers of the Panama Canal_
1st Isthmian Highlanders.. ___
Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club-
Good Old Summertime_____
Ports of the World- _____
Shipping Notes ___________
Captain With a Destiny--___
El Valle _______ ______
Shipping Trends-...--- -_____
CERR, Press Officer
IN and TOMAs A. CUPAS
roBI BITTEL, FANNIE P.
and JOSE T. TURON
4* \ i
HE SUN BROKE out of the Atlantic in a shimmering glow
of copper as the youngg doctor stepped ashore from the
inter-island boat. He shook hands with the little group of
Indians: together they walked the well-worn path toward
the main street of the village, the bare feet of the Indians
plopping sfotly against the damp morning earth. For
Dr. Daniel Gruver it was the beginning of a very long
day, one of manN he has spent bringing medical help
; ., ;
At left, Dr. Gruver readies for surgery.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
to the Indians of San Bias.
He had started from Ailigandi, the San Bias island where he runs the one
hospital in the chain of 365 islands. In making his "rounds" the doctor may
travel 200 miles, by light plane or boat,
so each visit must count.
A day on one of the islands means
seeing 200 or more patients, with a
variety of ailments and diseases rarely
encountered in the city by the general
practice doctor. But Dr. Gruver, who
works for the Baptist Home Mission
i. Board, wouldn't exchange his practice
s- : for another one anywhere. He is doing
:' what he has planned to do for many
,,'* -.- years-medical work among the Indians.
Daniel Gruver was 12 years old when
S'he decided on a career. He would be a
: doctor, and like his parents, he would
S..4 .." be a missionary. His father, now in
Puerto Rico as the pastor of a church
T k,, ,and a teacher of ministers, had traveled
over the United States. The Gruvers
had lived in Alaska, California, Texas,
S*- Washington, D.C., in Kansas City, Mo.,
S where Dr. Gruver was born, and in
other States. The family spent 4 years
Sin Costa Rica and in 1960 his father,
Harold Gruver, was pastor of the First
Baptist Church in Panama City.
Dr. Gruver earned a degree in the
Bible at the University of Corpus
Christi, in Texas, but had attended a
total of seven colleges. During college
he had been a pastor at small Mexican-
American churches in Texas that could
not support a regular minister. After
graduation from Southwestern Medical
College at Dallas, where he was one of
.. the top five students in his class, he felt
that a chance to intern and be a resident
at Gorgas Hospital was a good oppor-
tunity. He spent 4 years at Gorgas,
3 as a resident surgeon. During those
4 years, he had the opportunity of work-
ing with the Indians in the Cricamola
River area in Bocas del Toro, the San
Felix area and in the San Bias. He made
many trips to these areas.
"Other doctors at Gorgas have made
: these trips and still make them," he
(See p. 4)
Removing skin for use as a graft in surgery for skin cancer. Dr. Gruver is assisted by two
trainees at the hospital at Ailigandi.
WMe iL in a generall Practice
Of the Very h'roadejt Sort
(Continued from p. 3)
says. And Dr. Gruver expressed his
deep appreciation for the fine cooper-
ation of the Panama Government in
making these trips possible.
It was during one of these trips that
Dr. Gruver, who has two children,
adopted an Indian girl from the Crica-
mola region. Now the picture of health,
she was very ill at the time. The Gruvers
named her Juanita and she is now the
2-year-old playmate of Rachel Melite
Gruver, 6, and Daniel Marcus, 5. All
three are spending the summer at Aili-
gandi and learning the Cuna language,
while their mother, Mrs. Jane Gruver,
is working for her masters degree at
the University of Arizona. Mrs. Gruver
will teach speech at Balboa High School
in the fall. The Gruvers have an apart-
ment in Panama where Dr. Gruver, who
has been in the San Bias since October
1965, spends time with his family on
frequent trips to the city.
As administrator, doctor, record keep-
er, and surgeon, he is constantly busy
at the hospital at Ailigandi. There, he
may see 30 to 50 patients in a day.
He performs surgery and when equip-
ment and facilities there can't do the job,
patients are sent to Panama City.
The doctor developed an interest in
Indian tribes while in high school. This
interest and his desire to be a mission-
ary doctor combined to bring him, at
last, to the San Bias. At 33, he looks
forward to a linII career in missionary
medicine. He speaks Spanish with ease
and fluency, and is learning Cuna. "I
promised the people in the islands that
I would be able to deliver a sermon in
the Cuna language in 1 year. I have
kept that promise."
His Cuna is sufficient to talk to his
patients. And they come by the hun-
dreds. Being in a general practice "of
the broadest sort," he says, means you
have to be flexible. He has operated
on animals, when the owners insist upon
it, and he has pulled 3,000 teeth in less
than a year. Dr. Gruver is comforted
by the presence of the Panamanian
Government doctor, Dr. Savelvs Ber-
manis, who has been practicing at
the island settlement of NarganA for
18 years. Dr. Bermanis also does some
traveling. "He is a wonderful doctor,
and well respected and loved by many
of the Indians," said Gruver. "Dr. Ber-
manis has done a world of good for
countless people in the San Blas."
Still, with 42 main settlements and
more than 20,000 San Bias Indians,
there is a tremendous amount of work
to be done by both doctors. And now
there is a Peace Corps nurse, Mrs. Susie
Black, who aids Dr. Bermanis. On
Ailigandi, Dr Gruver is assisted at the
15-bed hospital by Dionisio Bodden, a
San Bias Dr. Gruver is training, and Ri-
cardo Campillo, a laboratory assistant
who was trained at Gorgas Hospital in
the Canal Zone. He also counts as a
great help the trips made to the area by
A long day is over, but there's still time to
look in on a patient.
various doctors from Panama City and
the Canal Zone This arrangement, he
says, is under the auspices of the Pan-
amanian Government, which has given
full cooperation in efforts to aid the San
Bias. "These doctors contribute much
toward the improvement of general
health in the islands," he said.
The hospital was built through the
fund raising efforts of the First Baptist
Church in the Canal Zone, which pro-
vided some funds and raised others
through the Baptist Church organiza-
tions in the United States. Volunteer
labor from the Canal Zone, both mil-
itary and civilian, worked with San Bias
Indians in the construction. Most of the
equipment was furnished by the South-
ern Baptist Convention; some from
the World Medical Relief Agency. The
U.S. Army furnished transportation for
the equipment. The hospital took shape
as the Armed Forces Wives Club and
other civic organizations and individuals
in this area and in the United States
gave of their time and resources. Help
still comes from several of these groups.
The hospital has X-ray equipment,
and though it his no electrical genera-
tors, it is hoped that these will be pro-
vided by the end of the vear. A drug
room is kept, with its stock gradually
This youngster is not quite happy with the doctor now, but no
doubt she will be when the visit is over.
1s Ij L
Dr. Gruver, his children, and friends. From left, Melite Gruver,
Juanita, whom he adopted in the Cricamola region, Marcus Gruver.
At far right and rear are four San Blas boys. His children are spend-
ing the summer at Ailigandi while the doctor's wife, Mrs. Jane
Gruver, works for a master's degree at the University of Arizona.
They are learning the Cuna language as well as Spanish.
All in a day's work, and in this particular day's work doctor Gruver
delivered twins at the hospital at Ailigandi.
But patients use much medicine.
During one measles epidemic, Dr. Gru-
ver attended to 100 children in a single
day. His practice is made difficult be-
cause of the incidence of tropical dis-
eases, many of which are difficult to
diagnose and do not yield easily to cure.
Congenital defects are fairly common, as
is tuberculosis. Skin cancer is prevalent
because of the Indians' constant expo-
sure to strong sun. Dr. Gruver has per-
formed much surgery for skin cancer
and congenital defects. He has also
delivered countless babies. The first one
born in the hospital on Ailigandi was
named Daniel Gruver Grimaldo.
Superstition, rooted for centuries in
the life of the Indians, poses still an-
other problem. The doctor comments:
"The reign of superstition has not been
broken. I would say that perhaps 80 per-
cent of all illness is still treated by witch
doctors in the San Bias.
"There are two types of witch doctors.
One is the Nele, whose treatment may
involve singing songs or chants, burning
incense and firing up smoke pots to
scare away the disease, or using dolls.
All these methods, and others, are to
frighten away the spirit or devil that
has made the patient ill. The case may
be a broken leg or an infection, but the
Nele will dance and cast spells to effect
a cure. And the Nele may make a 'pre-
scription' which is to be carried out by
the second type of witch doctor, the
Ina Tuledi. The Ina Tuledi soaks in-
juries or affected area in juices, or
special preparations. He may smear the
wound, or area of pain, in mud."
Dr. Gruver works quietly to bring
the Indians to the belief that modern
medicine can do more for them than
rituals. But it isn't easy, "as in the case
of a young man whose jaw was broken
and arm paralyzed because of a break
in his collarbone. After unsuccessful
treatment by the witch doctors, I began
treatment. The man was in great pain
and infection threatened his life. I wired
the jaw and put the arm in a cast and
began drug treatment to fight the infec-
tion. He was progressing nicely when
the witch doctor and other Indians took
him away, ripping off the cast and wires.
I haven't seen the young man since. The
infection had nearly disappeared and
I expect the jaw and collarbone will
mend, though not very straight."
"Often, in the very last stages of a
case," Dr. Gruver said, "when the pa-
tient is to be discharged as cured, the
witch doctors will talk intensely and
for a long time to the patient to convince
him to come to the witch doctor. A
dance is done and the witch doctor takes
credit for a cure." Nevertheless, says
Dr. Gruver, "the important thing is that
the patient is cured, and we work against
superstition as much as possible."
More and more, the witch doctors
themselves are coming to Dr. Gruver
for treatment. And their patients can-
not discount this sort of testimony to
modern medicine. There is a rent in
the fabric of superstition and, hopefully,
it will widen with time.
Walking across the mountains from
the Pacific Coast, paddling in cayucos
from the islands and settlements, the
Indians come. They are responding to
the outstretched hand, the generosity of
their fellow men and the dedication of
a missionary doctor.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
t' ? .... C nI/
,'" ^v/ ---"
SWIMMING THE Panama Canal-
not considered a sport by most people-
has, during the years, attracted a
number of amateur and professional
This has been so despite the fact that
even during the early days Panama
Canal authorities did not take a wildly
enthusiastic view of granting requests
to swim the big ditch. In recent years,
they have been even more reluctant.
In the first place, ships have priority;
in the second place, there are risks
involved. Modern safety men don't like
the idea at all.
But back before the Canal was opened
to traffic, Canal employees and other
Isthmian residents took to swimming the
waterway, or those parts which were
open, on their days off. There were no
community swimming pools and it seems
that almost anyone would jump into the
Canal on a warm day. There were some
complaints, too, about bathing costumes
and loud and boisterous behavior.
Swimming the Canal as a stunt started
in 1913 when two professional swim-
mers from New York--a man and a
woman-got permission to make a par-
tial transit. The permit required them
to skip Gaillard Cut, then known as
Culebra, which still was closed to ships
as well as swimmers.
The man was Capt. Alfred Brown, a
lifeguard who described himself as the
"champion long-distance swimmer of
the world." He made the swim before
the Canal was opened to traffic.
The woman swimmer, who to this
day is the only woman to swim any
part of the Canal, was Elaine May
Golding. She was billed in the local
press as the "champion lady swimmer
Miss Golding bypassed the locks and
did not venture into the Cut but she
did most of the rest of the Canal from
Cristobal to Balboa in stages between
December 12 and 16, 1913.
Reports of the swim said that she
favored the breast stroke which brought
her head under water frequently; that
the odor of the water in some parts of
the Canal troubled her; that she got
Being measured for Canal transit by Chief Admeasurer Robert E. Medinger is Albert H.
Oshiver, who swam non-stop from Gatun to Gamboa in 1962. The flashing light he used
during the night part of his swim is strapped to his forehead.
badly sunburned but that she was cheer-
ful most of the time. She was accom-
panied by a motor launch in which rode
her manager and a motion picture
photographer who made films of the
swim. Her feat was not included in the
Panama Canal files although it was re-
ported in the Star & Herald of that
date. After the swim, she was quoted
as saying she had accomplished other
long-distance swims that had required
The first complete ocean-to-ocean
swim through the newly opened Canal
was made in 1914 by J. R. Bingaman
and James Wendell Green, two Panama
Canal employees who applied for per-
mission from the Secretary of War on
the premise that the "honor" should
belong to a Canal employee.
The permission was granted by Gov.
George W. Goethals, August 18, just
3 days after the Canal was opened to
the commerce of the world.
"You have my permission to swim
through the locks chambers, climbing
up the ladders at the ends at a time
when the locks are not in use and their
operation will not be interfered with,"
Colonel Goethals said.
"The general use of locks by swim-
mers cannot be permitted as this prac-
tice would be a detriment to the service
and the action in this case does not
establish a precedent."
The two men started their swim on
Sunday, August 22, and, being employ-
ees with work to do, swam only on Sun-
days or at such time as they could be
spared from their regular work. They
completed the swim on October 18 in a
total of 26 hours, 34 minutes swimming
An early account of the swim said
they were accompanied by boats and
timekeepers and made the distance from
ocean to ocean, including the lock cham-
bers, in less time than it takes many
people to walk Thev used the trudge-
crawl stroke, the newspapers said.
Bingaman left the Isthmus in 1916
but Green remained in the Canal Zone
and later became the Panama Canal's
first Treasurer. He retired from service
Perhaps the most famous swim, or
the one that received the most publicity
at the time, was made in 1928 by author-
adventurer Richard Halliburton, well-
known travel writer of his day.
Written permission was given by
Gov. M. L. Walker who agreed to hav-
ing a small launch, a cameraman, a
newspaper reporter and an expert rifle-
man accompany the swimmer through
the Canal. In turn, Halliburton accept-
ed all liabilities of the trip, both to
himself and "any damage he might do
Halliburton completed the swim in
about 10 days and set some kind of prec-
edent by being the first swimmer to
be locked through all three sets of locks.
His actual swimming time was about
Newspaper accounts said "it required
as much mechanical labor to bring Hal-
liburton, the lightest ship in Canal his-
tory, through the locks as it did for the
40,000-ton airplane carrier Saratoga,
the heaviest. Charges for the passage
were made in accordance with the ton
rate, and Halliburton, weighing 150
pounds, paid just 36 cents."
For the next few years, the Canal
was free of swimmers-at least officially.
In 1936 two U.S. Navy men stationed
at Coco Solo, made an attempt which
received the approval of the Canal
Marvin Beacham of the Submarine
Base and Regis Parton of the Fleet Air
Base, both members of the Southern
Cross Swimming Club, planned to make
the first non-stop swim from the Atlan-
tic to the Pacific. They were to be ac-
companied by two U.S. Navy launches
carrying men with rifles. The launches
were to have towed a net especially
prepared for the swimmers to "insure
their safety against fish, alligators, suc-
tion and other accompanying dangers."
The project was canceled, however,
when the plan was firmly vetoed by the
Commandant of the 15th Naval District
During World War II, the Canal was
a busy place and so were the people
who might have had a yen to swim
It was not until 1950 that a request
was received from another aspiring
Canal swimmer. He was Charles
McGinn, a U.S. Military Academy cadet
in the class of 1953 who was coming
to the Canal Zone to spend his leave
with his parents in Gatun.
Permission to make the swim while
he was on leave was given with various
degrees of enthusiasm and reservations.
The Panama Canal Safety Engineer
pointed out the usual dangers and the
Health Bureau Director recommended
typhoid booster shots and fresh drink-
ing water while the swimmer was en
route. The Navigation Division asked
him to swim only in daylight hours and
(See p. 8)
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. . ' . ...
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Explorer-writer Richard Halliburton transits one of the Panama Canal locks during his 1928 swim through the Canal. The rowboat behind
him carries a rifleman in addition to the rowboat operator.
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Explorer-rier Richard Halhourton3 transits one of the Panama Canal locks during his 1928 swim through the Canal. The rowboat behind
hi carries a rifleman in addition to the rowboat operator.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 7)
to keep out of the usually traveled lane
Accompanied by a rowboat manned
by Robert Kariger, McGinn started his
swim June 22 from Pier 6 in Cristobal.
He made the transit in 6 days with ap-
proximately 5 hours spent on each daily
lap. He ended at 3:45 p m. June 28 at
the Balboa Yacht Club pier. and news-
paper accounts say there were some
who suggested that he continue on
MtLCiiri, however, looked the situa-
tion over with a practiced eye and
decided not to make that trip.
Kariger was reported to have lost
weight operating the rowboat through
the Canal but McGinn, who stoked
up on hot soup and sweetened coffee,
weighed about the same as before. His
swimming time of 36 hours was less
than the time taken by Halliburton but
10 hours more than the time taken by
the two early Canal employee swim-
mers Bingaman and Green.
Capt. Robert F. Legge, the 15th
Naval District Medical Officer, made
headlines in the local press when he
swam the Canal from Gatun to Pedro
Miguel in October 1958.
He made a number of practice swims
in Madden Lake and then charting his
course like a sailor shoving off for a
long cruise, Captain Legge swam the
35-mile stretch in what he claimed
was a record time of 21 hours and
The 52-year-old physician climbed
out of the water at Pedro Miguel to the
applause of 100 or more Canal Zone
residents lining the east bank of Paraiso
Reach. During his swim, he had some
trouble with cramps and a stiff shoulder
but encountered no reptiles except an
iguana which crossed his bow on his
way from one side of the Canal to the
other. He was charged 72 cents in tolls,
the rate for a 1-ton vessel in ballast.
The following May, 1st Sgt. George
W. Harrison, a 32-year-old Army ser-
geant sponsored by the First Battle
Group of the 20th Infantry, swam from
Gatun to Miraflores Locks. Although he
started the swim May 12 and completed
it the following day, he took time out
for rest and food and had problems
with currents and passing ships. He did
not swim through Pedro Miguel but
By the time that Albert H. Oshiver,
42-year-old oceanographer from Wash-
ington, D.C., arrived on the scene in
1962, the Canal officials were inclined
to take a dim view of any other attempts
to swim the Canal.
When he asked for permission from
Washington, he was advised that due
to the increase in ship transits he
could not be given any encouragement.
Nevertheless he appeared in the Canal
LCanal 'Ills P ai
By -S I 11C.rs
The Master Key to the Panama Canal in the grade of Honorary Vessel is presented by
Gov. William Potter to Capt. Robert F. Legge, USN, who swam from Gatun to Pedro
Miguel in 21 hours and 54 minutes.
Zone and made a personal appeal to
swim through Gatun Lake. He made
several practice swims. After signing a
release he was given permission to
swim from south Gatun to Gamboa and
advised to stay outside ship channels.
Oshiver set a record by making the
29-hour swim without stopping. He
was accompanied part of the way by a
motor boat operated by W. R. Byrd of
the Terminals Division and all of the
way by a cayuco attended by Pedro
At night he wore a flashing red light
strapped to his forehead and Torres had
a battery powered light on his finger
to show the swimmer his course. Spec-
tators observed that Oshiver seemed to
pick up speed during his last 6 hours
in the water. He said he had to because
he was cold. He landed at Gamboa at
5 a.m. December 30.
Both Oshiver and Captain Legge
were measured by the Panama Canal
admeasurer for tolls and both paid. They
were presented with the key to Panama
Canal Locks by the Governor of the
1st Isthmian Highlanders
PASSENGERS ABOARD A British
cruise ship visiting Panama last March
were amazed to hear the skirl of bag-
pipes being played on shore. They ask-
ed when a British regiment had been
The visitors learned that there was
no British regiment in Panama and that
the bagpipes belonged to members of
the newly organized 1st Isthmian High-
landers. The pipers later played aboard
the vessel for the benefit of the tourists.
The 1st Isthmian Highlanders formed
their group just last November but are
rapidly growing in both size and scope.
Its members claim it to be the first pipe
band on the Isthmus and the only band
of its kind playing below the Rio Grande
in this hemisphere.
Dressed in their colorful Scottish
tartan kilts, the Highlanders are a de-
light to audiences at fairs and parades
throughout the Isthmus. Both Latins
and North Americans have come to
know the Highlanders as an invigorat-
ing ingredient to most public functions
at which the Canal Zone is represented.
The first pipe heard on the Isthmus
was played by Sp/5 Robert Donald,
U.S. Southern Command, Fort Amador,
who learned to play the instrument in
Oregon, a particularly pipe band-con-
scious State. While listening to a radio
broadcast of a football game, Paul
Clare, of Howard AFB, who had play-
ed in pipe bands in the United States,
heard Donald performing and sought
him out. Clare, of White Plains, N.Y.,
had a 5-year playing background and
played at the graveside during the
funeral of President Kennedy.
A little later they were joined by
Thomas White, a 6th grade teacher at
Howard Air Force Base Elementary
School. White had started to learn to
play at the University of Oregon but
had to give it up when he moved to
the Canal Zone. He still had his pipe,
however, and became the third member
of the group.
In November the trio began posting
signs to advertise for recruits; eight per-
sons attended the pipers' first official
meeting in January. Clare was named
Pipe Major while White and Donald
were appointed Pipe Sergeants.
They had planned to make their debut
at the 1966 July 4th celebrations but
pushed up their plans and participated
in the annual carnival festivities last
February. Their playing added to the
fun during the counting of votes for the
Adds a Touch
Canal Zone carnival queen, at her cor-
onation, and in the gala carnival parade
in Panama City.
The band grew in number and im-
proved its quality of piping during the
period immediately following Carnival.
Its present strength of five dancers,
seven pipers and three drummers con-
tinues to grow as new enthusiasts begin
instructions and later purchase their
Since first appearing in the carnival
festivities, the Highlanders have appear-
ed at the Canal Zone St. Patrick's Day
Shamrock Ball and played at fairs in
Chitre, Lidice, and La Chorrera, the lat-
ter three of which were supported by
the Panama Canal organization.
Membership in the Highlanders in-
cludes a cross-section of professional
people, technicians, military, students
and other vocational groups. Most can
trace at least part of their family trees to
Scotland but this is not a prerequisite
Members of the 1st Isthmian High-
landers contend that learning to play
the bagpipe is relatively easy and re-
quires only between 1V and 3 months.
The bagpipes played by the Highland-
ers have one chanter or flutelike blow-
pipe with nine notes. Also, there are
three drones, reeds that maintain con-
stant tones. The airbag, usually made
of any one of a number of hides and
covered with wool, is held under the
arm of the player who must keep a
constant pressure on the sack.
The difficulty in playing is learning
breath control and maintaining pressure
on the bag so there is no relation be-
tween breathing and the sound level.
Music they play includes Scottish
military marches, jigs, reels, strathsprey
(Highland fling) and many pieces more
than 200 years old, written specifically
for the bagpipe. Jazz and other con-
ventional music can be played on the
bagpipe if it falls within the nine-note
The 1st Isthmian Highlanders, like
any pipe band, have their own colorful
and traditional uniforms. With the ex-
ception of dress white blouses, uniforms
come from Scotland. The blouses are
made in Panama. Pipers wear Glengarry
caps, similar to overseas hats, and drum-
mers, Balmoral tassle-type barrets with
clan crests. Each has a sporran, a horse-
hair purse, on his waist. The most strik-
ing part of the uniform, of course, is the
kilt, made of about eight yards of mate-
rial and pleated in the rear. Each mem-
(See p. 10)
Pipe Sergeant Bob Donald appears to be all business as he marches and plays his pipe in
a parade in downtown Panama City.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 9)
ber of the band has his own clan tartan.
Sergeants also wear red sashes and
every member has tartan hose to match
the kilt, and red garters called flashes.
A dirk, or dagger, is worn by the Pipe
Major as part of his uniform.
Members of the group receive copies
of trade journals for piping, one printed
by the College of Piping. These High-
landers serve as a link with Panama's
past. In the late 1600's a group of Scots
made a vigorous but unsuccessful at-
temp to establish a permanent colony
in Caledonia Bay, in Dari6n.
Contrary to what may be a popular
belief, the Scots were not the origina-
tors but the perfectors of bagpipes,
variations of which are played in Spain,
Germany, France, India, the Nether-
lands, Russia, the Philippines, and many
other lands. Styles of the bagpipes may
vary but basically they are the same
instrument, producing the only wind-
blown music coming from a reservoir
of air. Other wind instruments are
Though the origin of bagpipes is
obscured by history, it is surely one of
the oldest traditional military instru-
ments in use today. Records show they
existed in 13th-century Europe and
some contend they date back to the era
of Nero, the Roman fiddler. The pipes
have not changed much since the 1700's.
A lesson in the Highland Fling is given by Michael Pruitt (right), a dancer member of
the 1st Isthmian Highlanders. Learning the steps are (left to right) Kathy Lavery and
Here come the Highlanders as they parade down Central Avenue, Panama City, during the Carnival festivities earlier this year.
10 AUGUST 1966
Flies 2 Flags
TWO FLAGS-the flag of the United
States of America and the flag of
the Republic of Panama-fly over the
Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club. "It's al-
ways been so," said one of the officials
of the organization. The Cristobal-Colon
Rotary Club, the only twin city Rotary
Club in this part of the world, has been
flying the flags of the two nations since
its founding in 1920. Most of the 65
members speak both Spanish and Eng-
lish, and meetings are conducted in the
Nationalities, occupations and inter-
ests in this two-flag Rotary Club are
diverse. There are members who have
their own firms. Some head large cor-
porations, steamship companies, banks,
oil companies, or have other positions
of responsibility in the Republic of
Panama, the Canal Zone, and Central
and South America.
Twenty-one of the present members
reside in the Canal Zone and 44 in
Colon. They were born in the United
States, the Republic of Panama, the
British Empire, Netherlands, France,
Greece, Switzerland, Italy, Germany,
Philippines, Uruguay, Spain, Austria,
Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic,
and Puerto Rico.
It was on a November day in 1920
that a number of prominent business-
men met in the office of Frank L. Scott
and formulated plans for founding the
Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club. The pre-
vious year the Panama City Rotary Club
had been founded, with Harmodio Arias
The founding members, who elected
Frank L. Scott as first president, in-
cluded Gerald D. Bliss, George Guerin,
John Popham, Dr. Surse J. Taylor,
Mose Hunt, Ben Hess, Judge Wade,
Dr. Urwiler, Thomas McDonna, and
The Club was not yet in its teens
when it made headlines on May 10,
1933, that read: "Cristobal-Colon Rotary
Club May Act To End Colombia-Peru
Trouble." In an attempt to bring peace
and accord to the hostile nations of
Peru and Colombia, a suggestion was
made by members that a letter be ad-
Michel Simhon (center) and Robert Leigh (right), two of the senior members of the
Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club, joined more than 25 years ago. At left is newly installed
President Jos6 R. Van Beverhoudt.
dressed to the Rotary Clubs of those
countries. The letter would have pro-
posed that the clubs, supporting the
spirit of Rotary International, bring
pressure to bear upon their respective
governments, looking toward an intel-
ligent understanding of the problems
causing a state bordering upon actual
Rotary International is well-known
for its interest in youth activities, for
its charity work and for the important
part it plays in civic activities, with
thoughfulness of others regarded as the
basis of service and helpfulness to others
as its expression.
The Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club, in
its varied areas of activity, sponsors soft-
ball and basketball leagues in Colon;
its "21 Club" is one of the organization's
major projects working with youth in
the Cristobal-Colon communities; a sub-
stantial donation was made for an am-
bulance for the Bomberos, Colon's ex-
cellent firefighters; financial assistance
is provided the Old Folks' Home in
Puerto Pil6n, Panama; and contribu-
tions are made to many charitable orga-
nizations, to the American and Pan-
amanian Red Cross and the Salvation
Army. Rotarians and their wives, the
Rotary Anns, give their time and know-
ledge to community activities and have
worked with students attending the
vocational guidance courses at the high
The membership turnover is about
10 percent yearly, due principally to
transfers from the Isthmus. Unlike other
clubs, this one never expects to attain
a 100-percent attendance record as the
members travel extensively on business
and on vacations, and either may take
them half-way around the world.
The atmosphere of the club is cosmo-
politan, accentuated by visitors from all
parts of the globe.
Rotary, a member pointed out, creates
worldwide fellowship. Differences in
race, creed or nationality are wiped out
in a deluge of common interests. The
firm handclasp and warm informal
greeting speaks in inaudible eloquence:
"You don't pray or talk the way I do,
but you're a fellow human being, and
I like you."
The history of Rotary International,
now with 12,000 clubs in 132 countries
and geographical regions, goes back to
1905 when Paul P. Harris, a lawyer,
founded a club of a small group of
business and professional men in Chi-
cago, Ill. They decided to discuss proj-
ects over the dinner table, first at one
home, then another. This simplified giv-
ing a name to the organization, for since
they would rotate from house to house
they decided to call it "Rotary Club."
When the membership grew too large,
the custom was started of meeting once
a week around a luncheon table.
In 1910 there were 16 clubs whose
representatives met in Chicago for
(See p. 16)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
In the Good Old Summertime
^* L -'
< r "
Diane Berger, recreation assistant in the summer recreati
program at Los Rios Elementary School, is shown at the far ei
of the table with part of the handicrafts class busily engrossed
painting clay models they have made. The class met afternoon
Monday through Friday.
Six to nine year-olds at the Balboa Elementary School gym are
doing jumping jacks, a limbering up exercise before they perform
the more strenuous gymnastics of tumbling.
THE CAREFREE DAYS of summer vacation are the
happiest for youngsters if they have plenty of entertaining
things to do.
Hundreds of Canal Zone children are finding enjoyment
in the summer recreation program prepared for them by
the Canal Zone U.S. Schools Division. The program which
began in June and continues into August supplies a
myriad of activities guaranteed to bring not only pleasure
and amusement to the young ones but also a good
measure of body-building exercise.
Gymnasiums and play shelters in all the Zone com-
munities are bustling with activities ranging from orga-
nized games for the sandbox set to weight training for the
big fellows. More than a thousand children from 5 to 18
are enjoying the sports that include archery, tumbling,
kickball, battleball, basketball, ping-pong, badminton,
newcomb, volleyball, and gymnastics.
Another thousand or so are splashing in the pools at
Balboa, Curundu, Margarita, Coco Solo, and Gatun
where swimming classes are offered for all ages from
pre-schoolers. Classes in junior and senior lifesaving are
For the little ones who prefer diversions in the creative
vein, the summer recreation program offers projects in
handicrafts. Some of the more popular are ceramics,
r egg-shell picture making, free form clay modeling, crushed
rock picture making, mobile construction, painting, and
on making costume jewelry from paper.
With a steady hand and well-elevated elbow this modern female
Robin Hood sights her target and draws her bow in the Tri-
Archery Meet held at Gamboa. Archers from Balboa, Diablo, and
Gamboa participated in the archery shoot sponsored by the Summer
'I ~ -
The intermediate and swimmer class dives in at the Coco Solo pool. More than 1,000 persons are taking advantage of the swimming
classes offered by the Summer Recreation Program at pools on both sides of the Isthmus.
If you're hit you're out! Boys and girls enjoy battleball, a popular
hall game with pint-sized performers at Diablo gym. The program
also offers basketball, volleyball, baseball, touch football, handball
Richard Wainio, center, does a toe-raise in the advanced weight
training class at the Balboa High School while spotters Tom
Bartlett, left, and Raymond Letourneau, right, stand by as a
The shooting of arrows with a bow, undoubtedly one of the oldest sports in existence, plays an important part in the Summer Recreation
Program of the Canal Zone schools. Target archery is being practiced here by students in the field behind the Margarita gym.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Deeper Channel Adds to Bustle
At the Port of Corpus Christi
THE PORT OF Corpus Christi is an
on-the-move installation keeping pace
with the rapidly expanding city which
has grown from a town of 15,000 to a
metropolis of 180,000 in just 35 years.
Last year the port handled a total of
7,997,334 net tons of dry cargo, more
than in any previous year and the com-
bined total commerce of the port was
28,541,969 net tons for another record
high. Much of the growth can be trac-
ed to the vast number of services avail-
able to shippers doing business here.
Its deep water port, the deepest on
the gulf coast, can accommodate the
largest ships operating in the Gulf of
Mexico and it recently completed the
dredging to 40-foot depth in the ship
channel and harbor.
Two-way ship traffic is maintained
round the clock on the 400-foot-wide
ship channel leading to the Gulf of Mex-
ico. The Nation's 10th ranking seaport
in the volume of cargo tonnage, Corpus
Christi is a major petroleum shipping
port; a total of 131,420,036 barrels
of crude and refined products moved
through the port last year.
Within 150 miles of Corpus Christi
there are some 17,500 producing oil
wells with a daily allowable of about
675,000 barrels. A large variety of
petro-chemicals are produced in nearby
plants. As for dry cargo imports, Corpus
Christi leads other Texas gulf ports in
volume, which in 1965 was 5 million net
tons, mostly bulks ores and metal con-
centrates. It is a leading grain export-
ing seaport, using two large shipside
grain elevators, and an important cot-
ton shipping center, averaging about
400,000 bales of cotton and linters
Modern facilities and plenty of them
are a major selling point of boosters of
the port. They point to the fact that
the port has 10 covered warehouses
with 506,000 square feet of storage
space, all sprinklered, commodious open
docks, cargo handling equipment, ship-
side tracks and locomotive power for
rail car shunting. The port's main basin,
more than a mile long and 1,000 feet
wide, is backed up by four other basins
in the main harbor to handle specializ-
ed shipping needs.
In addition, there are 157 dry cargo
carriers, 68 canal barge operators offer-
ing service, and 5,983 lineal feet of
wharf frontage in the main basin. Steam-
ship lines offering services to every con-
tinent operate full-time agencies at
Cargo handling equipment available
for rental are four 30-ton diesel loco-
motive cranes, two 25-ton steam loco-
motive cranes and one 30-ton diesel
crawler crane owned by the Navigation
The District also maintains 10 oil
docks, five of which are situated in the
main basin, and others planned. Six
privately owned oil docks operate at
the port. Private terminal storage facil-
ities adjacent to the various basins
and the connecting canal can store
some 25 million barrels of oil or other
The city and port are served by three
railroads and overland freight service is
provided by numerous large common
carrier motor freight lines.
Vast storage facilities for petroleum and other liquid products stand out in this aerial view of the port of Corpus Christi. There are some
17,500 producing oil wells within 150 miles of Corpus Christi where huge quantities of dry cargo also are handled and stored.
.. ,m "-" ; ,. _.., -- .
..: :-. X6 -^
New Hull Design
A NEW CANAL customer with a
distinctive hull design made her maiden
voyage from the Far East to the U.S.
east coast recently. She is the SS Orien-
tal Queen, newest member of the C. Y.
Tung Island Navigation Corporation
Group of Hong Kong and built at the
Uraga Heavy Industries shipyard on
Tokyo Bay, Japan.
Operated by the Orient Overseas
Line, an affiliate of the Tung Group, the
ship is in service between Malaysian
and other far eastern ports and the
Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the United
States. She flies the Liberian flag.
The vessel's design was described in
a recent article in the "Shipping World
and Shipbuilder" as revolutionary. A
combination of Japanese and Chinese
shipbuilding skills, the ship is a joint
product of Masao Ishii of the Uraga
Heavy Industries yard and Prof. Hajime
Maruo of Yokohama University who
used the original concept developed by
Dr. Pao-Chi Pien, an eminent Chinese
naval architect engaged for a number
of years in research on hull design
problems in Washington, D.C.
The distinctive bulbous bow is design-
ed to produce higher speed with the
same power or the same speed with less
power by reducing hull wave resistance.
Although the Oriental Queen is one
of the first ships to be built on this
design, the concept is being used now
by other shipbuilders.
Wilford and McKay act as agents for
this line at the Canal.
New Grace Vessel
THE SS SANTA LUCIA, the first of
Grace Line's new class of cargo pas-
senger vessels, is now passing on a reg-
ular schedule through the Canal after
making her maiden voyage in May from
Port Newark, N.J., on her first com-
mercial trip to ports along the west coast
of South America.
She is one of six sister ships destined
for service on this trade route. The
21-knot vessel is able to make the round
trip to Chile and back to New Jersey in
from 40 to 46 days. She has a cargo
capacity of 13,702 tons in addition to
being equipped to handle 158 contain-
ers measuring 20 by 8 by 8 feet. Her
cargo handling gear includes 10-ton
booms for each of her seven hatches,
two 30-ton booms for hatches 3 and 4
and a heavy lift 80-ton boom to serve
hatches 4 and 5.
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FOURTH QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1966
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial _--___ 3,043 3,005
U.S. Government .__- 140 84
Free ................. 22 22
Free------- ----------- 22 22
Total-- 3,205 3,111
Commercial --$17,820,439 $17,008,938
U.S. Government 800,695 519,820
Total _$18,621,134 $17,528,758
Commercial --- 20,766,097 20,099,970
U.S. Government 888,829 642,622
Free----------- 122,315 73,598
Total --- 21,777,241 20,816,190
o Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
**Cargo figures are in long tons.
Designed by Gibbs and Cox and built
by the Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock
Company of Chester, Pa., the Santa
Lucia is equipped with a bow thruster
to aid in maneuvering in restricted chan-
nels or confined ports. There are fully
air conditioned passenger accommodations
for 12 passengers.
New Cruise Ship
THE FEDERICO C., an Italian cruise
ship owned by the Costa Line and oper-
ated this cruise season in the Caribbean
by the Atlantic Cruise Line Inc. from
Miami, will make five calls at Cristobal
during the 1966-67 cruise season, it has
been announced by C. B. Fenton, local
agents for the line.
This will be the first time that this
luxury liner has included the Isthmus
in its cruise itinerary. Formerly the
Italian built liner operated on the
Argentina to Mediterranean run.
The 20,000-ton ship is completely air
conditioned, is equipped with Denny
Brown stabilizers, and has a cruising
speed of 21 knots. For the further com-
fort of the passengers, she has four out-
door swimming pools, broad sun and
play decks, a cinema theater, closed cir-
cuit TV, ship-to-shore telephone, beauty
parlors, barber shops, and gift shops.
The first cruise of the winter season
will bring the ship to Cristobal, Decem-
ber 29. Other stops here are scheduled
for February 6, February 21, March 20,
and April 3.
Russian Cruise Ship
THE POSSIBILITY that the new Rus-
sian cruise liner Aleksandr Pushkin
would visit Cristobal during the coming
winter cruise season was announced
recently by C. B. Fenton, who are to
act as agents for the ship at the Canal.
According to present plans, the Soviet
vessel would make a visit here in Jan-
uary as part of a Caribbean cruise out
of European ports. She will be operated
by Alfred Wecera, of Munich, and can
accommodate 300 to 400 passengers.
r9 T -T ---T
L---- - - -4-
(AVER AGE 1951-1955) ---- -
L----f-f--i 1- ----L- -
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
- - -
New Board of Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club, from left: Abdiel E. IbTfiez, manager, Esso, in Colon; David C. Mcllhenny, vice-president,
Administrative Officer, Coco Solo Hospital; Norman E. Demers, secretary, Assistant Director, Panama Canal Transportation and Termi-
nals Bureau; Jos6 B. Van Beverhoudt, president, subscription services, Colon; Harold Salas, secretary Spanish, cigarette distributor,
Colon; Peter E. Alderson, treasurer, agent for Panama Agencies; Ram6n B. Mouynes, air conditioning frm; and Alfred A. Nordstrom,
who is with the auto industry.
(Continued from p. 11)
the first Rotary convention. Shortly
after, clubs were organized in Canada,
England, and Ireland.
Rotary grew into a world fellowship
of business and professional men who
accepted the "Ideal of Service" and have
as their mottoes "Service Above Self'
and "He Profits Most Who Serves Best."
The Cristobal-Colon Rotary Club
installed its 1966 officers at the 46th
annual reception and noted that in
this period it has had 44 presidents.
The late Dr. Harry Eno served two
terms, 1928-29 and 1944-45, while the
record to date was set by the late
W. A. Pond, Jr., who was elected
president in 1935-36, and headed
the organization in 1940-41 and again
The third, and youngest Rotary Club
in the Republic of Panama is in David,
and was founded 34 years ago.
IN 1852, THE Fourth Infantry Reg-
iment of the U.S. Army received
orders to march toward its new head-
quarters in California via the Isthmus
of Panama route.
The troops embarked at the port
of New York and arrived on the
Caribbean coast of Panama July 16,
during the rainy season.
The regiment began to cross the
Isthmus in cars of the newly-started
transcontinental railroad and went
all the way to Barbacoas, where the
railroad ended. Then, in barges and
native cayucos they arrived at Gor-
gona, which at that time was a flour-
ishing community but now is cover-
ed by the water of Gatun Lake. Gor-
gona was located near the present
town of Gamboa.
When a cholera epidemic that
decimated the Isthmus population
spread to the Fourth Infantry Reg-
iment infecting many soldiers, a
camp hospital was set up at Gorgona.
It became the responsibility of
a young supply captain to take the
troops across the jungles of the Isth-
mus to the Pacific coast and then on
to California. The journey from the
town of Cruces, on the banks of the
Chagres River where the road of the
same name began, had to be made
on foot because the mule owners
preferred to rent their animals to
civilians who paid higher prices than
the U.S. Army.
Finally, Gorgona Hospital closed.
The members of the captain's reg-
iment who were still on the Isthmus
traveled to the Pacific coast and
embarked by ship for their final
History preserves the name of that
young officer: Capt. Ulysses S. Grant,
who later became the 18th President
of the United States of America.
Captain With a Destiny
NESTLED DEEP IN the mountains of
Code Province, some 76 miles west of
Panama City, lies a lovely Eden-like
valley where the natives still cherish
their legends and are swayed by the
enchantment of superstition.
Found here are strange trees with
square trunks and the rare golden color-
ed frogs, much sought after by univer-
sities and scientific institutes.
According to archaeologists, this
beautiful valley was the hunting ground
and haven of Indians in pre-Columbian
times. Mysterious inscriptions, which
to this day have not been deciphered,
are found on huge boulders throughout
the area, remaining muted testimony
of the early inhabitants. Thermal
springs, unseen by most visitors to the
valley, produce waters of near boiling
El Valle de Ant6n, approximately
4 miles long and 3% miles wide, is com-
Hurrying to market. El Valle farmer urges his horse along so he can get to market in plenty
of time to sell his produce.
pletely surrounded by mountains, lead-
ing some to believe this valley might
have been the crater of a large volcano.
Both Panamanians and Americans
have built homes here. Lovely flower
gardens and swimming pools comple-
ment the residences which range from
modest weekend retreats to luxurious
country estates. It is not uncommon
o.- '- :,, ." : "
A mountain dweller displays baskets he has made and eggs wrapped in corn husks-the
El Valle fashion of egg packing.
for El Valle to become the summer
capital for a long weekend. The Pres-
ident of the Republic and his entire
cabinet, plus other government officials,
go there to enjoy a respite from the
heat of the capital during the dry season.
From the main road of the town and
facing northwest, one can see a sil-
houetted mountain known as La India
Dormida, the Sleeping Princess, which
has inspired one of the most beautiful
legends of Panama.
Flor de Aire, as the Indian princess
was called, was the daughter of Urraca,
the most fierce of chieftains who fought
against the Spanish conquistadores on
the Isthmus. Flor de Aire fell in love
with one of the handsome conquista-
dores who was trying to conquer her
people and because of this impossible
dilemma, rejected the love of Yaravi,
the bravest warrior of her tribe.
In his despair, Yaravi leaped to his
death from the top of the mountain
before the eyes of the horrified maiden.
Flor de Aire, not wanting to betray her
tribe, never saw the Spaniard again.
She wandered aimlessly through the
mountains and valleys crying her mis-
fortune until she died on the beach,
looking toward the beloved mountains
where she was born. The mountains,
to perpetuate this sad love story, copi-
ed her image. The legend was embel-
lished by the great Panamanian author,
Julio B. Sosa.
The "Cholos," as the inhabitants of
the mountains surrounding El Valle de
Ant6n are called, are descendents of the
(See p. 18)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
) I N
A panoramic view of El Valle de Ant6n, an Eden-like valley where there are square trees, golden frogs and the natives cherish legends.
Indian warriors or hunters of long ago may have made these inscriptions on large boulders
found in El Valle de Ant6n. They remain undeciphered.
(Continued from p. 17)
Indians who escaped enslavement and
sought, in the mountains, the freedom
they no longer could enjoy in the flat-
lands. Today, they are Christians, and
most of them can read and write, thanks
to the efforts of the government in
providing schools for them.
Despite mixing with other races, the
Cholos still maintain the characteristics
of their race. They are of average height,
robust of build, with angular faces, well-
formed noses, expressive eyes and thick,
black, straight hair.
They are shy and submissive as a
result of their first encounter with the
white man. On Sundays they come
down the mountains to sell their prod-
ucts at the market and to attend mass
at the church a few steps from the
In 1928, Panamanians who had
discovered the peace and beauty of the
hidden paradise in the Code mountains
built a road making the valley acces-
sible to the outside world. Road build-
ers followed the natural contours of the
mountainside and courses of rivers and
streams. There are no bridges on the
18 miles of winding blacktop road
going from sea level up to 3,000 feet
where the valley is found. Twisting
through the mountains, the drive
offers breathtaking scenery not easily
The rich soil rewards the efforts of
the farmers with abundant yields. Sugar
cane, yucca, yams, tomatoes, oranges,
lemons and many other products may
be found at the open market on Sunday
When the land cannot be worked
because of heavy rains, the mountain
dwellers weave baskets of varied colors
and shapes. Or, they may carve wooden
articles, such as "bateas" (wooden trays)
and stools with primitive Indian de-
signs. These they sell to tourists and
churchgoers who stroll to the market
after mass. They also make molds
of brown sugar called "panela" which
is used by people in the interior of
On the El Valle River's course, which
meanders through dense forests west of
town, there is a picturesque waterfall
known as the Maiden's Waterfall. This
is a favorite picknicking place for visitors
from the capital. Natives from the
mountains say with all sincerity:
"There, on a clear day when the sun
comes up, Flor de Aire comes down
from the mountain peaks to the edge
of the river . there, with other Indian
maidens, she tells the crystal waters of
her eternal grief. One can hear her
mournful weeping as she tells her tale
of woe. Remembering her two lovers,
she weeps sorrowfully before returning
to her sleeping position high up on the
mountain that bears her name."
- .. -
~-.',' .- '
, ". i..- .. . -Y- ""'.- "-I."" ..
K,*" '-L "- ". "'* ,* ,.. '. / ._. ': t' ,, ^. '^J.
A lovely summer home in El Valle de Ant6n. Many residents of the capital spend their
weekends and summer vacations in this cool valley 3,000 feet above sea level.
... dM aur.., -i l
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E or las M. . M d al o on ue
El Chrro de la oa,'l MadnFis n tebatflatrcin on nE al eAtn
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Charles E. Gerald
Archon Id d
Lea r an
(4_ Ni ION
T1R4 INA S U A
Joseph C :Wila:s
Cargo Chec er
Nathaniel E. Cole
OFFICE OF THE
David J. Markun
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Alpheus A. Shan
Estle H. Davison
Leader Enginem (Hoisting ad
Robert A. DuVall
Supervisory General S sist
Vernon F. Farley
P. W. McBarnette
Herman N. Watson
Claude A. Weeks
Egbert W. Best
Lead Foreman (Grounds)
Lead Foreman Laborer (Cleaner)
. t " ', .4- -
, ; ".-0-,.5 -J rn.
The Kungsholm, sleek new liner under Swedish registry, largest passenger vessel in
Scandinavia, will make an inaugural cruise around South America in the late fall. She
is scheduled to transit the Panama Canal in October.
Motor Launch Captain
Alton J. Hayward
Rufus C. O'Neal
Supervisory Marine Traffic Controller
Harold E. Reid
Alman J. Jones
P-bi.4 Handler (Deckhand)
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Frank D. Lashley
McKenzie T. O'Neil
Carol E. Sinchez
Clerk (Water Meter)
Gordon A. Updyke
Shift Foreman (Operations-Mechanical)
Nick M. Elich
General Foreman (Quarry Operations)
Leonard S. Grant
Carl E. Hall
General Foreman (Public Works)
Ruth E. Clement
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Philip N. Malcolm
Robert C. Daniel
Irl R. Sanders, Jr.
General Foreman (Dock Maintenance)
Lead Foreman (Dock Stevedoring)
Fred H. Lee
Robert L. Ridge
Lead Foreman (Fuel Operations)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Robert W. Blades
Fred A. Dube
Roy J. Raveneau
C. C. Brathwaite
CANAL H ISTO Y
50 year. c4go
THERE WERE 137 transits by ocean-
going ships during May 1916, the first
month following the re-opening of the
Panama Canal which had been closed
for several months by slide damage in
Gaillard Cut. This figure was higher
than during any one of the Canal's first
7 months of operation.
In late May, the "Panama Canal
Record" noted that a new ice plant at
Balboa was undergoing a 2-week test
before being placed into regular service.
The bulk of ice production was to be
transferred to Balboa from the Cristobal
plant, which had been working above
capacity for months. The new iceplant
was rated to have a capacity of 100 tons
in 24 hours.
Scheduled as the site of the July 4th
swimming and diving contest, the new
Balboa Swimming Pool was completed
in late June. It contained salt water,
which was supplied in connection with
the condensing system of the new refrig-
eration plant at Balboa. The water
was originally pumped from an intake
20 feet below low tide level at the head
of the slip between Pier 18 and the
quay wall in the inner harbor.
First use of the new 1,000-foot
drydock at Balboa was made in June
with the docking of the ladder dredge
Corozal on the 27th. The vessel was
brought at high tide through the gap
in the earth cofferdam which had pro-
tected the drydock and its approach
basin during construction. Pumping out
of the drydock began June 28. The new
dock was to be able to accommodate
any ship then afloat when removal of
the cofferdam across its entrance was
25 Year ago
WITH CONSTRUCTION work under-
way on the Panama Canal third locks
project, designs and specifications were
approved in early May 1941 for build-
ings at the new third locks town on the
west bank. Construction of a large Sup-
ply Department building and a gasoline
filling station was planned for Cocoli at
a cost of $45,000.
In an important development in the
progress of commercial aviation on the
Isthmus, a commercial air terminal was
under construction at Albrook Field, to
be open for service July 1. It was to
be the most elaborate, if not the larg-
est terminal for handling commercial
air traffic in Central and South Amer-
ica. Plans called for the expenditure
of $2 million.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21
Evidences of the war were plain in
the summer of 1941; in early May,
the U.S. Army freight transport Liberty
arrived in the Canal Zone with two
guns mounted. Similar to action taken
by the U.S. Coast Guard in all U.S.
harbors after the fall of France, the
French-flag freighters Indiana and Ne-
mours, which had been in Zone waters
since the middle of summer 1940, were
taken into protective custody by the
U.S. Government. Army-Navy guards
from the Canal Zone were placed on
board on orders from Washington, D.C.
In the first week of July, a sudden
tightening of rules and regulations for
protection of the Panama Canal was put
into operation by the Canal Zone mili-
tary authorities. Cristobal harbor was
closed to shipping from dusk to dawn,
and many small boaters and fishermen
were taken into custody on the Pacific
side for having trespassed in restricted
10 year c4o
IN LATE MAY 1956, Maj. Gen.
William E. Potter became the 12th Gov-
ernor of the Canal Zone and the 3d
President of the Panama Canal organi-
zation, succeeding Maj. Gen. John S.
Seybold. Governor Potter arrived with
his wife and two daughters on June 20
to begin his residence in the Canal Zone.
In July, Canal Zone residents wit-
nessed a spectacular gathering of
Presidents of the American republics,
including U.S. President Dwight D.
Eisenhower, at a meeting of the Organi-
zation of American States to commem-
orate the 130th anniversary of the First
Congress of American Republics called
by Sim6n Bolivar, the great South
American liberator. A majority of the
Presidents of the 21 republics attended
the meeting at the invitation of Pres-
ident Ricardo Arias E., of Panama.
President Eisenhower was the fourth
President of the United States to visit
the Isthmus while in office. He and Mrs.
Eisenhower were former Isthmians, hav-
ing lived from January 1922 until Sep-
tember 1924 at Camp Gaillard on the
west side of the Canal. Eisenhower's
visit in 1956 was the first in 16 years
by a President of the United States.
Operations of the Panama Canal were
the subject of long discussions between
incoming and outgoing Marine Directors
of the Canal organization in the month
of June. Capt. Frank A. Munroe, Jr.,
was succeeded by Capt. Warner Scott
Rodimon, who came to the Isthmus
from command of Destroyer Squadron 8
of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet.
One year d4o
NAMED TO SUCCEED Col. David S.
Parker as Lieutenant Governor of the
Canal Zone, Col. Harold R. Parfitt came
to the Isthmus with his wife and two
daughters in May 1965.
Due to the critical housing situation,
a nine-story apartment building near the
Panama Hilton Hotel was made avail-
able by the Canal organization for rental
to its employees in June.
Closed off by massive slides. Gaillard Cut slides delayed the original Canal project and
later closed the Canal to traffic five times, the greatest being the East and West Culebra
slides. In 1915, when this photo was taken, the channel was completely blocked by earth
masses from either side. Mud and rock debris was piled 65 feet high above the water level
across the waterway and 7 months were required to clear it for the resumption of traffic.
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Ores, various ---
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ---_
Wheat---- ------------ ----
Canned food products ------------
Nitrate of soda --
Bananas ---- ---------------------
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
Fresh and dried fruits--- ------------
Corn -------- --------------
Iron and steel manufactures_ ----___ ---
Pulpwood -------- __ _--------_-
Atlantic to Pacific
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)
Coal and coke-----------
Phosphates ----- --
Soybeans -- -------
Iron and steel manufactures ---
Corn __--- ___- _----
Metal (scrap)--- ____ ____
Machinery ---------.... ------------
Chemicals, unclassified ----
Wheat -- -
Sulphur -_____- _______
Paper and paper products ___-
Automobiles and accessories
All others --------
\\\ \\\ 1
U.S. Government vessels: *
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
Fourth quarter, fiscal
S ( ) '
S \M I I 1 \I ]) (
Fourth quarter, fiscal y
6.. *f e B
200,684 ALL PANAMA Canal records including
191,913 traffic were broken during the four
quarters of fiscal year 1966 which ended
142,423 June 30, according to official records
95,234 compiled at Balboa Heights.
59,091 While the amount of cargo carried
56,464 through the Canal, the size of the ships
755,977 making the transit from ocean to ocean
5,123,640 and the tolls paid to the Panama Canal
during that period all reached new highs
in Canal history, commercial traffic dur-
ing the year surpassed the total of fiscal
year 1965 by only 92 ships.
The continuing increase in the size of
year- the ships using the Canal was of more
5-Yr. Avg. concern to Canal authorities this past
1951-55 year than any increase in the amount
1,075,363 of traffic. Big customers such as the
703,397 San Juan Prospector and the San Juan
180,384 Pioneer, giants of 835 feet in length and
119,263 106 feet beam were among the largest
461,804 cargo vessels ever to use the Canal.
38,838 Both have possible summer fresh
12,985 water drafts of 44 feet 9 inches but
66,780 neither are able to load to their max-
35,034 imum since the maximum draft allowed
190,966 by the Panama Canal has, up to now,
106,086 never surpassed 39 feet 6 inches for
107,964 certain ships and only during the time
1,14,519 when the level of Gatun Lake is highest.
But the size of all cargo ships is
4,392,585 increasing and, at present, Canal author-
ities are aware that there are at least
\\i \ I 250 commercial ships afloat and 87 more
under construction which can never
ear- pass through the narrow Panama Canal
1966 1965 Transits
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic __
1,512 1,531 3,043 3,006 1,835
87 83 170 135 381
1,599 1,614 3,213 3,141 2,216
101 39 140 84 166
15 18 33 33 75
1,715 1,671 3,386 3,258 2,457
o Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
0* Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
The trend toward larger and larger
merchant carriers has been noted by
many shipping sources and a recent sur-
vey made by the U.S. Department of
Commerce revealed that merchant-type
ships of 100,000 deadweight tons or
more totaled 61 including 16 ships
presently in operation and 45 that are
either under construction or on order in
various shipyards of the world.
Naval architects have envisioned
ships of 500,000 deadweight tons. These
big fellows make "also-rans" out of the
San Juan Prospector and the San Juan
Pionevr, whose summer deadweight is
given at 71,308 long tons.
22 AUGUST 1966
Most of these big ships are tankers
which now have trouble finding harbors
deep enough to enter let alone transit
the present lock-type Panama Canal.
Nevertheless the trend is of interest in
shipping circles where it is felt that the
big bulk carrier may mark a change in
merchant ship design for all maritime
nations and is as important as the recent
trend toward construction of the trailer
or container type ships for the inter-
coastal transatlantic trade.
Although Japan leads in the produc-
tion of these large ships, the survey
shows that there are several countries
that have either built or are engaged
in their construction. Great Britain
recently delivered the British Admiral,
her first 100,000 tonner, and several
more are on order or under construction
in Denmark, France, West Germany,
the Netherlands and Sweden.
The biggest ship built in U.S. ship-
yards so far is the tanker Manhattan
which has a draft of 50 feet and a
deadweight tonnage of 108,400 tons.
Two other tankers, the Lake Palourde
and the Torrey Canyon were built in
the United States as 65,000 tonners
and later were brought through the
Canal to be jumboized with their dead-
weight capacity increased to more than
The construction of huge tankers too
large to transit the Panama Canal may
not affect the movement of oil through
the waterway at present since most oil
companies probably will keep smaller
ships on the intercoastal run as long as
the operation is economically feasible.
But their size may increase in the future
to the maximum that is allowed by
Another move that might affect Canal
traffic slightly is the recent agreement
by 60 of the world's maritime nations
to raise the Plimsoll marks on ships by
10 to 20 percent on bulk carriers and
about 10 percent on drycargo vessels
fitted with watertight hatch covers.
The Plimsoll lines indicate the max-
imum legal depth to which merchant
ships can be loaded for safest operation
in various seasons, on fresh and salt
water, when engaged in international
trade. Raising of the marks will permit
ships to carry more cargo and load
deeper than before and subsequently
have deeper drafts.
\ ith the present limitation on Pan-
ama Canal draft, it is possible that an
operator of a supership would find it
more profitable to load to the maximum
draft and take the ship on a longer
voyage through the Strait of Magellan
to its destination thus avoiding the
British --- -
Liberian -- --
South Korean -_-
Swiss --- -
United States ---
All Others ----_
SFourth qu ter, fiscal year-
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
transits of cargo
| \ i < i \ i i< 1 \ I i; i i I \I) I fl I
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Transits (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1966 1965 Transits 1966 1965 Tolls
July 993 1,004 557 5,604 5,313 2,432
August -.- 983 1,004 554 5,488 5,497 2,403
September 977 970 570 5,456 5,339 2,431
October ______ 1,034 1,018 607 6,069 5,484 2,559
November .------- 990 988 568 5,878 5,435 2,361
December ------ 949 1,021 599 5,614 5,641 2,545
January-- ----- 1,001 921 580 5,903 4,982 2,444
February 896 819 559 5,239 4,523 2,349
March ---_ 1,060 1,084 632 6,044 6,231 2,657
April --- --- 989 1,052 608 5,887 5,888 2,588
May -- ------ 1,043 1,010 629 5,935 5,732 2,672
June ---- 1,011 943 599 5,983 5,377 2,528
fiscal year 11,926 11,834 7,062 69,100 65,442 29,969
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
'I tI !' I( \!1 i N j \ I ( )\ U\lN I NI) \ )I ') ,
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
Fourth quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1966 1965 Transits
United States Intercoastal --------- --- 132 119 170
East coast of United States and South America ------ 466 510 458
East coast of United States and Central America ____- 135 144 123
East coast of United States and Far East .-..---- 628 592 271
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ._ 98 101 52
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada ------- 257 256 182
Europe and South America --__-----.----_----- 374 358 124
Europe and Australasia --- --------- 108 117 83
All other routes _--------- --- ------- 845 809 372
Total traffic ---- _---- --_ ----_ --- 3,043 3,006 1,835
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Due Returned Due Returned
JUL 0 A A7
3W344 M 0UM
UNIVERSiTY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 04820 5123