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 Front Matter
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 Table of Contents
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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00032
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: May 1966
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
 Related Items
Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Matter
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text
















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


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ON THE INSIDE:

Panama's Cattle Industry

Sport Parachuting

Preventive Medicine


MAY 1966


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ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-Presic

H. R. PARFITT, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Officer


Subscriptions, $1


dent ROBERT D.
Public
SMORGAN E. GOODy
Editor
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD,
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. HERNANDEZ,
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
a year; airmail $2 a year; mail and back copies (regular mail), 25 cents each.


KERR, Press Officer
tions Editors
VIN and ToMr s A. CUPAS
ial Assistants
TOBI BITTEL, FANNIE P.
and JOSE T. TUNON


CAbott Our Cover

THE COVER ILLUSTRATION, "The View of Culebra
or the Summit. The Terminus of the Panama Railroad
in December, 1854," is based on a sketch by Dr. Fessen- .'
den Nott Otis, a surgeon in the service of the United
States Mail Steamship Cu .j4 llJthujirapled by
C. Parsons and printed by Endit S-C New York, q' '
1854. The lithograph was r,: pr~7 uT7 in 5 by the Book
Club of California which granted permission for its use
in the PANAMA CANAL REVIEW.

The railroad, completed January 27, 1855, after almost
5 years of work, was operational as far Summit, at Cule-
bra, when the sketch was made. At the right corner is
part of the summit ridge, through which a path 1,300 feet
long and 24 feet wide was blasted. This was about
10 miles from Panama City, its Pacific terminus.


Built at a cost of surely hundreds and possibly thou-
sands of human lives and $8 million, the Panama Railroad
extended less than 48 miles at its completion, yet during
the first 15 years of its existence was highly prosperous.
It was considered the first true transcontinental rail-
road. But its importance declined after May 1869, when
the Union Pacific and Central Pacific met to form a
transcontinental railroad even more convenient to North
America.

The French purchased the Panama Railroad in the
1880's during their unsuccessful attempt to build the
Canal and it was sold to the U.S. Government in 1904.
Today, the railroad still serves as a vital link between the
two most populous cities in the Republic of Panama-
Panama City and Colon. But so does a heavily traveled
highway.

On the inside of this issue is an illustrated article on
the growing cattle industry of Panama. Another story
introduces the reader to the delights of typical Panama-
nian foods, telling how they are prepared. Sporting en-
thusiasts will find photos and text, in two separate articles,
highlighting the fine hunting in Panama and the relatively
new sport of skydiving.


Jndex


Panama's Cattle Industry______

Mysterious Sargasso Sea___

Anniversaries __

Sport Parachuting

Panamanian Cuisine-_____

Division of Preventive Medicine


Shipping Statistics


___ 8


- 16


Clear-Cuts _________________ ____ ____ 16

Canal History____ ____________ 18


Port of Glasgow -_ --________

Hunting in Panama __ ____


-- -- 19

-20


Shipping Notes _


MAY 1966


_








Panama's Cattle Industry

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,us.dn "ein of -. ar"ged at -i in

Outstanding specimens of Brahman cattle are judged at fair in Ocu.


AN ECONOMIC mainstay today, Pan-
ama's cattle industry shows increasing
promise as a key factor in the future
prosperity of the Republic.
Roaming the ranges in the 9 prov-
inces of Panama are more than 1 million
head of cattle, and the number grows
yearly. These animals not only indicate
the growing standard of living in the
country, but reflect an investment that
assures a continuing improvement of
that standard.
The picture of this industry is one of
the problems that will challenge the
cattleman, the investor, the research
man, and the government official for
many years. Still, improvements have
been made in the difficult problem of
raising cattle profitably and successfully
in this tropical country, and each of
these men can see progress in his phase
of the industry.
A conservative estimate of the indus-
try's worth is $180 million-cattle worth
$65 million, land worth $100 million,
and installations valued at $15 million.
Ranches account for 6 million man-days
of employment each year. That figures


Outlook 9ood


Lat Ckallengei


Jace Cattlemen

out to nearly 21,000 full-time workers,
making the industry the nation's largest
private industry employer and putting
an estimated $10 million annually into
the pockets of the men who do the work.
Taken altogether, the industry accounts
for about 7 percent of the gross national
product. With increased productivity
and efficiency, that percentage should
show remarkable growth.
In the last complete census on the
industry in 1961, there were 30,000
ranches in Panama. Of these, 202 were
more than 500 hectares (a hectare is
2.2 acres), and would be considered a
large ranch in Panama. Roughly, a large
ranch is considered one that has more
than 500 hectares and more than 500


head of cattle. The small ranch is 50
hectares or less, and 50 head or less. A
hectare supports one animal, a situation
that compares favorably with many
countries.
One of the problems in raising beef
cattle in a tropical climate is the heat.
Another is keeping a year-round supply
of feed for cattle. An important factor
in combating the effects of heat on
production is the introduction of the
Brahman, or Cebu, an animal that flour-
ishes in the tropical sun, grows to great
size and is, generally, a durable breed.
And there are experiments in the intro-
duction of Santa Gertrudis, Charolais,
and Angus in beef cattle and Brown
Swiss and Holstein in milk.
One prime need in the industry is an
increase in the quantity of milk cows,
which now number about 150,000, and
specialized dairy herds. There are only
a few of these now. Most milk comes
from beef herds, with milk herds and
specialized breeding herds contributing
to the total.
Milk processing plants that operate
(See p. 4)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Cattle Gives


Paychecks to


Thousands

(Continued from p. 3)
in Nata and Chiriqui have increased
and stabilized the price of milk, but the
price is still low when the costs of pro-
duction are considered. The main prob-
lems in this area are diseases affecting
reproduction, lack of adequate transpor-
tation, an irregular market, the low
price, some inefficient feeding and man-
agement practices and-as already out-
lined-the need for more specialized
milk operations. This specialization
could easily bring efficiency and cost
cutting, and could be a major influence
on leveling market demand and bring-
ing up prices paid to producers.
One factor sure to force an improve-
ment in this area is the current need to
import milk products. The specialized
breeding herds, from which will come
the quality to increase both production
and profit, are already having an im-
pact on the industry. Still there are not
enough breeding farms to meet local
demand. As the quality of breed and
techniques to care for it grow, the qual-
ity of beef and the ensuing profits should
follow. And, significantly, stock im-
provement is one of the brightest areas
in the cattle business today in Panama.


Well cared for cattle get baths before beef show.


Research is one of the greatest needs.
Compared to the importance of this in-
dustry, research is at a low level. The
native beef animal feeds on grass, and,
generally, pasture is of the unimproved
variety. Proof of the value of experi-
ments is the breed improvement involv-
ing Brahman, which has been crossed
with native cattle. These animals reach
earlier maturity and this means bigger
animals sent to the market earlier for
greater earnings. The average animal
weighs about 950 pounds when market-
ed, and reaches this weight in 3 to 32


Chow time for the herd.


years. There has been a mounting in-
terest recently in feed lots that will
shorten that fattening time.
Research is also needed in some dis-
ease areas. The main diseases affect-
ing production now are brucellosis,
tuberculosis, septicemia, and blackleg.
Insects affecting cattle adversely in Pan-
ama are the worm fly, the torsalo, and
tick, in addition to a variety of internal
parasites.
Most of the problems facing the in-
dustry will yield to time, research, and
the financial investment to back expan-
sion and improvements. The financing
is available, but often the individual
cattleman must be brought to realize
the value of recordkeeping and indi-
vidual analysis that must be the basis
of a decision to invest additional capital.
Once he sees a complete picture of his
operation, he can determine his future
direction and need for more capital.
This type of efficiency takes much of
the guesswork out of ranching and
points more clearly to the areas where
his profit and growth lie. As education
progresses in the Republic, this problem
will become less prominent.
Research and education will be ac-
companied, it is hoped by cattlemen, by
a greatly improved road system. The
lack of good ranch-to-market roads in
some areas has made it difficult for the
small rancher. Often, he has to give
up part in his profit to the high cost of
transportation when his cattle are ready
for market.
Panamanians eat more beef each
year, but the per capital consumption
is still low, at 40 pounds. Yet the world


MAY 1966






demand for beef grows, and will be at . .
high levels for many years to come.
There is a shortage of beef over the
world, both in Panama and other coun-
tries, and recent price increases mean
the cattleman will have no marketing
problems. In Panama, the price is
stabilized by the Office of Price Control.
His problem, then, will be to keep
his costs from climbing. Mechanization,
which has been slow, probably will pick I
up momentum. This will be spurred
by the recent increase in minimum
wages and the dwindling supply of low
cost labor. Some land is priced so that a
cattleman cannot buy for a profitable I
operation. Today's cattleman who works
hard and watches his operation closely [
can expect to realize profits of 12 to 15 1
percent on his investment.
Exporting cattle has been an up and
down business. Yet, the overall pattern
of exports has been rising. In 1954, the
industry exported 2,726 head, and 7,361
were exported in 1964, with the total
dropping to 4,000 in 1965, due to a : IN
severe drought. For home consump-
tion, 120,000 head will be slaughtered
this year, compared to 90,000 in 1958,
and 117,000 in 1962.
Because of limited cold storage and
other installations, packaging meat for Ground beef is made into hamburger patties for consumer.
export has been marginal. There are
plans to build modern facilities in the
Colon Free Zone, as a complement to
the new abbatoir in David. There is
also an abbatoir of considerable size in
Panama City.
There is an export market. When
production and facilities can meet a
steady' demand, Panama mavx find this
t 1 area very lucrative.
One Panamanian expert on many
phases of the cattle business, Luis H.
/ Moreno, Jr., Chitre manager of the
/ Chase Manhattan Bank, expresses an
'" overriding faith in the future of the in-
or dustry, but also sees its problems. He
Sputs it this way: "There is no doubt
that the future of the cattle industry is
most promising. On one hand, our re-
sources and environment lend them-
selves to intensive development of this

Hand, international production levels
.- and markets offer magnificent prospects,
particularly for a country like Panama,
p freee of hoof and mouth disease
twice, as soon as possible, more efficient
methods of production and administra-
tion by cattlemen. We also need more
technical programs sponsored by the
government."
But Mr. Moreno agrees that there is
no disputing one solid fact: The cattle
industry in Panama is firmly established
as a national asset and is on the road to
Workers in Panama City Abattoir carve up beef. progress.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Mystery of Sargasso Sea



Continues To Be Dilemma


NORTHEAST OF THE Panama Canal
is a strange and mysterious region called
the Sargasso Sea.
Many of the sleek, modern passenger
ships and cargo vessels which transit the
Panama Canal pass from the Caribbean
Sea into this place so different from any
on earth.
From this area, bound on one side
by the swift moving Gulf Stream and
roughly as large as the United States,
have come tales of terror for sailing
ships and in later years rumors of un-
explained phenomena fully as fascinat-
ing as the recent reports of unidentified
flying objects over parts of the United
States.
Like those who chuckle at the UFO
reports, modern ship captains and their
crews take the legends of the Sargasso
Sea with a large grain of salt.
Nevertheless, as do yarns of mer-
maids, the stories persist and such well
known authorities as Rachel Carson in
her book "The Sea Around Us" refers
to its legendary terrors and to curious
things that happen to fish that ride on
sargassum weed into new homes there.
"The Sargasso is a place forgotten by
the winds, deserted by the strong flow
of waters that girdle it as with a river,"
she says. "Under the seldom-clouded
skies, its waters grow warm and heavy
with salt. Separated widely from coastal
rivers and from polar ice, there is no
inflow of fresh water to dilute its salti-
ness; the only influx is of saline water
from the adjacent currents, especially
from the Gulf Stream or North Atlantic
Current as it crosses from America to
Europe. And with the little inflowing
streams of surface water come the
plants and animals that for months or
years have drifted in the Gulf Stream."
Stories about the Sargasso Sea began
before the discovery of America. It is
believed that the Phoenicians were ac-
quainted with it and that before the be-
ginning of the Christian era, there were
references to the sea west of the Pillars
of Hercules, certain parts of which
were represented as being unnavigable
because of seaweed.
According to H. A. Marmer, author
of "The Sea," Columbus must be cred-
ited with its discovery and the first
authentic notice of the presence of gulf-


weed in this region. He encountered
gulfweed on his first voyage westward
and also on his return journey.
Columbus records the occurrence in
an accurate manner but his followers,
from the decks of the small vessels of
the day, viewed the patches of drifting
weeds with apprehension and soon there
were stories of widespreading meadows
of thickly matted weed which seriously
impeded the progress of vessels.
Marmer says the belief in the exist-
ence of great areas of thickly matted
gulfweed in the Sargasso Sea has per-
sisted to the present time but that it
has been proven definitely that there
are no islands of weeds miles in extent
and nowhere is it so dense as to inter-
fere with the movement of a ship-even
the small vessels of Columbus' day.
The tales of lost ships and those dis-
appearing without a trace started soon
after Columbus when the hazards of the
sea were of greater concern because of
lack of communication and few safety
measures as we know them now. The
Sargasso Sea may have been responsible


when ships vanished but then any good
sized storm at sea could transform
wooden sailing ships into matchwood.
Of all the ships reported lost there,
the only clue ever found was a single
longboat from the schooner Barbara
Ann which allegedly sank in April 1811
while on her way from Brazil to New
York, according to an article on the
Sargasso Sea appearing in a recent issue
of "Polaris."
The longboat washed ashore 103
years later at Haiti. Within the boat
were found an untapped keg of fresh
water and 13 oars neatly secured in
their stowed position. Everything about
the boat was in perfect order as if it
had been just lowered over the side and
set adrift.
The article says that steel, steam, and
the screw propeller did much for the
safety of ships but it didn't seem to help
when it came to the business of vanish-
ing vessels and the Sargasso Sea.
"During the first thirty years of
the 20th century two ships, one Japan-
ese and one British, plus a Brazilian


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The schooner Barbara Ann which is believed to have sunk in 1811 on her way from Brazil
to New York. A longboat from the vessel was reported to have washed ashore at Haiti
103 years later containing the same neatly stowed gear as it would after just being lowered
over the side.


MAY 1966


















































The vast Sargasso Sea . a place forgotten by the winds.


naval vessel and an entire fishing fleet
from the Bahamas disappeared within
the vicinity of the Sargasso Sea," the
articles says. "No plausible explanation
such as storms or fires could be offered,
and no distress signals were ever re-
ceived."
The article cites as examples the
disappearance in recent years of a num-
ber of other vessels in the Sargasso Sea
area, including the most recent, the
Marine Sulphur Queen, which vanished
between Gulf ports and the U.S. east
coast with a crew of 43.
But the biggest mystery of all, the
writer says, occurred one day in the
spring of 1949 when a whole flight of
U.S. Navy aircraft was lost behveen
West Palm Beach, Fla., and Grand Turk
Island.
The incident, which has baffled civil-
ian and military research teams, began


shortly after noon on June 3, 1949,
when a Navy flier, a veteran of World
War II and an excellent navigator, was
making a routine flight from the Naval
Air Station at West Palm Beach to
Grand Turk. It was a clear sunny day.
Everything was going according to
schedule when a half-hour after takeoff
the pilot radioed back to West Palm
Beach saying that something was wrong.
Everything, he said, looked hazy yellow
and suddenly he didn't know where he
was. Radar control gave his position but
the pilot said he couldn't see anything.
Then his radio clicked off and the blip
of his plane on the radar screen faded
out.
Five search planes were dispatched
to the area immediately. They were in
constant radar surveillance as they ap-
proached the spot where the first plane
was last positioned. Then, with the


same suddenness as before, all five
search planes faded off the radar screen
and all radio contact was lost.
Three more planes took off, and with-
in a half-hour they too disappeared. No
more were ordered out that day but the
next day a search of the entire area was
made without results. All persons con-
nected with the incident were examin-
ed, questioned, and cross-examined. Ra-
dar sets and radios were checked, flight
plans and personnel records scrutinized
repeatedly. Nine planes and 13 men
were missing and no one had an an-
swer; and so far as is known today, there
still is no answer.
It may be that in this age of space
travel and television that man is still
being outwitted by the vast and mys-
terious sea-and the Sargasso Sea in
particular.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


MARINE BUREAU
Morris B. Lee
Messenger
Simon B. Smith
Motor Launch Captain
A. Sogandares
Supervisor a er a t
TRAN IN j TE ALS
B U
Eric B. Johnso
Clerk
Arthur L. Fr
Stevedore
HEALTH BUREAU
Lucas Morales
Exterminator


OFFICE OF THE
GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT
John D. Iollen
Chief, Executive Planning Staff
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Frank A. Chollar
Head, Photo-Lithographic Section
COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE
John C. Paige
Supervisory Cashier
Robert S. Bowen
Supervisory Auditor
William H. Devore
Staff Accountant
MARINE BU EAU
Rodolfo Becford
Helper Lock Operator
Arthur W. Brown
Helper Machinist (Marine)
Darnley S. Foster
Teletypist
Rufus H. Burnette
Lock Operator (Engineman-Hoisting
and Portable)
Vincent E. King
Seaman
Joseph O. Thompson
Leader Linehandler (Deckhand
Boatswain)


S- -1 .

Bound for market is the produce grown by this Chiriqui farmer. Chiricanos are noted fo
their rugged individualism, their energy and friendly spirit. The Province of Chiriqui
situated about 300 miles from Panama City, produces much of the food for the Republic
of Panama, particularly beef. Huge, luscious Boquete strawberries and the famed Boqueti
oranges are both raised in Chiriqui. Towering peaks and rich woodlands provide the are.
with outstanding scenic beauty. This photograph was taken near Cerro Punta.


Charles Grenda
Signalman
C. T. Jackson, Jr.
Administrative Services Officer
Charles R. Lewis
Leader Painter
James N. Miller
Painter
Emanuel O. Modestin
Leader Maintenanceman (Rope and
Wire Cable)
Martin S. Sawyer
ry Marine Traffic Controller
S AND COMMUNITY





Grounds aintenanceman Equipment
itor (Small)
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
William J. Carson
Chief Foreman (Maintenance Shops)
Juan Rodriguez
Pipelayer
Eliodoro Torrez
Seaman
Vincent Gonzalez
Surveying Aid
Philip Joseph
Toolroom Mechanic
Fred Miller
h aster, Towboat
Juan Rosales
Seaman
Fitz G. Small
SPainter
Reuben Warren
O iler (Floating Plant)
Noel I. Pilgrim
Furniture Repairman
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Carl H. Schmidt
Guard
Juan J. Barrera
Automotive Equipment Serviceman
Clifford N. Hewitt
Truck Driver
Ralph L. Davis
Yard Conductor
Joaquin De Le6n
Helper, Liquid Fuels Wharfman
Elliot F. Whitaker
Cargo Checker
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Stanford A. Levy
Swimming Pool Operator
Y. C. Richards, Jr.
Police Lieutenant
Wilfred G. Earle
Leader, Laintenanceman
Harvey G. Rhyne
Deputy Probation Officer
HEALTH BUREAU
Sax Wn Finley
r Funeral Director
i, Doris V. Lyons
c Nursing Assistant (Medicine and
e Surgery)
a Carl T. Maynard
File Clerk


MAY 1966








Skydiving



Is Not for



Daredevils


SPORT PARACHUTING, once associ-
ated with crackpots having suicidal
tendencies, is steadily winning accept-
ance and with it a burgeoning flock
of enthusiasts.
This transition to respectability began
in Europe and slowly spread to the
Americas where skydiving is now flour-
ishing through military-affiliated and
civilian sport parachuting clubs. There
are two such organizations-both with
official U.S. Army sanction, on the
Isthmus of Panama-the Army Atlantic
Sport Parachute Club and the Pan
American Sport Parachute Club which
makes its headquarters on the Pacific
side.
Capt. Charles H. Fry, one of the
sparkplugs in the Atlantic-side club,
explained recently that the club's current
membership of about 35 is smaller than
at times in the past because of transfers.
Some of the 150 parachutists the club
trained are serving in Vietnam. Though
most members are trained military par-
achutists, this is not a club requirement.
The Army Atlantic Sport Parachute
Club, founded in 1961, has participated
with its younger, Pacific-side brother in
numerous exhibitions. Their most recent
combined show was in April when
they appeared at the annual Azuero fair,
treating the people of that Panamanian
town to an exciting aerial spectacle.
The Atlantic club has helped Latin
American nations to start their own free
fall programs and to expand existing
programs. Members of the club per-
formed in Chile, Nicaragua, and Brazil;
in El Salvador they appeared before the
President and U.S. Ambassador. The
groups have given their services to clubs
and to churches, at carnivals, and on
holidays in David, Santiago, and other
regions of Panama.
The Pan American Sport Parachute
Club was organized in April 1964 to
foster, encourage, and promote the
participation of active duty military
personnel in properly planned and
supervised free fall competitive para-
chute jumping. It is open to all active


Capt. Charles H. Fry prepares to exit from his aircraft for a free fall while M. Sgt. Richard
Meadows checks his equipment. Both men were participating as members of the Army
Atlantic Sport Parachute Club.


duty members of the armed services in
the Canal Zone and currently has 23
active members.
Club president Maj. James A. Skinner
says his group has participated in more
than 1,100 jumps without a single
serious injury or accident. The Atlantic-
side club also has an excellent safety
record. The Pan American Sport Par-
achute Club participates in civic action
programs under sponsorship of U.S.
Army Southern Command. Parachute
free fall jumps are carried out both in
the Canal Zone and the Republic of
Panama. Ground demonstrations with
lectures in both English and Spanish
round out the program.
Free fall demonstrations include
jumps at different altitudes and delayed
parachute openings while maneuvering
with colored smoke to mark their
descent. The ground demonstration con-
sists of an orientation that covers all
phases of sport parachuting.
Paramount in the minds of the non-


skvdiver is the risk involved. What are
the mortality or accident rates? A vet-
eran sport parachutist compares the
dangers with those of rollerskating.
This may be somewhat imprecise but
statistics do reinforce this argument.
One recent report of accident com-
parisons showed that other sports had
many more fatalities. For example, the
Swiss Alpine Club reported more than
1,100 died mountaineering in one 16-
year period; football causes about
15 deaths a year; boxing, about 7.
The Parachute Club of America reports
that in 1960, during 60,000 sport jumps,
there were only 3 deaths. Of these, one
did not pull the ripcord, one pulled it
too late, and one drowned.
Contrary to what unknowledgeable
critics may argue, the object is not to
see who can survive the lowest openings.
Local club rules, regulations of the PCA
and those laid down for national and
world competition place heavy stress on
(See p. 10)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Student Chutist Gets


Long Training Course


.1



Members of the Army Atlantic Sport Par-
achute Club descend after a mass exit
during exhibition at Ocu Fair earlier this
year.


(Continued from p. 9)
safety procedures and equipment. Vio-
lators must comply or find themselves
persona non grata with other skydivers.
Infractions by individuals can cost entire
teams lost points, even make the differ-
ence between victory and defeat in a
championship contest.
Considerable preparations must be
completed before a student makes his
first jump. Bailing out of an aircraft
thousands of feet up provides thrills that
must be earned-and learned. The pro-
spective skydiver has to pass a rigid
physical examination by a physician who
pays particular attention to signs of
heart conditions or history of blackouts.
Once this is passed, the student is
given ground training on safety and
emergency procedures. He learns the
basic stabilization position used while
drifting through space, stomach to earth
with back arched and arms and legs
extended. Acrobatics come later.


The student learns to pack a para-
chute efficiently and neatly within 30
minutes and is graded by an instructor
on step-by-step procedures. Reserve
chutes are worn by both beginners and
experienced parachutists.
Instructions on landing, another much
misunderstood topic, show the novice
how to distribute the landing shock over
five points of the body: balls of the
feet; calf; thigh; buttocks; and push-up
muscle in the back, which is the
reason for so many push-up exercises in
airborne training.
Landing is one of the few character-
istics common to military and sport par-
achuting. Design of parachutes differs;
the methods of exit from the aircraft and
the descent differ, too, but landing is the
same for all parachutists. Experts com-
pare the shock of landing to jumping
from a height of 3 or 4 feet, not
10 or 15 as laymen sometimes believe.
For if this were the case, there would


S>;,-I r/1 "Vk WI
Final safety checks are made on Sgt. Charles Paradise, of the Pan American Sport Parachute Club, by Jumpmaster Capt. John Lewis
before the start of an exhibition at Bocas del Toro. Youngsters watch proceedings.


10 MAY 1966

































un!*BsZI I ---- t
-- ...... ,-.*i"a ...- "

Capt. John Lewis lands on target at Bocas del Toro exhibition.
Capt. John Lewis lands on target at Bocas del Toro exhibition.


be many broken bones and few sport
parachutists, indeed.
After preliminary training, which in-
cludes going along on a flight to observe
jumps, the student is ready for his first
and probably his most memorable leap
into space. He does not pull the ripcord;
it is opened by a static line anchored to
the inside of the aircraft. It automat-
ically opens the chute pack, releasing
the small pilot chute which, in turn,
pulls a sleeve that reduces the shock of
the canopy opening that follows.
During the fourth and fifth jumps,
the student simulates pulling the ripcord
and he learns to keep his body in a
rigid position without tumbling. After
a series of static line jumps, he graduates
to 5-second delays during which he pulls
the ripcord manually after counting
1001 . 1002 . for the 5-second
free fall.
Successful completion of the 5-second
delays while maintaining proper body
position qualifies him for the next level,
10-second delays. After this series comes
the 15-second delay when strange,
wonderful things begin to happen. Nor-
mally, below an altitude of 7,500 feet,
a person will fall 16 feet the first second
and accelerate up to terminal speed of


J


. ,i.i'


Captain Fry gathers up chute after landing in field.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


174 feet per second or about 120 miles
per hour. This velocity is reached in
12 seconds but for 7,500 feet and higher
altitudes the terminal speed is greater
vet. The student progresses in steps of
5-second delays until he eventually is
jumping from an aircraft and free falling
for 60 seconds before opening his par-
achute. This means he will fall about
10,000 feet.
Captain Fry points out that upon
reaching terminal speed, the sensation
of falling decreases and "you almost
feel a part of the atmosphere." This may
be the answer to why skvdivers love
the sport but frequently cannot put
their feelings into words.
When the student completes 25 free
falls, he qualifies as a class "B" para-
chutist. This means he can serve as a
jumpmaster for himself and others,
directing where jumps are to be made
to approach the target.
Also he has learned to use various
body positions, particularly his arms and
legs, to regulate the speed and direction
of descent. By extending an arm and
tucking the other against the side, he
makes a turn and by reversing the limbs,
he makes an opposite turn.
Most thrilling of all maneuvers to
some parachutists is the technique of
tracking: manipulating your body to
(See p. 22)


*-


;S


L ii-


I









i







Panamanian bb)ihje


Single Uaste Audi


ROPA VIEJA literally means old clothes
in Spanish but to Panamanians and ad-
mirers of their culinary creations, it
means something much more pleasing.
So does sopa borracha, or drunken
soup.
The former is a tasty meat dish made
of shredded beef that has been boiled
and cooled, then mixed with fried onions,
garlic, tomatoes, and green peppers and
simmered for about 20 minutes. It's usu-
ally served with white rice, baked plan-
tain or fried yucca, a starch root cooked
as a vegetable.
Sopa borracha is a rich sponge cake
soaked in rum and garnished with rasins
and prunes after they have been mari-
nated in sherry.
Available to the gourmet is a mouth-
watering array of Panamanian dishes.
Some have been borrowed from other
lands and given a new touch setting
them apart from the original prepara-
tions. Others are as distinctly Panama-
nian as the colorful polleras worn by
women here on festive occasions.
Panama's favorable geographic posi-
tion of having access to two oceans gives
seafood deserved prominence in this na-
tion's eating habits. Superb fish, tender
lobster, and immense shrimp are among
the more highly regarded sea delicacies.
And probably the most well-known
Panamanian dish is the piquant seviche,
usually made with corbina, seasoned
with tiny red and yellow peppers, paper
thin sliced onions and marinated over-
night in lemon juice. When corbina is
not available, most any good quality
white fish may be substituted and
shrimp or sea scallops can also be used.
But this dish is served very hot so don't
order it in a restaurant unless you enjoy
food with a bite.
A dish with a more universal appeal
is Panama's traditional soup, sancocho.
A meal in itself, sancocho is made from
a large stewing chicken, plus yucca,
name dasheenn), otoe (a local root),
cut-up corn on the cob, plantain, pota-
toes, onions, flavored with salt and pep-
per and a leaf or two of fragant corian-
der, an herb used frequently in Panama-
nian cooking. This lusty favorite is
found in the nation's most elegant


salons as well as the humble woodburn-
ing kitchens of the interior.
Another luscious preparation is arroz
con coco y titi, rice with coconut and
tiny dried shrimp. The rice is fried in
coconut oil (made by cooking down the
coconut milk) until it is light golden
color, then coconut water is added with
shrimp, salt and a little sugar. It is
broiled briskly until the liquid has dried
up, the pot is covered and cooked over
a very slow heat until done. Plain coco-
nut rice is also delicious.
Ranking high on the list of Panama's
(See p. 15)


The batea full of typical Panamanian goodies offered by the comely miss includes tamalitos,
wrapped in tender young banana leaves; empanadas, made of crispy corn meal crust and
juicy meat filling; skewered barbecued meat; and buiuelos.


MAY 1966


'4hi4~a t




., ---







Preventive Work


Is Big Role of


Health Bureau


THE CANAL ZONE Division of Pre-
ventive Medicine and Quarantine is of
fairly recent origin. But the preventive
medicine work of the Health Bureau
has involved a history of demanding
tasks that can be traced to Canal con-
struction days and to the now famous
labors of Dr. W. C. Gorgas.
The Canal Zone was free of epidemic
disease during 1965 and no quarantine
disease was reported, despite heavy
shipping volume that passed through
the Canal involving 12,907 vessels and
more than a half million people. These
are among the major accomplishments
of this vital division of the Canal orga-
nization's Health Bureau.
The principal objectives of the Pre-
ventive Medicine and Quarantine Divi-
sion are threefold: prevent disease and
safeguard health of the Canal Zone
community; promote and maintain the
health and thereby the efficiency of the
Canal organization employees; and pre-
vent the introduction of non-indigenous
disease in the Canal Zone through mari-
time and aircraft quarantine.
It programs and administers public
health measures to prevent disease and
safeguard the health of approximately
100,000 persons eligible for medical
care in the Canal Zone medical facilities.
Functions of the division are carried
on through three separate branches:
the Industrial Health Branch; the Com-
munity Health Branch; and the Quaran-
tine Branch.
Organized in 1962, the Industrial
Health Branch is primarily concerned
with people who work for the Canal
organization and provides physical ex-
aminations for prospective employees
to select the best physically qualified
persons for employment. It investigates
occupational disease and injury, recom-
mending control measures to provide
a safe and healthful working environ-
ment. It counsels employees and
management to assist in dealing con-
structively with work-related health
problems.
Under the Community Health Branch
come the duties of providing infant, pre-


'-


Well baby clinics function in all six Community Health Centers. Scheduled visits are
made by Dr. Mary V. Graham, right, Chief of the Community Health Branch, to examine
children 18 months of age and younger.


school and school child health surveil-
lance, conducting immunization prog-
rams and giving first aid, nursing care,
home nursing, education of the public
in health matters, and medical coverage
at school athletic events.
Members of this branch advise pa-
rents, teachers, students, and others
concerned regarding child health. They
also conduct sight and hearing surveys,


chest X-rays, dental surveys and physical
examinations in the school as case find-
ing procedures.
The responsibility of the Quarantine
Branch is to prevent the dissemination
of communicable disease and its intro-
duction into the Canal Zone from mari-
time shipping. Particular effort is devot-
ed to assuring that smallpox, yellow
(See p. 15)


,i.


All in the day's work. An on-the-job accident injury is cared for by
Community Health Center, Balboa.


the nurse at the


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





Division of Preventive Medicine


>11;~l


One way to test an exhaust system involves a bit of smoke. William
T. Marr, chief of the Industrial Hygiene Section, gets an instant
reading.


Marr tests for toxic chemicals as Panama Canal paint shop employee
continues his job. It is Marr's responsibility to look into working
conditions related to potentially harmful materials.


'K~



pz


I----- -
~ 1q ~J B
.1


11 A


.. -I


Tables are turned on Dr. Graham as young lady listens for a heartbeat.


14 MAY 1966






Prevention

(Continued from p. 13)
fever, cholera, plague, typhus, and re-
lapsing fever and their vectors (car-
riers) are not brought into the Canal
Zone or adjacent areas by arriving ves-
sels and aircraft. Personnel of this
branch also maintain an alert for oc-
currence of disease within the Canal
Zone so that appropriate action may be
taken to avoid spread.
The Preventive Medicine Division,
as it is known today, is relatively new,
though this type of work dates back to
more than half a century. In 1955, when
the U.S. Army hospital ceased opera-
tion, all the activities except the well
baby clinic and school health nurse were
consolidated in Canal Zone hospitals.
Four years later, the various public
health activities were transferred from
the Canal Zone hospitals to the present
division. When the quarantine activi-
ties of the Public Health Service were
also turned over to the division it be-
came known as the Division of Preven-
tive Medicine and Quarantine.
A staff of 46, which includes six doc-
tors and 22 nurses, now handles all
aspects of preventive medicine and
public health, health education and
health counseling, except for those activ-
ities which are the responsibility of the
Division of Sanitation and Veterinary
Medicine.
At the six Canal Zone Health Centers,
more than 60,000 immunizations were
given the past year. During the same
period, 1,376 well babies made their
first visit to these centers.
The Public Health Nurses' home
visiting service extends to all eligible
Panama Canal employees who live in
the Canal Zone, except those residing
in military bases. A visit is paid to all
first born babies when they go home
from the hospital, and before the mother
brings her child for a first visit to the
well-baby clinic.
Heading the Division of Preventive
Medicine and Quarantine is Dr. Sidney
B. Clark. Other members of his staff
include: Dr. Mary V. Graham, Chief of
the Community Health Branch; Dr.
Donald H. Robinson, Chief, Industrial
Health Branch; Dr. Andries de Boer,
Epidemiologist and Quarantine Officer
in Charge in Balboa; Dr. Bernard Le-
vin, Chief Quarantine Branch; William
T. Marr, Industrial Hygienist; and Miss
Suzanne Tooke, Public Health Nursing
Supervisor.


School Health Programs are carried out in all Canal Zone schools. Mrs. C. S. Skeie is
shown taking blood pressure in her office at Balboa High School.


Seafoods Rate Highly


In Panamanian Dishes


(Continued from p. 12)
bocas or hors d'oeuvre is the carimanola,
a croquette type delicacy made of cook-
ed mashed yucca, wrapped around a
savory filling of chopped seasoned fried
pork, then fried a golden brown.
Corn, one of the leading crops of
Panama, is eaten in various forms, de-
pending on the season. Masa, or corn
balls-a corn meal mush-is sold in mar-
kets for making tamales and for serving
as a basis for many other dishes. The
tasty tamales are made of masa filled
with cooked chicken or pork, olives and
prunes, then wrapped in a banana leaf,
tied with a string and heated in boiling
water.
Masa is used also for making empa-
nadas, the toothsome meat tarts that are
fried to a crisp and eaten as spicily
hot as you like. Crumbled native white
cheese may be added to masa to make
corn fritters.
Plantain, used as a vegetable, is a
staple at the typical midday and even-
ing meals. It may be prepared in a
variety of ways-fried, baked, added as


a filler to stews, and even as a dumpling.
Chips are made from the very green
plantain and are used with a cocktail
spread like a potato chip.
Ripe plantains are baked in butter,
cinnamon and brown sugar, or sliced
and fried. Either way they are a delight
to the taste buds. A fine dessert is made
from green plantain flour and served
with coconut cream.
Other typical desserts are arroz con
cocoa, chocolate rice pudding; bunuelos
de viento, a puffy fried fritter served
with syrup; sopa de gloria, or glory
soup, is sponge cake soaked in cooked
cream mixture with rum added; guana-
bana ice cream is made from the sweet,
ripe soursop, a popular tropical fruit
with juicy flesh.
Refreshing drinks are made from
such Panamanian fruits as nance, ta-
marindo, naranjilla, and papaya. Once
having tasted them, even the most dis-
ciplined calorie counter finds it difficult
to turn away jellies and jams made from
mangoes, guayaba, papaya, oranges, and
other local fruit.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic

Third quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity Average
1966 1965 1951-55

Ores, various------------ ---------- 1,494,732 1,812,479 961,032
Lumber ----------------- ------------ 1,251,227 1,222,996 868,628
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) -- 271,919 368,871 249,439
Wheat ------------------------- 544,083 504,458 508,144
Sugar -- ------- ---------------- 522,177 411,619 233,804
Canned food products----------------- 184,637 207,011 304,637
Nitrate of soda---- -- -------------- 201,231 220,038 360,514
Barley-------- -------------------------- 346,927 109,970 25,235
Bananas --------------------------- 339,127 311,396 192,445
Metals, various ---------------------------- 295,591 299,433 162,399
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) -------------------------------- 293,646 288,598 163,265
Pulpwood ------------------------------ 173,451 136,810 48,257
Fishmeal ------------------------------- 399,164 457,226
Iron and steel manufactures ---------_ 608,126 507,925 60,502
Oilseeds and products----------------- --- 141,576 142,296 26,259
All others----------------- ---1,925,807 1,723,965 744,782
Total ------------ 8,993,421 8,725,091 4,909,342


Atlantic to Pacific


Third quarter, fiscal year-
Commodity
1966 1965 Average
1951-55
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)-__- 3,690,798 3,727,982 968,731
Coal and coke ---- ------------------ 1,906,901 1,690,666 676,946
Phosphates------ ----------------- 1,070,031 671,412 195,587
Soybeans ------------------- 520,678 332,433 134,079
Iron and steel manufactures---------- --- 514,254 347,808 420,153
Corn _--- --------------------- 513,259 549,955 19,077
Ores, various --- ---------------_ 346,781 265,548 27,416
Metal (scrap)------------ ------------ 253,065 218,893 16,632
Sorghum----- ----------- 186,220
Chemicals, unclassified__- ------------_ 181,205 176,275 41,822
Wheat ---- ----------------------- 169,915 141,399 16.947
Sugar_ ------______--- ____--------___ 166,222 148,872 101,508
Sulphur ------------------------------- 148,720 104,258 82.173
Rice------------------------------------ 124,558 39,374 45,737
Automobiles and accessories---------------- 119,898 86,820 70,660
All others ___---_------------------_- 1,750,912 1,308,665 1,224,703
Total ____---------------____ 11,663,417 9,810,360 4,042,171


CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERN

Third quarter, fiscal year-


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing----- ------------
Small --- ---------------
Total commercial___---------
U.S. Government vessels: **
Oceangoing------------------
Small --- -----------------
Total, commercial and U.S. Cov.
ernment --____--_--


1966
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total
Pacific Atlantic


1,497
84
1,581


1,460
49
1,509


108 54
14 12


1,703


1,575


2,957
133
3,090

162
26

3,278


1965

Total

2,824
124
2,948

62
18

3,028


[ENT


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-55

Total

1,773
284
2,057

151
71

2,279


Clear-Cut



Traffic



Increases


MORE THAN one-third of all traffic
through the Panama Canal falls into
the clear-Cut group, a designation
relating to the narrow portion of
Gaillard Cut.
Clear-Cut is the category certain
type ships are placed into before
passage through the Canal. Because
of the large size, poor maneuvering
characteristics or volatile cargo such
as gasoline, they are not allowed
to meet other vessels while moving
through Gaillard Cut.
Full clear-Cuts are vessels which
must pass through the entire 8-
mile Cut without meeting oncoming
traffic; partial clear-Cuts are those
that may meet and pass other ships
in the 5 miles of the Cut widened to
500 feet before May 1963 but which
must go it alone when transiting the
unwidened 3 miles of Gaillard Cut
still only 300 feet wide.
Another class of ships, because of
special handling required, must make
their transits during daylight hours.
The partial widening of the Cut
has allowed many ships which tran-
sited previously as full clear-Cuts to
be changed to partial clear-Cut cat-
egory, thereby reducing delays and
keeping traffic flowing at a much
faster pace.
The unwidened Cut automatically
makes a third of the traffic partial
clear-Cuts; all ships moving through
Gaillard Cut during hours of dark-
ness do so as partial clear-Cuts.
The size of ships, a key factor in
Canal traffic, is increasing. For ex-
ample, in 1951 only eight ships with
beams of greater than 80 feet tran-
sited the Canal. This number grew


MAY 1966


Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships
transited free.






to 139 in 1956, 507 in 1961, and 849
last year. The 1966 will be even
larger.
The increase in the sizes of vessels
has been reflected also in the growth
in the number of clear-Cut ships-
from 2,074 in 1964 to 2,312 last year
while total traffic expanded only
slightly. These figures do not take
into account vessels that transited as
partial clear-Cuts solely because they
were scheduled to transit the 300-
foot-wide Cut at night.
In 1957, when an official projection
was made, Canal experts did not ex-
pect more than 4 clear-Cuts per day
in the 1970's and currently there is
an average of more than 7 per day
with a 1-day high of 13.
If Caillard Cut had not been
widened to the present 500 feet, a
much higher percentage of the traffic
would be in the full clear-Cut cat-
egory and customers would not be
enjoying the smooth running opera-
tion that now exists.
And without the widening of the
Cut, ships would be spending an
estimated 25 hours in Canal waters
before clearing from the opposite
entrance instead of the average 13-14
hours they now spend. Based on an
average of $100 an hour in a ship's
operating costs, this time reduction
is saving shippers some $15 million
per year.
An earlier contribution to the time
saving was the installation of round-
the-clock operation of the Atlantic
Locks in 1963.


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

I Third quarter, fiscal year-


Nationality



Belgian--___
British_ ------
Chilean
Chinese (Nat.) --
Colombian -____
Danish __________
Finnish---_____
French _____---
German-------
Greek __-
Honduran-- _.
Israeli________
Italian____--------
Japanese -- ___--
Liberian -----__-
Netherlands-- -...
Nicaraguan_---.--
Norwegian --__--
Panamanian --_--
Peruvian -- ___-.
Philippine.------.
Swedish ------__
Swiss------------
United States .
All Others__ --
Total_


1966
Number Tons
of of
transits cargo
21 38,227
372 2,543,278
32 221,004
28 204,804
52 103,611
86 447,791
13 52,723
62 268,915
314 1,052,509
105 989,805
31 17,277
30 131,735
50 328,302
167 1,240,324
304 4,111,596
156 854,160
19 23,068
372 3,638,447
133 656,117
24 103,481
22 119,070
93 553,332
16 12,705
387 2,436,643
68 507,914
2,957 20,656,838


Number
of
transits
12
338
21
22
53
62
5
39
313
143
61
12
43
174
297
139
9
361
127
31
20
92
21
356
73
2,824


1965 1951-55
Tons Average Average
of number tons
cargo transits of cargo
17,653 2 2,716
2,233,505 323 1,936,872
144,136 17 85,011
161,937 6 54,599
86,194 35 37,708
281,509 57 224,852
39,967 1 7,140
170,362 35 163,469
910,380 54 109,721
1,449,815 29 253,278
33,195 97 130,876
97,945
300,004 32 182,089
1,010,615 69 470,531
3,567,833 48 300,445
525,162 30 151,379
13,419 6 6,551
3,330,001 203 833,741
495,819 116 665,039
136,439 4 9,135
79,168 5 33,662
654,715 46 198,424
17,764 2 11,789
2,252,501 498 3,088,092
525,413 58 106,273
18,535,451 1,773 9,063,392


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal years)


Month


July -------
August -------------
September------_----
October ----------
November ---------
December .__------
January-------------
February __----------
March-----------
April __-____
May________
June -__-____
Total, 9 months


1966

993
983
977
1,034
990
949
1,001
896
1,060



8.883


Transits

1965

1,004
1,004
970
1,018
988
1,021
921
819
1,084



8.829


* Before deduction of any operating expenses.


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-55
557
554
570
607
568
599
580
559
632


Gross tolls*
(In thousands of dollars)


1966

5,604
5.487
5,456
6,069
5,878
5,614
5,903
5,239
6.044


5,226 51,294


1965

5,313
5,497
5,339
5,484
5,435
5,641
4,981
4,523
6,231


Average
Tolls
1951-55
2,432
2,403
2,431
2,559
2,361
2,545
2,444
2,349
2,657


48,444 22,181


I-:- --r~


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
Third quarter, fiscal year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1966 1965 Transits
1951-55
United States Intercoastal -----__________- ---. 126 106 146
East coast of United States and South America---------- 455 464 445
East coast of United States and Central America __._-- 135 149 129
East coast of United States and Far East -- ---- 551 476 261
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia .------ 101 77 48
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada------ 284 271 193
Europe and South America -------------- --- 382 333 123
Europe and Australasia ------------------ 114 114 95
All other routes---- -------- ------- 809 834 333
Total traffic --_______________- 2,957 2,824 1,773


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


P C


Total -----


--








CANAL HISTrORY


50 Year cdgo
AFTER BEING closed to traffic for
7 months, the Panama Canal was re-
opened April 15, 1916, to traffic. On that
day 15 ships made the transit from
ocean to ocean. The Canal had been
closed by a slide in Gaillard Cut in Sep-
tember i915, approximately a year after
the waterway was formally opened to
traffic.
The closing of the Canal was not
the only problem facing the early Canal
officials. There was considerable cargo
congestion on the Canal Zone piers due
to the withdrawal of ships on regular
schedules and because of World War I
which the United States had not yet
entered. The Panama Railroad steamers
were the only ones accepting cargo for
New York from the Canal on a regular
schedule.
The Panama Canal Record noted that
the new building for Colon Hospital was
turned over to the Canal Zone Health
Department in April and that in June
the first of the new hospital buildings at
Ancon were to be ready for occupancy.
The new ice making and cold storage
plant at Balboa was to be ready for use
in May and the Ancon Laundry, bachelor
quarters in Ancon, the office building
at the Pacific terminus of the Canal
and the office building at the Cristobal
coaling plant were being completed.

25 ?,ear c4lgo

WHILE DEFENSE installations in the
Canal Zone were being reinforced be-
cause of the war in Europe, 25 years
ago, Panama announced that an agree-
ment had been made to grant to the
United States the use of lands for air-
craft and anti-aircraft bases outside of
the Canal Zone for the defense of the
Panama Canal. Washington announced
that work would begin immediately on
the defense base sites and that $11 mil-
lion had been included in the deficiency
appropriations hill for defense work.
World War II and the strained rela-
tions between the United States and
Italy was brought close to home for
Isthmian residents March 30, 1941,
when control of the Italian luxury liner
Conte Biancamano, which had been tied
up for some time in Cristobal, was taken
over in a surprise move by the U.S. Gov-
ernment acting on orders from Washing-
ton. Five carloads of U.S. soldiers from
Canal Zone Army posts on the Atlantic


side and sailors from Coco Solo boarded
the big liner while the U.S. Navy mine-
sweeper Mallard moved alongside the
ship. The action was made simulta-
neously with a similar takeover of
26 Italian ships tied up in 13 ports
in the United States. Approximately
500 Italian officers and crew and a few
passengers were sent to New York later
aboard a U.S. Army transport and
delivered to the immigration authorities.
Work was started April 1, 1941, on
the construction of the Transisthmian
Highway by the Public Roads Adminis-
tration. An announcement was made in
March that local labor would be given
every opportunity for employment in all
positions in the construction project.

10 Iear c4ago
THE RESIDENTS of South Margarita
were the first residents of the Canal
Zone to have their electrical equipment
converted to use 60-cycle power as a
result of the Panama Canal Company's
power conversion project. Under the
schedule submitted by the Sachse Elec-
trical Co. for the Atlantic area conver-
sion, the program was initiated April 1,
1956, in the group of houses in South
Margarita and scheduled for completion
August 15. Bids on power conversion on
the Pacific side were being opened at
Balboa Heights.
Television was another first in the
Canal Zone 10 years ago. Installation
of television sets in Canal Zone homes
began following an announcement that
the Armed Forces station would begin
regular telecast programs soon. It was
announced that applications for the
installation of antenna systems on


houses under the jurisdiction of the
Canal Zone Government could be ob-
tained from the housing office.
There was a change in two of the top
level positions of the Canal organiza-
tion. Gov. John S. Sevbold was prepar-
ing to leave the Canal Zone after 4
years as Canal Zone Governor and
Paul M. Runnestrand was appointed
the Zone's new Executive Secretary to
succeed Eugene Lombard who was
retired. He became the fourth person
to hold this office in the Canal orga-
nization.

One Year cgo
THE NEW Gorgas Hospital annex, the
highest and newest building in the
Canal Zone, was completed and placed
in service last March. The handsome
new building is built on what was
formerly a parking lot near the Gorgas
Hospital complex. It is on a par with
the most modern structural standards
of similar institutions in the United
States and its completion resulted in the
revamping of the entire hospital plant.
A new traffic record was chalked up
for the Panama Canal last March de-
spite the fact that Pedro Miguel Locks
was on a one-lane operation due to
regular overhaul and repairs tn the
locks floor. A total of 1,120 ships of
more than 300 Panama Canal net tons
made the journey from ocean to ocean
and the daily traffic average rose to a
record 36.1 ships. Of the ships transit-
ing during the month, 209 were ships
of a size and type which made it neces-
sary to send them through Gaillard Cut
with a clear-cut preference, many with
the assistance of a tug.


18 MAY 1966







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Meadowside Granary where ship is moored has a storage space for 96,000 tons of grain. The Clyde Navigation Trust owns and administers
the port of Glasgow.


World Ports




Glasgow Is Maritime City


THE PORT of Glasgow, a world port
in ever\ sense of the term, serves as a
valuable companion enterprise to the
city's most famous and largest industry-
shipbuilding.
Situated on the River Clyde, the port
of Glasgow has a vast array of facilities
constituting its tremendous importance
to international shipping. And it serves
as the distribution center for industrial
Scotland, northern England and the
north of Ireland.
The port is owned and administered
by the Clyde Navigation Trust which
sees to it that rates and charges compare
favorably with other leading ports.
Most voluminous in the way of imports
are grain and flour, leather, tobacco,
timber, oil, iron ore, bacon, and other
foodstuffs while the leading exports are
cotton, jute, linen goods, yarn, coal,
machinery, and spirits.
Accommodations are sufficiently var-
ied to handle an enormous variety of
operations. In a normal year, traffic
handled at the port of Glasgow exceeds


14 million tons of shipping and 7 million
tons of goods.
There are five commercial docks and
three graving docks, the longest being
880 feet bv 83 feet wide and 26' feet
deep on sill at ordinary high water. Also
there are spacious riverside wharves and
qua\ s. Both quays and docks are open
to the tide which has an average spring
range of 12 feet and ship-to-shore
telephone service is available at many
berths.
For use by visiting ships there are
more than 160 cranes, mostly electrically
operated, ranging in capacity upwards
to 170 tons and a self-propelled floating
crane with a 60-ton capability.
A granary at Meadowside Quay
affords storage for 96,000 tons of grain
while sheds adjoining the quay can
handle 15,000 tons more. Grain may be
delivered in bulk or in bags direct to
road vehicles or railway wagons, and
b\ band-convevors to small vessels or
lighters Nine ship-discharging appli-
ances in three berths in front of the


granary together can move grain at an
average rate of 1,000 tons per hour.
This makes Clagow one of the fastest
grain-handling ports-ship to granary-
in the United Kingdom.
Shieldhall Riverside Quay is equipped
to receive timber cargoes and has five
6 10 ton cranes and ample rail facilities.
A large paved area is available and the
quay is adjacent to Shieldhall Timber
Yard having an area of 11 2 3 acres
open and I 2 3 acres covered storage.
At Princess Dock there are 3V4 acres
of open and 2 acres of covered timber
storage area.
Facilities for slaughtering livestock
and cooling, and accommodations for
sheep, pigs, and 3,000 cattle are located
on a 7-acre area at Merklands Wharf.
At Deanside and Braehead, transit
depots are situated for handling, sorting
and storage of goods and each depot has
shed accommodation, extensive railway
loading platforms and road, rail and
siding facilities. Open storage is avail-
able.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Panama Hunting


Among the Best


HUNTING IS a sport that is hard work in Panama and
some say it takes a special breed of stouthearted man to
enjoy it. But like most any job well done, a day in the
hills or jungle of this tropical republic returns abundant
rewards.
Shotguns are the suggested weapons to use throughout
Panama. Rifles are permitted by Panamanian authorities
and in very limited areas by Canal Zone authorities but
these weapons are frowned on by most hunters. As for
permits, the Guardia Nacional (National Guard) issues
permits to carry weapons and to hunt for $5 while the
Civil Affairs Bureau of the Canal Zone Organization sells
hunting licenses for $1. Both must be renewed each year.
The visitor or newcomer to this area should find a
knowledgeable companion for the first hunt. In the
smaller villages of the interior-away from the cosmo-
politan capital of Panama City-it's easy to find a guide


Prondly hefting freshly bagged deer is Leo J. Krziza. Deer are
native to Panama where they are hunted all year. Similar to
small deer found in Florida, the white tail Panama deer frequently
weigh only 75 pounds.


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"When do we start," these two dogs seem to be saying as they prepare for the hunt. Good hunting dogs do not guarantee results but they
can be a big help.


20 MAY 1966






who for a reasonable charge will show the sportsman
where the game is to be found.
No bag limits are set by the Government of Panama
though in the Canal Zone there are enforced limits con-
sidered generous by many visiting hunters. The variety
of game is broad enough to please even the demanding
hunter.
Stamina and tolerance to physical discomforts are
qualities indispensable for a good day of hunting here.
Dousing oneself with insect repellent is imperative and
though it permits the hunter to carry on does not grant
him complete freedom from mosquitoes and other pests.
It's exhausting sloughing through muddy, partially
dried-up swamps where the insects are thick and the
leeches numerous. But swamp hunting is often among
the most lucrative. For example, the migratory jack-snipe,
a table delicacy, is considered a fine sporting bird found
in swampy locales. The elusive jack-snipe has tremendous
darting speed that makes a man know he earned his kill.
Other migratory fowl hunted in Panama are the blue-
winged teal, broadbill, pintail, shovelar, curlew, plover,
and yellowlegs. The Canal Zone season for these is from
October 1 to February 28. From December 1 to June 30
is the season for the native fowl such as the quichiche
and muscovy ducks (pato real), doves, guans, and
currasows.
The speedy pigeons, a challenge to anyone's marks-
manship, are plentiful in the cool mountain areas in
Chiriqui Province at the western portion of the country
near Costa Rica. as are quail. Jack-snipe, quail, and duck
abound on the plains and lowlands of the rice belt in the
central section of Panama.
One of the most popular types of game here is the local
white-tail deer. similar to those found in southern Florida.
They frequently weigh only 75 pounds but are out-
standing for eating and can be found throughout the
entire country all year long. It's wise to take dogs along
when going for deer but the hunter must set out early
in the cool of the day. Otherwise, it gets too hot and dogs
lose the scent.
Famed for its luscious taste when properly prepared
is the conejo pintado or painted rabbit, which is actually
a rodent and seen only at night. A local version of the
rabbit family is the fieque, hunted both day and night.
Also there are wild pig, iguana-the large ugly lizard
many consider fine eating-raccoon and jaguar.
This shrewd feline weighs as much as 200 pounds, is
on the prowl mostly near the jungles but is rang) and
can cover 45 miles in a single day. Though the jaguar
prefers the regions not populated by humans, one was
shot a few months ago near Colon where it had been
killing cattle.


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A dead tigrillo cr small tiger, as it is known by some Panamanian
hunters, is shown with Mrs. Ruth Krziza who made the kill.

The Darien jungle to the south toward Colombia is
good for game in general and besides the jaguar is the
habitat for the puma, ocelot, and numerous other exotic,
beautiful-and sometimes dangerous-animals.
Those preferring safari-type hunting expeditions can
satisfy this yen by making arrangements with "Jungle
Jim" Price, who conducts no-nonsense trips during
Panama's dry season-from January to early April.
With a four-day and four-person minimum party of
clients, Price provides all transportation from Panama
City, food, guides, cooks, skinners, and other miscella-
neous items. At least 2 weeks in advance, Price must have
the serial number, caliber, manufacturer, and other infor-
mation concerning shotguns to be brought into the
country. He uses this data to make the necessary arrange-
ments with the Panamanian authorities so permits can be
obtained and weapons imported without any delay at
Customs.
(See p. 22)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










(Continued from p. 11)
gracefully glide horizontally as you lose
altitude. A good tracker can move for-
ward 1 foot for every 2 feet of descent.
For delays of more than 10 seconds,
the skydiver wears an altimeter or stop
watch or both to guide him in pulling
the ripcord. After improving techniques
of back and front loops, figure eights,
turns and other maneuvers, the chutist
can qualify for "C" and eventually "D,"
the top rating which allows him to par-
ticipate in national and international
competition.
But for the latter classification, he
must have completed 200 jumps, some
from altitudes of 1,800 feet. Opening
altitude for students is a minimum of
2,500 feet.
With smoke grenades tied to their
ankles, skydiving units paint designs
that can be seen in space by spectators.
Group members exiting at 3-second
intervals pass batons from man to man
and master other types of relative
work requiring split-second timing and
coordination.
One of the major objectives in sky
diving competition is accuracy in
approaching a 9-centimeter disc on
which outstanding chutists can score
bull's-eves frequently. Each parachute,
depending on design, has its own built-
in forward speed its owner knows how
to put to use for better scores.
The history of parachuting, according
to some, goes back to 14th century
China when umbrella-like parachutes
were used to descend from the Great
Wall. And in 1495, Leonardo da Vinci
wrote of a parachute-like apparatus
which he said would lower a man safely
from any height.
But, as in the fledgling missile field,
animals were the first passengers in the
early parachutes In 1875, French bal-
loonist J. P. Blanchard dropped a dog
in a basket supported by a parachute.
And 12 years later another Frenchman,
Andre Jacques Garnerin, made the first
parachute jump from a balloon 2,000 feet
above Paris. His chute was suspended
from a balloon gondola in which his
brother was riding. The brother cut the
canopy loose from the balloon, allowing
the parachute to descend. Garnerin.
generally recognized as the first para-
chutist, was followed by others who
used similar techniques where the par-
achutists did not jump out of the bal-
loon basket but cut the balloon loose and


descended standing in a gondola.
Gradually, harnesses and other im-
provements evolved after the late nine-
teenth century when the parachutist
began fastening himself to a harness and
jumping out of the basket. Tragedy
marred several of the earlY attempts to
improve parachutes.
A German pilot in 1917 is believed
to have been the first to use a parachute
for an emergency bailout from a plane.
But many pilots openly ridiculed par-
achutes as impractical and for a time
the War Department equipped balloon-
ists with parachutes while pilots flew
without them.
Static cords were used for early
parachutes because it was generally
believed that the chutist would lose con-
sciousness and be unable to pull a rip-
cord while he was falling through space.
This theory was later disproved and by
the 1930's, skydiving techniques were
employed.
Sizes and shapes of canopies were
altered for improvements as were jump-
ing techniques and chute packs. Some
preferred not to pack the chutes at all
but would stand on the wing of the
plane while holding the folded chute
in their arms. When the plane passed
over the target area, the parachutist
would throw the chute into the wind
and it would whisk him off the wing
as it filled with air.
Reckless showmen developed tech-
niques used at air shows held in con-
junction with carnivals and circuses.
Almost any gimmick that would bring a
gasp from the crowd was used. The early
daredevils thought up wild stunts to
outdo each other. Some favored the cut
away method in which the chutist would
release one canopy and open a second
one, then release the second and open
a third. A few lost their lives doing this
when they made the last cutaway too
low for the chute to open.
The U.S. Army paratroopers were
organized in 1940, at Fort Benning, Ga.
The French in 1949 developed sky-
diving as it is known today and they
won the first world's sport parachute
championship. Americans did not enter
international competition until 1956 but
they soon gained prominence in this
field and have captured a large share of
the annual laurels.
Parachuting today is not confined to
the military and to the sport parachut-
ing clubs which, incidentally, are


SKYDIVERS


Panama Hunting
(Continued from p. 21)
The Jungle Jim safari starts with
a short flight to the Kuna Inn in the
San Blas Islands which is used as a
base of operations. From there he
takes his parties to the hunting area
via a powerboat along the rivers of
this region. Members of his camp
staff go ahead of the main party to
build thatch roof sheds for shelters
and cooks prepare game taken along
the way. Standard fare is also pro-
vided for those reluctant to eat what
they have killed.
Price emphasizes this is basically
jungle hunting that gives the sports-
man a chance at a diversified array
of game not readily available to a
stranger. Animals he says his clients
may get shots at include 2 species
of tapir weighing an average of 600
pounds, 2 kinds of deer, 3 varieties
of turkey, 3 of wild pigeon, 2 of
wild pig, and 11 members of the cat
family (2 types of jaguar).
If this isn't enough, Price points
out that there is alligator spearing
at night and some interesting sight-
seeing among the colorful San Blas
Indians.
Travel to the interior of Panama,
particularly for extended trips, ex-
poses the hunter to some natural
hazards found in jungles and forests
in many nations. Commonsense,
therefore, must be put to use re-
garding the consumption of ques-
tionable food and water. Plenty of
insect spray should be taken along,
also a snake-bite kit and immuniza-
tion against yellow fever is recom-
mended by some physicians.
Questions of what type of drugs
or remedies needed should be di-
rected to a medical doctor.


made up of people representing a cross
section of occupations and professions,
including housewives.
Among a multitude of uses, para-
chuting serves in combating forest fires
and in helping air crash and disaster
victims cut off from surface aid.

22 MAY 1966









SH


Fast Far East Service
THE UNITED STATES LINE repre-
sented here by Panama Agencies has
increased its service between New York
and the Far East by the addition of
three new, recordbreaking Challenger-
class cargo liners. The three 13,400-ton,
21-knot vessels bring to 12 the number
of United States Line's ships on its Amer-
ican Pioneer route and will provide an
increase in sailings from 45 to 55
annually compared with the former
spread of 27 to 39 voyages a year.
Agents said this increase stepped up
a sailing from every 10 days to one every
7 days, or a ship of this line and class
in the Canal once a week on the outward
voyage and once a week on the home-
ward voyage. The ships, capable of
speeds better than 25 knots, as they have
demonstrated on recordbreaking cross-
ings of the North Atlantic, make the run
to Manila via the Panama Canal in only
27 days. This is probably the fastest
running time to the Philippine Republic
by a cargo ship.
Chinese Shipping Group
THE ORIENTAL ENVOY, operated
by the Orient Overseas Line, an affiliate
of the C. Y. Tung Island Navigation
Corp., recently passed through the Canal
from Yokohama to Philadelphia with a
cargo of 20,400 long tons of sugar. The
vessel has been strengthened so that she
can be loaded in alternate holds and
thus is suitable to carry ore as well as
grain. She was constructed in three sec-
tions with the midbody being built at
El Ferrol on the northwest coast of Spain
and the forebody and afterbody at
Seville in the south.
Wilford & McKay, agents for the line
here, report that a number of vessels
controlled by the C. Y. Tung group use
the Canal. This organization recently
added several new ships to its fleet of
well over 1 million deadweight tons,
making it the largest Asian shipping
group, second only to the Japanese.
Swiss Customers
THE SWISS merchant fleet once was as
much of a joke as the non-existant Swiss
Navy. But not anymore.
The Swiss today have a fleet of 31
vessels with a total tonnage of 267,147
deadweight tons and nearly all of them
transit the Panama Canal on an average
of every 3 months. According to official
figures, the transits by Swiss-flag vessels
range from 19 to 22 each quarter of the


PPI N


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR THIRD QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1966
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1966 1965
Commercial _________ 2,957 2,824
U.S. Government -..-- 162 62
Free .- __------ --__-- 22 20
Total --------- 3,141 2,906
TOLLS*
Commercial--_ $17,197,309 $15,746,160
U.S. Government 869,624 380,600
Total- $18,066,933 $16,126,760
CARGO**
Commercial --- 20,661,530 18,539,432
U.S. Government 694,404 526,886
Free---- 124,902 92,914
Total _- 21,480,836 19,159,232
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
*OCargo figures are in long tons.

fiscal year. A recent issue of the Shipping
World and Shipbuilder said that 4 of
the Swiss merchant ships were built in
the late forties, 18 in the fifties, and 9 in
the 5 years since 1960. The average age
is 9 years. Fourteen of the vessels are
10,000 tons or more. The latest addition
to the fleet is the British-built flagship
Romandie of 32,570 d.w.t., the largest
ship in the Swiss fleet at present. It
has a Swiss Sulzer 13,800-horsepower
engine. Swiss vessels on regular trade
routes transport everything from live-
stock, plants, and minerals to raw
materials and finished products.


G


They Get Bigger
THE TOKYO MARU, a giant oil tanker
of 150,000 deadweight tons, has been
added to the list of ships too large for
the Panama Canal. She was built in
Japan recently at the same yard where
the Idemitsu Alaru, an even larger tank-
er of 205,000 deadweight tons, is under
construction.
Despite her size-1,005 feet in length
and a beam of 155 feet-the Tokyo
Maru is so highly automated that she
will need a crew of only 29 men and
has so efficient a pumping system that
she can discharge cargo in less than 20
hours. The vessel is all welded construc-
tion without a single riveted seam due
to the use of special high grade steel and
the latest welding techniques.
Japan at present is the leading nation
both in the registry and building of
ships of 100,000 tons deadweight and
over, according to a recent survey pub-
lished by the Maritime Administration
of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Japan not only claims 8 of the 16 giant
ships now in operation but also built the
first giant ship, the Universe Apollo of
114,356 d.w.t., and is constructing the
largest bulk carrier of its kind (114,000)
which will be delivered to National Car-
riers, Inc., to transport salt and crude
oil under the Liberian flag. The total
number of very large ships under con-
struction or on order in Japan is 26, of
which 10 are scheduled for Japanese
registry.


1100
N
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1000 M
B
E
900 R
0
800 F
T
700 R
A
N
600 S
T
O S


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN

MONTHS


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


1965

1966









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