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Ul F IP fAHM
FRANCGBO PIZARRO SAILED
FROM PANAMA TO CONQUER
PANMAPTPJT~ CAN L
ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-President i- ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
-r If Publications Editors
H. R. PARFITT, Lieutenant Governor A -- RICHARD D. PEACOCK and TOMAS A. CUPAS
U VEditorial Assistants
FRANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
Panama Canal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. JOSE T. TuRON
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
AbTbout Our Cover
THE COVER MAP that tells Panama's story-past and
present-reflects the theme of this issue: Panama, play-
ground of Latin America. More tourists are discovering
this fact each year.
A trip to Panama is worth anyone's time. Just over
2 hours from the United States by jet and little more
than that from many Latin American cities, Panama
offers a wide variety of activity, shopping, climate, and
there is much to see.
A nation of just over 1 million citizens, Panama
occupies the isthmus that has been a focal point for trade
and travelers for more than 450 years. The narrow stretch
of the Republic of Panama runs, roughly, east and west,
and its geography, which has always been important,
affects the way of life of its people.
In the west, there are mountains and rich soil-Chiriqui
Province might be called Panama's breadbasket. In the
east, not yet reached by modern roads, life among the
Indians is much the same as it was hundreds of years ago.
It's likely the visitor will spend his time in Panama
City and Colon, the two cities at opposite ends of the
Panama Canal. Panama City, dominating in population
and commerce, is the main stopping-off point.
It is not possible to include all of the Panama story in
a single REVIEW issue. The main points of interest, a list
of what to do, what to see and where to go, have been
packed into several articles. The map on the cover
was originally prepared by engineers of the U.S. Arm%.
Southern Command, and was redrawn especially for
-^ 3 -. '
..^ '^ -
^ : ~ : L.
:-'. +- -. *:-r(. ^
Welcome to Panama----
Sports in Panama and
Canal Zone___ ---
National Carnival, Fairs ----
After Dark__ ---
Panama in Pictures ----__--
Bocas del Toro, the San Bias.
Quarterly Traffic Report _---
Cruise Ship Report ---_-- -
Visitor's Notebook --------
The Panama Canal Story --.
Anniversaries __ _-- . --
Fishing in Panama .. ..
Shl pping .. _. ........-
My countrymen and I welcome visitors with the heritage of hospitality that
has been a Panamanian tradition for centuries. From the days of the Spanish Main, Panama
has developed an international flavor; it has become one of the great meeting places of the
The colorful galleon has given way to swift jets and luxury liners that bring
visitors to our shores in ever increasing numbers. They come to enjoy our sunshine, incomparable
fishing, and countless attractions.
The Republic of Panama claims a proud history. Its earliest days are reflected
in the old Spanish ruins at Panama Viejo; modern Panama can be seen in tall, beautiful hotels,
apartments and in a hustle of commerce along its tree-lined boulevards.
From golf and swimming to baseball, bullfighting and nightl;fe, a panorama
of pleasure awaits the visitor here. The interior of the Republic blossoms with flowers, and in
the west there are trout lakes and cool mountains. There is a new experience each day for
those who seek enjoyment. For those who seek relaxation, there is no better place than Panama.
In behalf of all Panamanians, then, I extend a warm welcome to our visitors,
confident that they will place the sunsplashed image of Panama among their treasured memories.
Pedro A. Diaz
Panama Government Tourist Bureau
Panama, November, 1965
ANAMA CANAL REV
Ruins of several churches and public buildings destroyed by Henry
Morgan and his buccaneers in 1671 still stand in Old Panama.
The Golden Altar of San Jose Church, one of the most beautiful
in existence today, escaped the attack of Morgan's pirates.
The Reason: Geography
FROM THE MOMENT of its discovery, the unique
geographical position of Panama has given the Isthmus
a history of real romance and charm-richer in historical
events than most parts of the two continents it joins.
Since the days when Columbus was investigating every
nook and corner of the Caribbean coast of Panama, look-
ing for a way to India, the Isthmus has occupied the
center of world interest. Footsteps of many men from
many nations have trod its soil, always in search of
a road across this narrow neck of land.
One of those to continue the search was Vasco Nlfiez
de Balboa, who forced his way in 1513 through the
jungles and mountains and reached a mountain top in
Darien from where he discovered the Pacific Ocean.
Three years later, Pedro Arias de Avila, who was the
Spanish governor of the colony already established on
the Caribbean side of the Isthmus, pushed his conquest
to a native fishing village on the Pacific and founded
the old city of Panama, where it remained for 154 years.
Today, its ruins stand just east of the city.
Soon after its discovery, this narrow neck of land
became the strategic point of the New World's commerce.
For three centuries Panama was the treasure chest of the
New World, the port of embarkation for the expeditions
in search of gold and silver, and the port of return to
Spain. It was here where the Spanish galleons arrived
with merchandise for distribution. Ships laden with
treasures for the King of Spain arrived from Peru, their
rich cargoes transferred to the backs of mules, carried
across the Isthmus, and loaded on ships bound for Spain.
Fourteen years after the founding of Panama City and
Nombre de Dios, Spaniards of the colony explored the
Chagres and the Rio Grande Rivers, studying the
possibility of using the two rivers to make a canal.
The city of Panama ceased to be a mud-hut village and
in a few years it became a colonial city with buildings,
churches, and a cathedral. At the height of its impor-
tance, Panama was known as the richest and most
luxurious city in the world. Prosperity continued until
the city was destroyed by the romantic English buccaneer
Sir Henry Morgan, in 1671.
In 1673, a new walled Panama was founded some
6 miles from the old site. For almost 200 years the old
forest stone-paved highway from the
capital to Portobelo, on the Caribbean
side, was the thoroughfare over which
much of Spain's commerce passed.
Portobelo was a busy commercial
city where traders came from Europe
to trade with merchants from Peru, Chi-
le, and Mexico. During the 40 days of
its fair, Portobelo vibrated with human-
ity-slaves unloaded cargoes from the
Spanish galleons in the port, while
hundreds of mules, laden with native
products and treasures collected during
the year to send to Spain, passed through
the narrow streets of the town. Gold
and silver bars were piled up like fire-
wood in the Royal Treasury Building
ready to be used as a means of exchange
between the trader from Spain and the
buyers from America. Portobelo was
the victim of buccaneers and English
aggression several times.
It was not until the 18th century that
the flood of Peruvian treasure began
gradually to subside and the importance
of Panama began to wane. Spain was
emerging from her "Golden Age." Other
countries were making forced efforts to
participate in the New World trade.
The assaults and cruelties of the
pirates and the threats of the British to
establish themselves in America's vital
points disrupted the Panama-Portobelo
route. Traffic stoppage brought poverty
to Portobelo. Commercial life in Panama
became nil, but they maintained the
churches, the convents and way of
life. Thus, the colonial era and Spanish
power in Panama came to an end.
Then came the revolutionary move-
ment bringing a reawakening in the
provinces that stirred up the struggle
for independence. Politically, commer-
cially, and geographically Panama oc-
cupied, at this time, an isolated po-
sition as a much-neglected part of the
Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, com-
posed of the present countries of Co-
lombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Vene-
zuela. In 1821, the Panamanians de-
clared independence from Spain, and
united their lot with La Gran Colom-
bia. By terms of the incorporation Pan-
ama expressly reserved the right to
secede. And when Gran Colombia split
into three parts in 1830, a separatist
faction in Panama wanted independ-
ence, but after some hesitation Panama
attached itself to New Granada.
Simon Bolivar had predicted great-
ness for the Isthmus of Panama because
of its strategic position between two
oceans. In 1821, hoping to draw the
new republics closer together, he invit-
ed the provisional governments of Peru,
(See p. 26)
Lacy balconies overlooking a narrow street and a romantic street lamp preserve the flavor
of Panama's colonial splendor.
* it i ,
The Cathedral of Panama, started in 1688, was completed in 1796. Mother of pearl shells
adorn the twin towers of the beautiful colonial structure.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
NOT ONLY is Panama the hub of
Central America geographically, it also
is one of the biggest sports centers in
Panama is a small, but sports-minded,
nation. Many Panamanians have become
stars in the sporting world-especially
in the United States. Athletes and sports
enthusiasts from over the world venture
to Panama for sporting events.
The tourist who visits Panama will
find many spectator and participation
sports available. One is horse racing.
\ Xtn.ill'. every weekend of the year
there is racing at the "Presidente
Rem6n" track, where thoroughbreds
from Panama compete with North and
South America's finest. Tourists are
admitted free by showing their tourist
card. Panamanians Braulio Baeza and
Manuel Ycaza are leading jockeys on
the stateside racing circuit.
Boxing fans will find a bout nearly
ever weekend at the National Gym or
the Olympic Stadium in Panama City,
or at the Colon Arena in Colon. Among
the Panamanians reaching world-
renow\ned status are the late Panama
Al Brown, former world's bantamweight
champion, and the current lightweight
title holder, Ismael Laguna.
, -., .
World famous toreadors come to Panama during the dry season to fight native-bred and imported bulls.
Top South American and U.S. thoroughbreds head around the first turn at the President
World renowned also is major league
baseball-and Panama is no exception.
From December to February fans jam
the National Stadium weekday nights
and Sunday afternoons to watch the
Panama Professional Baseball League
in action. The four teams, each from a
different province, are composed of
major leaguers and local talent. Pana-
manian players in the big leagues are
Hector Lopez iNen York Yankees),
Rutherford "Ghico" Salmon (Cleveland
Indians), and Emilio Phillips (Philadel-
phia Phillies). Numerous youth leagues,
both baseball and softball, provide for
Panama's future diamond stars.
The bullfight-a Spanish tradition for
centuries-has aficionados in Panama,
too. Mexican, Spanish, and South Amer-
ican bullfighters have their "moment of
truth" from January to April when they
confront Panama's native-bred bulls at
the Plaza de la Macarena in suburban
San Francisco de la Caleta.
All year round the handsomely main-
tained Panama Golf Club draws players
from the Republic and the Canal Zone.
In February, the club attracts some of
the world's top professionals for the
Panama Open. Last month, Mike Sou-
chack of the United States and Juan
"Chi Chi" Rodriguez of Puerto Rico
played a match there for ABC-TV's
"Wonderful World of Golf."
Basketball fans get top-flight action
in Panama June through September.
The Panama and Colon basketball
leagues offer fast, talented action and,
each year, the Panama All-Stars go to
the Central American and Panama
Games. In all the years that a Panama-
nian team has competed in the Games,
it has not lost a basketball game.
Panama's jungles are a hunter's dream
come true. The hunting enthusiast can
stalk jaguar, ocelot, puma, deer, wild-
cat, wild pig, and boar. Bird hunters can
search out wild turkey, duck, quail,
and wild dove.
Cockfighting has been a popular
activity in Panama for many years.
Cockfights take place every Sunday and
Monday at the "Club Gallistico de
Panama" in Panama City. In addition,
most interior towns have their own
If you prefer to go to the beach and
soak up sun or if you prefer a boating
excursion, Panama offers a wide variety
of choices on either side of the Isthmus.
Tops in popularity are the Pacific
side beaches at Rio Mar and Santa
Clara-which also boast several cabin
rental sites. Surfing is becoming quite
popular now at most interior beaches.
At the Olympic Swimming Pool in Pan-
ama City, tourists are admitted upon
(See p. 24)
Two players battle for a rebound in
Panama Basketball League action at the
rHE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
z especial exhibits, and programs. The Panama Canal
7)1 /1 4* *^'U
organization tells the Canal story in a documentary
and through selections of slides and photographs.
/ ,^ L"
r A Mancha and Gato, the two well-known burros from
Summit CARNIVAL, IN PANAMA, starts 4 days before Lent
'-*- "l ._ ; S and closes at dawn on Ash Wednesday.
,' ) Fairs, in Panama, go on all-year-round in some
part of the country. No matter what month a visitor
yf^ \ L i, \may come to the Republic, somewhere a special
Sv. ti l .i.' fe .. ~ festivity will be underway.
SPanamas Whether Carnival or fair, the U.S. residents and
M, -- military and civilian organizations in the Canal Zone
/r'. : ., ; 11 actively participate and provide the support necessary
r'r .. f. f.y to insure the success of a special event.
";', .=a t .... -, Each fair in the Republic of Panama has its Queen,
;.. r '- ,,." ^ .' special exhibits, and programs. The Panama Canal
j / ." -* I." k organization tells the Canal story in a documentary
S. -' frT'-- ., and through selections of slides and photographs.
-., :., ." Mancha and Gato, the two well-known burros from
"--j^j ,^ ~Summit Gardens in the Canal Zone, always travel to
--^- f. Panama's fairs to give rides to the young fairgoers.
.,' Calves from the Panama Canal's Mindi Dairy Farm
8 NOVEMBER 1965
usually are contributed by the Canal
organization as special prizes to Panama
Carnival, like the fairs, is a time of
gaiety. But Carnival, more specifical-
ly, is a time of polleras, montunos,
costumes, and floats.
Traditional music of Carnival is heard
in Panama and the Canal Zone from the
first of January, and the Carnival Flag
of blue and white is raised with ap-
propriate ceremony in Panama and in
the Canal Zone during the first weeks
of the new year.
Throughout January, candidates for
Carnival Queen compete for the crown
to be worn by the representative of
each respective community, each social
center, and many organizations.
Carnival weekend is a busy one for
the many Queens. A Coronation Ball
for the Canal Zone Pacific Side Carnival
Queei is usually held at the Tivoli
Guest House. The Coronation Ball of
the Atlantic Side Queen generally is
held at the Breakers Club at Coco Solo.
Panama's official Carnival Queen, select-
(See p. 22)
The excitement of a rural fair in Panama. At this one, a group demonstrates the square
dance, a native dance of the United States. Typical Panamanian dances flavor all fairs
and furnish fun. The fair's primary purposes are to spotlight agricultural, commercial, and
industrial aspects of the area and to advance progress and knowledge in these areas.
Parade at Carnival time. This float boasts beautiful members of the Chinese colony riding
the back of a colorful dragon. The parade is a dazzling highlight of the Carnival.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
This is the brightness of night in Panama, along Balboa Boulevard by the Bay of Panama.
I)iiuic at night, as a cool breeze from the bay sweeps across this terraced restaurant close
by the bay. A garden atmosphere completes the scene.
IT'S BEEN GOING on for the past 450
years or so.
Night life in Panama, that is.
It probably started when the first of
the gay Spanish dons set foot on the
Isthmus and it has been continuing in
various degrees of intensity ever since.
Although night life in Panama is far
more sleek and sophisticated than it
was in the wide open days of the con-
struction era or the World War II days,
it always has had a color and character
all its own and a gay, pulsating rhythm
Tourists lucky enough to visit the
Isthmus during the annual Carnival
season will find all of Panama involved
in a gay 4-day party. In addition to the
regular entertainment offered by the
hotels, clubs and night spots, Carnival
brings to life the gay native dances in
the open-air dance halls called "toldos,"
built especially for the celebration in
many parts of Panama and the interior.
During the rest of the year there still
is plenty of bright entertainment rang-
ing from dinner under the stars in a
tropical garden to dancing in a luxuri-
10 NOVEMBER 1965
Ruins at Panama Viejo are beautiful at night.
Near the modern hotel area, this open air restaurant offers a view of a busy thoroughfare.
ous hotel supper room and a whirl in
the glamorous gambling casinos. And
there are several air-conditioned motion
picture theaters featuring both Holly-
wood and European films.
Panama City boasts three topnotch
luxury hotels. One, the International, is
located near the shopping district in the
heart of town. The other two, the
Hotel El Continental and El Panama
Hilton, are near the elite residential
districts of Panama.
The International is noted for its
excellent restaurant and French cuisine.
The Hilton and the Continental have
deluxe supper rooms where the service,
the music and the floor shows are su-
perb. And there are Government-oper-
ated gambling casinos in both hotels.
Another excellent hotel with continental
food and music for dancing is La Siesta,
an attractive motel-type inn located near
Tocumen Airport. All are completely
A popular place for cocktails before
dinner or drinks afterwards is the El
Bombarde Room of the Panama Hilton,
with its giant Wurlitzer organ played
nightly by Leroy Lewis. The organ,
one of the largest three-manual key-
board types ever built by Wurlitzer,
has 259 stops and can produce sounds
ranging from a whisper to a thunderous
Panama dishes and seafood are the
specialty of Club Panamar, an attractive
and popular restaurant with an open-air
tropical garden located on the shores of
Panama Bay. The service is excellent
and there is a wide selection of wines.
While the native dishes of Panama
can match those of any other country,
the visitor may wish to try another
variety. There are two excellent Chinese
(See p. 23)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
A sidewalk cafe, informal and gay.
Land of Contrasts
Ir .' -- .
'. 4 . :
.', : ...' . ,... '
Thoroughbred horses are raised at this
farm near Concepci6n, Chiriqui.
CHIRIQUI IS PANAMA'S province of
lovely contrasts. It's a place where a
half-hour drive takes you from the trop-
ical climate of its principal city, David,
to the eternal spring that graces the
mountain village of Boquete.
This province of towering peaks and
rich soil is about 300 miles from Pan-
ama-1 hour by air. A side trip to Chi-
riqui province is one that pays a traveler
There are several "musts" in the area.
One is the Boquete orange, a navel
orange unsuprassed in the world for
delicacy and flavor. Everyone should
experience the taste thrill of this fruit.
And, of course, the highlands of Chi-
riqui are famous for quality coffee, and
its lowlands for tobacco.
The province produces much of the
food for the Republic of Panama-there
are huge banana plantations, many
coffee fincas (farms), a huge citrus
development that will one day export
much orange juice, and high on the
slopes of the mountains are grown much
of the produce sold in the marketplaces
of Panama City and Colon. It also pro-
duces most of the beef for the country.
The vegetables grown in the rich
soils of the highlands are famous for
their size and quality. Fruits abound,
and the Boquete strawberry has a
wide reputation for its gigantic size and
The region boasts cold streams that
attract fishermen, and its woodlands
and mountainsides provide some of the
country's most beautiful scenery. Wild-
flowers, lakes, and the majesty of "el
volcan Baru" make Chiriqui a camera
In both David and Boquete there
are fine hotels and modern restaurants
and transportation. "Chiricanos" are
noted for their friendly spirit and for
The area offers hunting, trout fish-
ing, and for the salt water fisherman,
the Pacific is nearby. Whether the
traveler goes by air, or takes the 8-hour
trip by car on the Inter-American
Highway from Panama City, he will
find his destination a rewarding one.
The beauty of El Barn can be seen for miles in the Boquete area.
A placid lakeside scene in the Volcan area.
12 NOVEMBER 1965
Twins Roxana Varela, left, and Dagmar, in typical native costumes.
View of Panama
Poolside at the beautiful Panama Hilton Hotel.
On the waterfront, Panama City. Note the shrimp fleet at rear.
An aerial view of downtown Panama City.
A favorite spot for tourists in Panama.
The imposing Continental Hotel.
r.- r Ir I unnm
I-Ersr- "FSr r
Farming in the Chiriqui highlands.
AT OPPOSITE ENDS of the Republic
of Panama are two lovely places-both
a short distance form Panama's main
thoroughfares and both with an appeal
that attracts tourists who want some-
thing different, visitors who want to
really know the country .
Bocas del Toro, in western Panama,
and the San Bias Islands, in the eastern
part, are both on the Atlantic side of
Bocas is a quiet, beautiful group of
islands, largely undiscovered by tour-
ists, though a few trickle in from nearby i
Panama City. It has its eye on the
future, and while e accommodations are
now limited, the potential for a brisk
tourist trade is tremendous.
The San Bias are unique islands; life
there goes on much as it did when Co- ,
lumbus sailed into the Bocas del Toro
area 463 years age. The short, indus- .,.'
trious Indian population is known local- f" '" .
ly for its self-sufficient and democratic
outlook. The San Bias live largely in Approaching the island of Ailig
Svessel that buys San Bias har
42 settlements scattered through 365 is-
lands. They are adopting some modern
conveniences, but socially they are se-
lective, r tinriiig many tribal customs "
The San Bias Islands are accessible
by air, and the enchanting view from ..
an airplane is, by itself, worth the mod- .-
est price of a ticket. This is one of the
musts for tourists and the trip can be
taken both ways in a day. In a few
years, the opportunity to take this trip
into the past may disappear.
For a souvenir, the tourist may want
to buy a mola, a beautiful and interest-
ing creation of the San Bias women.
Di sii,.. vary from geometric to birds,
\ illI.g scenes, animals, or symbols de-
piir.lihi cultural or religious themes.
Sewn by hand, the complicated stitch-
ing requires hours of hard work. Fram-
ed, the mola is an exquisite decoration.
At Bocas, the climate and beaches
are unsurpassed. And the fishing is su-
perb. Pr iL. are extremely reasonable,
:lhiIIIl the accommodations are not to
be compared with those in a modem city
or town; lrh \ are rudimentary and suited
to the tourist who doesn't require many San Bias Indian girls, with n
conveniences to enjoy his stay. perform in special tribal
andi in a cayuco-a native canoe. Boat at dockside is a trading
vest of coconuts, sells everything from nails to ice cream.
naracas and homemade flutes, practice a dance that they
ceremonies. Original music is composed for the dance.
14 NOVEMBER 1965
The pier at Bocas del Toro. Scenery on the
islands is magnificent and it is a place
where a walk is not a chore but an
There is an interesting stalactite cave
to see, outer island trips to take, a
visit to a banana plantation, skindiving
in the clear waters, and water skiing.
Boats may be rented for fishing. Seafood
is abundant, and delicious Bocas del
Toro lobsters or turtle steaks are served
at the airport restaurant, 5 minutes
walking distance from the hotel.
Bocas is reached by daily air service
from Panama, and from David. Or, the
traveler can enjoy a scenic 7- or 8-hour
trip to David by auto and then fly to
Souvenirs from Bocas include stuffed
turtles, interesting items of tortoise shell,
or the beautifully preserved barracuda
heads, mounted on lacquered plaques.
This lobster weighed 14 pounds. The res-
idents of Bocas del Toro have a plentiful
supply of these tasty shellfish, fresh from
the surrounding waters.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
I First quarter, fiscal year-
Chinese i\jt I
United States ..
All Others -----
309 2. 32-.21b
23 1i .b
100 5 3 il('~
126 1. 11(. 4,
223 1, 14'I
14 l1 ,1
338 1 14 "i"
* j3 3 1, i.,'-. "^.
326 2,b6, -23
14 1 ,s5:
64 *: 5i1 1
68 4 33,h ,5
79 54 51i4
13 1,.2i, s
214 1 24 2n:3
245 ).tIl. I -35
40 174 5)4
63 511 379
2 *'7- lP Y'.3 31 :
.IlaUils - . - ---
,)t 'l t. n er - - -
February --. --
April - - - - -
T t Gross tolls *
Transits (In thousands of dollars)
Avg. No. Average
1966 1965 Transits 1966 1965 Tolls.
993 1,004 557 $5,604 $5,313 $2,432
983 1,004 554 5 4'8 5,497 2,403
977 970 570 5,456 5,339 2,431
1,018 607 5,484 2,559
988 568 5,435 2,361
1,021 599 5,641 2,545
921 580 4,982 2,444
819 559 4,523 2,349
1,084 632 6,231 2,657
1,052 608 5,888 2,588
1,010 629 5,732 2,672
944 599 5,384 2,528
2,953 11 '65 7,062 16,548 $65,449 $i29.9hj
* Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
S First quarter, fiscal year-
United States Intercoastal -------------------
East coast of United States and South America -
East coast of United States and Central America -
East coast of United States and Far East_ -
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia - -
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada -
Europe and South America_- -__- --
Europe and Australasia ------------_-------
All other routes ----------------_--__-_---
Total traffic --_-- ____
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
transits of cargo
3 2).2 '.6
------- --- -- -
To Call Here
More than 10,000 tourists, scheduled
to arrive aboard 20 or more luxurious
cruise liners, will visit Panama and the
Canal Zone during the 1965-66 cruise
Traveling on cruises around the world
and to such romantic and faraway
places as the South Seas, the Orient and
the West Indies, they will spend a day
or more ashore on the Isthmus shopping
and visiting points of interest.
Agents handling the winter and spring
cruise ships have announced their ad-
vance itineraries which will bring to the
Canal during the next few months such
well-known vessels as the huge United
States, the Home Lines' new Oceanic,
and the Zim Line's new Shalom. Another
new ship making her maiden cruise to
the Canal is the Norwegian America
liner Sagafjord, due November 22 on a
Caribbean cruise and April 6 on the
last lap of a world cruise.
The cruise season opened October 17
with the arrival in Cristobal of the Nor-
wegian America liner Oslofjord, a fa-
miliar winter visitor. This ship will call
at Cristobal again January 22.
Another Norwegian America Line
vessel due in January is the Bergensfjord,
traveling from New York on a 77-day
cruise. This vessel transits the Canal
January 24 and docks in Balboa before
departing for the Galapagos Islands, the
South Seas, Australia, New Zealand, and
back around South America.
C. B. Fenton, local agents for the
NirVt-gian America Line, the Flagship
Line, the Swedish America Line and the
Home Lines, also announced the sched-
uled arrival of the Viking Princess, a
Flagship Line luxury ship due in Balboa
December 17 following a world cruise.
The vessel will berth in Cristobal.
The Swedish America liner Grips-
holm, also on a world cruise, is due in
Cristobal January 13 and will transit the
same day to dock in Balboa.
One of the newest ships on the cruise
schedule is the Oceanic, which flies
the flag of Panama and is the ultra-
modern flagship of the Home Lines.
16 NOVEMBER 1965
This ship started service between New
York and Nassau last April and is mak-
ing her first visit to the Isthmus. She
will arrive in Cristobal February 15 on
a 15-day cruise out of New York. A stop
at the San Bias Islands is included.
The Hanseatic, another well-known
Home liner, is due in Cristobal Feb-
ruary 17 on a W\..st Indies cruise out of
Port Everglades, Fla.
Due in Cristobal December 23 on a
Christmas cruise to the West Indies is
the new Zim liner Shalom, a beautiful
cruise vessel placed in service last year.
The United Fruit Co., agents for Zim
Lines and the Moore-McCormack Line,
announced the scheduled arrival of the
SS Argentina in January from New York
on a Caribbean cruise.
The SS United States, one of the great
passenger liners of modern times and
one of the fastest, will arrive in Cristo-
bal February 12 on her third visit to
Cristobal. The 990-foot liner will be
brought to dock at about 7 a.m. and
will remain here until 2 a.m. the follow-
ing day when it will sail for Kingston,
Jamaica. Panama Agencies represent
the United States Line here.
The North German Lloyd liner Bre-
men is due February 25 for a 1-day visit
as part of a West Indies cruise. Conti-
nental Shipping Corp. is the agent.
Four cruise vessels owned by the
Holland America Line are due to visit
the Canal this season. They are the
Ryndam, the Maasdam, the Rotterdam,
and the Statendam. All are well-known
winter visitors and all are scheduled to
pass through the Canal and dock either
in Balboa or Cristobal. The Ryndam
will arrive in Balboa April 16 from Aus-
tralia, the Maasdam is due January 22
in Balboa from the South Seas; the Rot-
terdam will come to Balboa April 8
after a world cruise, and the Statendam
is due in Balboa December 3.
Pacific Ford, agents for Cunard and
Royal Mail Lines as well as for the Hol-
land America Line ships, announced
that the Cunard cruise liner Caronia
would make its annual visit to the Canal
April 29 on the last lap of a world cruise
and that the Royal Mail liner Andes was
due in Cristobal January 24.
The P. & O. Orient Lines, represented
here by Norton Lilly & Co., have eight
voyages scheduled to include the Pan-
ama Canal during the 1965-66 cruise
These cruises are scheduled for the
Oronsay, due here November 20 and
October 9; the Arcadia, due Decem-
ber 4; the Orsova due February 2; the
Chusan due December 19 and the Can-
berra, flagship of the line, due April 29.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Ores, various ------- __ __
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ---
Canned food products ---------------
Nitrate of soda -------------___
Fishmeal ---- __- _____
Bananas---- ----- __________ ______
Metals, various -- -__--__--_--
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
Coffee______ ---- __-----_-________---
Iron and steel manufactures -----
All others ----------
First quarter, fiscal year-
Atlantic to Pacific
Rice -- -- --------------- ------- 103,671
Sugar --.----- -- 168,273
Bauxite---- ----- 175,824
Coal and coke---------------------------- 1,713,914
Sorghum_______ ------------------------ 149,740
Ammonium compounds-------------------- 97,664
Phosphates --- -----_--------------- 778,403
Soybeans --------------_---- ------ 411,888
Fertilizers, unclassfied ___________ ---- 119,828
Wheat --------- -- -- -----__--- 191,559
Iron and steel manufactures---------------- 436,755
Co --------rn--_---------------- 825,376
Machinery _____________ 106,902
Ores, various---------------------------- 121,765
Metal (scrap) ---------- 510,379
Paper and paper products------------------ 125,053
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ---- 3,484,786
Chemicals, unclassified-- 199,092
All others -------- -------------- 1,599,626
Total _----- 11,43806
First quarter, fiscal year-
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First quarter, fiscal year-
Oceangoing ----__-- -
Total commercial _______ ------
U.S. Government vessels: **
Oceangoing-_ __- __ --
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment _--_-- _____
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Atlantic to Pacific
VISITORS TO THE Republic of Pan-
ama and the Canal Zone come by every
mode of transportation ever invented by
man. They come by sea, by air, and over
the InterAmerican HiTh\.L' traveling
by conventional plane, boat, car and
bus. Some have come on motorcycles
and bicycles, and there also have been
intrepid hikers-all with the Isthmus as
The only tourist requirements are a
smallpox vaccination and a tourist card.
The former is compulsory for all travel-
ers, by international regulations. The
latter sells for S2 and is obtained through
any travel agency or transportation
company. The tourist card permits the
visitor to remain 30 days, and may be
extended to 90 days when the tourist
is in the country.
If the traveler has a valid passport, so
much the better. Instead of a tourist
card, he may secure through the Pan-
amanian consulate a tourist visa valid
for 90 days.
U.S. currency is used in the Canal
Zone and the Republic of Panama.
The monetary unit of Panama is the bal-
boa, and prices may be quoted in bal-
boas, written B/. Minted, but not in
wide circulation, is the balboa, a silver
coin equivalent to the U.S. dollar. Pan-
ama has no paper money and uses the
U.S. paper money, while all the coun-
try's coins are equivalent to U.S. coins.
Fr., .elers' checks are accepted by hotels
and business establishments.
The climate is tropical, with relatively
liic but even temperatures thri.igh'oit
the year. December through April is
Panama's summer, or di,. season, and
January usually is Panama's loveliest
month. The landscape, in January, is
still fresh and green from the rainy
season which ends in December, and
unseared by the constant sun and inter-
mittent trade winds of the dry season.
It is cl' r.ll'., cool and not sultry as
lliring the rainy season.
Sportswear and summer clothing are
worn oihr. IL'luIt the year in Panama.
nB.l,ilE suits are important in the Isth-
mian wardrobe and so are comfortable
Balboa Boulevard winds along the inner crescent of beautiful Panama City, and no visitor
should miss an opportunity to see this scenic thoroughfare.
low-heeled shoes for tours, shopping, or
trips to the country.
The Republic of Panama geograph-
ically links Central and South America,
and its biggest tourist attraction, of
world renown, is the Panama Canal in
the Canal Zone.
The Canal was built by the United
States at a cost of $380 million and rep-
resents 10 years of hard work. It is ap-
proximately 50 miles long, deep water
to deep water, and follows a north-
westerley to southeasterly direction.
The entire area of the Canal Zone
population in 1960, including the U.S.
Armed Forces, was 42,122.
The population of the Republic of
Panama, in the 1960 census, was
1,075,541, with 41.5 percent urban and
58.5 percent rural. Panama Cirt, the
most populated area, has more than
The sanitation of the Isthmus and the
provision of a pure water supply were
problems of crreatst consequence in the
successful completion of the Panama
Canal and these problems were solved
during construction days. There is an
ample supply of pure filtered water
Milk is pasteurized, Panama's meats
are good, and the fish are excellent.
Fruits and vegetables are excellent, too.
Transportation between the Atlantic
and Pacific sides of the Isthmus is avail-
able by railway or highway. The Pan-
ama Railroad crosses the Isthmus in
1 hour 25 minutes for the 48-mile trip
and the round trip costs $2. Twelve
p.is,~-iner trains operate daily between
Colon and Panama City, and weekends
there are 14 passenger trains.
Bus lines serve the principal areas in
the Canal Zone, the cities of Panama and
Colon, and the interior of the Republic
traveling over the multimillion-dollar
Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
Arr.ima mn.nte; for cars for hire may
be made privately or through one of
the several reputable travel agencies in
Panama. As for language, both English
and Spanish are commonly spoken.
18 NOVEMBER 1965
THE PANAMA CANAL
This mammoth water staircase raises ships from the level of the Atlantic Ocean, at bottom of picture, to Gatun Lake,
in background, in three steps. The lake is 85 feet above the level of the Atlantic.
WHETHER IT IS A visitor's first look
or his 50th, there has never been one
with soul so dead that he does not thrill
at the sight of the huge ocean liners
smoothly climbing the 85-foot water
stairs of Gatun Locks on the Atlantic
side or being locked through the two
locks at Miraflores and one at Pedro
Miguel on the Pacific side of the Canal.
As the tourist pamphlets say, it is an
engineering triumph that never fails to
stimulate a deep feeling of amazement
From the mechanical standpoint, the
Panama Canal remains one of the
wonders of the world. Even though the
construction of larger and larger mer-
chant vessels has been one factor lead-
ing to the call for a new and larger
waterway, the Panama Canal is still of
significance to the entire world and a
primary influence on world commerce.
It is also a thrill to stand at the
visitor's lookout at Contractors' Hill
and watch the never-ending parade of
freighters, tankers, superships and sleek
liners as they steam majestically through
the narrow ribbon of Gaillard Cut.
Visitors to the Panama Canal will be
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19
Vital Vo Trade,
Jt 4lJo cttiacti
interested primarily in the operation of
the locks, the view of the bay from the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge in Balboa, and
a partial transit through the Cut aboard
the Panama Canal sightseeing launch
Las Cruces, which has been available
to an increasing flow of Isthmian visitors
While the locks are engineering mar-
vels, the trip through Gaillard Cut gives
a vivid picture of the difficulties en-
countered by the Canal builders in slic-
ing a "big ditch" through hundreds of
feet of rock and shale which make up
the continental divide.
Members of the Panama Canal Guide
Service, an elite and knowledgeable
corps, are on hand to explain the work-
ing of the Panama Canal locks.
Points of interest which the Isthmian
visitor may also tour on his own include
the famous Summit Gardens where there
is one of the world's most complete col-
lection of tropical plants; Madden Dam
where the Canal's water supply is stor-
ed; the Canal Administration Building;
Gorgas Hospital; the Canal Zone Li-
brary Museum; and the palm-shaded
avenues of Balboa, Ancon, Margarita
and other Canal Zone community towns.
Madden Lake, a reservoir stretching
for 19 miles behind Madden Dam, is
one of the favorite recreation spots for
Isthmian residents. The lake is used for
boating, fishing and swimming. The
Canal Zone Boy Scouts have a year-
round camp there and the Hydro-
graphic Branch of the Panama Canal
maintains water stations on the banks
of the Pequini, Bocaron, and Chagres
Summit Gardens, located on the crest
of the continental divide, is a wonder-
land for the naturalist, the botanist or
the casual visitor. Established in 1923
as a plant introduction garden, some
15,000 different kinds of plant life have
been introduced. There is a rapidly
(See p. 20)
Jj a Aust
(Continued from p. 19)
S i'.[. ig zoo and picnic grounds.
The Panama Canal is only 51 years
old, but the Isthmus of Panama on
which it is situated has a rich heritage
of historic legend and human interest
dating back as far as the Spanish
Tourists on a brief visit may miss
some of the historic sites and crum-
bling ruins such as the fortifications of
Fort San Lorenzo on the Atlantic Side
and the Las Cruces Trail over which
was shipped the gold and silver treasure
of the Americas.
Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the
Chagres River protected the Atlantic
terminus of the old Cruces Trail used
from 1530 to 1855 for commercial and
Ip.i'. ir'' traffic over the Isthmus. The
old fort was attacked and captured
several times by the FriL'lih' during the
lAl, 17th and 18th centuries.
V. ,lii of the old Cruces Trail mav
be seen today ilthnihiLi ii was l1ni, ago
abandoned as i hI].I'h..I. A stretch
still in fairly i ...n l. o rIliIn.ii crosses the
Stored behind Madden Dam is the water supply that carries the Canal operation through
the dry season. The huge lake also attracts fishermen.
Where Las Cruces trail begins. The historical cannon is reminiscent of the days when
Spanish explorers used this trail across the Isthmus to transport looted gold.
20 NOVEMBER 1965
The Canal Zone:
Madden Dam Road in the center of the
Canal Zone forest reservation, one of
the beauty spots of the Canal Zone.
Picnic tables are available there for
those who want to eat lunch or barbecue
after walking along the historic cobble-
The Panama Railroad, built in 1855
and the first transcontinental railroad
in this hemisphere, follows the Pan-
ama Canal channel for most of its
50-mile length. Equipped with modem
diesel engines and comfortable passen-
ger coaches, it gives the visitor a good
view of the Canal.
At the end of a day of sightseeing.
visitors may find it relaxing to pay a call
on the venerable Tivoli Guest House.
Built in 1906, since 1951 it has been a
guest house, but only for official Panama
Canal visitors. One of its first guests was
President Theodore Roosevelt and his .
party when they came to the Isthmus The entrance to Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres River. The fort played
in 1906. a vital part in early Isthmian history.
s al k o ,
The Panama Canal Guide Service at Miraflores and Gatun Locks Another train crosses the Isthmus on the oldest transcontinental
serves thousands of visitors a year, at pavilions at the locks, aboard railroad in the hemisphere. Completed in 1855, it was rebuilt by
passenger ships, and on tours, the United States after 1900. In this view it runs beside the Canal.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21
* . ^ ''-
Aboard this float in the Carnival parade are Panamanian beauties in the beautiful native
costume, the pollera.
The splendor of the luxurious pollera, typ-
ical Panamanian costume, against the
ancient backdrop of stone in the Old Pan-
ama Cathedral tower. Miss Ilka Rubella
Crosthwaite P. models the dress.
RK-aa -- '^i-
A native conjunto plays as dancers in costume entertain onlookers
at Panama Viejo.
Youngsters lead calves at a fair. Display of livestock, including
those nurtured under 4-H Club sponsorship, is a feature of fairs
in the interior of Panama.
Carnival and Fairs-Traditional in Panama
(Continued from p. 9)
ed by the Panama Carnival Junta, is
crowned in a beautiful ceremony at
Panama Cit,.'s Olympic Stadium.
On Carnival Saturday, the President
of the Republic of Panama receives in
audience the Panama Crit Queen, the
Canal Zone Pacific Side Queen, the
Queen of the Chinese colony in Panama,
and other Queens.
Traditional Pollera Day is Sunday of
Carnival Week. The Carnival Queens,
accompanied by King Momo and all
the court, parade through the main
streets in open cars. A Carnival Classic
is usually held that afternoon at the
Remon Race Track in Panama City,
with all the Carnival Queens as honor
Carnival Monday is sprinkled with
confetti and looped with serpentine from
the mock "battles" by Carnival merry-
makers up and down Panama City's
Central Avenue and other streets of the
city that are closed to traffic.
The climax of Carnival in Panama is
Carnival Tuesday, when a parade is held
in the afternoon. The Panama Canal
organization, U.S. Armed Forces in the
Canal Zone, industries in Panama and
the Panama Carnival Junta are repre-
sented in color and original floats. Each
(See p. 30)
22 NOVEMBER 1965
j E !~s
Downtown Panama after dark. Central Avenue is a splash of neon and moving cars.
(Continued from p. 11)
restaurants, the Gran China on Balboa
Avenue near the sea and the Restau-
rante Gran Formosa on the Trans-
Italian food is the specialty of the
Capri, an open-air restaurant across
from the Panama Hilton and La Fioren-
tina on Ricardo Arias Avenue. For char-
coal broiled steaks U.S. style, there is
the Club 21 on Via Espafia.
If a visitor is not too tired after a day
of swimming, fishing or sightseeing, he
can take in one of a number of night
clubs where things are jumping and the
local atmosphere and music are exotic.
There are El Sombrero on Via Espafia
with bright new shows imported from
South America; Maxims, an intimate
night club across the street from the
Panama Hilton and any number of
smaller intimate bars and night spots.
A conducted tour of the city's night
life may be arranged.
Panama's theaters draw large evening crowds.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Ismael Laguna, left, and Carlos Ortiz trade
blows in bout in which Laguna captured
lightweight crown. They will fight again
Suit All Tastes
(Continued from p. 7)
presentation of identification. A launch
trip to Taboga Island puts you on
the most beautiful beaches in Panama.
Boating is expanding as recreation in
Panama. The Panama Yacht Club offers
Tennis lovers will find the tennis
courts at the Olympic Swimming Pool
.~..l.l1h, at a nominal fee. The local
open tennis tournaments are held at the
A rapidly rising sport in Panama is
bowling. Panama bowling enthusiasts
In to bowling alleys in the Zone, but
a $400,000, 16-lane establishment, next
to Sears on the Trans-Isthmian High-
way, is scheduled to open next month.
In short, the stopover tourist, the
. retL:l'. vacationer, and visitors to the
Isthmus-all can find nearly every sport
or outdoor activity to satisfy their ath-
letic and recreational wishes.
Baseball action in Panama. The Republic has sent many of its top baseball men to the
major leagues in the United States.
50 Year cgo
TRAFFIC THROUGH the Panama
Canal came to a halt October 18, 1915,
when slides, which had plagued Canal
authorities earlier that year, completely
closed Gaillard Cut. The major slide
occurred about 1,000 feet north of Gold
Hill and blocked the channel for the fol-
lowing 6 months. Five dredges were
immediately brought into the area and
work of removing the slide material con-
tinued on a 24-hour-a-day basis. Ship-
ping tied up at Balboa and Cristobal
while some vessels took on fuel and
stores for the long trip around the
Straits of Magellan. At one time there
were 83 vessels tied up in the Canal
The blocking of the Canal caused a
heavy increase in the demand for food
supplies, upset the normal conditions of
supplying coal and placed an unusual
burden of traffic on the Panama Rail-
road, which was used again for the first
time since the Canal opened to traffic,
for the transfer of cargo between the
terminal ports. In October 1915, the
railroad was handling between 4,000
and 5,000 tons of transisthmian freight
While the Dredging Division worked
on removing the slide, heavy rains
caused the sharpest rise of the Chagres
River and Gatun Lake since the Canal
was placed in commercial operation.
25 Year 4go
EXPANSION OF military installations
in the Canal Zone was being planned
25 years ago as a result of the war in
Europe. Work continued on the con-
struction of hangars at Howard Field
and plans were announced for the
construction of underground air raid
Secretary of Navy Frank Knox said
that President Roosevelt had allocated
$50 million to construct air and naval
bases in the Caribbean. He planned a
visit to Coco Solo later in the year.
The first step toward the construction
of a tunnel or bridge to replace the in-
adequate ferry system across the Canal
was taken by the United States with
the appointment of an engineer to study
the problem and decide where a tunnel
or bridge should be located. The United
States also announced that it would
build a road between Madden Dam and
10 Year3d aio
FORMAL ACCEPTANCE of the Con-
tractors Hill project was made in Sep-
tember 1955 after the Tecon Corpora-
tion of Texas had completed the work
in 15 months. The project was the
largest of its kind in the history of the
Canal since construction days. It was
primarily preventive work to avoid a
possible rock fall which could have
blocked the channel in Gaillard Cut.
The bronze bust of Count Ferdinand
de Lesseps, whose name is linked with
the early history of the Panama Canal,
was formally presented to the Panama
Canal in November 1955 by the Board
of Directors of the Suez Canal Com-
pany. The presentation ceremony, held
in the Administration Building at Bal-
boa Heights, marked the 150th anni-
versary of de Lesseps' birth and was a
feature of a worldwide observance of the
Ferdinand de Lesseps sesquicentennial
Specifications were prepared and
invitations for proposals were being
issued for test models of the new power-
ful replacement towing locomotives for
the Panama Canal locks. The project
was the biggest single replacement
order for Panama Canal equipment
cost-wise, in the history of the waterway.
One year a4o
ONE OF THE last phases of the long
range program for widening the Pan-
ama Canal channel from 300 to 500 feet
came to a close last September when
the last yard of the 51 million cubic
yards of earth overburden was removed.
The work begun on a contract awarded
to Moretti and Harrison of Miami in
January 1963 involved the removal of
51 million cubic yards of earth over-
burden on the 3%-mile Las Cascadas-
Bas Obispo Reaches.
Pedro Miguel Locks in March 1915. These ships were moored to the lock walls, delayed by slides in the Cut near Gold Hill. A few
months later, slides closed the Canal and it took 6 months to clear it for traffic.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The Isthmus: Focal Point of History
f ^^f ^ ^
A new city of Panama was built within
massive walls 2 years after the destruction
of Old Panama. Portions of the old wall are
still seen in parts of the city, mainly at Las
Bovedas and along the shoreline of the city.
(Continued from p. 5)
Argentina, and Chile to an international
congress to be held in Panama. How-
ever, unsettled conditions prevented
the conference at that time. It wasn't
until 1826 that the congress convened
with representatives of Colombia, Pe-
ru, Central America, and Mexico and
drafted a treaty of perpetual union.
This first attempt to achieve unity
among the nations of the Western
Hemisphere is known as the Panama
Panama continued as a department
of the United States of Colombia for a
period of 82 years-from 1821 to No-
vember 1903. During these years many
projects for a Panama Canal were
placed before the Governments of La
Gran Colombia and later Nueva Grana-
da. The most int, iliwi, events in the
history of Panama since her separation
from Spain are those connected with
efforts to build a canal from the Carib-
bean to the Pacific. Bolivar approved
the idea in theory, as had others.
The search continued for a route
across the Isthmus. At various times,
E.nl lid and France showed great in-
terest in this waterway route. The Gov-
ernment of the United States did not
Iciii to consider the matter mind 1835.
At this time, President Jackson was
asked by the U.S. Senate to consider
negotiating with Nueva Granada and
the Central American Republics in
respect to such a canal.
Nothing came of this at the time.
It wasn't until the western frontier of
the United States became part of the
United States, a result of the Mexican
War, and the need for making the new
possessions more accessible from the
Eastern States, that the franchise to
construct a railroad was secured from
the Nueva Granada Government. A
year later, in 1849, the gold rush of
the "fortv-niners" to California gave
impetus to the land route and the
Panama Railroad was born.
In those days there were no railroads
uniting the east and west of the United
States. Because of the Indians inhabit-
ing the central part of the United
States, it was dangerous and almost
impossible to cross the country. The
safest way was via the Isthmus of Pan-
ama. The sailboats and steamers carry-
ing the adventurers to the Isthmian
ports brought riches to Panama again.
The Isthmian towns came alive again-
hotels and transportation facilities were
organized for the travelers. Life and
splendor came to the Isthmus once
Panama was experiencing years of
abundance similar to the happy times
of the Portobelo fairs. The construction
of the railroad brought development of
Manzanillo Island where Colon stands
today. Workers were brought in. First
came the Irish workmen who soon were
overcome by the climate. Malaria and
fellow fever also put an end to the
Chinese, who replaced the Irish. Ja-
maicans were brought in to complete
the work on the construction of the
railroad. The famous Panama Railroad
was opened to traffic in 1855.
In the United States the great water-
way project still hung fire. Between
1857 and 1863 an almost unbroken
series of factional disturbances agitated
New Granada. Several times the safety
of the Panama Railroad gave new
impetus to the plans for a canal.
In Mav, 1876, Colombia granted a
concession for the construction of a
canal by wav of Panama to Lt. Lucien
Napoleon Bonaparte Wvse, an officer
in the French Army. This concession
he sold to a group of French financiers,
who persuaded the builder of the Suez,
Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, to join
In 1881, the French organized La
Compagnie Universelle du Canal In-
teroceanique. Disease, mismanagement,
extravagance, corruption, and technical
incompetence have been ascribed as the
causes of the French company's failure,
and in 1889, after 8 years of work, the
company went bankrupt. A new com-
pany was formed in 1894 but did no
The U.S. Government then entered
into negotiations with Colombia to take
over the project; but the treaty between
the two governments, known as the
Herran-Hay Treaty, was rejected by the
For Colombia, the canal was im-
portant but not decisive. For Panama
it meant life or death. Colombia's re-
jection of the treaty meant the end of
Panama's only means of economic sal-
vation. Without a canal there would
surely be an economic crisis. There
were visions of the dark days of pov-
erty and misery that existed before the
construction of the Panama Railroad.
It was during these negotiations that
Panama decided her destiny, and on
the 3d of November, 1903, she declar-
ed her separation from Colombia and
became a republic. Panama had made
many attempts to free herself-53 up-
risings in 57 years. On the 18th of
November 1903, the Hay-Bunau Vari-
Ila Treaty was signed between Panama
and the United States.
Five years elapsed between the
French collapse and the beginning of
the U.S. effort to build the canal.
Am:rican engineers found much of
the work done by the French usable,
especially in Culebra Cut. But they
changed the plan for the canal from
sea-level to a lock-type canal.
Before starting the construction
work, the Americans considered of ut-
most importance the improvement of
sanitary conditions on the Isthmus. They
brought immediate changes: nmuldd
streets were paved and proper sew-
erage systems were installed. Within
2 ears thev eradicated yellow fever
and reduced fatalities from other dis-
eases. Sanitary precautions were estab-
lished and enforced, making Panama
one of the healthiest countries in the
Ten years later the Panama Canal
was built. The dream and prophecy of
many had been realized. Since then
Panama has prospered and taken her
place among the free nations of the
world. Her position between the two
mighty oceans shall always be the most
important factor toward an even more
26 NOVEMBER 1965
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
Cyril V. Atherton,
James T. Chambers
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Hubert A. Dawkins
Adolphus E. Johnson
Helper (Materas Handlin Equipment
Claudius A a
Harold d\ -- AT I
David A. Fyffe
Snack Bar Operator
Reuben T. Stewart
Assistant Retail Store Manager
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Frederick C. Bitter
Chief Engineer, Towboat, Salvage
Conrad A. Boyd
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Joseph L. H. Demers
Supervisory Storage Officer
Albert E. Watson
Lead Foreman (Gro ds
Ucaston A. Barclay
Douglas C. Best
Beauford J. Hartley
Leader Engineman (I- ting d
George W. Hinds
Sales Section Head
John T. Pessoa
Sales Section Head
Conrad A. Walrond
Sales Section Head
Cecil D. Gooding
Assistant Commissary Store Manager
Arthur J. Mike
Retail Store Department Manager
^mm m an a
.- J,.' ,l ml
The luxury liner Shalom will visit the port of Cristobal on December 23. This will be the
first visit of this ship to the area. It will call while on a Christmas cruise to the West Indies.
John R. Bruland, Jr.
Associate Supervisory Inspector
Thomas J. Pimento
Cecil O. Brooks
4Chief HN never, Towboat
colAs .nt a
Cement ni er (Maintenance)
George W. ul ns, Jr.
Lock Ope t (Engineman-Hoisting and
N tEa NG AND CONSTRUCTION
Leslie A. Hurdle
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems)
Leopoldo De Gracia
Arthur U. Johnson
Charles S. Smith II
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Herman C. Graham
George J. Herring
Archibald W. Lecky
Freight Rate Assistant
Maxwell S. Sanders
General Foreman (Fuel Operations)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Counselor (U.S. Schools)
Calmer A. Batalden
Teacher (U.S. Schools)
Mary B. Journeay
Instructor (Canal Zone College)
Thomas L. Sellers
Foreman, Mailing Division (IP)
District Police Commander
Jennie G. Johannes
Nurse Supervisor (Pediatrics)
Ora V. Stich
Librarian (Medical and Biological
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
THE HOOK SETS tight and the line
slices through blu-bl.Nak % atter, the- reel
Slhuni es ad \our line is straight and
.htrd. like a iamrid The great black
nimarli ha. st'IruLk
lii Panama. lihere the marlin are
plentiful this iniompiarjble thrill of
hooking O)nI of the \\%ld', biggest anid
nmst challenging fish is nut rare. Most
likely it will be a marlin, but it could be
the Pacific sailfish, which h is much big-
ger than the Atlantic %ariet), or the
moniitrous sawfish The world's record
for sawhsh %as set in Paiiarna waters.
'I here 21 other wiorll's record fish have
been landed, including black, blue and
silver marlin snook, amberjack. sailfsh.
and giant sea bass
Panama's name means "abindaince of
ish." acrordirir to one popular transla-
hron. And the fish abound irn waters that
can be reached from Panama City in a
tr \ m iriutLes.
Angorg the pt-,ple who take fishing
seriousl. the marlin is the big thing in
Panam.i. These giant fighters are the
bluck. striped, and blue marlin. Ap-
parentlv, thire is a1 growing belief that
there is also a silver marlin. About
i9 pCrIent It the niarlin caught are
the black and tht e a'.erage 250 to 300i
pounds. However, a 400 or 500 pound
marlin is not .t all uncommon. The
world's record for the black marlin is
.M.-lhi are caught by trolling. Live
bonita is the best bait, but a marlin \will
hit strip of cut bonita too'. Though
bats troll at moderate speed to make it
easier for the marlin. thtre's no worr)
about that. A marlin can outrnm an\
fishing boat. Onci the hook is set. the
This 85-pound red snapper was caught in
Panama waters by Leo Krziza, right,
boat is worked toward the fish as the
angler pumps the rod. Hooked in the
gill, a vital spot, a marlin can be boated
in 5 to 20 minutes. But if he's hook-
ed in the bill or the eye, the battle can
be 4 to 12 hours' long, and it has been
in many cases.
A happy man, and why not? Frank Violette landed this 662-pound black marlin in 15 minutes at Pifias Bay.
A photo roundup from several marlin trips shows how it's done. The mighty marlin jumps, beginning a fierce fight to shake the
Here, the hook is set. hook loose.
Pinas Bay, about 140 miles from
Panama, offers the best marlin fishing. -
Others, though, are caught within 5 or-. .
6 hours of Panama.
Sailfish are abundant less than an
hour from downtown Panama. The sail-
fish is a famous fighter and Panama is
one of the few places in the world
where a fisherman has a good chance to
hook one in a single day's fishing.
Catching marlin is a business that
usually requires a trip of several days-
a week is best. The Club de Pesca
at Pinas Bay has complete facilities
for anglers, including boats, tackle and
(See p. 30) Still fighting, the 450-pound giant lunges. Completely out of the water, he fights hard.
Hard, careful work brings the catch nearer. Still game, but defeated, he's nearly in the boat.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 29
FISHING IN PANAMA
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Fishing from the jetties, these boys may come up with corbina, snapper, jack, and other
fish that are fun to catch-and delicious, too.
... A Note to Shoppers
IF YOU HAVE the thinnest veneer of c (.in it, the first drop of bargain-hunting
blood, then Panama is your oyster. To the shopper, downtown Panama City can
be a sort of international supermarket, a place to look, choose, and buy-and
the things tourists love to buy spill from the shelves and showcases of dozens
Getting to the heart of this intriguing subject, a list of popular items would
have to include linens, perfume, cameras and photo equipment, electronic
devices (tape recorders are popular), brass, carved objects of ivory, jade and
soapstone, silver, watches, pearls and semi-precious stones (mounted and un-
mounted). The careful shopper can purchase just about all of these things at
prices less than he'd pay in the United States.
The mola, made by the San Bias Indians, is in a category by itself. This native
product is of cloth, closely stitched by hand. It features endless designs and
themes and is unique in the world. Framed, it makes a lovely wall decoration,
or it can cover an occasional pillow. It can be purchased reasonably.
There is also a wide selection of ivory, elaborate carved East Indian and
oriental screens, glassware, and china.
Needless to say, it helps to have some knowledge of what one is buying. That
is one qualification for being a wise consumer anywhere, any country, and
Panama is no exception.
\\ ih a little time, the shopper can enjoy the exotic flavor of stores that feature
a wide variety of this merchandise. He can see carved oriental furniture that
is so 1..nitifiul that it must be seen to be believed. He can see a thousand brass
objects, figurines, and tablecloths. There are silks and brocades at good prices.
The merchants and sales help are, t>iti..ill\, extremely polite, and helpful.
Thlmiinj some prices are firmly set; many are not. Bargaining is accepted by
some merchants as a way of doing business; other merchants expect it. This
gives both parties a conversational point and it also reflects the fact that
Panamanian businessmen are competitive and eager to please.
Shopping in Panama can be fun, and there are treasures that one might never
own unless he visited stores in either Panama Citv on the Pacific, or Colon, a
short distance away on the Atlantic. It's an experience no visitor should miss.
(Continued from p. 29)
But if it isn't marlin you're after, the
fishing close to Panama City offers other
game fish prized in tropical waters, and
these run heavier, as a rule, than in
many popular fishing resorts in the
On a typical day of fishing, a catch
might include amberjack, bonita, wahoo,
kingfish mackerel, dolphin, and-if luck
is with the boat-a sailfish. All these
fish take artificial or cut bait; all are
caught while trolling.
For the bottom-fishing angler, the red
snapper and corbina are prized. These
may be caught from docks, piers and
jetties. They run from about 5 to 30
pounds for the snapper, 3 to 20 pounds
for corbina. Which is the best eating
is a gourmet's debate, but in Panama
the corbina has the edge.
Panama's mountain lakes in the west-
ern area-near Cerro Punta or Volcan-
are noted for bass and blue gill, and
many interior streams offer fine trout
In nearby towns, fishermen can find
comfortable quarters and transportation.
Whether you want the challenge of
back-breaking marlin or joy of tempting
trout with delicate flies, there is fishing
in Panama to please the most avid
(Continued from p. 22)
Carnival Queen and her court rides
in a decorated float, and the Queens'
band fill the air with melody, while
groups of masqueraders compete for
prizes offered for the most original,
gayest, and noisiest.
Each night of Carnival there's danc-
ing in the hotels and clubs of Panama
City, and in open air dance pavilions
known as "toldos."
Gaiety reaches its climax in the early
hours of Ash Wednesday morning when
the dance music changes to a funeral
march. Pallbearers carry tiny coffins, in
each of which lies a fish, and a candle-
light parade winds through the city's
streets to the nearest beach for the
"Burial of the Fish."
With the dawn, the religious go to
church before taking up their everyday
affairs, and another Panama Carnival is
over-until next year.
But check the calendar. Somewhere
in the Republic a fair is taking place,
with a miniature Carnival underway in
a rustic setting.
U.S. STILL LEADS
SHIPS FLYING THE flag of the
United States still are the best cus-
tomers of the Panama Canal but
they are getting a run for their money
from Norway and Great Britain.
During the fiscal year ending July
31, there were 1,678 transits by U.S.-
owned vessels as compared to 1,446
by Norwegian and 1,339 by those
flying the British flag.
Other nations represented in the
list of the first six best Canal custom-
ers were Germany with 1,186 tran-
sits; Liberia with 1,118 transits and
Japan with 804.
Although the United Stated topped
the list in the number of transits and
the amount of ship tonnage using the
Panama Canal during fiscal year
1965, it came in third in the total
amount of cargo carried through the
According to official figures, first
place in cargo tonnage went to
ships flying the Liberian flag and
second place to vessels of Norwegian
registry. Each totaled more than
13 million long tons. The U.S.-flag
ships carried 9,986,170 tons and
British ships were fourth in the num-
ber of transits, tonnage, and cargo.
Greece, with only 575 transits for
the year, was fifth in the amount
of cargo. Japan took sixth place in
the number of transits, tonnage, and
A WELL-KNOWN former United
States Line vessel, sailing under an-
other name and another flag, arrived
in Balboa in October on her maiden
voyage around the world.
She was the 36,961-gross-ton Aus-
tralis, formerly the SS America,
which was reconverted to round-the-
world cruising and is sailing for
the Greek-owned Chandres Lines.
The vessel was built in Newport
News for the United States Lines in
1940 and was put in service during
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 31
TRANSITS BY OCEANCOI
IN FIRST QUAR
FISCAL YEAR 1
U.S. Government .
Coini crucial .. $16,557,70(
L'.S. ( government 932,01
'.S. Go: ernment 814,148
NC VESSELS installed on the Fred Olsen Line
TER cargo ship Buffalo which makes reg-
1966 965 ular trips through the Canal on her
2 -,. ; ,i8 run between North Pacific ports, the
149 65 continent and the United Kingdom.
9 24 Other ships in this service, the Bo-
3,111 ..- nanza, Bolinas, and Burrard also are
to be altered in the same way.
Cfi' I&M ",)A
Su,i, uJ.U, .',-,
o In ides tolls on all vessels, octangoing and
*Cargo figures aie in long tons.
World War II as a troopship under
the name of West Point. After the
war, she was returned to her owners
and for a number of years was used
in the North Atlantic service. She
has made several trips through the
Canal as both the America and as
the West Point.
A NEW TYPE of side port designed
for truck-to-truck loading has been
According to an item in the "Pacif-
ic Shipper," the new type of mech-
anization permits the ship to dis-
charge and load by means of forklift
trucks through side ports with the
advantages of faster loading and dis-
charging and reduction in port time.
The truck-to-truck method gives bet-
ter and safer handling and permits
work to continue in bad weather
without risk of damage to the cargo.
The Buffalo also was fitted with
flush deck, steel hatches, and bulk-
head ports for the passage of forklift
trucks. Holds have been given ver-
tical walls to insure safe stowage of
loads. Starboard side of the ship has
two combined side ports and hatches
fitted each with a movable platform
which can be lifted or lowered ac-
cording to the height of the ship's
side above dock level.
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
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COLUMBUS SAILED SOUTH
ALONG COAST- 1502
PAC If IFI
Due Returned Due i Returned
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 04820 5131