Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
UF00097366_00029 ( sobekcm )
23584335 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
HE2830.P2 P3 ( lcc )
386/.445 ( ddc )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text























UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


I I



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie156pana









PANAMA \ CANAL

/


Jn VMAtl 4Iue

Carnations in Panama
oca. del Voro
Vhie Roosevelt

Vol. 15, No. 6
AUGUST 1965


S~3(cJt





ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
Publications Editors
CHARD D. PEACOCK and JULIO E. BRICEiO
Editorial Assistants
EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
TOMAS A. CUPAS


about Our Covet
THE COVER of this REVIEW carries the
symbols of three special stories to be
found on the following pages. The
first is a story on Bocas del Toro, a
lovely part of Panama that is more and
more being "di,.clt d" by the tour-
ist who wants beauty, solitude and near
perfect climate. One day, it may be-
come another Acapulco, but today it is
probably one of the few havens left
for those who would rather collect their
wits than souvenirs.
The flower is, of course, the carna-
tion, which grows to beautiful propor-
tions and size in the new Citricos de-
velopment near David. The company
is still experimenting with various va-
rieties, but the product is being sold in
Panama City and elsewhere and is find-
ing excellent acceptance. Growing flow-
ers may sound like an easy proposition,
but commercial development is another
!Ling The story furnishes details on
the problems and prospects of this in-
dustry, which is the first large-scale
flower ,rmv iii- in the Republic.
That ship of old is the famous Roose-
velt, which came to a sad end in the
waters of the old. Faronh Canal. Its
story is one of the great ones in the
annals of men and the sea. Admiral
Robert Peary, heroic by any standards,
saw in the rugged ship an opportunity
to broaden man's horizon. And his
adventure is one that ill be told for
ages. Here, the story also includes the
elements of the story that are related
to the Panama Canal. There are some
very special pictures, some never be-
fore published, included in this story.
The REVIEW is indebted to Mrs. Marie
Peary Stafford of Brunswick, Maine, for
the use of three pictures from her
personal album.
The last symbol is for a far more
modern ship-the Oceanic. These days
they are l.illi.L absolutely .. i.thirni
into a ship. The Oceanic is represent-
ative of the unbelievable comfort and


pleasure than can be built into ships
that can be described as nothing else
than floating palaces. But even that
might be a misnomer-the palaces of
old would no doubt come out a damp
and musty second compared to the
Oceanic.

There are other features, too, and
all are ih siIIn. d with the special reader-
ship of the REVIEW in mind. There's
the one about the Rockhounds, for
instance, and one that introduces you
to the new Lieutenant Governor of the
Canal Zone. These stories are ... well,
just start turning the pages and find out
for yourself.


Jndex

Bocas del Toro __ -
He Sails With Students By Air_
The New Lieutenant Governor
Rockhounds--------
Carnations in Panama..._
Shipping Charts, Notes ._
Peary and the Roosevelt
Anniversaries
Elegance at Sea
Shipping
The Dyvi Atlantic ..
Canal History
Where Solidarit% Began -__---


AUGUST 1965


A mosaic of the Virgin, in the classic Italian style, made by Dolores
G. Stewart, Panama Canal Executive Planning Staff statistical drafts-
man. Mrs. Stewart made the original drawing on paper and transferred
it to plywood. Italian tesserae tile was cut by hand and glued to the
plywood with contact cement as the work progressed. When all the
pieces were in place, the mosaic was grouted and, finally, cleaned
and then waxed. The mosaic, truly a work of art, took Mrs. Stewart
1 year to make.


- I ''


ROBERT J. FLEMINC, Jr., Governor-President

II RnoIo R. PAnFITr, Lieutenant Governor R

FRANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication
Panama Canal Information O tft, ir Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.








Sviat Loca i del Zoro,


cAn Ulncut Uropic fem


Visitors arrive by launch on the historical island of Bastimentos, where Columbus is said to have landed on his
fourth voyage in 1502.


THE FIRST "tourist" to visit Bocas del Toro was dis-
appointed.
But of course he wasn't looking for an ideal vacation
spot with miles of unspoiled beaches, sheltered coves,
and crystal-clear water. Columbus was interested only in
a new route to the Orient. When he sailed through the
passage known as La Boca del Drag6n into a spacious
island-studded bay on the Atlantic coast of Panama he
was convinced he had succeeded in his long quest for a
strait that would lead him to Cathay. That was in 1502,
when the Great Navigator made his fourth voyage to the
New World.


Today, 463 years later, modern-day travelers with a
taste for sunning, surfing, or skindiving are rediscovering
this tropical paradise off the beaten tourist track. The
capital of the Province of Bocas del Toro, a picturesque
community of some 2,500 inhabitants, lies on the southern
end of one of the islands of the great bay, now called
Almirante in honor of Columbus.
Linked to Panama City and David by daily air service,
the island capital is beginning to attract small numbers of
tourists, and travel experts are predicting that the area
may some day become a plush resort comparable to
Mexico's Acapulco. (See p. 4)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


















jo-










jV :4




An excellent crescent-shaped beach stretch-
es for miles on the island of Bocas del Toro.



Al-l -Nb-.



(Continued from P. 3)
A group of local civic leaders has
formed a tourist cooperative and with
the aid of two young Peace Corps vol-
unteers stationed in Bocas, have pro-
moted several package tours to the city.
The all-expense excursions include
roundtrip airfare from Panama City or
David, hotel accommodations, all meals,
beach parties, ~ightke, ing trips, and
dances.
The National Tourist Institute of Pan-
ama has declared the area a tourist zone
and is now making efforts to interest
investors in building modern hotels.
Accommodations at Bocas are still
rudimentary, but very nmxltustl priced.
A sini,,l., room at the Copa Hotel or one
of two pensiones-the Plaza and the
Bombay-costs only about $1.50 and
doubles are priced at S2 50.
Water sports are the main attraction.

Skin and scuba diving are popular in Bocas.
Compressed air is available through a local
diving club.


AUGUST 1965






There are boats available for hire at
about $8 for a full day of excellent fish-
ing or skindiving at one of the many
reefs. Arrangements also may be made
for water skiing in the calm lagoon
waters.
Among sightseeing goals is a stalactite
cave in which an American priest is said
to have seen an apparition many years
ago. To sanctify the spot, he built several
religious images at the entrance of the
cavern and held mass there each Sunday
until his departure from Bocas.
Seafood is of course abundant and
good. Turtle steak, fish, and the famed
Bocas del Toro lobsters are served at
the airport restaurant, only a 5-minute
walk from the hotel.
Good buys in Bocas are tortoise shell
articles, stuffed turtles, and decorative
fish heads mounted on varnished wall
plaques.
Though there are excellent beaches
on practically all the islands of the Bocas
Archipelago, including a beautiful cres-
cent-shaped beach on the capital island,
perhaps the most spectacular of all is on
historical Bastimentos, about 30 minutes
from the back porch of your hotel by
motor launch.
Stretching for miles along the north
coast of the island of Bastimentos, where
Columbus is said to have come ashore,
is a fine sand, surf-swept beach lined
with coconut palms. Lack of docking
facilities, combined with a heavy Carib-
bean surf, make it dangerous to ap-
proach the beach by boat directly from
the ocean. But the 2-mile walk from the
sheltered side of the island is well worth
the trouble. The huge rolling waves
make it an ideal spot for surfboard
enthusiasts.
Though Spanish is of course the official
language in the city of Bocas del Toro,
history and heritage have combined to
make it an English-speaking community
as well. Among the early colonizers of
the area were three pioneering families,
one British and two American, who
settled in Bocas with their slaves. Fol-
lowing a violent disagreement, the fam-
ilies decided to separate. The Browns,
one of the American families, settled on
the island of Carenero, at a spot now
known as Brown's Point. The other
American family, called Knop, set up
a community of its own on the island of
Cocoqui, later renamed San Cristobal.
The British family, the Shepherds, went
to still another island, now called Isla
de Pastores (the Spanish word for she-
pherd). Shepherd freed his slaves who
settled on the island of Bastimentos.
Today, many of the descendants of


I_


Fierce looking barracuda heads are stuffed and mounted on varnished wall plaques at the
docks of the Bocas del Toro Skindiving Club. Also available are lacquered stuffed turtles
and lobsters.


4A


. Y j
re
+4 ;n


Visitors are intrigued by La Gruta, a stalactite cave converted into a shrine by an American
priest who is said to have seen a vision there.


those early settlers earn their living at island of Bocas. The company operates
the banana plantations of the Chiriqui regular launch service between the two
Land Co., a subsidiary of the United communities and arrangements may
Fruit Co. with headquarters at Almi- be made for an interesting visit to the
rante, on the mainland across from the plantations.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


,PP4r~;i~n-.llc-~6---~








He Sails With Students By Air


PANAMA CANAL PILOT Capt. Roy
H. hii, has taken hundreds of bovs and
girls through the Canal, has talked to
them and answered a multitude of ques-
tions about Canal operations-and has
never seen one of these .,..iiiit, ris
They're all airwaves friends of his,
contacted when he takes off his pi-
lot's hat and puts on his ham radio
operator's hat.
His first contact with a school in
the United States, via ham radio, was
a Spanish class in Largo Junior High
School. Largo, Fla.
He had been t.lkili', to an airwaves
friend and was k;d lin about his
41.,,,.r. 's ,i" ,i.'
"I think teenagers do pretty ,., dl." a
new voice broke in. "I'm < dii,,, some
blueberry muffins right now that they
made, and these are delicious."
\\' i e are you?" asked Captain Rice.
"In school," came the answer. "I'm
the Spanish teacher in Largo Junior
High School. The Home Ec class just
sent up some freshly baked blueberry
muffins, and I'm .tiii, one right now\
during change of classes."
They talked some more, one Ltl in,,
more information on the background of
the other, and as a result of the chat
Captain Rice next found himself tell-
ii,, the Largo Junior High Spanish


class about the Panama Canal and its
operations.
The ham radio set is in the classroom
of Spanish teacher Merton D. Short,
who feels mllinrl.h about the many
educational opportunities airwaves' con-
tacts offer students.
Mrs. Rice, also a licensed ham radio
operator, did research on Canal history
to add unusual bits of information to
the Panama Canal talks. Soon they were
"Roy" and "Marcy" or KZ5NN and
KZ5MM, respectively, to the students
in the States.
One talk given by Captain and Mrs.
Rice was based on the "Gateway for
World Trade" issued by the Panama
Canal Information Office. That was
when Captain Rice invited his airwaves
friends to join him on the bridge of
a vessel that he, as pilot, was taking
tli'iii.'l the Canal.
But he'd only get just so far in the
Canal transit description when the class-
room bell would sound, and the boys
and girls reluctantly had to leave while
another class filed in. Later he was in-
formed that each class wanted to know
what happened, and one class filled
in another on the parts that had been
missed.
"It took four class periods to go
through the Canal, and some boys and
girls remained after school to complete


U


CQ CQ C lling Florida. Another airwaves class is about to come to order.
Subject? The Panama Canal. Teachers are Capt. Roy Rice, Panama Canal pilot, and
Mrs. Rice. The pupils are thousands of miles away.


the transit," he chuckles proudly.
After that talk, the letters started
c.,ining from the l.hilddn- They were
written, for the most part, on lined
paper from school pads and one junior
high school girl apologetically added to
her thanks a P.S. "Sorry this is on
school paper, but around here it's the
official kind."
The children wrote:
.Thank you very much for the
talk you gave us on the Panama Canal.
I wish that I could be able to hear the
parts the other classes heard because it
was very interesting."
.. We enjoyed hearing about the
Canal Zone. I think I would enjoy going
there some time."
From this experience I learned
many things that couldn't be found in
books. I enjoyed listening to you very
much and out of all the people we've
talked to this year I think your talk was
the most interesting."
One girl added the wish of good
luck "with your ships going through
th" Canal."
Captain and Mrs. Rice have talked to
U.S. i1....1kl',lhn 11 on the history of
the Panama Canal, on the trials and
tribulations of the building of the trans-
continental i.iilra.rl. on the part the
Isthmus of Panama played in the Gold
Rush days, and on the construction of
the Canal itself.
Then another school picked up the
Ri,' Panama Canal classroom of the
air, and another, and another. Captain
and Mrs. Rice have made contacts with
schools in California, and North Caro-
lina, in Texas, and in Alabama. In Cal-
ifornia, it was a science class that had a
ham radio set in the classroom. They
clamored to hear the Panama Canal
talk, bits of which had come over
the air.
Sometimes Captain and Mrs. Rice
have 20 to 30 people on the air, listen-
ing at the same time and then coming
in with questions. Distance is no bar-
rier. \V hil, they were talking to Largo,
Fla., once, a California school was at-
t, inli02 the same class on the Panama
Canal.
Someone motoring west through the
United States wrote Captain Rice to
request Panama Canal information ma-
terial, and said his .liuihlier was attend-
i,,o classes over thl. airwaves while
traveling.
Three students, w riliii essays on the
(See p. 19)


AUGUST 1965






AT HIS HOUSE: DOLLS, SKATES, HIKES


Meet The New


THE CANAL ZONE'S new Lieutenant
Governor, Col. Harold R. Parfitt, and
his wife share a special responsibility
with all U.S. parents of children born
in the Canal Zone-they, too, have to
obtain a certificate of U.S. citizenship
for their daughter, Karen, born 8
years ago in Paris, France. Her sister,
Beverly, 6, came complete with U.S.
citizenship. She was born in St. Louis.
With the arrival of Colonel Parfitt's
family, the official residence of the Lieu-
tenant Governor is alive with skates and
dolls and the primary school set, replac-
ing teenagers who had gathered there
with the sons and daughter of former
Lieutenant Governor Parker.
Now there's the sound of piano prac-
tice, as tiny fingers master the scales
and melodies. Instead of Girl Scouts
working on advanced badges and learn-
ing small boat navigation, there may be
little Brownies starting up the Girl Scout
ladder and little girls working on swim
badges.
Karen can't remember living in
France, of course, for she was under 2
when the family left. But now, at the
age of 8, she had looked forward to -
her father's new assignment in Panama -
and can even speak a little Spanish,
taught her before coming to the Isth-
mus while attending a private school
in Jacksonville, Fla., where Colonel
Parfitt was stationed as Jacksonville
District Engineer for the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers. His responsibilities
included civilian and military construc-
tion in Florida, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Although
Islands and the Canal Zone. photogra
The new Lieutenant Governor and
his family enjoy hiking, and have been Scully, v
taking get-acquainted walks in the Canal is one d
Zone. Colonel Parfitt usually walks to try who
work in the morning, home and back is infatu
again at noon, and home at the close daughter
of the day. Nor does he think anything mother.
of walking down the 119-plus steps Colon
from the Administration Building to of Worl
Balboa and back. Both Colonel and wounded
Mrs. Parfitt are sports enthusiasts. ous land
He is a man of wide interests. When he was
he looks at the Isthmian landscape with engineer
artist's eye, it's because he is an artist, struction
When he was stationed in Japan from be rebui
1948 to 1950 as captain with the 8th forces u
Army Engineering group, he took paint- Colonel
ing lessons in his off-duty hours. the Eng
Mrs. Parfitt, the former Patricia ers, Allii


Lieutenant Governor


Sbusy moving into their new home, the Parfitts managed to find time for a family
ph at their new residence. From left to right are daughters Karen and Beverly,
Colonel Parfitt, and Mrs. Parfitt.


vas born in Lexington, Ky., but
daughter of the Blue Grass coun-
doesn't ride. Karen, however,
ated with horses, as befits the
r of even a non-riding Kentucky

el Parfitt is a combat veteran
d War II and Korea. He was
d on D-Day during an amphibi-
ing on Omaha Beach. In Korea
promoted three times and was
r of the Second Engineer Con-
SGroup, designing bridges to
lt during the advance of Allied
ip the peninsula. In 1955-58,
Parfitt was Executive Officer to
gineer at Supreme Headquart-
ed Forces in Europe, and he re-


visited landing areas on the beaches
and locales last seen under enemy fire.
Colonel Parfitt recalls as one of his
most interesting assignments that of
U.S. Army representative in 1961-62 to
the Canadian Defense College at King-
ston, Canada. While at Kingston, he
took an extensive trip that included the
Middle East. The Canadian Ambas-
sador to each country briefed the group
on various foreign relations aspects and
economics of that country.
While the Parfitts were stationed in
Europe they enjoyed traveling on the
continent and in England. They fell in
love with the picturesque Bavarian re-
gion, motored through the Alps, stop-
(See p. 19)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


..
i~ *5










IF YOU see someone pick up a stone
and lick it, you are seeing a rockhound.
Li.Lkiin the stone will give the rock-
hound or "rockologist" an idea what
the stone will look like when it's pol-
ished. The Canal Zone boasts a number
of these hobbyists who see in a stone
something more than just nature's
castaway.
Members of the Canal Zone Gem &
Mineral Society, numbering about 50,
may make ocean "field" trips to the
Perlas Islands in search of the lovely,
milky white quartz amygdule found
there in profusion. But most rock-
hounds, collectors of quality stones, find
the beach areas and streams on the
Isthmus good places for a rock hunt.
They have about half a million col-
leagues in the United States who follow
the hobby of the pick and sack.
A large number of rockhounds engage
only in collecting stones. Many of these
collectors, besides .niij.i\ in, the thrills
of a treasure hunt and the outdoor ex-
ercise, have turned the hobby into a
profitable one by becoming expert lapi-
daries. They cut and polish stones and
set them as jewelry. Not all gems are
mounted in jewelry, though. Some rock-
hounds display gemstones in special
gem cabinets. Numerous Canal Zone
lapidarists have built up a valuable col-
lection of cut and polished gems and
specimens. Other rockhounds have
turned their hobby into specialized


Bits of crushed rock, highly polished agate and tumbled stones, glued on a wood background,
were used by Loretta Merrill to create "rock painting."


craftsmanship and made rough stone
into a thing of beauty-lovely enough
to adorn their homes. Slabs of stone are
used in making table tops, bookends,
lamps, ink stands, and many other ob-
jects. Crushed gemstones of various
colors and slices of highly polished agate
may be glued to a flat surface making a
sort of oil painting in stone-a beautiful
work of art.
The agate is perhaps the rockhound's
favorite. It is made of quartz, one of
the hardest of the many minerals that
make up the earth's pebbles and stones.
The finest of quartz stones is called
chalcedony, and agate is one of these
smooth and waxy chalcedony stones.


Junior rockhound enthusiast Marcel Rousseau looking at Clarence Dimmick's slab saw
in operation during rockhounds' exhibit.


There are many varieties of agate and
most of it takes on a fine polish. Some
agates are glassy clear; others are tinted
with smudges of white, grey, blue, or
brown. There are banded agates and
variegated ones with stripes that look
like ripples of colored water. Moss agate
contains green, yellow, brown, and
other colored minerals.
Another gemstone found on the Isth-
mus is jasper which comes in a range
of colors from purplish to all shades of
brown. Jasper is opaque quartz that is
hard, compact, fine grained. It takes
a good polish and does not flake or
fracture easily. The fields of Chame,
not far from Panama City, are good
hunting grounds for jasper. These, and
other specimens, may be cut into all
shapes and sizes. They may be hand
processed or tumbled. First cut into
slices on a slab saw, gemstones are cut
and shaped on a grinding wheel after
the desired shapes are marked from
lapidary templates on the rock slabs
with an aluminum pencil.
The hand process of cutting and
polishing consumes hours-a painstak-
ing job that requires a steady hand and
an exacting eye. After the slab has been
marked with the template, cut and
ground to the approximate desired
shape, it is mounted on a dop stick (a
handling stick) with dropping wax (a
mixture of sealing wax and lacquer).
Then the stone is ground and sanded
on a rough wheel in four steps using
different sizes of grit.
Now it's time to polish the stones
and this is done on leather or felt with
polishing powders such as chrome oxide,
tin oxide, or cerium oxide. Some stones


AucvsT 1965


J -v
ww.






must be polished with a specific oxide
to obtain a good finish. The next step
is to remove the stone from the dop
stick. This can be done by putting it
in the freezer for a few minutes where
the cold causes the stone to drop off.
The stone is then ready to mount.
The mechanical process of shaping
and polishing stones is called tumbling.
Stones to be tumbled are placed in a
round, hexagonal, or octagonal shaped
electric powered barrel with quantities
of silicone carbide grit. They are tum-
bled for hours and hours of continuous
rotation after the stone has been hand
ground to a rounded shape. The stones
are tumbled for about 2 weeks in very
rough grit. They are removed from the
tumbler, washed, and tumbled for a
week to 10 days in a less rough grit. The
process is repeated with finer grit for
another week or two.
Now the stones are ready for polish-
ing. After a good thorough washing
they are placed in the cleaned tumbler
with chips of wood, corn cobs, or
bits of leather. Again, the stones are
washed and put in the tumbler with
detergent for 2 or 3 days.
j".llk, the last step has arrived!
After cleaning, the stones, glistening
like jewels, are sorted and admired-a
real joy to the rockhound who may
still recognize some of the rough
stones he picked up at the beach.
But not all stones come out of the
tumbler beautiful. The color may be
only on the surface or the stone may
turn out to to be too course in texture.
Broken and rough stones are ground or
crushed into hliff:.-rint sizes. These are
used for picture composition. An ex-
ample of picture "painting" with gem-
stone and crushed rock are pictures
made by Mrs. Robert Merrill, of Balboa.
Local rockhounds Russel Weaver,
Earl Orr, Amos Bierwagan, and others
make beautiful table tops using bits of
crushed rock and polished slabs. The
tables nlm sell for as much as $300
in the United States.
A relatively small number of rock-
hounds do faceting probably because
it involves specialized machinery and
mathematics. The standard faceting
machine is a rather complex, precision
device that is quite expensive. But it
is possible to facet with a device that
costs only a few dollars and a lot of
hard work. Col. A. W. Stratton, Gorgas
Hospital surgeon, does faceting with a
device that he made for a few dollars.
The Canal Zone Gem & Mineral
Society celebrated its 10th anniversary
in March. The society has a lapidary
workshop in Balboa for the use of its


Dr. Albert Stratton, Gorgas Hospital surgeon, at work faceting
his homemade faceting machine.


members. Several of the rockhounds
have set up home workshops for the
convenience of lapidary equipment.
Each year more and more people
join the rock collecting hobby. Experi-
enced rockhounds recommend that you
do not go hunting alone. Wear sturdy
shoes, and take along the right equip-
ment. This includes a rock sack, a ham-






-V
-A / A,


mer (a pick may come in handy), carry
a shovel, and a burlap bag. Be sure
to wear goggles and gloves while dig-
ging or picking at a rock. There are
always new areas and new materials to
be discovered. Remember that Panama
requires a license that costs $7.50 for
rock hunting in the Republic. Have fun
and happy hunting!




&


-i





A display of jewelry made by Mr. and Mrs. Amos Bierwagen. The collection includes black
agate, moss agate, banded agate, Perlas Island amygdules, petrified wood, and jasper
mounted on gold plated findings.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










..C`1 'i


PART OF THE beauty of Panama
is in the lovely flowers that grow in
splashes of color across the i i.,rtrv-
side. Flowers of many varieties flour-
ish especially well in the Boquete
area, because of the ideal climate
and good soil in that area of Chiriqui
Province.
It was natural then, that commer-
cial flower growing started there
many years ago. Until recently,
though, the business was not on a
I L u


[ -'i- ". In e


large scale. Then came Citricos de
Chiriqui, S.A., a company that saw
an opportunity to develop flowers
into a large industry in Panama.
Citricos is largely interested in
citrus and has devoted most of its
efforts to the huge citrus develop-
ment at Potrerillos. But its interest
in flowers was sharpened by a po-
tential market, a crop that could be
developed more quickly than citrus
fruit and the desire to experiment


r?;.
i'y3)
^p^


I


Carnations are grown in semi-open areas in beds that are elevated about 2 feet from the
ground. This allows conditions to be controlled. Water, into which fertilizer has been
dissolved, is fed through a trough. The opaque plastic above the beds is designed to filter
in the right amount of sunlight. Air circulation is also controlled.


AUGUST 1965









* .m.1
-? '


in a new field. The experimental ele-
ment lies in the fact that no large-scale
commercial growing of carnations and
other flowers had been attempted in
Panama. Roses, lilies, gladioli, and pom-
poms all grow in the area, but the car-
nation was chosen to launch the project.
A Citricos spokesman put it this way:
"The possibilities of other flowers and
crops were weighed. But the climate
and other conditions in the Boquete area
are apparently well suited to carnations,
md there is a market for them." So,
in July 1963 the experimental beds
were planted.
Rooted cuttings were purchased from
the Akron, Ohio, area, one of the great
carnation centers, and flown to nearby
David. \ ith care, these prospered.
Huge, beautiful carnations grew. This
past June the project planted for the
third time. The first cuttings were of
several varieties.
The idea was to see which would
produce enough flowers to support a
commercial operation. Each planting,
some varieties are dropped and others
added in an effort to sift out those that
don't do so well, or don't produce in
sufficient numbers. Those that flourish
are pushed to full development.
Why some varieties yield many
flowers per square foot and others only
a few is sometimes hard to determine.
The sure way to know is to plant, nour-
ish, watch, keep careful records, and
wait for results. Now, says Citricos,
seven varieties are proven producers
and others show a lot of promise.
The program has yielded much infor-
mation but many problems have crop-
ped up. The central objective can be
summed up this way: To develop a vol-
ume of quality, steady production of
carnations for shipment to markets in
Latin America and the United States.
There is a tremendous need for quality
flowers in Central America and the
northern part of South America, an
official said.
Panama is ideal in terms of location.
San Jose, Costa Rica, can be reached
by air in an hour. Bogota, Colombia,
is nearby by air, as are Mexico City, Ja-
maica, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Miami,
and Caracas, Venezuela. The limited
production so far has been shipped to


Is -
wvs


A complete soil analysis laboratory is maintained by Citricos. Information gathered on the
carnation and citrus programs is evaluated after tests are made. Much information is gathered
over a long period of time after comparisons are made of the various combinations of
growing conditions. The experiments bring results when the best combination of factors
are selected, producing a superior product under the best conditions.


Panama City, Miami, and Flll.idrlplii.i,
other markets will be developed as
production is expanded.
The market is variable, but mostly
steady. The sun, rain, clouds, and peaks
of demand at certain times all are fac-
tors affecting the market. likingng out
shipping schedules is a major problem,
too, because speed is essential in trans-
porting a perishable product.
There were also problems in produc-
tion. In 2 years, experimental growing
has shown much about the preferred
way of building flower beds, solving
drainage problems, conquering disease
and insects, and controlling air circula-
tion. The right chemical nourishment,
the angle and intensity of sunlight and
the temperature are elements that had
to be explored and information is still
being gathered to create an ideal com-
bination of growing factors.
But these problems are being solved
and Boquete is proving to be a good
area for the carnation. The night tem-
perature is rarely below 52 or so. Day-
time temperature is a little high when


it reaches a maximum of 80 at the grow-
ing altitude of 3,000 feet. Still, it is
within acceptable limits. A square foot
of Citricos flower bed will produce 45
to 55 flowers a year, 10 more than in
top grade U.S. production centers. A
measured amount of fertilizer is fed to
the plants. Machinery is used to inject
the fertilizer into a controlled amount
of water. All growth factors are record-
ed and a work force of about 15 men
is employed in the covered carnation
bed area.
Eventually, the project may grow
to 10 acres. In flower growing, that's
strictly big league, with production run-
ning to millions of flowers annually.
There are other possibilities. There
is a potential for success in the growing
of the bird of paradise and the eucalyp-
tus, and perhaps other flowers, Citricos
officials say. This project, and its po-
tential growth, means income to Pan-
amanians and to the Republic. And it
also means that another quality product
can be exported with a "Produced in
Panama" tag.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Fourth quarter, fiscal year 1965


Nationality



B,.li 161
Hritish
Chilean --------
Chinese \.it i
Colombian ----
Danish --------
Finnish _..
French. ....
German

HIindur in
Israeli-----
Italian _-. -
Japanese
Liberian
Mexican
Netherlands ..
Nicaraguan .
Norwegian_ _
Panamanian
Peruvian ____.
Philippine -.-.
Swedish --..
Swiss --------
United States __
All Others ----
Total--


1965


Number
of
transits
18
316
29
38
58
85
11
60
282
147
58
19
56
208
293
13
163
18
360
136
42
22
86
22 1
417
49
3,006


Tonis Number
of of
cargo transits
34,156 11
2,166,896 321
203,877 34
306,008 24
115,115 85
630,823 78
1C.2'13 7
196,557 48
894 227 292
1,466,141 12S
28,219 60
123,430 17
3'.4 .1(2 46
1, 31.2, -4 204
3 i72 11ll 262
43,166 13
817,551 192
30,402 18
3,560,898 384
559,814 140
233,186 35
124,091 19
598,269 100
18,634 21
2 17,,293 1 440
335,013 43
20,095.631 3,022


1964
Tons
of
cargo
21,165
1,933,448
233,420
224,149
1 '7.55'4
12 5541
40,956
154,633
818,827
1,348,116
23 597
-1, 371
259,521
1 247,562
2 750 3i

645,960
37,032
3,071,018
452,874
133,566
70,735
693,302
7,339
2,988,987
213,846
17,981,179


1951-55


Average
number
transits
1
299
16
9
38
65
1
31
57
2S
114

36
70
51

31
24
206
108
5
5
50
1
546
43
1,835


Average
tons
of cargo
5,129
I .12 212
88,080
72,660
4 (0.7
245,718
4,880
134,662
146,661
249,194
130,927

197,097
497,278
333,268

160,545
24,894
916,735
596,566
10,626
37,985
196,815
10,493
3,536,809
87,613
9,540,844


Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscial Years)


Month


July----------
Julyl - - -
September ---
October
November
December
January -------
February
March
April _
May-
lune ---
Totals for
Fiscal Year


1965

1,004
1,004
970
1,018
988
1,021
921
819
1,084
1,052
1,010
944

11,835


Transits

1964

944
946
923
980
946
958
1,015
997
1,077
1,011
1,012
999

11,808


Gross tolls *
(In thousands of dollars)


Transits
1951-55
557
554
570
607
568
599
580
559
632
608
629
599

7,062


1965

$5,313
5,497
5,339
5,484
5,435
5,641
4,982
4,523
6,231
5,888
5,732
5,334
$65,449


1964

$4,898
4,842
4,836
5,154
4,879
4,897
5,140
5,193
5,480
5,202
5,355
5,222

$61,098


Tolls.
1951-55
$2,432
2,403
2,431
2,559
2,361
2,545
2,444
2,349
2,657
2,588
2,672
2,528

$29,969


BR f-l re d, ii. InI ,, I i, "I r .ii I \pII \r i .'


The flli'w rini table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
t .n% cr ..\, ri 2r, e L.it. I int.. 9 1 i i, tr I.- r.mil '
Fourth quarter, fiscal year 1965


Trade routes


United States Intercoastal _---- -------- --_-
East coast of United States and South America -__--
East coast of United States and Central America -- --
East coast of United States and Far East ---------.
United States Canada east coast and Australasia -- -
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada _
Europe and South America ...
Europe and Australasia .-.. --.. ..____--.--_
All other routes ..-- ---- --. .
Total Ir .li.ff .. .___. -.


1965

119
510
144
592
101
256
353
117
809
3,006


1964

125
625
129
76
512
262
363
118
812
3,022


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-55
170
458
123
271
52
182
124
83
372
1,835


A PAIR OF Panamanian cayucos are
among the attractions at a beachside
motel near St. Petersburg, Fla.
Fitted with outriggers to prevent
overturning by stateside amateurs, the
Panamanian Indian version of a canoe
is available for use of guests at the mo-
tel owned by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J.
Carey. The Careys were residents of
the Isthmus when Mr. Carey was an
officer in the Army. They became in-
terested in customs and the handicraft
of Panama. They especially remember
the ride they took in a cayuco. The ca-
yucos were purchased from the Choco
Indians, brought to the Cristobal piers,
and then shipped to Florida. The hardy
cedar craft will provide many hours of
fun for motel guests, but to the Indians,
they mean daily transportation.

Information Mission

THE COLOMBIAN vessel Bocas de
Cenizas has started its work in waters
in the Panama and Colombia area, and
the 2-year study on oceanographic
environment may mean better fishing
when all the results are in. Operating
out of Balboa, the ship is loaded with
technical equipment that will record
chemical, physical, and biological fea-
tures of these waters. This will include
water samples, currents, types of fish
and other data. To discover the effect
of variation in the oceanographic en-
vironment on tuna and similar types of
fish will be the primary goal.
The work is being carried out through
the Interamerican Tropical Tuna Com-
mission, of La Jolla, Calif. Some analysis
of chemical data will be done at Corgas
Hospital, some in the United States.
The project started in May and
sailing on the first trip were Mr. James
Joseph, senior scientist, Scripps Institu-
tion of Oceanography, Interamerican
Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla,
Calif.; Mr. Bert Bennett, from Canada;
and Mr. Enrique Diaz, of Colombia.
.\tlillmlr Panama is not involved in the
studies, the work is being carried out
partly in Panamanian waters.


AUGUST 1965








THE 555-FOOT Ciudad de Bogotd,
the second of six automated ships order-
ed at a total cost of $36 million by Gran-
colombiana Line, made her maiden ap-
pearance in New York recently. Built
at the shipyard of H. S. Stucken, Sohn
of Hamburg, Germany, this most ad-
vanced type merchant ship is propelled
by a 14,400-horsepower diesel which
will permit her to cruise at 21 knots.
She is capable of accommodating 88
of the 22-foot containers, or 176 of the
10-foot containers. The container han-
dling arrangement is the first of its kind,
a highly efficient built-in system.
Four similar ships will be delivered
to Grancolombiana during the next few
months, bringing the total fleet to 48
ships, 32 of which are company owned.
Europe-South America service has been
extended to include Chile, so the ship
will be using the Panama Canal. Wilford
& McKay are the local agents.

A I ci e iIre

THE STOLT LADY, which recently
began operations as a long-term charter
in worldwide service, is perhaps the
most unusual 19,000-ton ship afloat.
The 580-foot vessel, a Norwegian
tanker, was readied by a Swedish ship-
yard for Parcel Tankers, Inc., the lead-
ing operator of highly specialized tank
vessels. This type of ship moves val-
uable liquid cargoes in relatively small
quantities. General agents for Parcel
Tankers is Stolt-Nielsen Chartering, Inc.
The ship is really two ships-the bow
of one and the stern of another. The
Stolt Dagali was cut in two on Thanks-
giving Day, 1964, in a collision with
the Israeli liner Shalom off the coast of
New Jersey. The C. T. Gogstad broke
in two after it was stranded on the Baltic
coast.
The Gogstad's 140-foot stem section
was salvaged and the 440-foot forward
section of the Stolt Dagali was also
saved. The Gogstad half had the en-
gines and the Dagali half had cargo
tanks. The Gogstad owners purchased
the Dagali half and experts at the Eriks-
berg Shipyard at Goteborg, Sweden,
were able to join the two halves. The
fact that the vital statistics were close
made the job possible.
Cargo tanks, cargo pipelines and
heating coils, as well as other gear, were
replaced. The new vessel will work
on one of Parcel Tanker's main trade
routes: Europe-United States-Far East
and return. This requires transiting the
Panama Canal twice. Local agent for
the ship is Fernie & Co.


(All cargo figures in long tons)


Fourth quarter, fiscal year 1965


Commodity


Ores, various---------- _______
Lumber
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) __
Wheat
Sugar _- _----- ____________
Canned food products-----------------
Nitrate of soda.
Fishmeal
Bananas___
Metals, various
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit)
Coffee
Pulpwood -_ _-_ _-__--_____
Iron and steel manufactures ----
Fresh and Dried Fruits .----__----__---_-
All others
Total


Commodity

Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)
Coal and coke --._. .-------- __ -
Phosphates--- --- __
Corn- _-----------_--- _
Soybeans -----------------
Metal, scrap--- -------
Iron and steel manufactures -
Bauxite _.._- _____ __---___--- .
Chemicals, unclassified -
Suear
Sulfur
Wheat
Paper and paper products -----
Rice --
Machinery -___ ..
All others ---- ------- --
Total._ ____--------__


(ANAL R NSIS -- (C(


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing____ -.
Small*--------
Total commercial-- _

U.S. Government vessels: **
Oceangoing .-__-----
Small'*


1965

1,875,715
1,310,946
226,027
271,034
520,633
178,569
208,739
418,016
337,329
316,429

248,233
105,582
143,112
758,710
117,459
1,667,878
8,704,411


1964

1,822,186
1,277,473
636,853
223,193
577,223
222,151
157,881
392,476
334,442
328,321

264,444
120,846
158,380
329,553
126,858
1,583,738
8,556,018


Average
1951-55
999,938
1,014,773
229,177
437,251
351,696
269,073
319,896
- -- 2--- -
200.684
191,913

142,423
61,185
56,464
59,091
95,284
694,792
5,123,640


Fourth quarter, fiscal year 1965


1965
3,414,744
1,928,300
899,486
569,868
433,453
427,02S
421,324
207,051
189,439
179,970
164,006
151,245
150,963
132,248
126,776
1,995,319
11,391,220


1964

3,071,090
1,483,182
510,236
273,647
221,031
585,215
356,555
159,092
208,919
121,761
139,071
153,858
152,792
42,430
110,385
1,835,897
9,425,161


Average
1951-55
1,075,363
703,397
180,384
25,146
119,263
12,985
461,804
38,838
51,553
190,966
106,086
35,034
107,964
40,909
66,780
1,176,113
4,392,585


AL AND U.S.


Fo



Atlantic
to
Pacific

1,540
75
1,615

52
20


Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment -----__-----__.. 1,687


urth Quarter Fiscal


I Year 1965


Avg. No
1965 1964 Transits
1951-55
Pacific
to Total Total Total
Atlantic

1,466 3,006 3,022 1,835
60 135 165 381
1,526 3,141 3,187 2,216

32 84 70 166
13 33 28 75

1,571 3,258 3,285 2,457


Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
0*Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










Whien Aan And Ship Were One


ALONG THE mudflats of the old
French Canal. on a day when the tide is
out and the waters are calm, you can still
see scattered pieces of one of the
most gallant and resolute ships ever to
thallenee the elements.
Only a memory today, the Roosevelt
was once the toast of the world, a tough
ship that rammed and tore through
great mountains of ice, a ship that put
Adm. Robert E. Peary within 174
miles of the ret-it and unconquered
dream of vtnirr.iiotiis of explorers-the
North Pole.
From there an aging Peary made his
famous plunge into the bitter cold and,
in a triumph built upon six previous
expeditions, he planted the Stars and
Stripes atop the North Pole in brilliant
sunlight on the polar night of April 6,
1909.
Without the Roosevelt, the first man
to stand on the North Pole would not
have been Peary. In his day, modern
equipment had not been developed to
overcome the hazards of arctic travel.
As Peary later dlc rsbri- it "the poles
were won ultimately by those primeval
machines, man and dog, unaided by
science, struggliiig along in the savage
half-world between God's countries and
interstellar space, fighting for exist-
ence The building of the ship,
then, was an essential element in the
exploration of the North Pole.
And its construction came about as
a result of two factors-Peary's deter-
mination and the vision of a small
group of men who formed the Peary
Arctic Club.
The ship was the strongest wooden
vessel ever built. She was conceived
as a ship that would combine the best
qualities of previous polar ships, plus
innovations that would give her qual-
ities never before built into a ship de-
si'.ied for arctic work. The purpose of
the ship was to fiEht through great,
flo.linrl ice packs and the biggest part
if its work would be oiit-cezing through
and between fields of ice.
Tlhrn fore. it was built with these
major features: A sharply raking stem,
to furnish rmrnmin;g and cuttingg power;
a xmdtlrlc.-h.aptd bow to help in squeez-
ing through he.i\\ ice; a steam t'npine
as primary power with sails as aililiar\
power; a hull design that allowed the


National Geograplic Scialy
Background photo on this page shows the Roosevelt locked in polar ice at Cape Sheridan.


ship to be pushed up, rising out of the
water as the ice pack pressed upon
her below the waterline; construction
of wood to furnish both strength and
the "give" required when negotiating
through treacherous ice flows; a nar-
row beam and short length at the water
line to increase maneuverability when
twisting through the ice packs; a rud-
der for maximum steering capacity
combined with minimum exposure to
dam.age. a specially designed propellor
that furnished very powerful thrust,
and only the most necessary auxiliary
structures to keep weight low so that a
maximum load of fuel and supplies
could be carried.


The hardy little ship registered at
only 614 gross tons. Her sides were
30 inches thick in places and the plank-
ing was put together in laminations that
gave more strength than would a single
piece of wood. Her engine developed
1,000 horsepower and through a special
system it could furnish 1.500 horse-
power for short periods when needed
to fight massive concentrations of ice.
Now Peary had some financing and
he had a ship. Its launching on
March 24, 1905. thrilled the -18-year-old
explorer. He had been through enough
to discourage a hundred average men,
but he refused to give up. He had in-
vaded the frozen wastes nearly every


AUGUST 1965





year since 1891. He spent his own
money and his wife gave hers. The
U.S. Navy put him on leave for explo-
rations but the problems were his to
solve. He gave much of his health be-
fore he began his last trip; his life had
been one long fight against misfortune
in the far north.
In 1891 he broke his leg on the first
expedition. In 1893, on a second
trip, the Peary baby (now Marie Peary
Stafford of Brunswick, Maine) was born
in a hut on the west Greenland shore.
Weather turned back the exploration
the following spring.
In 1895 Peary struck out again across
the icecap. Lack of food cut the jour-
ney short and starvation nearly over-
took the expedition. The men were
saved by eating their dogs. Of 40 taken
on the trip, 1 dog was brought back.
In 1896 Peary's attempt to bring
back the great meteorite at Cape York
was beaten back by storm and heavy
ice. The next year he succeeded and
brought the meteorite to New York
by ship.
In 1898 he made another assault on
the Pole. A blizzard caught the men
on the torturous march and Peary near-
ly froze. Seven of his toes had to be
amputated in an operation under prim-
itive conditions. He lay helpless for
6 weeks in a deserted station at Fort
Conger, then was dragged south on a
sledge for 250 miles in a temperature
of 500 below zero.
In 1900 he was finally well enough
to start again and he headed for the
Pole. Open ice fields proved too dan-
gerous and forced him back. He tried
again the next year and the same haz-
ard turned him back. In 1902 he plan-
ned a 60-day expedition to the Pole and
started out with 60 dogs, tons of walrus
meat and 8 or 10 Eskimoes. Again, the
elements defeated the thrust.
But Peary gained a hard-won fund
of knowledge. His experience and fail-


Adm. Robert E. Peary


.4'*

F.i


In ice-filled waters is the Roosevelt, just after she was launched at Bucksport, Maine.


ures were not wasted; he would apply
it all to preparation for the final assault.
And, of course, he now had the sup-
port of a group of men whose belief
in him led them to form the Peary Arc-
tic Club and put up money for the ship.
The admiral was gratified, and he never
claimed for himself all of the accolades
that came afterwards; he insisted, for
example, "This ship is not the Peary
ship, but the ship of the Peary Arctic
Club, and she is afloat due to the broad
faith and courage of the president of
that club, Morris K. Jesup "
The mission of the rugged ship
was seen by the club as "the sign of
man's final physical conquest of the
earth enduring fame for this coun-
try. It means that we pluck and hold
forever the last of the great world prizes
for which adventurous nations have
struggled."
At the time, the Roosevelt was the
wonder of the shipbuilding world. Built
in Bucksport, Maine, it was christened
by Peary's wife Josephine with a bottle
of champagne encased in a block of ice.
It was the first ship built in the
Western Hemisphere for arctic explo-
ration. It was not a big ship, generally
'pt.,lkirn, but was the second largest
ever to winter in the Arctic. Its round-
ed hull let it literally pop out of the ice
if squeezed. Even if stood on end and
gripped by ice, the strain would hardly
be felt because the construction was so
stout. Its light draft of 16 feet allowed
operation close to shore.
The thick sides were armor-plated to
take the worst rub of passing ice. The
bow had 1-inch steel plating from the
keel up to to 3 feet above the waterline
and extending for 10 feet. The stern
protection, of like strength, reached
from the keel above the waterline and
extended forward for 14 feet. Water-
line armor, extending between the bow
and stern protection, was of %-inch
steel plating 6 feet wide.


The principle of power was reversed
in the Roosevelt, when compared to
other arctic ships. Sail power was pri-
mary in previous ships, with steam as
an auxiliary power. But the Roosevelt
depended upon its steam engine, with
a sailing rig as auxiliary, to give an
extra push when good winds were
about. Its engine gave it as much power
as the most powerful oceangoing tug in
New York Harbor. The propeller shaft
was 12 inches thick. The propeller
was 11 feet in diameter and furnished
tremendous push.
How the vessel came to be named
is told by Peary: "For the ship by whose
aid I hoped to fight my way toward
the most inaccesible spot on earth, the
name of Roosevelt seemed to be the
one and inevitable. It held as an ideal
before the expedition those very qual-
ities of strength, insistence, persistence,
and unvarying victory over all obstacles
which made the 26th President of the
United States so great."
Pearv and the Roosevelt returned
triumphant from the North Pole in Sep-
tember 1909. She steamed into port
flying the North Pole flag, a flag
which never before had entered any
port in history."
In 1909, after the Roosevelt's partic-
ipation in the Hudson-Fulton Anniver-
sary Celebration naval parade up the
Hudson River, Peary and the Roosevelt
parted company. Ahead of the ship lay
28 more years of work and adventure.
Shortly after that Peary proposed
that the Peary Arctic Club and the Na-
tional Geographic Society undertake a
great Antarctic I\p, diin.i,, with the
club donating the Roosevelt as its share

Material for this story was gathered by
Julius Grigore, Jr., Assistant Chief of
the Industrial Division, and it includes
pictures from the personal album of
Mrs. Marie Peary Stafford, Admiral
Peary's daughter.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW














Pw," ---r


President Theodore Roosevelt meets members of the crew during a visit aboard the ship bearing his name.


of the cost. The project never was
launched, possibly because of the great
cost of repairing the ship, which had
suffered damage by the ice. Peary was
never to visit the Arctic again. But,
because of his Arctic fame, he continu-
ed to live in high acclaim until his death
in l121 He was buried in Arlington


National Cemetery with full military
honors.
In November 1910, the Roosevelt
was sold to John Arbuckle of Brooklyn,
N.Y., for $37,500. Arbuckle had exten-
sive ship salvage and towing interests
and the Roosevelt may have been con-
ducting massive salvage operations, or


Ix


*Q

A


towing canal barges between New York
and Albany.
Arbuckle died in 1912, and the
Roosevelt was sold to H. E. J. McDer-
mott. Lists for 1912, 1913, and 1914
give the Roosevelt's function as "fish-
ing." On March 3, 1915, the New York
Times reported the Roosevelt was sold
to John W. Sullivan & Co. The Sulli-
van Company refitted the Roosevelt
with oil burning machinery, made other
improvements, then sold her to the
U.S. Bureau of Fisheries for $40,000.
She was to proceed through the Pan-
ama Canal upon completion of refitting.
From this time to the end of her
days, the Roosevelt became dogged
(See p. 22)


The Roosevelt in Balboa drydock in 1917.


16 AUGUST 1965









7_ the has5's o~ tota(i


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Reginald A. Richards
Supply Clerk
Edward Green
Meat Cutter (Sales)
Victor A. Hunter
Motion Picture Projectionist (35 mm.)
MARINE BUREAU
Juan B. Olmedo M.-
Pret- r iaticn mechanicc
Jose E. Tufion
Babbittrn.i
ENCrNEERING AND
COwNSTRCTION BUREAU
Theodore J. Wilher
AJmdnIitriatnv Scrui\es rsjitjril
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Will R. Price
Printing Plant Foreman
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Claudius A. Breary
Clerk
Carl H. Thomas
Cargo Clerk


COMPTROLLERS OFFICE
Harry E. Musselman
Time, Leave, and Payroll Supervisor

SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Peter T. Corrigan
Maintenai ,_ R, pi,--ruLt..i
(Buildiies- .o.adl L riliti.,
Harold O. Blackman
Restaurar.t \I .In.L'er
Olganon Clarke
Laborer (HOri I
S. Santamaria
Grounds NM.int.ir-itr; ,rpnpmenit
Operate .r Iin,,lli
Dudley H. Trotman
Service Station Attendant
Robert H. Miller
Housing Project Manager
Leonard A. Pennycook
Clerk
Lawrence C. Waithe
Warehouseman


All 46,000 tons of the world's fifth largest ship glided smoothly into New York's harbor last
May on its maiden transatlantic crossing. The Michelangelo, largest and fastest ship in
New York-Mediterranean service, is 902 feet long and can carry up to 1,775 passengers
at a maximum speed of 29 knots. Built in Sestri, Genoa, the Michelangelo carries a crew
of 720, is fireproof, air-conditioned, and has 6 swimming pools. Italy's largest liner since
the middle 1930's, the sister ship to the Raffaelo was launched in September 1962.


MARINE BUREAU
George R. Chevannes
Motor Launch Captain
Robert G. Peterson
Administrative Services Assistant
Ricardo Valencia
Linehandler
William E. Weigle, Jr.
Supervisory Marine Traffic Controller
JoahX. Dombrou ..kN
(ri:a.il PFtxteman L. :ks Operation)
Joseph L Hicke.
Sup r. ..r l it, nri ance Engineer
Laurence Baptiile
Piiri.- r
Jo'e Martinez
I1 l-per C ner.l I
G;orham 7. Wakefield
aninalwan
ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Leo Chester
Water System Controlman
Walter R. Malone
Operator Fl.jtiri Crane
Harold F. Nlande% ille
Telephone Instrument Repairman
George Rahn
Instrument Mechanic (General)
Clifford E. Grayman
Helper Electrician
John R. Smith
Supervisory Electrical Engineer
(General)
Walter J. St. Louis
Wharfbuilder
Henry Ehrman
Surveying Technician
George V. Kirkland
Supervisory Construction
Representative (Buildings and
Utilities)
Luther B. Sartain, Jr.
Supervisory General Engineer
Herbert H. Tabert
Master, Floating Crane
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Leonardo Scott
Stevedore
Daniel A. Napier
Chauffeur (Sedans and Station Wagons
only)
Samuel Roe, Jr.
Guard
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
James H. Pennington
Police Private
Henry Perry
Police Private
Robert J. Helmerichs
Detective Lieutenant
Ray W. Wheeler
Fire Captain
HEALTH BUREAU
Florence E. Blackman
Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry)
Ramel H. Masters
Supervisory Sanitation Inspector
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
DIVISION
Cyril B. Doyle
Clerk


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW




























The ultramodern Oceanic will transit the Canal early next year.


DUE HERE NEXT YEAR


The Oceanic: Elegance At Sea


THE FLAG OF Panama flies from the bow of the $35 million
cruise liner Oceanic, the ultra-modern flagship of the Home
Lines which started service between New York and Nassau
in April and is to call at Cristobal February 15, 1966, on a
Caribbean cruise out of New York.
Not only does the new 11-deck, 774-foot Oceanic carry
the Panamanian fl.a, but Alex Keusseoglou, an official of the
Line and responsible for the design of the ship, was presented
with the Panamanian Order of Vasco Nlfiez de Balboa when
the ship was delivered to her owners earlier this year.
A ... rliii to C. B. Fenton & Co., agents for the Home
Lines here, the ship will make her first visit to the Isthmus
February 15 when she will arrive at Cristobal after a call
at the San Blas Islands. She will sail the following day for
New York via Kingston.
Called the "ship of tomorrow," the Oceanic was built at
Monfalcone, Italy, by the Cantieri liiri i dell' Adriatico,
world's foremost builder of p.'.t r-Lcer tonnage. She was des-
iL'iI d to meet the needs of present-day transatlantic and cruise
travel and has a range of 10,900 miles at a speed of 25 knots.
Expected to be able to meet any challenge from the
so-called hotel-type vessels predicted for the future by some
hIiplpiriL leaders, the Oceanic can be considered even more
luxurious than most hotels. In addition to being fully air
conditioned and equipped with stabilizers for smooth
sailing, the ship has 580 cabins with accommodations for
1,200 cruise p.i,,. ni' is.
Out of the -" ui ., ins, there are 8 penthouse apartments
with private deck space and 65 deluxe cabins each with a sit-
linii room. A I.ir cL number of the cabins have communicating
doors and can be converted into rooms with a sitting room.


The main dining room can seat comfortably 700 passengers
and her main public room is larger than the largest on the
SS France. She has a series of lounges, bars, cardrooms,
libraries, teenagers' area and children's playrooms as well
as a 400-seat double deck cinema theater, a 770-square foot
chapel, and a 1,200-square foot gymnasium.
One of the most attractive and unusual parts of the ship
is the Lido Deck, an exceptionally large area distinguished
by two swimming pools, a solarium, bar, and restaurants.
The pool area is designed to give palatial effect and can be
utilized both in fair and bad weather thanks to a sliding glass
roof that can open or close within 3 minutes and in cold
weather is heated by infrared rays. The water in the swim-
ming pools can be heated if necessary and there are colored
jets of water to add color on gala nights.
Another luxury touch is the soft music transmitted through-
out the ship on a two-channel system in the cabins, public
rooms, and corridors. All apartments and deluxe cabins are
provided with large-screen television sets which can receive
on either European or American wavelengths through a mon-
itoring system retransmitted by a closed circuit. All passenger
;abins have telephones and anyone can be connected from
his cabin with any point in the world through the ship's
powerful radio station.
For those pa~i nceis who might still feel out of touch with
civilization, the ship has been equipped with teleprinters for
immediate transmission of news and communications as well
as with a telephoto installation which can receive pictures of
news events. A special Multilith printing machine permits
circulation on board of a full-scale newspaper.
(See p. 19)


AUGUST 1965
























For the first time, a container ship transited the Canal with containers stacked three high on the deck. The San Francisco, transporting
Sea Land Service containers, was able to carry on the third stack 42 additional containers on a recent southbound transit adding 882
Panama Canal tons to the ship's capacity without additional toll charges. This was possible because such charges are made only for cargo
carrying capacity below decks.


THEY SAIL


ON AIRWAVES

(Continued from p. 6)
Panama Canal, heard the Rices' talk on
the Panama Canal and found the help
they needed by writing for information
material.
Sending out information material
alone runs up a goodly postal sum, but
Captain and Mrs. Rice say it's all worth
while, especially after an entire class-
room, in the manner of a school cheer,
shouts "Thank you!" at the close of a
talk on the Canal.
Captain and Mrs. Rice have been
ham radio operators about 2 years, since
the time he was seriously injured in an
automobile accident.
"I couldn't do .i.. tllinll else," he says.
"I had to give up my motor scooter, so
I took up talking on the radio."


hi

0


THE P A C L
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


MEET THE NEW


Lieutenant Governor
(Continued from p. 7)


ped in storybook towns, and proceed-
ed with the caution indicated along
the treacherous Spanish Riviera roads,
where guard rails are nonexistent.
To Mrs. Parfitt, cooking is a pleasure
rather than a chore. When time permits
she likes to experiment with new dishes.
A specialty of the Parfitt household on
occasion is a fondue prepared with
cheese and white wine.
Colonel Parfitt holds himself erect as


the West Pointer he is. He was grad-
uated from the Military Academy in
1943 and received his master's degree in
civil engineering from Massachusetts
Institute of Technology in 1948.
Previous visits to the Canal Zone, all
on business as Jacksonville District En-
gineer, afforded little time to get ac-
quainted with the area. Colonel Parfitt
believes in getting out to meet people,
and he plans to do just that in his walks.


Should the life of ease become too
much for the passengers, they have
available gymnasiums, saunas, massage
rooms with specialized personnel at
their disposal, and two doctors with
fully trained nurses to look after their
well-being in a highly specialized hos-
pital provided with modern equipment.
To keep the passengers happy and
the ship on a safe and steady course,
there is a staff of 577 employees consist-
ing of 42 officers, 97 petty officers and
438 unlicensed personnel.
The Oceanic lives up to her designa-
tion of "ship of tomorrow" by having
the most modern technical and nav-
igational equipment afloat including
60,000-horsepower turbines that give
her a top speed of about 27 knots. In


addition to stabilizers to minimize roll-
ing, she has a special bow and stern
design to reduce pitching and such de-
vices as two radars, a Sperry gyrocom-
pass with eight repeater units, a Sperry
coursL' recorder, an echo sounder, a
Sperry-Decca navigator, and Sperry
loran and automatic pilot.
The last passenger vessel on the
Atlantic to bear the name Oceanic was
built for the White Star Line in 1899.
Her 17,250 gross tons, 685-foot length,
and 19.5-knot speed won her acclaim
and top ranking honors among the lin-
ers of her day. Her two funnels, un-
usually high even among the tall stacks
of that era, contributed to her easy
identification. The ship was lost during
World War I.


Luxury Liner Is Passenger Paradise
(Continued from p. 18)












SEAGOING WHEELS


WHAT HAS AT least 3,000 wheels and
I.'1,1; windshield wipers and r, guSl.irl
transits the Panama Canal?
The answer is the MV Dyvi Atlantic-
and the wheels and the windshield
wipers are attached to 750 standard
or 1,350 compact cars en route from
Europe to the United States.
Owned by the Auto Shipping Co. of
Oslo, Norway, the vessel was designed
by Jan Eric Dyvi, who thinks that large-
scale transatlantic automobile shipments
will continue to expand. Her agents,
Fenton & Co., say that at present she
is being used to carry Volkswagens
from Europe to the U.S. west coast and
probably will carry palletized cargo
from the United States back to Europe.
Pr'i-t itin, an unusual silhouette, the
485-foot vessel measures 65 feet from
waterline to superstructure deck, afford-
ing seven spacious car stowage decks,
each connected to the deck above by
internal ramps. Cars are driven aboard
via a ramp linking the pier with one of
the ship's iclht side ports, four to a
side. Cars are assigned positions on a
specific deck, where each is securely
lashed to the deck for the long over-
sea %\,i.,,'r. Loading time of a full con-
,itirnm, nt of compacts or standard cars
is 6 hours and 4 hours, respectively.
Palletized cargo can be driven aboard
or taken off by fork lift trucks.


- VOLK .AGFN

n J U,_


A sea









kw" VOLKSW


Sof cars awaits loading on the Dyvi Atlantic.


SAGEN

tAGEN 1-,


The Dyvi Atlantic's 7 storage decks accommodate 750 standard or 1,350 compact cars,


Commercial
U.S. Government
Free
Total


TOLLS*
Commercial $17,015,445
U.S. Government 519,677
Total S 17,535,122
CARGO**
Commercial 20,099,970
U.S. Government 642,622
Free 73,598
Total 2I i1111 )'ll)


1965
3,006
84
21
3,111


1964
3,022
70
24
3,116


$15,793,176
379,905
S16,173,081

17,985,901
II 22-'
139,658
18.486.788


Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
small.
*Cargo figures are in long tons.


1964











(AVERAGE 1951-1955) -



JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN


MONTHS


20 AUGUST 1965


1100
N
U
1000 M
M
B
900 E
R

800 0
F

700 T
R
A
600 N
S

0 T
S


- In.
m~"i_. _










50 years ago
THE MAIN WALLS of Drydock No. 1
at Balboa, which, like the locks of the
Canal, are capable of handling the larg-
est vessels afloat, were completed with
the exception of minor work around the
entrance and at the tops, where ma-
chinery was installed and the erection
of the steel gate was completed.
An official flag was ordered for the
Governor of the Canal Zone for use in
his official t.apac ii,. The order, includ-
ing instructions as to when the flag
should be used, came from the White
House desk of Woodrow Wilson.
An earthquake shock was felt over
the Isthmus June 28. Seismographs in
Balboa Heights recorded the tremor
as lasting 1 minute and 33 seconds
and having a radius of 100 miles. No
damage was reported.
The Canal was blocked by a slide at
Culebra. The slide, which was expect-
ed (officials thought it would occur
much later than it did), closed traffic on
the waterway for 4 days.
Official first-year figures on Canal
traffic appeared in THE PANAMA CANAL
RECORD. Transits for the first year num-
bered 1,317; net tonnage was 4,596,644
tons; gross tonnage was 6,494,673 tons;
tolls totaled $5,216,149.26.

25 Year Ago
A FIRE IN Panama City-in a 3-story
tenement building-left one dead, sev-
eral injured, and damages running into
the thousands of dollars.
Movie star Errol Flynn arrived in the


Zone en route to Texas from South
America, where he made a study of the
life of Sim6n Bolivar, whom he was to
portray in an MGM movie. Flynn left
his role as a film hero momentarily to
urge more "home" participation and aid
in the current war. He then sent $1,000
to the Red Cross for War Relief.
Fifteen "enemy" bombers launched a
surprise attack on the Canal from the
Caribbean in a practice alert to test the
speed and ffii. r,-n._ of defense units
here. Some of the planes were from
Guantanamo, Cuba, and others came
from Coco Solo.
Col. Glen E. Edgerton was named
Governor of the Canal Zone by Pres-
ident Franklin D. Roosevelt to succeed
Brig. Gen. Clarence S. Ridley, who re-
signed. Colonel Edgerton took the oath
of office July 11.
Canal Zone and Panama residents
were temporarily alarmed by the rumor
that an explosion had destroyed much
of Pedro Miguel Locks and had taken
a great number of lives. The false ru-
mor was investigated, but the origin of
the tale was not discovered.

10 ,earJ a4o
ALL THE COMMUNITIES of the
Canal Zone, both civilian and military,
and the cities of Panama and Colon
joined in the first Isthmian-wide Civil
Defense test since World War II,
June 15.
The veteran 250-ton floating crane
U.S. Ajax, which had been in Canal
service for 40 years, was offered for


sale by the Panama Canal. Among
the jobs handled by the Ajax were
raising sunken vessels and loading and
unloading equipment.
Canal Zone residents, in an appeal
issued by President Eisenhower and
echoed by Governor Seybold, did their
bit to help flood victims of hurricane
Diane in the eastern section of the
United States. No formal solicitation
for flood relief funds was made, but
several donations were sent by Canal
Zone residents.

One year ago
THE FINAL WAGE increase in the
three-step, $30 million Canal Zone
wage rate changes (Canal Zone Wage
Adjustment Policy) went into effect
July 5.
The Panama Canal celebrated its
50th anniversary August 15-a half-cen-
tury of service to ships of the world.
Medallions, a special stamp issue, a
book on the history of the Canal, and
various ceremonies here and in the
United States helped mark the Golden
Anniversary of this world wonder.
Col. Harry D. Offutt, Jr., arrived on
the Zone to assume his new duties as
Director of Gorgas Hospital. Colonel
Offutt succeeded Col. Edward Siger-
foos. Also leaving the Zone was Col.
Robert J. Kamish, Health Director.
Replacing Colonel Kamish was Col.
Roosevelt Cafarelli.
A class of 18 Panama Canal appren-
tices graduated to full journeyman sta-
tus. Fifteen members of the group were
Panamanians, three were Americans.


Although the Canal Zone has undergone appearance changes since the Canal opened, a few sites have kept their original look. Such
a place is the Administration Building at Balboa Heights. Above is an unusual (for the times) photograph taken on a night in June 1915.
Note the tiny palm trees, under each row of lights, which have grown into the dominating beauties of the Prado today.

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21







WHEN MAN

AND SHIP

WERE ONE

(Continued from p. 16)
by ill-luck, in that she always required
extensive repairs. But this did not
squelch her perseverance for making
the headlines, as she experienced many
more moments of jl-r,..
The vessel started for the Pacific
coast July 19, 1915, but defects in
machinery delayed her departure for
Seattle until January 1917. She arrived
in Seattle on April 23, 1917, after a
delav at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, be-
cause of the international I it.li.in,. and
at Balboa, C.Z., where she was dry-
docked 3 weeks for further repairs.
On July 7, 1917, she left for her first
trip to the Far North since her days
with Pearv. Her destination: the des-
olate Pribilof Islands-Unalaska. In
May 1918 diphtheria broke out among
the crew, requiring her return to Un-
alaska for quarantine. \\ liil there a
number of ships were trapped in a sud-
den f i w., of the Bering Sea. The
Roosevelt crushed her way through to
the rescue, clearing an ice-free path for
the St. Nicholas, Centennial, and Star
of Chile. She rescued 21 persons of the
wrecked Tacoma from an iceberg. It
was estimated that the St. Nicholas
could not have survived another 12
hours; she had more than 300 people
aboard. The Centennial, with 161
aboard, might have lasted another week.
The Roosevelt was heralded and lauded
across the nation.
From June 1918 to January 1919,
the Roosevelt shuttled freight between
Seattle. Unalaska, and the Pribilofs, St.
George, and St. Paul Islands. In Jan-
uarv 1919, the Roosevelt needed repairs
amounting to a virtual rebuilding. She
uas condemned in June 1919, and her
certificate of seaworthiness lifted. She
was sold several times and finally was
rebuilt and then redocumented by the
Steamtboat Inspection Service. In June
1923 she went to work again. As a re-
suit of the conversion to a tu-,, the
..i i;in 1l ii, wheel of the Roosevelt
can be, seen in the Seattle Museum of
History.
\\hdl. she was t,' ing 2 hiirge, of
lmnlber between Pir. t Sound and
Miami in 1926, she lost her rudder in
the Pacific. She dlih., .1 for days. Final-
ly she wa s spotted and towed into Bal-
boa bh the P n..n t, Canal tug U.S.


Tavernilla. During Christmas, 1931,
7 hours after she was reported lost in
one of the worst storms off the North
Pacific Coast in many years, the Roose-
celt crept into the shelter of Neah
Bav, Wash. Her radio shack had been
crumpled and flooded by pounding
seas. She had been trying to bring in
the schooner Commodore, winner of the
sailing ship race from Hawaii, when
she nearly foundered. Her master at the
time, Capt. Russel Davis, said "She had
to be staunch to ride out a storm like
that. It was the worst I ever saw."
On May 22, 1936, she was inspected
by the Steamboat Inspection Service
Her license was not renewed. And she
was sold to the California Towing Co.
On October 31, 1936, the Roosevelt
left Seattle towing a former Navy collier
to New York. A leaking condenser and
loss of high pressure packing put her
into San Francisco for 3 days for re-
pairs. Perhaps on the evening of De-
cember 8, 1936, the Roosevelt was tell-
in L her captain that the end was near.
The chief engineer notified the bridge
that he had to stop the engine. The
captain told the chief to keep the en-
gine going if possible. The Roosevelt
valiantly responded and labored into
Balboa, C.Z., on December 12. She was
repaired at the Balboa shops, transited
the Canal on the 2 li, and left Cristobal
on the 24th. At 7 p.m. the chief en-
gineer reported to the captain that the
bilges were full of oil from a leaking
tank. Due to the fire risk, the captain
decided to return to Cristobal.
After repair work the Roosevelt left
Cristobal on January 8, 1j37. On Jan-
tarv 14 the Roosevelt's log entry read:
"12 nir noon, ship going astern-could
not handle Jason so decided to return
to Cristobal." But the g,,in, was rough
and help was needed.


On January 15, 1937, Captain Rowe
of the tug U.S. Tarct rlla received an
order "to proceed to pick up the hulk
Jason, under tow of the Roosevelt."
The Tavernilla picked up the Roosevelt
and Jason early on the 16th. The Ta-
vernilla was pitching and rolling vi-
olently. For the Roosevelt, handicapped
by a tow, matters could not have been
worse. Seas were too rough to allow
the Tavernilla to relieve the Roosevelt
of its tow. The Tavernilla, after ob-
taining a release, was ordered to return
to Cristobal. She arrived near midnight
on the 16th, and was followed in by
the Roosevelt and Jason on the morning
of the 17th.
The Roosevelt was leaking badly, her
forward topmast was felled and the
booms had been carried away during
her pitching in heavy seas, but she had
returned her charge to port safely. On
the 20th she was taken to Mt. Hope
Shipyard for repairs. However, these
were never accomplished, and the ves-
sel was ordered beached on a mud
bank of the old French Canal to keep
it from sinking at dockside. The date
was January 21, 1937.
Her final heading was exactly due
South; she had passed the zenith of
her career and, like Peary, she knew.
A gallant effort was made by Mrs.
Stafford, through the American Consul
in Colon, Republic of Panama, to have
the Roosevelt salvaged and refitted for a
museum. But the Roosevelt was too
far gone.
What connection may be between
the ship Roosevelt, the man Theodore
Roosevelt, her namesake, and their mu-
tual afinity for the Panama Canal is
conjectural, but it is safe to conclude
that thev, .,bl ilg with Peary, were Amer-
icans of a type who persisted in their
duty to the end.

22 AUGUST 1965


/.


The Roosevelt ended its brilliant career on the salt mud flats of Cristobal harbor.




















i -~


11


S- .a


- `I


Where Solidarity Began
In an era of many strong international ties between nations, we seldom look back on the
attempts at unification which failed. An effort was made here in 1826 by the Venezuela
patriot Sim6n Bolivar and Latin American diplomats to form a Pan American Union. Though
unsuccessful at the time, the Congress of Panama, held in a small conference hall next
to San Francisco Church in Panama's Sim6n Bolivar Plaza, laid the groundwork for the
strong hemispheric alliance in the Americas today. The statue at the left was dedicated
in 1926 in commemoration of the centennial of the month-long conference. Topped by
a giant condor, it proclaims Bolivar the "Liberator of America."


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23


I-


1


II' r~L


X


r'r.
*`\




































e^

rw











Date Due
Due Returned Due Returned
-- rr----------








v 1_G
_ I __











LTIN AMTfN g


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDOA


3 1262 04820 5131







Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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/t> mtkS0C6 3n TJkid JjJue CarnatlonJ In Panama (Eocai del Uoro T)ke J^oodevelt Vol. 15, No. 6 AUGUST 1965

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RoBEHT J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President H vHOLD R. Pahfitt, Lieutenant Governor Fr.\nk a. Balx)\vin Panama Canal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z. Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated. Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees. RoBEKT D. Kebh, Press Officer Publications Editors Richard D. Peacock and Julio E. Briceno Editorial .Assistants Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, and ToMAs A. CupAs c4bout Out Covet THE COVER of this Review carries the symbols of three special stories to be found on the following pages. The first is a story on Bocas del Toro, a lovely part of Panama that is more and more being "discovered" bv the tourist who wants beauty, solitude and near perfect climate. One day, it mav become another Acapulco, but todav it is probably one of the few havens left for those who would rather collect their wits than souvenirs. The flower is, of course, the carnation, which grows to beautiful proportions and size in the new Citricos development near David. The companv is still experimenting with various varieties, but the product is being .sold in Panama City and elsewhere and is finding excellent acceptance. Growing flowers may sound like an easy proposition, but commercial development is another thing. The story furnishes details on the problems and prospects of this industry, which is the first large-scale flower growing in the Republic. That ship of old is the famous Roosevelt, which came to a sad end in the waters of the old French Canal. Its story is one of the great ones in the annals of men and the sea. Admiral Robert Peary, heroic by any standards, saw in the rugged ship an opportunity to broaden man's horizon. And his adventure is one that will be told for ages. Here, the story also includes the elements of the story that are related to the Panama Canal. There are some very special pictures, some never before published, included in this story. The Review is indebted to Mrs. Marie Peary Stafford of Brunswick, Maine, for the use of three pictures from her personal album. The last symbol is for a far more modern ship— the Oceanic. These da\s they arc building absolutely everything into a ship. The Oceanic is representative of the unbelievable comfort and A mosaic of the Virgin, in the classic Italian style, made by Dolores G. Stewart, Panama Canal Executive Planning Staff statistical draftsman. Mrs. Stewart made the original drawing on paper and transferred it to plywood. Italian tesserae tile was cut by hand and glued to the plywood with contact cement as the work progressed. When all the pieces were in place, the mosaic was grouted and, finally, cleaned and then waxed. The mosaic, truly a work of art, took Mrs. Stewart 1 year to make. pleasure than can be built into ships that can be described as nothing else than floating palaces. But even that might be a misnomer— the palaces of old would no doubt come out a damp and musty second compared to the Oceanic. There are other features, too, and all are designed with the special readership of the Review in mind. There's the one about the Rockhounds, for instance, and one that introduces you to the new Lieutenant Go\eriior of the Canal Zone. These stories are . well, just start turning the pages and find out for yourself. Sndex Bocas del Toro 3 He Sails With Students By Air 6 The New Lieutenant Governor 7 Rockhounds 8 Carnations in Panama 10 Shipping Charts, Notes 12 Peary and the Roosevelt 14 Anniversaries 17 Elegance at Sea 18 Shipping -_ ._ ._ 20 The Dijvi Atlantic 20 Canal History 21 Where Solidarity Began 23 2 August 1965

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Vidit Jjocad del Uoro^ c4n Uncut Uropic Qem Visitors arrive by launch on the historical island of Bastimentos, where Columbus is said to have landed on his fourth voyage in 1502. THE FIRST "tourist" to visit Bocas del Toro was disappointed. But of course he wasn't looking for an ideal vacation spot with miles of unspoiled beaches, sheltered coves, and crystal-clear water. Columbus was interested only in a new route to the Orient. When he sailed through the passage known as La Boca del Dragon into a spacious island-studded bay on the Atlantic coast of Panama he was convinced he had succeeded in his long quest for a strait that would lead him to Cathav. That was in 1502, when the Great Navigator made his fourth voyage to the New World. Today, 463 years later, modern-dav travelers with a taste for sunning, surfing, or skindiving are rediscovering this tropical paradise off the beaten tourist track. The capital of the Province of Bocas del Toro, a picturesque community of some 2,500 inhabitants, lies on the southern end of one of the islands of the great bay, now called .\lmirante in honor of Columbus. Linked to Panama City and David by daily air service, the island capital is beginning to attract small numbers of tourists, and travel e.xperts are predicting that the area mav some dav become a plush resort comparable to Mexico's Acapulco. (See p. 4) The P.\nama Canal Review

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An excellent crescent-shaped beach stretches for miles on the island of Bocas del Toro. (Eocad del Ui oro. c4n Uncut Qem (Continued from p. 3) A group of local civic leaders has formed a tourist cooperative and with the aid of two young Peace Corps volunteers stationed in Bocas, have promoted se\eral package tours to the city. The all-expense excursions include roundtrip airfare from Panama City or Da\id, hotel accommodations, all meals, beach parties, sightseeing trips, and dances. The National Tourist Institute of Panama has declared the area a tourist zone and is now making efforts to interest in\estors in building modern hotels. Accommodations at Bocas are still rudimentary, but very modestly priced. A single room at the Copa Hotel or one of two pensiones— the Plaza and the B()mba\'— costs onlv about $1.50 and doubles are priced at S2.50. Water sports are the main attraction. Skin and scuba diving are popular in Bocas. Compressed air is available through a local diving club. August 1965

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There are boats available for hire at about $8 for a full day of excellent fishing or skindi\ing at one of the many reefs. Arrangements also may be made for water skiing in the calm lagoon waters. Among sightseeing goals is a stalactite cave in which an American priest is said to have seen an apparition many years ago. To sanctify the spot, he built several religious images at the entrance of the cavern and held mass there each Sunday until his departure from Bocas. Seafood is of course abundant and good. Turtle steak, fish, and the famed Bocas del Toro lobsters are served at the airport restaurant, only a 5-minute walk from the hotel. Good buys in Bocas are tortoise shell articles, stuffed turtles, and decorative fish heads mounted on varnished wall plaques. Though there are excellent beaches on practically all the islands of the Bocas Archipelago, including a beautiful crescent-shaped beach on the capital island, perhaps the most spectacular of all is on historical Bastimentos, about 30 minutes from the back porch of your hotel by motor launch. Stretching for miles along the north coast of the island of Bastimentos, where Columbus is said to have come ashore, is a fine sand, surf-swept beach lined with coconut palms. Lack of docking facilities, combined with a heavy Caribbean surf, make it dangerous to approach the beach by boat directly from the ocean. But the 2-mile walk from the sheltered side of the island is well worth the trouble. The huge rolling waves make it an ideal spot for surfboard enthusiasts. Though Spanish is of course the official language in the city of Bocas del Toro, historv and heritage have combined to make it an English-speaking community as well. Among the early colonizers of the area were three pioneering families, one British and two American, who settled in Bocas with their slaves. Following a violent disagreement, the families decided to separate. The Browns, one of the American families, settled on the island of Carenero, at a spot now known as Brown's Point. The other American family, called Knop, set up a community of its own on the island of Cocoqui, later renamed San Cristobal. The British family, the Shepherds, went to still another island, now called Isla de Pastores (the Spanish word for shepherd ) Shepherd freed his slaves who settled on the island of Bastimentos. Today, many of the descendants of Fierce looking barracuda heads are stuffed and mounted on varnished wall plaques at the docks of the Bocas del Toro Skindiving Club. Also available are lacquered stuffed turtles and lobsters. Visitors are intrigued by La Gruta, a stalactite cave converted into a shrine by an American priest who is said to have seen a vision there. those early settlers earn their living at the banana plantations of the Chiriqui Land Co., a subsidiary of the United Fruit Co. with headquarters at Almirante, on the mainland across from the island of Bocas. The company operates regular launch service between the two communities and arrangements may be made for an interesting visit to the plantations. The Panama Canal Review

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He Sails With Students By Air PANAMA CANAL PILOT Capt. Roy H. Rice has taken hundreds of boys and girls through the Canal, has talked to them and answered a multitude of questions about Canal operations— and has never seen one of these youngsters. They're all airwaves friends of his, contacted when he takes off his pilot's hat and puts on his ham radio operator's hat. His first contact with a school in the United States, via ham radio, was a Spanish class in Largo Junior High School, Largo, Fla. He had been talking to an airwaves friend and was kidding about his daughter's cooking. "I think teenagers do pretty good," a new voice broke in. "I'm eating some blueberry muffins right now that they made, and these are delicious." "Where are you?" asked Captain Rice. "In school," came the answer. "I'm the Spanish teacher in Largo Junior High School. The Home Ec class just sent up some freshly baked blueberry muffins, and I'm eating one right now during change of classes." They talked some more, one getting more information on the background of the other, and as a result of the chat Captain Rice next found himself telling the Largo Junior High Spanish class about the Panama Canal and its operations. The ham radio set is in the classroom of Spanish teacher Merton D. Short, who feels strongly about the many educational opportunities airwaves' contacts offer studens. Mrs. Rice, also a licensed ham radio operator, did research on Canal history to add unusual bits of information to the Panama Canal talks. Soon the\were "Rov" and "Marcy" or KZ5NN and KZoM.M, respectively, to the students in the States. One talk given by Captain and Mrs. Rice was based on the "Gateway for U'orld Trade" issued by the Panama Canal Information Office. That was when Captain Rice invited his airwaves friends to join him on the bridge of a vessel that he, as pilot, was taking through the Canal. But he'd onlv get just so far in the Canal transit description when the classroom bell would sound, and the boys and girls reluctantly had to leave while another class filed in. Later he was informed that each class wanted to know what happened, and one class filled in another on the parts that had been missed. "It took four class periods to go through the Canal, and some boys and girls remained after school to complete CQ . CQ . Calling Florida. Another airwaves class is about to come to order. Subject? The Panama Canal. Teachers are Capt. Roy Rice, Panama Canal pilot, and Mrs. Rice. The pupils are thousands of miles away. the transit," he chuckles proudlv. Alter that talk, the letters started coming from the children. Thev were written, for the most part, on lined paper from school pads and one junior high school girl apologeticallv added to her thanks a P.S. "Sorry this is on school paper, but around here it's the official kind." The children wrote: "... Thank vou very much for the talk vou gave us on the Panama Canal. I wish that I could be able to hear the parts the other classes heard because it was very interesting." "... We enjoved hearing about the Canal Zone. I think I would enjoy going there some time. "... From this experience I learned manv things that couldn't be found in books. I enjoyed listening to vou very much and out of all the people we'\'e talked to this vear I think vour talk was the most interesting." One girl added the wish of good luck "with your ships going through th? Canal." Captain and Mrs. Rice have talked to U.S. schoolchildren on the history of the Panama Canal, on the trials and tribulations of the building of the transcontinental railroad, on the part the Isthmus of Panama played in the Gold Ru.sh days, and on the construction of the Canal itself. Then another school picked up the Rices' Panama Canal classroom of the air, and another, and another. Captain and Mrs. Rice have made contacts with schools in California, and North Carolina, in Texas, and in Alabama. In California, it was a science class that had a ham radio set in the classroom. They clamored to hear the Panama Canal talk, bits of which had come over the air. Sometimes Captain and Mrs. Rice lia\e 20 to 30 people on the air, listening at the same time and then coming in with questions. Distance is no barrier. Vi'hile they were talking to Largo, Fla.. once, a California school was attending the same class on the Panama Canal. Someone motoring west through the United States wrote Captain Rice to reqviest Panama Canal information material, and said his daughter was attending classes over the airwa\es while traveling. Three students, writing essavs on the (See p. 19) 6 August 1965

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fiT HIS HOUSS: DOLLS, SKfiT€S, HIK6S Meet The New Lieutenant Governor THE CANAL ZONE'S new Lieutenant Governor, Col. Harold R. Parfitt, and his wife share a special responsibility with all U.S. parents of children born in the Canal Zone— they, too, have to obtain a certificate of U.S. citizenship for their daughter, Karen, bom 8 years ago in Paris, France. Her sister, Beverly, 6, came complete with U.S. citizenship. She was bom in St. Louis. With the arrival of Colonel Parfitt's family, the official residence of the Lieutenant Governor is alive with skates and dolls and the primary school set, replacing teenagers who had gathered there with the sons and daughter of former Lieutenant Governor Parker. Now there's the sound of piano practice, as tiny fingers master the scales and melodies. Instead of Girl Scouts working on advanced badges and learning small boat navigation, there may be little Brownies starting up the Girl Scout ladder and little girls working on swim badges. Karen can't remember living in France, of course, for she was under 2 when the family left. But now, at the age of 8, she had looked forward to her father's new assignment in Panama and can even speak a little Spanish, taught her before coming to the Isthmus while attending a private school in Jacksonville, Fla., where Colonel Parfitt was stationed as Jacksonville District Engineer for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. His responsibilities included civilian and military construction in Florida, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Canal Zone. The new Lieutenant Governor and his family enjoN' hiking, and have been taking get-acquainted walks in the Canal Zone. Colonel Parfitt usually walks to work in the morning, home and back again at noon, and home at the close of the day. Nor does he think anything of walking down the 119-plus steps from the Administration Building to Balboa and back. Both Colonel and Mrs. Parfitt are sports enthusiasts. He is a man of wide interests. When he looks at the Isthmian landscape with artist's eye, it's because he is an artist. When he was stationed in Japan from 1948 to 1950 as captain with the 8th Army Engineering group, he took painting lessons in his off-duty hours. Mrs. Parfitt, the former Patricia Although busy moving into their new home, the Parfitts managed to find time for a family photograph at their new residence. From left to right are daughters Karen and Beverly, Colonel Parfitt, and Mrs. Parfitt. Scully, was born in Lexington, Kv., but is one daughter of the Blue Grass country who doesn't ride. Karen, however, is infatuated with horses, as befits the daughter of even a non-riding Kentucky mother. Colonel Parfitt is a combat veteran of World War II and Korea. He was wounded on D-Day during an amphibious landing on Omaha Beach. In Korea he was promoted three times and was engineer of the Second Engineer Construction Group, designing bridges to be rebuilt during the advance of Allied forces up the peninsula. In 1955-58, Colonel Parfitt was Executive Officer to the Engineer at Supreme Headquarters, Allied Forces in Europe, and he revisited landing areas on the beaches and locales last seen under enemy fire. Colonel Parfitt recalls as one of his most interesting assignments that of U.S. Army representative in 1961-62 to the Canadian Defense College at Kingston, Canada. While at Kingston, he took an extensive trip that included the Middle East. The Canadian Ambassador to each country briefed the group on various foreign relations aspects and economics of that country. While the Parfitts were stationed in Europe they enjoyed traveling on the continent and in England. They fell in love with the picturesque Bavarian region, motored through the Alps, stop(See p. 19) The Panama Canal Review

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A REALLY ROCKIN' HOBBY IF YOU see someone pick up a stone and lick it, you are seeing a rockhound. Licking the stone will give the rockhound or "rockologist" an idea what the stone will look like when it's polished. The Canal Zone boasts a number of these hobb)ists who see in a stone something more than just nature's castaway. Members of the Canal Zone Gem & Mineral Society, numbering about 50, may make ocean "field trips to the Perlas Islands in search of the lovely, milky white quartz amygdule found there in profusion. But most rockhounds, collectors of quality stones, find the beach areas and streams on the Isthmus good places for a rock hunt. They have about half a million colleagues in the United States who follow the hobby of the pick and sack. A large number of rockhounds engage only in collecting stones. Many of these collectors, besides enjoying the thrills of a treasure hunt and the outdoor exercise, have turned the hobby into a profitable one by becoming expert lapidaries. They cut and polish stones and set them as jewelry. Not all gems are mounted in jewelry, though. Some rockhounds display gemstones in special gem cabinets. Numerous Canal Zone lapidarists have built up a valuable collection of cut and polished gems and specimens. Other rockhounds have turned their hobby into specialized Bits of crushed rock, highly polished agate and tumbled stones, glued on a wood background, were used by Loretta Merrill to create "rock painting." craftsmanship and made rough stone into a thing of beauty— lovely enough to adorn their homes. Slabs of stone are used in making table tops, bookends, lamps, ink stands, and many other objects. Crushed gemstones of various colors and slices of highly polished agate may be glued to a flat surface making a sort of oil painting in stone— a beautiful work of art. The agate is perhaps the rockhound's favorite. It is made of quartz, one of the hardest of the many minerals that make up the earth's pebbles and stones. The finest of quartz stones is called chalcedony, and agate is one of these smooth and waxy chalcedony stones. Junior rockliouiid enthusiast Marcel Houssc in operation during au looking at Clarence Dimmick's slab saw rockhounds' exhibit. There are many varieties of agate and most of it takes on a fine polish. Some agates are glassy clear; others are tinted with smudges of white, grey, blue, or brown. There are banded agates and variegated ones with stripes that look like ripples of colored water. Moss agate contains green, yellow, brown, and other colored minerals. Another gemstone found on the Isthmus is jasper which comes in a range of colors from purplish to all shades of brown. Jasper is opaque quartz that is hard, compact, fine grained. It takes a good polish and does not flake or fracture easily. The fields of Chame, not far from Panama City, are good hunting grounds for jasper. These, and other specimens, may be cut into all shapes and sizes. They may be hand processed or tumbled. First cut into slices on a slab saw, gemstones are cut and shaped on a grinding wheel after the desired shapes are marked from lapidarv templates on the rock slabs with an aluminum pencil. The hand process of cutting and polishing consumes hours— a painstaking job that requires a steady hand and an exacting eye. After the slab has been marked with the template, cut and ground to the approximate desired shape, it is mounted on a dop stick (a handling stick) with dopping wax (a mixture of sealing wax and lacquer). Then the stone is ground and sanded on a rough wheel in four steps using different sizes of grit. Now it's time to polish the stones and this is done on leather or felt with polishing powders such as chrome oxide, tin oxide, or cerium oxide. Some stones 8 August 1965

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must be polished with a specific oxide to obtain a good finish. The next step is to remove the stone from the dop stick. This can be done by putting it in the freezer for a few minutes where the cold causes the stone to drop ofiF. The stone is then ready to mount. The mechanical process of shaping and polishing stones is called tumbling. Stones to be tumbled are placed in a round, hexagonal, or octagonal shaped electric powered barrel with quantities of silicone carbide grit. They are tumbled for hours and hours of continuous rotation after the stone has been hand ground to a rounded shape. The stones are tumbled for about 2 weeks in very rough grit. They are removed from the tumbler, washed, and tumbled for a week to 10 days in a less rough grit. The process is repeated with finer grit for another week or two. Now the stones are read)' for polishing. After a good thorough washing they are placed in the cleaned tumbler with chips of wood, com cobs, or bits of leather. Again, the stones are washed and put in the tumbler with detergent for 2 or 3 days. Final!)', the last step has arrived! After cleaning, the stones, glistening like jewels, are sorted and admired— a real joy to the rockhound who may still recognize some of the rough stones he picked up at the beach. But not all stones come out of the tumbler beautiful. The color may be onl)' on the surface or the stone may turn out to to be too course in texture. Broken and rough stones are ground or crushed into different sizes. These are used for picture composition. An example of picture "painting" with gemstone and crushed rock are pictures made by Mrs. Robert Merrill, of Balboa. Local rockhounds Russel Weaver, Earl Orr. Amos Bierwagan, and others make beautiful table tops using bits of crushed rock and polished slabs. The tables may sell for as much as $300 in the United States. A relatively small number of rockhounds do faceting probablv because it involves specialized machinery and mathematics. The standard faceting machine is a rather complex, precision dex'ice that is quite expensive. But it is possible to facet with a device that costs only a few dollars and a lot of hard work. Col. A. W. Stratton, Gorgas Hospital surgeon, does faceting with a device that he made for a few dollars. The Canal Zone Gem & Mineral Society celebrated its 10th anniversan,' in March. The society has a lapidar\' workshop in Balboa for the use of its Dr. Albert Stratton, Gorgas Hospital surgeon, at work faceting a synthetic sapphire on his homemade faceting machine. members. Several of the rockhounds have set up home workshops for the convenience of lapidarv equipment. Each vear more and more people join the rock collecting hobby. Experienced rockhounds recommend that you do not go hunting alone. Wear sturdy shoes, and take along the right equipment. This includes a rock sack, a hammer (a pick may come in handy), carry a shovel, and a burlap bag. Be sure to wear goggles and gloves while digging or picking at a rock. There are always new areas and new materials to be discovered. Remember that Panama requires a license that costs $7.50 for rock hunting in the Republic. Have fun and happy hunting! ^ . 4 ^ a W'-M^^ #^-*:#"4: .-^s^r ifT-^ A display of jewelry made by Mr. and Mrs. Amos Bierwagen. The collection includes black agate, moss agate, banded agate, Perlas Island amygdules, petrified wood, and jasper mounted on gold plated findings. The Panama Canal Review

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An Industry Flowers In Ghiriqui Province PART OF THE beauty of Panama is in the lovely flo\\ers that grow in splashes of color across the countr\'side. Flowers of many varieties flourish especially well in the Boquete area, because of the ideal climate and good soil in that area of Ghiriqui Province. It was natural then, that commercial flower growing started there manv years ago. Until recently, though, the business was not on a large scale. Then came Citricos de Ghiriqui, S.A., a company that saw an opportunity to de\'eIop flowers into a large industry' in Panama. Gitricos is largely interested in citrus and has devoted most of its efforts to the huge citrus development at Potrerillos. But its interest in flowers was sharpened by a potential market, a crop that could be developed more cjuickly than citrus fruit and the desire to experiment C^arnutioiis are grown in seini-opcn areas in beds that are elevated about 2 feet from the ground. This allows conditions to be controlled. Water, into which fertilizer has been dissolved, is fed through a trough. The opaque plastic above the beds is designed to filter in the right amount of sunlight. Air circulation is also controlled. 10 August 1965

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CARNATIONS: AN EXPANDING INDUSTRY in a new field. The experimental element lies in the fact that no large-scale commercial growing of carnations and other flowers had been attempted in Panama. Roses, lilies, gladioli, and pompoms all grow in the area, but the carnation was chosen to launch the project. A Citricos spokesman put it this wav: "The possibilities of other flowers and crops were weighed. But the climate and other conditions in the Boquete area are apparently well suited to carnations, ind there is a market for them." So, in July 1963 the experimental beds were planted. Rooted cuttings were purchased from the Akron, Ohio, area, one of the great carnation centers, and flown to nearbv Da\id. With care, these prospered. Huge, beautiful carnations grew. This past June the project planted for the third time. The first cuttings were of several varieties. The idea was to see which would produce enough flowers to support a commercial operation. Each planting, some varieties are dropped and others added in an effort to sift out those that don't do so well, or don't produce in sufficient numbers. Those that flourish are pushed to full development. Why some varieties yield many flowers per square foot and others only a few is sometimes hard to determine. The sure wav to know is to plant, nourish, watch, keep careful records, and wait for results. Now, says Citricos, seven varieties are proven producers and others show a lot of promise. The program has sielded much information but manv problems have cropped up. The central objective can be summed up this way: To develop a volume of qualitv, steady production of carnations for shipment to markets in Latin America and the United States. There is a tremendous need for qualitv flowers in Central America and the northern part of South America, an official said. Panama is ideal in terms of location. San Jose, Costa Rica, can be reached b\' air in an hour. Bogota, Colombia, is nearbv bv air, as are Mexico Cit\', Jamaica. Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Miami, and Caracas, Venezuela. The limited production so far has been shipped to 1^ \ .1 A complete soil analysis laboratory is maintained by Citricos. Information gathered on the carnation and citrus programs is evaluated after tests are made. Much information is gathered over a long period of time after comparisons are made of the various combinations of growing conditions. The experiments bring results when the best combination of factors are selected, producing a superior product under the best conditions. Panama City, Miami, and Philadelphia; other markets will be developed as production is expanded. The market is variable, but mostly steady. The sun, rain, clouds, and peaks of demand at certain times all are factors affecting the market. Working out shipping schedules is a major problem, too, because speed is essential in transporting a perishable product. There were also problems in production. In 2 years, experimental growing has shown much about the preferred way of building flower beds, solving drainage problems, conquering disease and insects, and controlling air circulation. The right chemical nourishment, the angle and intensitv of sunlight and the temperature are elements that had to be explored and information is still being gathered to create an ideal combination of growing factors. But these problems are being solved and Boquete is proving to be a good area for the carnation. The night temperature is rarely below 52 or so. Daytime temperature is a little high when it reaches a maximum of 80 at the growing altitude of 3,000 feet. Still, it is within acceptable limits. A square foot of Citricos flower bed will produce 45 to 55 flowers a year, 10 more than in top grade U.S. production centers. A measured amount of fertilizer is fed to the plants. Machinery is used to inject the fertilizer into a controlled amount of water. All growth factors are recorded and a work force of about 15 men is employed in the covered carnation bed area. Eventually, the project ma\' grow to 10 acres. In flower growing, that's strictlv big league, with production running to millions of flowers annuall)'. There are other possibilities. There is a potential for success in the growing of the bird of paradise and the eucaK'ptus, and perhaps other flowers, Citricos officials sav. "This project, and its potential growth, means income to Panamanians and to the Republic. And it also means that another quality product can be e.xported with a "Produced in Panama" tag. Thz Panama Canal Review 11

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CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

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Advanced Ship THE 555-FOOT Ciudad dc Bogota, the second of six automated ships ordered at a total cost of $36 million by Grancolombiana Line, made her maiden appearance in New York recently. Built at the shipyard of H. S. Stucken, Sohn of Hamburg, Germany, this most advanced type merchant ship is propelled bv a 14,400-horsepower diesel which will permit her to cruise at 21 knots. She is capable of accommodating 88 of the 22-foot containers, or 176 of the 10-foot containers. The container handling arrangement is the first of its kind, a highly efficient built-in system. Four similar ships will be deliyered to Grancolombiana during the next few months, bringing the total fleet to 48 ships, 32 of which are company owned. Europe-South America ser\'ice has been extended to include Chile, so the ship will be using the Panama Canal. Wilford & McKay are the local agents. A Jointed Venture THE STOLT LADY, which recently began operations as a long-term charter in worldwide service, is perhaps the most unusual 19,000-ton ship afloat. The 580-foot vessel, a Norwegian tanker, was readied by a Swedish shipyard for Parcel Tankers, Inc., the leading operator of highly specialized tank vessels. This type of ship moves valuable liquid cargoes in relatively small quantities. General agents for Parcel Tankers is Stolt-Nielsen Chartering. Inc. The ship is really two ships— the bow of one and the stern of another. The Stolt Dagali was cut in two on Thanksgiving Day, 1964, in a collision with the Israeli liner Shalom ofi the coast of New Jersey. The C. T. Gogstad broke in two after it was stranded on the Baltic coast. The Gogstad's 140-foot stem section was salvaged and the 440-foot foward section of the Slolf Dagali was also saved. The Gogstad half had the engines and the Dagali half had cargo tanks. The Gogstad owners purchased the Dagali half and experts at the Eriksberg Shipyard at Goteborg, Sweden, were able to join the two halves. The fact that the vital statistics were close made the job possible. Cargo tanks, cargo pipelines and heating coils, as well as other gear, were replaced. The new vessel will work on one of Parcel Tanker's main trade routes: Europe-United States-Far East and return. This requires transiting the Panama Canal twice. Local agent for the ship is Fernie & Co. PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity Ores, various Lumber Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) Wheat Sugar Canned food products Nitrate of soda Fishmeal Banana.s Metals, various Food products in refrigeration (except fresh fruit) Coffee Pulpwood Iron and steel manufactures Fresh and Dried Fruits All others Total Fourth quarter, fiscal year 1965 1965 1,875,715 1,310,946 226,027 271,034 520,633 178,569 208,739 418,016 337,329 316,429 248,233 105,582 143,112 758,710 117,459 1,667,878 8,704,411 1964 1,822,186 1,277,473 636,853 223.193 577,223 222,151 157,881 392.476 334,442 32S,321 264,444 120,846 158,.380 329,553 126,858 1,583,738 8,556,018 Average 1951-55 999,938 1,014,773 229,177 437,251 351,696 269,073 319,896 200.634 191,913 142,423 61,185 56,464 59,091 95,284 694,792 5,123,640 Atlantic to Pacific Commodity Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) Coal and coke Phosphates Com Soybeans Metal, scrap Iron and steel manufactures Bauxite ._. Chemicals, unclassified Suear Sulfur Wheat . Paper and paper products Rice Machinery All others Total Fourth quarter, fiscal year 1965 1965 3,414,744 1,928,300 899,486 569,868 433,453 427,023 421,324 207,051 189,439 179,970 164,006 151,245 150,963 132,248 ] 26,776 1,995,319 11,391,220 1964 3,071,090 1,483.182 510,236 273,647 221,031 585,215 356,555 159,092 208,919 121,761 139,071 153,858 152,792 42,430 1 10,385 1,835,897 9,425,161 Average 1951-55 1,075,363 703,397 180,384 25,146 119,263 12,985 461,804 38,838 51,553 190,966 106,086 35,034 107,964 40,909 66,780 1, 176,113 4,392,585 CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

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PEARY AND THE ROOSEVELT li/nen M.an c4nd Snip it/ere Oni ALONG THE mudflats of the old French Canal, on a day when the tide is out and the waters are calm, you can still see scattered pieces of one of the most gallant and resolute ships ever to challenge the elements. Onl\' a memory today, the Roosevelt was once the toast of the world, a tough ship that rammed and tore through great mountains of ice, a ship that put Adm. Robert E. Peary within 174 miles of the great and unconquered dream of generations of explorers— the North Pole. From there an aging Peary made his famous plunge into the bitter cold and, in a triumph built upon si.\ previous expeditions, he planted the Stars and Stripes atop the North Pole in brilliant sunlight on the polar night of April 6, 1909. Without the Roosevelt, the first man to stand on the North Pole would not have been Peary. In his day, modern equipment had not been developed to overcome the hazards of arctic travel. As Peary later described it "the poles were on ultimately by those primeval machines, man and dog, unaided by science, struggling along in the savage half-world between God's countries and interstellar space, fighting for existence ..." The building of the ship, then, was an essential element in the exploration of the North Pole. And its construction came about as a result of two factors— Peary's determination and the vision of a small group of men who formed the Peary Arctic Club. The ship was the strongest wooden vessel ever built. She was conceived as a ship that would combine the best qualities of previous polar ships, plus innovations that would give her qualities never before built into a ship designed for arctic work. The purpose of the ship was to fight through great, floating ice packs and the biggest part of its work would be squeezing through and between fields of ice. Therefore, it was built with these major features: A sharply raking stem, to furnish ramming and cutting power: a wedge-shaped bow to help in squeezing through heavy ice; a steam engine as primary power with sails as auxiliary power; a hull design that allowed the X aliottil Gfographic Socifty Background photo on this page shows the Roosevelt locked in polar ice at Cape Sheridan. ship to be pushed up, rising out of the water as the ice pack pressed upon her below the waterline; construction of wood to furnish both strength and the "give" required when negotiating through treacherous ice flows; a narrow beam and short length at the water line to increase maneuverability when twisting through the ice packs; a rudder for maximum steering capacity combined with minimum exposure to damage; a specially designed propellor that furnished very powerful thrust; and only the most necessary auxiliary structures to keep weight low so that a maximum load of fuel and supplies could be carried. The hardy little ship registered at onl\ 614 gross tons. Her sides were 30 inches thick in places and the planking was put together in laminations that gave more strength than would a single piece of wood. Her engine developed 1,000 horsepower and through a special system it could furnish 1,.500 horsepower for short periods when needed to fight ma.ssive concentrations of ice. Now Peary had some financing and he had a ship. Its launching on March 24. 190,5, thrilled the 48-year-old explorer. He had been through enough to discourage a hundred average men, but he refused to give up. He had invaded the frozen wastes nearly every 14 August 1965

PAGE 21

year since 1891. He spent his own money and his wife gave hers. The U.S. Navy put him on leave for e.xplorations but the problems were his to solve. He gave much of his health before he began his last trip; his life had been one long fight against misfortune in the far north. In 1891 he broke his leg on the first expedition. In 1893, on a second trip, the Peary baby (now Marie Peary Stafford of Brunswick, Maine) was born in a hut on the west Greenland shore. Weather turned back the exploration the following spring. In 189.5 Peary struck out again across the icecap. Lack of food cut the journey short and starvation nearly overtook the expedition. The men were saved by eating their dogs. Of 40 taken on the trip, 1 dog was brought back. In 1896 Peary's attempt to bring back the great meteorite at Cape York was beaten back by storm and heavy ice. The next year he succeeded and brought the meteorite to New York by ship. In 1898 he made another assault on the Pole. A blizzard caught the men on the torturous march and Peary nearly froze. Seven of his toes had to be amputated in an operation under primitive conditions. He lay helpless for 6 weeks in a deserted station at Fort Conger, then was dragged south on a sledge for 2.50 miles in a temperature of 50 below zero. In 1900 he was finally well enough to start again and he headed for the Pole. Open ice fields proved too dangerous and forced him back. He tried again the next year and the same hazard turned him back. In 1902 he planned a 60-day expedition to the Pole and started out with 60 dogs, tons of walrus meat and 8 or 10 Eskimoes. Again, the elements defeated the thrust. But Peary gained a hard-won fund of knowledge. His experience and failIn ice-filled waters is the Roosevelt, just after she was launched at Bucksport, Maine. Adm. Robert E. Peary The Panama Canal Re\ievv 15 ures were not wasted; he would apply it all to preparation for the final assault. And, of course, he now had the support of a group of men whose belief in him led them to form the Peary Arctic Club and put up money for the ship. The admiral was gratified, and he never claimed for himself all of the accolades that came afterwards; he insisted, for example, "This ship is not the Peary ship, but the ship of the Peary Arctic Club, and she is afloat due to the broad faith and courage of the president of that club, Morris K. Jesup ..." The mission of the rugged ship was seen by the club as "the sign of man's final physical conquest of the earth . enduring fame for this country. It means that we pluck and hold forever the last of the great world prizes for which adventurous nations have struggled." At the time, the Roosevelt was the wonder of the shipbuilding world. Built in Bucksport, Maine, it was christened by Peary's wife Josephine with a bottle of champagne encased in a block of ice. It was the first ship built in the Western Hemisphere for arctic exploration. It was not a big ship, generally speaking, but was the second largest ever to winter in the Arctic. Its rounded hull let it literally pop out of the ice if squeezed. Even if stood on end and gripped by ice, the strain would hardly be felt because the construction was so stout. Its light draft of 16 feet allowed operation close to shore. The thick sides were armor-plated to take the worst rub of passing ice. The bow had 1-inch steel plating from the keel up to to .3 feet above the waterline and extending for 10 feet. The stern protection, of like strength, reached from the keel above the \\aterline and extended forward for 14 feet. Waterline armor, extending between the bow and stern protection, was of %-inch steel plating 6 feet wide. The principle of power was reversed in the Roosevelt, when compared to other arctic ships. Sail power was primary in previous ships^ with steam as an auxiliary power. But the Roosevelt depended upon its steam engine, with a sailing rig as auxiliary, to give an extra push when good winds were about. Its engine gave it as much power as the most powerful oceangoing tug in New York Harbor. The propeller shaft was 12 inches thick. The propeller was 11 feet in diameter and furnished tremendous push. How the vessel came to be named is told by Peary: "For the ship by whose aid I hoped to fight my way toward the most inaccesible spot on earth, the name of Roosevelt seemed to be the one and inevitable. It held as an ideal before the expedition those very qualities of strength, insistence, persistence, and unvarying victory over all obstacles which made the 26th President of the United States so great." Peary and the Roosevelt returned triumphant from the North Pole in September 1909. She steamed into port flving the North Pole flag, "... a flag which never before had entered anv port in history." In 1909, after the Roosevelt's participation in the Hudson-Fulton Anniversary Celebration naval parade up the Hudson Ri\er, Peary and the Roosevelt parted company. Ahead of the ship lay 28 more years of work and adventure. Shortly after that Peary proposed that the Pearv Arctic Club and the National Geographic Society undertake a great Antarctic expedition, with the club donating the Roosevelt as its share Material for this stor>' was gathered by Julius Grigore, Jr., Assistant Chief of the Industrial Division, and it includes pictures from the personal album of Mrs. Marie Peary Stafford, Admiral Peary's daughter.

PAGE 22

President Theodore Roosevelt meets members of the crew during a visit aboard the ship bearing his name. of the cost. The project never was launched, possibly because of the great cost of repairing the ship, which had suffered damage by the ice. Peary was never to visit the Arctic again. But, because of his Arctic fame, he continued to hvc in high acclaim until his death in 1920. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors. In November 1910, the Roosevelt was sold to John Arbuckle of Brooklyn, N.Y., for $37,500. Arbuckle had extensive ship salvage and towing interests and the Roosevelt may have been conducting massive salvage operations, or towing canal barges between New York and Albany. Arbuckle died in 1912, and the Roosevelt was sold to H. E. J. McDermott. Lists for 1912, 1913, and 1914 give the Roosevelt's function as "fishing." On March 3, 1915, the New York Times reported the Roosevelt was sold to John W. Sullivan & Co. The Sullivan Company refitted the Roosevelt with oil burning machinery, made other improvements, then sold her to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries for $40,000. She was to proceed through the Panama Canal upon completion of refitting. From this time to the end of her davs, the Roosevelt became dogged (See p. 22) The Roosevelt in Balboa drydock in 1917. 16 August 1965

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) ledo ^^rm on K^^lnii SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Reginald A. Richards Supply Clerk Edward Green Meat Cutter (Sales) Victor A. Hunter Motion Picture Projectionist (35 mm.) MARINE BUREAU Juan B. Olmedo \IPreservation Ki^njnic Jose E. Tuiioi^ Babbittnian Engineering and COSlSTRUCTION BU! Theodore J. Wilber Administratix'ie SeiNices Assisfaiit ADMINISTRATE E SERVICES DIVISION Will R. Price Printing Plant Foreman TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Claudius A. Breary Clerk Carl H. Thomas Cargo Clerk COMPTROLLERS OFFICE Harry E. Musselman Time, Leave, and Payroll Supervisor SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Peter T. Corrigan Maintenance Represenjatj^ (Buildings and Utipties) Harold O. Blackman Restaurant Manager Olganon Clarke Laborer (Heavy) S. Santamaria Grounds Maintenanci Operator (Small) Dudley H. Trotman Service Station Attendant Robert H. Miller Housing Project Manager Leonard A. Pennvcook Clerk Lawrence C. Waithe Warehouseman MARINE BUREAU George R. Chevannes Motor Launch Captain Robert G. Peterson Administrative Services Assistant Ricardo Valencia Linehandler William E. Weigle, Jr. Supervisory Marine Traffic Controller ibrowsky eman (Locks Operation) eph L. Hickey jaintenance Engineer Lawrence All 46,000 tons of the world's fifth largest ship glided smoothly into New York's harbor last May on its maiden transatlantic crossing. The Michelangelo, largest and fastest ship in New York-Mediterranean service, is 902 feet long and can carry up to 1,775 passengers at a maximum speed of 29 knots. Built in Sesfri, Genoa, the Michelangelo carries a crew of 720, is fireproof, air-conditioned, and has 6 swimming pools. Italy's largest liner since the middle I930's, the sister ship to the Raflaelo was launched in September 1962. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Leo Chester Water System Controlman Walter R. Malone Operator, Floating Crane Harold F. Mandeville Telephone Instrument Repairman George Rahn Instrument Mechanic (General) Clifford E. Grayman Helper Electrician John R. Smith Super\isory Electrical Engineer (General) Walter J. St. Louis Wharfbuilder Henry Ehrman Surveying Technician George V. Kirkland Supervisory Construction Reperesentative (Buildings and Utilities) Luther B. Sartain, Jr. Super\isory General Engineer Herbert H. Tabert Master, Floating Crane TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Leonardo Scott Stevedore Daniel A. Napier Chauffeur (Sedans and Station Wagons only) Samuel Roe, Jr. Guard CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU James H. Pennington Police Private Henry Perry Police Private Robert J. Helmerichs Detective Lieutenant Ray W. Wheeler Fire Captain HEALTH BUREAU Florence E. Blackman Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry) Ramel H. Masters Supers'isory Sanitation Inspector ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION Cyril B. Doyle Clerk The Panama Caxal Review 17

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The ultramodern Oceanic will transit the Canal early next year. DUE HERE NEXT YEAR ThcO El ceanic: elegance AtS ea THE FLAG OF Panama flies from the bow of the $35 mihion cruise hner Oceanic, the ultra-modern flagship of the Home Lines which started service between New York and Nassau in April and is to call at Cristobal February 15, 1966, on a Caribbean cruise out of New York. Not only does the new 11-deck, 774-foot Oceanic carrv the Panamanian flag, but Alex Keusseoglou, an official of the Line and responsible for the design of the ship, was presented with the Panamanian Order of Vasco Nuiiez de Balboa when the ship was delivered to her owners earlier this vear. According to C. B. Fenton & Co., agents for the Home Lines here, the ship \\ill make her first visit to the Isthmus February 15 when she will arrive at Cristobal after a call at the San Bias Islands. She will sail the following dav for New York via Kingston. Called the "ship of tomorrow," the Oceanic was built at Monfalcone, Italy, by the Cantieri Riuniti dell' Adriatico, world's foremost builder of passenger tonnage. She was designed to meet the needs of present-day transatlantic and cruise travel and has a range of 10,900 miles at a speed of 25 knots. Expected to be able to meet any challange from the so-called hotel-type vessels predicted for the future bv some shipping leaders, the Oceanic can be considered even more luxurious than most hotels. In addition to being fullv air conditioned and equipped with stabilizers for smooth sailing, the ship has 580 cabins with accommodations for 1.200 cruise passengers. Out of the 580 cabins, there are 8 penthouse apartments with private deck space and 65 deluxe cabins each with a sitting room. A large number of the cabins have communicating doors and can be converted into rooms with a sitting room. The main dining room can seat comfortablv 700 passengers and her main public room is larger than the largest on the SS France. She has a series of lounges, bars, cardrooms, libraries, teenagers' area and children's playrooms as well as a 400-seat double deck cinema theater, a 770-square foot chapel, and a 1,200-square foot gymnasium. One of the most attractive and unusual parts of the ship is the Lido Deck, an exceptionalK' large area distinguished bv two swimming pools, a solarium, bar, and restaurants. The pool area is designed to give palatial effect and can be utilized both in fair and bad weather thanks to a sliding glass roof that can open or close within 3 minutes and in cold weather is heated bv infrared ravs. The water in the swimming pools can be heated if necessary and there are colored jets of water to add color on gala nights. Another luxury touch is the soft music transmitted throughout the ship on a two-channel system in the cabins, public rooms, and corridors. All apartments and deluxe cabins are provided with large-screen television sets which can receive on either European or American wavelengths through a monitoring system retransmitted by a closed circuit. All passenger cabins have telephones and anyone can be connected from his cabin with anv point in the world through the ship's powerful radio station. For those passengers who might still feel out of touch with civilization, the ship has been equipped with teleprinters for immediate transmission of news and communications as well as with a telephoto installation which can receive pictures of news events. A special Multilith printing machine permits circulation on board of a full-scale newspaper. (See p. 19) 18 August 1965

PAGE 25

For the first time, a container ship transited the Canal with containers stacked three high on the deck. The San Francisco, transporting Sea Land Service containers, was able to carry on the third stack 42 additional containers on a recent southbound transit adding 882 Panama Canal tons to the ship's capacity without additional toll charges. This was possible because such charges are made only for cargo carrying capacity below decks. THEY SAIL ON AIRWAVES (Continued from p. 6) Panama Canal, heard the Rices' talk on the Panama Canal and found the help the\' needed bv writing for information material. Sending out information material alone runs up a goodly postal sum, but Captain and Mrs. Rice say it's all worth while, especially after an entire classroom, in the manner of a school cheer, shouts "Thank vou!" at the close of a talk on the Canal. Captain and Mrs. Rice have been iiam radio operators about 2 years, since the time he was seriously injured in an automobile accident. "I couldn't do anything else, he says. "I had to gi\e up mv motor scooter, so I took up talking on the radio." MEET THE NEW Lieutenant Governor (Continued ped in storybook towns, and proceeded with the caution indicated along the treacherous Spanish Riyiera roads, where guard rails are nonexistent. To Mrs. Parfitt, cooking is a pleasure rather than a chore. When time permits she likes to experiment with new dishes. A specialty of the Parfitt household on occasion is a fondue prepared with cheese and white wine. Colonel Parfitt holds himself erect as from p. 7) the West Pointer he is. He was graduated from the Military Academy in 1943 and recei\ed his master's degree in civil engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1948. Previous visits to the Canal Zone, all on business as Jacksonville District Engineer, afforded little time to get acquainted with the area. Colonel Parfitt believes in getting out to meet people, and he plans to do just that in his walks. Luxury Liner Is Passenger Paradise (Continued Should the life of ease become too much for the passengers, they have available gymnasiums, saunas, massage rooms with specialized personnel at their disposal, and two doctors with fully trained nurses to look after their well-being in a highly specialized hospital provided with modern equipment. To keep the passengers happy and the ship on a safe and steady course, there is a staff of .577 employees consisting of 42 officers, 97 petty officers and 438 unlicensed personnel. The Oceanic lives up to her designation of "ship of tomorrow" by having the most modern technical and navigational erjuipment afloat including 60,0()0-horsepower turbines that give her a top speed of about 27 knots. In from p. 18) addition to stabilizers to minimize rolling, she has a special bow and stem design to reduce pitching and such devices as two radars, a Sperry gyrocompass with eight repeater units, a Sperry cours? recorder, an echo sounder, a Sperry-Decca navigator, and Sperry loran and automatic pilot. The last passenger vessel on the Atlantic to bear the name Oceanic was built for the White Star Line in 1899. Her 17,2.50 gross tons, 68.5-foot length, and 19.5-knot speed won her acclaim and top ranking honors among the liners of her day. Her two funnels, unusually high even among the tall stacks of that era, contributed to her easy identification. The ship was lost during World War I. The Panama Canal Review 19

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SH SEAGOING WHEELS WHAT HAS AT least 3,000 wheels and 1,500 windshield wipers and regularly transits the Panama Canal? The answer is the MV Dyvi Atlantic— and the wheels and the windshield wipers are attached to 750 standard or 1,350 compact cars en route from Emope to the United States. Owned by the Auto Shipping Co. of Oslo, Norway, the vessel was designed by Jan Eric D>^'i, who thinks that largescale transatlantic automobile shipments will continue to expand. Her agents. Fen ton & Co., say that at present she is being used to carry Volkswagens from Europe to the U.S. west coast and probably will carrv palletized cargo from the United States back to Europe. Presenting an unusual silhouette, the 485-foot vessel measures 65 feet from waterline to superstructure deck, affording seven spacious car stowage decks, each connected to the deck above by internal ramps. Cars are driven aboard via a ramp linking the pier with one of the ship's eight side ports, four to a side. Cars are assigned positions on a specific deck, where each is securely lashed to the deck for the long oversea vo\age. Loading time of a full consignment of compacts or standard cars is 6 hours and 4 hours, respectively. Palletized cargo can be driven aboard or taken off bv fork lift trucks. I P ? I N G A sea of cars awaits loading on the Dyvi Atlantic. The Dyvi Atlantic's 7 storage decks accommodate 750 standard or 1,350 compact cars. TRANSITS BY OCE.WGOING VESSELS IN FOURTH QUARTER FISC.\L YEAR 1965 1965 1964 Commercial 3,006 3,022 U.S. Government 84 70 Free 21 24 Total 3,111 3,116 TOLLS" Commercial 817,015,445 .$15,793,176 U.S. Government 519,677 379,905 Total __ -817,5.35,122 516,173,081 CARGO"" Commercial 20,099,970 17,985,901 U.S. Government 642,622 361,229 Free 73,598 139,658 Total 20,816,190 18,486,788 • Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small. ••Cargo Sgures are in long tons. 1965

PAGE 27

CAMAl HISTORY 50 l/earJ cAg^o THE MAIN WALLS of Diydock No. 1 at Balboa, which, hke the locks of the Canal, are capable of handling the largest vessels afloat, were completed with the exception of minor work around the entrance and at the tops, where machinery was installed and the erection of the steel gate was completed. An official flag was ordered for the Governor of the Canal Zone for use in his official capacity. The order, including instructions as to when the flag should be used, came from the White House desk of Woodrow Wilson. An earthquake shock was felt over the Isthmus June 28. Seismographs in Balboa Heights recorded the tremor as lasting 1 minute and 33 seconds and having a radius of 100 miles. No damage was reported. The Canal was blocked bv a slide at Culebra. The slide, which was expected (officials thought it would occur much later than it did), closed traffic on the water\\'av for 4 days. Official first-year figures on Canal traffic appeared in The Panama Canal Record. Transits for the first year numbered 1,317; net tonnage was 4, .596, 644 tons; gross tonnage was 6,494,673 tons; tolls totaled $,5,216,149.26. 25 }J_eari ^g,o A FIRE IN Panama City-in a 3-story tenement building— left one dead, several injured, and damages running into the thousands of dollars. Movie star Errol Flynn arrived in the Zone en route to Texas from South America, where he made a study of the life of Simon Bolivar, whom he was to portray in an MGM movie. Flynn left his role as a film hero momentarily to urge more "home" participation and aid in the current war. He then sent $1,000 to the Red Cross for War Relief. Fifteen "enemy" bombers launched a surprise attack on the Canal from the Caribbean in a practice alert to test the speed and efficiency of defense units here. Some of the planes were from Guantanamo, Cuba, and others came from Coco Solo. Col. Glen E. Edgerton was named Governor of the Canal Zone by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to succeed Brig. Gen. Clarence S. Ridley, who resigned. Colonel Edgerton took the oath of office Julv 11. Canal Zone and Panama residents were temporarily alarmed by the rumor that an explosion had destroyed much of Pedro Miguel Locks and had taken a great number of lives. The false rumor was in\estigated, but the origin of the tale was not discovered. iO ij^eard c4go ALL THE COMMUNITIES of the Canal Zone, both civilian and military, and the cities of Panama and Colon joined in the first Isthmian-wide Civil Defense test since World War II, June 15. The veteran 250-ton floating crane U.S. A/ax, which had been in Canal service for 40 years, was offered for sale by the Panama Canal. Among the jobs handled by the Aiax were raising sunken vessels and loading and unloading equipment. Canal Zone residents, in an appeal issued by President Eisenhower and echoed by Governor Seybold, did their bit to help flood victims of hurricane Diane in the eastern section of the United States. No formal solicitation for flood relief funds was made, but several donations were sent by Canal Zone residents. One yiear cAg.o THE FINAL WAGE increase in the three-step, $30 million Canal Zone wage rate changes (Canal Zone Wage Adjustment Policy) went into effect July 5. The Panama Canal celebrated its 50th anniversary August 1.5— a half-century of service to ships of the world. Medallions, a special stamp issue, a book on the history of the Canal, and various ceremonies here and in the United States helped mark the Golden Anniversary of this world wonder. Col. Harry D. Offutt, Jr., arrived on the Zone to assume his new duties as Director of Gorgas Hospital. Colonel Offutt succeeded Col. Edward Sigerfoos. Also lea\ing the Zone was Col. Robert J. Kamish, Health Director. Replacing Colonel Kamish was Col. Roosevelt Cafarelli. A class of 18 Panama Canal apprentices graduated to full journeyman status. Fifteen members of the group were Panamanians, three were Americans. Although the Canal Zone has undergone appearance changes since the Canal opened, a few sites have kept their original look. Such a place is the Administration Building at Balboa Heights. Above is an unusual (for the times) photograph taken on a night in June 1915. Note the tiny palm trees, under each row of Hghts, which have grown into the dominating beauties of the Prado today. The Panama Canal Review 21

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WHEN MAN AND SHIP WERE ONE (Continued from p. 16) by ill-luck, in that she always required extensixe repaiis. But this did not squelch her perseverance for making the headlines, as she experienced many more moments of glory. The vessel started for the Pacific coast July 19, 1915, but defects in machinery delajed her departure for Seattle until January 1917. She arrived in Seattle on April 23, 1917, after a delay at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, because of the international situation, and at Balboa, C.Z., where she was drydocked 3 weeks for further repairs. On July 7, 1917, she left for her first trip to the Far North since her days with Peary. Her destination: the desolate Pribilof Islands— Unalaska. In May 1918 diphtheria broke out among the crew, requiring her return to Unalaska for quarantine. While there a nmnber of ships were trapped in a sudden freezing of the Bering Sea. The Roosevelt crushed her way through to the rescue, clearing an ice-free path for the St. \icholas. Centennial, and Star of Chile. She rescued 21 persons of the wrecked Tacoma from an iceberg. It was estimated that the St. Nicholas could not have survived another 12 hoins; she had more than 300 people aboard. The Centennial, with 161 aboard, might have lasted another week. The Roosevelt was heralded and lauded across the nation. From June 1918 to January 1919, the Roosevelt shuttled freight between Seattle. Unalaska, and the Pribilofs, St. George, and St. Paul Islands. In January 1919, the Roosevelt needed repairs amounting to a \irtual rebuilding. She was condemned in June 1919, and her certificate of seaworthiness lifted. She was sold several times and finally was rebuilt and then redocumented by the Steamlx)at Inspection Service. In June 1923 she went to work again. As a result of the conversion to a tug, the original steering wheel of the Roo.vevclt can be seen in the Seattle Museum of History. While she was towing 2 barges of lumber between Puget Sound and Miami in 1926, she lost her rudder in the Pacific. She drifted for days. Final!)• she was spotted and towed into Balboa by the Panama Canal tug U.S. The Roosevelt ended its brilliant career on the salt mud flats of Cristobal harbor. Tavcnnlla. During Christmas, 1931, 7 hours after she was reported lost in one of the v\-orst storms off the Nortli Pacific Coast in many years, the Roosevelt crept into the shelter of Neah Bay, Wash. Her radio shack had been crumpled and flooded by pounding seas. She had been trying to bring in the schooner Commodore, winner of the sailing ship race from Hawaii, when she nearly foundered. Her master at the time, Capt. Russel Davis, said "She had to be staunch to ride out a storm like that. It was the worst I ever saw." On May 22, 1936, she was inspected by the Steamboat Inspection Service Her license was not renewed. And she was sold to the California Towing Co. On October 31, 1936, the Roosevelt left Seattle towing a former Navy collier to New York. A leaking condenser and loss of high pressure packing put her into San Francisco for 3 days for repairs. Perhaps on the evening of December 8, 1936, the Roosevelt was telling her captain that the end was near. The chief engineer notified the bridge that he had to stop the engine. The captain told the chief to keep the engine going if possible. The Roosevelt \aliantl\' responded and labored into Balboa, C.Z., on December 12. She was repaired at the Balboa shops, transited the Canal on the 23d, and left Cristobal on the 24th. At 7 p.m. the chief engineer reported to the captain that the bilges were full of oil from a leaking tank. Due to the fire risk, the captain decided to return to Cristobal. After repair work the Roosevelt left Cristobal on January 8, 1937. On January 14 thiRoos'^v(^lt's log entry read: "12:00 noon, ship going astern— could not handle Jason so decided to return to Cristobal." But the going was rough and help was needed. On January 15, 1937, Captain Rowe of the tug U.S. Taven^illa received an order "to proceed to pick up the hulk Jason, under tow of the Roosevelt." The Tavernilla picked up the Roosevelt and Jason early on the 16th. The Tavernilla was pitching and rolling violently. For the Roosevelt, handicapped by a tow, matters could not have been worse. Seas were too rough to allow the Tavernilla to relieve the Roosevelt of its tow. The Tavernilla, after obtaining a release, was ordered to return to Cristobal. She arrived near midnight on the 16th, and was followed in by the Roosevelt and Jason on the morning of the 17th. The Roosevelt was leaking badlv, her forward topmast was felled and the booms had been carried away during her pitching in hea\'v seas, but she had returned her charge to port safely. On the 20th she was taken to Mt. Hope Shipyard for repairs. However, these were never accomplished, and the vessel was ordered beached on a mud bank of the old French Canal to keep it from sinking at dockside. The date ^as January' 21, 1937. Her final heading was exactly due South; she had passed the zenith of her career and, like Peary, she knew. A gallant effort was made by Mrs. Stafford, through the American Consul in Colon, Republic of Panama, to have (he Roosevelt saKaged and refitted for a museum. But the Roo.sevclt was too far gone. What connection may be between the ship Roosevelt, the man Theodore Roosevelt, her namesake, and their mutual afinitv for the Panama Canal is conjectural, but it is safe to conclude that the\', along with Pearv, were Americans of a type who persisted in their duty to the end. 22 August 1965

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Where Solidarity Besan In an era of many strong international ties between nations, we seldom look back on the attempts at unification which failed. An effort was made here in 1826 by the Venezuela patriot Simon Bolivar and Latin American diplomats to form a Pan American Union. Though unsuccessful at the time, the Congress of Panama, held in a small conference hall next to San Francisco Church in Panama's Simon Bolivar Plaza, laid the groundwork for the strong hemispheric alliance in the Americas today. The statue at the left was dedicated in 1926 in commemoration of the centennial of the month-long conference. Topped by a giant condor, it proclaims Bolivar the "Liberator of America." The Panama Canal Review 23

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