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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
P 4N-M"A CAN L
hke A otta Ranck
Vol. 15, No. 5
ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-President A A& C
DAVI S. PARKER, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Offiter
Nio V man VV
Official Panama Canal Publication
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
ICHARD D. PEACOCK and JULIO E. BRICERO
EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
ToMAs A. CUPAs
c4bout Our Cover
THE PASTORAL SCENE on the cover was taken from
the veranda of the main house atop a hill on the ranch
of the Motta brothers.
From this vista, the vast ranch spreads out in all direc-
tions. As far as one can see, the land is Motta land, and
one can see the distant
dots and clusters of brown
and red and white cattle-
Cattle from the ranch .
supply meat to the market
in Panama City, so the next
time you cut into a steak or
roast, there is a good pos-
sibility that it was devel-
oped on the Motta Ranch.
Raising cattle is becom-
ing more scientific each
year. It's not simply turn-
ing an animal out to graze
and packing him off to
market when he's grown. Dinnertime at the Motta Ranch.
To stay in business, experienced management is needed.
And in the case of a huge ranch, the complexities are
multiplied. But apparently the Motta brothers have the
right touch, because the big place runs along very
monthlyy. And then when problems develop, the experi-
ence of many years in ranching is called upon to solve
Later in the year, THE REVIEW will carry a story on the
cattle industry in the entire Republic. But for a close
look at how a large, modern ranch in Panama operates,
turn to page 4.
Twin Pilots__-- ------------- 3
The Motta Ranch _-_-____------- 4
Easter in Panama----- 7
Port of Los Angeles_--- ----_- 8
The Boquete Orange -------------- --- 10
Shipping Charts------ 12
Notes on Shipping -- ---------------- 12
Journey Into Past'------- 14
All About Cargo Containen -- ----------- 16
Playwright Recognized ----- 17
The Father Cooper Story ---- 18
Pedro Miguel Slide ------ 19
Shipping Story, Quarterly Graph ----------- 20
Canal History-------------- 21
Oldest Stamps ---------------------- 22
50th Anniversary Stamps ____-_- 22
Those who are not employees of the Panama Canal
organization can now subscribe to the Spillway.
Though it's still free to all PanCanal employees,
others may receive the weekly publication under a
subscription arrangement. The cost is $2.60 a year.
This includes mailing-by regular mail-to anywhere
in the world.
Checks for subscriptions should be made to "The
Panama Canal Company" and may be sent by letter to:
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.
Be sure to include the clearly printed name and
address of the person to whom the Spillway is to
Cash for subscriptions will be accepted during office
hours at the desk of the Property and Supply Clerk,
Administrative Services Division, Room 14, in the
basement of the Administration Building at Balboa
2 MAY 1965
r s `sc:
Twin Brothers Have Twin Careers
As Pilots For The Panama Canal
TWO SHIPS with the same pilot aboard
at the same time? You're right. It
He may look like the same pilot in
two different places but there really are
two of them-identical twin Panama
Canal Pilots Albert L. Wilder and Arthur
"I'm the original," explains Capt.
Albert Wilder. "Arthur's the twin kid
brother. He's a half-hour younger."
Occasionally the twin Panama Canal
pilots are on the same ship, and both
are qualified for supersize ships. But
they say there's no confusion. The ship's
captain usually looks only to see if
there's a pilot aboard, according to the
Arthur, the half-hour younger brother,
is senior to Albert in Panama Canal
service by about a year. He was skipper
on a Farrell Line vessel when he became
interested in a Panama Canal employ-
ment application form a passenger was
working on. He borrowed a form and
sent in his application, too. He joined
the Panama Canal organization in
1951. Albert followed him to Canal
employment the next year.
They were born in Dorchester, Mass.,
and grew up in Mexico, Texas, and
Massachusetts. They attended the Mas-
sachusetts Nautical School, and while
on the school ship took pity on their
puzzled classmates and were tattooed
"for easier identification." The work was
done at Norfolk, Va., by Artist Coleman,
who is represented in the maritime
museum exhibit at Newport News. The
announcement of their tattooing was
greeted with huzzahs by their shipmates
who never knew whether they were
talking to Albert or Arthur. But the
tattooes were of no use for identifying
the twins-Albert and Arthur had iden-
tical nautical tattooes on identical arms.
The two brothers served as able sea-
men on the same ship, but their sub-
sequent promotions ran close together
and prevented them from later serving
During World War II they were on
different ships in the same convoy.
Arthur's ship was torpedoed one day.
Albert's went down the next. One was
picked up by a rescue ship; the other
by a tanker. Both met again in a Russian
camp in the timber town of Archangel.
Since high school days they had enter-
tained with guitar, mandolin, and
acrobatic acts. Their instruments were
replaced in Russia, and some of their
songs were recorded and later rebroad-
cast over Moscow stations.
Then one day, after several wartime
months and no word from the twins,
they appeared back at their homes in
the States, mandolin and guitar in hand,
ready for a day of reminiscent music-
They take adventure in their stride.
Arthur's wedding date was postponed
by a torpedoing, his wife recalls. He
was due home in March to be married,
but his vessel was hit in the Caribbean
and went down. By one of those strange
quirks of fate, the German submarine
that had torpedoed his vessel picked
him up and put him on a raft, from
which he was rescued a few days later.
The wedding took place in April.
The wartime adventures of the twin
brothers enthralled States' magazines.
Look called upon Arthur. Some of
Albert's war experiences were related
in a feature in the September 1959 issue
of True magazine.
Both worked for the Farrell Lines for
8 years, traveling between New York
and South Africa. Both served 6 years
as captain. Albert was master of the
second ship ever to dock in the port of
Captain Albert and Captain Arthur
Wilder live in Margarita, about 5 min-
utes' walk from one another.
Albert has three daughters and one
son: Alberta, Joanne, Penny, and Tom.
Arthur has two sons, Larry and David.
Albert is active in Masonic work and
is Senior Warden in the Sojourners'
Lodge, Cristobal. He plays golf, and is
a do-it-yourself man about the house.
He has ingeniously air conditioned his
home, building his own plant; he's
expert at refinishing, practically remark-
ing pieces of furniture, and the trans-
mission of his car holds no mysteries
for him. He also is manager of the Coca
Cola Little League and is owned by a
boxer dog named Cali.
Arthur is strictly a boat man, and
always seems to be building a new one.
He's built four boats since residing on
the Isthmus, and now is putting the
finishing touches on a catamaran,
which is just about ready to be put into
GUESS WHO? TATTOOS ARE NO HELP in identifying identical twin Panama Canal
Pilots Albert L. Wilder and Arthur T. Wilder. Each has the same tattoo in the same place
on the same arm. That's Capt. Albert Wilder on the left and Capt. Arthur Wilder, right.
Or is it the other way around? This is a photo of the twins when they were in Nautical School.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
RANCHING IS BIG BUSINESS ON
TREMENDOUS MOTTA SPREAD
IN SOUTHEASTERN Chiriqui Prov-
itace, where the green hills roll gentl'.
toward the Pacific Ocean, the vast
Motta Ranch spreads over 22,000 acres
of the best cattle land in the Republic
If it has to do with making good beef,
you'll find it here. There is a breeding
herd, thousands of fat steers, a national .
...m.ed champion bull and a champion
, ..linI a scientific program of expe- "
upon. All the land is planted in cultivat-
ed u.,j, a of several varieties, and over
the landscape there are 13,000 of the
finest cattle in the Republic of Panama.
Owners of the ranch-a $2,500,000
investment-are the Motta brothers:
Jorge, Felipe, Roberto, Alberto, and
Arturo. They also have various other
business interests in Panama. They have
owned the ranch for 17 years, constant-
ly imprn, i;nq the land, equipment, build-
ings and introducing the latest features
of good management.
Running a ranch of this size isn't easy.
The movie image of cowboys and vil-
lians, fair maidens in distress, and the
hero sitting around the campfire play-
ing a .1.itar in the evening may be good A vaquero on the Told section of the Motta Ranch.
entertainment, but on the modern ranch
it's pure fiction.
The work force on the Motta spread,
including about 20 cowboys, is headed
by Porfirio Saldafia, a hardy man of
many talents. Saldafia has a degree in -:
agriculture, administrative ability, a
knowledge of cattle, and the experience
and know-how that keeps the giant and
far fluiri ranch running smoothly and
, ffut ,llltl. He's up early. He may go
to the airport in David, where register-
ed animals purchased from ranches in
the United States are delivered by tran-
sport plane. Or, he may climb into his -
jeep at dawn, drininL around to give
orders for the day's work.
And Saldafia has a lot of territory to
cover on a ranch where you can drive W
for half an hour in one direction and
,rmI be on the ranch.
'1T ., r, .t., is actually divided into "-
four areas: Antioquia, Rosario, Santa -
Lucia, and Told. Each has a foreman,
who lives with his f.mil', at the head-
quarters house in his section. This way,
the lJiul, operation is broken down into Grand Champion Bull at the Motta Ranch.
P~2''; ; ~ '
This was an uncooperative bull. He charged about, pulling four men. But he tired, and after a few angry snorts he was penned.
Scenes such as this are common on the rich grassland of the Motta Ranch near Remedios.
areas that can be managed more easily.
A foreman is responsible for the cattle
assigned to his area. The TolB area-
so named because it is adjacent to the
town of TolI 17 miles from the main
ranch-is about 2,500 acres. About
1,500 steers graze here.
The ranch employs about 60 people
full time, and another 200 for about
8 months of the year. There are me-
chanics, carpenters, tractor drivers, stable
hands, guards, general help, and, of
course, the cowboys. Assistant to Sal-
dafia is Behring Centeno, who, as sec-
ond in command, finds much to keep
There are many things to be checked;
foremen must be seen, records must be
kept, cattle branded, sold, rounded up,
fed and accounted for. There is a car-
penter shop, and a garage where com-
plete overhaul of machinery and vehi-
cles is done. A headquarters building
has a complete store of animal med-
icines, vaccines, vitamins, and minerals
that are administered to cattle.
The ranch even has its own port-on
the Santa Lucia River 3 miles inland
from the Pacific Ocean-where 500 cat-
tle were shipped to Per6 this past win-
ter. And within view of the Inter-Amer-
ican Highway a new building is under
construction. It will be a new head-
quarters for the cowboys and will also
serve as a pickup and delivery station
for the entire ranch.
The ranch grows a few acres of sugar
cane, as feed for cattle in the dry season.
Also, it has about 5,000 coconut trees.
These furnish oil, which is sold in Pan-
ama City, but on a small scale. And,
mainly for its own use, the ranch keeps
a herd of about 200 horses.
The business end of ranching is
in selling cattle. Not all are sold for
slaughter. The herd is divided about
evenly between breeding animals and
steers. The ranch sells about 3,000 head
of beef cattle a year, plus about 600
cows that are no longer usable for re-
production; and about 100 breeding
bulls are sold to other cattlemen in Pan-
ama. Some heifers and breeding bulls
(See p. 6)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(Continued from p. 5)
have been sold to cattlemen in Vene-
zuela. The Motta Ranch belongs to the
American Brahma Breeders Association.
This means that the stock is inspected
annually and approved by the associa-
.tion. Most of the herd is Brahma, with
some Santa Gertrudis.
Through the artificial insemination
program, the ranch is producing some
Charolais and Red Angus. About 500
animals are now involved in this new
program, under the direction of Rolan-
do Miranda, who was trained in the
United States especially for this work.
The purpose of the breeding program
of good quality beef, an animal that
.. . .will mature to a market weight faster,
that takes the climate well and pre-
sents a minimum disease problem. The
program is in its first year and the re-
sults, hopefully, will point the way to
# ~> 7'-an improved breed of cattle for Panama.
Nearly surrounding the town of Re-
Bulls are washed and brushed in preparation for a field day at the ranch medios, the ranch actually resembles
a small town in its operation. Many
.. people are dependent upon it for a live-
hood, so it is an important economic
factor in the area. Truck loads of Motta
cattle roll into Panama City each week,
helping to supply the great population
center of the Republic with meat.
And quite aside from its economics,
4 the ranch is a very beautiful place.
The Spanish-style, red-roofed houses
that cluster at the top of the hill near
the main entrance seem right for the
hill and valley country. The distant hills
are tinged with pastel pink and blue
mists in the late afternoon. And rolling
away from every rise are verdant pas-
tures of Indiana, Para, Jujuca and Pan-
gola gia .s. From the nearby Pacific,
a breeze sweeps through the grasses.
Cattle graze contentedly.
There is every reason theN should.
Because today this is the finest home in
the Republic for cattle, a ranch match-
ed 1,% few others in its advanced oper-
ation and aspirations for improvement
Repairing a truck at the garage on the Motta ranch, in the future.
HOLY WEEK, observed in Panama
with deep religious devotion and absti-
nence, is also characterized by an ex-
odus of the residents of Panama City
to the towns in the interior. Thus, Holy
Week is interwoven with memories of
childhood days since each one heads for
the town of his birth.
The ceremony of washing of the feet
takes place on Maundy Thursday after-
noon, when the village priest washes the
feet of 12 poor people in solemn re-
enactment of the ceremony when Jesus
washed the feet of the 12 Apostles
before the Last Supper.
During the night, the Holy Sacrament
remains on an altar that is artistically
decorated. This altar is known as the
Monument and each town endeavors to
have the best one. Special mention
should be made of Penonome, where
the cibary-the place where the con-
secrated host is kept-is in the form of
a large pelican of hammered silver, and
Nata, whose cibary is in the form of a
great palm tree of pure silver that dates
back to colonial times. The people, dur-
ing this night, visit the monuments in
the churches of the nearby towns.
There are many people who seriously
believe that those who bathe on Good
Friday will turn into fish. Others stone
anyone who ventures to mount a horse.
In Pes6, Herrera Province, on Good
Friday morning the farm people begin
to arrive from the nearby mountains,
laden with white and purple wild
flowers to adorn the village churches.
Humble folk, they contribute the only
gift they have: the wild flowers.
At mid-day, in the Church, the priest
gives the Sermon of the Seven Words.
The sermon ends at 3 p.m., the hour
that Jesus died.
A solemn procession, at night, known
in some areas as the procession "of the
Holy Sepulchre" (the most famous takes
place in the Villa de Los Santos) and
in others as the procession "of Silence"
because all participants must maintain
deep silence, is participated in solely
by men, although some women rep-
resent those who accompanied Jesus on
the road to Calvary.
Saturday is devoted to paying rever-
ence to the Mother of Jesus in her hours
Scenes like this in Panama City can be seen throughout the Republic during Holy Week.
Catholics carry an image of Christ bearing the cross.
Worshippers follow the Sacred Sepulchre during an Easter procession in Anton.
of solitude after the death of her Son.
The procession on this day is only for
women. All the women of the town par-
ticipate, leaving the church at 9 p.m.
Each woman carries a lighted candle,
and as the procession passes one hears
the sound of house doors being closed
by the men so that no one may see them.
The sorrow and abstinence of Holy
Week ends at midnight Saturday, when
midnight mass is held and church bells
ring happily, announcing the Resurrec-
tion of Christ. With the sound of the
church bells, dances start in all the
towns and even in the little farmhouses
scattered in the countryside. This cele-
bration continues until dawn Easter
Monday when the farm people, tired
after the celebration, start on their home-
ward trek up the mountain roads to
their farms to resume their agricultural
labors for another year.
Panama City is practically deserted
during Holy Week. The first sign that
Holy Week has ended is noted after
Easter Sunday noon, when the first
cars of an enormous caravan herald the
return from the interior of Panama.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The new Vincent Thomas Bridge connecting the San Pedro mainland with the Terminal Island District is seen in this airview of a
portion of the Port of Los Angeles' Inner Harbor. The proposed $30 million Los Angeles World Trade Center and the $5 million
U.S. Customhouse will be located near the bridge approach. In the center foreground is the new Consolidated Marine Terminal.
Los Angeles: Big, and Growing!
The port of Los Angeles, serving an
increasingly vital role in world trade,
currently is experiencing the most dy-
namic period of growth in its history.
The port has been dredged, molded,
expanded, and reshaped through man's
efforts and bears little resemblance to
the area discovered 423 years ago by
Juan Rodriguez C.ihrnllr and named
San Pedro Bay. Work at the port of Los
Angeles has added new land area, new
terminals, and wider and deeper water-
ways. It has produced for the people
of Los Angeles a municipally owned
and operated facility worth nearly
$200 million. For world commerce, it
provides a modern and 'Ir.iratic gate-
way to the vast American market.
A 5-year, $40 million expansion pro-
gram was begun by the port of Los An-
geles in 1960 to keep abreast of the
demands of growing world trade.
Completed facilities include a $16
million combination passenger-cargo
terminal on a 50-acre site on the har-
bor's main channel, and two clear-span
cargo sheds-one in the outer harbor
and the other in the west basin-rep-
resenting a total investment of more
than $10 million.
West basin dredging opened the
entire water area to oceangoing vessels
and allowed commercial development,
and also provided fill material for
90 acres of new land on the south side
of Terminal Island, which will be the
site of a dozen new shipping terminals.
Other dredging in the outer harbor in-
creased the depth of the supertanker
fairway from 46 to 51 feet, providing
free and unrestricted movement of these
huge vessels to their special off-loading
The Vincent Thomas Bridge, a $22
million State highway department pro-
ject to which the harbor department
contributed $1 million in cash and
$2,500,000 worth of right-of-way, pro-
vides a direct route across the harbor's
main channel from the San Pedro main-
land to Terminal Island, and easy ac-
cess to the area for hundreds of dock
and cannery workers. The graceful
span opened the way to full-scale
This $5 million cargo shed is another new addition at the Port of Los
Angeles. Shipping lines using the terminal will link Los Angeles with Japan,
Hong Kong, Northern Europe, Mexico, Central and South America.
development of Terminal Island, the
harbor's "last frontier."
Additional impetus has been given -
harbor development by a substantial
increase in shipping activity. Already l"
underway is work on a 3,550-foot-long p" ...'
wharf near the Vincent Thomas Bridge .
on the Terminal Island side of the
harbor's main channel. The wharf will ':* :
serve as a new international shipping
terminal, an $8 million complex of two
clear-span cargo sheds, a warehouse,
and a million feet of paved open area.
Major projects to further improve
shipping services at Los Angeles Harbor
include a $4,500,000 bulk-loading fa-
cility, which will handle at least 1 mil-
lion long tons of iron ore and iron ore
pellets each year, as well as potash,
phosphate, coke, and other dry bulk
cargo; Cabrillo Beach Marina, a $6 mil-
lion development with about 1,800 slips
for small craft; and new Catalina Ter-
minal, a $600,000 facility which will
combine seaplane, water taxi, and
SS Catalina steamship service.
An administration building, compris-
ed of two buildings at the site of the
present ferry building on the San Pedro
mainland, represents an investment of
$2,900,000 in harbor facilities.
Another new facility will be a 32,000-
square-foot freezer-storage building for
incoming cargoes of frozen meats.
The port of Los Angeles, which one- '
day will be larger by 650 new acres of Los Angeles Harbor's new
land, valued at $250 million and with a 50-acre site on the harbc
Si c c o cargo facilities on the first f
an increased cargo-handling capacity of by ramps, elevators, stairway
150 percent is a vibrant business, cargo shed, whose capacity
Push-botton cargo-handling came to the Port of Los
Angeles with the installation of this container-handling
crane. A single operator (above) loads sealed containers,
each weighing up to 26 tons, aboard a freighter.
$16 million combination passenger-cargo terminal occupies
>r's main channel. The combination building (foreground) has
oor and passenger accommodations on the second level, reached
ays and escalators. A second major structure (background) is a
Sis 35,000 tons of cargo. Five ships can be worked at once.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The Boquete Orange:
How It All Began
THE I'I['OY OF the Boquete orange and its journey to
Boquete by way of Brazil, \\.,hilIIni. D.C., and California
in tho last years of the 1Ith century is one of the interesting
accounts in the history of Panama.
A careful job of research by Julius Grigore, Jr., Assistant
Chief of the Panama Canal Industrial Division, has turned up
some ini, ,lini,. information on the origin and development
of this delicious fruit.
The first trees were ordered from California by J. R. Thomas,
who had come to the Boquete area to manage one of the
first coffee plantations, now the Sandberg coffee finca near
Boquete. Julia H. Monniche, of Austin, Tex., and formerly
a Canal Zone and Boquete resident, relates the story, which
is supported in a joint statement by A. O. Sandberg, Jr., and
David T. Sasse, both of Boquete.
Although the trees were ordered by Thomas, it was Frank
Tedman who was responsible for their survival. Travel was
difficult in l1 'Jl and delivery of the trees required some time.
Thomas threw them out in disgust, for they all appeared to
be dead. Tedman, a neighbor, was present and inspected the
trees. He thought two might live, so Thomas told him to take
them, Mrs. Monniche relates. Tedman kept them alive, and
from this stock-Mrs. Monniche isn't sure whether one or both
survived-came all the navel oranges in Boquete.
Another account-the 1934 Annual Report of the Canal
Zone Experimental Gardens-says that Tedman brought bud-
,liL- of the Washington navel orange to Boquete from Cali-
fornia. And an obituary of William Joseph "Pop" \\ eight.
a construction day worker on the Canal, states that he intro-
duced the navel ii .mi.- to Boquete. But Mrs. Frank L. Corey,
Mr. W\iJiilrs ld.,iilihtr, of San Antonio, Tex., writes that
Mr. Wright came to Panama in 1910, worked on the Canal
for 3 years, and went to Boquete in 1914 for his health.
These dates preclude the possibility that he first brought the
Invel ..11i.ll' to Panama.
Mr. Sasse went to Boquete in 1912 on a vacation from the
Canal Zone. Tedman told him about his orange tree and
about his inability to graft more trees. Sasse, who had expe-
rience in i,.,linii went to Tedman's farm and saw the only
remaining I Ilt riiiI navel orange tree. From this full-grown
tree, he successfully Lr.rfti l several young native orange trees.
On his second Boquete \ iil. Sasse stayed at Pop Wright's
hotel in Boquete, and Wright complained to Sasse that he
had no luck in .I llin I navel orange trees from the Tedman
stock. Sasse showed \'richi how to graft and W\\itht started
a .1 "
According to A. O. Sandberg, Jr., it was about 1930 when
his father saw that improved transportation and communica-
tion riiade it possible to develop the navel orange on a com-
mercial basis. lie then started the first commercial orange
1!,, '. in the hit" I,. area.
But where did the navel ,i in,,, of California originate?
I' 1 .il1 in N ..il . i. I, r1.1 i. 1 i ,'s research. The early
l'..i ..1 .... :..i i 1, mli ., .I t, %I th sweet .iit.,,e to Brazil
The first Washington navel orange tree in California is shown behind
the plaque in the foreground. The site is Riverside, Calif. The plaque
is in honor of Mrs. Eliza Tibbets for introducing the orange to
California. The plaque states that this proved "the most valuable
fruit introduction yet made by the U.S. Department of Agriculture."
A scene near Boquete. These are newly planted orange groves.
in the late 16th century. But it was not until 1870 that the
Bahia navel orange was introduced to the United States.
William Saunders, at the time the Botanist and Superintendent
of Horticulture at the U.S. Patent (,Of e took notice of the
Bahia navel or.iiLac when a woman missionary worker in
Brazil wrote from Bahia, dt h ribiii a fine, seedless orange
that grew in the area. He wrote to her, and with the help of
Rev. F. F C. Schneider, a Pri.sl.tiii.mi minister in Bahia,
Saunders received 12 trees iIthl tih. B.hlia navel orange
budded to them.
William Saunders, who introduced the
Bahia navel orange to the United States.
This still stands as one of the most
important plant introductions of our era.
Saunders has many accomplishments
to his credit, but the most important is
considered to be the introduction of the
navel orange to the United States. This
orange revolutionized the citrus industry
in California and has generated billions
of dollars in revenue to the economy of
the United States.
In late 1873, two of the surviving
Brazilian orange trees were sent by
Saunders to his friends, Luther C. and
Eliza Tibbets, of Riverside, Calif. The
fruit from these trees attracted attention
at a private meeting of fruitgrowers in
1877, and in 1879 the fruit was awarded
first prize at a Riverside horticultural
fair, winning over navel oranges from
Australia. So far as can be determined,
the entire population of Washington
navel orange groves in California trace
back to the Tibbets trees. This further
supports the contention that the trees
received by Thomas in Boquete prob-
ably came from original Riverside trees.
The fame and use of the orange
spread and it became known as the Tib-
bets navel orange, then as the Washing-
ton-i-RR iiide navel orange. It is said
that Eliza Tibbets was proud that the
trees were sent from Washington, D.C.,
and that Californians were reluctant to
credit the town of Riverside with the
name of the orange. For these two rea-
sons, the fruit became known as the
Washington navel orange. Saunders al-
ways believed that the name Bahia
should have been given to the orange.
How the Washington navel orange
came to be called the Boquete orange
(See p. 21)
First to commercialize on the Boquete orange was A. O. Sandberg, Sr., at right in this 1928
photo. "Pop" Wright has his hand on Mr. Sandberg's shoulder. At left is Mrs. Wright.
The other two men are unidentified in this rare photo taken at Boquete.
Self-made naturalist David T. Sasse, former Canal Zone employee, who in 1912 provided
the skill and knowledge that gave the Boquete navel orange its beginning in that area.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
( \\l CO\I MI R( I \. TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF \ 1 ssl I
I lirinl i irsr. r, h.. i .ir-
British .. --
Chinese \.i. -
Greek .... --
Norwegian t ---
Swedish .- -
All Others. ---
\ miiilr T i. \ nihbri lI,,h
i, l I. f o f .
Iri,1 'it. L .lrc', Irai'It '. .IIL'
12 17,653 16 89751
338 2.233.5115 357 2 2.h3 Ih
21 144 136 33 242.596
22 1,<37 14 7.26h
53 1 86,194 81 82,809
62 281,509 75 435,038
39 170,362 58 233,200
313 910,380 278 851,705
143 1,449,815 148 1,367,307
61 33,195 90 65,178
12 97,945 10 69,494
43 300,004 45 242,216
174 1,010,615 191 1,066,882
297 3,567,833 241 2,654,571
139 525,162 210 813,330
361 3,330,001 400 3,225,705
127 495 819 148 527,688
31 I 1 43' 3 34 1 129,011
20 79,168 20 75,950
26 207,947 9 48,165
92 654,715 119 796,018
21 17,764 24 26,601
356 2,252,501 413 2,484,938
61 370,852 75 377,923
: 24 1) 533 41i1 .3 1s 1'2 -.S7 25
h iiii 'r
% r.i '
M r.s C
.\\ '. r:, .
9 SCHEDULED TO become a regular
2 Canal customer later this year is the
9 36,961-gross-ton Australis, the former
1 U.S. liner America which was sold re-
8 cently to the Greek-owned Chandris
Lines and renamed.
1 The former America is now being re-
5 conditioned extensively in a European
9 shipyard to increase passenger accomo-
1 dations and install air conditioning as
5 well as other features. She will be
2 operated under a Greek flag together
- with the Ellinis, another Chandris Line
: ship which already uses the Canal on
2 the round-the-world voyage from South-
54 ampton via Greece, Australia, and
2 New Zealand. She will carry approx-
imately 2,000 passengers.
MON I ILY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
I i i-
Total, 9 months
1 ,1- 580
7 ,l, ,5,226
Gross tolls o
(In thousands of dollar
TRAFFIC \1()\ I lM NT O\i1 R MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (3
.,,, ,r .... r' ,..-r, i. . in id q r, r It.l r. rl
Third quarter, fiscal ye
United States Intercoastal ....--- ----
East coast of United States and South America ___-
East c o-st of United States and Central America- ---
East tast of it iited States and Far East_ -_ -
United St.ates/C anta east coast rand Australasia- -
Europe .ai d ws est coat of United States Canada -
I Ir '. rmd South Amrrica .- -, -----
I'i..i. i t Australasia .-
A11 il..l r routes ._ ---- _
Total tr.l.. . .. -
The new service adds another chapter
to the history of the well-known Amer-
ica, which was built in Newport News
Sin 1940 for the United States Lines. The
rs) outbreak of war in Europe prevented
her from entering the trans-Atlantic
vTrage service and she was diverted to cruising
is5-ss in the West Indies. When the United
2,432 States entered the war in 1941, she was
2,403 taken as a troopship and renamed the
2,431 West Point. As the cruise liner America
2,559 and as the troop carrier West Point, the
2,545 ship made several transits through the
2,444 Panama Canal. After the war, she was
2,349 returned to her owners and used on a
2,657 single-ship run across the north Atlantic
until the construction of the SS United
States. Last year she was laid up in New
-York for several months following a
22,181 labor dispute.
New Cruise Ships
W net TWO OF THE world's newest luxury
liners will call at the Canal during 1966,
according to advice received by their
ear- agents, C. B. Fenton. They are the
vg. No. Home Lines flagship Oceanic, recently
51i-ss completed in Italy and now on the
146 North Atlantic trade, and the new
445 Kunilishlm.ii presently under construe-
129 tion for the Swedish American Line.
48 The Oceanic, the 12th largest liner
123 afloat, is due in Cristobal in February
95 1966 on a \\',.it Indian cruise. The
333 Kungsholm will arrive October 1966 in
1,773 Cristobal, will transit the Canal and
li1 ,| l. r
If .I 1 11 I d , l,,III I I ll I .11 .1 .1t r o1a1 ,o t' ,'lh- .
dock in Balboa on a round-South Amer-
ica cruise out of New York.
The 774-foot ultramodern Oceanic
has a normal capacity of 1,650 passen-
gers in two classes and a top speed of
27 knots. Her equipment features sta-
bilizers to minimize rolling, a special
bow and stern designed to reduce pitch-
ing, and air conditioning throughout.
She has 18 public rooms, 2 swimming
pools, a chapel, gymnasium, children's
and teenagers' areas and a 2-level
theater with seating capacity for 450
The new vessel being built for the
Swedish American Line to replace the
ship of the same name will accommodate
up to 750 passengers on trans-Atlantic
sailings and 450 while cruising. When
she is delivered to her owners next year,
the present Kungsholm, which made her
first trip through the Canal in 1954 and
her last in April of this year, ill be
transferred to the North German Lloyd
Line and renamed the Bremen.
OFF-SHORE inspections are old hat
with the Canal organization but they
hardly come in the same class as those
made by the Mobile Oil Co. M. L. Levy,
a 186-foot research vessel that transit-
ed the Canal recently after prospecting
for oil off the Mexican eastern shore.
The ship was fitted out in Morgan
City, La., with oil exploration equip-
ment capable of creating a small seis-
mic shake on the ocean floor. Techni-
cians make special recordings of the
earthquake-type shake. These indicate
to the experts just where the likely
spots might be for future oil drilling.
The M. L. Levy, represented by Boyd
Bros., passed south through the Canal
in March and departed for San Pedro,
Calif., via the west coast of Central
Another ship that will be too large to
transit the Panama Canal is the giant
tanker now under construction by the
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan
for Sig. Bergesen of Norway. Believed
to be the world's largest ship, it will be
powered by a 27,600 b. hp. diesel en-
gine, developing a trial speed of 16
knots. Delivery is scheduled for the
end of September 1967. With a draft
of 54.13 feet, it won't be bothering the
normal harbor traffic in world seaports
and with a beam of 158.15, it won't
bother the Panama Canal, either.
PRINCIPAL COMMODE III 4lll'I.I) 1 111(1 (;1 THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Third quarter, fiscal year-
Lumber -__- ___--_-_______
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)----
Wheat -- ------- _----
Sugar ----_ _____________
Canned food products ---------------
Nitrate of soda____ ----_____ _-
Fishmeal -__-__-_____-- ____-
Metals, various--__ -__-__-- __-___-__
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
Iron and steel In.,riufnurres.-
Oilseeds and :Ir...!It,0
All others---- --- ----
Total __ __- ------
Atlantic to Pacific
Sugar - .
Metals, various -__--- __
Coal and coke -- ---- ---
Fertilizer, miscellaneous .___-- ___
Iron and steel manufactures--- ---
Ores, various--- ---------------
Metal, scrap---------_- _------------
Paper and paper products .
Petroleum and prol.t. Ict, ludlei .iph.ilt
Chemicals, unclassified ___
All others --------------
Third quarter, fiscal year-
1965 1964 Average
14'S,72 114.-41 101.508
114 2-5 .C'2,-I S 2.17 3
121,444 137,385 31,882
1,690,666 1,704,659 676,946
141,399 58,245 16,947
671,412 602,821 195,587
332,433 504,110 134,079
90,649 113,436 34,616
347,808 401,581 420,153
549,955 769,756 19,077
265,548 392,704 27,416
218,893 644,261 16,632
q9 223 115,965 88,306
3727 9-2 2,850,421 968,731
176,275 199,618 41,822
1,123,543 1,640,059 1,186,296
9,810,360 10,336,855 4,042,171
CANAL TRNIIl (O\11\1:I( 1\I. AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
Third quarter, fiscal year 1965-
1965 1964 Transits
~~___________ _____~~___ 1951-55
to to Total Total Total
1,380 1,444 2,824 3,089 1,773
64 60 124 156 284
1,444 1,504 2,948 3,245 2,057
U.S. Government vessels: *
0,. .-i-Le,-,;,r .--_-_--- ..-.------ 38 24 62 76 151
-m ill'" -_ -. _-- 9 9 18 27 71
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment -___ -- ------ 1,491 1,537 3,028 3,348 2,279
*Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
"Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
4 bay' J journey )nto Zke Past
"YOU WILL HAVE to have a snorkel
to sec Miraflores now\," said Mrs. Grace
Sanders, a resident of the Canal Zone
since construction days. during the
Isthmian Historical Society's reminiscing
trip on the Panama Canal launch Las
Crruce past former construction days
towns. It was a ,il.Ili, trip for the "Old
Timers" who shared their memories of
Miraflores. she said, was built by the
French to house their laborers. When
the United States took over the Canal
construction. Miraflores continued to be
used as a labor camp. When the locks
were completed and the Canal went
into operation, this choice "lake-floor"
property ceased to be attractive as a
Mrs. Sanders and her husband, who
was a male nurse in construction days,
lived in nearly every old townsite.
Ped,11 MT;' I and Paraiso also date
from Fr, i. i I anal days. The former
served the U.S. construction venture as
the southern roundhouse and marshal-
ling yard for the dirt trains which
worked in the Cut. The French had
their district headquarters and a
machine shop in the latter town. Mrs.
Sanders recalled that during construc-
ti n i,.., Paraiso was the only town
.Ii.I,; the line where the water, which
came from nearby springs, could be
us dl i'i' i out of the faucet without
precautionary boiling. During the con-
struction p-riod, the railroad crossed
from the cast to the west bank on a
trestle at this point. When the water
was let into the Cut, a pontoon bridge
was used for the trains until the tracks
were relocated on the east bank.
Crlebra, the original capital of the
U.S. Canal construction, was a small
lT,-, found by Panama Railroad
surveyors in 1850. Four years later it
enjoyed a brief prosperity as the
southern terminal of the railroad, at
that ,i...' of its construction. The
French us ,d the town when they began
to move dirt out of the Cut, and the
United States made it their construc-
tion capital until 1909 when most of
the hiihliiniS were moved to new loca-
tions at the Pacific end of the Canal.
Bas Obispo, said Mrs. Sanders,
originally was on the trail from Corgona
to Panama. The French began construc-
tion of locks here in 1887 and the
United States housed 1,744 people here
in 1908 when Bas Obispo was a typical
Canal town. It was here, in December
19C8, that 26 lives were lost and a dozen
men were maimed in a premature
Matachin was used by the Chagres
River traffic from very early times, Mrs.
Sanders told her listeners. In 1908 there
were 2 0-42 inhabitants here and the
UI'ited States first planned to locate
the principal locomotive repair shops
at Matachin. The Chagres was diverted
from its channel here and when the
excavation was finished in this area, the
town went into a decline.
- j' -I
. .- ; .
Culebra is no more, but there was once much life in the old town. This is a wedding party in 1913. when the settlement was in its heyday.
1 4 19
This map shows the old towns that were the subject of conversation on the Las Cruces trip.
Morris Seeley, who came to the Isth-
mus in 1907 as a male nurse and whose
work took him to both sides of the
Isthmus, represented the construction
day town of Empire. The name is a
misinterpretation of the original Spanish
name Emperador (Emperor). Before
the opening of the Panama railroad, the
pack trail from Gorgona to Panama
crossed the line of the present Panama
Canal, passing the headwaters of the
Obispo River and through the hills to
the Cruces Trail and Panama. The
"49ers" put up at Empire on their way
across the Isthmus to California. Empire
was the site of the largest French con-
struction town, and it was here that the
French moved the first earth from Cule-
bra Cut in 1882. The United States used
the French shops here to repair their
steamshovels, and Colonel Gaillard and
other officials lived here. A suspension
bridge carrying air hoses, water mains,
and a roadway crossed the Cut at this
Mrs. Winifred Ewing, a substitute
teacher in the construction day town
of Las Cascadas, represented that com-
munity. She recalled that a 40-foot fall
in the Obispo River existed here, giving
the town its name. The French used the
site for a labor camp. In 1908, Las Cas-
cadas was one of the centers of Canal
life and 2,425 people were housed here.
The transportation headquarters of
the Central Division had facilities for
40 locomotives in this town during
Mrs. Mary Cecil Lowe represented
the town of Gorgona and told of her
life as a young wife there in 1906, and
of the sl.,tiv;, of the Woman's Club.
The reputation once enjoyed by Gor-
gona as the wildest town in the Zone
was probably inherited from its long
service as a river port, a French con-
struction camp, and, under the United
States, the largest machine shop on the
(See p. 23)
When Empire was thriving, in 1910, this was the picture of life at the railroad station.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The spreader lowered by the ship's gantry crane clamps onto a cargo container which is about to be loaded aboard a Grace liner at Balboa.
THE FAST WAY!
F IOZE\ PANAMA shrimp on its way
to the New York market; household
ii...1, for a family returning to the
United si.ai general cargo assigned
to an import merchant in Panama or
Ecuador-this is the type of merchan-
dise ri.., licn to and :lriugh the Canal
these days in ( ioi,. containers-those
oversized -liipini-, crates used to trans-
port fi. il ll from door to door via ocean
Containers with the Grace Line trade-
mark of Seatainers have been moving
.,*I and on the Canal Zone piers for
some time and, in the near future, a
somewhat similar operation will be start-
ed here hb the Sea Land Service, Inc.
I I service e, started a few years ago
by Crace Line between New York and
South America and by Sea Land on the
intercoastal trade, tailors two conven-
tional methods of cargo transport into
a unified service by combining the
flh \ilnIIt of trucking service with the
t lhi., i,. and low cost of waterway
The container can be loaded at the
shipper's loading platform, sealed and
transported by trailer to a sea terminal
where it is loaded aboard a container
ship with special high speed shipboard
cranes. At the port of destination, the
container is removed and again tnrcked
to its final destination. Since the method
of shipping is convenient and virtually
eliminates pilfl I.IL'' and damage, it has
become ini .iinicel. popular with ship-
pers. I In 1,i~e ,t segment of Grace
Line freight for South America at pres-
ent moves in containers and about half
of the containers are being placed by
shippers at their own inland plants and
The container operation at work can
be inspected almost any weekend at the
Balboa piers when Grace Line passen-
ger-cargo ships tie up to load and unload
Most of the containers loaded at this
time are 40-foot demountable refrigerat-
ed trailers specifically designed for car-
riage of frozen shrimp from Panama
to New York aboard the Grace Line
Santa Miigtral. na class vessels. Normal-
ly this company ships five to six of
thlse trailers each Saturday on north-
(See p. 23)
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
George H. Logan
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Garnel W. Campbell
Cecil C. Gittens
Service Center Manager
Clifford J. Henry
Sales Section Head
Hugh E. Turner
General Supply Officer
CONST ION U
Walter C. en
Herbert A. liy
Hubert H. Vickers
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Allan B. Forte
Junior High School Teacher,
Latin American Schools
Edward M. Allison
Swimming Pool Operator
Helper Lock Operator
Samuel A. Hoyte
Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
John F. Williams
William A. Cawl
General Supply Assistant
Beresford D. Gittens
Clarence W. Kilbey
Service Center Superintendent
Cleophas M. Brown
Carlton E. McClaren
George E. Shoemaker
Supply Cataloger (General)
MARINE T TT
Robert A. Allan
King Manoah Josiah
Harry E. Townsend
Chief Foreman Machinist (Man
Herbert S. Driscoll
Lee Kariger t
Supervisory Administr services
Elisha A. Bennett
Foreman (Building and Public Works)
Leslie A. Beauchamp
Leader Refrigeration and
Air Conditioning Mechanic
Ernest E. Berger
Instrument Mechanic (Electrical)
Kenneth E. Marcy
Lead Foreman (Quarters Maintenance)
Jeffrey U. Nation
Helper Electronics Mechanic
Herbert St. Louis
David A. Yerkes
Robert M. Baum
Olen A. Dietz
Supervisory Maintenance Engineer
Gog A. Gray
Maintenanceman (Distribution System)
Album A. King
Frank J. McLeod
Water System Controlman
Edward D. Todd
illiam T. ai
Police Pri te
Clarice S. Br an
Teacher ( e entary-L.A. Schools)
yrtle B. re
ck C. S rland
Robert L. Coffey
Michael A. Shan
T. A. Albritton
General Foreman (Roundhouse)
Casmer E. Todd
Spanish Instructor's Plays Bring Fame
A Panama Canal Spanish instructor
has received Latin America-wide rec-
ognition as a play-
wright through a list-
ing in the new cat-
alog of a famous
U.S. book firm.
A volume contain-
ing two plays of
Carlos M. Garcia
de Paredes, senior
Spanish instructor in
the Personnel Bu-
Utilization and De-
C. G.de Paredes velopment Staff, is
listed by Stechert-
Hafner, Inc., of New York. The firm is
probably the most famous book dealer
in the United States, from a scholarly
point of view. The catalog lists recent
Latin American literature by country,
and Mr. Garcia de Paredes' book, "El
Minotauro," is among 20 entries for
Both of the book's plays are set in
the recent past and reflect aspects of
current political and social mores. The
first play, from which the book takes
its title, is patterned on the ancient
Greek Minotaur myth but is a modern
story of a cycle in the lives of a local
political hanger-on and his mistress. A
one-act play, it was written in 1957 and
won for its author a second prize in the
Ricardo A. Mir6 national literary con-
test of Panama. The prize consisted of
$500, a gold medal, and a certificate.
The play has been staged in Panama
City, in Chitre, and in Mexico.
The second play, "Qu6 Angosta es la
Puerta" (How Narrow the Door), writ-
ten a few months after the first, also
was staged in Panama and Chitr6. It
tells the story of a socialite's visit to a
schoolteacher whom she has selected
for an experiment in love.
Too recent to be listed is another play
published in "Estudios," a magazine in
book form which appears twice a year,
published by the Instituto Nacional.
This play, entitled "La Otra Cara del
Sol" (The Other Face of the Sun), is
a two-act, six-scene story of the diffi-
culties of a man ruined in health and
wealth by the "Thousand Days' War,"
the civil conflict that shook the Isthmus
of Panama during the final years of
the 19th century.
The author has an unpublished book
of poems which won the third prize in
the Ricardo Mir6 contest in 1963 and
also an unpublished three-act play
which he is now polishing. In addition
he has been working for some years,
off and on, on a novel which has been
rewritten three times and is still un-
(See p. 23)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
His Life Spanned
Century of Faith
FUNERAL SERVICES for a man who had dedicated most
of his 102 years to the service of the church were held
March 16 in a church which is observing its 100th anniversary
The man was the late Venerable Archdeacon Edward J.
Cooper, who died March 10 in Guatemala. The church is
the historical Christ Church By-the-Sea, built in 1864 by the
old Panama Railroad Company and dedicated June 15, 1865.
If he had lived a few weeks longer, it would have been
possible for Father Cooper to celebrate his 103d birthday in
conjunction with centennial services planned this year for
the church where he served 34 years as rector. He had been
rector emeritus since his retirement in 1941.
Both Father Cooper and the church he directed so many
years had long and distinguished histories. The handsome
church by the sea in Colon is the second oldest non-Roman
church in Central America and was owned by the Mother
Church of the Isthmian Mission established in 1853 under
the jurisdiction of the Church of England.
It escaped being destroyed by a fire which swept Colon
in 1884 and a rebellion in 1885. But it was used for 6 months
in 1885 as a barracks and stable by the Colombian Army.
It was rededicated in December of that year and regular
services have been held there ever since.
Father Cooper, a naturalized U.S. citizen and a graduate
of the General Theological Seminary in New York, came to
Panama in 1907, the same year that the church and other
Episcopal missions here were transferred from the Church
of England to the jurisdiction of the Protestant Episcopal
Church of America.
He was appointed rector and also served as chaplain of the
Isthmian Canal Commission, working with General Goethals
and other builders of the Panama Canal. Under his ministry,
the church prospered and he was appointed Archdeacon of
Colon in the Episcopal Church in 1931. Among the many
tributes to him there is the Father Cooper Memorial Hall or
annex to the church built by Dr. and Mrs. Harry Eno, of Colon.
After his retirement in 1941, Father Cooper went to live
in Guatemala but he retained the title of rector emeritus of
Christ Church By-the-Sea. One of his successors as rector was
the Rev. Mainert J. Peterson who later became Archdeacon
of Colon and is presently Dean of the Cathedral of St. Luke
Despite its 100 years, the sturdy stone church building has
remained in surprisingly good condition. Repairs and improve-
ments have been made in recent years and rectory was built.
The roof was renewed at the cost of $18,000 and the deterio-
rated slate replaced by native tile. Care always has been
taken to preserve the old design of the original woodwork
Father Cooper also remained in good health up until his
final brief illness. He returned to the Isthmus at regular inter-
vals to see old friends and conduct services in his old church.
He observed his 100th birthday with communion services
therr- and returned for the dedication of Stevens' Circle in
Balboa and the opening of Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
He remarked at one time that he hoped to live forever.
He couldn't manage that, but his life span certainly exceeded
the four score and seven allowed most men.
The Venerable Archdeacon Edward J. Cooper, shown with Gov.
Robert J. Fleming, Jr., when he made a courtesy call on the
Governor in observance of his 100th birthday. At right is Albert
Spaulding, who acted as Father Cooper's secretary and acolyte.
The historical Christ Church-By-The-Sea in Colon, where Father
E. J. Cooper was rector for 34 years and rector emeritus after
his retirement. It was built in 1864 and dedicated June 15, 1865.
To Cut Costs
Of Slide Work
THE PANAMA CANAL'S Engineering
and Construction Bureau took full
advantage of several fortunate circum-
stances that existed because of the lo-
cation of the Cartagena slide, just north
of Pedro Miguel locks, and saved the
Panama Canal organization several
thousands of dollars.
First, the shore pipe connection for
the Dredging Division's dredge Mindi
had already been installed nearby, and
a spoil dump had been prepared to
receive dredged material, in connection
with the routine maintenance of Gaillard
Cut. The need for expensive shore
preparations prior to commencement of
dredging at the slide was therefore
Second, the engineers were able to
make full use of the 40,000 cubic yards
excavated by the drag line to construct
dikes for dredge spoil areas in the imme-
diate vicinity. There was thus a double
benefit gained by excavation of the
material, and the need to excavate
additional earth for dikes was avoided.
Third, the slide area was easily acces-
sible by land so there was no need to
cut a new road through jungle to reach
the work area.
The total cost of this slide correction
operation is expected to approach
$100,000. Had a slide of this magnitude
occurred at a more remote location in
Gaillard Cut, its removal cost could
easily have been double this amount.
Prior to the start of the work, con-
siderable engineering and surveying
investigations were made of the nature
and extent of the slide. The first step
was to remove, by dredging, the under-
water portion, or toe, of the slide. The
Mindi was already in the right location
for the project, having been installed
for the dredging of Gaillard Cut right
next to the slide area. Fortunately, too,
the lock overhaul work at Pedro Miguel
Locks was scheduled at the same time,
so conflicts between dredge work and
ship traffic were minimized.
The Mindi removed only that portion
of the slide which encroached on the
ship channel. A large quantity of mate-
Before work started on removing the underwater portion of the south extension of the
Cartagena slide. The shore pipe connection for the dredge Mindi had already been installed
and a spoil dump had been prepared previously to receive dredged material during routine
maintenance of Gaillard Cut, thus saving many thousands of dollars in slide removal costs.
Almost finished: Dotted lines show (No. 1) the area of the south extension of the Cartagena
slide, north of Pedro Miguel locks. Black dotted area in water outlines former underwater
toe of slide. The dredge Mindi worked inward, in direction of arrow, to remove this portion.
The removed material was pumped into the spoil dump (No. 2). Area above the slide
(No. 3) was removed by a large dragline.
rial will remain undisturbed in place,
unless further movement of the slide
necessitates a second operation.
The second step was to grade the
upper surface of the slide area itself to
promote better drainage and to reduce
the possibility of further movement.
The final step was to cut down and
remove an overhanging embankment of
surface material above the slide to pre-
vent further sliding and adding weight
to the already failed portion of the slide.
Only that part of the upper bank was
removed that could become a new slide.
The slide is still in very slow motion.
It is being watched, as all slide areas
are, but at present there is no plan to
remove the entire slide.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Although he will not be visiting
the Canal as master of the Cunard
liner Queen Mary, Capt. G. T. Marr
hopes that someday he will bring
the famous Queen's smaller successor
through the Canal.
The new ship, which Captain
Marr expects to command, is now
being built in Scotland. She has been
designed for cruising as well as the
North Atlantic trade and can transit
the Panama Canal.
Captain Marr recently made a call
at Cristobal as master aboard the
Cunard cruise ship Mauretania. He
will assume command of the Queen
Mary within a few months and will
succeed Capt. Frederick Watts as
commodore of the Cunard fleet.
While the Mauretania was in port,
the British sea captain was present-
ed a Panama Canal 50th anniversary
medallion and a copy of the 50th an-
niversary book by Capt. E. B. Rai-
nier, Cristobal Port Captain. Also
present was Capt. Frank V. Kerley,
Cristobal pilot who brought the ship
to dock, and G. Niel McColl, man-
ager of the Pacific Steam Navigation
Co., agents for the Mauretania.
TRANSIT BY OCEANGOING VESSELS
IN THIRD QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1965
Commercial. .............. 2. 4 3,089
U.S. Government .......... 62 78
Free..................... 20 23
Total.............. 2,906 3,190
Commercial. . 15 746,160 $15,823,916
U.S.Government. 381,994 348,790
Total.... Ilf 121.I54 $16,172,706
Commercial.... I \.53 4 2 18,292,404
U.S.Government. 526,886 226,174
Free .......... 92,914 1:I., 79I(
Total.... I1'. 15.232 18,627,374
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
"*Cargo Biures are in long tons.
Canal Navigation officials shown on the bridge of the cruise ship Mauretania with Capt.
G. T. Marr, second from the right, who is master of the vessel. From left to right are
Capt. Frank V. Kerley, Cristobal pilot, Capt. E. B. Rainier, Captain of the Cristobal Port,
Captain Marr, and G. Niel McColl, manager of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
Captain Marr not only has a long
and distinguished record with the
Cunard Line but served with the
British Royal Navy during World
War II. He was navigation officer
aboard the HMS King George V dur-
ing the naval battle in the North
Atlantic during which British naval
vessels engaged and sank the German
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
20 MAY 1965
50 year 4go
THE FIRST French-flag vessel to use
the Canal was the merchant ship Saint
Andre which transited March 16, 1915,
en route from Tahiti to Glasgow with
a cargo of 6,900 tons of ore. The Pan-
ama Canal Record, in reporting the
ship's arrival, said that no official rec-
ognition was taken just as none was
taken of the first vessels of other for-
eign nations using the Canal. But at
points along the way individuals gave
indication of their appreciation of the
nation which performed such important
work in building of the Canal.
Official figures printed in the Record
revealed that up to March 1, 1915,
the earnings of tolls on vessels using
the Canal fell short of meeting the
expenses of operation and maintenance
The decorative paintings for the
Administration Building at Balboa
Heights were installed in the rotunda
of the building 50 years ago. The mu-
rals were painted by the well-known
artist, W. B. Van Ingen, assisted by
C. T. Berry and Ira Remsen.
Four hundred and thirty buildings
in an area covering 22 blocks (about
191/ acres), or a third of the city of
Colon, were completely destroyed by
fire April 30, 1915. Five people were
killed, eight seriously injured, and 7,500
people left homeless. The value of the
property destroyed was estimated at
25 Year 4A4go
AN EXECUTIVE order was issued from
Washington, D.C., 25 years ago estab-
lishing a censorship of photographs and
sketches of the Canal Zone and forbid-
ding steamship passengers from using
cameras while their ships were tran-
siting the Panama Canal. The order re-
quired that the masters of all vessels
transiting the Canal collect all cameras
from passengers and retain them until
the journey was completed.
The need for strengthening the anti-
aircraft defenses of Panama, Puerto
Rico, and Alaska was emphasized by
Brig. Gen. George V. Strong, Chief
of the War Department Plans Division,
in testimony before the House Appro-
Following the Nazi invasion of Den-
mark, it was announced locally that the
masters of Danish ships arriving at the
Canal might be approached by British
authorities with the suggestion they
proceed to the nearest British port.
Norwegian vessels received orders to
disregard orders coming from Oslo.
The U.S. Senate Appropriations
Committee voted to recommend the ap-
propriation of $15 million which Pres-
ident Roosevelt requested to start the
work on the third set of locks for the
The city of Colon was swept by a
disastrous fire on April 13, 1940. More
than $4 million in property was destroy-
ed and close to 12,000 persons were
made homeless. The fire occurred almost
exactly 25 years after a similar confla-
gration in 1915.
10 years ago
ANALYSIS AND evaluation of Balboa
and Cristobal High Schools for accredi-
tation by the Middle States Association
of Colleges & Secondary Schools was
completed 10 years ago. Work on the
accreditation study of the Canal Zone
Junior College was begun by the Middle
(Continued from p. 11)
in Panama is not entirely clear. One
theory that has considerable support
from pioneers is that the American fliers
in 1920 labeled it and that the name
stuck. These U.S. Army Air Corps
pilots flew into David from Panama,
and often went to Boquete to buy the
delicious fruit. Mrs. Monniche says the
name "just attached itself," adding that
people talked about "Boquete coffee,
Boquete strawberries," and other Bo-
quete products that were known for
It's possible, too, that "Pop" Wright
named the orange "Boquete" because
of his love of the town and because,
as his daughter said, "these oranges
were the love of his life." His fame in
that region to this day prompts many
people to refer to him as the "Will
Rogers of Central America." In 1939,
he received a gold medal award for his
exhibition of a selection of Boquete
oranges at the second annual fair of
The Washington navel orange is rated
in H. F. MacMillian's "Tropical Plant-
ing and Gardening," 1949, as one of
the finest of all oranges. The difference
Bids for the dismantling and removal
of three emergency dams at Miraflores
locks and Pedro Miguel were opened
in April 1955 with John V. Carter and
John V. Carter, Jr., making a high bid
of $53,323. The dams being sold for
scrap were three of six erected shortly
before the Canal opened in 1914.
The civilian population of the Canal
Zone declined from 42,049 in June 1953
to 38,953 in November 1954, a de-
crease of 3,096, according to census
figures completed in March 1955 by the
Personnel Bureau. These figures includ-
ed all residents except the uniformed
personnel of the Armed Forces.
One year 4go
MORE THAN 20 percent of the high-
est paying jobs in the Canal Zone now
are being held by Panamanians and this
percentage will increase steadily, ac-
cording to Harry C. McPherson, Jr.,
Deputy Under Secretary of the Army,
who was quoted in a dispatch from
Washington, D.C., last year.
between its flavor and that of the Bo-
quete orange, no doubt, is due to cli-
matic and soil differences. And there
is certainly a difference in price. The
large-size navel orange in California
costs from 3 to 5 times the price of the
The hardy pioneers who started the
navel orange industries in Panama and
California were not really concerned
with commercial production. Neither
the Tedman, Tibbets, or Thomas fam-
ilies, all of whom introduced the navel
orange to the area where they lived,
ever developed groves or benefited
financially from the orange trees.
Though Tedman and Thomas intro-
duced the orange in Panama, one can-
not escape the conclusion that three
other men deserve much credit for its
development: David T. Sasse, the self-
made naturalist; "Pop" Wright, the
promoter, and A. O. Sandberg, Sr., the
All of these men enjoyed accomplish-
ing the unusual and they forged ahead
without an assurance of the result.
Their unselfish service has left a thriv-
ing industry and earned the gratitude
of those who have developed it.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The Boquete Orange Story
SCENTS POSTAGE I
-I1 E s (1
Stamps Oldest In Use Anywhere
rr.- r THE CANAL ZONE regular stamp sters, but no close competitors could
NE issue is by far the oldest in use anywhere be found for the 36-year-old, 1-cent
N Today, research by the Caribbean Stamp Gorgas, or the 35-year-old, 50-cent
Club shows. Blackburn.
The stamps are officially called the Ethiopia seems to be the closest. Its
14th Canal Zone permanent issue. present issue came out in 1947. Parts
Stamp buffs term these regular issues of two regular issues in the United
S"definitive" issues. The issue was first States have been in use up to 10 years.
S recommended in 1928 by Crede Cal-
houn, Director of Posts from 1916
to 1947. tr re- r -
The stamp values are 1, 3, 10, 15,
20, 30 and 50 cents. The 1-cent green
Gorgas was the first of the series. It
came out on October 3, 1928, and is
believed to be the oldest stamp in the
world in terms of continuous use.
NEPIOSMGE Others, and the dates of issue: the
50-cent Blackburn issued in 1929; the
10-cent Hxdg,'s. 15-cent Smith, and )
20-cent Rousseau, all issued in 1932; )
'J* Uthe 3-cent Goethals issued in 1934 and i I1
the 30-cent Williamson, last of the lot,
issued in 1940. j
Stamp catalogs and journals were
Ii j scanned for possible rivals to these old-
50th Stamp JolderJ Still available
THE LATEST Canal Zone stamps-the
50th anniversary issue of six airmail
stamps-is still available in an attractive
folder designed especially for collectors.
Issued .Aiii ,,t 15, 1964, on the 50th
anniversary of the opening of the Canal,
the stamps are of 6, 8, 15, 20, 30, and
hci cents values. The folder depicts a
map of the Canal on the inside with six
mint airmail stamps affixed on the map
and another 8-cent airmal on the out-
side back fold. The folder also contains
the dliial 50th anniversary insignia.
and a short history of the Panama Canal
and the Canal Zone postal service.
The cost is $2, prepaid. To get the
folder, write to Philatelic Agenc\, Bal-
boa Heights, Canal Zone. Requests for
mint stamps also may be included in the
order. A money order must be sent to
cover costs. Checks and stamps will not
The commemorative stamps are rec-
tangular. Each has a different color
and on each is an aerial view of a scene
.ilIng the Panama Canal or nearby.
The printing of the stamp folder was
limited, so it will be available only as
long as supplies last. So if you haven't
ordered a folder, hurry!
(Continued from p. 15)
Isthmus. The shops covered 3 acres in
1905 and 21 acres in 1913 when they
were moved to Balboa and the town
abandoned to rising waters. One of the
town legends was that Balboa Hill,
3 miles from Gorgona, was the very
hill from which Balboa first saw the
Pacific Ocean. This hill, 1,000 feet high,
was a triangulation point for Canal
surveyors in laying out the line of the
"Big Ditch." From a tower that once
stood on this hill photographers could
take pictures of both oceans on clear
Mrs. Margaret Goulet represented
Old Cristobal and gave a good picture
of the Atlantic side town in Canal
Karl Curtis, of Gamboa, who was
unable to attend the cruise because of
illness, was a personal acquaintance of
Chief Engineer John F. Stevens and his
part of the program would have been
to tell of the building of Stevens' home
at Culebra. This house was later
occupied by Col. George W. Goethals
and, moved to its present location at
Balboa Heights, has been the home of
all Canal Zone Governors.
(Continued from p. 17)
finished. No definite title has been
Garcia de Paredes started the Pan-
ama Canal Company's Spanish program
7 years ago under the administration
of Gov. William Potter and has taught
every Governor since then. He has
taught Spanish at Gorgas Hospital, and
for the Army, the Air Force, and the
Navy. He is a Panama University
student, where he is working toward
his B.A. in humanities.
CARGO MOVING SPEEDED
BY USE OF CONTAINERS
(Continued from p. 16)
bound ships. Southbound, the refrige-
rated containers can be used to carry
normal general cargo or such items as
apples which require 35 to 40 degrees
Containers have been used for some
unusual cargoes and apparently there
are few shipments which cannot be
accommodated in this manner.
The Matson Navigation Co. is exper-
imenting with livestock containers on
the Pacific and Hawaii service. Created
by Matson's engineers and sales engi-
neers, the containers have the same
measurements as standard units and can
house eight cows, are ventilated and
have built-in feed troughs and water
There are also tank containers for
the movement of liquid cargoes design-
ed chiefly for the movement of chem-
icals, foodstuffs, and certain petroleum
The American Hawaiian Steamship
Co. announced recently tentative plans
for the construction of three 900-foot,
24-knot container ships which would be
placed on the intercoastal trade. They
would be built to carry more than 800
40-foot highway trailer vans and
would be so fast that they would make
the run between New York and San
Francisco in 9 days.
The Sea Land service established its
national containership headquarters at
Elizabeth, N.J., in 1962. It offers reg-
ular service between the New Jersey
seaport and Puerto Rico, gulf and west
coast ports. Recently it added a call at
the port of Cristobal with Balboa and
Panama City served by Terminales
Despite the many advantages, the
economic value of containers and
other forms of bulking cargoes is a
question of the balance between the
savings in port time and the loss of
According to S. G. Sturmey, professor
of economics at the University of Lan-
caster, the shorter the route, the more
important is port time in relation to sea
time and so the more likely it is that
containers will be economic.
A refrigerated Grace Line Seatainer carrying frozen Panama shrimp being moved to the
shipside by a forklift truck at right. It will be lifted aboard by the ship's gantry crane.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
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Due Returned Due Returned
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AUG __________U i inn
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 04820 5131