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Table of Contents
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
i1L vi 0 1
Vhe San la, Jndianm
Vol. 15, No. 4
ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-President ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
DAVID S. PARKER, Lieutenant Governor RICHARD D. PEACOCK and JULIO E. BRICENO
FRANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
Panama Canal Information Officer Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. TOMAS A. CUPAS
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
about Our Cover
AMONG THE Indian tribes of Panama, none has more
interest for readers than the San Bias. These Indians
comprise one of the few tribes to survive conquest, dis-
ease, and intertribal wars. They are hardy and adaptable
people with one eye on the
future and the other fond-
ly fixed upon some very
How they have manag-
ed to retain both, while
keeping a balanced view of
things may be due to their
hardy nature. Or, perhaps
it is because they have a
sense of humor, a great re-
source for any people.
Much has been written
about the San Bias. When
one begins to gather mate-
S rial, one source confounds
Home of the San Bias. another and bewilderment
sets in. The only way to clear it all up is to go to San
Blas Islands, spend some time, and ask a million ques-
tions. The Indians have survived a lot of legends and
such, and are happy to tell their story to anyone who
will sit awhile and listen.
And what a story it is! The San Bias has been a nomad,
and when he settled he became expert at both fishing
and farming. Perhaps the civilized world has a lot to
teach the San Bias Indians. At least there are several
efforts in that direction by dedicated people. They have
done a fine job and the Indians readily appreciate it.
But lerning is a two-way street; the San Bias have some-
thing that we might ponder: While missing the benefits
of modem society, they have also been denied its wars,
psychological i onHfl t. greed, pettiness, and general bick-
urint. And, not least of all, they are happy. That's an
achievement that seems ever more elusive these days.
For a story on how the San Bias work and live, turn to
page 8. And if you want a firsthand look, it's only an hour
away by plane.
Book Wins Praise
The Unchanging Scene
The Pennell Story___
The San Blas Indians__-
A Story of Coincidence
Shipping Charts ____
Trends in Shipping __
Locks Overhaul _______-.
Port of Marseilles___
'Alliance for Progress__
New Scheduling Board-
The BARC Story___-
A rjf. -
1B-L I *
-"S ^ I
Book Wins Praise
IT DIDN'T MAKE the best-seller list.
But the book published by the Panama Canal Infor-
mation Office on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of
the waterway was a sellout in the Canal Zone. The ini-
tial 8,000-copy, English-language edition disappeared
from Service Center and Retail Store shelves just a few
weeks after the publication date, August 15.
A 6,000-copy reprint of the book was ordered and many
were snapped up by Canal Zone Christmas shoppers for
friends and relatives back home. The remaining copies
are also enjoying a brisk sale.
Some 2,000 complimentary copies of the original
edition went out to libraries in the United States and
Latin America, to top government officials and diplo-
mats. The book, identical in content in the Spanish and
English editions, traces the history of the Panama Canal
since its inception. It has been praised in hundreds of
letters as a significant historical work, as well as an
informative and entertaining volume.
A specially engraved copy of the volume was sent
to President Lyndon B. Johnson and several copies to
Mrs. Jacqueline Kennedy for the John F. Kennedy
Favorable comments on the book have come from
such personalities as Mrs. Kennedy, Secretary of State
Dean Rusk, U.N. Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson and
several U.S. Senators and Representatives.
High praise came from Congresswoman Lenore K.
Sullivan, who said in part, "As I turned the pages and
read here and there, I was impressed beyond words
with this masterpiece of photography and historical
Six former Governors of the Canal Zone who visited
the Isthmus on the 50th anniversary in August were
presented complimentary copies of the book. Mrs. Julian
Schley, whose husband was Canal Zone Governor
from 1932 to 1936, said in part, "extremely well done.
Congratulations to you."
A former Lieutenant Governor of the Canal Zone, Brig.
Gen. W. P. Leber, wrote: "An extremely well prepared
publication, a great credit to the Canal organization."
"It is a splendid publication-one of which you may
well be proud," wrote Dr. Thomas R. Goethals, son of
Canal Builder George W. Goethals, who also served as
the first Governor of the Canal Zone, from 1914 to 1917.
Bouquets also came from many prominent Panama-
nians-government officials, professional people, and busi-
nessmen. The magistrate of the Panamanian Supreme
Court, M. A. Diaz,.ordered copies of the Spanish version
for each of the justices of the court, and for the Supreme
(See p. 21)
The landscape may be altered,
but the outline of these hills
has an eternal quality. The
scene above was photographed
on Ancon Hill from the iden-
tical viewpoint that the bottom
photo was recorded in 1904.
Albrook Field stands in place
of the former swamp and
buildings and roads have re-
placed much of the wooded
area. The horizon identifies the
area as the same in each pic-
ture Though these photos are
60 years apart, certain identical
features, including an early
roadway, can be seen.
S ,. ,.. f
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
V ke World Was
"DON'T LOOK LIKE MUCH!" a Panama Canal steam shovel
operator remarked in 1912 when he first saw Joseph Pennell,
noted American artist whose lithograph prints of Canal con-
struction scenes are an important part of the Canal Zone
Pennell probably did not look like much at that. He arrived
at the construction site dressed in old tweeds with a portfolio
and a campstool under his arm, his waistcoat pockets full of
p iI '1, and his eyes half shut in the artist's way which suggests
sleepiness to the uninitiated. He had no big umbrella, no big
easel, and none of the paraphernalia by which the artist
outdoors proclaims his profession.
According to a biography written of the artist by his wife,
"the man at the steam shovel changed his opinion before the
morning was over, deciding that Pennell could draw. Pennell,
in the end, presented him with a print; the two had learned
to respect each other as good workmen, each after his fashion."
During the time he was in Panama-January to March 1912-
Pennell came to respect many other Canal construction men
as good workmen and dedicated men.
In his introduction to "The Panama l
Canal Pictures," Pennell said: "The "The workmen w
interest of these Americans in my work was neither a hard
and in their work was something I had I never met anyo
never seen before. A man in huge boots, and I believe that
overalls and a ragged shirt, an apology men home broke
for a hat, his sleeves up to his shoulders, the Canal."
proved himself in a minute a graduate of Although Penne
a ,Iru it school of engineering. He proved for the 30 lithogr
as well his understanding of the import- construction, he w
ance of the work I was trying to do, and
his regret that most painters could not
see the splendid motives all about; and
the greatest compliment I ever received ,. ,
came from one of these men, who told
me my drawings 'would work.' .
Pennell, who was afraid that he had
arrived in Panama too late to get the
pictures he wanted, found instead that
the construction was exactly at the right
st.iCg. As his world-famous lithographs
show, "industry at the Canal was on a
colossal scale. The locks were yawning
gilfs. their towering walls and mighty
gai .' their stupendous arches and but-
tresses not yet hidden as they would be ".
once the water was let in."
Pennell later expressed himself as no
less impressed with the order that went
with the construction activity and the
apparent pleasure of V. trvc.ii'-high or A panorama
rk they were doing.
worked as if to work
ship nor an imposition.
who wanted to leave;
the threat to send the
the only strike on
11 is best known locally
aphs drawn of Canal
as a famous artist and
an authority on etching and lithograph
and a picturesque personality, as well,
hIPIL before he came to Panama.
A Quaker born in Philadelphia in 1857,
he had the Friends' habit of speaking
his mind, a good journalistic sense, and
a gift for salesmanship which brought
him success by the time he was 25.
His first important work was to illus-
trate a series of articles by George W.
ic drawing by Pennell shows the building of Miraflores lock.
Pennell saw the approaches to Gatun lock like this.
"The Procession" in the bullfight ring in Ma
In Toledo, Spain, he drew this dark street.
idrid, by Pennell. A Pennell drawing of the Bridge of Toledo in Madrid.
Cable on New Orleans. The New Orle-
ans etchings and drawings made such
a stir that he was asked to go to
Italy to illustrate articles by William
He married Elizabeth Robins in 1884 "-1P
and they spent their honeymoon taking '
a tandem bicycle trip through England. t
Later they traveled by bicycle through
Europe-he sketching and Mrs. Pennell
Pennel's etchings made an impression
in Europe and were first shown at the
Exhibition of the Society of Painters-
Etchers in 1885. He produced an
amazing amount of work with most of
it being reproduced in American and
English magazines. He also illustrated a
number of books.
He was interested as much in the art
of printing from plates as in making
them and believed both processes were
equally the business of the etcher. Later
his close association with James McNeill
Whistler made it natural that lithography
would attract him. He really became- ,-
enthusiastic over the process in 1895 Pennell saw the castle of Ildefonso like t
and in 1909 founded the Senefelder
Club in London to bring lithographers
together and hold exhibitions of their
He felt that the art was a medium
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Pennell's famous "Gatun: Dinner Time."
The artist sketched this from the bottom of Gatun lock.
PENNELL: THE WORLD WAS HIS STUDIO
(Continued from p. 5)
At work on the floor of Pedro Miguel lock.
peculiarly well adapted to the portrayal
of factories and he described these
industrial prints as "The W\\'nd-r of
Work" of which the Panama lithographs
were part. The Panama drawings, it was
said, were never surpassed for richness
of color and virile strength.
During World War I, he made litho-
graphs and drawings of British plants
engaged in war work later published
as "Joseph Pennell's Pictures of War
Work in England," and worked on
several projects in the United States.
After the war, he taught etching at the
Art Students' League in New York, wrote
several books, served as an art critic on
the Brooklyn Eglr.. and helped run the
New Society of Sculptors, Painters &
Engravers. He died in 1926.
Pennell is considered to have done
more than any other one artist of his
time to improve the quality of illustra-
tion both in the United States. and
abroad and to raise its status as an art.
He produced more than 900 etched and
mezzotint plates, some 621 lithographs,
and innumerable drjaings and water
He was a member of numerous
societies both in the United States and
Europe, was awarded medals at many
expositions, and his work is represented
in museums and galleries in various parts
of the world.
HOUSING construction in Panama City
has undergone a radical change in recent
years. The city's silhouette now is dom-
inated by tall structures while in the past
new buildings, although modernistic in
trend, were seldom more than four or
five stories high. The recent trend toward
high rise buildings may be motivated by
the growing cost of real estate, which in
certain urban areas is considerable.
Thus, at the top of La Cresta is a
building familiarly known in Panama as
El Faro, or the Lighthouse. In the El
Cangrejo section there is the Panama
Hilton Hotel, the Maduro 8-story apart-
ment building, and now a new 15-story
San Antonio apartment building which
has one apartment on each floor.
Near the new Continental Hotel in
the exclusive Campo Alegre area is
the plush 11-story Grobman apartment
building that has just been completed.
In this same area there are many elegant
apartment and office buildings, as well
as private residences.
Along Balboa Boulevard, which bor-
ders the Pacific Ocean, new high rise
buildings are mushrooming. Pefia Prieta,
on the comer of Balboa Boulevard and
40th Street, is a 7-story office building.
At 32d Street is the newly completed
13-story Stemple building. Here the first
two floors are used for offices, with
apartments in the remainder of the
building, one apartment to a floor.
Even the old section of Panama City
is being modernized. In Santa Ana Plaza,
on the site of the historic Panazone, a
contemporary combination store and
office building is a recent addition.
At Central Avenue and "J" Street
another elegant structure has been
Further down, at the former railroad
yards fronting Avenue "B", at 17th St.
a twin 12-story low cost multifamily
housing project is part of the program
of the Panama Housing Institute (IVU)
to solve the problem of housing low
income level residents. In the populous
suburbs of Maraii6n and Calidonia other
The highest building in Panama City is the 15-story San Antonio apartment building on
Eusebio A. Morales Street in El Cangrejo. Each apartment occupies an entire floor and
includes three bedrooms, living room-dining room, two baths, porch, two balconies, kitchen,
maid's room with bath and all modern facilities. Two elevators serve the building.
Twin multifamily buildings for low income groups, 12-stories high, are under construction
on Avenue "B." The street floor is to be a commercial area and the roof will have laundry
facilities. The other 10 floors will each have 8 apartments, or a total of 88 apartments per
building. Each apartment will have two bedrooms, combination living room and dining room,
kitchen, and bath. The cost of each building: $380,000. One of them is shown here.
multifamily structures are providing
housing for low income tenants.
The Panama Housing Institute as of
September 16, 1964 had built 5,074
housing units for people of low income.
Some of these homes were built through
the awarding of bids, and a large number
of homes were built through a mutual
assistance program. Financing was ob-
tained, principally, from the exterior or
with financial assistance from the Inter-
national Development Bank (BID),
AID, or Point Four of the United States.
Totally new residential areas such as
Villa CAceres, San Miguelito, and La
Loceria have been developed also. In
the city proper is Huerta Sandoval,
where five 5-story buildings have been
constructed, part of a complex of seven,
dominated by a 12-story structure.
Data obtained from the Panama
Safety Office shows that up to October
1964, buildings valued at $10,518,959
were constructed in Panama City,
compared to construction valued at
$15,282,230 for the same period in
the preceding year.
(See p. 23)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
OUTH FROM Jamaica a warm
wind sweeps across the (C .rlb-
bean Sea and courses gently
down the Wes.t Indies Archi-
.-'i pelago. Fitc centuries ago,
borne upon this wind, the ambitions of
Spaiii. then Eluirl'p began to influence
a new land. The Old World had found
the new; Western civilization marshalled
its ideas and set out on a westward
march that has influenced the history
.1' two continents.
But the winds of lh.irt., which soon
became a tempest that shaped the des-
tiny of the Americas, brought almost no
breath of disturbance to one quiet and
lovely paradise-the San Bias Islands.
Today, currents of change are begin-
ilini, to envelop these islands, tracing an
arch of jade close by the eastern shore
of Panama in the Caribbean Sea. The
Indians of San Blas, cheerful and happy
people in a well developed, if partly
primitive, life, welcome the benefits of
modern oc iet v
A journey to San Bias from Panama is
a pleasant hour by light plane. It is a
walk into the past, the falling away of
a thousand years in the time the plane
skirts the Culf of Panama and then cuts
north across the Isthmus and searches
out a landing strip among the flecks of
green scattered below.
From the air, the islands are a story-
book description of paradise. An azure
reef to the windward side breaks the
roll of ocean waves. Between the reef
and the shore lie the islands, sharp cuts
in a thousand shades of green, toy-like
landscapes in circles of sunlit sand,
flanked by shallow coral waters where
tropical colors chase one another through
a succession of sunny days.
Every inlet and bay is a highway for
the Cuna Indians Small white sails
are seen against the blue sea from
the air, but most cayucos-the dugout
canoe of the Indian-are paddled.
Aili.,.mldi Island is a few hundred
yards from the mainland air strip. It is
neither entirely primitive nor highly de-
veloped. Here are the crossroads of two
ways of life, where corn is ground by
hand between two small stones but
where wireless reaches the population
center of Panama in a few seconds.
There is no hotel here, no motels,
automobiles, TV, movies, supermarkets,
roads, ice cream, neon signs, or office
But there are no ulcers, no exhaust
smoke or bleating horns, no T\' murders.
.iuto accidents. rush hour madness, no
mental \wards, and no one is a stranger.
Modern conveniences and education
are beginning to come into these islands.
But the Indian is being counseled on the
more important values, so that he might
keep his great gift of happiness as he
finds more comforts in life.
Ailigaudi, then, while not a tourist
island-there is no place to shelter out-
sideis except at the mission where this
writer staved-is a good island on which
to meet the Indian and see how he lived
in the past, to see what today and
tomorrro,. hold for him.
There are things of value here. Labor
is respected. The Cuna regard a lazy
man as a sick one. Steps are taken to
cure his illness, for he regards it as
natural to work.
There is the Cuna himself. He is
resourceful and % ill work hard. He has
a keen and innate political sense, for he
has practiced democracy for centuries.
His tribal government parallels the pat-
tern of a New England town meeting-
the pride of early democracy in North
America. He is honest, commits almost
no crime, respects his fellow man
immensely, believes in discipline, and
he has not discovered that favorite past-
time of much of the world-complaining.
It doesn't occur to him to lie.
Here on Ailigandi there are more
smiles per hundred faces than any place
THE SAN BLAS ISLANDS
"' -- sp ,,
on earth. The children seldom cry, never
fight, and are obedient. A fifth grader
plays with a stick and is happy. Little
girls of 6 and 8 carry babies about and
paddle cayucos a mile and a half for
water. They seem not to mind at all.
Cunas are quick to learn and have an
amazing memory. They are remarkable
Until about three generations ago,
most of the Cuna lived on the mainland.
Malaria, insect pests, and tropical dis-
eases took a heavy toll. After one epi-
demic took many lives, the Indians
moved to the islands, where ocean
breezes keep the villages free of mos-
quitoes and sandflies. Including 7 main-
land villages, there are 42 main settle-
ments scattered through the 365 islands.
About 20,000 Cunas and a handful of
missionaries make up the population.
Only in the past few years have tour-
ists come to the islands. Few islands are
open to them, and there are overnight
accommodations only at Porvenir.
Cuna economy is based on the coco-
nut, harvested by the millions and sold
at prices that now average $5 a hun-
dred. Money is used, but two coconuts
are accepted as readily as a dime in
payment for goods.
Each day the men set out to fish, or
to tend crops on the mainland. Ailigandi
Cunas paddle up the Ailigandi River
about a mile, where they grow sugar
cane, white and red rice, corn, oranges,
plantain, bananas, and cocoa nuts.
These foods, together with red snapper,
make up the Indian diet.
Cuna families own land, but there
are no deeds and no mortgages. There
is a mutual agreement on who owns
property, and the boundaries are known
by those concerned
In the village of Ailigandi, the work-
day begins before dawn, when the
women ply cayucos to the mainland,
then upriver for more than half a mile.
Dozens of hollow gourds are filled with
water and brought back, a 3-mile round
trip before breakfast. Cooking is in one
house; the family lives in another. A
house may have as many as 20 people,
because a Cuna man moves into the
house of the woman he marries.
The houses are large, perhaps 40 feet
long and 30 feet wide. Closely spaced
bamboo shafts make up the walls, with
a frame of wood built stoutly to support
a thatched roof. There are no windows,
the earth serves as a floor and there are
For cooking, three logs are set upon
the floor of the house in the form of the
spokes of a wheel, with the fire at the
hub. Over this fire, fish is smoked.
When a trading boat calls at the island, nearly everyone comes to the dock. Often, there is ice
cream for sale. Coconuts are sold to these boats, which bring trade goods to sell to the Indians.
A Cuna mother and her small pride and joy. Harvesting bananas from an Indian "farm"
It is likely, as some customs wane, that on the mainland in a spot cleared in the
this little girl will not wear the ring that jungle. The machete is vital on this farm.
adorns her mother's nose. Note the mother's
beautiful mola blouse, which she made.
Plantains are put directly into the coals for baking. Some dishes are a combina-
tion-strained plantain and flaked fish is a favorite. The blend is boiled and sometimes
spiced for added flavor. Hammocks occupy one part of the house. Furniture is
generally limited to a few armless chairs, made by carving a contour into a section
Everywhere lines are full of drying laundry. The houses are neatly kept. Streets,
too, are clean in Ailigandi. Children are bathed vigorously, and often. Swimming
parties are an afternoon pastime, with the women using a different area of the river
Cunas are not without problems. They solve them through a congress, which
meets in the evenings when there are matters to discuss. The first, second, and third
chiefs are there, the first chief presiding. All men take part in the discussions. Once
a vote is taken, the majority opinion prevails and the problem is settled. Justice is
also handled this way, with offenders turned over to the Panamanian Government to
(See p. 10)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
These are probably the friendlest salesgirls to be found anywhere. They are presenting
molas for sale, but were shy about the picture taking, though not as shy as their mothers.
Indian women wash clothes in the Ailigandi River. They also fill calabash gourds with water
to carry back to the island. They make this long trip several times a day.
-. .' .
This carpenter, an old Indian man, has one
tool, the machete. But with it, he will carve
out a cayuco, with seats and paddles.
Going for a ride with mama. Logs under
boat are rollers to make launching easy.
Cke San Blas jlsands
(Continued from p. 9)
be fined or for imprisonment on the
Several islands have schools. All have
grades 1 through 6 except at Nargana,
where there is a junior high school. For
further education, children must go to
Colon or Panama City. Ailigandi has a
government school and a Baptist mission
school where six teachers are employed.
Faces shining, children show up for
school at 8 a.m. No attendance roll is
called, but everyone is there. If the roll
were called, it might sound strange.
Many children have been given no
names and are free to choose a name
when they please. Adults, too, adopt
names. Many times, they take the name
of someone they like, or of a famous
Women are an important part of the
Cuna society. When a man marries and
moves into the house of his bride, he is
subject to orders from his father-in-law.
While serious, the marriage ceremony
isn't formal. A man is tossed into the
hammock of his bride by the men of the
village. If he stays, the marriage is on.
If not, the men try once or twice more.
If he still jumps out, no marriage. This
is an old custom and though it's still
practiced, the bride and groom of today
usually know in advance of the out-
come of a hammock ceremony, for mod-
ern courtship now plays a part before
Women dress in a wraparound skirt
and a bandana over the head. A blouse,
made from the rectangular mola, com-
pletes the outfit. Jewelry and makeup
are popular. The gold ring through the
nose is still predominant, though it's use
is dwindling. Like the gold earrings
(purchased in Panama) and the hand-
made necklaces of hard berries, fish and
animal teeth, these rings have no special
significance. Facial rouge is made from
the pods of a red flower and used liber-
ally. Men are conservative in dress, pre-
ferring \\' s( rn shirt and slacks. No one
The mola blouse is especially beau-
tiful. The designs are i-tometrir, or of
animals or birds, or \ illage scenes, or
religious themes. The mola may require
80 hours labor by one woman. It is made
by a complex stitching of small pieces
of fabric; one is laid over another with
two pieces of cloth forming the founda-
tion to which the small pieces are added.
Hundreds of small stitches and hours of
(See p. 23)
10 FEBRUARY 1965
Adlai Stevenson and Governor Fleming listen as Lieutenant Governor Parker conducts Panama Canal briefing at Miraflores locks.
"BRIEFLY," IT'S A COINCIDENCE
THE VISIT of United Nations Ambassador Adlai Stevenson
to the Panama Canal in November brought about a coincidence
worth reporting. The U.S. United Nations representative was
here briefly when his plane stopped on November 6 for about
2 hours at Howard Air Force Base en route from Santiago,
Chile, to Washington, D.C.
Mr. Stevenson and his party were met and accompanied
to Miraflores Locks by Governor Fleming. There, a briefing
was held for the Ambassador.
The coincidence is that Lt. Gov. David S. Parker conducted
the briefing. In October 1962, at a critical point in the Cuban
missile crisis, there was a U.N. briefing by the United States
for the U.N. Security Council. It centered on aerial photo-
graphs which showed the locations of missile-launching sites
in Cuba. That briefing, too, was conducted for the Ambassador
by Colonel Parker, who was then a representative of the
Department of Defense. This was the only time that there has
ever been a briefing of the Security Council in formal session.
A photograph shown on this page hangs in the office of
Lieutenant Governor Parker. It is dedicated by Mr. Stevenson
to "Col. David S. Parker, with grateful memories of his part
in an historic day. Adlai E. Stevenson, Oct. 1962."
It is remarkable that 2 years later, in a different part of
the world, Colonel Parker was called upon again to brief the
Ambassador, but this time on a different subject.
Mr. Stevenson was presented a key to the locks by Governor
Fleming, then watched the lockage of a ship through Mira-
flores. Mr. Stevenson has been a visitor to the Canal and
Panama several times.
A tense moment in American history-Colonel Parker briefs the United Nations on location of missile sites in Cuba in October 1962.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11
. .! X.L F'R I' BY NA'll >.\ \kLITY OF V1~Isl-! i
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Chinese (Nat.) --
Nic .ra gua n -- -
All Others --
\1 *, ,:i *Y 1 ,<, 1 ,1, TRAFFI': AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Transit Gross tolls *
Transit (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1965 1964 Transits 1965 1964 Tolls.
July--------__ 1,004 944 557 5,313 4,898 2,432
August 1,004 946 554 5,497 4,842 2,403
September------- 970 923 570 5,339 5,836 2,431
October - - 1,018 980 607 5,484 5,154 2,559
November- - - - 988 946 568 5,435 4,879 2,361
December_------_ 1,021 958 599 5,641 4,897 2,545
Total, 6 months 6,005 5,697 3,455 32,709 29,506 14,731
o Before deduction of any operating expenses.
I '.1 :- '- ; %Ili I OVER M UI TR RI)f ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into 8 main trade routes:
United States intercoastal ----- ______. __
East coast of United States and South America ____.
East coast of United States and Central America -.
East coast of United States and Far East ____
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada - -
Europe and South America --________ ____
Europe and Australasia -----_ __-_..___. ____
All other routes - - - - - -_ _
Total traffic _------------ -...-. _.
Second quarter, isc
1965 (1st 6 months)
Though only a few ore carriers tran-
sit the Canal, the average Panama Ca-
nal net tonnage also has risen dramat-
ically on this type of ship.
Tankers show a huge increase in size,
but the average Panama Canal net ton-
nage does not reflect the worldwide
tanker trend accurately, and for a spe-
cial reason. In 1962, when the Minas
Bay Refineria opened in Panama, two
small tankers began to carry petroleum
products through the Canal from the
Atlantic to the Pacific side to supply the
Canal Zone and Panama. The net ton-
nage of these small ships is figured in
the tanker averages, and this lowers the
average for all tankers using the Canal.
The dip in the following table (in 1962,
1963 and 1964) is due to the many
trips-sometimes two a day-made by
the two small tankers. But even with
the pair of small tankers figured into
the Panama Canal net tonnage, the
average for tankers rose rapidly in the
12 FEBRUARY 1965
THE TREND IN
THE AVERAGE ship is bigger these
days. It is wider, longer, and it carries
more. And the trend is for more of
The story stands out clearly in figures
for the average tonnage of ships tran-
siting the Panama Canal during the past
5 years. Tankers, ore carriers, general
cargo, and passenger ships all reflect
the trend toward larger capacity.
Economy is the principal reason for
larger ships: A bigger cargo carrying
capacity means fewer trips. Not as
many ships are needed. The immense
savings in labor, capital investment,
and time are important to competitive
The average Panama Canal net ton-
nage of each general cargo ship has
increased each year, as the following
I'IU\( IIA\L COMMO(DIT-I -; -Jll1 'i D TIIROL;.' THE C '; \L
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
first 6 months of fiscal year 1965, as
this table shows:
Fiscal Year Net Tonnage
1965 (1st 6 months) 9,237
Petroleum movement through the
Panama Canal to the west coast of the
United States, which controls the im-
portation of crude oil and petroleum
products, increased the quota for dis-
trict 5 (all territory west of the Rocky
Mountains). Districts 1, 2, 3 and 4 com-
prise all territory east of the Rockies.
Most startling is the increase of gas-
oline movement through the Canal, up
181 percent. Major oil companies on
the west coast of the United States have
been engaged in a price war. When
they can buy distressed gasoline any-
where, these companies ship it to the
west coast, where the low price has
boomed gasoline sales.
Although there are tankers and cargo
ships that are too wide to use the Pan-
ama Canal, most are able to transit.
When a ship is being designed to carry
specific cargo over a route that involves
use of the Panama Canal, designers
take into account the Canal draft and
the lock dimensions. This way, ships
that are to use the Canal can be design-
ed for maximum capacity.
Ores, various----- ------------
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) _---
Canned food products -- --____--_ _______--
Nitrate of soda____--------------_
Fishmeal-___ ____ _- ___------
Bananas_----------- ----__ -__-
Metals, various -____--_ _____--_--
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) --------- -
Coffee --- --------
Iron and steel manufactures--------
All others --
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) ---_
Coal and coke- ----------------
Iron and steel manufactures ----------
Phosphates ------- ----- -- _--
Corn .. .------- ---- --
Soybeans --- ------- --
Metals, various ---- ---- -----
Paper and paper products------------------
Cotton, raw.- ---------------------
Automobiles and parts----------------
Second quarter, fiscal year-
Atlantic to Pacific
Second quarter, fiscal year-
CANAL TRANSITS COM\tI-l IAL AND U.S. GO\ I-EIN LENT
Second quarter, fiscal year-
1965 1964 Transits
to to Total Total Total
Pacific Atlantic _____
Oceangoing...................... 1,551 1,476 3,027 2,884 1,774
Small -------------------- 82 76 158 148 267
Total commercial----------- 1,663 1,552 3,185 3,032 2,041
U.S. Government vessels: *
Oceangoing...................... 39 34 73 76 148
Small --------------- 13 14 27 22 71
Total, commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment --------------_ 1,685 1,600 3,285 3,130 2,260
Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
- ~- CP ~I _7
Working at night during the locks overhaul project, men and equip-
ment present a dramatic picture as light pierces the darkness.
Bert Tabor, one of the most skilled riggers in the Dredging Division,
looks over the situation before giving hand signals to the floating
crane Hercules to lift the miter gates at Mtiraflores locks. Tabor,
skipper of the Hercules, has been with the Dredging Division since
1935. To those in heavy equipment work, his hand signals are
an easy, quick language, but to the layman, it looks like magic.
A New Key to
THE SKILL AND know-how of the employees of four
Panama Canal divisions were combined last month to
carry out a series of revolutionary tests designed to reduce
the locks overhaul time to the minimum.
Craftsmen and engineers from the Locks, Industrial,
Dredging and Engineering Divisions worked overtime
at Miraflores locks in order to complete one of the pro-
jects-the removal of the two miter gate leaves from the
control house gates in the east lane.
It was the first time that these particular gates have
been lifted off their hinges or pintles by the floating crane
Hercules and the first time any lock gate had been floated
to dr\dock for overhaul.
The pintles, by the way, are hinges on which the lock
gates rotate. They are located at the base of the lock
gate. Before the gate can be lifted, the 2-foot yoke pin
located at the top of the gate must be pulled by a lock
In order to keep the gate leaves from sinking when
t':cy were lowered into the water, the port holes cut for
ventilation in all lock gates were sealed.
... REALLY A SWINGIN'
UP, OVER AND OUT. In these five
pictures, a miter gate leaf at Miraflores
locks is lifted off its hinges for the first
time by the floating crane Hercules.
Since the crane has a maximum lifting
capacity of 250 tons, skill was needed
to keep the 750-ton gate on an even
keel while it slides gently on its face
into the locks chamber. The last picture
shows the gate in position for towing to
Balboa drydock, where it is undergoing
overhaul by the Industrial Division.
culr~~UW F / _lIm II
This may be the last lock overhaul for Russel H. Jones, center, Mechanical Supervisor at
Miraflores locks, who as chief as the craftsmen, keeps an eagle eye on the experimental
overhaul tests being conducted at Miraflores. A veteran mechanic, Jones has been with
the Locks Division since 1936 and may retire sometime later this year.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The oil port of Lavera. It is the terminal point of the southern European pipeline, serving the eastern part of France and Germany.
m rT \ai :. .,..
OFTEN CALLED the port of all men,
Marseilles is the greatest seaport of
France and of the Mediterranean. Ships
of almost every country anchor in the
coastal port, second only to Paris in size
.Iinlirg French cities.
In the 20th century, Marseilles has
firu.c(l its way into the great current of
commercial traffic. Cargo lines from all
over the world are based at the port,
sending ships to the eastern Mediter-
ranean, the east coast of Africa, Aus-
tralia, India, Indochina, Algeria, Tunisia,
Malta, Morocco, and the Antilles, as well
as Great Britain and ports on the west
coast of France. Hundreds of the big
f,,rcicrn lines call at Marseilles, which is
mainly a transshipment and industrial
port, not an intermediate center for the
collection and distribution of iz,,,ds
One of the oldest seaports in Europe,
\lircllh-s was founded by the Greeks
about 600 B.C. It became a great
trading center in ancient times and down
Ihruith the centuries has continued to
hold its position as a world port. Its
fortunes have been shaped by its
geographical location. Surrounded by
abrupt and steep hills, the city has
always been deprived of natural com-
munication to the inland. Since its
beginning then, Marseilles has turned
toward the sea for its vitality and
Historically, its Mediterranean loca-
tion allowed it to control the great East-
West area of Spanish-Italian commerce.
Marseilles was helped by the results of
the industrial revolution in the 19th
century. Colonial conquests and, in a
general way, the considerable increase
of foreign trade were other growth
factors. The Mediterranean Sea, a big,
closed-in lake, developed into one of the
most important routes of international
maritime traffic. Isolated from the
interior of France, Marseilles continued
to look toward a maritime horizon
bounded by the Mediterranean. Its
commercial, industrial, and population
growth followed very closely that of
The pulse of maritime traffic was
quickened in later years by the opening
of the Suez Canal. This new route
stopped at Marseilles, since its most
important branch made a detour by
Gibraltar to the great industrial ports of
the North Sea. This detour through
Marseilles remains the shortest and
most convenient route for Asiatic,
African, and Mediterranean countries
producing raw materials, on one hand,
and for the European industrial centers,
on the other hand. Thus, Marseilles
todav is the western trade mart on the
Mediterranean-the French gate to the
Nevertheless, to end Marseilles' isola-
tion from the rest of France, several
operations were undertaken to link the
port with other European commercial
centers. First was the construction of
the Rove Tunnel through the mountains
north of Marseilles. The canal through
the tunnel connects the port to the Berre
Basin, a small lake north of Marseilles
that opens to the sea. This project
supplemented a second tunnel, built
earlier for railroads serving the port city
and its annexes. Next, the building of
the oil port of Lavera near Marseilles
made possible the growth and expansion
of the petroleum industry in that area.
Finally, improvements to the present
maritime works in and around Marseilles
and its annexes assure the port of its
position as a national and natural outlet
from the rich Mediterranean basin in
which it lies.
The shipping functions of Marseilles
in that basin are revealed in the struc-
ture of its maritime trade. The port city
is the focal point for cargo on its way
from the Mediterranean to north-
western Europe. Through its port passes
merchandise of great value and volume.
In 1960 alone, Marseilles and its annexes
transported 12,755,000 tons of maritime
cargo inland by water, rail, and highway.
As for exports and imports, in 1961,
the port city and its outlying regions
handled 26,361,000 tons of cargo. The
major export is petroleum. After that,
successively, come construction mate-
rials, machines, chemical products,
sugar, carbon, metalwork, and auto-
mobiles. In order of commercial impor-
tance, the imports are crude petroleum,
grains, out-of-season fruits and vegeta-
bles, oils and grease, cotton, rubber,
wine, and a large variety of other
Marseilles is able to handle an
enormous amount of cargo because its
port facilities which, though destroyed
by the Germans in 1944, have been
rebuilt and perfected in recent years.
Today, these are among the most
modem in the world. Together with its
annexes and its canal and railroad sys-
tems, Marseilles remains, as in the past,
a reliable and energetic partner in
international maritime trade. As a
world port at mid-20th century, Mar-
seilles continues to keep in pace with
pyramiding world commerce.
The port of Marseilles handles 70 percent of the naval repairs in France. These ships, at the
Digue de Large, are being repaired. On the docks, various cargo is awaiting shipment.
Aerial view of the oil port of Lavera and of the petroleum refineries which provide 40 percent
of all the oil consumed in France. It's part of the port of Marseilles.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
-r IF-- ~,-fr-*
V' 'P" -.
i~ "., ,. -: --"
Alliance Moves Ahead in Panama
PANAMA HAS achieved substantial
improvements in her education, health,
.1L'1 Ii :i, reform, li"hI."- .v mnd housing
programs under thll \Illh.mI for Prog-
ress which celebrated its third anniver-
sary in 1964. The I min t States has
worked with Panama in this joint ef-
fort and has made inifi ..int contribu-
tions. U.S. low-interest loans to Pan-
ama in just the past 3 months, for
example, have totaled $10.3 million.
These and earlier loans have served as
a catalytic .i-, ill to enable Panama to
move ahead simultaneously on many
economic and social fronts.
U.S. technical assistance to Panama,
however, dates back to \\I'rlhl War II
and programs administered by the In-
stitute of Inter-American Affairs. Since
\\',rll War It there has been a con-
tinuous :r,.mLn.m of technical and eco-
nomic assistance involving both grants
U.S. i r.nii and loan assistance to Pan-
ama for development projects alone
totaled $4'i 3lI1.11111 from fiscal years
1961 to 1964. This figure represents only
the U.S. contribution and does not in-
clude assistance granted under pro-
Lr.,i,, sponsored by the Peace Corps,
the Export-Import Bank, or military
The riots and disturbances in Panama
of January 9-12, 1964, and subsequent
rupture of Panamanian-United States
diplomatic relations had serious reper-
cussions in nearly all sectors of the
The transfer of a substantial amount
in f.'ri i., and nationally owned bank
deposits out of Panama in January and
February, the resultant severe restric-
tion of credit, a temporary but crippling
loss of tourist revenue, and a moderate
loss of business confidence were among
the more noticeable economic effects of
the Panama-United States crisis.
D) ni, the second quarter a number
of new AID contracts Illmplnrltinmm the
Alliance for Pm iz, were si>n,.dl and
loan .e,[, In. ,t,' ii.t.ilitu $10.3 million
for Panama wer. rm ,illi.lt, A $2.4
million loan was s.in.li ,i Au\gust 1964
to finance a rural land and natural
resources survey and to provide tech-
nical assistance in tax administration.
This project will require ippr,,lli.lm 1'.:
3 years to complete and %'ill hli 1,,
ordinated bv the .\Ir ,ii I Reform Com-
mission. Another $2.4 million loan is
for rural development in Panama; a $2
million loan is to provide fim..mi i[Ie for
Fishermen at El Farall6n readying for a trip. Under the Alliance auspices, equipment and
boats were furnished and contributed to improving the local economic picture.
* --'* *'lfr *^ yf
t i --- .-:... .. .
A project built by Panama and the United States through cooperation in the Alliance for
Progress is this health center at Pese in Herrera Province. There are several others.
a series of studies for projects in the
Panama Government's national devel-
opment program; and a loan for $3.5
million is to provide budgetary support
to Panama to offset a serious fiscal sit-
uation caused by the rapid increase in
the floating debt, which was $20 mil-
lion as of July 31, 1964, the highest
reported to date.
Since 1961 under the Alliance for
Progress, Panama and the United States
have jointly constructed 77 schools
through the community self-help sys-
tem, and AID built another 11 schools
under contract. A total of 15 schools
were completed in the second quarter
of 1964. Twelve of these schools were
constructed under self-help programs
and the other three under normal AID
construction contracts at a combined
cost of $501,598. During the July-Sep-
tember 1964 quarter, four contracts for
school construction, totaling $440,190,
were approved and bidding was com-
pleted on another three schools.
Working with the Ministry of Public
Health under the Alliance for Progress,
to date, AID has constructed five rural
health centers in Panama, has renovat-
ed two hospitals and has placed in serv-
ice seven mobile health units. A con-
tract has been signed for the construc-
tion of a rural health center at Oci,
and bids have been opened for similar
centers, to be built at Penonom6 and
A 5-year-tax-free moratorium on con-
struction of new buildings contributed
to Panama's big building boom prior to
January 9, 1964, and work in progress
on all buildings continued. Third quart-
er activity in the construction sector was
sluggish, however, as compared with a
As of August 31, 1964, the Panama
Government's funded debt amounted to
approximately $113.6 million, of which
$59.2 million represented external and
$54.3 million internal obligations.
Panama signed a contract for an $8.5
million loan from the Inter-American
Development Bank, in late August, to
help finance a land development pro-
gram to provide irrigation for an area
(See p. 22)
When the St. Augustine school was under construction in the Los Santos District, in
Los Santos Province, this picturesque photo was taken.
One of the many schools built under the program of the Alliance for Progress, this one was
dedicated in the town of El Roble in Cocli Province.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Joseph B. Gordon, file clerk in the
General Manager's Office of the Supply
Division, celebrated his 50th anniver-
sary with the Pan-
ama Canal organiza-
tion on January 14,
Ay 1965. Gordon, born
in Jamaica, was em-
ployed with Com-
missary Division on
January 1, 1915, as
messenger, when he
was 15 years old.
J. B. (ORDON His employment ter-
20, 1920, but he was reemployed March
4, I 920, as messenger in the same Divi-
sion and has been with the Supply Divi-
sion ever since. Gov. Robert J. Fleming.
Jr., presented Gordon with a 530-vear
Service (.crtifitate, an Eminently Satis-
factory Extended Service Award, a
check for 550i0, a picture frame, and
a key to the locks for him and his wife.
Ralph E. Harvey
Mary J. Yaeger
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
R. G. Richardson
Lead Foreman Stockman
Evelyn E. St. Hilaire
Leader Presser (S
James B. Rigby
Ezra M. Smith
Towing Locomotive Operator
James C. Wood
Grace G. Thomas
Russell M. Jones
Isaac W. Beech
Water Tender (Floating Plant)
Dorothy Dennis Douglas
Supervisory Clerical Assistant
Helper Core Drill Operator
Camillus T. Askew
1st Mate, Pipeline Dredge,
Gladstone E. Clarke
George W. Wertz
LtS 1 Installation and
CIVIL F AIRS BUREAU
Robert S. rr
Director f sts
e a ent
Timineta I. Sobers
(Medicine and Surgery)
Laborer (Heavy, Pest Control)
A "graphic theduliing board," it's called. While this new device may look as if it belongs
in a rug %i. a inr factnr%, it actually plays a vital and efficient part in getting ships through
the Panama C'anal Those are elastic plotting cords, each representing a ship. The result
(to trained eyes) is a visual picture of current and projected transit schedules. Supervisory
Marine Traffic Controller Joseph M. Hunt is shown using the more efficient board.
50 Y~earid c9o
THE NEW Panama Canal was cele-
brating a series of "firsts" 50 years ago.
The first night lockage at the Pacific
locks occurred December 7, 1914, when
the Limari, of the South American
Steamship Co., passed southbound
through Miraflores and Pedro Miguel
locks. Special authority of the Governor
was given for the transit.
The Canal was used by sailing vessels
for the first time when the British
schooner Zeta and the American yacht
Athene were put through together in
tow of a tug. The 132-foot Zeta, owned
by Robert Wilcox, of Colon, had been
employed in trade between Colon and
U.S. Gulf ports. The Athene was a
pleasure craft of 104 feet.
The SS Tokushima Maru, of the NYK
Line, was the first Japanese ship to use
the Canal. It arrived in Cristobal De-
cember 9 from Galveston and passed
through the Canal en route to Yokohama.
By the end of January 1915, a total
of 2,192,856 tons of cargo had been
carried through the Canal since its
opening on August 15.
The most severe norther in years
visited Limon Bay on the Atlantic side
and did considerable damage between
the evening of February 8 and the
morning of February 10. Heavy seas
wrecked part of the new breakwater
being constructed from Coco Solo Point
to the Canal channel.
25 year 4go
PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
raid his fifth visit to the Isthmus 25
years ago. He arrived in Cristobal
February 18, 1940, aboard the U.S.S.
Tuscaloosa and made a brief inspection
of Panama Canal defenses. He later con-
ferred with Panama's President Augusto
Boyd who traveled through the Canal
with President Roosevelt aboard the
\'Whil the war in Europe entered its
first winter, Panama Canal defenses
were the subject of discussion in Wash-
ington, where Representative Buell
Snyder, chairman of the House Military
Appropriation Subcommittee, urged the
construction of more roads and airports
in Panama as a Canal defense measure.
A preliminary survey was started to
determine the cost and route of the
transisthmian highway on which work
"was scheduled to start in March.
The German freighter Dusseldorf, a
5,000-ton vessel captured by the British
off the coast of Chile, went through the
Canal in December under the command
of the British. It was the first prize of
war ever to transit.
Adm. Richard E. Byrd sailed from
Balboa aboard his supply ship U.S.S.
North Star on his way to Little America.
The vessel took on board several thou-
sand Panama bamboos which were
used to make snow trails in the Antartic
10 year c4go
THE HUNDREDTH anniversary of
the completion of the Panama Railroad
was observed January 28, 1955, by a
colorful program of events highlighted
by dedication ceremonies at Balboa
Heights of the Railroad monument and
the running of a special train from Colon
to Panama. The train, drawn by an old
steam locomotive, carried a number of
distinguished passengers from Panama
and the Canal Zone. Roberto Heurte-
matte, then Comptroller General for
Panama, spoke at the dedication cere-
mony. Representatives of several of the
Railroad unions in the Canal Zone
placed a wreath on the monument to
the Panama Railroad's founders in the
grounds of the Hotel Washington in
The Panama Canal Civil Defense
Unit had its first test in February 1955
when it participated in a staff and com-
munication exercise labeled "Operation
Interim" which was part of one covering
the seven Southeastern States as well
as Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Vice President Richard M. Nixon
visited the Isthmus in February 1955.
Accompanied by Gov. John S. Seybold,
U.S. Ambassador Seldin Chapin, and
other officials, he made an inspection
trip of the Canal Zone and a "whistle-
stop" trip across the Isthmus by Panama
Railroad. Mrs. Nixon inspected hospitals
One year c4o
MORE THAN 4,500 nonmanual em-
ployees of the Panama Canal organiza-
tion received a pay raise last year.
The raise, averaging 4 percent across
the board, affected clerical, administra-
tive, and professional workers, postal
employees, and pilots.
The Panama Canal Electrical Divi-
sion reported that power generation rec-
ords were being broken last December
when a peakload of 64,400 kilowatts,
the highest on record, was achieved on
December 9. On December 2, the
total gross amount of electric current
generated during a 24-hour period
amounted to a 1,261,400 kilowatts.
The SS San Juan Prospector, the big-
gest commercial cargo ship ever to
transit the Canal, made the trip south-
bound last January in ballast. The super-
tanker-ore-carrier was 835 feet in length
and had a beam of 106 feet. She made
the transit without incident in 10%
hours en route from Trinidad to Peru.
BOOK IS PRAISED
(Continued from p. 3)
Court Library. "It is a publication of
great importance as a source of in-
formation for magistrates of the
Supreme Court of Justice," he wrote.
Pablo M. Duran, well-known in-
dustrialist and coffee rnm.n.ite. said:
"It is a work of rare historical value
which I shall keep as a treasure for
the future tc-ji i\ill nt of my children."
Col. Bolivar Vallarino, command-
er of Panama's National Guard, com-
ments: "Its historical content is a
source of knowledge which will lead
to better understanding of the great
importance of the Canal to the
nations of the world."
Irene A. de Aleman, wife of Julio
Aleman, a former Diputado, relates
this witty story: "I read the book,
as had my husband, and we both
enjoyed it. About 3:30 that day, my
daughter, Raquel, 14, came home
and read it. Then our boys, Enrique,
12, and Ramon, 9, read it. They liked
it, too. So, I concluded that either
(1) their mother has a child's intel-
ligence or (2) the children have a
mature and clear intelligence or (3)
the book is so well written and edit-
ed that both children and adults
enjoy reading it."
So read the letters, from people
in all walks of life. Panama Canal
officials and employees responsible
for production of the book were grat-
ified to know that it has been so well
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
New Solution For An Old Problem
IN SHIPPIv.. time is money. When a
ship is delayed, its expenses continue but
it stops producing revenue. And ports,
while ili. iiti for maximum i ti. Lncl.,
are sometimes the victims of "rush hour"
business that forces delay in 'iiloadiiin
A second problem inherent in the
,lilppi.g business is that there are a
limited number of ports. Ports cost
money, l,i'i monev, and unless there is
a nearby population center to be served,
or there's rapid and cheap transport to
consumer centers, there is no economic
reason for a port.
But there appears to be a partial solu-
tion to these problems in the develop-
ment of advanced cargo carriers that
operate on land or sea. The latest of
these, the B \HC. holds the promise of
a minor revolution in cargo handling in
certain situations. This huge land-sea
carrier has the potential for saving time
and 0i .iLliiL remote consumer areas not
served by ports.
Conventional thinking dictates that a
road must be built from a developed area
to a remote area of consumers or re-
sources. But the BARC is capable of
l.iulirk 100 tons of cargo by way of
4-wheel drive on land and twin-screw
marine propulsion on the water.
This means that the remote areas can
be served by offshore transfer of cargo
to a BARC (barge amphibious resupply
craft), which can deliver it to a final
destination on land. BARC is an Army
vehicle, but commercial versions can be
hili and they can handle more than
the mnIii.i,' models, perhaps as much
as 150 tons.
Even in the most sophisticated port,
SI-. Iiilihnr is not perfect. The BARC
others several advantages in meeting this
IT CAN TAKE cargo from ships at
about the same rate that ships are un-
loaded at dockside. Then, the BARC
can deliver that _.. ii-, to points inland,
.,.,ilii' the transfer of the cargo to a
warehouse, where it would have to be
reloaded on trucks or rajlri.Al cars for
1HIPl ARE FREE to head for the
next port quickly, cutting down on
I)ISCHARGI\G PART of a c.irr.-
load ill be easier because a ship need
not tie up at dockside.
The BARC can operate at sea, partic-
ularly well .1,,], coastlines. If the
weather gets too rough, it can park on
a beach until the situation improves. Its
predecessor, the World War II Duck,
proved that the concept of a combined
water-land vehicle is sound. The BARC,
tlh'nil, can carry 30 times the cargo
load of the Duck, and deliver it over
much rougher terrain. Its huge wheels
and high clearance provide an off-the-
road mobility that will take it over the
barest semblance of a path, once big
trees are knocked down. And it's good
in the mud, too.
- *- .
Though some operators are already
using wartime LSU's (landing ship, util-
ity) to service remote areas in Central
America, this equipment is only an indi-
cation of the immense possibilities of
Once thinking has turned in the direc-
tion of amphibians to provide the link
between semiremote areas and civiliza-
tion, the shipping industry may find new
markets to serve by using fleets of these
strange-looking but practical vehicle.
A BARC in the water. Note the rear ramp, which can be lowered to discharge cargo.
ALLIANCE MOVES AHEAD
(Continued from p. 18)
of 27,500 acres. In addition, a request
was made to the United Nations Special
Fund for Economic Development for
an agricultural and economic study of
the region to be benefited by the irriga-
tion project. This study would cost
A contract for the construction of
the last remaining section of the Inter-
American tlighl.a in Panama was
executed by the Panama Government
at a total cost of $12 million. This high-
way stretch is 28 nult ,. between San-
t i.ei.. and Guabala. Panama's portion of
the cost is to be covered with the aid
of an Export-Import Bank loan.
New to Panama is the Partners of the
Alliance (Compaiieros de la Alianza),
a grassroots approach to the Alliance for
PiIzr'..s, which brought to the Republic
a delegation from the State of Delaware
last month for discussion of areas of
common interest in which the people
of Delaware may help the people of
The Partners of the Alliance is co-
ordinated by an office within the U.S.
.\lz II.\ for International Development,
organized to respond to and coordinate
the direct-assistance activity between
those in the United States who wish to
help and those in Latin America who
are in need of help. The principal idea
is to connect North and Latin American
States and countries where there are
cultural and climate similarities.
22 FEBRUARY 1965
Parade c4wakenng: Panama's Building: Going Up!
ZVie San lad Jndian3 (Continued from p. 7)
(Continued from p. 10)
patience are required. The finished prod-
uct is about 16 by 20 inches. Two of
them form the front and back of a blouse.
Framed molas make beautiful wall
decorations in many homes.
Most influential today in changing
the Cunas are the missionaries. One of
the first was the late Dr. Lonnie Iglesias,
a Cuna from Nargana. He began his non-
denominational work more than 30 years
ago and affiliated with the Baptist mis-
sion movement a few years ago. His
name is an honored one among the
Cunas. The Baptists have 40 missionaries
working on 20 islands. They run three
schools and six churches. The Catholic
church, too, has missions and is also a
major beneficial influence in the educa-
tional and cultural development of the
Until recently, the Cuna language was
spoken but never written. Now, Peter
Miller, a missionary, is translating the
Bible into Cuna, a slow and challenging .A
Bringing the world of industry, com-
merce, and modern thought to the
islands of the Cuna will take a long time.
There is a hospital being completed on
Ailigandi, but nearby several medicine The plush 11-story Grobman apartment building, near the Continental Hotel. Each floor
men still flourish, disensing potions and an apartment with four bedrooms, a study, dining room-living room, three baths, maid'
men still flourish, dispensing potions and room with bath, and laundry area. Cost is almost half a million dollars.
herbs and casting out demons with
magic spells. The Cuna accepts both. He
observes Christmas and attends church -M
in increasing numbers, but his ancient
rituals are still an important part of his ,
life. Already, a few transistor radios are
beaming the hope of a brighter life to
these islanders and they respond to the
sparkle and allure of commercials.
It would be hard to find a people
with more natural charm, friendship,
and appealing character than the Cunas.
Happy and energetic, they have a rare
talent for taking life as it comes, but
not too seriously.
The outside world, shining in a thou-
sand ways at the doorstep of these 7 U
islands, has made its first impact. And "
the Cuna is faced with the ancient '
dilemma that is at the right hand of all -
progress-how to take the good things -
brought by change and still keep those
warm qualities of spirit that nature has On wide Balboa Boulevard is the 13-story Facing the residence of the Ambassador o
given him. The stuff of which Paradise Stempel building, constructed at a cost of Brazil, in El Cangrejo, another new 7-stor
is made is in his hands. If he is wise, some $350,000. The first two floors are used structure goes up. This will be a joint ownen
for offices and the remainder are apart- ship apartment building, each occupant o
he will use it to triumph. ments, one on each floor of the building. an apartment owner of the floor he occupie
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
I ` .
New Ship Design
SHIPS WITH a special bow that has
a rounded bulbous form are becoming
more common among the big super-
carriers sing the Panama Canal
recently. Thl. bulbous bow has been
designed to reduce .n r Lil-i. i. resist-
ance on Ihl.a il. laden ships and promote
Two vessels equipped with the bow
form are the bulk carriers Liryc and
Heroic, built recently in Japan for the
Constellation Shippini Co. of Panama.
Operated by the Triton Co. of NewYork,
they are presently mi iin;r through the
Canal on a r. ,il ir schedule from Chile
and Peru with iron ore for U.S. and
European ports and returning from
Norfolk, Va. with coal for Japan.
Both ships have what is called the
\,,,'I,'ini hull form with a bow jet
maneuvering system designed to give
an immediate 2b-ton thrust on either
port or starboard side of the bow when
the vessel is moving at slow speed or
'1'. ki,,. They are among the first ships
to have steam turbine machinery with
control from the 'lidtl. wings. Due to
the hull li, iiin more cargo can be
carried on the same draft and dimen-
sions and for the same horsepower as
vessels of conventional design.
"IF YOU can see it-it's obsolete." This
remark often made about the new
supersonic jets would hardly apply to
the cargo vessels using the Panama
Canal. But speed records are being
Japanese cargo ships, which have
been breaking their own speed records
on the run between the Far East and
New York, are being given a run for
their money by the Lykes Bro. Gulf
Pride class freighters which operate
between Japan, the Far East, and U.S.
On a recent \|.I., from Vietnam to
New Orleans, the bS Adabelle Lykes
recorded the fastest transpacific sea
speed of any of the Lykes vessels to
date. \, .mrliini to figin, s published by
the weekly bulletin of the port of New
Orleans, the Adabelle Lykes recorded
speeds in excess of 21 knots and aver-
It, ,1 better than 21, knots for the entire
voVyae M I, iii the is ,.l.Ir homeward
in 2 1 Il. the Adabelle Lykes reduced
TRANSITS BY OCEANGOING VESSELS
IN SECOND QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1965
Commercial. ............. 3,027 2,884
U.S. Government .......... 73 76
Free .................... 19 17
Total .............. 3,119 2,977
Commercial. . $16,576,286 14 942,928
U.S. Government. 349,301 335,277
Total.... $S 1-; 25-) 7 15 27 -, 15
Commercial. . I'ii i5.2 7 17,019,942
U.S. Government. 311,061 22-.-7
Free.......... .. 103,181 52,913
Total.... 19,469,449 17,301,730
0 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
*"Cargo figures are in long tons.
the average crossing time of the older
C-3 vessels by approximately 1 week.
Earlier in the year, the SS Margaret
Lykes, another new ship of the Lykes
fleet, chalked up an ocean speed record
on the voyage from Yokohama, Japan,
to Houston, Tex. She covered the
9,301-mile distance in 193' days, shaving
1 days off the previous record held by
the SS James Lykes, another of the new
vessels. Older vessels of the line had
made tie run in 27 days.
Thus far, 21 of the new Lykes ships
of the Gulf Pride class are in service.
Twelve other liIhll automated vessels
of the faster Gulf Clipper class, designed
primarily for the U.S. gulf to Far East
trade, are under construction with the
first to be delivered in July. All of
them are to be automated and will
offer the newest and finest in cargo
INCREASE IN the demand for Panama
voyages has resulted in an increase in
both eastbound and westbound voyages
through the Panama Canal by four big
British passenger liners owned by the
P & O-Orient lines during 1965. Execu-
tives of the shipping lines have stated
that more than 4,000 additional berths
will be available this year on passenger
ships of the P & O-Orient Lines sailing
to and from Europe from the west coast
of North America to Europe via the
Panama Canal, the Caribbean, and the
The first due to arrive at the Canal
from the west coast this year is the
luxurious Oriana. She will dock in Bal-
boa May 3 and pass through the Canal
northbound the following day en route
to Le Havre and Southampton via
Nassau, and Port Everglades, Fla. Other
vessels due to go to Europe this year
either by way of Nassau, Port Ever-
glades, Nassau, and Bermuda or Carta-
gena and Trinidad are the Canberra,
Oransay, and Arcadia. Five voyages are
planned from Europe through the
Panama Canal to the west coast.
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
Due Returned Due | Returned
1 ., ...-- -
AUG 0U C Ina400!
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 04820 5131