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Front Matter 1
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Table of Contents
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
Panama J Shrimp Jnducitr
Vol. 15, No. 3
qP6 .3o6 -
ROBERT J. FLE.MING, Jr., Governor-President &A
DAvm S. PARKER, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Offic
0%16 V i 6VT
Official Panama Canal Publication E
er Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
iRD D. PEACOCK and JULIO E. BRICEIIO
NICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
TOMAS A. CUPAS
c4bout Our Cover
STUFF 'EM WITH crabmeat, for a change. Boil them.
Or maybe you're a fried shrimp fan. No matter. The
snowy white meat of the shrimp has delighted gourmets
since that day long ago when some fortunate diner pop-
ped a shrimp out of the pan, ate it, and decided that it
was indeed a good thing.
It is also certain that more plain people than gourmets
enjoy shrimp. That accounts for the fact that Panama,
an economic beneficiary of all this interest in shrimp, can
sell all the shrimp it can catch.
Our cover theme is explored fully in the next three
pages. In the few minutes it takes to read this story, it
is possible to develop a large appetite for a dish of suc-
culent shrimp. If you're not keen on stuffing them with
crabmeat, or boiling or frying, try shrimp sauteed in a
rich brown sauce, with mushrooms. For dessert, you'll
want a second helping.
And if there's more, just invite us.
Panama's Shrimp Industry-
Small Wonders-The Tugs_
Judo as Art and Skill___
The Republica de Colombia
Shipping Charts --------
Transit Rules ---__-----
Underwater TV --_-----
Canal History- .- _____
Port of Hamburg -------
Panama's Beaches ------
Houseboat, Grand St\l. _
Tlire.alint the Needle ---
Shipping -- -. ---------_
---- --- 14
---- --- 15
THIS IS THE first issue of the PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
to be published on a quarterly basis. Subsequent issues
will be distributed on the first day of February, May,
and August. The format remains unchanged, but there
will be a heavier emphasis on features. Anniversaries
marking 30 and 40 years of Government service will be
published, but 20-year anniversaries now will be found
in the weekly Panama Canal Spillway. All promotions
and transfers will be published, on a more current basis,
in the Spillway.
The August-September issue, featuring the Panama
Canal's 50th Anniversary, found a wide and welcome
distribution. At the same time, the 128-page 50th Anni-
versary book, published in August, was a sellout.
Another printing has been ordered and orders are being
taken for the $2.75 ($2.95 including postage) book.
Yours can be sent to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Thousands of words and hundreds of pictures of the
Canal operation were printed in dozens of languages
in hundreds of newspapers in August, as interest in the
50th Anniversary heightened. And, now and then,
clippings of the event trickle in from publications that
showed a lively, if late, interest in the Panama Canal.
Schoolchildren, whose requests for information on
the Panama Canal number more than 200 a week, seem
particularly curious in the first 2 months of school.
Letters from all parts of the United States and overseas
pour in. All are answered immediately by the Informa-
tion Office. One this month came on three sheets of
paper, each the size of a desk top. Out went the
information, and a letter. Big interest demands quick
response. The Panama Canal also furnishes information
on questions from authors, magazine and newspaper
columnists, radio and TV stations and ordinary people
who are just plain curious.
That's Reviewing for this issue. Next quarter, there
are plans for two special features, plus the regular
REVIEW lineup, in color and aimed your way.
Shrimp are inspected on production line
at packing plant located in Panama City.
Panama's Blue Waters
Yielding Pink Gold
SMALL, COOPERATIVE and delicious, a tiny dweller in the Gulf of Panama has
rapidly been developed into a mighty booster of the Panamanian economy.
The shrimp, caught for many years for local dinner tables, attracted wider attention
when it became apparent in 1950 that the tasty fellow could be exported at a profit.
Today, shrimping stands near the top among industries that bring outside money
into the Republic. And its major problem is one that most industries would be glad
to have: How to increase production fast enough to satisfy the growing demands
of ready buyers.
Ten years ago, when shrimp exporting was in its third year, the total haul was
3,659,000 pounds. This year will see a catch of more than 13 million pounds-four
times the 1954 haul.
The industry, then, has come a long way and many of its early problems have been
solved. But others remain, and these are being met by men who now can
draw on much experience and know-how.
Prices in the world market have not been a particular source of worry to exporters.
The United States is the big customer and demand has grown faster than supply.
But that very demand has put pressure on some segments of the industry. It's this
way: Boat operators can sell all the shrimp they catch. If there are too many boats,
operated by individuals who are not much interested in conservation, future produc-
tion can be endangered. This comes about when the shrimp beds are overworked,
leaving no time for the shrimp to reproduce. In the long run, this could lead to a
decline in the catch each year, and, eventually, there would be a grave problem.
Right now, the future looks favorable. There were 210 licensed shrimp boats in
Panama in 1963. Shrimping grounds can support 180 boats comfortably, say the
experts. This conclusion is supported by the fact that each boat now averages a
smaller catch than in previous years. Except for 1963, though, when production
dropped slightly, the total catch has mounted each year. This year holds the promise
of a record haul for the trawlers. And though there were 36 new licenses issued
in 1963, none have been issued this year.
The return on investment in the industry appears to be good. On a total investment
of about $9 million, exporters realized a gross income of $6,080,000 in 1963.
Once he's found, the shrimp is easy to catch. He likes warm waters, though he
is sometimes found where the north wind blows. In the Gulf of Panama, there are
four kinds of shrimp. Most plentiful, and most prized, is the white shrimp. Less
than 10 of these will tip the scales at 1 pound, and buyers pay a premium for them.
Titi (small) shrimp are nearly as abundant as the whites. Together, these two make
up about 70 percent of Panama's shrimp catch. Pink shrimp are the third type and
in 1963 accounted for nearly 25 percent of the total catch. The Carabali, a bright
pink shrimp, has black stripes that inspire its more popular name-"tiger." The
tiger shrimp is last in importance, making up about 5 percent of the 1963 catch.
Boats have tried shrimping on the Atlantic coast of Panama, but have had poor
luck in several trips to look for new grounds.
Mending shrimp nets, a job done between trips.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Shrimp boats at dock in Panama.
(Continuid from p. 3)
Catching shrimp involves hard work,
but the saltiest crew is thrilled to luck
into a huge catch of the giant white
Let's take a trip. With two nets rigged
for trawling, and one or two for spares,
a five-man crew points the bow of a
50-ton Panamanian shrimp boat south
from Panama City. The search is on for
the pink gold in the blue gulf waters.
Cruising to the shrimp grounds takes
no more than 5 hours, for shrimp are
found in shallow waters. And the run is
heaviest when the top layers of warm
water are driven seaward by the wind.
Then, cold waters from near the bottom
well up, bringing with them the tiny
sea plants that shrimp feed upon.
And rain can help. Swollen river
waters wash seaward, carr\inr a tide
of the tiny animal and plant life that
attract and fatten shrimp.
When nets are cast over the side of
the boat, a 45- to 60-foot sieve is created.
Of Pink Gold
The water flows through, but shrimp
cannot. If luck is with the boat the nets,
heavy with shrimp, are pulled up every
hour. If shrimp are scarce, the nets may
stay down 4 hours. Nets out of the water
catch no shrimp, so it's a 12-hour day
for the crew.
The crew works harder, but not as
long, when shrimping is good. The
refrigerated hold of the bigger boats can
store 4 tons of the little shellfish. Still,
a captain with a haul of 2 tons has had
average luck. And this has kept the boat
at sea for 10 to 12 days.
When the shrimp are running, the
crew works to unload quickly in port
and head out again. A big shrimp boat
is an investment of $50,000. To make
money, it has to keep moving. Shrimp
are waiting! The work of maintenance
and refueling, net mending, and supplies
for the crew has to be fast and efficient.
Because shrimp are perishable, the
operation is swift from boat to produc-
tion line to freezer. Five packing plants
in Panama are set up to process the
The giant white shrimp are packed in 5-
pound carton and frozen before shipping.
shrimp. In Panama City are Compaiiia
Mariscos Islas de las Perlas; Compafiia
de Products Crusticeos, S.A.; Pesca-
dora, S.A.; Cambra Hnos.; Carlos Cam-
bra e Hijos, S.A.; and Panama Packing
Co. Frigorifico de Chiriqui, S.A., is in
David, Chiriqui Province.
At the largest, Compafiia Mariscos
Islas de las Perlas, a wonderful and com-
plicated machine-the only one in Latin
America-makes short work of handling
shrimp. In a single operation, it removes
the head, shell and vein, and churns out
whole shrimp, gleaming white and ready
to pack. But machines aren't the whole
story. The humble shrimp keeps about
3,000 people employed full time on
boats, in offices, and at the packing
By the size and type, and in 1- and
5-pound packages, the cleaned shrimp
are quickly frozen. Then, on shipping
d.i\a, they go into huge refrigerated
trailers. These are hoisted to the decks
Lenin Sucre is a champion of progress in
marine research and conservation.
Staff member at Panama's Fishing Depart-
ment holds white shrimp. Note size of the
big shrimp in comparison to his hand.
r ----- -I-
Busy is the word for shrimp docks before a trip.
The microscope, a useful tool in marine research.
of ships, then taken to New York and
Once unloaded, a cab hooks onto the
refrigerated trailer and delivery is made
to the distributor. One small Panamanian
company ships its catch to the United
States by airfreight, reflecting the great
demand for top-quality shrimp in
And every day, thousands of Amer-
icans, unmindful that the pink and white
delicacy may have traveled several
thousand miles to reach the dinner table,
enjoy one of the world's favored sea-
foods. Though opinion may vary on taste
differences in shrimp, a shrimp executive
who knows put it this way: "There's no
real difference in taste in the varieties of
shrimp. When I order at a restaurant,
I'm never quite decided whether to have
a large cocktail of small shrimp or a small
cocktail of large shrimp." Because of
size, though, and for many recipes, good
restaurants prefer the big whites.
Panama ships shrimp all year. But
Shrimp boat under construction in Panama.
the months of September, October,
November, and December bring no joy
to the packers and boat crews. These
are lean times and everyone tries to
break even, waiting for shrimping to
pick up in January. All the reasons for
the 4-month scarcity are not known.
In some parts of the world, there is a
closed season to allow shrimp to repro-
duce. In Panamanian waters, research
points up, no closed season is needed
because the reproduction cycle of shrimp
is continuous, follows no season. To stop
shrimping operations would only mean
more shrimp for fish to feed on and fewer
for man. The lean months are probably
caused by less of that cold water that
brings shrimp to the surface, according
to educated guesses. Another factor is
the lack of favorable winds during those
months, keeping the shrimp in deeper
waters where food is more abundant.
One day, research may overcome some
of the industry's problems. Panama,
through the Department of Fisheries,
and private efforts, is working on it.
This department, under the Ministry of
Agriculture, Industry and Commerce, is
headed by youthful Lenin Sucre, who
sees Panamanian waters as a blue mantle
of future wealth.
His department studies breeding
habits of shrimp, keeps records on varia-
tion in size and determines how much
of each variety is caught each month.
This helps in making production fore-
casts. Through research, and a tagging
program scheduled to start next year, he
hopes clues will be found that may lead
to better ways of shrimping, more profit-
able hauls and a reliable fund of knowl-
edge to keep the industry pointed in the
direction of progress.
His staff also works closely with fisher-
men, organizing and advising coopera-
tives, furnishing information on new
equipment, marketing methods, and
And it's paying off. Fishermen up
and down Panama's Pacific coast are
making more money than ever before.
A study on whether lobsters are plenti-
ful enough to furnish a base for a new
industry was carried out last year by
the research vessel Pelican. Sucre, who
went on the trips sponsored by the
Agency for International Development
(AID), said 1,500 lobsters were caught
in a single week. Four areas were found
that are rich in lobster. U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service personnel spent nearly
18 months on the project. Someone,
Sucre expects, will soon make the invest-
ment necessary to launch this industry.
"An extremely worthwhile Alliance for
Progress project," he comments, "and
one day it will pay off for Panama."
Shrimping and fishing in Panama
today enjoy a brighter prospect, perhaps,
than any other industry. The Republic
is second only to Mexico in its export
of shrimp to the United States.
Those who are in the industry know
they are at the beginning of a lively
and promising economic journey.
Others who use the waters of Panama
wisely in the future will find that the
sea, older than man, is one of his best
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
~- -- -
The U.S. San Pablo guides the supership Speedway through Gaillard Cut. Assigned to the Dredging Division, the tug is used to keep
the big vessel from taking a sudden sheer in the narrowest section of the Canal, insuring a maximum of safety in Canal area waters.
Keeping the engineroom immaculate is part of the job assigned to
Emelio Archbold, oiler aboard the tug John F. Stevens. Archbold
is an employee with 26 years of service with the Panama Canal.
ONE DAY not long ago the assistant port captain in
Balboa looked out of his office window and remarked
with surprise that there were two tugs tied up at the
"It is a most unusual day," he said.
And indeed it was. The 13 Panama Canal tugs, allotted
to the Panama Canal Dredging and Navigation Divisions,
are the busiest floating equipment owned by the Canal
organization. They are seldom idle at dock very long.
With Canal traffic continuing at record levels, the
Canal tugs are busy as a swarm of beetles shuttling back
and forth in the harbors of Cristobal and Balboa, easing
big superships through Gaillard Cut and carrying out
regular towboat functions.
Although they are kept in almost constant operation,
the Canal tugs are perhaps the most immaculate in
the world. Their enginerooms gleam and the decks are
scrubbed and neat. As they work, members of the crew
keep up with a continuing maintenance program. They
also undergo overhaul regularly.
The tugs range from the veterans like the Alhajuela,
Airaijin, and Gatun built by the former Mechanical
Division in Balboa in 1937 to three powerful new tugs
built in Savannah, Ga., and delivered at the Canal in 1961.
\it;i $. ...,
So l a
"-.- --- t,,
Chugging along at 7 knots is the big-muscled John F. Stevens,
pushing the dredge Mindi. The powerful new tug cuts half an hour
travel time from the Gamboa-Balboa trip, compared to older tugs.
These three, John F. Stevens, George W. Goethals, and
John F. Wallace, are the most powerful of the tugboat 0
fleet. Each has a 2,400 horsepower, single-screw diesel '
engine with controllable-pitch propellers.
With such power, it is no job at all for the John F.
Stevens to move singlehanded the cumbersome dredge
Mindi through Gaillard Cut at at a rate of 7 knots.
This particular job was accomplished early in June
when the Mindi finished a month dredging operation
in Balboa channel and harbor. It was moved from Balboa
to Gamboa where, after overhaul, it was put to work
dredging in the Canal channel.
At one time, most of the Panama Canal tugs were built
by the Mechanical Division. After 1940, orders were
placed for construction in U.S. shipbuilding yards.
The Taboga, the Canal's only seagoing salvage tug,
was built in Port Arthur, Tex., and placed in service in
1947. It was rebuilt in 1959 at the Panama Canal Indus-
trial Division yard in Cristobal and is assigned to the A rare break in the day's schedule is taken by the Navigation
Division tug Gorgona II, shown at pier 17 in Balboa. In the fore-
Dredging Division in Gamboa. ground is a U.S. Navy ship docked earlier in the day by the tug.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The Sporting Set Flips
Over This "Ancient Art"
IT IS CONSIDERED as much an art
as a sport.
It is a Japanese method of unarmed
self-defense and offense in personal
encounter. Recognized and taught as a
sport, it's probably the most practical
and reliable method of self-defense for
the average person. It's one of the few
sports that can be practiced and enjoy-
ed by everyone: men, women, and
children. It has excitement, but is exact-
ing and an excellent health builder.
Judo has come to the Canal Zone. In
fact, a large club has been on the Isthmus
for some time but few people know what
judo is all about.
S..... Originally known as Japanese wres-
tling, judo was developed as an elemen-
Stal, weaponless combat practiced by the
"samurai" or military class in ancient
Japan. About 1600, Japanese travelers
to China brought back techniques which
S- lama monks had developed as a pro-
tection against robber bands. Impressed,
the Japanese combined them with tra-
ditional methods of combat and added
over 300 throws and holds.
For centuries afterward, "jujitsu," as
it was known then, was secretly taught
and at first limited to the nobility. The
"professors" of jujitsu guarded its com-
plicated techniques so jealously that
A only a few students became masters.
With the decline of feudalism, how-
ever, it became a popular sport in Japan.
When firearms came into widespread
use, the need for hand-to-hand combat
was practically eliminated, so that by
1879 jujitsu was dying out.
In 1882, Dr. Jigoro Kano founded the
popular modem style of jujitsu at the
Kodokan College in Tokyo. He con-
solidated the best techniques, eliminat-
ed its more harmful practices and added
S improvements. He called this most
..... exacting art judo, or the "gentle way."
,,, g It attracted attention in Europe and
the United States but became widely
popular only after World War II because
S .... it was integrated, with modifications,
". into combat techniques in the South
S. .* . :.. Pacific. Judo has come into its own and
The shoulder throw is demonstrated by Dorothy Detamore, who handily tosses Loren Jones. was accepted into the 1964 Olympics.
Marion Green, of the Fire Division, executes a neat hip throw on
Joan Morton. Both of these students are in the senior division.
In olden days, judo, properly called jujitsu at the time, was
practiced as a means of seriously injuring, sometimes even
killing, an opponent. Military and police forces all over the
world still use it today for this purpose. But judo, the gentle
way, has gained prominence with the layman as a sport. It
is recognized as such by the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU).
The Canal Zone Judo Club, boasting members of all ages,
is affiliated with the Shufu Judo Yudansha-Kai, Alexandria, Va.;
the Judo Black Belt Federation of the United States; and the
YMCA in Balboa. It is also recognized by the AAU and the
headquarters and governing body of world judo, the Kodokan
College. The college establishes and regulates the rules for
judo and gives degrees in it ranging from a simple beginners
diploma to the equivalent of a doctor's degree.
Judo was started several years ago on the Isthmus and the
Canal Zone Judo Club now has more than 70 registered mem-
bers. The club offers classes for old and young alike in the
sport by age group: the cadet or small fry (7-12 years old),
the junior (13-17 years old) and the adult. Older, experienced
and qualified "judokas" are instructors.
Students are classified according to their progress, indicated
by the color of belt worn during competition. The color classi-
fication most used is that developed by Dr. Kano, called the
"Kodokan" method. Beginners wear white belts, of which there
are three steps, and are promoted as they gain in knowledge
and proficiency. They then graduate to the brown belt, con-
sisting of three steps. Upon completion of these exacting steps,
a black belt is awarded and students are then officially "graded"
through 10 degrees of black.
Judo requires extensive practice under competitive condi-
tions. The student acquires a thorough knowledge of holds,
leverages and counters, and nerve and muscle positions. It
employs the maximum use of the mind and body to defeat an
opponent by using his own weight and strength against him.
The basic strategy is of nonresistance; a contestant tries to
throw his opponent off balance. Courage, sufficient strength,
endurance, coordination, alert reflexes, good balance, and a
presence of mind and suppleness of body are required. A
knowledge of anatomy is essential so that body weaknesses
may be attacked.
In life-and-death struggles, of course, the competitors must
be able to resort to all known dangerous thrusts, kicks, and
blows which cause permanent incapacity. This is jujitsu. But
in judo, injurious techniques such as kicking, hitting, or
gouging, are not permitted. The principles are maximum
efficiency with minimum effort, acknowledgment of greater
strength and/or ability and mutual welfare and benefit.
Laymen have been intrigued by the sport since it's possible
for a smaller person to defeat a larger, stronger opponent.
A bout is held on straw matting to absorb the shock of a fall.
Competitors wear suits of loose fitting cotton trousers and heavy
cotton jackets. Each contestant grips the jacket lapel of his
opponent with one hand and grasps the elbow or belt of the
competitor with the other. Through a variety of maneuvers,
he pushes, pulls, throws, or trips his opponent into a backfall
or prone position where he can subdue him. Since there is
little time to ponder during a match, a competitor's actions
must be as automatic as a reflex.
Judo matches usually take place over a definite period of
time or until one of the opponents wins a point. A contestant
can win a point by throwing his opponent cleanly to the ground,
by immobilizing him in a certain position for a length of time
or by using special holds, force him to give up. Strangle holds
or arm locks are secured so firmly around the opponent that
a seized man can only fall to the mat, sometimes being thrown
with considerable force over the opponent's head. These men,
however, are experts at falling without injury.
Unlike catch-as-catch-can wrestling, a particular position
does not always mean victory. Under AAU rules, if a man
is thrown from a standing position and strikes the mat on his
back with appreciable force, the contest is finished. Strict disci-
pline is followed on the mat to avoid injury and show courtesy.
Rules governing judo in the United States are outlined in
the official AAU guide. They assume competitors know about
trips, throws, strangles, and holds and the danger of resisting
too long. To avoid injury, contestants acknowledge defeat
by two or more quick slaps on the mat or on the opponent's
(See p. 10)
Cadets, these small fry judo students are called. Seven-year-old
Cathy Detamore uses the one-arm shoulder throw on Ray Wheeler,
also 7. Former instructor Bruce Perry supervises the action.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
l .. 4
In a demonstration of the stomach throw, Bobby Detamore goes sailing over the head of Sharon Wheeler.
(Continued from p. 9)
The Canal Zone Judo Club holds
"Shiais" or judo contests the last week
of April and first week of October each
year. These official bouts give students
a chance for promotion to a higher
degree belt. The club enters competition
with Colon and Panama City clubs.
The Canal Zone club has a board of
governors and a Black Belt Promotion
Board. The former consists of brown
belts, first, second, and third class and
three black belts.
President of the club is Robert Shultz,
Health Bureau, a first degree brown belt.
William O'Sullivan, official translator,
first degree brown belt, is vice president
and Jerry Detamore, forms control of-
ficer, a white belt holder, is secretary-
Club members welcome anyone inter-
ested in judo. The sport is relaxing and
psu -hologically stimulating since it pro-
dutes both mental and physical fitness.
It improves circulation, removes excess
weight and builds the smooth graceful
lines of a well proportioned athlete.
Information on classes in judo for all
ages is available at the Balboa Y1MCA.
Sharon Wheeler, of the high school junior division, flips Bruce Perry, a former Postal Division
employee who was a junior division instructor. Teenagers enjoy the judo instruction.
21A 1 vNi \. II
The SS Repdblica de Colombia, the first of a fleet of sleek, new merchant ships, made her first trip through the Panama Canal recently.
First Trip: New York to Peru, Via the Panama Canal
Advanced Cargo Ship Transits Canal
THE SS Reputblica de Colombia, the first of six new
merchant ships being added to the Flota Mercante Gran-
Colombia's fleet at an estimated cost of $36 million, made
her maiden voyage through the Canal at the end of
Built in Hamburg, Germany, by H. D. Stulcken Sohn,
Schiffswerft, the vessel was delivered to her owners in
September and sailed directly for Cartagena, Colombia,
where she was formally inaugurated by Mrs. Diana Valen-
cia de Iragorri, daughter of the President of Colombia.
After the inauguration, the ship went to New York
to load cargo for her maiden voyage through the
Canal to Callao, Peru, via Buenaventura, Colombia, and
The SS Ciudad de Bogotd, the second of the six ships,
will be delivered in September and will be placed on
the same service.
The Republica de Colombia and five sister ships are
being equipped with the most advanced electronically
controlled cargo handling system now in use, and with
the latest type automatic engine controls. The ships
are 544 feet long, have a gross tonnage of 11,655 tons,
a service speed of 20 knots and can carry 88 of the
20-foot containers in addition to other types of cargo.
One other ship, in addition to the Rep6blica de
Colombia and the Ciudad de Bogotd, is being built in
Germany. Three are under construction at the Elcano
Shipyards in Seville, Spain. Wilford & McKay represent
the shipping line on the Isthmus.
For Review Readers
DISTRIBUTION AND subscription policies of the
PANAMA CANAL REVIEw will remain unchanged on the
new quarterly publication basis. Subscriptions are $1
a year; extra copies and copies of previous issues are
100 each. Postal money orders for subscriptions should
be made payable to the Panama Canal Company and
addressed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. More
information on quarterly publication is on page 2.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11
* | | 1 1 i k
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
First Quarter, Fiscal Year-
United States -
All Other ----
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
April_ --- --
Fiscal year-...- 2,976
Gross Tolls *
(In thousands of dollars)
* Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
This table shows the number of transits segregated into eight main trade routes:
First Quarter, Fiscal Year-
Trade routes Avg. No.
1965 1964 Transits
~~~~~_____~~~________________ ____ _____~~___1951-55
United States intercoastal ------------------- 135 97 178
East coast of United States and South America ----- 541 605 387
East coast of United States and Central America -- 169 124 113
East coast of United States and Far East --------- 562 562 239
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia - 113 97 49
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada - 235 211 167
Europe and South America_ -- ----- ---------_ 338 312 111
Europe and Australasia- --------------- ----- 84 81 83
All other routes----------------------- - 799 724 353
Total traffic- _------ ---- ----------1 2,976 2,813 1,680
THE TERM "seaworthiness" may mean
something uncomplicated to the layman,
but to maritime interests it has specific
and sometimes controversial meanings.
For instance, a ship can be seaworthy
in the sense that it is well built, safe,
superbly equipped and manned, loaded
properly, and maintained with care. Yet,
it can be found unseaworthy by a mar-
itime court on a point of law. It may
have the wherewithal to ride out the
meanest hurricane, but not be able to
satisfy a court or port authority that it
is seaworthy while tied up in calm
waters at a dock.
How can such a situation occur?
Courts have held that a ship may be
unseaworthy if its cargo is improperly
packaged or secured. In cases where
dock workers unloading the ships have
been injured in handling the cargo, rul-
ings have held that the containers of the
cargo were unseaworthy.
Defective or unsafe containers, outer
bindings or wrappings, or unsafe cargo
stowage makes the cargo area not rea-
sonably safe for dockworkers and thus,
goes the legal reasoning, the ship is
This is not universal, of course, be-
cause maritime decisions vary according
to the situation and the jurisdiction in
which a case may arise.
"Seaworthy," then, is a relative term.
The Panama Canal regulations, which
have served shipping well for 50 years,
are designed to insure the vessel's ability
to meet conditions and circumstances
likely to be encountered in a transit of
the Panama Canal.
Canal waters, of course, are calm.
And the Canal is a very particular mari-
time entity. The standard rules of the
road and other regulations that apply to
ships on the high seas give way in Canal
waters to a set of regulations designed
to insure the safe and efficient passage
of vessels through the Canal and its
18,893,330 I 2,813 17, 0
locks. There is no specific chapter on
"seaworthiness" in the navigation regu-
lations. But various rules, taken together,
spell out the conditions required before
a ship is allowed to transit the Panama
These are found in the "Rules and
Regulations Governing Navigation of
the Panama Canal and Adjacent Wa-
ters." Chapters 3, 7, and 10 have sec-
tions dealing with basic requirements a
ship must meet.
The Panama Canal honors vessel in-
spection certificates issued by countries
that will honor the same type of certif-
icate issued by the United States. But
if a ship asks for an inspection, the Canal
authorities will oblige the request.
Canal authorities can deny passage to
any vessel if condition of the cargo, hull
or machinery is considered a danger
to Canal structures, or when the con-
dition of these items might result in an
obstruction in the Canal.
A proper trim is required for transit.
If the list is more than 10 degrees, or if
the trim or loading may dangerously
affect the ship's ability to maneuver,
transit can be denied.
Any ship longer than 150 feet must
have rudder-angle and engine-revolution
indicators, both operating properly; if
these are not ship's equipment, the
transit may be delayed as long as author-
ities think is necessary to obtain the
maximum safety margin.
There also are detailed requirements
for lights that must be clearly visible on
ships transiting the Canal. Equipment
for sound signals is required. The maxi-
mum speed of vessels in various areas
in Canal waters also is regulated. Speed
limits range from 6 knots in the narrow
300-foot reaches of Gaillard Cut to
18 knots in the 1,000-foot-wide reaches
in Gatun Lake.
If a ship is in transit and a defect is
discovered which might interfere with
its further transit, Canal authorities may
require it to anchor until the defect
Experience has been a factor in the
development of these regulations. There
is a sound reason behind each one.
The fact that over 12,000 ships now
transit the Canal routinely every year is
an indication of the validity of these
regulations, designed to insure the
"Canalworthiness" of vessels.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Ores, various -______________________
Lumber___ ____ _________
Petroleum & products (excludes asphalt)-..-
Wheat ----- _________________-________
Sugar -- --_-- -__________________
Canned food products _---------_
Nitrate of soda -------- ______
Pulpwood --- -------_____-- _______- .
Bananas-- __________ _____ _
Metal, various --- ______ _--
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
Coffee -__- __- _____-- __
Cotton, raw ----------- ____________-
Iron and steel manufactures ----__
All others-- --------__ __
First Quarter, Fiscal Year-
1965 1964 Average
1,975,959 1,960,324 987,567
1,058,749 892,440 798,109
291,459 661,494 339,598
179,693 153,974 473,208
826,657 784,926 346,218
252,338 242,402 309,830
156,590 154,072 250,093
143,739 122,261 44,248
327,575 276,024 155,958
292,953 248,194 175,110
205,568 226,134 142,823
88,085 127,903 60,065
66,502 62,341 37,857
426,827 254,198 39,171
1,344,238 1,247,965 709,895
7,957,415 7,668,183 4,869,750
Atlantic to Pacific
First Quarter, Fiscal Year-
1965 1964 Average
Petroleum & products (excludes asphalt) --- 3,608,789 2,632,073 709,710
Coal and coke ----- ------_---- -_ 1,429,851 1,485,974 539,013
Iron and steel manufactures --- 361,229 339,895 376,917
Phosphates ------ ---------------- 708,341 459,546 156,591
Sugar----- -------------------- 244,688 230,849 99,311
Soybeans ---..----------- 328,847 387,736 43,705
Metal, scrap--------------------------- 697,992 1,002,214 10,321
Sulfur ___-------- ----- 123,385 119,546 96,831
Flour, wheat -------- ----------- 111,589 74,068 14,167
Paper and paper products------------------ 152,030 110,330 90,900
Ores, various---------------------------- 257,239 266,460 53,676
Machinery ------ ---------------- 109,823 96,033 66,690
Corn -------------------------------- 624,373 375,630 12,729
Chemicals unclassified-------------------- 207,198 133,400 45,236
Automobiles and parts------------------- 89,708 77,631 66,627
All others------------------------------ 1,880,833 1,807,431 1,250,476
Total_____ ______------------ 10,935,915 9,598,816 3,632,900
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First Quarter, Fiscal Year-
Total commercial ---_
U.S. Government vessels: **
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
to to Total Total
1,535 1,441 2,976 2,813
69 94 163 158
1,604 1,535 3,139 2,971
39 28 67 63
15 15 30 42
1,658 1,578 3,236 3,076
*Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
*Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
I'm or T U
f R VPROSPECrO ..
Lr "****" i
The R. V. Prospector, research ship now making marine studies in the Pacific for a shipping company.
PANAMA CANAL EXPERTS LIKE THE IDEA
"All Wet" TV Show Is Good
EYES TO see and ears to hear.
The men who run the Panama Canal
need both. And as ship traffic increases,
the type of scientific assistance used to
augment human eyes and ears must be
more and more accurate.
Canal officials are showing consider-
able interest in a recently perfected
transitor-type television camera, which,
if adopted for Panama Canal use, would
Ci e Canal workers a new set of eyes.
The compact 20-pound television
camera, capable of operating in water
to depths of thousands of feet below the
surface, arrived here not long ago as
an important piece of the equipment of
the research vessel Prospector. It is
being used in the study of ocean-bottom
tpnpo,.rapih and materials.
Although the camera is geared to send
back pictures of the ocean floor thou-
sands of feet der,_p. it works equally well
in shallow depths and its powerful light
attachment would penetrate even the
murky waters of (;.nlllrd Cut.
At present the Panama Canal Surn -v
Branch makes a regular sonar inspection
of the bottom of the Cut to check for
obstacles or "lumps" or other obstruc-
tions which might be hazards to
Electronic devices or electrical ears
may discover the lumps but it then takes
actual inspections by Dredging Division
forces to determine if they are heaps of
silt kicked up by ships' propeller action
or whether they are hard and dangerous
rock upheavals or drop-ins which could
cause serious trouble.
Several plans including the use of a
television camera have been suggested
to improve and simplify on-the-spot
inspection of lumps in Gaillard Cut.
Since the silt-filled water hinders the
vision of divers attempting to locate
obstructions, one plan involved the use
of a viewing bell in conjunction with the
television camera and light. After the
diver locates the obstruction, the light
would provide sufficient illumination to
give experts at the surface a televised
view of the object.
Canal officials who inspected the com-
pact television camera on board the
Prospector suggested other possible uses
for the new device.
The camera and its portable receiving
set could be employed at the locks to
inspect miter gates or other installations
which are inaccessible unless the lock
chambers are emptied.
They believed also that the camera
would be valuable for the inspection
of ship hulls and underwater damage
to vessels lying at dock or anchored in
The Prospector arrived at Balboa from
Newport News, Va., with a group of
scientists aboard, on their way to the
Pacific where they will spend a year
making a study of marine acoustics,
ocean-bottom topography, and other
data for the Newport News Shipbuilding
& Dry Dock Co.
The information is to be used to
further the company's knowledge in
these fields. The study, it is hoped, will
yield information which will enable
improvements on products and extend
the company's diversification program.
(See p. 20)
50 Year 4go
THE BRAND NEW Panama Canal was
doing a rushing business 50 year ago,
despite the check on world ship traffic
as a result of the European war and the
interference by war vessels with the
shipping of belligerent nations. The
Canal Record reported that traffic in
the first month and a half of its com-
mercial service exceeded anticipations.
From August 15 to October 1, 81 vessels
passed through the Canal with 100
more appearing for transit during the
first week in October.
The total net Canal tonnage carried
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, includ-
ing that handled prior to the formal
opening, was 144,434 for the first 6
weeks. The aggregate net Canal tonnage
transported from the Pacific to the
Atlantic, including 57 barges, was
153,312 tons. Total tolls collected
amounted to $369,706.
The collier Jupiter arrived at Balboa
on October 8, 1914, on its way from the
north Pacific to Philadelphia. With a
length of 520 feet, a beam of 65 feet
and a draft of 27 feet 8 inches, it was
the largest vessel to pass through the
Canal up to that time. The Jupiter was
the only large vessel in the world at that
time to be powered by electricity,
according to the Canal Record.
The Panama Railroad began in Octo-
ber 1914 the construction of a new rat-
proof freight house to replace the old
building on Avenue B in Panama City.
The new building was to cost $72,000.
25 Yeari d4go
WORLD WAR II was only 2 months
old in Europe 25 years ago this month.
The U.S. Army had already ordered the
first blackout in the history of the Canal
Zone. Besides giving the residents of
the Canal Zone an opportunity to experi-
ence how civilians in London and Paris
must have been feeling, it permitted
U.S. Army planes to observe how much
of the Canal and its defenses were
visible during a complete blackout.
President Juan D. Arosemena and Col.
Manuel Pino, commander in chief of the
Panama Police Force, observed the
blackout from the top of Ancon Hill. It
was pronounced a success and plans
were made for another which would
plunge into darkness the entire Isthmus
including the Canal Zone, Panama, and
Reorganization of the Panama Canal
Department of the U.S. Army along
wartime lines was announced in a gen-
eral order issued by Maj. Gen. David
L. Stone. The new setup divided the
Department into four major divisions.
U.S. Under Secretary of State Summer
Welles was among the delegates of the
American Republics who met in Panama
25 years ago to discuss policy to be
followed by the 21 American states as
neutrals during the European war. Most
important proposal was the 300-mile
safety zone around the American
Three new post offices were to be
opened in the Canal Zone to provide
adequate postal service for increasing
personnel of the U.S. Army and Navy,
it was announced by C. H. Calhoun,
Director of Posts.
10 year,, 4go
SEVERAL HUNDRED Canal Zone
residents, including Gov. John S.
Seybold, visited Coco Solo Hospital dur-
ing an open house prior to its formal
opening October 27, 1954. The hospital
had been transferred to the Canal Zone
by the U.S. Navy to provide consol-
idated medical facilities on the Atlantic
Another phase of the extensive 60-
cycle conversion program in the Canal
was started 10 years ago when bids
were asked on four new generators for
the Gatun Hydroelectric Plant. These
were the first bids asked for equipment
needed for the project. Meanwhile, a
house-to-house canvass to survey fre-
quency sensitive equipment in the home
was being carried out on the Atlantic
More than 50 feet had been sliced
off the top of Contractors Hill at Gaillard
Cut and approximately 200,000 cubic
yards of earth and rock had been re-
moved by October 1, 1954. The project
had been started in June of that year
by Tecon Corp. of Texas, contractor for
Typical scene of daily life in Panama's interior was shown during Music Week held recently
at Canal Zone Latin American communities. The above scene shows Santa Cruz students
Rosa Vergara, Jorge Rodriguez, and Jose Butcher acting out a scene on domestic chores.
Butcher, crouching down, fans the fire heating the coffee pot, while his stage wife looks
on. The cutarra-shod hillbilly makes ready to go out to the fields in coveralls and strawhat.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
The commemorative plate, distributed on the occasion of the 775th anniversary of
Port of Hamburg, celebrated this year in the ancient and prosperous port facility
Capt. Waldemar Nielsen, of the MS Pisang, was host to Capt. E. B. Rainier, ol
Port of Cristobal, and Capt. E. G. Abbott, of the Port of Balboa, at a champagne break
held aboard the ship in honor of the 775th anniversary of the Port of Hamburg. Ca
Nielsen, far left, presented commemorative plates of the Port of Hamburg, whici
distributed to port captains of the major ports of the world, to Captain Rainier, far
and Captain Abbott. Hans J. lilies, center, manager of Continental Shipping Corp., look
ON MAY 7, 1189, Frederick I, one of
the first great German emperors of the
Middle Ages, granted to Count Adol-
phus III of Holstein important harbor
privileges, and, above all, exemption
from imperial tolls. Frederick, who was
at the time preoccupied with his prep-
aration for one of the famous crusades,
probably never realized the importance
of the event. He did not dream that this
seemingly insignificant date would one
day be remembered as the "birthday"
of Hamburg, "Germany's gate to over-
seas," and one of the oldest leading
ports of the world.
.the The cosmopolitan port of Hamburg,
S which celebrates its 775th anniversary
this year, has grown and prospered since
its birth. It saw its first period of pros-
perity as a member of the Hanseatic
League, which extended its trade routes
over the whole of Europe, and still bears
the title of "Hanseatic City."
Hamburg has a deep and colorful
history, but its present is much more
amazing, and its future full of promise.
The results of two world wars were
overcome after energetic construction
work during this century, and today,
Hamburg, with its modern technical
equipment, is a larger and faster port
than at any other time in its long history.
It is an efficient port with an area
of about 29 square miles and employs
about 80,000 people. It handled ap-
proximately 33.3 million tons of cargo
Hamburg's prominence as a world
port is emphasized by the fact that more
than two-thirds of the cargo it handles
is part of the import and export trade
with America, Asia, Africa, and Aus-
tralia. Its geographical position at the
intersection of large economic units
enables Hamburg, as far as the polit-
F the ical situation permits, to act as medi-
ikfast ator between the different interests of
ptain various groups.
are To insure efficiency in handling cargo,
s on. Hamburg is provided with special facil-
16 NOVEMBER 1964
This drawing reflects something of the romantic atmosphere of the "old past." It shows the "Baumhaus," the seat of port officials, on
"Baumwall," a street that 300 years ago was at the mouth of Hamburg's harbor. Today, this same area bustles with commercial activity.
ities. There are more than a million
square yards of covered storing space
in quayside sheds and warehouses. In
this respect, Hamburg is better equip-
ped than any of the other European
ports. Furthermore, there are special
tanker terminals-moder refrigeration
plants for cold storage of goods-that
have earned Hamburg the name of "the
cold storage center of the North."
Hamburg's growth into the largest
German industrial city after Berlin has
promoted trade and communications
considerably, and has increased the effi-
ciency of its port. Inland communica-
tions are now being extended and
improved; the railway leading south
will soon be electrified and the autobahn
widened to three lanes both ways.
Hamburg is also equipped with large
modern dockyards for shipbuilding and
repair work, where nearly 2,200 sea-
going vessels were docked during the
Including all basins and canals, the
present harbor has an area of about
12,500 acres, about 3,900 acres of which
are taken up by the free port. About
3,300 acres are occupied by shipping
industries, of which 950 acres were
The swampy islands of Hamburg were turned into large harbor basins, and today between
120 and 140 ships from nations over the world can be found at the same spot.
added after the war. These figures refer
to purely industrial areas; they exclude
waterways and roadways. Hamburg's
harbor will be enlarged by about 6,250
acres and will then comprise a total area
of about 18,750 acres, or 29 square
Hamburg has always been the center
of German oceanographic research, and
since it will be the home port of the
new Meteor, its oceanographic, marine
meteorological, and marine biological
institutes will profit considerably from
the findings of this research vessel.
Shipbuilding in the port of Hamburg
is also on the increase. In 1963, 42 ships
with a total of 265,000 gross tons were
built. They were merchant vessels, with
and without cabins for passengers, at
sizes varying between 400 and 20,000
gross tons, tankers with deadweight
tonnage capacity between 36,000 and
91,000, fast ships equipped with freez-
ing and cooling plants of 3,000 and
4,000 gross tons, and other specially
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
VouriM, Jf ind
Saf, and Sun
BEACHES RANK high when it .-.
comes to evaluating the tourist at-.
tractions of a country. For years, visi-
tors have been flocking to Caribbean
islands to enjoy surf and sun.
Places like Nassau's Paradise "
Beach and Jamaica's plush north o
coast resorts have built a healthy *"
tourist industry on their sandy shores.
But it took more than sand, surf, and
balmy breezes to do the trick. Tour-
ists love to swim and sun themselves.
But they also like creature comforts-
modern accommodations, good food,
Panama's privileged geographical
position makes it a natural vacation- '
land. It has fine hotels, excellent res-
taurants, casinos, shopping at bargain
prices, and fabulous fishing.
It also has beaches, fine beaches.
Residents of the Isthmus have been
cni -. ing them for years, but up until
recently, no serious efforts had been
made to promote them into full-
blown, international resorts.
In recent years, businessmen have
been investing in the future of
Panama's tourist industry and the
prospects of its beaches becoming a
major attraction have brightened.
A big stride in this direction was
the opcnini of the Government-
owned Hotel Taboga, which is at-
tracting large numbers of visitors to
the beautiful island. Operated by the
Hotel International, it offers fine
-. ^" .'
f .. .' , .-.-.--
f ...... -.... ., *.i. .,,, *. .
*.. .. ... : ,- - '-
I ''. .- ~.: .i. V.
It's just a short stroll to the beach from new cottages at Santa Clara.
Two-story, thatched-roof cottages provide accommodations
for four persons.
for four persons.
PANAMA'S PACIFIC BEACHES BLOOMING
food, good service, and many air-
All along the Pacific coast of the
Isthmus, there are excellent beaches
and many of them now offer good
accommodations at reasonable rates.
Latest addition on the beachfront
is at Santa Clara, where weekend
visitors and vacationers now find a
neat row of two-story, thatched-roof
cottages just a stone's throw from the
water. Each sleeps four persons and
is equipped with complete kitchen
facilities. Built on stilts, the cottages
provide garage space underneath.
The new facility is an addition to
Phillips Cottages, purchased by Mr.
and Mrs. Erasmo de la Guardia and
now called Mummu Cottages.
In addition to comfortable house-
keeping accommodations on the
beach, there are other facilities, in-
cluding horseback riding and boats
Just a 2-hour drive from Panama,
Santa Clara is an ideal honeymoon
hideout or vacation spot for the
Other Pacific coast spots en route
to Santa Clara are Coronado and San
Carlos Beaches, where accommoda-
tions may also be arranged. For fish-
ing enthusiasts, there is the plush,
well-equipped Pifias Bay Club, also
on the Pacific shore, close to the
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
Frank D. Naughton
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Joseph N. Noble
Denton W. Broad
Control House Operatr
G. A. Richards
Linehandler ( and)
Edgar C. Springer
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
James H. Selby
Supervisory Cost Accountant
(Chief, Plant Accounting
Leslie B. Clarke
Eustace A. Dawkins
Waldo B. Gilley
l s and Public Works)
u ert on
TRAN STATION AND
TE LS BUREAU
war O'Brien, Jr.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Margaret R. Conner
Michael F. Greene
"All Wet" TV
A Good Show
(Continued from p. 14)
The venture is understood to represent
an investment of several hundred
The 152-foot Prospector is the former
Matane of La Compagnie de Transport
du Bas St. Laurent. She was built in
1938 and for years served the Canadian
company as a cargo-passenger craft on
the lower St. Lawrence River between
Rimouski and Sept Isles.
After being acquired by the Newport
News company, she was equipped with
radar, loran, sonar, underwater televi-
sion, underwater cameras, high-speed
winches, and air conditioning. She is
manned by a total crew of 15, all ship-
yard employees headed by Capt. George
Head of the scientific department is
Dr. John L. Mero, a graduate of the
University of California at Berkeley, a
research engineer with the Institute of
Marine Resources of the University of
C'hlifrni.a and formerly associated with
the Scripps Institute of Oceanography
at La Jolla.
Panama Canal diver Leslie Rinehart ap-
parently likes the looks of the compact
20-pound television camera that he's about
to use for an inspection of the hull of the
research vessel Prospector.
AND IT HAS JUST ABOUT EVERYTHING
A "SEEWORTHY" HOUSEBOAT!
NOW THIS is more like it: a houseboat
built for two. The Sky-Lark can accom-
modate 20 (SPILLWAY story, Aug. 7)
but the Peregrine is strictly for small
family comfort and ease.
Anchored at Rodman Naval Station,
the 35-ton nautical house belongs to
Comdr. and Mrs. Sidney E. Taylor, dis-
trict planning officer for the 15th Naval
District at Fort Amador.
The P. rtrimt. meaning traveler or
stranger in a foreign land, was born at
Made to order for those nautical weekends, the Peregrine's living room has all the comforts
of a house on shore. Commander Taylor is trying to convince his pet dachshund of this.
-1 -- --
Could it be? Yes. There's enough space in Peregrine's bedroom for this double bed. The
carving on the headboard was done by students at Don Bosco Institute, in Panama City.
the Fort Amador picnic area in Novem-
ber 1957. The dream of a quarter of a
century and 3 years of hard, physical
labor had their reward when the house-
boat was launched in September 1961.
Built at a cost of approximately
$18,000, including labor, the Peregrine
has an overall length of 48 feet, a beam
of 16 feet and an estimated draft of
30 inches. Taylor designed the flat-
bottomed boat himself to accommodate
certain criteria established by Mrs. Tay-
lor. They included a separate room for
the bedroom, a standard-sized stove, a
full-sized refrigerator with plenty of
freezing space, hot and cold running
water, ample closet and storage space,
both shower and bathtub, wall-to-wall
carpeting in the bathroom and air
Construction of the boat was a com-
munity project-that is, a number of area
people volunteered their services. Tay-
lor, of course, did much of the labor but
hired a carpenter to do all the cabinet
work and at various times employed
local help for what he calls "casual
labor." He was further assisted by neigh-
bors and fellow officers, "experts" among
the boating fraternity and "out-of-work"
caddies at Fort Amador golf course.
The commander estimates that 20,000
board feet of a variety of woods obtained
locally were used to build the boat. In
addition, the entire hull is pegged with
more than 8,000 3- to 4-inch wooden
plugs to give the boat that "pegged deck
effect." It is powered by two gray marine
diesel engines, 225 horsepower each,
which give the Peregrine a maximum
speed of about 8 knots.
Taylor got his engines, an automatic
firefighting device for the engineroom,
two toilets and other miscellaneous arti-
cles from a surplus boat he bought
from the Army. The Peregrine has a
water-pressure system, an air-condition-
ing unit, battery charger, auxiliary lights
and a generator. It also has navigational
devices such as a depth finder and a
radio direction finder.
Obviously, such elaborate accessories
and accommodations aboard the house-
boat weren't planned over 1 weekend,
1 month or even 1 year. The Peregrine
had its beginning in the 1930's when
(See p. 22)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
BOAT BOASTS .
EVERYTHING ? i B
(Continued from p. 21) .'
the Taylors were active in southern
California yachting circles.
At that time, the commander had just
arrived in the United States from Great
Britain. He was born in Hull, England,
in 1909 and joined the Royal Navy in
192 3 as a seaman apprentice. In 1933,
he made the United States his new
home and married the former Karen
The couple's plans in those years were
to build a yacht but World War II and .
a career in the U.S. Navy delayed con-
struction. Eventually, the Taylors de-
cided that a yacht could not give them
the marine comforts they wanted so they
settled on a houseboat.
Commander and Mrs. Taylor hope to
cruise the Mediterranean or the Carib- It's big kitchen comfort and little kitchen cleaning ease on
bean on the Peregrine someday, and Taylor removes a bread bin from a cupboard in the galley, r
then go to California or Florida, moor
the Peregrine and use it as their home.
This houseboat! Commander
revealing ample storage space.
Ready for a peregrinationn" she is! The Peregrine is 48 feet by 16 feet. Commander Taylor stands atop the boat to show its size.
22 NOVEMBER 1964
THREADING THE NEEDLE
Itll never make it, you think when you're standing on the
bridge of a big ship as it heads into the lock chamber (this
one's at Miraflores). It looks as if the ship will have to
push the walls aside a little. That's the view a pilot gets
from the point where this photo was taken. But he gives
a few orders and the ship slips surely and easily into the
Panama Canal locks, with room to spare. A tribute to the
skill of the pilots is that ships like the Ellenis, above,
are transiting the Canal every day on a routine basis.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
ONE OF THE first cruise ships to call
at Canal ports this season will be the
Holland-American liner Statendam, due
to arrive in Balboa December 3 from
Los Angeles. after making a 50-day
cruise to the Pacific. The ship will
dock in Balboa and transit the Canal
'December 4 on her way to New York
with stops at Kingston, Jamaica, and
Pacific-Ford, agent for the line in
Panama, has announced that the SS
Ryndam is being diverted by the Hol-
land-American Line from her regular
Canada-Europe run and will sail around
the world via Australia and the United
States west coast. She is scheduled to
arrive at Balboa January 13, will dock
and transit the Canal the following day.
The ship will sail for Europe via Ja-
maica with Lisbon her first European
port of call.
Another Holland-American liner due
this season is the SS Rotterdam, arriving
April 7 in Balboa following a round-
the-world cruise originating in New
Two Cunard cruise ships will call at
the Canal this season, according to Pa-
cific-Ford. They are the Mauretania,
due February 3 in Cristobal on a Carib-
bean cruise and the Coronia, due in Bal-
boa April 28 on the last lap of a globe-
girdling voyage which includes Africa
C. B. Fenton & Co. has announced
the arrival in Cristobal on January 25
of the Norwegian-American liner Ber-
gensfiord. The ship will be starting a
world trip via Suez and the Far East
during which she will call at 20 ports
and travel 26,983 miles. Also due in
January is the well-known cruise liner
Krunh.'nlm. of the Swedish-America
Line, on her way to the west coast and
a South Seas cruise. The ship will dock
in Balboa January 13 after making the
Canal transit and sail the following
da\ On her return trip she will arrive
at Balboa April 3 and dock in Cristobal
before sailing for New York.
The SS Homeric of the Home Line,
also represented by Fenton, will call
at Cristobal February 13 as part of a
(C .Irhh.-in cruise from New York.
New Lykes Cargo Ship
THE SS LOUISE LYKES, (cstrih,'id as
the Nation's most fully automated cargo
TRANSITS BY OCEANGOING VESSELS
IN FIRST QUARTER
FISCAL YEAR 1965
Commercial .............. 2,976 2,813
U.S. Government ......... 67 63
Free .................... 23 26
Total.............. 3,066 2,902
Commercial ... $16,146,343 514.5%6.978
U.S. Government. 421.053 335,420
Total.... $16.57,.4111 $14,922,398
Commercial... 18,893,330 17,266,999
U.S.Goverment. 442,969 360,991
Free.......... 123,094 120,762
Total.... 19,459,393 17,748,752
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
**Cargo figures are in long tons.
liner and the largest merchant ship ever
built in New Orleans, was launched in
September by Luci Baines Johnson at
the Avondale Shipyards and is expect-
ed to make her maiden voyage through
the Canal early next year. The vessel
is the first of 12 such ships being built
for the Lykes Bros., Steamship Co. for
the Lykes trade route to the Far East.
In launching the vessel, the 17-year-
old younger daughter of President and
Mrs. Johnson completed a task her
father started 9 months earlier when he
pushed a button in the White House
to start an automatic welding machine
in the shipyards in New Orleans to
weld the keel of the Louise Lykes.
I m I 1 I 1
Each of the 12 new ships will be
540 feet long, will have a deadweight
of 14,000 tons, a speed of 20 knots and
will be completely air conditioned. The
Westinghouse designed and built auto-
matic equipment will enable one man
to control the operations of the ship's
engineroom and give officers on the
bridge fingertip control of the speed
and direction of the ship. The system
will make possible a 30-percent reduc-
tion in the size of crews.
Panama Agencies represents Lyke
Bros. Steamship Co. at the Canal.
New Intercoastal Ships
IF PLANS FOR the construction of
three 24-knot container ships material-
ize, the American-Hawaiian Steamship
Co. will return to the intercoastal trade
for the first time since World War II.
According to reports from U.S. ship-
ing circles, bids are being invited for
the construction of the vessels, which
will be 900 feet in length and 101 feet
in beam. They will be used for inter-
coastal service between New York and
California and will be the longest ves-
sels to pass through the Panama Canal.
Built to carry 888 40-foot highway
trailer vans, the vessels would be the
largest and fastest of their type in the
world. The run between New York and
San Francisco would take 9 days. The
design includes automation of the en-
gineroom. "Maritime Reporter" and
"Engineering News" say the cost will
be approximately $35 million.
-(AVERAGE 1951-1955) --
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
24 NOVEMBER 1964
Due Returned Due Returned
Au --- -----i---------
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 04820 5131