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Panama Canal review
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00023
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publication Date: June 1964
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00023
Classification: lcc - HE2830.P2 P3
ddc - 386/.445
System ID: UF00097366:00023
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive


University


in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


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iUNOJ.64
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ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-President ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
DAV m S. I'MtI. Lieutenant Governor AM Publications Editors
FIIna NK A. BAL nVL RICHARD D. PEACOCK and Ju.Io E. BrICErO
Panama Canal Information (ilf,-. r Editorial Assistants
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. TOMhAs A. CUPAS
Printed at the Priitinl 1ilIt. La Boca, C.Z.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.


("
I



S II
.. . .. . .. . .


The British luxury liner Canberra made her second trip through the Panama Canal on May 28. She is shown here entering Pedro Miguel
Locks on her initial trip through the Canal. Norton Lilly is the agent at the Canal.


JIM-


c4lboUt VZe Cover


JOSEPI PENNELL, an enthusiastic and sensitive
American artist, never surpassed the sketches he did on
the Panama Canal. They are brilliant, bold, and convey
the vigorous spirit of the building of the Canal. "The
Native \ ill.ag ." this month's cover, was one of his por-
trayals of life as he found it on the Isthmus in 1912. Pennell
felt that he was sketching ti. most wonderful thing in
the world," and he captured it, he said, at its most
picturesque moment. History has proved that his judg-
ment was accurate. One of the limited number of original
lill...ii.,l.,, of this sketch hangs in the Canal Zone
I ilr ,n Museum.


New Board Members-

Transits at New High_

Shipping Charts ...___

New Radio System- _

Sandfly Solution _-__. _

Port of Houston ____. _

Canal History ........

Slipping News ....

Anniversaries

Ear Muffs and Sound

The Stamp Committee


Index


3


4

4

6

8

10


-- 11

. 12

---- 13


_ 15


JUNE 1964































Thomas C. Mann
Assistant Secretary of State for
Inter-American Affairs


THE BOARD of Directors of the Pan-
ama Canal Company has two new mem-
bers. They are Thomas C. Mann,
Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-
American Affairs, and Paul R. lin.,tiis,.
Under Secretary of the Army. Mr.
Mann, of Laredo, Tex., was sworn into
his new post as Assistant Secretary of
State for Inter-American Affairs on
January 3. He also is Special Assistant
to the President and U.S. Coordinator of
the Alliance for Progress. Mr. Ignatius
assumed the post of Under Secretary of
the Army on February 24.
Mr. Mann succeeds Edwin M. Martin,
who was divioi.ittd by Pres. Lvndon B.
Johnson as U.S. Ambassador to Argen-
tina. Mr. Ignatius succeeds Stephen
Ailes, who was appointed by the
President as Secretary of the Army.
Mr. Mann, a career Foreign Service
officer, served from 1961 as Ambassador
to Mexico. This will be the second time
Mr. Mann serves as Assistant Secretary
of State for Inter-American Affairs, a
post he previously held from Sep-
tember 1, 1960, to March 30, 1961,
when he was appointed as Ambassador
to Mexico.
From September 1957 to September
1960 Mr. Mann was Assistant Secretary
of State for Economic Affairs, and was
active in numerous aspects of United
States relations with Latin America.
He was born in Laredo on Novem-
ber 11, 1' 12. and was graduated from
Bavlor University in \\ i..i, Tex., in
1934, ni..-iiiiw, both bachelor of arts


NEW



BOARD



MEMBERS




and bachelor of laws degrees. He prac-
ticed law in Laredo from 1934 to 1942.
In 1942, when he joined the Foreign
Service, Mr. Mann was first assigned as
Special Assistant to the United States
Ambassador in Montevideo, Uruguay.
He returned to the Department in
194.3 as assistant chief of an economic
division. Later, he was assigned as Chief
of the Division of River Plate Affairs in
the Department and as Special Assistant
to the Assistant Secretary of State for
American Republics Affairs. In 1947,
Mr. Mann was assigned to the United
States Embassy in Caracas, Venezuela,
in charge of political and petroleum
affairs.
In January of 1950, he returned to
the Department of State as Director of
the Office of Middle-American Affairs,
and in November of that year he was
named Deputy Assistant Secretary in
the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.
In August of 1953 Mr. Mann again was
assigned abroad, '..in: to Athens as
Counselor of Embassy. In October of
1954. he was named Counselor of
Embassy in Guatemala City. He was
appointed Ambassador to El Salvador
in October 1 ;5 and he continued in
that capacity until November 1957.
Mr. Mann is married to the former
Nancy Milling Avnesworth of \\ ..-\
Tex. and they have a son, Clifton
Avnesworth Mann.
Mr. Ignatius is a native of Los An-
geles, Calif. He attended public schools
in Clendale, a suburb of Los Angeles.
In 1942, he received an A.B. degree
with honors from the University of
Southern California and was elected to
Phi Beta Kappa.
During World \\ .r II, Mr. Ignatius
served as a lieutenant in the Navy, prin-
cipally as an aviation ordnance officer
aboard the carrier Manila Bay in the
Pacific. For a brief period of time he was


Paul R. Ignatius
Under Secretary of the Army


a member of a staff responsible for pre-
paring a comprehensive manual for the
Navy's Bureau of Supplies and Accounts.
In February 1947 Mr. Ignatius was
awarded the degree of master in busi-
ness administration from Harvard Uni-
versity. In the following 3 years he
served as a research assistant and as an
instructor in business administration
at Harvard.
He resigned from the Harvard staff
in 1950 to form, with two of his Harvard
Business School associates, the manage-
ment, consulting, and research firm,
Harbridge House, Inc.
During the next 11 years, Mr.
Ignatius played a major role in the de-
velopment and expansion of Harbridge
House. A great part of this effort was
devoted to consulting and research in
military supply and procurement and
in the procurement responsibilities of
a large segment of defense industry.
Among the major projects he undertook
was the planning and establishment of
the Armv \M.n.r.-in.it t School at
Fort Belvoir and the Army Logistics
Management Center at Fort Lee.
On Mav 22, 1961, Mr. Ignatius was
appointed Assistant Secretary of the
Armv (Installations and Logistics) and
held that position until he assumed the
office of Under Secretary of the Army on
February 28 of this year.
In 1I-47, Mr. Ignatius married Nancy
Sharpless Weiser of Holvoke, Mass.
They have four children: David, 13;
Sarah, 12; Amy, 9; and Alan, 5.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






i \\\l COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964


Nationality



Belgian------
British ___
Chilean----- -
China, Nat.-..--
Colombian- - -
Danish .--...
French - -
German ------
Greek -_--
Honduran-....
Israeli .--.--
Italian .-..-.-
Japanese------
Lebanese .---.
Liberian ------
Netherlands. -..
Nicaraguan -- -
Norwegian - -
Panamanian ..._
Peruvian ------
Philippine-- -. -
Swedish - --
Swiss _____
United States- -
All others- -
Total ---


1964


Number
of
transits
16
357
33
14
81
75
58
278
148
90
10
45
191
15
241
210
17
400
148
34
20
119
24
413
52


Tons
of
cargo
89,751
2,283,881
242,596
97,268
82,809
435,038
233,200
851,705
1,367,307
65,178
69,494
242,216
1,066,882
129,617
2,654,571
813,330
25,357
3,225,705
527,688
129,011
75,950
796,018
26,601
2,484,938
271,114


3,089 I 18,287,225


1963
Number Tons
of of
transits cargo
11 37,806
332 1,846,957
22 146,225
17 107,747
48 66,540
73 380,561
26 131,587
245 746,900
172 1,452,448
51 23,686
18 42,947
36 198,678
188 1,079,996
10 83,234
200 1,715,665
187 770,229
13 20,059
356 2,690,695
100 414,403
15 58,151
14 52,072
98 545,096
1 7,979
338 1,820,862
30 163,555
f6i1m 14_604148


1951-55
Average Average
number tons
transits of cargo
2 2,716
323 1,936,872
17 85,011
6 54,599
35 37,708
57 224,852
35 163,469
54 109,721
29 253,278
97 130,876
32 182,089
69 470,531
48 300,445
30 151,379
6 6,551
203 833,741
116 665,039
4 9,135
5 33,662
46 198,424
2 11,789
498 3,088,092
59 113,413
1,773 9,063,392


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
(Fiscal Years)


Month


July_-----------
August ---------
September -----..-
October- --------
November -------
December -------
January- ---------
February--------
March --- -----
April-----------
May ------
June---------- -
Totals for 6
months __--
Fiscal year- --


1964

944
946
923
980
946
958
1,015
997
1,077



8,786


Transits

1963

978
950
909
882
924
947
769
841
991


Avg. No.
Transits
1951-55
557
554
570
607
568
599
580
559
632


Gross Tolls *
(In thousands of dollars)


1964

$4,898
4,842
4,836
5,154
4,879
4,897
5,140
5,193
5,480


8,191 5,226 $45,319
11.017 7,062


1963

$4,980
4,926
4,617
4,411
4,684
4,983
3,871
4,313
5,084


Average
Tolls
1951-55
$2,432
2,403
2,431
2,559
2,361
2,545
2,444
2,349
2,657


$41,869 $22,181
$56,368 $29,969


Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TR\FFI C MO\E\Il NT O\I R MAIN TRADE ROIlTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964
Avg. No.
1964 1963 Transits
1951-55
United States intercoastal ------------------- 108 70 146
East coast of United States and South America- --- 628 535 445
East coast of United States and Central America --- 196 111 129
East coast of United States and Far East---_ -------566 462 261
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ----- 79 63 48
Evirrop, and west coast of United States/Canada ---- 269 268 193
Furnr'e and South America -..- ------------ 357 305 123
Europe and Australasia- -- - - -------- 106 108 95
All other routes - - - - - - - - - - - 780 679 333
Total traff - - - - - .... 3,089 2,601 1,773


JUNE 1964


WITH THE PANAMA Canal traffic
reaching a total of 10,110 oceangoing
ships at the end of April, there was
every indication that fiscal year 1964
would be a record breaker.

At the end of April, only 1,314
ships were needed to meet the pre-
vious yearly record of 11,424 transits
set in 1962 by ships of more than 300
Panama Canal net tons. May traffic
indicated that this total could easily
be met and passed in June.

Traffic, cargo, and tolls all con-
tinued at a high level in January,
February, and March, all months
during which the waterway was
handling an all-time record in traffic.
The daily average of transits reached
a new high of 35 oceangoing ships
during the months of January,
through March of 1964.

This unusually heavy third quarter
was the result of large grain move-
ments to Europe and the speculative
rush to close deals in Japan for fear
of renewed restrictions on Japanese
imports. These conditions combined
with the speculative demands for
Russian wheat, resulted in a sharp
increase in charter rates. With higher
charter rates, many ships have been
taken out of the idle merchant fleets
of the world and placed back into
active service.

During March, the Japanese Gov-
ernment reinstituted economic con-
trols designed to curtail imports and
bring their foreign exchange hold-
ings back into balance. In the past
these corrective measures have re-
sulted in a reduction in Canal cargo
movements. The Far East currently
accounts for approximately37 percent
of the Canal cargo flow.

Major commodities shipped
through the Canal to the Far East
and especially Japan, include coal
cargoes shipped through Hampton
Roads, scrap iron from Europe and
the U.S. east coast and phosphates


260 146414


I





from U.S. gulf ports. Far East cargo
moving to the Atlantic consists of
finished goods manufactured in Ja-
pan and iron ore from Peru carried
on the ships which load coal for the
return trip to Japan.

Wheat shipments from United
States and Canadian west coast ports
to Europe amounted to nearly 2
million tons this past fiscal year.
These may drop by as much as
700,000 tons if predictions of a good
wheat crop in Europe prove correct.
Grain shipments usually slack off
during summer months because of
routing of grain through the St.
Lawrence Seaway.

The commodities expected to hold
their own in future Canal trade
movements are petroleum and ba-
nanas. Both may increase in the com-
ing year. There may be continued in-
crease in shipments of gasoline from
gulf ports to the U.S. west coast; re-
sidual oil to the Far East and crude
oil to the U.S. west coast.

Bananas, for many years among
the top commodities in Canal trade,
are being shipped in a steadily
increasing volume from Central and
South American ports to the United
States and Europe. Swift refrigerated
banana boats take the fruit to its des-
tination in record time and return
through the Canal in ballast to pick
up new cargoes. Bananas need not
be transported these days on espe-
cially designed vessels. Because of
new methods of packing, they can be
carried on any ship with refrigerated
cargo space.

Predictions made as to the imme-
diate future of Canal traffic must take
into consideration the ships in the
world charter market as a result of
the Russian wheat demands. Many of
these vessels remain in service and
are being used to carry any cargo
available. Future cargo totals may
drop as a result while transit figures
remain at the present high level.


P' INCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED IllHnIt G(I THE CAN L

Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)


Commodity


Ores, various--------------- ---------
Lumber ---____________________________
Petroleum & products (excludes asphalt) ---
Wheat ___--------------
Sugar -------------------------__ --__ --.
Canned food products --------- __
Nitrate of soda --_-----__--____------
Barley -----__ ____-------
Bananas----------------------------
Metal, various----------_______---------
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruits )---_-
Coffee ---- _--------__------
Fishmeal----------- --_______
Iron and steel manufactures-------------
Pulpwood-------- ----------------
All others------ -------------------
Total _____--------------


Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964


1964

1,493,594
1,119,227
521,022
494,618
366,267
220,736
226,483
151,917
354,126
298,492
260,659
110,486
333,667
306,667
126,818
1,565,591


1963

1,563,792
988,427
350,657
352,651
416,310
235,009
181,503
169,378
274,884
268,530
282,339
98,206
323,443
219518
119,956
1,577,477


7,950,370 7,422,080


Average
1951-55
1,381,084
961,032
868,628
249,439
508,144
233 804
304,637
360,514
58,964
192,445
162,399
163,265
76,638
60,502
48,257
660,674
4,909 342


Atlantic to Pacific

Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964
Commodity
1964 1963 Average
1951-55
Petroleum & products (excludes asphalt).---- 2,860,421 2,222,273 968,731
Coal and coke ----------------- 1,704,659 1,242,702 676,946
Iron and steel manufatures __-_------ ___ 401,581 245,565 420,153
Phosphates----------------------------- 602,821 500,545 195,587
Sugar ------- __---- ---- __--- ---- 1.04,543 68,669 101,508
Soybeans-------------------------------- 504,110 404,302 134,079
Metal, scrap----------------------------- 644,261 344,815 16,632
Sorghum-------------------------------- 114,552 .
Comrn___ _- --_-_-_-____________ 769,756 245,419 19,077
Paper and paper p products --------_---__-- 115,965 62,682 88,306
Ores, various----------------------------- 392,704 228,610 27,416
Fertilizers, Unclassified---- ----------- 113,436 80,824 34,616
Cotton, raw----------------------------- 116,614 80,572 66,290
Chemicals unclassified-------------------- 199,618 119,797 41,822
Metals, various-------------------------- 137,385 90,987 31,882
All others--------_-------------------_ 1,554,429 1,244,306 1,219,126
Total ---- --------------- 10,336,855 7,182,068 4,042,171


CANAL TRANSITS COf\IME1CI\L AND U.S. GOVERNMENT

Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964
Avg. No.
1964 1963 Transits
1951-55
Atlantic Pacific
to to Total Total Total
SPacific Atlantic _______
Commercial vessels:
Ocean-going--------------__ 1,625 1,464 3,089 2,601 1,773
Small ------..__ -_____ 83 73 156 101 284
Total commercial ----------- 1,708 1,537 3,245 2,702 2,057
U.S. Government vessels: *
Ooean-going---------------_ 41 35 76 64 151
Small ------------------- 17 10 27 36 71
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
ernment_----------____ 1,766 1,582 3,348 2,802 2,279
SVessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
"Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


I







RADIO SYSTEM WILL IMPROVE



CANAL TRANSIT OPERATIONS


HAND SIGNALS are going out and
radio ,i.l ,1. are in and, because of that
fact, Canal transits are more efficient
than ever.
The hand i;-i, l. for so many ears
the method used by pilots to tell loco-
motive operators when to stop, start,
pull, or brake, will no l1,,,., be the
major link between them. It % 1I be used
onlv in case radio communications fail.
And scheduled to be in the first t.,it
of operation this month is the new radio
system between l.;1.r,, lockmasters, and
operators of the locomotive "mules," the
friI i i,,.- and Construction Bureau
reports.
The new receiving and sending equip-
ment was purchased at a nominal cost
of about $90,000. The receivers ulti-
mately will be installed in 57 of the
new and more powerful locomotives
that are .Ii in, delivered at the rate of
about 3 a month from Japan. Two addi-
tional receivers will be used for spares.
For the pilots and lockmasters. 40
transceivers were slated for June de-
livery. These send and receive on four
frequencies.
There are about 23 of the new loco-
motives here, with final delivery date for
the 59 set at \i,'.t ..F I1 \t year. Two
of these will I1 ni in,,tl.l to provide
spare parts. But deliveries are running
ahead of schedule by about 2 months.
This means that the transmitting and
receiving system may be in use at all
three locks in less than ai xear. No equip-
ment is ',i, In, installed in the old loco-
motives, as the\ are Insuited to it and
it isn't necessary for their operation.
The purpose of the system is to relay
operational instructions from pilot to
locomotive operator. Radios will be used
by the pilots to advise the lockmaster of
cable ,1 ......I .II ..i desired and loco-
motive '. ,.1l I 1h will vastly improve
pilot unotrol of the transiting procedure.
The old locomotives use only one
cable and they move slower than the
new ones. II I, means the operator had
onl] one calle to watch and had more
time to respond. The two cables require
m11Ich more of his attention and, with
the increased speed it \was found that
ha,11d11 i I 1 (wereI inadequate. The use
of a recei\vei will mean that he can con-
centrate entirely on the power functions


From the pilot's point of view, here's how it looks when he's steering a ship through
the locks, Hle uses the radio to give directions.


of the mule and not have to be \..tf hing
for hand i.;IIl. He'll be able to
watch his two cables more closely and
coordinate more quickly with the pilot.
There are other .hl ,iiit.Ire.. to the
system. The pilot can call ahead to a
lockmaster and inform him of the speed
he requires and other transit informa-
tion. Formerly, the lockmaster carried
a telephone handset and checked with


the control house operator for the infor-
mation. The control house operator get,
his information by teletype and through
,. pilp, in touch with the dihp.tth
operator. This was a cumbersome
lockmaster-pilot communication Is stem
compared to a direct radio link between
these men.
The pilots can also keep in touch with
one another on the same ship, and pilots


JUNE 1964


.. .... - -..






on separate ships can talk to each other
with this system, if that is necessary.
The Navigation Division and Locks
Division worked up the operating pro-
cedures that take the best technical
advantage of the system.
It will be in full operation first at
Gatun Locks, then at Pedro Miguel and
Miraflores Locks as the remainder of the
new mules are delivered.
The radios will also eliminate another
old procedure. When a ship had several
pilots, wires had to be strung about the
ship to provide an intercom network
between the pilots.
Testing on the system was carried out
from March to November of 1963. It
was found that it offered excellent
advancement in communications. And,
with the new locomotives creating the
need for quicker communication, a way
was needed to meet this problem. The
radios provided the answer.
The tests led to the conclusion that
the system was necessary to guarantee
safety in transits and to meet the faster
transit capabilities offered by the new
locomotives. The old mules had a maxi-
mum speed of 2 miles an hour when
towing a ship; towing speed of the new
ones is 3 miles an hour. On the return
trip to get another ship, the new ones
move at 9 miles an hour, the old ones
at 5 miles an hour. The return trip with
a new locomotive results in an average
saving of about 10 minutes a trip, which
is significant when multiplied by a huge
number of transits. The radio system
will keep pace with this improvement
in transit speed.


In the locks, Pilot A. L. Wilder gives directions via radio, inching the big ship along.


The Laconia, guided


by the radio communication between the
and the pilot on board, enters the locks.


i '


locomotive operators


,? I

4*****A*
* "..........


e P -
^^y- L^ -. ..


I -tsJa"


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


--ii-si-


-4dloo







THEY'LL PUT


THE BITE ON


SANDFLIES


Experiments

Yield Key

To Control

ALL GOOD THINGS come in small
packages.
Except for sandflies.
The tiny sandfly, the scourge of the
Atlantic side, is one of the few pest
insects still thriving in large quantities
in the Canal Zone.
Experts from the Division of Sanita-
tion, headed by James P. MacLaren,
consider the sandfly a potential health
danger despite the general notion that
he is only a harmless nuisance. Recently
they completed a series of water man-
agement tests in a 25-acre mangrove
swamp plot at the Navy Ammunition
Depot area near Coco Solo. And they
think they might have the answer to the
problem of controlling this pest.
Control, they believe can be obtained
by submerging the area with tidewater.
Inundation of the salt mud, the sandfly's
favorite breeding ground, spelled doom
for 99 percent of the insects and their
larvae.
This method, involving the use of
tidegates to keep the sea water at a fixed
level in the mangrove swamp, resulted
within 2 months in the reduction of the
sandfly population in the test site to a
minimum. For the final 7 months of the
test, larvae in soil samples and adult
counts remained at a near zero level.
Check areas around the research plot
continued to provide high counts of
s.lndtlh larvae and adults throughout
the study.
A reverse of this method, employed
during 2 months of the dry season,
involved the use of the same water
control structures to prevent tide water
from entering the study area. Sandflies
stopped breeding when the soil surfaces
dried out but continued to thrive
along the drainage ditches where water
remained.
Water managemt.nt tests for control


-- -** -m 1W = .9
Entomologist Hawkins reaches for a glass jar attached to the sunken, open-end drum.
The jar contains sandflies which have developed in the salty mud inside the drum.


of sandflies were started in 1961 under
the supervision of James L. Hawkins,
Chief of the Entomology Laboratory
of the Division of Sanitation, with the
cooperation of the U.S. Army Environ-
mental Health Unit.
The Division of Sanitation installed
the spillways, tidegates, and dikes at
the test plot. Assistance was received
for the construction of tidegates from
a design provided by Dr. Andrew J.
Rogers, Director of the Control Research
Center at Vero Beach, Fla.
When opened, tidegates allowed the
tidewater to enter the areas. The gates
were closed at the highest tidewater
level so that the 25-acre plot was com-
pletely inundated to a depth of from
6 inches to 2 feet. The fixed level water
cover was retained on the entire area
from May 1963 to February 1964, a
period during which continued obser-
vations were made of sandfly breeding.
The water was maintained at a level
high enough to cover the land area but,
at the same time, low enough to prevent
drowning or killing of the existing
vegetation, particularly the dominant
mangrove trees.
Sanitation men had found that if the
vegetation dies or is removed, they are
faced with the problem of mosquitoes
that like to breed in open brackish water
areas with an abundance of sunshine.
Those mosquitos that did breed in the


test area were easily controlled by oil
or by flushing.
Attempts to ward off the sandfly date
back to 1944 when Canal Zone residents
were advised that two types of new
repellent were on sale in the Retail
Stores.
Nothing was done to control the pest
until 1958 when J. P. Smith, former
Chief of the Division of Sanitation. and


New breather shoots that obtain air for
the mangrove trees and enable them to live
in the tidal swamps are seen in this drain-
age ditch. If the breather tubes are covered
with water, the mangrove trees will die.


JUNE 1964






Morgan's Garden


Spot ol beauty

Jn the Zone

A VISIT to Morgan's Garden is like
viewing a favorite painting-though
you've seen it before, it's pleasure stirs
you anew.
Situated on Gaillard Highway, the
hilltop is alive with the colors of tropical
flowers. A stroll along the paths and
palm-lined walks offers a different aspect
to the ordinary tropical scenery and at
one point, offers a charming view of the
Panama Canal. For a pleasurable hour
or so on an afternoon, a drive to Mor-
gan's Garden and a tour of its grounds
is well worth the time.


The varigated foliage hibiscus, one of the
In the background are the multi-colored


common, yet lovely, flowers on the Isthmus.
crotons, also plentiful at Morgan's Garden.


A single bloom of one of the beautiful
heliconia flowers, which is related to the
banana family. These grow in profusion at
Morgan's Garden.

Samuel G. Breeland, Canal Zone med-
ical entomologist, experimented with
aerial application of pelletized dieldrin,
a soil poison he hoped would destroy
the larvae before they became adults.
The first application of dieldrin
brought a marked reduction of breeding
in the treated areas for about 8 months,
but succeeding applications were fail-
ures as the sandflies developed resistance
against or tolerance for the chemical.
Canal history reveals that the sandfly
has been an Isthmian resident for a long
time. The breeding areas totaling 3,000
acres of mangrove swamps on the Pacific
and Atlantic side of the Canal Zone
alone. Apparently the sandfly prefers to
lay eggs on land that has a salt content.
Most of this land is flooded daily by
tidewater.


There are approximately 50 sandfly
species on the Isthmus with Culicoides
furens the main specie. Although he is
a tiny fly, there are other species
one-half the size with as big a bite.


Apparently all sandflies like to bite
humans. It took many years to devise
a practical way, but now it appears the
humans will be able to bite back,
through science, and eliminate the pest.


John Palmer Smith, former Chief of the Division of Sanitation, who initiated sandfly
control research here, inspects a tide gate installation at Coco Solo.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


- I' Err


lai~E~~X - --i-- ~-r~rrl





WORLD PORTS


Jrouston Port


Paved the Way1


Z o reatne.d

DOWN THROUGH history the great
cities of the world invariably have been
i., at port cities as well, and Houston
has become a great city because, and
only since, it built itself a port.
Indirectly or directly, it is the port
and the ship channel which changed
Houston from a moderately prospering
center of timber and cotton to one of
the great trading centers of the Nation
and the heart of the vital, strategic, and
evergrowing petro-chemical industry.
It is the port which made Houston
first in the South in both population and
income, sixth in population in the Nation
and recognition by the Government as
the Nation's fastest growing city.
It is the port which gave it the huge
$2.6 billion industrial complex and
brought not only refineries and petro-
chemicals but steel mills, paper plants,
cement factories, and a host of other
heavy industry that would otherwise
never have come here.
It is the port which feeds the 6 trunk-
line railroads, 38 motor-freight carriers,
27 steamship agencies, 35 freight for-
warders, 8 barge lines, 11 export pack-
ers, 19 stevedoring companies, and the
many other services needed to move
fl. ;lt cargo in foreign and domestic
trade.
It is the port and its industrial and
transportation complex that was one of
the deciding factors in the selection of
Houston as the site of the N.A.S.A.
Manned Space Flihglr Center, bringing
in another $200 million facility and
another $60 million yearly salary.
WLl,, the above generalities can
scarcely be bx In'.idl a few cold facts
and figures serve to bolster them con-
siderably. The Port of Houston, the
IHoustoni Chamber of Commerce, the
Maritime .-\ .. i..i... Sales Manage-
mcwnt lr/'.,:ir, and others have made
studitc .1 I iL. I., the port, ship channel
industry, and the metropolitan area
which provide those cold facts and fig-
ures and demonstrate ,,i pi)1..ill, the
tremendous economic importance of
deep water to Houston.
F ir. the vast industrial complex
,.,.0l the ship channel which came to


JUNE 1964


Houston solely because of its deep water
now employs an estimated 100,000 per-
sons-nearly one-twelfth of the popula-
tion of Harris County. Using the ratio


of one in four as a basis for employment,
(i.e., employee as head of household
with wife and two children,) those
(See p. 15)


Port of Houston's 12-story Trade Building, owned by the port
Port of Houston's 12-story Trade Building, owned by the port.


Turning basin at Port of Houston, looking downstream.
1 ,.o








50 ieard c4go
A CAREFUL survey of the newly built
Canal structures, following a severe
earthquake 50 years ago, revealed no
damage to the locks, dams or spillways,
shop buildings, or permanent quarters.
There were some cracks in the concrete
blocks and stucco of the new Adminis-
tration Building at Balboa. According to
a report in The Canal Record, the quake
was about V or VI in the Rossi-Forel
scale and was strong enough to thr,,..
the pens off the sheets of all instruments."
Commercial use of the Panama Canal
was begun on May 18, 1914 when three
barges loaded with sugar diverted from
Tehuantepec route by the American
Hawaiian Steamship Co., left Balboa in
tow for Cristobal. By June 1, the total
earning in Canal tolls on cargo and
ballast tonnage came to $7,356.
The SS Allianca of the Panama
Railroad Steamship Line was passed
through the Gatun Locks from the At-
lantic channel to Gatun Lake and return
June 8, 1914, making it the first ocean-
going passenger vessel to enter or pass
the Canal locks. The SS Ancon was
locked through Gatun in a similar
operation June 11.
A number of shipping companies
were arranging new schedules in anti-
cipation of the opening of the Panama
Canal to commercial traffic. They in-
cluded the British Pacific Steam Naviga-
tion Co., then serving South America
from Europe, the Luckenbach Steam-
ship Co. with service between San Fran-
cisco and Balboa and the W. R. Grace
Co. then operating four ships from New
York to San Francisco around South
America.

25 year c4go
AS THREATS of a second world war
became more serious in Europe, 25 years
ago, Harry Woodring, U.S. Secretary of
the Army, urged the immediate con-
struction of a third set of locks for the
Panama Canal to be used exclusively by
warships of the U.S. Navy in time of
emergency.
In testimony before the House Appro-
priations Subcommittee, he also urged
the immediate strengthening of land and
air establishments of the Canal Zone and
said that the U.S. Navy should at all
times be assured of rapid and safe transit
through the Canal.
The so called "Old Timers Bill,"
extending the thanks of Congress to the
civilian employees who participated in
the construction of the Canal and pro-


FINAL
hiding more liberal
to those who serve
during the const
passed by the Hou
by unanimous con
Also from Wasi
tions of an early r
United States-Pal
material objection
U.S. Senate were
tion was made by'
Chairman of tl
Relations Committ

10 Ye
HEARINGS ON
Panama Canal rec
were begun in Was
Gov. John S. Seyl
witnesses, testified
zation was functi
employee morale
He recommended
ential be made fr
that rentals be red
said the success ol
tion in the perform
was dependent on
and hold compete
Robert E. May
Pacific American S


HISTORY
1 retirement annuities told the Panama Canal Subcommittee in
d three or more years Washington that the Panama Canal
ruction period, was could be put on a profitable basis if more
se of Representatives businesslike methods of administration
sent. were followed. He recommended that
hington came predic- the organization work toward lowering
ratification of the new tolls. He said that higher tolls would
nama treaty as all increase freight costs.
s to the pact by the The Tecan Corp., which had the
removed. The predic- $3,391,000 contract for the removal of
Senator Key Pittman, 2,500,000 yards of earth from Contrac-
Senator Key Pittman,
he Senate Foreign tors Hill, announced that it would spend
ee. $1 million on equipment for the job and
would employ 200 men, as many as
arJ 4o possible in Panama.
the operation of the One Year c4go
organization program SIXTEEN U.S. astronauts, including
hington in June 1954. six who had already traveled in space,
bold, one of the first arrived on the Isthmus last June to learn
that the new organi- how to survive in the dense jungles.
oning well and that They spent 4 days training at Albrook
was reasonably high. Air Force Base and 4 days in the tropical
that the pay differ- rain forest.
ee of income tax and Members of the Panama Canal Board
luced 50 percent. He of Directors, accompanied by Panama
f the Canal organiza- Canal Secretary W. M. Whitman, ar-
mance of its mission, rived by plane for a 2-day stay in the
the ability to recruit Canal Zone. They reviewed the 1964
nt employees. and 1965 capital and operating budgets
er, President of the and discussed other Panama Canal
teamship Association matters.


A "whachamacallit?" No, there really is a name for it-the "rail-car" in railroad language.
Two of them have been purchased for the Railroad Division and are used for track
patrol and inspection. They can carry seven passengers and a driver and could be used
to supplement train schedules. The small steel wheels substitute for rubber tires.


THE PANAMA CANAL. REVIEW


.r IIu








SH


Women Ahoy!
WHEN MEN go to sea, women are left
behind.
That was in the good old days.
In this modern world, the women-
folk may follow their men to sea and
sometimes they take the family too.
Such a woman is Mrs. Ruth Nygaard;
wife of Capt. Einar Nygaard, skipper
of the Danish-flag Chilean Reefer
which goes through the Canal on a
regular schedule carrying bananas from
Guayaquil, Ecuador, to Antwerp.
In Ma.., she accompanied her hus-
band on the southbound voyage of the
vessel and chalked up her 50th transit
through the Panama Canal. She was
still a little behind her husband in Canal
transit records, however. He will be
making his 150th and last trip through
the Canal when the vessel goes north-
bound on June 29.
Mrs. N)gaard is one of many officers'
wives who are permitted by Scandina-
vian shipping companies to accompany
their husbands on one or two voyages
each year. On some of the larger ships
which seldom call at their home port,
arrangements are made to take not only
the wife but the children.
Australia-L.A. Service
THREE FREIGHTERS-two Japanese
and one Swedish-will be coming
rhroiigh the Canal soon on a schedule
which takes them to such widely separ-
ated ports as Adelaide, Australia, and
Tampa, Fla. The service operated by
the Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd. and
subsidized by the Australian Govern-
ment, will be opened by the Malacca
Maru, a "K" line ship due at Cristobal
June 11 from Australia by way of South
American and Caribbean ports. After
,iiil,ldinl here, the Malacca Maru will
go Io T.unpa and other ports and return
to transit the Canal July 4 en route to
San Francisco and Japan. According to
Royal Netherlands, agents for the "K"
line, she will be followed by the
S% lish-flati, Vasaholm and the Japa-
nese-flag Meisei Maru.
New Cruise Ships
TWO NEW\ NAMES have been added
to the list of cruise ships which are
expected to visit the Panama Canal
during the 1% 1-6I winter cruise season.
One is the Holland-America Line pas-


PP


TRI:NSITS BY
\VESSELS



tii al .....
S01
l'.S.( ;o\I r n2 t.
Tuteri l ... t;

TOIr


C( i Il
r's (Co


N


G


OCEANGOING this will be the first transit for the Canal
IN \1PI11 for the 2-year-old vessel which usually
196 w stays on the North Atlantic run.
..... 1o The Shalom, a Zim-Israel Navigation
.... 22 Co. ship, probably will include Cristobal
in the ports of call when she is diverted
1 01 94 to Caribbean cruise trade during the
winter months, although United Fruit
7 Co., agents for the line here, have no
7.35 definite word. The ship was built this
year in France for Zim Line trans-
.4.S6 i I30 Atlantic service and is designed to carry
r. 1o 1,000 passengers in two classes.


.1 .1. (IU I11


""C;re o figures ric in 1 ni toll

senger ship Ryndam due
January 13. The second i
Israeli passenger liner Shalo
ning between Haifa, Europ
United States.
The Ryndam, with from
passengers, is scheduled
round-the world cruise leave
dam early in November an
Australian and New Zealanl
Tahiti. She will call for the
U.S. west coast ports and
the Panama Canal and retur
Jamaica. Her agents, Pacifi


) IU
2) 1


Canberra on 2d Visit


___ THE P & O-ORIENT Line luxury ship
,, 28 Canberra arrived at Balboa May 28 on
h er second visit to the Canal carrying
more than 1,000 passengers. The ship
made the Canal transit northbound the
following day and sailed at midnight
in Balboa for Nassau and European ports. The
is the new biggest passenger liner to be built in
m now run- England since the Queen Elizabeth, the
)e, and the Canberra has an overall length of 818.5
feet and a beam of 102.5. This makes
400 to 800 her one of the biggest commercial liners
to make a to use the Canal.
ing Rotter- The Canberra came to the Canal from
d calling at Australia and New Zealand via the U.S.
d ports and west coast and Acapulco. She will be
first time at followed in July by the Oriana, the
proceed to second largest ship in the P & O-Orient
n home via passenger fleet, which will follow the
c Ford, say Canberra's schedule.

1100
N
1000 U
M
B
900 E
R
800 0
F




------- 00 R
T
A
i5) 00 N
S

0 T
DECr h IAI CCO MARlD ADD IAAV lNi S


V"I- .. .jL. sJC I IVi JV L Ji41M r r r lllf- tr iVliil Jl uJi
MONTHS


JUNE 1964


UJ L AUG SEP OCT NOV







ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


i IARI BEAU
E. n
ari Tr- i OClerk


NSPORTA
TERMINALS BUREAU
Ivan A. Hyacinth
Supervisory Cargo Clerk


ADMINISTRATIVE
SERVICES DIVISION


MARINE BUREAU
Robert K. Adams
Lead Foreman (Harbor)
Henry E. Lewis
Lead Foreman (Painter)
Leonard Small
Oiler (Floating Plant)


ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
rd Charles

W. His
Operr, Craneboat
Ernest E F s
Clerk ( y ng)
TRA P STATION AND
ALS BUREAU
e Haynes
Clerk
Enrique I. Marshall
Automotive Mechanic
Rudolph G. Reid
Supervisory Cargo Clerk
HEALTH BUREAU
Roland Carter
Clerk


OFFICE OF THE
GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT
John E. Deming
Magistrate

COMPTROLLERS OFFICE
Ferne E. Levee
General Claims Examiner
Frances P. Walker
Time, Leave, and
Payroll Clerk

SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Lucy R. Blackman
Sales Clerk
William M. Boyce
Sales Clerk
Humberto Castro
Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator
Luis A. Espinal
Utility Worker
John Grandison
Laborer
Alejandro Martinez
Cemetery Worker
Dorico Membache
Utility Worker
Segundo H. Mero
Baker
Juan Padilla
Garbage Collector
Clara M. Reid
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Apolinar Santamaria
Stockman
Ruth E. Trotman
Clerk
Linette J. Williams
Maid

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


MARINE BUREAU
Enrique Alvarenga
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Tombs G. Amador
Maintenanceman
Jaime D. Ceballos M.
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Justo P. Facete
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Jos6 E. Garay
Linehandler
Osbourne Hoy
Seaman
Victor G. Jimnnez
er (Maintena
Winsto yne

ha in nler Dec khand)

sactr M. o
Boa a




ement Finisher (Limite
Arnoldo Orozco S.
Linehandler (Deckhand)
Herman Panzer
Lock Operator (Machinist)
Federico Ramos
Linehandler (Deckhand)

ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION BUREAU
Gerardo Diaz D.
Seaman
Luther J. Quinn
2d Mate, Pipeline Dredge
Class I
Agustin Santana
Seaman
Israel Watkins
Maintenanceman
(Distribution System)


TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Minnie B. Burton
Clerical Assistant
(Stenography)
Reginald W. Graham
Truck Driver
(Heavy Trailer)
Robert Lewin
Stevedore
Benedicto G. L6pez
Carpenter (Maintenance)
Egbert G. Richardson
Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman

CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Ethel V. Ferguson
Teacher (Junior High-U.S.
Schools)
Enoch L. Hooper
Fire Lieutenant

HEALTH BUREAU
Pauline Fennell
Nursing Assistant
(Psychiatry)
Charles E. Hurdle
Exterminator
Delia L. Miller
Dental Assistant
(Restorative)
Marguerite M. Orr
Head Nurse (Psychiatry)
Raimundo Vergara
Ward Service Aid








"Sound Off" With Ear Muffs


with the switchboard operator.
The two gas turbines installed at
\lIn llti- are the first of their kind to
be purchased by the Canal organization.
They have increased the power genera-
tion potential of the Canal Zone by
approximately one-third. At present one
of the turbines is used on a 24-hour


Without ear muffs, a worker might find
that noise is not only a nuisance but can
very well lead to ear trouble later on.

\\ H( EVER heard of wearing ear muffs
in the tropics?
Some of the Panama Canal Electrical
Division employees have, and thev wear
them.
Stanwood O. Sp,-Lht Supervisor of
the Mechanical Power Branch at the
Miraflores Generating Station, and a
number of the men working with him
find that ear muffs are necessary
equipment at times.
They are not used as protection
,I linll, the cold, naturally, but are a
safety measure to protect the hearing of
Specht and his employees when they
have to work for any length of time in
close proximity to the big oil-fired gas
Il ,, ., t .i ,t.1. installed recently at
nI ,l.,i. l~ ... ii, full 'pI-i1.ti. ii. these
turbines sound .. lilthli.g li. a jet
bomber '. ii.li.' for the takeoff.
R;.bit now ear muffs are used only at
the Miraflores substation but they are
standard safety equipment in many fac-
tories and industrial plants in the United
States where there is excessive noise or
where employees may be exposed to
loud industrial noises over a prolonged
period of time.
The National Safety Council urges
that for workers employed in sites where
industrial noises reach a certain level,
some precaution be taken to protect
their I .i... i.. The level of the highi
pitched whine of the turbines at Mira-
flores Substation was considered to be at
a critical level.
With sound di .r!,.ini.i muffs over
their ears, the men '. 'ii ,, near the
-. I.. Ii. i were faced by another
probl)tin-eomnmunication with the man
--" 'i i,, < the switchboard in the glass
enclosed control room.
Electrical Division engineers solved
this problem by i;pl'i,"ii. some of the
car muffs with a telephone device which
permits the man x,-..ii,.: them to talk


basis and the second di ii ih peak power
demand periods.
They will be joined in 1966 by a
steam-turbine g, it r .dti 2 unit which
will have a steam boiler designed to
employ the waste heat from the gas
turbine. It will be supplemented by
Slf11- in; as required.


Ear muffs protect the hearing of Robert J. Roy, shift engineer on watch at the Miraflores
Substation, shown checking one of the gas turbo-generators by making a flame inspection,
Roy is inside the protective aluminum covering of the generator standing next to the
generator itself. The asbestos padding over the turbine is a protection against heat.


-ACC IDENTS
FOR
THIS MONTH
AND FIRST AID HOSPITAL W I!l
ZONE
THIS YEAR

DAYS
APRIL CASES CASES ABSENT
'64 '63 '64 '63 '64 '63
ALL UNITS 252 267 18 22(1) 632 421
YEAR TO DATE 1016 1038(36) 76 71(0o) 1305 2020(998)
Locks Overhaul Injuries Included in total.


14 JUNE 1964







THE STORY OF A NEW C.Z. STAMP


INTEREST IS mounting in the six
Cdmal Zone commemorative stamps to
I. issued \.:',lit 15 in observance of
the 50th Anniversary of the Panama
(C.al Zone. How these stamps, as well


as others issued for the Canal Zone,
come into being is an interesting story.
The Canal Zone Stamp Advisory
Committee, functioning since 1946,
assists the Director of Posts, Earl F.


Houston's Port Paved the Way to Greatness
(Continued from p. 10)


100,000 persons constitute about one-
Ithird the working force of Harris County.
These 100,000 employees earn an
a\ erage of 55 W00i yearly, which means
a $500 million annual payroll from ship
t channel industries.
Second, estimates place another
10,000 persons engaged in the direct
operation of port facilities, at wharves,
on railroads, barge lines, truck lines,
'wa rehouses, st, d1.ri-i g, crating, and in
the myriad other services. With the
same average S3.uno.1 yearly projected
to them there is an additional $50 mil-
lon in payroll to help support the innu-
merable businesses, service occupations,
.11ad professional groups that are there-
fore lirgh dependent directly or
indirectly on the Port of Houston, its
.Iti it.i and its industry.
Third, there is the actual economic
.utivity engendered by a vessel loading
or unloading cargo in the Port of Hous-
tun, and its effect on the city and county
economy. A survey by the consulting
-rAgineering firm of Knappen, Tippertts.
Abbott & MacCarthy for the Port of
Houston a few years ago estimated that
ari average of $17.20 is expended in the
loading or unloading of a ton of general
largo. For a ton of grain the estimate
% as nearly $5 and for handling a ton of
petroleum it was but $1.
In 1962 there were 5,111,669 tons of
general cargo handled at the Port of
Houston and at an estimated $17.20 per
ton this generated an additional eco-
nomic activity of almost $88 million.
Additionally the port shipped 2,795,564
tons of grain and at nearly $5 per ton
generated $14 million in economic activ-
itv. There were nearly 33.-1.58,293 tons
of bulk petroleum loaded or unloaded
at the port during the '-.ir for another
A 35 million plus of economic aitiL it'..
or a total direct contribution of another
S 137 million of money in circulation due
to the port and its activity.
Going into service in September of
1961, the nia. iatiion district's dry bulk
plant had handled almost half a million
tons of bulk materials ranging from ores


to soy-bean meal by the end of 1962.
This is not all, however. Ships calling
at the port have many expenditures,
both to the terminal operator and to the
various services at the port such as
bunkering, chandlering, and repairs.
A Maritime Association survey estimates
every deep-sea vessel spends an average
of $15,000 for these services while in
port. This means additional business
enterprises for a port city which supply
ships with everything from steel hawsers
to sail needles.
It is a big business in Houston where
more than 4,600 deep-sea vessels call
yearly. Projecting the $15,000 average
expenditure per vessel they contribute
another $69 million to the local economy.
These latter three factors of port
operations payroll, cargo handling ac-
tivities, and ship services total an addi-
tional quarter of a billion dollars of
economic activity for the Houston area.
This additional money in circulation,
this -'l"-. liitg power stems directly from
the port and, coupled with the half a
billion dollars stemming annually from
ship channel industry, provides a contri-
bution of some three-quarters of a billion
dollars.


Unruh, in the selection of subjects,
themes, and designs. Started with three
members, it now has six, all appointed
for an indefinite term by the Governor
on recommendation of the Director of
Posts. Committee members are J. B.
Clemmons, chairman; PaulRunnestrand,
Willard E. Gwilliam, Robert A. Stevens,
Grover D. Luce, and Hugh W. Cassibry.
The Director of Posts is not a member
but sits in on all meetings and assists
in selections.
SiiL,;t.liiiS for theme come from
many sources and the committee con-
siders them all. Those selected are
passed to the Governor for approval.
After he has approved an issue the
committee meets to select a design. Sug-
gestions and sketches are studied and
partially by process of elimination, a
design is selected. Different sketches are
drawn and submitted to the Governor
for approval. After his approval, the
Director of Posts sends the sketch to
the Bureau of Engraving and Printing
for preparation of a working model.
Many times the Bureau prepares two
or more models and when they are
received, the Director of Posts calls a
Stamp Advisory Committee meeting,
where a final model is selected to be
used in engraving and, finally, printing.
At this point the work of the committee
is finished until another stamp is needed
or to be issued in commemoration of
an occasion or in honor of an activity
or person.


-7.


Dry bulk materials handling plant at Port of Houston.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


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