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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Table of Contents
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
ON THE INSIDE
The Little Fellows
Why It's Wet
Vol. 14, No. 10
ROBERT J. FLEMINc, Jr., Governor-President ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
DAVID S. PARKER, Lieutenant Governor P Publications Editors
FRANK A. BALDWIN = 11RICHARD D. PEACOCK and JutLio E. BRIcEsO
Panama Canal Information Officer Editorial Assistants
Official Panama Canal Publication EUNICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. TOMAS A. CUPAS
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
* .. .. -- ..
. .., .. .. :, .. A. : -
.*> ., , ,-^ j ,s wB. ,-
-^l . -.r:^ :^ |'1-
about Our Cover
THIS MONTH THE REVIEW cover blossoms with color. Very
soon, these colors, or ones very close to these, will be an every-
day sight on the postage stamps that Canal Zone residents
will be using during the 50th Anniversary celebration month
of August after the stamps go on sale August 15 at the Balboa
Postal Director Earl F. Unruh and his staff have designed
a special official souvenir stamp folder commemorating the
50th Anniversary. These will be available and specific instruc-
tions on how to get one are included in a story in this REVIEW.
Extra REVIEW copies will be printed and sent to philatelic
societies over the world. Including the regular printing of
THE REVIEW, more than 35,000 copies of this issue will be
distributed, a record for this publication.
Another article in this issue outlines the history of the Postal
Service in the Canal Zone from its beginnings in 1904. A third
article describes each stamp of the series, with information, on
'he scenes and sidelights on the subject matter. As part of the
50th Anniversary celebration, THE REVIEW presents the stamp
issue and the part it will play in paying tribute to one of the
world's great achievements.
Swiftstar Mysteryv ..
- The Little Fellows
S Bottoms Up ----
a E" Description of Stamps
How to Get Stamps
History of Postal Service
\\h* and \Wh, ic It's Wet-
Port of New York --
Canal History ---
Site of the World's Fair and one of the greatest commercial centers
in history, New York is also a port of first importance. A story on
pages 12 and 13 shows in text and pictures the immensity and
vitality of this seaport complex. Looking past the Statue of Liberty.
this is a view of part of the waterfront and the New York skyline.
. -.. . 3
New Library Status
Shipping ... -. .-- -
Framed and Locked Up.
-- ---- -. 19
OLD SHIPS never die, but they sometimes sail away and are
never heard from again.
When they go through the Canal, however, even old ships
look substantial. The tolls and port charges they pay are
But when it comes to a ship that was reported missing some
40 years ago-it just sailed away. So did its records apparently.
Such a ship was the Swift Star or Swiftstar which, according
to a recent New York press release, left Cristobal for the
Atlantic 40 years ago and was never heard from again.
Up to July 13, 1923, the St iftstar, built in 1920, was quite
a substantial ship. It was a 464-foot tanker operated by C. B.
Mallory & Co. on the intercoastal trade and made a transit
through the Canal on an average of once every 6 weeks. Then
Her sisters called Swifteagle, Swiftwind, Swiftscout were
still included in the old Panama Canal records. They carried
oil from the west coast to Fall River and Boston and came
back through the Canal in ballast. But after July 13, 1923 no
mention was made of Swiftstar.
The story carried last February in the New York Standard
said the Su iftstar headed out into the Atlantic from Cristobal
40 years ago and was never heard from. It just vanished into
In doing so, the story said, it joined a host of missing ships,
one of the most recent being the Marine Sulphur Queen. The
most mysterious was the case of the brig Mary Celeste which
sailed from New York in the fall of 1872 with a cargo of
alcohol. A month later, it was found floating in the Atlantic
400 miles west of Gibraltar. Her sails were set, her cargo
unharmed. But there were no crewmen aboard. Their fate
was never determined.
Perhaps the worst such disaster in modem history was in
1854. In March of that year, the liner City of Glasgow sailed
out of Liverpool for Philadelphia. There were 450 passengers
and crewmen aboard. No trace of the ship or those aboard has
ever turned up.
The City of Boston set sail from New York in 1870 with
177 passengers and crewmen bound for Liverpool-a voyage
In the next decade, 10 sailing ships and steamers vanished,
among them the British training ship, the Atlanta, with a crew
of 290 cadets, crewmen, and officers in 1880.
Forty-five years ago the U.S. Navy's Cyclops with 309 men
aboard, left Barbados and was never heard from. In 1901 the
American liner Condor with 104 aboard vanished after leaving
British Columbia for the United States. Ten years ago the
French freighter Monique sailed from New Caledonia with
120 passengers and crewmen. It was never seen again.
In the early days there were no such things as radio or air
search-which make the modem day ship disappearances more
rare but at the same time more puzzling. And barring a miracle,
the mystery of the Marine Sulphur Queen, which vanished
between Gulf ports and the U.S. east coast with a crew of
43, will never be solved.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Taking on a small hitchhiker, this larger boat will pull it through the Canal in a tandem transit.
SUDDEN VISITORS AND LITTLE BOATS
WHAT HAPPENS when a ship just
"pops up" and requests transit with-
out sending a transit request in
advance by 48 hours? And how about
the little fellows, the small boats?
The decision to let the ship transit
depends on several things. If there is
no ship transiting or about to transit,
the ship requesting permission to
transit is given the "ok." If there is no
break in Canal traffic, the "latecomer"
must sit tight until such time as it
can be handled by a pilot and line
handlers. Latecomers, which used to
be frequent durihiii the d.i, s of poor
communication, are a rare sight
However, before any ship is allow-
ed to begin transiting, the necessary
fees must be guaranteed. In 1934,
Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt pro-
claimed the toll rates for Panama
Canal traffic as follows:
1. On merchant vessels, yachts,
army and navy transports, colliers
(vessels transporting coal), hospital
ships, and supply ships, when carry-
ing passengers or cargo, 900 per net
2. On vessels in ballast with pas-
sengers or cargo, 72 cents per net
3. On other floating craft, includ-
ing warships, other than transports,
colliers, hospital ships, and supply
ships, 50 cents per ton of displace-
Such is the procedure with large
craft. What about small boats, such
as rowboats and outboards?
Almost 5 percent of the total
transits during fiscal year 1963 were
small craft, 299 tons or less. These
small boats are handled in the same
manner as larger vessels. They must
pay fees and must present a transit
request within the prescribed period.
These small boats often transit with
a larger vessel because the money
received from the transit of a small
boat does not warrant the cost of a
transit by itself.
The Tarpon, finished and ready for "Operation right-side-up."
Easy does it, as the winches and workmen begin to right the laun
Easy does it, as the winches and workmen begin to right the launc
P After Bottoms
SUp, They Flip
ONLY KENNETH BAILEY, the Indus-
trial Division's expert boatbuilder, had
few qualms when work began a year
ago on the construction of the wooden
mail and freight Navigation Division
work launch Tarpon.
Seeing that it was to be built upside-
down, there was some discussion of how
he expected to turn it right-side up when
the proper time came.
As can be seen by the pictures, there
was nothing to it. Just a matter of having
the right block and tackle at the right
moment in the right place. A flip of the
wrist and the new Tarpon turned over
and settled down gently into a prepared
cradle. From now the work will be con-
fined to fitting her out for the work she
was designed to do.
Another Navigation Division launch,
( the Lark, was built next to the new
Tarpon, and is still in the construction
stage. This craft is being built in the con-
ventional manner and will be used as a
pilot and passenger launch in Balboa.
Id The two boats are being built by the
Gamboa Launch Repair Facility which
is part of the Panama Canal Industrial
Division. They are the handiwork of
employees, most of them Panama-
nians, learning boatbuilding under the
direction of Bailey.
In addition to boatbuilding, the em-
;h. ployees in this unit repair and recondi-
tion most of the other small floating
equipment used by the Panama Canal.
At the halfway mark, all is going smoothly with the huge boat. Right side up, it's now ready for the craftsmen to complete the job.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
50th ANNIVERSARY 501h
Sol den catnnwver ary
Stamp JaJue Slated
1914 PANAMA CANAL 1964
THE CANAL ZONE STAMPS com-
memorating the 50th Anniversary of the
opening of the Panama Canal is a series
of six stamps. The frame and lettering
are identical on each of the six stamps
except for color and denomination. The
picture in each of the six stamps is an
aerial view of a location along the Canal
or nearby and is in black and white.
Most of these aerial views were taken
looking toward the South, Southeast, or
On the 6 stamp, the frame is green
in color and the picture shows Cristobal
Harbor and vicinity. Cristobal is the
Atlantic terminus of the Panama Canal
and the left and center foreground shows
the docks with Cristobal in the right
foreground and the city of Colon imme-
diately in back. On the far right fore-
ground is the oil dock which in 1914
was the Cristobal Coaling Station.
Across the bay in back of the city of
Colon, the view shows France Air Force
Base, Coco Solo, and Fort Randolph.
Cristobal is the busiest harbor in the
Panama Canal and is the center of
activity on the Atlantic side.
The frame of the 80 stamp is red
in color and shows Gatun Locks and
vicinity in the picture. The Gatun Locks
are located on the Atlantic side and are
a three-step set of locks and the first one
entered on transit from the Atlantic to
the Pacific. The center of the picture
is Gatun Locks-on the left center is
the Gatun townsite and on the right
is the Gatun Dam with the spillway on
the far right. The Gatun Dam is an
extremely large earthen dam and backs
up the water from the Chagres River to
form Gatun Lake, which is 85 feet
above sea level. Ships traverse the lake
under their own power under guidance
of a Panama Canal pilot, in their transit
across the Isthmus. In the center back-
ground, a portion of Gatun Lake is
shown with a few small islands. Ships
are shown at the lake anchorage await-
ing their turn to complete northbound
transit of the Canal.
The frame of the 150 stamp is blue
in color and the picture shows Madden
Dam. This dam is several miles up the
Chagres River forming Madden Lake for
storage of water to supplement that of
Gatun Lake. This dam was completed
in 1935 and is an extremely necessary
adjunct to the Panama Canal, particular-
ly during dry season, December through
April, when normal rainfall is not suf-
ficient to meet normal requirements.
Water is spilled over this dam from
Madden Lake into the Chagres River
which runs into Gatun Lake at Gamboa,
to maintain the proper water level to
provide sufficient depth for draft of
transiting vessels and to replenish that
used in raising and lowering vessels from
sea level to Gatun Lake level. This is
the first time Madden Dam has been the
central subject of a Canal Zone stamp.
The frame of the 200 stamp is orange-
red in color and the picture shows
Gaillard Cut from about Gamboa
Reach toward Pedro Miguel Locks at the
southern end of the cut. The dredge at
the right center is engaged in the pres-
ent cut-widening project and there are
two vessels shown in transit. This cut
is being widened to 500 feet to permit
the largest vessels to pass each other
while in the cut, thus increasing Canal
in color and the picture shows Miraflores
Locks, a two-step set of locks, and the
.4"%~t" v'.4~a'../' ~
last ones used in transit from the Atlantic
to the Pacific. In the lower right fore-
ground is the Miraflores spillway for
water overflow which runs on out to
the Pacific Ocean and in the right back-
ground is the trans-Isthmian Panama
Railroad. Also shown is a portion of the
military post of Fort Clayton.
The frame of the 800 stamp is yellow
in color and the picture shows Balboa
Harbor and vicinity at the Canal's
Pacific terminals. The piers in the right
center foreground are on the west bank
of the Canal at Rodman Naval Station
with the Balboa piers and docks shown
across the Canal. Ancon Hill is the large
hill shown in the picture; the Adminis-
tration Building is at the base; and in
the background is Panama Bay and Pan-
ama City. Around the Administration
Building and in the right center is the
Balboa townsite with a portion of the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge and the Pacific
entrance of the Canal at the extreme
HOW YOU MAY ORDER STAMPS
The Canal Zone Postal Service has
prepared a special official souvenir
stamp folder commemorating the 50th
The folder contains a map of the Canal
Zone on the inside with six mint airmail
anniversary stamps affixed on the map
and another 80 airmail anniversary
stamp affixed to the outside back fold.
The 80 airmail has a "First Day of
Issue" cancellation and is postmarked
August 15, 1964. The folder also con-
tains the official 50th Anniversary insig-
nia, a short history of the Panama Canal
and the Canal Zone Postal Service. The
folder containing the six anniversary
stamps and the canceled 80 airmail
stamp is for sale at the Philatelic Agency,
Balboa Heights, C.Z., at $2 each. All
folders will be mailed at no extra cost.
Stamp collectors who want first-day
cancellations of the stamp may send
addressed envelopes to the Postmaster,
Balboa, C.Z., with a money order to
cover the cost of the stamps. Postage
stamps and personal checks will not be
accepted. Envelopes submitted should
be of ordinary letter size and should be
properly addressed. An enclosure of
medium weight should be placed in each
envelope and the flap either turned in or
sealed. An outside envelope must not be
sent for the return of first-day covers.
Each cover should be pencil marked in
the upper right-hand comer to show the
denomination and number of stamps to
be affixed; therefore no letter of instruc-
tion need be sent. The envelope to the
postmaster should be endorsed First-
Day Covers. Requests for unusual
arrangements and plate numbers cannot
Requests for mint stamps and the sou-
venir stamp folder must not be included
with orders for first-day covers, but sent
separately to the Philatelic Agency, Bal-
boa Heights, C.Z., and must include
return postage. To insure prompt ship-
ment orders should not include other
denominations of Canal Zone stamps.
Special order blanks for mint 50th Anni-
versary commemorative stamps and the
special souvenir folder are available at
all Canal Zone post offices and at the
All stamps will be uniform in size,
(See p. 9)
-.- ----- Cristobal
-- .----- Gatun Locks
_-- Madden Dam
..-....- .----. Miraflores Locks
THE PAAMA CANAL REVIEW
ON ITS 50TH ANNI\ER.SARY
Of Canal Zone
AT THE TIME the Canal properties
were turned over to the United States
in 1904, the need for a postal service
was of extreme importance because the
postal service of the Republic of Panama
ceased to operate in the Zone.
On June 24, 1904, a postal service
was established as a part of the Depart-
ment of Revenues and under the super-
vision of the Treasurer of the Canal Zone.
Paymaster E. C. Tobey, 'SN, was the
first Director of Posts. On that date, post
offices were opened at Ancon, Cristobal,
Gatun, Culebra, and La Boca. On May 5,
I 'j19. the name La Boca was changed to
Balboa. On the following day, addi-
tional post offices were opened at Bohio,
C,,..i.,i Matachin, and Empire and
then the Canal Zone Postal Service was
in operation with railroad station agents
At first only ordinary mail was han-
dled. Mail for Central and South Amer-
ica and the West Indies was turned
over to the Panama Postal Service for
dispatch to destinations and mail for
other fiir, .r, countries and the United
States, its territories and possessions
was sent direct to the United States
bv the Postmaster, Cristobal, on vessels
.'1 p., tiii for New York.
E. C Tobey,
Director of Posts,
June 24. 1904-September 1, 1904.
Duriii' I ~i jn, a registry system was
established and the Cristobal post
office was designated an international
.V. 1,.,ai,. oth e, permitting direct
dispatches of mail to all destinations.
In 1906, a money order system was
established; in 1911 a postal savings
system was instituted, and the postal
service became a stable and growing
service, providing full necessary postal
facilities for the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission, workers building the Panama
Canal and residents of the Canal Zone.
The service over the years has grown,
with annual increase in mail volume
handled and postal business conducted,
from a beginning of 9 post offices with
9 employees and annual postal receipts
of about $11,000, to 19 post offices,
branches and units, with 118 employees
and annual gross postal receipts of
$1,088,000. Of the nine post offices
originally established, only two, Cris-
tobal and Catun, remain.
The Canal Zone Postal Service has
from the very beginning operated as an
independent postal system and is estab-
lished as such bv Act of Congress of the
United States. However, the Canal Zone
like all territories, possessions, and other
areas under control of the United
States, is represented at postal conven-
tions by the United States Post Office
When the Canal Zone Postal Service
was first established on June 24, 1904,
a small supply of 20, 5, and 10t Pan-
ama stamps, overprinted "Canal Zone"
were obtained and used until July 18,
1904, when United States stamps over-
printed "Canal Zone" were received and
placed in use. The United States stamps
were used until December 12, 1904
when they were withdrawn and replaced
by Panama stamps overprinted "Canal
Zone" in conformity with the provision
of an executive order issued on Decem-
ber 3, 1904 1I Secretary of War William
On May 28, 1924, the Taft .,, inm ,t
was ..in, I. i1 bv the President of the
Earl F. Unruh,
Current Director of Posts.
United States and on July 1, 1924,
United States stamps overprinted "Canal
Zone" were again placed in use and
supplanted the overprinted Panama
On October 1, 1928, the first per-
manent issue Canal Zone stamp, 20
Goethals, was placed on sale. Canal
Zone permanent and provisional issues
have, over th,- %,.i..,-.li a, tars, super-
seded all overprinited L'iirtd States
stamps and stamped paper. The last
such item replaced was the 20 postal
card on November 1, 1958.
The current Canal Zone postage
stamps and stamped paper consists of
a series of 12 ordinary stamps, 11 pictur-
ing members of the Isthmian Canal
Commission and others who played a
major part in Canal Zone history or in
construction and operation of the P.an-
ara Canal and one picturing the Canal's
Administration Building at Balboa
Hli-ihit-, a series of three postage due
Tom M Cooke.
Director of Poshs.
September 2, 1904-March 31, 1914.
John J. Gilbert,
Director of Posts,
April 1, 1914-June 30, 1914.
John K. Baxter, Crede H. Calhoun,
Director of Posts, Director of Posts,
July 1, 1914-March 8, 1916. June 1, 1916-April 30, 1947.
stamps with the shield of the seal of the
Canal Zone as the central subject, and a
series of five airmail stamps of the wing
and globe design. In addition, there is a
40 envelope in two sizes with Goethals as
the design subject, an 80 airmail enve-
lope with a flight symbol and airplane,
a 40 ordinary provisional postal card
(30 card with Panama Canal Lock
design and 10 postage imprint) and a
60 airmail provisional postal card (50
airmail card with map and plane design
and 10 postage imprint.
Including the current Director of
Posts, Earl F. Unruh, there have been
seven men in the post. Others: E. C.
Tobey, June 24, 1904 to September 1,
1904; Tom M. Cooke, September 2,
1904 to March 31, 1914; John J. Gilbert,
April 1, 1914 to June 30, 1914; John
K. Baxter, July 1, 1914 to March 8,
1916; Crede H. Calhoun, June 1, 1916
to April 30, 1947; and James Marshall,
June 4, 1947 to January 14, 1955.
Director of Posts,
June 4, 1937-January 14, 1955.
(Continued from p. 7)
0.84 by 1.44 inches in dimensions, ar-
ranged horizontally, issued in sheets of 50
and printed on pre-gummed paper by
the Bureau of Engra. iin' and Printing.
The central design of each stamp is
a sketch of various locations in the Canal
Zone, in black and white and made from
aerial views. The frame and lettering on
all stamps are the same except for color
and denomination: in the upper left
comer "1914-1964 Panama Canal" in
two lines with "Golden Anniversary" in
script across the top; at the bottom,
"Canal Zone Airmail" and the value.
A typical scene at the Balboa Post Office, one of the busiest in the Canal Zone.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
THE CLIMATE of the Canal Zone
is characterized by moderately high
temperatures and humidity through-
out the year and although the tem-
perature changes very little during
the year, there are two distinct sea-
sons, wet and dry. The dry season
usually begins about the middle of
December and lasts for approxi-
mately 4 months. The rainy season
extends from the last week of April
to the middle of December.
Since the annual prevailing direc-
tion of the wind stream is from the
north and consequently the direction
of movement of most storms, the
Atlantic side of the Isthmus receives
roughly twice the amount of rainfall
of that on the Pacific side with annual
quantities at points between the
coasts varying in ratio to the distance
from the coasts.
The changes in season may be
readily correlated with the changing
declination of the sun and general
migration of the great wind belts.
W. A1. &Clinger,
tor tke Panama Canal,
Cxplaini the /Rainy Seaion
Aching corns and bunions, the ap-
pearance of certain butterflies, cater-
pillars, cicadas, or phases of the moon
have nothing to do with it.
At latitude 9 degrees north of the
Equator the sun passes directly over-
head twice each year, on April 13 and
August 29. Theoretically, these should
be the hottest days of the year be-
cause the sun's rays shine directly
down on us instead of at an angle.
Any objects in the air between the
sun and the earth such as clouds,
haze, smoke, or dust would of course
diminish the amount of heat radiated
from the sun. This abnormal heating
causes the air to rise and a flow of
air from the northern and southern
hemispheres to replace it. The zone
of the atmosphere so affected is
known as the Equatorial Calm Belt
or the Intertropical Conversion Zone.
It may be visualized as the meteor-
ological equator, since it is the area
where the major wind circulation
systems of the northern and southern
hemispheres come together. This
belt, variable in width, is character-
ized by large billowy cumulus and
cumulo-nimbus clouds resulting in
local showers and thunderstorms. It
usually follows the latitude of the sun
with a lag of about 5 degrees of lati-
tude or approximately 15 days of
travel time. It follows then that if
the sun passes overhead in our lati-
tude on April 13, the Intertropical
Convergence Zone or ITC as it is
known to meteorologists, will arrive
about 15 days later or on April 28.
By actual records this is the average
date of the beginning of the rainy
Since the ITC is not a precisely
10 MAY 1964
Speaking of Safety
WHEN IT'S WET
Experiments by the National Aero-
nautics and Space Administration have
shown that a vehicle traveling at 30
m.p.h. in heavy rain begins to lose con-
tact between its tires and the road
beneath. At about 55 m.p.h., the tires
lose all contact and the vehicle is
This means that the vehicle is riding
a cushion of water on the surface of the
roadway. This lack of road contact may
explain some of the mystery crashes
which occur for no apparent reason on
Other experiments on dry, safe roads
have shown that in panic stops, the
vehicle slides on a layer of molten
rubber. In the first moment of slide, the
tires get hot and suddenly lay down a
slick trail of molten rubber, greasing the
trail to possible destruction.
defined area it is normal for a few
scattered showers, representing the
ragged edge, to occur before the
main body arrives, hence the reason
meteorologists usually have the diffi-
cult task in mid-April of explaining
that although it is pouring rain the
rainy season hasn't started yet.
As the sun moves farther and far-
ther north (actually it doesn't move;
the 234 degree tilt of the earth on
its axis makes it seem to move as the
earth travels around its orbit) the
ITC moves northward also but since
the sun's northernmost position is
23% degrees north of the equator
and with the 5 degrees lag, the ITC
would therefore have a northern limit
of about latitude 19 degrees north or
10 degrees north of the Isthmus.
At this time when the North
American Continent has reached its
maximum summer heating, there is
an accompanying decrease in baro-
metric pressure and an increase in
barometric pressure in the Caribbean
region. This intensifies and extends
the semi-permanent high pressure
area over the southeastern Atlantic
Ocean known as the Bermuda High.
The westward extension of the Ber-
muda High into the southern Carib-
bean may cause a few weeks of
comparatively dry weather in July
or early August locally called the
"little dry season" or "veranillo."
As the sun returns southward and
again crosses the Isthmus at the end
of August, shower activity again in-
creases to a maximum. By the time
the ITC has followed far enough
southward to decline in influence on
the Isthmus, the fall storms of the
northern hemisphere have begun and
a different type of weather prevails.
Outbreaks of polar air from the
large high pressure cells of fall and
winter that surge southward across
the Gulf of Mexico sometimes reach
the Isthmus. Although this cold air
has warmed, it has absorbed mois-
ture in the lower layers and it needs
only the orographic lifting caused by
the hills on the Atlantic coast to
reach the upper cold layers and
produce prolonged rains.
Another type of heavy rain may
occur when a tropical hurricane
reaches a position in the western
Caribbean Sea directly north of the
Isthmus. The usual northeasterly
wind flow is reversed and a steady
stream of southerly winds prevail.
These cause heavy rains in western
Panama but give sunny weather in
the lower areas of the Canal Zone.
Then the winds shift and heavy
general rains occur.
Thus, the usual period of heavy
rains occurs near the end of the rainy
season. Due to many factors the
cessation of rain is irregular and
varies from November 24 (last year
was the earliest) to mid-January.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Balboa Gamboa Cristobal
Vte Port ol New York
NEW YO PK is a home port for most of
the U.S. citizens who are employed by
the Panama Canal organization A large
percentage of the L' S
eastern part of the United States as
home and until recently the Panama
Line ships traveled r,.,il.arlh between
Cristobal and New York.
New York is a port of call or a port
of origin for a majority of the U.S.-flag
passenger and freight liners arriving at
and 1, ii.L C.i,al ports.
Li- I'.o..mi New York is a cross-
roads of world trade. The Port of New
York has a direct and vital stake in the
maintenance ;and expansion of existing
, ,,if,. l i.L, facilities within the State
mnd an important influence on commerce
along the entire east coast.
From its earliest days, the wealth of
the Port of New York and its surround-
i., community has come from ships of
the sea and the activities generated by
the cargoes I.l carry to and from the
port. The port itself might be called
nature's supreme effort to provide man
with magnificent avenues for the free
flow of commerce. It is a great junction
of ocean, rivers, bays, and harbors
reaching deeply into the surrounding
1,500 square miles of upland within
the neighbor States of New York and
Everything about New York is
fabulous. There is a frontage of 650
miles of ni.a. ii ible waterways and berths
for 41111 oii .u iloing ships at 200 deep-
water piers. Served by 170 steamship
lines, the port has 26,000 ship move-
ments a year or one ship moving in and
out every 20 minutes. Ten railroads
form a network of land transport con-
necting the port directly with the major
industrial sections east of the Mississippi
and with all other areas of the United
States, Canada, and Mexico by inter-
li king, railroads.
More than 2,500 pieces of fl,.itinrg
equipment, inclidirtg barges, lichit.-rs,
scows, carfloats, and tugboats make up
the port's lighterage system. Warehouse
facilities include general storage, refrig-
erated warehousing, liquid bulk and
dry bulk storage, and equipment for
'%.iiine special cargoes requiring
lhimidits and moisture control.
Roughly within a radius of 25 miles
from the Statue of Liberty, there are
today over 200 municipalities, including
the world's largest metropolitan complex
as well as small communities. The port
waters have been bridged and tunnels
have been bored beneath them. The
people of the Port of New York have
devoted continuing energy to improve
the natural advantages of the port as
a transportation crossroads for goods
entering and leaving the United States.
The waters and lands of this port are
joined in a unified economic community
known as the New York-New Jersey
But as great as this port is now from
the point of view of trade and com-
merce, it will soon become more of a
center with the construction of the
World Trade Center, designed to pro-
vide a unified community in the Port of
New York for America's export-import
business and act as a clearing house
for the handling, development, and
expansion of such business.
The 16-acre site, on which the inter-
national trade complex will be built, is
located on the west side of lower Man-
hattan immediately adjacent to the
Port of New York's historic core of
international trade activity.
The twin towers of the center will be
the tallest buildings in the world, soaring
110 stories or 1,350 feet above the great
open plaza of almost 5 acres. It will be
built by the New York Port authority
on a self supporting basis at a cost of
$350 million and will be completed in
stages during 1969 and 1970.
The two great structures containing
approximately 10 million square feet
of rentable spd.,, will accommodate
various Government agencies, world
trade services and exhibit areas and
private businesses engaged in export
and import trade in world markets.
S\ _W_ Al I
Looking northwest, this overall view shows the twin tower building, tallest and largest in
the world, rising from the vast plaza of the New York World Trade Center in New York City.
White circle shows the site of the
future world trade center to be
built near the Port of New York.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 1
50 Ueari e4oo
TEN YEA RS of American occupancy of
the Canal Zone were completed on
May 4, 1914, the transfer of the Canal
property from the second French Com-
pain'. to the United States having been
effected on May 4, 1904.
According to The Panama Canal
Record of May 20, 1914, the decade had
seen the virtual completion of the Canal
and the beginnings of its commercial
and naval use. During the proceeding
year, the sea level channels had been
opened to Gatun and Miraflores Locks;
Gatun and Miraflores lakes had been
filled to normal height; Culebra Cut had
been flooded; all of the locks had been
operated repeatedly; and a number of
vessels in Canal service as well as
several rafts of piles under tow, had
passed from ocean to ocean through
The offices of the captains of the ports
at Ancon and Cristobal in the Panama
Canal organization, were formally estab-
lished May 4, 1914. Comdr. Douglas E.
Dismukes, USN, was Port Captain in
Cristobal and Lt. Comdr. H. V. Butler,
USN, was Port Captain in Balboa.
Arrangements were being made to
hire pilots for the Panama Canal with
the Washington office and the Super-
intendent of Transportation handling
applications. A large number of applica-
tions already were on file. An order was
issued requiring Canal pilots to wear
uniforms when on duty. The material
selected was cream-colored Palm Beach
cloth, plain without stripes or figures.
The caps were to be patterned after
those worn by the petty officers in the
25 Year,4 dgo
THE PROBLEMS of defense and ca-
pacity were under serious study by Pan-
ama Canal authorities and the U.S.
Government 25 years ago this month.
Gov. Clarence S. Ridley told a subcom-
mittee of the House of Representatives
that it was important that $25,000 be
provided immediately for advancing
plans to increase the capacity of the
Canal through the addition of a third
set of locks. He said that this project
was not only closely related to the
defense of the Canal but that additional
c.ipacity would be needed for future
commercial needs. In Washington. mil-
itar., experts said the) felt a third set
of locks would make the Canal safe from
attack for many years to come.
Other defense plans being studied in
1939 included the fortification of the
Pacific Ocean approaches to the Panama
Canal through the establishment of
powerful air and naval bases in Mexico
and the Galapagos Islands.
The U.S. Senate passed a bill author-
izing the cooperation of the United
States Government with the Republic of
Panama in building a highway from the
Canal Zone to Rio Hato. The Panama-
nian Government was to furnish the
right of way and labor while the United
States would furnish materials. The
cost of the U.S. contribution was
estimated at $13 million.
The new Panama Railroad liner
Panama made its first transit through the
Canal and docked at Pier 18 in Balboa
in order to give Pacific-side residents
a chance to inspect the new vessel. It
was the first time that any Panama Rail-
road vessel had transited the Canal
southbound since 1931.
10 Year ago
CONSOLIDATION of the Canal Zone
hospitals was started 10 years ago in
May when the Senate Appropriations
Committee directed that the U.S. Army
Hospital at Fort Clayton and the Canal
Zone Government Hospital in Colon be
closed by September 1, 1954. The direc-
tive said that Coco Solo should be
transferred to the Canal Zone Govern-
ment and that it and Gorgas Hospital
would provide sufficient facilities for
personnel in the Canal Zone.
After a thorough examination by
experts and consulting engineers on the
extent of the crack along the crest of
Contractors Hill, the Panama Canal
board of directors ruled that the Panama
Canal should take whatever remedial
measures were necessary to deal with
the problem. The Tecan Corp. of Dallas,
Tex., after submitting a low bid of
$3,391,000, was awarded the contract
for the removal of earth at the site of
Ceremonies commemorating the
400th anniversary of the discovery of
the Pacific were celebrated in May 1954,
when a group of Panama Government,
U.S. Army, Navy, Marine, and Air
Force and Panama Canal officials were
airlifted to Darien to join a jungle-
trained intelligence and reconnaissance
platoon on Hill 2200, presumed to be
the same peak on which Vasco Ntifiez
de Balboa stood.
One year a4go
THE PANAMA CANAL went on a per-
manent 24-hour operation last May 12
in order to handle more efficiently the
gradually increasing number of ships
transiting the waterway. The change
was the result of continuing evaluation
of the demands of traffic.
Col. Robert J. Kamish, who was Chief
of the Surgical Service at Gorgas Hos-
pital from April 1962, was made new
Director of the Canal Zone Health
Bureau. He succeeded Col. Erling S.
Fugelso, who left the Isthmus for his
new assignment as commanding officer
at Womack Hospital, Fort Bragg, N.C.
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Headley A. Cargill
Harold I. Tinnin
Hilarius B. Wilson
(Rope and Wire Cable)
eeinald A. Butcher
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Morton L. Levee
Thomas J. Polite
Floyd A. Robinson
Allan F. Woodruff
Nursing Assistant (Medicine
Earl C. Keeney
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Juan E. Abrego
Ellen Louise Barton
Isabel B. Blandford
Cristin T. de Small
Clyford K. Foster
Joseph L. Powell
Charles A. Wesley
Mary Sims Williams
Juan Adolfo Zelaya
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Robert M. Bright
Accounts Maintenance Clerk
Helper Lock Operator
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Wilmut A. Clare
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Ernesto Ellis, Jr.
Helper Lock Operator
Thomas A. Hull
James H. Johnston
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Roy L. Lockwood
elper Lock Opera
er ock er or
L c at
ino, amir _
SL Handle (D khand)
Azael J. Benavides
Robert L. Boyer
Central Office Repairman
Samuel A. Grant
Luis Herrero S.
Remigio Romero 0.
Vicente Valencia V.
Harry C. Abrahams
Ernest N. Grant
Helper Liquid Fuels
Truck Driver (Heavy Trailer)
Humberto E. Pirez
School Bus Driver
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
James E. Bryant
Georgia J. Gwinn
Swimming Pool Operator
Josh Roque Nfiiez
Dorothy H. Smith
Teacher (Senior High,
Donald R. Rudy
Rosalie I. Barker
Stella C. Butler
Staff Nurse (Surgery)
Esmilda E. Ford
(Medicine and Surgery)
St. Clair L. Thorne
THE CANAL ZONE Library-Museum
recently was designated as a depository
hlr.ur. to receive U.S. Government
documents under the provisions of
Public Law 87-589, called the Deposi-
tory Li .1.ira Act of 1962. This distinc-
tion came as a result of a request by
the Governor of the Canal Zone to the
U.S. Superintendent of Documents.
It then was necessary for the librarian
to complete a detailed questionnaire so
that the characteristics of the Library-
Museum might be shown to fit into all
requirements. The Governor was noti-
fied of acceptance of the Canal Zone
Library-Museum as a depository library
on February 7, 1963.
B. ii.g a depository library for receipt
of U.S. Government documents means
several things. In the first place it
implies an enviable recognition of the
object and service of the Library-
Museum itself. For practical purposes
it means that the Canal Zone Library-
Museum can elect to receive any U.S.
Government documents which are
offered to any depository library. It thus
means that in the future many docu-
ments which have had to be ordered
on the basis of advertisements now will
be shipped direct to the Canal Zone
Library as soon as they come off
the press, and that they will come
;.iit. n.iatill'. -and Free of charge.
t' S (.t,- iimrr, t documents usually
are published by the Government Print-
ing ()Fthe r and always for some purposes
connected with the public interest. Thus
thi v are the result of the recognition of
a need for information in some Govern-
ment agency. For this reason the mate-
rials it iilikl, to depository libraries
may vary from the annual Statistical
Abstract-probably one of the most
useful reference books ever published-
to research materials and to leaflets
which tell the handyman how to build
an outdoor fireplace. Some documents
are simply worded information about
one small subject; some are the monu-
mental records of the activities of the
diplomatic service; some are the records
of the statistical services of the Govern-
ment and some are the records of
Mrs. Verna S. Winstead, General Services Librarian who will serve as Documents Librarian,
aids F. A. Mohl, Administrative Assistant to the Chief of the Fire Division, as he uses the
depository facility of the library to inquire about material on how to put out fires on ships.
research in scientific and technical fields.
But all are in some way connected with
the public interest.
This new depository act has been a
major project of members of the library
profession. Formerly, depository librar-
ies were designated by Members of
Congress and thus were nearly always
in the District of the Congressman
involved. A depository library also was
required by law to receive all documents
which were available to depository
libraries and to dispose of them only
under very stringent regulations. Of
course every document published
cannot be sent to depository libraries-
some may be classified; they may be
intra-agency or may have some other
special designation. Even with these
exceptions, however, it is easy to see
that any library which received a
tremendous mass of Government docu-
ments, which it was required to accept
as a depository library and which it
could dispose of only under certain
strict legal requirements, soon was
inundated with extremely valuable
material, but material often unnecessary.
The new regulations under which
the Canal Zone Library-Museum has
become a member of the fraternity pro-
vides that the library may select the
free material which is applicable to its
own patrons, will receive it auto-
maticallv and free of ih.ii e and can
dispose of it in a simple way.
So that the lhr,.u may make the
most effective use of this new pri ile e
and rnspoii,-iltili%, members of the
Canal Zone Library-Museum have been
working earnestly on setting up useful
procedures for handling this free auto-
matic service. Mrs. Verna S. Winstead,
General Services Librarian of the Canal
Zone Library-Museum, will serve as
documents librarian. Mrs. Winstead is
uniquely suited for this new job, since
she has been in charge of selection of
periodicals and serials and has directed
the procedures which make them easily
available, or has cataloged them for
several years. In addition, in prepara-
tion for this new library facility, Mrs.
Winstead only last fall elected an inten-
sive course in documents at the Uni-
versity of Denver Graduate School of
Librarianship, where she received her
master's degree in December 1963. So
the many persons in the Canal organiza-
tion who each spring are accustomed to
receive a list of available periodicals
from Mrs. Winstead, offering them the
sources of the periodicals unit of the
Canal Zone Library-Museum, soon will
hear from her again-this time to
ask for recommendations of specialized
documents, useful in their work.
Patrons who use the library for mainly
recreational purposes are also invited to
suggest their interests to Mrs. Winstead.
The staff of the Canal Zone Library-
Museum thus takes this opportunity to
ask the advice and counsel of its many
patrons in reLrmmCnrdi?,g subject fields
needed for selecting a variety of mate-
rials from one of the greatest of the
world's publishers-the Government
Printing Office of the United States.
16 MAY 1964
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between April 5 and May 5, 1964
(within grade promotions and job
reclassifications are not listed):
Katherine A. Lessiack, Clerk-Stenographer
to Budget Analyst.
Ranghilt H. Melzi, File-Clerk, to Clerk-
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Donald L. Nolan, Distribution Clerk to Cus-
toms Enforcement Officer, Cristobal.
Phil E. Rowland S., Messenger, Supply and
Community Service Bureau, to Clerk.
Carolyn B. Sheffield, Substitute Teacher to
Teacher (Senior-High U.S. Schools).
JeanC. Stine, Substitute Teacher to Teacher
(Senior High-U.S. Schools).
Mary S. Roberts, Doris M. Hunt, Beatrice
J. Harnad, Ida J. Kane, Substitute
Teachers to Teachers (Elementary-U.S.
Iris D. Richmond, Window Clerk to Fi-
nance Branch Superintendent.
Edward C. Blount Police Private to Police
Thomas R. Dugan, Apprentice (Cable
Splicer) (3d year) to Apprentice (Cable
Splicer) (4th year).
Lucio G6ndola, Maintenanceman to Leader
Joseph V. A. Howard, Helper Electronics
Mechanic to Truck Driver.
Joseph M. Evelyn, Laborer (Cleaner), to
Helper Electrician (Power Plant).
Noel U. Baptist, Helper Electrician to Elec-
trical Equipment Repairman (Limited).
Victor M. Branca, Palancaman to Main-
Josh M. Rivera, Boatman to Surveying Aid.
Ebaristo G6mez, Boatman to Surveying Aid.
Epifanio P6rez, Boatman to Surveying Aid.
Andrew D. De Sousa, Truck Driver to Mes-
senger (Motor Vehicle Operator).
Thomas J. Hannigan, Mechanical Engi-
neer, Utilities, to Supervisory Mechanical
Henry A. Tooke, Supervisory Sanitary En-
gineer (Supt. Miraflores Filter Plant) to
Sanitary Engineer (Assistant to Chief
Water and Laboratories Br.), Miraflores.
Ray Caldwell, Chief Foreman (Building and
Public Works) to Foreman (Building and
George 0. Tarflinger, Leader, Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning, to Lead Foreman
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Me-
Anthony J. Kucikas, Leader Joiner to Lead
Leslie A. Beauchamp, Refrigeration and
Air Conditioning Mechanic, to Leader
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Me-
Charles L. Miller, 2d Mate, Pipeline
Dredge, Class 1, to Operator, Craneboat.
Amadeo Castillo, Navigation Aid Worker, to
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems).
Coco Solo Hospital
Janet M. Landry, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse
Luisa W. Martinez, Formula Room Attend-
ant to Nursing Assistant (Medicine and
Jorge De J. Durin, Laborer to Hospital
Agustin Mark, Laborer to Hospital Attend-
Antonio Mosquera, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Dr. Wilmer C. Hewitt, Medical Officer
(Pathological Anatomy) (Chief, Patho-
logical Anatomy Section, to Chief,
Allie B. Holden, Clerk-Typist to General
Supply Clerk (Medical).
Eva D. de Herrera, Clerk-Typist to Clerk.
Elizabeth I. Brown, Clerk to Supervisory
Juanita L. Campion, Staff Nurse to Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
Doris Mock, Staff Nurse to Staff Nurse
(Medicine and Surgery).
Eugenio Beauville, Joseph Rochester, Enri-
que R. Richards, General Therapy Assist-
ant to Occupational Therapy Assistant.
Marva L. Carter, Iselda R. George, Nursing
Assistant (Psychiatry) to Ward Clerk
Eric C. McDonald, Jr., Nursing Assistant
(Psychiatry) to Pharmacy Assistant.
Paul W. Bramlett, Leader Lock Operator
(Electrician) to Control House Operator.
James M. Slover, Charles R. Progler, Lock
Operators (Electrician) to Leader Lock
Drummond McNaughton, William K. Mor-
gan, Pilots Probationary to Pilots.
Hamilton I. Slimon, Pilot-in-training to
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Mary Lavallee, Extension class teacher to
Clerk-Stenographer, Accounting Policies
and Procedures Staff.
Rose V. C. Brogie, Clerk-Typist to Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Payroll and
Machine Accounting Branch.
Maritza E. de Oranges, Clerk-Typist to
Time, Leave, and Payroll Clerk.
Norman A. Eversley, Office Machine Oper-
ator to Bookkeeping Machine Operator.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Office of the Director
Thomas G. Relihan, General Supply Officer
(General Manager, Supply Division) to
Program Manager (Deputy Director,
Supply and Community Service Bureau,
and General Manager, Supply Division).
Richard K. Erbe, Administrative Officer to
Program Manager (Assistant Director,
Supply and Community Service Bureau).
OFFICE OF GENERAL MANAGER
Henry J. Ford, Warehouseman, Supply Di-
vision, to Messenger.
Alba D. Hutchings, Supervisory General
Supply Assistant to General Supply
Robert C. Meehan, Supervisory Storage
Officer to Supervisory Specialist.
Ceyon Jemmott, Laborer (Heavy) to Ware-
Tomis Alfonso, Scrap Materials Sorter to
Leonora A. Wright, Utility Worker to
Winifred M. Perrott, Grocery Attendant to
Jack B. Dubroff, Usher (Theaters) to Door-
Cecil A. Diaz, Laborer (Heavy) to Ware-
Clarence Levy, Laundry Worker (Heavy)
to Marker and Sorter.
Community Services Division
Ezequiel Oliveros, Carlos R. Delgado,
Laborers (Cleaner) to Laborers.
Adalberto Barahona, Laborer to Grounds
Maintenance Equipment Operator.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Don R. Coffey, Freight Clerical Assistant
to Supervisory Freight Assistant.
Cornelius E. Jarrett, Helper Tire Rebuilder
Gilbert F. Chase, Leader Liquid Fuels
Wharfman to Liquid Fuels Dispatcher.
Harold L. Conrad, Liquid Fuels Gager to
Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Cuthbert A. Sales, Leader (Dock Steve-
doring) to Lead Foreman (Dock Steve-
Dazel G. Watson, Lead Foreman Line
Handler to Lead Foreman (Dock Steve-
Jerry R. Escalona, Cargo Marker to Helper
Liquid Fuels Gager.
Frances A. Joliffe, Cargo Marker to Helper
Liquid Fuels Gager.
Raymond D. Simons, Helper Liquid Fuels
Gager to Liquid Fuels Gager (Limited).
Arcadio V. Herrera, Cargo Marker to Clerk
Rafael Castro D., Line Handler to Guard.
Water Transportation Division
George J. Hosp, Licensed Junior Engineer
to 3d Assistant Engineer.
William Grimes, Auditor, Internal Audit
Robert A. Engelke, Police Sergeant, Police
Chiquita C. Cassibry, Management Techni-
cian, Office of Comptroller.
Lillian M. Vogel, Clerk-Stenographer, Ex-
Annie R. Rathgeber, Secretary (Typing)
Office of the Governor-President, Panama
Canal Information Office.
John Y. Wagner, Admeasurer, Navigation
Ethel B. Hettenbach, Nursing Assistant
(Medicine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital.
(See p. 18)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
New Swedish Ships
A WHOLE new fleet of ships is in the
offing for the maritime service between
Sweden and the U.S. west coast ports,
according to announcements made in
the United States by the Swedish-flag
Johnson Line. The Johnson Line has had
ships running through the Panama
Canal between Swedish ports and the
Pacific coast since the Canal was opened.
The new ships will be larger and
faster than the cargo-passenger carriers
now in service and they will be fitted
with equipment designed especially for
the type of cargo being shipped-mostly
fruit and similar perishables. Their
speed will exceed 20 knots and they will
have a capacity of some 12,000 tons as
compared to the 9,000-ton capacity of
the ships now in service.
The Johnson Line, represented locally
bh Panama Agencies, has an average of
a ship each week running through the
North Pole-South Pole
SOMETIMES THE North Pole goes
south and sometimes the South Pole
goes north. But the men who run the
Panama Canal take it in their stride.
Even when, one day in April, both the
North Pole and South Pole went south.
TR-'NITS BY OCEANGOING
VESSELS IN FEBRUARY
Commercial. .......... .
U.S. Government ..........
F ree ...................
Total ....... ......
Commercial .... $5,195,036
U.S. Government. 105,930
Total.... 1 3'"5 9' 6 ,
U.S. Government. 73,249
Free .......... 31,320
4,-I,76 6,3 3
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
**Cargo figures are in long tons.
They are a pair of Greek-flag refriger-
ated cargo ships which carry bananas
from Ecuador to New York and New
Orleans and return through the Canal
in ballast. The trim 20-knot freighters
were built in Spain in 1963, are owned
by two Liberian companies, fly a Greek
flag, and are chartered by the Standard
Fruit Co. C. B. Fenton & Co. act as
agents at the Canal.
Fitted for Cruising
THE FORMER Pacific Steam Naviga-
tion passenger liner Reina del Mar
recently made one of her last voyages
through the Panama Canal between the
United Kingdom and Chile. The ship
was sold recently to the Travel Savings
Association in Britain and is now being
refitted in Belfast as a cruise liner. She
is expected to travel to New York in
June with tourists to the World's Fair
and will remain at dock as a hotel ship.
Later this year, the liner will go to
Japan with visitors to the Olympic
As a full time cruise vessel, she will
have accommodations for approximately
1,000 passengers and probably will visit
the Canal in the future on a cruise.
(Continued from p. 17)
Isabel M. Diaz, Accounting Assistant, Ac-
Efrain Scott, Guard, Terminals Division.
John H. Flynn, Surveying Aid, Engineering
Leroy Griffiths, Clerk, Navigation Division.
Cecilio A. Brown, Clerk, Supply Division.
Aramis E. Defort, Clerk-Typist, Division of
John Diaz Constable, Magistrate Court,
Capt. Allessandro Zerega left, who was manager of the Italian Line in Cristobal for the past 12 years, gets a certificate of the Master Key
to the Panama Canal in the grade of honorary pilot from Axton T. Jones, Transportation and Terminals Director. Mrs. Zerega was a happy
spectator at the ceremony. Captain Zerega left the Isthmus in April for Argentina where he will be managing director for the Italian Line.
ii 1 .=
e^ *~ -'"* | '
S ,-------011-W; .'
FRAMED AND LOCKED UP
The framing in this case was done by a camera and the
locking was strictly Panama Canal style and involved
water rather than bars. But this scene at Miraflores Locks
is typical of the one framed in the lenses of cameras carried
by thousands of tourists from every part of the world.
During the guided tours, cameras are snapping every
moment as the guide explains the working of the great
locks system. Last year, nearly 200,000 tourists went on
the official tours conducted by the Canal organization.
Their photographs, viewed by friends at home, tell and
retell the story of the Panama Canal to people everywhere
on earth. This huge cargo ship, and the men who put her
through the Canal, serve not only world commerce but
also form the material for the education and enlighten-
ment of those everywhere who benefit from the Canal.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
-a 4-5%*t* -
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIOA
3 1262 07150 0341