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Front Matter 1
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Table of Contents
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
ON THE INSIDE
About Tons and Tuns
History Through a Glass
Wheels for the Canal
Vol. 14, No. 9
(7 i e-7
Roiir J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-Pr
DAvIo S. PAnKER, Lieutenant Gover
FRANK A. BALDWIN
Panama Canal Information Offic
aV a VY
Official Panama Canal Publication EU
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printingi Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
a ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
RicRHARD D. PEACOCK and JULIO E. BRIcE o
NICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
TOMAs A. CUPAS
4e, QueJsed 3t
READERS WERE invited in the January issue of REVIEW to identify this scene,
printed from a negative in the official files of old glass negatives. Two readers
knew their Panama Canal history and identified it as the old railroad station in
Panama ( ni The date of the picture is a little harder to establish, but it is placed
at about 1890 by authorities on the subject.
Earl C. Palmer of Avenel, N.J., came up with the right answer, as did Vernon E.
Sauvan of Portsmouth, Va. Writes Palmer, "I have a picture of this station from
another angle. My father, C. A. Palmer, had charge of all lighting in Ancon and
lived opposite the firehouse near the Tivoli Hotel. Sauvan found his clue in a book
titled "A Trip, Panama Canal" and published in 1911. He says, "The picture is
from a diffLri nt angle but it appears to be a later picture of the building shown
(in THE REVIEW)."
Machines that Talk Back ----
Voices that Help Others ---
tlistort Through a Glass - -
Wheels for the Canal -------
Where the B.i- Ones Bite ----
About Tons and Tuns -- ---
Canal lI..I ------------
Promotions and Tr it,,'rs _-__
'-.l,,pp ...--- .-- ----. ----.
----- --------- 4
-- -- -- -- ---- 8
---- .-- .--- ------ 13
-- ----. 16
PARTICULARLY impressive in the
Panama Collection of the Canal Zone
Library is the collection of old maps,
one of which is reproduced as THE
REVIEW cover this month.
More than 160 maps make up the
collection and the library has original
lithographs on many of them. The
work of cartographers from over the
world is represented and the work
goes back several centuries. The
main body of the maps cover the
exploration and colonization of the
Isthmus and the construction of the
railroad and Panama Canal.
Many names settled on Isthmus
areas hundreds of years ago would
not be recognized today. Others have
stood the test of time, among them
the Darien designation. Though the
maps are principally of the New
World, many of them include parts
or all of the world known to the
mapmakers who drew them.
The relation of land mass sizes
and proportion is often distorted in
most of the earlier maps, drawn when
cartography was beginning as a
science. Yet the results in many cases,
considering the lack of modem
equipment, is astoundingly accurate.
Selected for the cover is a map
made by Tobias Conradus Lotter. It
depicts the harbor of Panama in
"Centra America" and was drawn by
him in Augsburg, Germany in 1720.
The original is now in the British
Johnson, of the Canal Zone College Language Department teaches language class aided by the electronic tape recorder.
MACHINES THAT TALK BACK
ON THE THIRD FLOOR of the Canal Zone College building,
there is a room literally wired for sound.
It is not a listening post for the secret service nor a projection
room for a motion-picture theater. It is a working example
of how modern science is being used to solve language
problems dating back to the Tower of Babel.
In other words-it is a language laboratory or a modern
electronic classroom where students come to learn new
languages by speaking.
The College laboratory is the first to be installed in the
Canal Zone by the Division of Schools. But two more are to be
provided soon-one in Balboa and the other in Cristobal High
Schools. A language laboratory also will be installed in the
new Curundu Junior High School.
Contracts for their installation have been awarded to W. A.
Rogers, a local contractor, and they should be ready for use
when the school term begins next September.
The high school language laboratories, which will be almost
identical with the one at the (,01lk i!, can accommodate approxi-
mately 30 pupils sitting in individual booths with the teacher
monitoring the lessons from a control desk or console in the
front of the class.
The booths are soundproof, each equipped with magnetic
tape recorder, microphone, and earphones. The student hears
the language as recorded by native speakers and repeats
portions of the lesson, recording his own voice on tape. The
student can play back the tape to compare his voice with
One day recently, Dr. James H. Johnson, head of the College
Language Department, supervised a group of advanced
students who were studying their parts in a Spanish language
drama which they plan to produce later this year.
The students spoke their parts by reading from the script,
into the microphones on their desks; they then listened to their
own voices in a playback of the tape. Meanwhile Dr. Johnson
monitored the recitations by tuning in on each student and
made corrections or suggestions as necessary.
Since these were advanced students, there was little need
for correction on the part of the teacher in charge but the
students had what ti '. needed most-continuous practice in
comparative privacy at a pace they could set for themselves.
Dr. Johnson said that the system worked well with other
students who were learning a language or were in the inter-
mediate stage. It permitted him to transmit one or more
lessons to selected sections of the class and freed him for
individual attention to each student while other students
continued to work. It was even possible, he said, to teach two
or more languages in the same room at the same time.
At the college laboratory, Spanish, French, German, and
Russian can be taught. There are master tapes on hand for
all grades of students in nearly all of these languages and
a similar arrangement will be made in the high schools.
The 1.11,,1i,., laboratory is more of a controversational
practice area. It is combined with the traditional classroom
work and textbooks and sometimes with films and other visual
aids. Usually there are 2 days of laboratory combined with
3 days of regular classroom work.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Dr. James H.
Linda Fussell, who speaks fluent Spanish, operates the tape recorder
on which the Balboa High School Future Teachers of America Club
is making talking books for Palo Seco blind patients. She will
read articles and books in Spanish for the Spanish speaking patients.
Balboa High School students taking part in operation "talking book,"
by which they are recording articles and books for blind patients at
Palo Seco Hospital. From left: Mary Cooper, Eve Stephan, Carol
Bryson, Mary Redding, Lois Finlason, Beverly Brown, Betsy
Brown, and Betty Anderson. Seated at recorder is Linda Fussell.
Their Voices Help
Others to Read
FAVORITE PEOPLE with the blind patients at Palo Seco
Hospitals these days are a group of Balboa High School
students who belong to the Future Teachers of America Club.
The project, which has put the high school future teachers
at the top of the pjpularit. list with the Palo Seco patients, is
the tape recording of articles from magazines and even full
The students take turns reading from books and each selects
articles from magazines which they feel will be of interest to
the blind patients.
The first batch of tape recordings was greeted with enthu-
siasm by the Palo Seco inmates who immediately showed a
preference for the reading material read by the high school
students to that brought in on records as "talking books."
"We want the books read by the children," one elderly
patient told the hospital supervisors.
Following a visit made in early April by the students, the
patients made a list of the type of reading material they would
like and arrangements were made to tape articles in the
Spanish language also.
The project was first suggested by John R. Thompson,
Hospital Administrative Officer at Palo Seco. The students
were enthusiastic and so was Future Teachers of America
Club sponsor Mrs. Ruby Bissett.
Approximately 22 members of the Club have volunteered
to gi'. c their spare time to the making of tape recordings. The
first 11 tapes are 1 hour each in length. The six students are
now making 2-hour tapes. Books will be much longer.
Adrian Bouche, Jr. examining and evaluating some of the thousands of historic glass slides.
He Views Canal History
Through a Looking Glass
"DIGGING THROUGH the files" is
usually a figure of speech. But not for
Adrian M. Bouche, Jr., a marine traffic
controller at the Balboa Port Captain's
office, and Mrs. Ruth Stuhl of the Isth-
mian Historical Society, who have an
intense interest in Panama Canal history
and who have been digging, figuratively
and literally, through the dust of 8
decades to bring order to the Canal
organization's collection of its earliest
photographic records. Dust-covered en-
velopes hold the glass negatives that
date back to about 1885. And there are
approximately 16,000 glass negatives
that, in themselves, represent a photo-
graphic history of the Canal's beginning.
Mr. Bouche estimates that the glass
negatives, as a whole, weigh about 8
tons. If stacked one on top of the other
they would be 84 feet high, or 25 feet
higher than the Goethals Monument,
which is a mere 59 feet, 5 inches. And
if placed end to end, the glass slides
would reach 30.3 miles across the Isth-
mus of Panama, some 13 miles short of
spanning the continent, ocean to ocean.
The glass plates that date back to
1885 were taken by French photogra-
phers who were with the French Canal
Company, and the Panama Canal in-
herited them. Despite being dirty,
these 79-vear-old plates are in excellent
condition, says Mr. Bouche.
The first official Panama Canal pho-
tographer was Ernest (Red) Hallen and
he was succeeded by Manuel Smith,
who now is with the Panama Canal Me-
teorological and Hydrographic Branch
and then Clyde LeClair. Their work,
also, is represented in the glass slides
Mr. Bouche is screening and cataloging.
Some of Mr. Bouche's earliest memo-
ries are connected with the Panama
(See p. 12)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
This modem "Corral" at Ancon, shown in this aerial view, is the he.
Transportation Division's operation. Much of the area is devoted
An ice delivery wagon in front of the cold storage plant at Cristobal
power was at its height in this era, when more than 500 were used in
Felix Gonz&lez, shown repairing a forklift in the division's sub shop at pi
feared to Keep
On the Road
closely geared to traffic by water, are
dependent in a big way on wheels.
-' "' Keeping those wheels well oiled, run-
S ning smoothly, and on time is the job
done by the Motor Transportation
art of the Motor In the early days, the wheels needed
to repair work. a horse or mule in front to pull, and the
building of the Canal and its supporting
operations owes a great debt to the mus-
cle of hundreds of beasts that labored
day after day with the men who cut
the waterway through the jungle.
Today, the ( ffk i, nc of the operation
still might offer a respectful tip of the
hat to horsepower, but of a different
kind. The transportation problems have
not changed half so drastically as the
methods and equipment now used to
At the Ancon Corral, named after its
original function of housing horses and
I mules, a fleet of modern trucks and cars
are quartered. From there and the
Mount Hope Corral they are sent out on
hundreds of specialized missions under
\ the direction of Superintendent of the
division Roger W. Adams. Everything
from schoolchildren to paper clips is
cargo and its movement plays a vital
l in 1910. Mule part in the lives of everyone in the
Canal building. Canal Zone.
Early records show that at the height
of animal transportation, 639 animals
were housed in 12 corrals. Of these,
500 were mules, 139 horses. And that
total didn't include 136 privately owned
horses. Today, 575 vehicles from sedans
to 80-ton tractor trailers, do the work.
They haul garbage, gasoline, people,
and supplies. Even a shrimp boat was
on the cargo list in 1963.
Thoroughly mechanized now, the title
of this organization was, until 1943, the
Animal and Motor Transportation Divi-
sion, and the last %.ilciing trough was
removed in 1962.
Its 470 personnel are divided into
various functions and serve both on the
Atlantic and Pacific sides of the Canal.
Behind the scenes are the skilled
mechanics and technicians. They use
the most modern and efficient equip-
ier 18 in Balboa. ment to keep the fleet rolling. Among
their duties are the repair and main-
tenance of equipment used for construc-
tion, grounds maintenance, firefighting,
materials handling and police work.
Their job also is to overhaul and main-
tain trucks and cars and the work done
by them is recognized as the finest. An
apprenticeship program guarantees that
this quality will be upheld in the future.
Seen by most Zone residents are the
drivers. They have been trained in safety
and proper driving habits and, of course,
courtesy on the road. Other employees
backstop the operation with planning,
administration, and scheduling. Activ-
ities include the inspection of cars,
providing wrecker service, limited com-
mercial repair work, recapping tires,
administration of the public bus sys-
tem (which is privately owned) and
operation of a training program.
These figures will give you a good
idea of the workload handled by the
division in a single year: Cars and trucks
logged 7,207,000 miles, hauled 2,326
children each schoolday, carried count-
less thousands of tons of supplies and
3,599,721 gallons of diesel fuel. With-
out a fuss, the division continues to pro-
vide the wheels that help the Canal
organization to meet its ever increasing
responsibility to world trade.
One of the first of the fleet of trucks in the Canal Zone. This snappy model shows a
material foreman and driver in a pre-1920 model. The fleet grew rapidly after that.
..- ;' ..r-"
.. -. -
This was the fleet of Supply Department motorized section in 1918. In background is the
Administration Building, but without the surrounding growth of trees that graces it today.
Repairing a Caterpillar tractor at the Ancon garage, from left, Carlos C. Segreda,
Alfred M. Spence, and Milton H. Wright. The shop can handle jobs of any size.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
. -. --- -._" -- - .
Q WHEN YOU'RE FISHING in the Panama area, all the big
ones don't get away. And there are plenty of big ones. In fact,
17 world records have been established in Panama waters,
12 by men and 5 by women.
Of the 12 male records, 4 are held by Jack D. Wagner,
an FAA employee in the Zone. An avid angler, Wagner's
S four records are all for sawfish, but with different lines.
In addition to his world record catch of 8902 ponuds,
S_- a record both for the all-tackle category and the 80-pound
line category, Wagner holds the 30- and 50-pound line
When it comes to hauling in the record breakers, the ladies
can forget the old adage that brands them as the weaker sex.
Especially Mrs Helen Robinson, a Key West, Fla. resident.
Three of the five records held by women were fish weighed
For the Record
SAWFISH ------- -
BASS (Giant Sea)
MARLIN (Pacific Blue)--
MARLIN (Silver) ---
SAWFISH -- -._-.-
8903 16' 1"
---- 50% 4' 7"
Fort Amador, C.Z. --
Gatun Spillway, C.Z.-
70 4' 8" Pifias Bay, Panama.
159 9' 11" Pifias Bay, Panama.
150 8' 10"
664 14' 1%"
Perlas Islands, Panama -
Pifias Bay, Panama ----
Pifias Bay, Panama -----
May 26, 1960
January 2, 1944
Jack D. Wagner.
J. W. Anderson.
December 29, 1956 Wilbert Harborn.
---- July 23, 1957 J. Frank Baxter.
March 1, 1957 Edward W. Gorham.
.- September 18, 1959 J. Lee Cuddy.
February 2, 1961 Jack D. Wagner.
209 8' 9" Pifias Bay, Panama ------- March 17, 1954
721 15' 5" Fort Amador, C.Z. --- February 6, 1960
----- 466 12' 3X" Cocos Point, Panama
- .--- 890% 16' 1" Fort Amador, C.Z.
50% 4' 7" Gatun Spillway, C.Z.-
S. L. Torian.
Jack D. Wagner.
November 28, 1958 Paul M. Fletcher.
May 26, 1960 Jack D. Wagner.
--- January 2, 1944
J. W. Anderson.
---- 106% 5' 5" Pifias Bay, Panama ---
106% 5' 5"
796 13' 1"
Piiias Bay, Panama -----
Pifias Bay, Panama --------
July 9, 1960
July 9, 1960
August 16, 1961
-----. 81 5' 2" Pifias Bay, Panama --- February 13, 1960
116 7' 10%" Panama Bay, Panama May 12, 1955
Velma A. Burkhart.
in by her, including a 796-pound black marlin. Mrs. Robinson
comes each year to the Panama area, where she and her
husband enjoy big game fishing.
One of the most prized catches locally is the corbina, known
for its excellence on the dinner table. Other local favorites
of the smaller variety are bonita, jack, wahoo, snapper, and
For the more adventuresome (and muscle-bound) are the
big game species, such as sailfish, sawfish, swordfish, shark,
and marlin, most of which are caught out in deep water.
For all those who look forward to the weekly or monthly
fishing trips, here is a chart alphabetically listing 25 of the
most popular fish, when, where, and how they are caught,
and what kind of meal they make, and a second chart listing
record catches in local waters.
BASS (Giant Sea) ---
MARLIN (Black) -----
MARLIN (Pacific Blue)-
MARLIN (Striped) ---
E Troll, jig, artificial lures, cut bait --
G Weighted spoon, plugs, feathers ----
G Live bait, trolling -- --------
N Feathers, trolling -----------
E Cast, jig, lures -- ----
G Trolling, tackle, cut or whole bait, feathers-
G Jig, artificial lures -- ---------
F Trolling, jig, artificial lures, cut bait ----
E Large cut bait--------------------
E Weighted spoon, feathers
G Feathers, trolling------------------
E Trolling, whole bonita, cut bait, rod & reel-
G Trolling, cut bait, rod & reel------
G Trolling, cut bait, rod & reel------
E Fly, plug, feathers------------------
E Cut bait, feathers
G Trolling, light tackle, rod & reel, cut bait-
N Spinning rod, lures, live or dead bait --
N Almost anything------------ -----
E Spinning rod, lures, live or dead bait ---
E Trolling, cast, artificial bait-----------
E Live bait --- ------ -----
N Rod & reel, artificial lures, plugs -----
G Trolling, jig, cut bait, feathers ------
E Trolling, artificial lures, cut bait -----
Where Caught Weight
Offshore reefs, around wrecks-- 10-100
Reefs, surf, bays .---__-_-_ 45-115
Deep water ---------------- up to 300
Deep water, outer reefs ------ 2-3
Reefs, deep water, rocky area--- 2-10
Warm blue waters near surface-- 10-30
Keys, reefs, rocks, inlets ---- 10-50
Shore lines, bays, channels, reefs,
surf ------------------- 5-35
In and off shore, near rocks, in
holes --------- 100-300
Outside breakwater in clear water up to 45
Deep water, outer reefs --- 5-10
Deep sea-------------- 250-450
Deep sea------------------ 250-450
Deep sea ------ 100-250
Close to shore, beaches, inlets,
shallow lagoons ------------- 5-15
Near islands and rocky areas __ 5-6
Deep sea ------- 80-120
Shallow water, mouths of rivers
up to 1000+
Tropical and temperate oceans- 25-1000+
Outer reefs, ledges, wrecks --- 5-35
Shallow water ---------------- 3-10
Deep water -------------- 300
Salt water, canals, bridges---- 100-150
Deep water, outer reefs ----- 2-5
Near surface, open water, reefs.- 10-40
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
A POUND IS A POUND, BUT A TON
IS A MUCH MORE WEIGHTY MATTER
A TON IS a ton is a ton. But not always.
It may be a tun or even a Panama Canal
Panama Canal tmnpl.:e t ;, especially
admeasurers and others connected with
shipping, do business with all kinds of
tons and even handle a tun or two now
But to the average person, who is
unfamiliar with nautical or shipping
terms, a discussion of long tons, short
tons, metric tons, gross, net, displace-
ment and deadweight tonnage and of
Space, Is Complex
course, Panama Canal gross and net
tonnage, will leave him all at sea.
In an article written some years ago,
Elmer Stetler, former Chief Admeasurer
in Balboa, said that the layman could
be lost in a maze and figuratively buried
under tons. Tonnage he said, just grew
like Topsy and could not be explained
logically. It was subject to the vagaries
of countries, ship owners, merchants and
From the historical standpoint, meas-
urement of ships is only about 100 years
old. Prior to 1854, only the crudest and
loosely approximate methods were used.
The formulation of the Panama Canal
rules of measurement drawn up by Prof.
Emory R. Johnson in 1912 he called
('Uloading cargo at the docks at Balboa. Today there are standard measuring systems that have evolved from traders who handled cargo
hundreds of years ago, and these are used to tell the capacities of ships. Still, various measuring systems are in use around the world.
derived from the old English word "tun"
which dates back to the Latin of early
middle ages where the word "tunna"
occurs, meaning barrel. And the barrel
was used to carry wine.
According to Stetler, the transport of
wine had a great influence on the origin
of tonnage for in that trade only cargoes
of one description of goods occurred.
The weight per unit space of wine
barrels required that a vessel have its
entire hold filled with them in order to
In 1423 King Henry V of England
decreed that wine should be in tunss"
of less than 252 gallons. Later, when
trade expanded to the point that it be-
came necessary to have an adequate
measure of weight a vessel would lift as
well as volume, a tun became a measure
of weight of roughly 2,240 pounds.
The "last" was a measure of weight
adapted especially for the carriage of
corn in the north of Europe. Originally
the weight which would be transported
by a wagon drawn by four horses or
on two carts drawn by two horses, it
was often estimated at 4,000 pounds.
There was also the "keel" which origi-
nally was a flat bottomed boat used to
transport coal on the River Tyne to
Newcastle. It was decreed in 1422
that keels should have the portage of
Will this cargo be measured in tons, long
tons, net tons, or how? It all depends on
what system is used and in what part of
the world the measuring is being done.
the greatest milepost in measurement
The excellence of the system devised
by Professor Johnson is demonstrated
by the fact that the average ratio of the
weight of the cargo carried in long tons
through the Panama Canal is almost
equal to the space tons or Panama Canal
net tonnage of the vessels carrying this
The Johnson system was based mainly
on determining the earning capacity of
a vessel with 1 ton for each 100 cubic
feet of enclosed revenue producing
space. The system of calling 100 cubic
feet a gross ton was devised by George
Moorsom, an Englishman commissioned
in 1854 by the British Board of Trade
to devise rules to cover the measurement
of ships scientifically.
During the middle ages the volume
of ships was measured by a unit called
a "ton" in some parts of Europe and by
a "last" in others.
The word ton originally did not
appear to have expressed weight. It was
20 "chaldrons" corresponding to eight
"waggons" with a capacity of 126 cubic
feet. This is now equivalent to 21.2
Then there is the displacement ton
which has evolved as a unit approxi-
mately equal to the volume of a long
ton weight of sea water or 35 cubic
feet. And the measurement or freight
ton, a unit of volume for cargo freight
usually reckoned at 40 cubic feet.
These are only a few of the units of
measurement used by commerce and
shipping in the past and are still kept
in use in modern times. The method by
which ships are measured at the Panama
Canal is as close an approximation to
the actual net available cargo and pas-
senger space as is possible to determine
and was the first scientific exact sys-
tem evolved that made the term "net
tonnage" mean something, Stetler said.
But, he said, if past commercial
growth compelled the retirement of such
approximate standards of measure as
tunss of wine," "waggons of corn" etc.,
it is not too much to expect that refine-
ments will be made in the future to the
present tonnage laws which are the out-
growth of such crude units. They will
become more exact and practical for
the new type of ships now being
developed for special purposes.
-, 7 .
: t.Lqli.- ... ,,--..," .- ..-. ...
Cargo carried by these ships through the Panama Canal is measured in Panama Canal net
tons, a system that introduced new standards into measurement of cargo and space.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
50 years c4,go
THE I II11.MI N Canal Commission,
under which the Canal was constructed,
ceased to exist March 31, 1914, and was
succeeded by The Panama Canal, a new
,I. ni7.i,,'i, established effective April
1, 1914, by authority of an Executive
Order. The following departments were
part of the new organization: Operation
and Maintenance, Purchasing, Supply,
A~ouniting Health, Executive Office,
and a Panama Canal Washington Office.
The Panama Railroad was to be oper-
ated as if it were division of the Depart-
ment of Operation and Maintenance.
The new electric towing locomotives
were used for the first time for handling
vessels through the locks when on April
1, 1914, they towed the launch Balboa
and two other pieces of floating equip-
ment through the west flight of Gatun
Locks from the lake to the Atlantic
entrance of the Canal channel. The
transit took 1 hour and 17 minutes.
A committee was appointed to sub-
mit recommendations regarding the
most practical plan for reconstruction of
Ancon Hospital on a permanent basis.
The Health Director submitted a general
plan killingg for the construction of con-
crete buildings with tile roofs and floors,
with ward buildings of two stories, with
the administrative features concentrated
in one building.
25 Year- c40 o
AS WOR LD WAR II loomed closer in
Europe 25 years ago this month, the
mighty U.S. Fl, et was suddenly ordered
to return to the Pacific Ocean following
maneuvers held in the Atlantic. The
120-ship fleet arrived at the Panama
Canal at the end of April and started
transit shortly afterwards.
Closing of the Panama Canal to the
ships of agressor nations was recom-
mended in \Washmngton, D.C., by Dr.
Charles Fenwick, Professor of Interna-
tional Law at Bryn Mawr College who
testified before the House Foreign Affairs
Committee r g.irdinrg U.S. neutrality
Assistant Secretary of War Louis
Johnson transmitted to the House of
Representatives a draft of a bill author-
i/ire an appropriation not to exceed
$1,500,000 for the paving, in coopera-
tion with Panama, of the Panama
National Highway outside the Canal
Zone between Chorrera and Rio Hato
as a U.S. defense highu. av.
The SS Panama, first of the three new
passenger cargo liners constructed in
Quincy, Mass. for the New York-Cris-
tobal service of the Panama Railroad
Steamship Line, completed her trials off
Rockland, Maine and sailed from New
York the last part of April on her maiden
\%.I '.-I to Panama.
10 year c4o
A GROUP of expert engineers from the
United States came to the Canal Zone
10 years ago to assist Panama Canal
engineers in making a full examination
of a crack in the rock ledge at the top
and near the edge of Contractors' Hill
on the west bank of Gaillard Cut. The
crack had been developing since 1938
and had a potential of causing a slide
which would block the waterway.
The old name "Panama Canal Club-
house" became a thing of the past as
the Clubhouse Division became known
officially as the Service Center Division
and the individual Clubhouses became
Service Centers. It was believed that
the new name would more properly
describe the services offered by the
Clubhouse units and would eliminate
confusion arising between Canal Club-
houses and Armed Forces service units
such as officers' clubs.
An earthquake strong enough to
awaken a number of Isthmian residents
was recorded on the Balboa Heights seis-
mograph in April 1954. The epicenter
of the temblor was estimated at about
150 miles from Balboa Heights.
One Year c4go
BRIG. GEN. W. P. LEBER, former
Lieutenant Governor of the Canal Zone
and Mrs. Leber, both received the Order
of Vasco Nfilez de Balboa, one of Pana-
ma's highest honors, 1 year ago this
month. The ceremony took place in the
Presidential Palace in Panama shortly
before General Leber left the Isthmus
for his new post in Cincinnati.
Col. David S. Parker, who succeeded
General Leber as Lieutenant Governor,
signed his oath of office after being
sworn into his new position.
The 3-month overhaul at Miraflores
Locks was brought to a close last April
and both the east and west lanes
resumed full operation. The work was
completed on schedule.
Views Canal History Through Looking Glass
(Continued from p. 5)
Canal's photo studio. Accompanying his
grandfather, who was a construction-
days worker, he remembers climbing a
circular stairway to the top of the
Administration Building rotunda to the
studio there. That's where license and
identification pictures were taken, and
when 8 x 10 prints were 15-200 each.
The glass slides originally were stored
in the attic of the Administration Build-
ing. They were moved to Diablo when
the official photographer's studio was
moved to that townsite from the Admin-
istration Building attic. Another move
brought the official photographer, his
files-and the glass slides-back to the
Administration Building. Being glass,
some suffered the consequences of the
Mr. Bouche who, of course, had
known of the existence of the glass
slides for years, volunteered to sort and
and catalog them-on his own time,
after working hours. The idea is to go
through the envelopes containing the
(See p. 15)
YEAR TO DATE
282 261 13
762 771 (36)1 57 48(9 673 1599(99se
( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries Inctuded In total.
12 APrIL 1964
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
V E AU
Genera S p y e f
Leopold H. Anderson
Motor Launch Captain
Samuel E. Taylor
William C. Grimes
Stanley H. Davis
Albert F. Pate
Control Hou era
TR% S PORT AND
Wilfred A.. Boland
Gustave A. Moller
Truck Driver (Heavy Trailer)
Truck Driver (Heavy)
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Charles T. Hedman
S enter Supervisor
hie .,Pox lant
or Gas Turbines)
Fireman (Floating Plant)
Claudius Z. Gayle
Hubert F. Williams
Francis A. Cutkelvin
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Enid E. Herbert
Marium M. White
General Supply Assistant
Ralph E. Holder
Leader Laborer (Heavy)
Luis H. Gonzilez
Hezekiah A. Gordon
High Lift Truck Operator
Rosa M. Kirven
Mary A. Minto
Leader High Lift Truck
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Walter C. Cole
C. J. Gundersen
Felix A. Julienne
Ivan Augustus Miles
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Horace L. Morgan
Helper Lock Operator
Jose D. Regalado
Line Handler (Deckh
ck erator aOperator
eor C. che e
Gen ral or a (Lock
er tio )
Co elio rot an0
el erMachi t
Walter W. Carlsonh Cap
N. F. Whitoreld
James M. Zelsman
Leader Lock Operator
Lead Foreman Plasterer
Tile and Block Setter
Walter W. Carlson
Central Office Repairman
George F. Reichel
Chief Engineer, Towboat
M. L. McCullough
Moses N. Raymond
Hopeton G. Taylor
Leader (Ship Stevedoring)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Obrien L. Barnett
Santos D. Hidalgo
Ellen E. Johnson
Genevieve P. Long
Helen J. S. Bellinger
Staff Nurse (Tuberculosis)
Martin J. De Silva
(Medicine and Surgery)
Reginald L. Esteban
(Medicine and Surgery)
Eloise M. Murphy
Joffre R. Sauvageau
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between February 5 and April 5,
1964 (v. ithin-irr.uile promotions and job
reclassifications are not listed):
\ illijin E. Burns, from Supervisory Photog-
rapher to Visual Information Specialist
Cli 1. Graphic Branch).
Henry A. Thousand, Messenger to Mail
OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL
Lillian B. Clarke, from Administrative Serv-
ices Division to Clerk-Stit uL'rapher.
Office of General Counsel.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Francis A. Castles, Assistant Superintendent
U.S. Schools to Director of Schools.
Allison F. Goddard, Mary L. Knapp, Sub-
stitute Teachers to Teachers (U.S.
Schools; Junior High).
Martha J. Hamilton, Marilyn W. Holquist,
Doris M. Hunt, Substitute Teachers to
Teachers (U.S. Schools; Elementary).
Elsie G. de Vega, Substitute Teacher to
Teacher (U.S. School; Senior High).
Claudia M. Lawton, Clerk-Typist to Clerk-
Joseph A. Forde, Laborer (Heavy) to Main-
Norman P. Sherwood, Laborer (Heavy) to
Jack C. Sutherland, Police Sergeant to
I'. I. Lieutenant.
George H. Scoggin, Canal Zone Guide
(Interpreter) to Police Private.
William R. Thrift, Window Clerk, Postal
Division, to Police Private.
Richard C. ITcan. Finance Branch Super-
intendent I. it i. 1 Supervisor, Cristobal.
James E. Harrell, Clerk-in-Charge, Window
Services, to Finance Branch Superinten-
Frank P. Sullivan, Relief Supervisor, Balboa
to Finance Branch Superintendent, Cris-
John F. Martin, Window Clerk to Relief
Roy M. \ajllier. \\ mI.... Cl, rk to Finance
Brancl, 'l"1,. io,,r n I, ir l illoa.
Donald 1% \1lurllin,. ', i, \.it N., ,.,r,,.n
Division, to Distribution Clerk, Sub-
James L. HI.rdiin. .il.r ir' Assistant to
Window C 1, r ;,l..i,,,
Herman E. Singh, Clerk, Customs Division,
to Window Clerk, Substitute.
1'di.jr R. Ellis, Truck Driver to Distribu-
tion Clerk, Substitute.
Gil \ .ilinrlr. Railroad Tr., In, ii, Railroad
Division to Laborer, Fi,,i., rinm Divi-
William II. Edmondson, General Foreman
.1 1. 'rI ,I '- -t, ,.- Maintenance) to Su-
pervisory I'l. r.in o. Engineer I'l. ,ro-
II.rl.i l 'V Hlni,.irl. -l., irical iF Ie, .. r
(Utili-zation --i. .... r' ....r (Generation
and Transmission Power System).
George W. Wertz, General Foreman (Ma-
rine Electrical) to Chief Foreman (Elec-
trical Installation and Maintenance).
Austin E. Salter, Lead Foreman (Marine
Electrical) to General Foreman Electri-
Ewald A. Wiberg, Electronics Mechanic to
Electronic Technician (General).
Jeanne S. Garcia, Clerk-Typist to Accounts
Maintenance Clerk (Typing).
Paul E. Ackerman, Electrician to Leader
Robert W. Adams, Apprentice (Cable-
splicer, 2d year) to Apprentice (Cable-
splicer, 3d year).
Catalino SAnchez, Helper Electrician (Line-
man) to Maintenanceman (Transmission
Carlos Chanis, Laborer (Cleaner), Division
of Schools, to Helper Cable Splicer).
William J. Carson, Lead Foreman (Plumber)
to General Foreman (Maintenance
Albert H. Plumer, Lead Foreman (Refrig-
eration and Air Conditioning) to General
Foreman (Refrigeration and Air Condi-
Roderick N. MacDonnell, Plumber to
Vernon C. Douglas, Lead Foreman (Public
Works-Road Construction) to Lead Fore-
man (Public \V..rk--\\ h.,rfnl J ,ii i
John D. Mitchusson, Leader, Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning, to Lead Foreman,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
James P. Young, Jr., Leader Plumber to
Lead Foreman (Plumber).
Mildmay C. Lamotte, Warehouseman to
Clerk (Work Orders).
Eric F. Yearwood, Laborer (Heavy) to
Guy J. Alexander, Service Station Attendant
to Helper, Refrigeration and Air Condi-
Eric H. Brathwaite, Jr., Apprentice (Auto-
motive Mechanic, 1st year) to Clerk.
Samuel N. Haywood, Laborer to Ware-
Bienvenido Ortega, Maintenance to Car-
Adrian R. Ellington, Painter i\..irit in m. ,"
Arcadio M. Matamoros, Laboratory Helper
Mark E. Bacchus, Laborer to Helper
Adan Castillo, Leader Asphalt or Cement
Worker to Leader Paver.
Kenneth R. Warner, Lead Foreman (Public
Works Road Repair) to Lead Foreman
(Public \V'.rk. Construction and Main-
Sidney I. Brooks, Leader Laborer (ih ,'
to Leader Asphalt or Cement Worker.
David S. 'imtlair. Leader Asphalt or
Cement Worker to Leader Cement
Normeno B.Rile', Leader Asphalt or Cement
Worker to Leader Cement Finisher.
Bruce A. Codrinton, Messenger to Painter.
Hernin E. Barsallo, Engineering Draftsman
(Mechanical) to Construction Engineer-
ing Technician (Dr.iftinu'
Franklin S. Stabler, Clerk to Guard Super-
Klaus Reichert, Launch Captain to Master,
Humberto Camarena, Seaman to Oiler
Richard M. Krise, Truck Driver to Guard
Manuel Puga R., Laborer to Laborer
Charles W. Jarvis, Helper Carpenter to
Eugenio Navarro, Luis Toribio, Laborer to
Josi I. Abrego, Laborer (Cleaner) to La-
Escanio Santos, Laborer (Heavy) to Boat-
Coco Solo Hospital
Yvonne G. Ward, Accounting Clerk
(Typing) Printing Plant to Accounting
Mary L. Parker, Clerk-Typist, Industrial
Division, to Clerk-Typist.
Palo Seco Hospital
Wilmoth L. Davis, Cook, Supply Division,
to Cook, Palo Seco Hospital.
Division of Sanitation
Pastor ChAves R., Exterminator to Biolog-
Division of Preventive Medicine
Josephine S. Watts, Staff-Nurse (Medicine
and Surgery) to Public Health Nurse.
Rita G. Gibbons, Assistant Director of
Nursing to Director of Nursing.
Irene A. Ladrach, Nurse Supervisor (Gen-
eral Medical and Surgical Hospital) to
Assistant Director of Nursing.
Donna M. Mahrenholz, Staff Nurse to Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
Antoinette C. Nowotny, Accounting Clerk,
Supply Division to Clerk Gorgas Hospital.
George Maloney, Ward Service Aid to
Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Sur-
1 ilfred M. Lynch ,Food Service Worker
to Hospital Food Service Worker.
Abraham Espino S., Stevedore, Terminals
Division, to Hospital Attendant.
Theophilus A. Wilson, Seaman (Launch) to
Vivian S. Kirton, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Dianne M. Barnes, Clerk-Typist to Clerk-
Sit i,,,ir iplhrr. Cristobal.
Be-. B. McGIomn. Clerk-Typist, Mainte-
nance Division, to Clerk-btenorpr ipher.
Samuel A. Hamilton, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Marcelino F. Gournet, Crane Hookman to
Crane Hookman (Heavy).
Rudolph H. Gray, Crane Hookman to
Crane Hookman (Heavy).
Jean G. Dockery, Time and Leave Super-
visor (Typist) to Supervisory Timekeeper
John M. Morrison, Lead Foreman (Lock
Operations) to General Foreman (Lock
Hugh C. Christie, Lead Foreman (Lock
Operations) to General Foreman (Lock
Rex V. Sellens, Leader Lock Operator
(Machinist) to Lead Foreman (Lock
Richard T. Baltozer, Lock Operator (Ma-
chinist) to Leader Lock Operator (Ma-
Glenn A. Lasher, Lock Operator (Electri-
cian) to Leader Lock Operator (Electri-
Jesse W. Bumby, Charles J. Peterson, Elec-
trician to Lock Operator (Electrician).
Richard N. Phillips, Fred M. Gemmell,
Machinist to Lock Operator (Machinist).
Leonard L. Miesse, Charles L. Griffin, Jr.,
Electrician to Lock Operator (Electri-
Lionel A. Daniel, Maintenanceman (Rope
and Wire Cable) to Leader Maintenance-
man (Rope and Wire Cable).
Harold S. Gaskin, Helper Lock Operator to
Leader Maintenanceman (Rope and Wire
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Patrick F. Henry, Statistical Draftsman,
Accounting Office to Visual Information
Specialist, Budget and Rates Division.
Luz E. Sedda, Clerk-Stenographer, Ac-
counting Division, to Clerk-Stenographer,
Accounting Policies and Procedures
Rosanne Fulop, Clerk-Typist, Division of
Preventive Medicine, to Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, Accounting Division.
James M. Morgan ,Timekeeper, Dredging
Division, to Time, Leave and Payroll
Clerk, Payroll and Machine Accounting
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Office of the General Manager
Erich L. Reinhardt, Assistant Retail Store
Manager, to General Supply Assistant.
Lynne M. Jones, Clerk-Typist to General
Supply Assistant (Typing).
Edwin F. Rigby, General Supply Officer to
General Supply Officer (Superintendent
Elizabeth S. Coleman, Accounting Assistant
to Budget and Accounting Analyst.
Edward Inness, Assistant Retail Store
Manager to Assistant Commissary Store
Mario A. Pezzotti, Retail Store Department
Manager (General) to Service Center
Harold A. Lord, High Lift Truck Operator
to Crane Hookman.
Lester J. Clement, Laborer (Heavy) to High
Lift Truck Operator.
Hubert A. Mason, Warehouseman to Clerk.
Gilbert A. Brown, Laborer (Heavy, Cold
Storage) to Warehouseman.
Eric C. Henry, Utility Worker to Laborer
(Heavy, Cold Storage).
Vincent J. Carter, Laundry Worker (Heavy)
to Marker and Sorter.
Inez B. Crawford, Counterwoman to Sales
Ellen L. Barton, Assistant Baker to Baker.
William A. Whittaker, Marker and Sorter
to Leader Marker and Sorter.
George W. Anderson, Warehouseman to
James Barnett, Laborer (Heavy) to Ware-
(Continued from p. 12)
glass slides, evaluate and catalog the
contents and determine, in the proce-
dure, which should be retained and
which are of no value to the Panama
Canal. The objective is to have an album
of positive plates available, from which
copies may be ordered.
Sizing up the task before him, Mr.
Bouche first sat down with a long sheet
of yellow paper before him and set up
some 69 categories that covered the
sets of locks, Madden Dam, and ships.
There are ships of all sorts, types,
classes, and fame. Approximately 600
pictures of ships have no duplicates,
and it is planned to retain these.
About seven subjects have most
comprehensive coverage, he says. For
instance, the Panama Canal locks. Glass
negatives follow the progress of the
building of the locks from the very be-
ginnings when just brush and stakes
Florencia Akins, Laborer to Laborer
Walter A. Clarke, Warehouseman to Stock
Cecil W. Haughton, Stock Control Clerk
to Supervisory Clerk.
Joseph S. Parris, Warehouseman to Truck
Melvin P. Allen, Laborer (Cleaner) to Utility
Albert Winter, Laborer (Cleaner) to Utility
COMMUNITY SERVICES DIVISION
Office of the Chief
Shirley E. Clymer, Clerk (Stenographer) to
Supervisory Clerk-Typist (Stenography).
Jorge Lugardo, Laborer (Cleaner) to
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Eric E. Glascow, Marker and Sorter, Supply
Division, to Clerk, Railroad Division.
Pedro Urriola, Lead Foreman High Lift
Truck Operator to Lead Foreman (Mate-
Edward S. W. Mendez, Clerk (Checker)
to Freight Clerk.
Motor Transportation Division
Reginald W. Graham, School Bus Driver
to Truck Driver (Heavy Trailer).
David A. Armstrong, Truck Driver to
Gilberto Carranza, Truck Driver to School
Archibald IH. Bailey, Josh Jones B., Geraldo
A. Myrie, Truck Driver to Truck Driver
Aubrey D. Reefer, Augustus Lemon ,Rufus
A. Graves, Enrique W. Smith, Truck
Driver (Heavy) to Truck Driver (Heavy
Ricardo Gordon, Laborer (Cleaner), Indus-
trial Division, to Guard.
marked the start of an engineering
Many of the glass slides have been
cannibalized. Approximately 1,250 can-
not be identified absolutely for there is
no title, no inkling of what they may
Of the 16,000 glass negatives, says
Mr. Bouche, eventually about 2,025
may be retained. He already has about
50 drawers of rejects, 250 glass nega-
tives to a drawer, to be disposed of in
a manner to be determined by the
An undetermined number of the re-
tained glass negatives will be screened
and a cross-section selected to represent
the Panama Canal of yesteryear.
Mr. Bouche is not cleaning the glass
negatives. He just looks at each through
a viewer and then inserts each in a clean
envelope, with proper identification and
Ezequiel Espino G., Dock Worker to Steve-
Alvin C. McFarlane, Clerk (Checker) to
Ralph H. Austin, Line Handler to Leader
Francis X. Schloeder, Medical Officer (Gen-
eral Internal Medicine) Gorgas.
Eleanor D. Burnham, Librarian (Admin-
William R. Graham, Administrative Serv-
ices Officer, Railroad Division.
William S. Wigg, Supervisory Management
Technician, Administrative Services Divi-
Della J. Noonan, Mail and File Supervisor,
Jacob C. Baker, Admeasurer, Navigation
James Jones, Admeasurer, Navigation Divi-
Bertha I. Frensley, Secretary (Stenography),
Office of the Comptroller.
Edward H. Appin, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Payroll and Machine Account-
Fred B. Leslie, Police Private, Police Divi-
Elizabeth M. Costanzo, Management Tech-
nician, Administrative Services Division.
Leonard Aguirre, Time, Leave, and Payroll
Clerk, Payroll and Machine Accounting
John G. Riley, Police Private, Police Divi-
Patricia Flores, Clerk-Stenographer, Indus-
trial Division, Cristobal.
Alexander Watt, Chief Engineer, Towboat,
George F. Phillips, Master, Towboat,
Hubert L. Gould, Detention Guard, Police
Gaston E. Headley, Clerk, Navigation
Lloyd 0. Rogers, Freight Clerk, Railroad
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Dutch Liners Sold
TWO DUTCH passenger liners, which
have become well known Canal custom-
ers, will leave the round-the-world serv-
ice this year and start operating next
year under the house flag of Achille
Lauro of Naiplt ., Italy. They are the
Oranje and the Willem Ruys, originally
built as rivals on the Holland-East Indies
service. The Oranje, built for the Neder-
land Line in 1939, will call at the Canal
in June and July before being trans-
ferred to her new owners. The Willem
Ruys, owned by the Rotterdam Lloyd,
is due here in May and September
before making her last trip in December.
According to C. B. Fenton & Co., agents
for the ships at the Canal, the Oranje
will make two cruises to Australia in
August and September.
The Oranje was built in Amsterdam
and ran her trials in 1939 when she
achieved a speed of 26 knots, making
her the fastest motorship then in service.
In 1941 she became a hospital ship for
the Allies but returned to the Holland-
East Indies service in 1946. When this
operation was abandoned in 1958 she
was reconditioned and placed on the
round-the-world run from Amsterdam
and Southampton to Australasia via the
Panama Canal returning via the Suez
The Willem Ruys was built in Flush-
ing but had not reached the launching
stage when Holland was invaded. She
lay incomplete until after the war. She
ran her trials in November 1947, making
over 24 knots and then went on the
Indonesian service until, like the Oranje,
she had to be withdrawn. With
23,114 gross tons, she has at present
accommodations for 1,045 passengers.
THE FIRST successful automatic con-
trol system for the steam generating
process of marine boilers is a feature of
the Humble Oil and Refining Co. tanker
SS Esso Neward, which runs through the
Panama Canal between the U.S. east
and west coasts with stops at Venezuela.
The system makes possible for the
first time the unattended operation of a
tanker fireroom. According to a report in
the Daily Commercial News and Ship-
pin.' Guide, the history-making test of
the automatic system was made in Feb-
ruary on a 10,380 mile run from Bay-
town, Tex. passing through the Panama
TRANSITS BY OCEANGOING
VFfSEILS IN \1 \RCH
Commercial .. .........
U.S. Government ....
Free .. . . .. .
T otal ............
Commercial .... $5,484,408
U.S. government. 106,155
T otal ... 1' ,' l ")''
. I. 21 'I 1 -
Total .... 6,379,001
,i 6"T 705
Intludes tolls on all vesels, oceangoing and
*"Cargo figures are in long tons,
Canal February 22, to San Francisco
and return to New York.
For 29 full days, 24 hours a day, the
new automatic control fired the boilers
that drove the steam turbines propelling
the 27,000-ton tanker through good and
bad weather. Even the passage through
the Panama Canal and maneuvering in
port was made under automatic control.
Not once during the entire trip was there
need for corrections from the ship's crew.
The control was developed by Peabody
Engineering Corp. of New York
which envisions limitless possibilities for
More Ships Being Built
AN INCREASE in the world shipyard
output in 1963 but a change in trends
in the principal shipbuilding countries
is shown in the Lloyd's Register Annual
Summary of Merchant Ships Launched
in the World. The report showed a total
of 8,538,513tons of shipping launched in
1963 or 163,759 tons more than in 1962.
Distribution of orders has been uneven.
The report indicated that Japan has
continued to forge ahead while Great
Britain has fallen just behind West
Germany. The position of both these
countries is threatened by the steady
advance of Sweden. Other notable
changes in the list of principal ship-
building countries are the advance of
Italy from 9th to 5th place and the fall of
the United States from 6th to 10th place.
Japan was the largest shipbuilder with
2,367,353 tons for 1963. Other countries
in order are West Germany, United
Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, France, Neth-
erlands, Norway, Denmark, United
States, Yugoslavia, Poland, Spain, Fin-
land, Belgium, and Canada.
Rice by Bulk
RICE TRAVELS through the Panama
Canal in bulk these days. The initial
bulk shipment, all 14,500 tons of it,
arrived from the U.S. west coast early
in March aboard the SS Rice Queen, the
world's largest bulk rice carrier. It
was on its way to San Juan, P.R.
The Holland-America Line's Rotterdam is shown passing under the Thatcher Ferry Bridge
escorted by two Panama Canal tugs. The ship arrived in Balboa April 8 on the last leg
of a world cruise which started in New York. She was berthed in Balboa for a day to permit
her passengers to visit points of interest on the Isthmus. The Rotterdam, represented here
by Pacific Ford, has been a regular visitor to the Canal during the winter cruise season.
16 APRIL 1964
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