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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Table of Contents
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
ON THE INSIDE
PANAMA CAN AL
More Electric Power
A Summit Meeting
At the Races
I' nT ~ -.fr
c iiii '3
Vol. 14, No. 8
ROBERT J. FLEMING, Jr., Governor-President PA k ROBERT D. KERR, Press Officer
DAVID S. PARKEa, Lieutenant Governor A Publications Editors
FRANK A. BALDWIN W RICHARD D. PEACOCK and JuLIO E. BRICErO
FRANK A. BALDWIN ra.___ _....
Panama Canal Information Offic
Official Panama Canal Publication EU
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
NICE RICHARD, TOBI BITTEL, and
TOMAS A. CUPAS
Covet Vleme: VUanspotlatlion is
oul Principal Buslneki
THIS MONTH'S REVIEW cover theme-transportation-reflects the principal
business of the Panama Canal organization.
The ship at the bottom is symbolic of the great flow of world commerce through
the Canal. Statistics on pages 4 and 5 tell the story in numbers and tons, but not in
terms of people. Without question, millions the world over enjoy a higher standard
of living, brought about in part by the more rapid and less costly transit of raw
materials and finished products through the Panama Canal.
The continuation and improvement of Canal efficiency is the main purpose of
those who operate it, which is another way of saying "transportation is our business."
And the ship also represents the many smaller boats-launches, tugs and even
rowboats-that serve the Canal, directly and indirectly, in aiding the larger ships
In the center is the historic Panama Railroad and at the top is the Las Cruces, the
familiar tour boat.
THE PANAMA RAILROAD, rich in the fabric of Canal history and a vital link
across the Isthmus for more than a century, continues to provide a daily service
linking the Atlantic and Pacific sides of the Canal Zone.
The route of the railroad is through a verdant, water-dappled countryside. Often
it parallels the Canal. Through the windows of the rattling train on the 90-minute
trip the traveler sees a panorama of beauty-streams, wooded glens, Gatun Lake
dotted with arching tree limbs, and great expanses of the Canal. The train carries
out its vital function of transportation along one of the most scenic routes to be found.
AT THE TOP is the familiar tour boat, Las Cruces. It has carried thousands of tour-
ists, visiting officials and area residents on trips through Gaillard Cut and into Gatun
Lake since the little boat began operation in 1961. It has proven a success in familiar-
i'in c people, during partial Canal transits, with the overall operation of the Canal and
the relationship of various parts of the Canal. Its passengers have ranged from high
ranking diplomats and officials to groups of school children. Thousands of tourists
from over the world have taken home with them the story of the Panama Canal
after a Las Cruces trip and a locks tour. This helps to create an understanding of
the Canal and its service to peoples throughout the world.
Meet the Captain ----.----
Canal Tr.iffh Transists, Trade
Curundu's New School -----
At the Races ....--------
A Summit Meeting..-------.
More Electric Power ------
Port of Baltimore -------
Promotions. Transfers --------
Canal History ...- -.-- -...-
----- --------- 3
----..- ...--- .--- 6
-.-- .-----.. -.. 13
.- -----------. 15
The British Royal Yacht Britannia, shown
in Miraflores Locks on her trip early this
month through the Canal. The 412-foot
luxury vessel, accompanied by the Royal
Navy tanker Wave Prince, was on her way
from the South Sea Islands to Jamaica
where she is expected to meet the Queen
Mother Elizabeth. The Britannia docked
in Balboa in 1959 when Prince Phillip
visited the Isthmus. She went southbound
without stopping in 1962 and again in
January. She carries a crew of 275.
The Hand at the Helm
Of World's Longest Liner
CAPTAIN JOSEPH ROPARS, com-
mandant of the SS France, the longest
liner in the world, is no stranger to the
Panama Canal. He made his initial
Panama Canal transit 27 years ago on
his first assignment with the French
Line. Many transits followed over the
years. Now with promotion to the helm
of the France he can only sit aboard his
ship and look at the Canal. His ship,
1,035 feet long and with a 110-foot
breadth, is too big to squeeze through
the locks. The SS France even extends
beyond the Cristobal docks by a number
of feet-and the Cristobal docks are
more than 1,000 feet long.
Although he now treads soft carpets
and is commandant of one of the most
magnificent liners afloat, Captain Ropars
vividly recalls his initiation in a sea
career. A yen for travel, he says, led
him to sign on the SS Madonna bound
for the west coast of Africa, out of
Marseilles, some 35 years ago. Hard
work on deck and in the cargo holds
awaited him, instead of the sightseeing
he had envisioned. After a year he
transferred to another vessel that trav-
elled to South America and then to the
In October 1931, at the age of 20,
he entered the French Navy to comply
with the compulsory military training
required of every boy in France.
Eighteen months later, and now a
licensed mate, he landed a job on a
freighter bound for the Far East. In
between watches he studied for a radio
operator's certificate, which he received
At the age of 25 he obtained his
Master's ticket and a few months later,
in 1937, he joined the French Line.
His first assignment took him through
the Panama Canal to the west coast
of the United States.
He was a junior mate on the
SS Normandie when World War II
erupted. He left that ship tied up in
New York and worked through the war
as second mate or chief mate on a series
of freighters. His luck held, for he was
never torpedoed, but he doesn't even
want to think about the bad times of
1943 nor the many convoys in which
Home ashore beckoned after the
war days. He had been away from his
wife and two children for 5 years and
a teaching position was attractive. He
asked for a professorship in hydrog-
raphy and taught for 2 years in the
Merchant Marine Academy at Nantes,
The SS France is the world's longest liner and one of tthe most luxurious passenger ships
ever built. It measures 1,035 feet in length and has a 110 foot beam. Though too wide for
Canal Transit, it recently docked at Cristobal for a visit to the Atlantic-side terminus.
,,~. Uu uu.u
Captain Ropars aboard the SS France.
But in 1947 he went to sea again and
in 1952 he became a captain.
In 1961 he was assigned to supervise,
as staff captain, the completion of the
SS France and he has sailed this vessel
since she was commissioned. He was
staff captain and relief captain until
September 1962 when Capt. Georges
Croisile retired and he was given
command of the SS France.
"I still like teaching," he admits and
owns to authorship of three textbooks
on radar, the gyrocompass, and the
stability of merchant ships.
Captain Ropars' daughter, Lydia, 13,
wanted to follow in her father's foot-
steps and be captain of a ship. Con-
vinced finally that she should choose
another career, she's studying in France
to be a pediatrician. His son, Alain,
turned to mathematics instead of the
sea and now is studying for his doctorate
at the Sorbonne.
Superlatives are easily employed
when speaking of the SS France, for
the vessel has the largest theater afloat
the largest dining room on the high seas,
and the longest air-conditioning cable
and conduit network.
Some of the requirements for a round
trip transatlantic crossing are, for
instance: 15 tons of meat, 5 tons
of poultry, 5z tons of fish, 30 tons of
potatoes and vegetables, 15 tons of fresh
fruit, 70,000 eggs, 3 tons of cheese,
254,000 napkins and 94 tons of linens.
The SS France is the third trans-
(See p. 12)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Chilean -- ----
Colombian .- -
Greek - -
Honduran - - -
Israeli -- -
Italian -- --
Netherlands - -
Nicaraguan - -
\N-rwegar -- _ _
United States- -
All others- - -
July 1963- - - - -
\ii'st - -- -- - -
' Ipr,.mher- - - - -
October -_ ------
November -- - - -
December- - - - -
January 1964 - - -
March------ -- --
Aril -- -- - - -
June- - - - - -
Totals for 6
Fiscal year -
Transits (In th
1964 1963 Transits 1964
944 978 557 $4,898
946 950 554 4,842
923 909 570 4,836
980 882 607 5,154
946 924 568 4,879
958 947 599 4,897
5.697 5.590 3.455 .29.506
------- I 11.017 7.062 --
transits of cargo
1,774 ~ 8,797,124
Gross Tolls *
ousands of dollars)
Before deduction of any operating expenses.
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964
United States intercoastal. ----- 7__- - -
East coast of United States and South America - -
East coast of United States and Central America --..
East coast of United States and Far East ---....-......---
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ... -
I ',"., and west coast of United States/Canada -
Europe and South America --------.----_----
Europe and Australasia --------- - - - ---
All other routes ..-.-- ..- --- - -
Total Itrafi,- -------- --..-.. .. --
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964
What is Daily
HOW MANY ocean-going ships can
pass through the Panama Canal in
How has the long-range Canal im-
provement program helped the Panama
Canal handle more and bigger ships?
FIRST, the accomplishment of the
first 5 miles of the widening of Gaillard
Cut from 300 to 500. feet permits large
ships to pass in the Cut and speeds
Canal transits by increasing flexibility
to scheduling operations.
SECOND, the lighting of the Cut and
Locks permits night transit of ships that
would have been restricted to daylight
transit a few years ago.
THIRD, the new towing locomotives,
6 of which have been delivered, will
increase the speed of movement of ships
through the Locks.
FOURTH, the major improvement,
one that will almost double the depend-
able capacity of the Canal, is the de-
velopment of overhaul techniques and
Locks modifications that will reduce
lane outage time during Locks overhauls
from a period of several weeks to ap-
proximately 24 hours. The modifications
that are necessary to permit this revol-
utionary change are scheduled for
accomplishment during the next 2 years.
The Canal organization has run tests
and is making a study of the ultimate
capacity of the Canal when all of
these improvements have been accom-
plished. The organization has also en-
gaged the Stanford Research Institute
to make a long range forecast of Canal
traffic. When these studies are completed
the management of the Panama Canal
will be in a position to assess the present
Panama Canal's capability to handle its
probable future workload.
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
On a Number
No figures have been released, but it
is an accepted fact that a dependable
capacity of 43 ships per day, which was
stated in the organization's 1960 study,
is substantially below the capability of
the Canal when planned improvements
are complete. In other words, the over-
all plan started approximately 10 years
ago to increase the dependable capacity
of the Panama Canal has paid off.
The experts also say that the Canal
has not yet reached its development and
therefore has not had its maximum
capacity tested. A periodic capacity
reappraisal is made, however, to deter-
mine the effects of physical change to
the Canal, new operating equipment,
increase in personnel efficiency, and
The problem of increasing the capac-
ity of the Panama Canal is not new. It
was considered when the Canal was
under construction and again in the
1920's. It demanded more serious atten-
tion shortly after World War II when
huge super tankers began arriving at
the Canal for transit.
The long-range Canal-improvement
program started approximately 10 years
ago was designed to solve some of the
more pressing problems.
The initial feature was planning for
speedier locks overhaul, followed by the
widening of Gaillard Cut to 500 feet,
lighting of the locks and Gaillard Cut
and the purchase of new and more
efficient towing locomotives.
Water supply to operate the Canal's
locks also affects the capability of the
Canal to transit larger vessels.
Experienced personnel has been one
of the major factors in the Canal ability
to handle efficiently the increasing
traffic. The capacity reappraisals have
shown that the bigger ships are spend-
ing less time in Canal waters as pilots
and lock operators develop speed by
acquiring greater familiarity with large
vessels during repeat transits.
Ores, various -- ------------------
Lumber- -- ------------------
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) -- -
Sugar- ----------------- -- -
Canned food products- --------------
Nitrate of soda - - - - - - - - -
Bananas - - - - - - - - - - - -
Metals, various -_--------------- -
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
fruit) - - - - - - - - - - -
Coffee- - - - - - - - - - - - -
Iron and steel manufactures -
All others- --- - - - ------
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964
1964 1963 Average
Atlantic to Pacific
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1964
1964 1963 Average
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)- - 2,424,702 2,573,482 901,706
Coal and coke -- -- ---------- 1,510,316 1,204,084 594,946
Iron and steel manufactures ----------- 341,831 315,295 415,441
Phosphates- - - - - - - - - - - 639,281 505,660 181,170
Corn ------------ ---------- 639,739 352,986 31,270
Soybeans- - - - - - - - - - - - 396,946 539,320 128,551
Metal, scrap ----------------- 815,676 369,570 13,654
Sulphur -------- ------------ 115,399 68,861 89,389
Metals, various---------------------- 112,821 128,044 42,135
Paper and paper products- ------------ 111,743 96,737 97,333
Ores, various------------- --------- 277,545 186,129 17,271
Machinery -- --- ---------- 109,539 116,912 74,768
Wheat- - - - - - - - - - - - - 152,466 159,931 26,711
Chemicals, unclassified --------------- 157,669 126,187 44,132
Automobiles and parts ---------------- 106,960 75,364 68,824
All others ---------------------- 1,627,934 1,437,093 1,279,440
Total ------------------------- 9,540,567 8,255,655 4,006,741
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
I Second Quarter-Fiscal Year
Total commercial_ ---------
U.S. Government vessels: @0
Total commercial and U.S. Gov-
to to Total
Pacific Atlantic ITt
0 under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
SVessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
0"Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July
ships transited free.
1, 1951, Government-operated
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
A model of the Curundu School, with the geodesic dome at the left.
Curundu's School of Tomorrow
A GEODESIC dome will be part of the new multimillion
dollar school plant to be built in Curundu next year by the
A modern architectural form originated by the noted U.S.
architect R. Buckminster Fuller, the dome will house the
cafetorium, one of the units of the new Curundu Junior High
School complex, designed to accommodate 2,200 students.
The cafetorium also is something new for the Canal Zone.
It will be a combined cafeteria and auditorium having kitchen
and dinii,, room facilities for 700 students. \ l,, n used as an
auditorium, it will seat 1,000 students on the main floor and
450 more in the balcony, built over the kitchen area.
Because of the ti i.iulh, *-i.d .1 pyramid shape and thin sides,
the inside of the dome will be covered with sprayed-on
gypsum acoustical and thermal insulation to make air condi-
tioning of the modern shaped building feasible. The dome
will be 140 feet in diameter and will rise 46 feet over the
The school plant will be contemporary in design and con-
cept, involving many of the latest construction techniques. It
will consist of five separate b1,ildiihz joined by covered pas-
.,0 .V. P,.% These include two identical classroom buildings,
a combination administration-academic building, a g, mnasium
and the cafetorium.
The two academic bldihhrigs will have.48 standard class-
rooms, two study rooms, 24 laboratories for general science,
chemistry, art, l.,n'zu.I.,l household arts and shop. Between
the two academic, biiildmii, v. ill be a combination administra-
tive s'ilt a health suite, teachers' Liiiig, two audio-visual
rooms, a library, and i ilil standard classrooms.
gymnasium m facilities will be at the west end of the school
complex. The gym forms an interior court with the academic
buildings and includes two separate gym units, one for boys
and one for girls, together with a center gymnastics room.
Present plans call for a standard softball diamond and a
standard baseball diamond, with a football or soccer field
and running track to be built in an area near the gymnasium.
The design for the school classrooms has provided for the
reduction in the window area together with special glass and
window overhangs to eliminate excessive sun glare. All of
the buildings will have air conditioning provided by a central
chilled water system located in the 73 mirasium building.
The school complex will be on a 25-acre site in the Curundu
military reservation between the two main Curundu housing
areas at Curundu and Clayton Roads.
When completed, the new school plant will provide educa-
tional facilities for all U.S.-citizen-school students on the
Pacific side for grades 7, 8, and 9. Students in grades 7 and 8
presently attend classes in Diablo Junior High School and
those in grade 9 are part of Balboa High School.
Work on preparation for the site, utilities and foundations
was started this month by Foster-Williams Bros. who submitted
a low bid of $ liV- 5( 0 when bids were opened in January.
Drawings and specifications for the construction of the
academic bitild ?ing and the gymnasium are scheduled for
completion in March and bids will be opened in May. The
construction of the cafetorium and the athletic fields will be
carried out during the fiscal year 1965.
The design of the school is by the Architectural Branch,
Engill LI 11i14 )'. 'Itll, of the Panama Canal organization; with
Crabtree, Dawson, and Michaels of Belmont, Mass. as equip-
ment consultants; and Duffer and Associates of Miami, Fla.
doing the consultation on the boiler facilities.
Work on Weekends
The Anchor Heaves, the ship swings free,
The sails swell full. To sea, to sea!
-Thomas Lovell Beddoes (1803-1849)
Sailor's Song. Stanza 2
ALMOST ANY WEEKEND or holiday, a group of sailboat
racing enthusiasts can be found at the Cristobal Yacht Club
warming up for a tooth and nail contest.
A majority of them are Panama Canal pilots on a busman's
holiday but-pilot or clerk-they all have salt water in their
-veins when the day comes for the big race.
The boats start from the Cristobal Yacht Club and take a
course which is mapped out according to the weather condi-
tions. The racing season usually extends from January 1 until
Memorial Day when the stiff trade winds and relatively dry
weather produces perfect racing weather.
Contestants race according to the North American Yacht
Association racing rules. The sailboats are listed in three
classes: the handicap or miscellaneous class; the Mercury class
and the cruising class.
Two of the racing boats were built in Hong Kong by the
well-known Chinese sailboat builder Choy Lee. At least four
others were built by their owners from imported kits.
The Chinese built craft are the Mistress, a 28-foot fiberglass
boat owned by Capt. William Gillespie and the Maria II,
a 40-foot teakwood craft, owned by Capt. Kenneth Orcutt.
The Mistress won the cruising class contest during the
Washington Birthday Regatta held this year.
- ,- ." "-. '/-""- -. -. -" .
Sweeping gracefully across Limon Bay is the Maria II with owner
Capt. Kenneth Orcutt aboard. This craft later developed rudder
trouble and dropped out of the Washington Birthday Regatta.
-.-. -...~.. -
0~ -*.. -
Three Cristobal Yacht Club sailboats race around a buoy in Cris-
tobal Harbor. In the foreground left is the A. J. Maru, a Mercury
class boat owned by Capt. A. J. McLean. At the right is the
Susannah, owned by Capt. Norman Hutchinson with his wife and
son David aboard. The other is a Star-class owned by William Wirtz.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Jfut for Jun, Row about a JAeeting
A '*Il MMIT MEETING," in the usual
sense, is a serious event. But not when
it's a meeting at Summit Garden, a
center of recreation for Canal Zone area
And anyone can participate in the
"big four" activities at this Summit
meeting. Because dancing, picnicking,
playing games, and barbecuing are the
four items that will take up most of the
time on a weekend at this delightful
Children might have the edge in the
fun department. There are the little
burros, which jog along with a young-
ster perched atop the saddle, with a
guide to show the way. In the play-
ground area, there are swings and a
merry-go-round, always loaded to ca-
pacity. The zoo is full of interesting
animals, particularly the zany monkeys,
and there are popcorn machines and
trees that make dandy hide-and-go-seek
cover, not to mention the music for the
older children who like to dance.
For adults there are barbecue pits for
the weekend outdoor chefs, and there
is the pleasure of a picnic among friends
in the shade of tall trees.
Summit Garden offers an ideal setting
for carefree relaxation for the whole
family and its popularity increases
These boys find it fun to take a jaunty ride along the trail on a
burro, a favorite pastime.
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k :* .' 4 ,- i.-:. -
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r * - 'q -* "- '^ ." .- .
I :. .'.'' J* -. -,:i -, .*
...,.' ... .^ . ;, .'-.
.* .*" .*. =.-. .f^ 'S
Before the afternoon is over, there will be the scent of barbecued chicken, hamburgers,
hot dogs and other delicacies in the air. These picnickers have an ideal spot for a feast.
"People is the craziest monkeys" might be what these Summit Garden simians are thinking
as they swing about and watch the boys, who do a less graceful imitation on the fence.
A piggyback ride, the favorite form of
small fry transportation. And what could
be more fun on a sun-splashed dry-season
weekend afternoon at Summit Garden.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
New Generator Unit Will
Increase Power For Canal
'(CONTRACTS TOTALING more than
81' ,illi.ii have been awarded by the
Panama Canal to Westinghouse Elec-
tric Corp. and to the Foster Wheeler
Corp. of New Jersey for the furnishing
and installation at Miraflores of the
major components of a steam turbine
generating unit which will add 22,000
kilowatts to the electrical power gen-
eration potential of the Canal's power
The Westinghouse Electric Co. made
a bid of 8787,000 on the design, manu-
facture, and installation of the steam
turbine generator. The Foster \\ 1, hi].i
Co. bid 8843,950 on the manufacture
and erection of a complete weather-
proof outdoor type steam boiler.
The new steam turbine generating
unit, due to be completed and installed
by January 1966, is to be used in con-
junction with the g-, turbine generators
installed last year at the Miraflores
Generating Station. The steam boiler
was designed to employ the waste heat
from the gas turbine supplemented by
oil-firing as required when the gas tur-
bines are operating, or fired entirely by
oil when the gas turbines are idle. This
steam ill provide the motive power to
drive the 22,000 kw. steam turbine
Bids on the new units were opened
at Balboa Heights in January and the
award made, following evaluation of the
The gas turbines installed at Mira-
flores in 1962, were the first of their kind
to be purchased by the Canal organiza-
tion. They increased the power genera-
tion potential of the Canal Zone by
approximately one-third and are being
used in conjunction with the present
electrical power generators to supply the
steadily increasing power load. During
the dry season months, when hydroelec-
tric generation from Gatun Station has
to be curtailed in order to conserve
water, they are used continuously.
The gas turbines and the new steam
turbine generator are part of a long-
range plan to increase the power poten-,
tial of the Canal Zone and a direct result
of continuing surveys initiated in 1960.
Officials of the Electrical Division, top
men in the Engineering and Construc-
tion Bureau with R. A. Kampmeier, then
with the Tennessee Valley Authority,
determined in 1961 the need for
increased generator capacity to meet
predicted increased power loads.
At that time studies were made of
the power needs of the Canal organiza-
tion and problems connected with the
production of electrical energy which
the Panama Canal organization fur-
nishes for all Government installations
in the Canal Zone including the Canal
Except for the installation of auxiliary
diesel power stations, used principally
for conservation of water and during
emergencies, the power supply of the
Zone had not been increased up to that
time since the construction of Madden
Dam in 1935.
Excess heat from these two gas turbines will be used to provide power for the new unit being installed at Miraflores Generating Station.
W od Pot t
Key to the Midwest
BALTIMORE, port with a historic
past, is shaping its dynamic future.
Linking much of America to ,the rest
of the world for over two and a half
centuries, Maryland's major world ship-
ping center today is playing an even
greater role in international commerce.
Boasting the advantages of year-
round shipping, almost no tidal varia-
tion, and ample anchorage of 1,589
acres of sheltered waters, the Port of
Baltimore has been a "safe haven for
ships" since 1706, when it became an
official port of entry in Maryland.
Since then, well over 1 billion tons
of cargo from all over the world have
crossed its 82 piers and wharves for
oceangoing vessels in a constant flow.
These facilities include 80 general
cargo, 43 specialized cargo, and 28
public coal, grain, and ore berths.
Deepwater sea lanes connect the city
of Baltimore with over 300 world ports.
Some 5,300 ships, representing 120
overseas steamship lines, come and go
each year, c.irr'. inr an annual average
of 23 million tons of foreign trade.
Baltimore has been the second largest
foreign trade port of the United States
for 7 out of the past 10 years. Her total
waterborne commerce, foreign and
domestic, produces an annual cargo of
over 45 million tons valued at $2.2
Situated 150 miles from the ocean,
Baltimore is the only U.S. port served
by two routes from the sea: south, via
the Chesapeake Capes, and north, via
the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.
A $36 million Federal channel dredg-
ing program was initiated in 1960 by
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and
now gives inbound fully loaded deep-
draft vessels including supertankers
access to the Port of Baltimore. Dredg-
ing of the channel's outbound side is
scheduled for completion by 1966.
Saving is a key factor in the Balti-
more picture. The port is 50 to 200
miles closer than any other east coast
port to the industrial and commercial
centers of the great Midwest.
The port today is moving forward
with a far-reaching, multi-million-dollar
building program to provide unexcelled
facilities for the handling of all types
of cargos, and is developing services and
rate structures that will assure its
Looking southward toward the entrance to the famous Chesapeake Bay, this aerial view
of the Patapsco River shows Baltimore Harbor's 43 miles of waterfront. The older port
facilities, now being improved, are those nearest the heart of the city, foreground.
W_ 4p ..!
Baltimore, at the hub of a wide range of
transportation facilities, is served by three
major trunk-line railroads, 165 common
motor carriers and 13 air cargo lines. Pic-
tured here are tracks of the rail car holding
and support yards at the Western Mary-
land Railroad's Port Covington terminal.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
More Grace Liners
THE (.li \C E LINE recently added two
more container cargo ships to its original
order of four being constructed at the
Sun Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. The
order added $25,250,000 to the original
fi.iir for a total of $77,850,000.
I he new ships, which are expected to
use the Panama Canal as soon as they
are completed, have a deadweight ton-
nage of 13,800 and will be excep-
tionally fast with a top speed of 24
knots. They will have space for 104
containers, ~ ill be air conditioned
throughout and have space for 12
Mn,.:rv lile the Grace Line's pas-
senger cargo ship Santa Mercedes, last
of the four new liners on the west coast
of South America run, is being com-
pleted and is scheduled to arrive at the
Canal on her maiden voyage on April 17.
This ship has been dedicated to Peru.
San Juan Pioneer
THE GIANT ore-oil carrier San Juan
Pioneer, a sister ship of the San Juan
Pr.,,.,itor, which broke all Panama
Canal records in January, made her first
trip through the Canal March 12 on
her way from Trinidad to San Juan,
Peru. The Pioneer and the Prospector
are two of the biggest ships to use the
Canal and are given daylight clear-Cut
preference and assistance from tugs
when passing through Gaillard Cut. The
two ships and another sister called the
San Juan Pathfinder were built at Mitsui
Shipyard in Japan as combination ore
carriers and bulk oil tankers suitable
for t irr'. iit either iron ore or grade "A"
or lower grade petroleum-or for carry-
inhi these two types of cargo simultane-
ously. They have a length of 835 feet
and a beam of 106.3 feet which makes
them a tight fit in the Panama Canal
locks. The San Juan Pioneer arrived in
ballast and was scheduled to take on a
load of iron ore in Peru for Japan.
(" \R ,.0 ( \RBIERS get more special-
ized every day. One of the Canal's
best customers ru.i ntr is the Johann
Schulte, a 23,000 'deadweight-ton
motorship, reportedly the world's largest
,n j.i, .1i imiii.,l.ilr carrier. The
vessel came southbound through the
Canal March 11i on her %,ax to Los
.\ihil.s with 1,71ll Volkswagens on
TRANSITS BY OCEANGOING
VESSELS IN JANUARY
U.S. Government. .........
Free .......... ....... .
Total ...... ...... .
Commercial .... $5,144,472
U.S. Government. 136,705
Commercial . 5,833,165
U.S. Government. 85,416
Free .......... 34,896
0 Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and
**Cargo figures are in long tons.
board, each compact little car carried
snug as a bug in separate stalls. The
ship makes a trip through the Canal
approximately once each month or 6
weeks. On her return voyage from the
, West Coast to Europe, she carries bulk
cargo. On her last eastbound voyage,
the Johann Schulte was transporting
12,069 tons of borax for Rotterdam.
C. B. Fenton & Co. are agents at the
THE YUGOSLAV shipping company
called Splosna Plovba recently beefed
up its round-the-world service with the
addition of a seventh ship. The Meto-
hija, coming northbound through the
Canal in January, enabled the company
to operate on a 25-day frequency. The
Metohija is one of three sister cargo
carriers built in Rijeka, Yugoslavia espe-
cially for this service. Wilford & McKay
represent the line at the Canal.
Hand at the Helm of World's Longest Liner
(Continued from p. 3)
atlantic liner to carry this name. The
first, built in 1864, was 5,800 tons. The
second, built in 1912, was 28,000 tons
while the present pride of La Com-
pagnie G4nerale Transatlantique has a
gross tonnage of 66,000.
La Compagnie G64nrale Transatlan-
tique was founded in 1855, the year
the Panama Railroad went into opera-
tion, under the name Compagnie G6n6-
rale Maritime. In 1864 service to New
York was inaugurated with the Wash-
ington which made its first crossing in
14 days. In 1888 this shipping com-
pany's La Bretagne set a transatlantic
Le Havre to New York record and in
1935 the French Line's Normandie
received the blue ribbon crossing
record. Between 1939 and 1945 the
French Line lost by war two-thirds of
its tonnage. From 1947 to 1952 the
French Line constructed 40 ships and
modernized 19 others, and then topped
its shipping efforts on May 11, 1960
when the SS France was launched,
destined to enter transatlantic service
-- --- --- -- -- ^ ^ _* --- --..o o A
-(AVERAGE 1951-1955) 600 N
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN S
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
TERMINALS BU REAU
Egbert A. Williams
Helper Locomotive Engineer
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVE ACTION BUREAU
Luther A. C a ur t
Grocery Attenda aster, e e Dredge,
Daniel B. McFarla ame Bu n
Field Tractor Opera Oiler (Floan lant)
MARl BUR U Meteoro ic Technician
Santiago Sal ert rner
Helper Loc e foreman Pipefitter
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU TERMINALS BUREAU
Marcella G. Green Walter R. Fender
Clerical Assistant (Typing) Liquid Fuels Dispatcher
Felix Ciril Louis
Helen D. McKeown
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Assistant Meat Cutter
Veronica M. Church
Doris Smith Kelly
Mark R. Perkins
Winnifred H. Turner
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Line Handler (Deckhand)
C6sar C. Linero
Helper Lock Operator
Helper Lock Operator
T. N. McPherson
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Kenneth P. Scanlon
Lock Operator (Machinist)
Jos6 M. Silvera
Line Handler (Dec
Bertr ing g
L*e nd r ( eckhand)
er Loc rator
Joseph W. Casey
Leader Armature Winder
Physical Science Technician
Eustace J. Hurley
Victor Manuel Mite
Thomas C. Robertson
Hugh L. Shannon
Roscoe S. Burgess
Wood and Steel)
E. E. Corpas
E. H. Lippincott
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
H. W. Dempsey, Sr.
James L. Dunn
Edith M. Mathieson
Eva M. Tait
Latin American Schools
Carlos B. Moreira
Food Service Worker
(Medicine and Surgery)
K. F. Taliercio
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
E I PLOYEES promoted or transferred
between January 5 and February 5,
FI414 (v. ithin-ir.,1'. promotions and job
reclassifications are not listed) :
Richard Shapiro, from Guard, Locks Divi-
sion to Passenger Rate Assistant.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Reinaldo Archibold, Utility Worker to
Clerk, Customs Division.
Worden E. French, Jr., Student Aid to
Recreation Assistant (Sports).
John P. Manning, Recreation Assistant
(Sports) to Swimming Pool Manager.
Elsie G. de Vega, Substitute Teacher, U.S.
Schools to Teacher (Senior U.S. High
Josephine A. Morris, Substitute Teacher,
U.S. Schools to Teacher (Junior High,
Ida L. J. Kane, Substitute Teacher U.S.
Schools to Teacher (Elementary, U.S.
Mildred S. Rowe, Substitute Teacher, U.S.
Schools to Teacher (Junior High, U.S.
Robert W. White, Teacher-Principal Ele-
mentary School to Elementary School
Hollis Griffon, Police Private to Detective.
Edmund S. Coe, Police Private to Police
St rei .Itl
Mary J. Lavallee, Extension Class Teacher,
U.S. Schools, to Clerk-Stenographer.
Lillian J. Dombrowsky, Substitute Teacher,
U.S. Schools to Clerk-Stenographer.
Junie N. Scott, Truck Driver to Window
Moisis de la Pefia, Finance Branch Super-
intendent to Foreman, Mail Handling
Milton J. Halley, Finance Branch Super-
intendent to Relief Supervisor, Balboa.
Fduear S. Shaw, Jr., C.,rc, Marker, Ter-
minal Division to \\ iiidu Clerk, Sub-
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Glyndon M. Worrock, Edward T. Paine,
Machinist (Marine) to Shift Engineer
'".h .: inri. I1l,
Bernice R Finle'. Clerk-Typist to Clerk
Ricardo A. Honeywell, Clerk, Railroad Di-
vision, to Clerk, Electrical Division.
Roy A. Dudley, Arthur C. Hubert, Alejan-
dro Sheperd. I elper Machinist (Main-
Joseph A. Reid, \1. i-..r..l..i 1 Technician
to '.M I' .i.. T. I huIc, in (General).
Robert \V \d.ims, -.pri uitii Cable-
splicer, (2d year) to .'Apr rti ., Cable-
splicer (3d year).
Phyllis D. Perry, C1..rL.Sln.,vr.iplcr to
Lloyd A. Perkins. \ppri ni. r' Carpenter,
2.1 year) to \.nr, nril. C' irpenter (3d
Rafael A. del Cid, Laborer (ll.:..'\ to
Alexander James, Jr., Apprentice, Painter,
(2d year) to Apprentice, Painter (3d year).
Frederick L. Walton, Chief Engineer,
Towboat to Chief Engineer, Dipper
Conrad 0. Beckles, Leader Laborer
(Heavy) to Leader (Core Drilling).
Coco Solo Hospital
Patricia D. Hunt, Staff Nurse (General)
to Staff Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
Dr. Wilmer C. Hewitt, Jr., Medical Officer
(Pathological Anatomy and Clinical
Pathology) to Medical Officer, (Chief,
Pathological Anatomy Section).
Joseph A. Owen, Hospital Resident, 4th
year, to Medical Officer, Pathological
Anatomy and Clinical Pathology (Assist-
ant to Chief, Laboratory Service).
Marie K. Corrigan, Staff Nurse (Obstetrics),
Coco Solo Hospital to Staff Nurse (Ob-
stetrics), Gorgas Hospital.
Charles H. Jordan, Pharmacist to Super-
Jose B. Barria, Laborer (Cleaner) to Hos-
Jose C. Quir6s, Utility Worker, Supply Di-
vision to Hospital Attendant.
Albert L. Guinn, Pilot, Probationary, to
John W. Meeker, Jr., Pilot-in-Training to
Richard M. Andrews, Master, Towboat
(Pilot Trainee), to Pilot-in-Training.
John L. Fischer, Supervisory Clerical
Assistant to Supervisory Administrative
Mauricio Quir6s, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Albert J. Wanner, Machinist (Marine) to
Instrument Mechanic (Mechanical).
Gilbert A. Campbell, Machinist (Marine) to
Keith D. Bowen, Clerk to Timekeeper.
Dimas Cornejo, Jos6 M. Yanguez, Helper
(General) to Maintenanceman (Boats).
Julian W. Crouch, Apprentice (Machinist)
to Machinist (Marine).
Richard J. Danielsen, General Engineer to
Supervisory General Engineer (Super-
intendent, Atlantic Branch).
Donald R. Chaney, Electrician to Lock
Ernesto M. Weeks, Line Handler to Helper
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Chiquita C. Cassibry, Clerk-Stenographer
to Management Technician.
General Audit Division
Rose M. Monzon Clerk-Stenographer,
Accounting Division, to Internal Audit.
Carolyn L. Hoeerson. Clerk-Stenographer,
General A,di t D1 i,i,,n to Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, Office of the Comptroller.
Frances J. Ponder. Cl. rk-Typist, Commu-
nity Sern s D. .r in. to Clerk-Typist.
Maritza K. de Oranges, Accounting Clerk
(T" piri 'i t., Clerk-TF .pit
Sylvia I. Staples, nI nn,. Leave and Payroll
Clerk to Supervisory Accounting Assist-
Edgar R. McArthur Payroll Systems Assist-
ant to Supervisory Accounting Assistant
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICES
Office of General Manager
Margaret M. Larrison, Voucher Examiner
to Freight Rate Assistant.
Gertrude M. Patten, Clerk-Typist to
Margaret M. Nash, Clerk (Sales Promotion
Circulation) to Clerk (Advertising Cir-
Henrey H. Lee Jr., Supervisory Storekeep-
ing Clerk to Accounting Assistant.
Fisher M. Oltenburg, Leader Motion Pic-
ture Projection Equipment Mechanic to
Equipment Specialist (General).
Lemuel C. Pryce, Warehouseman to Stock-
Edward W. Howell, Clerk to Accounts
Herman G. Nelson, Leader Laborer
(Cleaner) Division of Schools, to Laborer.
Susanah L. Hawkins, Counterwoman to
Mary I. Griffith, Utility Worker to Counter-
Mileano Carr, Meat Cutter Assistant to
Community Services Division
Griceldo E. de la Cruz, Hospital Attendant,
Gorgas, to Laborer.
Ovidio GonzAlez, Laborer (Cleaner), Divi-
sion of Schools, to Laborer.
Alfredo Vargas, Laborer to Garbage
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Garfield Brown, High Lift Truck Operator
to Automotive Crane Operator.
Luis A. Naar, Laborer (Heavy) to High Lift
Motor Transportation Division
Roberta J. Patterson, Clerk- Typist, Main-
tenance Division, to Accounting Clerk
Jasper L. Myers, Automotive Machinist to
Lead Foreman (General Equipment
Ralph McD. Smith, Laborer, Maintenance
Division, to Guard.
Arnold C. Sandiford, Hugo Salazar, Cargo
Marker to Clerk (Checker).
Raymond D. Simons, Cargo Marker to
Helper Liquid Fuels Gauger.
Samuel Bradiel, Helper, Liquid Fuels Dis-
patcher, to Heating Equipment Me-
Steadman C. Lumbsden, Medical Aid
(Ambulance), Coco Solo Hospital, to
Ernest Oliver, Physical Security Specialist,
Internal Security Office.
Kerry B. Magee, Industrial Engineer,
Executive Planning Staff.
Jack E. Van Hoose, Graduate Intern (Ad-
Mercedes T. Palomeras, Passenger Rate
Assistant, Administrative Services Divi-
Juanita M. Karst, Clerk-Typist, Engineer-
ing and Construction Bureau.
Hiram D. Hunter, Timekeeper, Transporta-
tion and Terminals Bureau.
PLEASURE PANORAMA-This striking view of Balboa Harbor and the hills beyond is one many boatmen eye with pleasure. Their boats,
dotting the waters of the bay, await the weekenders who look forward to hours of fishing and cruising. At right is Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
50 year c4o
THE END of the construction era was
in sight in the Canal Zone 50 years ago
this month and the permanent organiza-
tion for operation and maintenance of
the Panama Canal was under considera-
tion. Many employees were uncertain
as to whether they would be employed
in the new organization. The first
announcement of assignments of duty
was made in the Canal Record of
March 18. Among them was Lt. Col.
Charles F. Mason, Chief Health Officer;
C. A. Mcllvaine, then Chief Clerk to
the Chairman, as Executive Secretary;
H. A. A. Smith, Auditor; J. H. McLean,
Paymaster; Capt. Hugh Rodman, Ma-
rine Superintendent; Comdr. Douglas
E. Dismukes; and Lt. Comdr. H. V.
Butler, Port Captains at the terminal
ports of Cristobal and Balboa.
The first towing locomotive of the
40 ordered from the United States was
being tested on the west side of the
centerwall at Gatun Locks. A second
machine also was unloaded at Gatun
Locks and four more arrived March 15
with four to be delivered about the
middle of each month until all deliveries
25 Year, 'A4o
THE U.S. FLEET war games held in
the Caribbean and Atlantic areas clearly
demonstrated that the Panama Canal
was vulnerable to enemy attack, news
reports from Washington said 25 years
ago this month. Brazil and all countries
to the south along the east coast of
South America also are vulnerable, the
As World War II approached, the
House Merchant Marine Committee
announced it had started a study to
determine the need for the construction
of auxiliary locks for the Panama Canal
to be used as bypasses through which
U.S. warships could be moved in time
of war if existing locks should be des-
troyed. A bill was introduced author-
izing the expenditure of $277 million
for their construction.
George W. Green, municipal engineer
for the Panama Canal reported that the
concrete runaways being constructed at
Albrook were 50 percent complete. The
work was being done by the Municipal
Division of the Panama Canal at an
estimated cost of $500,000. Upon
completion Albrook would be on a par
with the finest military aviation fields
in the United States.
President Roosevelt approved the
elevation of the U.S. Legation in Pan-
ama to the status of an embassy and
Panama likewise raised the status of its
legation in Washington.
10 yIearo l4go
HUNDREDS of Canal Zone oldtimers
arrived in the Canal Zone 10 years ago
this month to attend the dedication of
the memorial in Balboa built to honor
YEAR TO DATE
Col. George W. Goethals, one time
Chief Engineer and Chairman of the
Isthmian Canal Commission and the
first Governor of the Canal Zone. The
ceremony included the unveiling of the
monument by the sons of the Colonel
Goethals, an address by Sen. Alexander
Wiley of the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee and the presentation of
prizes to essay contest winners by
Maurice H. Thatcher, only sur-
viving member of the Isthmian Canal
One year dgo
AFTER 20 YEARS of wearing the same
style headgear, the Canal Zone Police
last year got new distinctive Milan straw
sheriff-style hats. The hats were of
police blue or a near navy blue, with
silver cord and accessories for police-
men and gold-colored cord and
accessories for officers.
Governor Fleming announced last
March that the minimum wage levels
in the Canal Zone would be increased
to 70 cents an hour in July and to
80 cents an hour in July 1964.
SES CASES ABSENT
'63 '64 '63 '64
242(11) 9 14 139 1
510(23) 30 29(2) 228 2
() Locks Overhaul Injuries inc uded in total.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 07150 0341