Citation
Panama Canal review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1960
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )
UF00097366_00018 ( sobekcm )
23584335 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
HE2830.P2 P3 ( lcc )
386/.445 ( ddc )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1312pana








b- PANAMAA CANAL L
D RiAIJ


,tier


From the Delaware


SCI
SCE


T7, --


George Washington
1776


To Outer Space


L\X
Astronaut Gordon Cooper
1963


IN THIS ISSUE
The Astronauts
Launches Ahoy!
Mid-Point in Canal
What's the Question?







ROBERT J. FLEMING,
DAVID S. PARKER,
FRANK A
Panama Canal I


bm -at MJOSEPH CONNC
JR., Governor-President Publicati
Lieutenant Governor ROBERT D. KERR a
. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication Editoal
information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. E RHARD, T B
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z.


IR, Press Officer
ns Editors
nd Jiuo E. BRICENO
Assistants
ITTEL, and TOMAS A. CUPAS


Index


"We Jiold Vheoe eruth "

FREEDOM of the North American colonies was proclaimed
nearly 190 years ago. The Declaration of Independence was
adopted by the Continental Congress July 4, 1776.
The space age dates back less than 6 years.
But the patriots of the North American Revolutionary War and
today's astronauts have a common bond: conviction that a free
life is the only one worth living. The patriots won freedom. The
astronauts' role is to help retain it, to help expand it, to help
assure that their Nation maintains such a pace of progress that
it can avoid being trampled as many other nations have been.
The spirit animating the astronauts must be much like that
which stirred the patriots, as expressed in this Revolutionary War
patriots' oath:
I am only one, but I am one;
I can not do everything, but I can do something;
And what I can do, that I ought to do;
And what I ought to do, by the grace of God,
I will do.
The sound of freedom may be a Liberty Bell, an outcry against
injustice, the roar of a space craft lift-off.
Foundation stones are well known: Freedom of religion,
without decrees as to what is "orthodox;" Freedom of assembly,
with no curbs by petty officials; Freedom of speech, for open
discussion without abuse or malice; Freedom of the press, to
safeguard human rights. Goals of freedom from want and freedom
from fear have been added.
Frontiers have changed from rugged wilderness to outer space,
but the song of freedom in hearts is the same.
Hard-bought, freedom slips away if not guarded. Freedom has
been a rifle in the hand against aggression, a peaceful harvest,
the soft glow of candlelight without flare or burst of shell or
bomb. It's a gift no man can give, a way to live-for which many
have died.


Scenes of the Fourth- -_- ___
Mid-Point in Canal_
Launches Ahoy!__ --- ______
He Changed Things__________
Astronauts- -__----- _______
'Slave' Motors- __-- _____
What's the Question? --____- _____
Canal History, Retirements --_______
Anniversaries -----
Promotions and Transfers ----_____
Shipping-------______


ON OUR COVER, with the pictures of George
Washington and Astronaut Gordon Cooper, are
two famous scenes. One is a portion of the famous
Emanuel Leutze painting of Washington cross-
ing the Delaware River with his troops Decem-
ber 25-26, 1776, during the North American
colonies' war for independence. The picture now
hangs in the Metropolitan Museum in New York
City. The other is a view of the launching of
Cooper from Cape Canaveral May 15. 1963.
The United States has put well over 100 vehicles,
manned and unmanned, into space.
For more on astronauts, see pages 9-16. And,
coming back to earth, in this issue you also may
learn about launches, about the Canal Zone's
biggest quiz center (aside from Personnel), and
about the mid-point in the Canal-both of them.


JULY 5, 1963






THE FOURTH

On the J.j0tmus

Over the Years


July 4, 1915, looking west from Administration Building.

The late President of the Republic of Panama, Jos6 Antonio Rem6n,
and Joseph Harrington, left, then president of the American Society
of Panama, smile their approval of the music of Lucho Azcarraga
during a 1954 Fourth of July party staged at the Panama City
Union Club by the American Society.



















Although nearing the end of its transit to the Pacific side, the southbound
super tanker Vivipara still is entering the Canal-navigationally. It is at
the north end of Pedro Miguel Locks. Up to this point, red buoys and
beacons have been on the starboard (right) hand and black ones to port.
From here on, the black ones are on the starboard, the red ones to port.



Navigation Aids Change-Over Poinl


Reason They Don't Match On Mai


SHIPS transiting the Panama Canal
southbound still are "entering" the
Canal, navigationally, approximately
14% miles after they've actually passed
the half-way point.
Northbound ships, however, start to
'leave" the Canal 14% miles before they
leave the mid-point.
Navigationally, the "middle" of the
Canal, lengthwise, is at the north end
of Pedro Miguel Locks, 39 miles from

At right is a standard type sun switch oper-
ating on the principle of expansion and
contraction of a cylinder sensitive to light,
but not to temperature changes. At left is
a reproduction of one of the original
installation sun switches such as were in
use in 1915. It operated on the same
principle.


the Atlantic end, only 12.2
the Pacific end.
Geographically, the half
Station 1350 plus 28.75,
quarter of a mile west
approximately 5% miles w
boa, and 25.6 from Atlantic
and Pacific deep water.
All the buoys and bea
Canal are colored and n
that on entering the Can
and extending south to Pc
Locks, red buoys and bi
even numbers, displaying
night, are on the starboard
black buoys and beacon
numbers, displaying whit
night, on the port hand.
(A buoy is a floating ma


MID-POINT



IN CANAL?




Navigationally, Here


to the bottom; a beacon, a fixed mount
signal, either on land or in the water.)
On entering the channel at Naos
Island on the Pacific side, and extend-
ing north to Pedro Miguel Locks, red
buoys and beacons with even numbers
(and red lights) are on the starboard,
t and black buoys and beacons with odd
numbers (and white lights) are to port.
Obviously there had to be a change-
) over point where colors were reversed
if standard colors were to be observed
in both entrances.
Otherwise, ships transiting one direc-
miles from tion would be entering the Canal during
their entire transit, according to the
-way spot is navigational aids, and those transiting
a point one the other direction would be leaving
of Darien, the Canal all the way-even when just
est of Cam- entering it.
deep water As it is, a southbound ship has the
usual colors all the way to Pedro Miguel
cons in the Locks, but from there to the Pacific the
numbered, so colors are reversed. The opposite is
al at Colon, true for northbound ships.
edro Miguel
eacons with Arnold S. Hudgins, Aids to Navigation
red lights at Section lead foreman, compares old type
d hand, and sun switch, right, with tiny new photo-
s with odd electric cell type in his outstretched hand.
:e lights at The old type operates by expansion and
e gts a contraction of a cylinder affected by
absorption of light rays, but not by
irker moored temperature changes.


4%.





ci







Geographically, Here


Originally Miraflores Locks was to
have been the change-over point for
reversal of the colors.
The buoys and beacons, spaced in
pairs about 3,000 feet apart, are part
of the more than 2,000 road signs for
ships which are the responsibility of
the Aids to Navigation Section of the
Dredging Division. These also include
markers and lights for ranges, break-
waters, entrances, banks, channels to
dump areas and project sites, and light-
houses extending 300 miles out in the
Caribbean and 200 miles out in the
Bay of Panama.
About 1,500 of the lights are electri-
cally operated, powered by shore cur-
rent, 82 are operated by acetylene gas,
72 are battery powered, and there are
387 unlighted markers. Of the unlighted
ones, 226 mark small boat channels in
Gatun Lake used by many Panamanian
farmers.
Buoys are on a general periodic over-
haul schedule every 18 months if in
salt water, every 5 years if in fresh
water.
Fifty gas buoys have been converted
to electric buoys under a program
started in fiscal year 1960, and there
still are 82 gas buoys to be converted.
Electric powered navigation aids are
no better visually than the gas aids, but
there's substantial dollars and cents
savings in servicing. Gas buoys con-
taining four cylinders of 180 cubic
feet of compressed gas to a cylinder
need resupplying about every 3 months,
only every 4 months if equipped with
sun valves which conserve the gas
supply.
Batteries placed in the same amount
of space that the gas cylinders occupy,
however, provide enough power so that
they have to be replaced only once a
year, reducing the number of servicing
stops and man-hours required by 2 to
3 trips a year.
The electric powered buoys, lighted
with 1,000-hour bulbs costing $1.25
each, are equipped with automatic lamp
changers so that if one bulb burns out,
another automatically replaces it. There
usually are 1 or 2 good bulbs left in
each automatic changer at the end of
a year.
As beacons of wooden pile construc-
tion are due for replacement, they are
being replaced by heavy-duty 12-inch
steel pipe. In softer bottom foundations
such as mud, sand, or clay, they are
driven to proper supporting depth with
a pile driving hammer. In rock bottom,
the end of the pipe is specially prepared
(See p. 23)

THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5


.. .

This is the geographical half-way point through the Canal. The view is
looking east in San Pablo Reach, about 5% miles west of Gamboa. Transit-
ing is the Chinese merchant ship Haishang, dwarfing the launch Shad,
which sweeps the Canal electronically to make sure it's kept clear of
obstructions. Darien is in the background.






r


Roy R. Shuey, leader machinist, with, left to right, a fixed single burner light, a double
flasher unit with multiple burners, and a single flasher with multiple burners. The fixed
single burner is for a constant light, the double flasher unit for offshore installations having
two different characteristics in one lantern. The flasher with multiple burners provides
a brighter light than does a single burner flasher.

Julio Collazos, electrician, with a bank of re-charged batteries ready to be placed in buoys
and beacons. Each charge lasts up to a year to 14 months and some of the batteries have
been in use for as long as 16 years.


001r


'" -






























Carlos H. Herrera is a foreman at the Launch Repair Shop at Gamboa and has been with the Canal since 1943. He is shown working on
the molds of the Lark, a new 50-foot launch under construction at the shop. A carpenter by trade, he has worked on shih maintenance at
the Port Captain's Office and at the Industrial Division shops in Balboa. He is now an expert boat builder.


FORTY-ONE Industrial Division em-
ployees-most of them Panamanians,
have been working as members of a new
Panama Canal unit and learning new
trades which will make them far more
useful members of the local labor force.
Some of them have been recruited
from other units and divisions of the
Panama Canal and others have been
hired in Panama, but all became part
of the relatively new Gamboa Launch
Repair Facility, which has been set up
in Gamboa as part of the Panama Canal
Industrial Division.
The new unit was organized in April

New frames for old deck molds on the
Panama Canal launch Skate are being put
into place by Cristobal Joseph, a Panama-
nian carpenter, who has 15 years of experi-
ence with the U.S. Navy and the Panama
Canal. He is now learning ship repair and
shipwright skills.


1960 and moved from the Industrial
Division area in Cristobal to the Dredg-
ing Division yard in Gamboa. Some of
the men already had boat building and
repair experience and others had trades
which were good background for their


LAUNCHES


Ahoy!

new work. Their job: to maintain, repair,
and build small floating equipment for
the Panama Canal.
They took part in a ceremony re-
cently at the Gamboa Launch Landing
and proudly watched the official trans-
fer to the Navigation Division of the
Manta and the Mola, two brand new
harbor launches. The men had reason
to be proud. They had built the
launches themselves from stem to
gudgeon-and with the exception of the
diesel engines, were responsible for
every bolt, every nail, and every coat
of paint.
Two other harbor launches now are
under construction at Gamboa. They
are the Tarpon and Lark, both Naviga-
tion Division launches, which are sched-
uled to go into service next year.
Under the direction of Kenneth
Bailey, an expert shipwright with many
years of experience with the Panama
Canal, the members of the Launch
Repair Unit also take care of the recon-


struction and repairs necessary for all
other Panama Canal small floating
equipment. They are getting some new
ideas-such as that of building a boat
upside-down-and putting them into
practice. This method, which might be
compared to building a house starting
with the roof, is expected to work very
well with small floating equipment.
It is being tried out with the mail-and-
freight launch Tarpon now taking shape
in the shop.

It takes training to do the precise job that
Omar Martinez is completing here at the
Industrial Division Launch Repair Shop.
He is making repairs to the quadrant on
the launch Anayansi. Martinez has been
with the Canal only 6 months and is learn-
ing new tricks of the trade every day
although he has had many years of experi-
ence in boat building and ship repair work
in Panama.























Paint scraping is part of the work at the Launch Repair Shop. Here
veteran employee James Miller works on the Oriole, a Balboa
launch which is undergoing extensive repairs at Gamboa.


4i


That upside-down boat in the background is
a mail and freight launch in the making. The
the foreground is Napole6n Myta, a 26-year-old
is cutting the framing which will be bent length
and ribbands of the new launch. He has bee
6 months and is using skills he learned as a boat
as well as new ones he is learning at the Laun
Caulking a garboard strake of the Panama
Canal Launch Oriole is Joshua E. Lowe,
who learned boat repair work during a
16-year period of employment with the
U.S. Navy. He has been working with
the Panama Canal for the past 2 years
and is becoming an expert on small boat
repair work of all types.


Harold Ranger, right, a third-year boat builder and shipwright
apprentice, works with George Phillips, a helper who has been
with the Canal for 22 years. Ranger is a graduate of the Canal
the U.S. Tarpon, Zone schools and is learning a trade with the Panama Canal
young workman i Industrial Division. Phillips is a veteran who is one of the men
SPanamanian who transferred from the Dredging Division to the new Launch Repair
vise over the molds Facilities in Gamboa.
n with the Canal
builder in Panama
ich Repair Shop.
Survey of jobs is being made by William J. Kilgallen, right, position classification specialist
in the Personnel Bureau, who is shown interviewing a group of employees at the Gamboa
Launch Repair shed. The men are working on the U.S. Tarpon, a new launch being built
for the Navigation Division. From left to right are Carlos H. Herrera, a foreman; Dimas
Cornejo, Francisco Martinez, and Napole6n Myta.


rY '.,


.~~u$ J



















Members of the office staff of the Marine Bureau are shown here with Capt. Richard G. Jack, bureau director. Left to right are: Mrs.
Ethel Brown, statistical clerk; Walter A. Dryja, assistant to the Marine Director; Captain Jack; Mrs. Joan C. Fitzgerald, secretary, and
Peter N. Riley, acting administrative officer during leave of absence of Charles T. Jackson, bureau administrative officer.


MARINE DIRECTOR Capt. Richard
C. Jack, a man who has made his
opinions heard and felt in the Canal
organization for the past 2 years, will
be leaving the Isthmus early this month
for a new assignment as Commanding
Officer of the U.S. Naval Receiving
Station at Brooklyn, N.Y.
As he prepares to depart the Isth-
mus, Captain Jack can look back at
many improvements in Canal opera-
tions during his stay here. A partial
listing of these includes:
A new work plan for deckhands
which has reduced their hours, in-
creased their average pay, and im-
proved working conditions for them.
(The deckhands now have work
uniforms supplied by the Canal and
their average pay has increased
approximately $10 per week.)
Establishment of career Port Captain
positions on both sides of the Isthmus
and appointment of civilian employees
to the posts for the first time in the
history of the Canal. (Until the past
2 months, both Port Captains always
have been officers of the U.S. Navy.)
Continued reduction in the average
time which transiting ships spend in
Canal Zone waters. The average in fiscal
year 1962 was 15.5 hours, compared
with an average of 21.3 hours in 1959.
(In recent testimony before Congress,
Governor Fleming said of this: "I think
that those employees directly and indi-
r-._rl tl.II.i ->l in the transiting of
vessels are to be commended for this
improved performance.")
Permanent 24-hour operation of the
Canal for the first time since it opened
on ,i.li.t 15, 1914. (This <1..n is
expected to result in still further reduc-
tion in the average time which tran-
silin- vessels spend in Canal Zone
waters.)
Modification of certain parts of the
locks to permit safer passage of larger
ships than eyer before i ...-li. (Cer-


tain outsize batters near the bottom of
the chamber walls in Pedro Miguel
Locks were blasted away to remove the
interference they formerly offered to
the bilge keels of large ships.)
A new definitive statement giving
the maximum dimensions of ships which
would be accepted for transit of the
Canal and otherwise defining the phy-
sical limitations of the waterway. (The
statement set maximum draft limita-
tions of 36% feet when Gatun Lake is
at 85 feet.)
Establishing that Gatun Lake can be
permitted to rise to 87V feet to permit
even deeper draft vessels to transit
safely. The lake equalled the highest





He Made



Changes



level in its history, 87.6 feet, during
January. (Each additional foot of draft
permitted a vessel can mean as much
as $10,000 in cargo revenue for the ship
operator.)
Admittedly, he's been a burr and
a hairshirt to many in the Canal organ-
ization. But even his critics usually
acknowledge his energetic drive toward
the goals he set for himself and the
Canal.
One colleague recently commented:
"Captain Jack's been determined that
the Canal be utilize"' to the limits of
its capacity. He set out to determine
what those limits were and how to
increase them, where possible. In the


process, I think he's proved that he has
one of the best engineering minds in
the Canal organization."
This d, t,-riirir,.i ion, established early,
continued right through Captain Jack's
tour of duty. When he discovered that
the bottom of the Canal was creeping
slowly upward in spots-and thereby
reducing the water depth available for
transiting ships-he activated a con-
tinuing program for having the high
spots dredged out, personally keeping
tabs on the work.
Captain Jack insists that the improve-
ments which have been made-and
others for which the way has been
paved-are "Marine Bureau achieve-
ments; not mine. And many outside
of the Marine Bureau have worked
effectively to make them possible."
This is typical of the man. No shrink-
ing violet, neither is he slow to
praise others when praise is warranted.
Repeatedly, in many ways, he has
demonstrated his pride in Marine
Bureau personnel.
"It's a good organization," he says.
"There are hundreds of excellent, con-
scientous, able employees in it who
make operation of the Canal smooth
and efficient. I've had excellent coopera-
tion all along the line in the things
I've tried to do."
The accomplishments during Captain
Jack's tour of duty haven't been simple.
He's stuck his neck out in support of
unproved innovations. He's stead-
fastly supported subordinates who have
done likewise-and suddenly found
themselves in the vise of hindsight
second-guessing by others.
Not an austere man, nor an adherent
of routine, Captain Jack made the
rounds of Marine Bureau operations
without regard for the clock. He's
visited working units at odd hours of
the night, made hospital calls on
injured Marine Bureau employees, and
(See p. 23)


JuLY 5, 1963




C"~,


(r


F
.40


It's a far cry from the age of electronic
gadgets and a space craft to a sling shot,
homemade, but that's the temporary transi-
tion Astronaut John Glenn made. This
weapon could be handy for jungle survival.
The National Aeronautics and Space Ad-
ministration's 16 astronauts participated in
tropic survival training last month at
Albrook Air Force Base in the Canal Zone.


Frank Borman, 34, was born in Gary, Ind.
He is 5 feet 10 inches tall, weighs 163
pounds, and has blond hair and blue eyes.
The son of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Borman
of Phoenix, Ariz., he is married to the
former Susan Bugbee of Tucson, Ariz.
They have two sons-Frederick, 11, and
Edwin, 9. The Air Force major's last
assignment was as instructor at the Aero-
space Research Pilot School at Edwards
Air Force Base, Calif.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


i.


I



1tq '


k r


Neil A. Armstrong, 32, was born in Wapa-
koneta, Ohio. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 165 pounds, and has blond hair
and blue eyes. The son of Mr. and Mrs.
Sterber Armstrong of Wapakoneta, he is
married to the former Janet Elizabeth
Shearon of Chicago, 111. They have one son,
Eric, 5. His last assignment was as NASA
test pilot on the X-15 program at Edwards
Air Force Base, Calif.


II







P


i
i


(t


*k 4


Classroom activities were part of the
astronauts' training before they took to
the jungle in pairs to test their abilities.
Here tropical water animal species they
might encounter are identified by instructor
H. Morgan Smith.


John Herschel Glenn, Jr., 41, was born in
Cambridge, Ohio. He is 5 feet 10 inches
tall, weighs 168 pounds, and has green
eyes and red hair. He is the son of Mr.
and Mrs. John Glenn of New Concord,
Ohio, and his wife is the former Anna
Margaret Castor of New Concord. They
have two children, John David and Carolyn
Ann. A lieutenant colonel in the Marine
Corps, he has been awarded the Distin-
guished Flying Cross five times and holds
the Air Medal with 18 clusters. He was
pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 6 three-orbit
space flight February 20, 1962.


M. Scott Carpenter, 38, was born in
Boulder, Colo. He is 5 feet 10% inches tall,
weighs 155 pounds, and has green eyes and
brown hair. His wife is the former Rene
Louise Price of Clinton, Iowa. They have
four children-Mark Scott, Royn Jay,
Kristen Elaine, and Candace Noxon. He
is a lieutenant commander in the Navy.
Carpenter was the pilot of the Mercury-
Atlas orbital flight May 24, 1962. He com-
pleted a successful three-orbit space flight
mission.







Charles Conrad, Jr., 32, was born in Phila-
delphia, Pa. He is 5 feet 6 inches tall,
weighs 138 pounds, and has blond hair
and blue eyes. The son of Charles Conrad,
Sarasota, Fla., and Mrs. Frances V.
Sargent, Haverford, Pa., he is married to
the former Jane DuBose of San Antonio,
Tex. They have four sons-Pete, 8, Thomas,
6, Andrew, 4, and Christopher, 2. He is
a Navy lieutenant and his last assign-
ment was as safety officer for Fighter
Squadron 96.


Astronaut James Lovell watches a boa
constrictor, one of the jungle hazards
included in the indoctrination.













Leroy Gordon Cooper, 36, was born in
Shawnee, Okla. He is 5 feet 9 inches tall,
weighs 150 pounds, and has blue eyes and
brown hair. His mother, Mrs. Leroy G.
Cooper, lives in Carbondale, Colo. His
father, who died in 1960, was a colonel
in the Air Force. Cooper's wife is the
former Trudy Olson of Seattle, Wash. They
have two daughters. Camala K. and
Janita L. He is a major in the Air Force.
Cooper completed a successful 22-orbit
mission May 16, 1963, traveling 575,000
miles, or more than enough for a round
trip to the moon.





Virgil Ivan Grissom, 37, was born in
Mitchell, Ind. He is 5 feet 7 inches tall,
weighs 150 pounds, and has brown eyes
and brown hair. His parents are Mr. and
Mrs. Dennis D. Grissom of Mitchell. His
wife is the former Betty L. Moore, also of
Mitchell. They have two sons, Scott and
Mark. A major in the Air Force, he holds
the Distinguished Flying Cross and Air
Medal with cluster. Grissom made a sub-
orbital space flight down the Atlantic range
from Cape Canaveral July 21, 1961.


TROPIC SURVIVAL SCHOOL


AIR FORCE CREWMEN of the U.S. Air Forces
Southern Command are called upon to fly, as a
matter of routine, over some of the most rugged
country in the world; their air routes take them
across mountain ranges, over broad lakes and
streams, tropical rainforests and thick jungle, and
arid wasteland.
The nature of these airmen's mission always
presents the possibility that any of these airmen
could find himself on the ground and afoot in the
wilderness, with the problem of surviving following
a successful forced landing.
To teach these aircrew members of the U.S.
military services survival methods under all types
of circumstances, the U.S. Air Force operates the
Tropic Survival School at Albrook Air Force Base.
At the school, headed by a veteran anthropolo-
gist, 5 days of lessons begin with emergency proce-
dures for crash landing, ditching, and bailout and
use of the survival equipment each plane carries,
ranging from life vests and rafts to flashlights and
signalling mirrors.
Students then progress to the study of survival
techniques, learning what plant and animal life is


poisonous and which edible, how to erect shelters
of natural products, techniques of survival medi-
cine, and how to meet the people who inhabit
the undeveloped and primitive regions of Latin
America.
A small zoo of animals to be found in Latin
America serves as an invaluable training aid for
this part of the course.
When the student has been taught how to survive
after he is forced down, he then learns how to travel
over any type of terrain whether lowlands, jungle,
cloud forest, mangrove, secondary growth, or
desert, so that he can make his own way back to
civilization, if searchers fail to locate him.
The course culminates in an exercise under "field
conditions," so that each student can practice the
techniques he has learned in classes, building traps
and shelters, constructing rafts and hammocks, and
making an overland trek.
Graduation day finds each student prepared for
survival in the Amazon jungles and rivers and
equally prepared to survive in the freezing cold,
waterless highlands of the Altiplano.


James A. Lovell, Jr., 34, was born in Cleve-
land, Ohio. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 165 pounds, and has blue eyes and
blond hair. He is the son of Mrs. Blanch
Lovell, Edgewater Beach, Fla., and his
wife is the former Marilyn Lillie Gerlach
of Milwaukee, Wis. They have three
children-Barbara Lynn, 9, James Arthur,
7, and Susan Kay, 4. A Navy lieutenant
commander, his last assignment was as
flight instructor and safety officer with VF
101 at the Naval Air Station, Oceana, Va.


. t






James A. McDivitt, 33, was born in
Chicago, Ill., the son of Mr. and Mrs.
James McDivitt of Jackson, Mich. He is
5 feet 11 inches tall, weighs 155 pounds,
and has brown hair and blue eyes. He is
married to the former Patricia Ann Haas
of Cleveland, Ohio, and they have three
children-Michael, 5, Ann Lynn, 4, and
Patric W., 2. An Air Force captain, his
last duty assignment was as experimental
flight test officer at Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif.


Astronaut Walter Schirra takes a piece of
wild pork from roasting stick, part of a
jungle meal.


Walter Marty Schirra, Jr., 40, was born
in Hackensack, N.J. He is 5 feet 10 inches
tall, weighs 170 pounds, and has brown
hair and brown eyes. His parents are Mr.
and Mrs. Walter M. Schirra of Honolulu,
Hawaii, where his father is a civil engineer
with the Air Force. His wife is the former
Josephine C. Fraser of Seattle, Wash. They
have two children, Walter III and Suzanne.
Schirra, a commander in the Navy, holds
the Distinguished Flying Cross and two
Air Medals. He completed a successful
six-orbit flight October 3, 1962.


A I16






Elliot M. See, Jr., 35, was born in Dallas,
Tex. He is 5 feet 8 inches tall, weighs 150
pounds and has brown hair and blue eyes.
He is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Elliot See
of Dallas. His wife is the former Marilyn
Jane Denahy of Georgetown, Ohio. They
have two daughters, Sally, 6, and Carolyn,
5, and a son, David, 1. His last assignment
was as an experimental test pilot for
General Electric Co. at Edwards, Calif.


Astronaut Edward White accepts a piece
of the heart of a palm tree from an Air
Force instructor as part of a jungle meal.


Alan B. Shepard, Jr., 39, was born in East
Derry, N.H. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 160 pounds, and has blue eyes and
brown hair. His parents are Colonel and
Mrs. Alan B. Shepard of East Derry, his
father being a retired Army officer. His
wife is the former Louise Brewer of
Kennett Square, Pa. They have two daugh-
ters, Juliana and Laura. Shepard is a com-
mander in the Navy. He was the pilot for
the United States' first manned space
flight, sub-orbital, down the Atlantic range
May 5, 1961.






Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, 39, was born
in Sparta, Wis. He is 5 feet 10% inches tall,
weighs 160 pounds, and has blue eyes and
brown hair. His parents are Mr. and Mrs.
Charles S. Slayton of Sparta. His wife
is the former Marjorie Lunney of Los
Angeles, Calif. They have one son, Kent.
Slayton is a major in the Air Force. Slayton
was to have been pilot for the mission later
assigned to Astronaut Carpenter when a
heart condition prevented Slayton's making
the flight.


iP.


Astronaut Scott Carpenter in foreground
prepares to taste items on the menu for
a jungle meal-including wild deer, wild
pork, iguana (lizard), yucca, plantain, and
taro root.


Edward H. White H, was born in San
Antonio, Tex. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 171 pounds, and has auburn hair
and brown eyes. The son of Major General
and Mrs. Edward H. White of St. Peters-
burg, Fla., he is married to the former
Patricia Eileen Finegan of Washington,
D.C. They have two children-Edward, 9,
and Bonnie Lynn, 6. The Air Force
captain's last assignment was as an experi-
mental test pilot at Wright-Patterson Air
Force Base, Ohio.






Thomas P. Stafford, 32, was born in
Weatherford, Okla., the son of Mrs. Mary
Ellen Crabtree of Weatherford. He is 6 feet
tall, weighs 170 pounds, and has black
hair and blue eyes. He is married to the
former Faye Laverne Shoemaker, also of
Weatherford. They have two daughters-
Dianne, 8, and Karen, 5. An Air Force
captain, his last assignment was at the
USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School at
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.


Some of the astronauts and members of the official NASA party had time before they left the Isthmus to go sightseeing, including a visit
to Miraflores Locks. Here they're briefed on the locks controls by Frank Azchrraga, third from left, of the Canal Zone Guide Service.


An informal picture of Astronauts Neil
Armstrong, foreground, and John Glenn,
in the lobby of the Tivoli Guest House.
At left is Holda Sanchez of the Canal Zone
Guide Service, one of a group of guides on
hand to help during the press conference
which followed the training session.


John W. Young, 32, was born in San Fran-
cisco, Calif. He is 5 feet 9 inches tall,
weighs 168 pounds, and has brown hair
and green eyes. He is the son of William
H. Young of Orlando, Fla. His wife is the
former Barbara Vincent White of Savan-
nah, Ga. They have two children-Sandra,
5, and John, 3. The Navy lieutenant com-
mander's last assignment was with Fighter
Squadron 143 at Miramar Naval Air
Station, San Diego, Calif.


- ;










'Slave


C. M. Holcomb, leader, lock operator,
electrician, at Miraflores Locks, examines
one of the motors which actuate indicators
showing position of miter gates, valves,
and water level in locks chambers. These
motors purr quietly beneath the table top
of the locks control board.


From this...

WIDE MODERN use of selsyn (self
synchronizing) electric motors can be
traced back directly to original equip-
ment installations for the Panama Canal,
one of the earliest, if not the earliest,
major uses of such motors. The Canal
selsyn systems still are in operation to
remotely indicate the position of lock
gates and other machinery.
Modern versions of these selsyn
motors, many in miniaturized form, are
used to indicate landing gear and flap
positions for aircraft, and by several
manufacturers for elevator control. Use
for Navy fire control, a function they
still have, dates back to World War I.
The selsyn motor was invented about
1908 or 1910 by A. E. Bailey, Jr., for
remote indicator measurement of water
level, according to historical data of
the General Electric Co.'s Specialty
Motor Department and recollections of
some of the senior members of the
department.
Selsyn motors are used on Canal
machinery which may be stopped at
intermediate points of travel: machinery
to move miter gates, rising stem
valves, and to indicate water level in
locks chambers. They make possible
synchronous indicator systems.
A complete synchronous indicator
consists of a transmitter motor at the
machine in the lock wall and a receiver,
or "slave," motor at the switchboard in
the control house. Transmitter and
receiver are identical. From equidistant
points on the winding of the trans-


SMotors








matter, lead wires run to similar points
on the winding of the receiver. Part of
the transmitter motor revolves or moves
with the machine to which it is attached.
As it revolves, the current sent to the
receiver causes its moving part to
revolve to the same angular position.
This moving part of the receiver, known
as the rotor, is geared to a pointer, or
small model of the locks machine, or to
some other indicating device, which it
drives.
The present motors for control house
indicators are smaller than the original
ones, which were 71/4 inches in diameter.
Those now in use measure only about
5 inches in diameter and weigh only
about half as much. The original motors
were replaced during the change from
25-cycle to 60-cycle current completed
in 1958.
Indicators are used for all machinery
operated from the control house, to
show the operator the position of each
machine at all times. In the case of some
machines, operation of a motor lasts
only a few seconds, and indication of
the position of the machine is given by
simple means of red and green lights.
Such machines are the cylindrical
valves and auxiliary culvert valves. It is
never expected, in normal operation, to
stop these machines at any intermediate
point in their travel. Only the completed
operation is indicated by the red and
green lights.
General Electric was awarded the
construction days contract for central-




To this


These are some of the indicators atop the
control boards operated by the motors. A
pair of rising stem valves is represented by
the double faced index in the foreground,
with horizontal lines to mark the quarter,
half, and three-quarter openings. The
tallest instruments show level of the water
in the various chambers.


... for these

ized interlocking controls for locks oper-
ation on the assertion of one of its
engineers, Edward M. Hewlett, that he
could make the system work. But it
hadn't been devised yet when the
contract was awarded.
Hewlett consulted with the engineer
of a firm that made interlocking rail-
road switch devices, to obtain a bid on
that part of the work. He was told that
he was suggesting something that "can't
be done at the price you require."
Weeks of reading, designing, and
experimenting by Hewlett followed.
Within 6 months he had a working
model of the indicating system and the
interlocking system, the ones that were
accepted, operating when the Canal
opened, and have remained basically
unchanged ever since.

One of the latest type miniaturized selsyn-
type motors used to indicate landing gear
and wing flap positions in civilian, com-
mercial, and military aircraft.





d


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW












WHAT'S THE



QUESTION?


RECOPILACION
DE LEYES DE LOS REYNOS

DE LAS INDIAS.
MANDADAS IMPRIMIR, Y PVBLICAR
POR LA MAGESTAD CATOLICA DEL REY

DON CARLOS II.
NVESTRO SENOR.
VA DIVIDIDA EN QAVATRO TOMOS,
con d Indice general, y al principio de cada Tomo el Indice
S) L' efpci~dltaiteos,qaeconueie.
'TOMO PRIMERO. ...-,








____ 4


EL MIrid PoI Ivm as PasnLs, Aho de a681.


Title page of an old Spanish law book, one of a set dating back nearly three centuries.


WAS THE MOON full at the time
Morgan attacked Old Panama?
What does the word "maru" mean?
Many of the Japanese ships that transit
the Canal carry the word "maru" as part
of the name.
When was the Hotel Washington, on
the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, built
and opened?
These are just three of the some
15,000 reference and research questions
asked yearly at the Canal Zone Library.
About 1,000 questions a month is the
average in the Main Library, Ancon,
and some 60 percent of that number
represent official queries.
Mrs. Beverly C. Williams is chief
reference librarian. Official questions,
research questions, Panama Collection
questions, and any others that require
extensive research come to her desk.
Mrs. Catherine Brown serves as
assistant reference librarian, Mrs. Alice
Turner and Mrs. Verna Winstead are
relief reference librarians.
The Canal Zone Library has been
answering questions for almost half a
century. It was established August 24,
1914, by Colonel Goethals as the official
technical reference library for the Pan-
ama Canal organization. Public library
services were added later, but the prin-
cipal mission of the Reference Librarian
still is to answer reference or research
questions of the Canal organization.
One of the oldest, and most interest-
ing, of the books with which the re-
search librarian may work is a four-
volume set of old Spanish law books,
"Recopilaci6n de Leyes de los Reynos
de las Indias," a compilation of laws
printed in Madrid, Spain, in 1681 by
order of His Catholic Majesty King
Carlos II. The books were presented to

18 JULY 5, 1963






the Canal Zone Library by Frank H.
Wang, who before his retirement was
adviser to the Canal Zone Governor.
The volumes are of handmade watered
paper, bound in skin, with hinges and
lacings of leather. Pages are adorned
with ornamental initial letters, charac-
teristic of early handwritten and printed
work.




Mrs. Beverly C. Williams, chief reference
librarian, at left uses a microfilm reader
which projects reproductions of pages of
newspapers onto a screen on which they
may easily be read in the search for
reference data.





And at right she inspects one of the library's
many maps. These maps date back to
1453, with one a copy on linen of a map
now in the British Museum. There are a
number of other original drawings, some
from the archives of French construction
days, others reportedly made by Colom-
bian and Venezuelan Jesuit priests.


Maru? According to Japanese-speak-
ing people in Panama, the word means
round, or complete, or perfect. One of
the Canal Zone librarians, by chance,
found this quotation in a novel she was
reading:
"Castles were called that in the old
feudal days because they were
complete in themselves. So is a ship
at sea."


Official services of the Canal Zone
Library reference staff are available
from 7:15 a.m. to 4:15 p.m., weekdays,
and non-official reference service is
available from 9:30 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.,
on Monday through Fridays. Refer-
ence assistance also is available on
Saturday.
Anyone with a question is welcome
to bring it to the Canal Zone Library
research staff.
The reference service, besides satis-
fying the requirements of the Panama
Canal organization, lends assistance to
other U.S. agencies on the Isthmus
including the Armed Forces and the
State Department, and extends non-
official service to employees of the U.S.
Government and families and other
residents of the Isthmus.
The Canal Zone Library assumes the
auxiliary role of elementary, junior high,
high school, and college library in its
considerable service to students and
teachers. The reference service is avail-
able in the branch libraries of the Canal
Zone, as well as the Main Library, and
branch librarians and attendants in cir-
culating libraries refer questions to the
reference librarian.


Despite the fact that the books are
nearing the three-century mark they
still may be consulted in the course of
research work, as many of the laws
they contain have been applicable in
Panama.
The Canal Zone Library contains
approximately 200,000 items, including
about 135,000 books, as well as docu-
ments, pamphlets, bound and unbound
magazines, maps, prints, and manu-
scripts. Besides this material, the refer-
ence librarian has a type of working
reference file. Since the first reference
librarian was assigned to the Canal
Zone Library, each has contributed to
this file. Here are to be found the refer-
ence librarians' own notes on difficult
and unusual questions that have been
asked-and answered. These touch on
subjects that would not show up in
a card catalog, like the question on
whether the moon was full at the time
Morgan attacked Old Panama.
The answer to that, by the way, is
that quite likely the moon was full, for
the attack came in January 1671. A
study of phases of the moon of that
date indicated a full moon was due.


Mrs. Alice Turner, left, assistant reference librarian, and Mrs. Verna Winstead, general
services librarian and relief reference librarian.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






CANAL HISTORY


50 year c4go
PLANS for a tunnel for a Canal crossing
after its completion were abandoned
because of cost. A tunnel in the vicinity
of Paraiso Junction had been con-
sidered. A committee was appointed to
study the possibility of utilizing car
floats as a means of communication
between the east and west banks after
removal of the dike at Gamboa.
Resignation of Maurice H. Thatcher
as a member of the Isthmian Canal
Commission and head of the Depart-
ment of Civil Administration, was
forwarded to Washington, to take
effect August 8.
Slides in the Culebra Cut section
became unusually active. Since Feb-
ruary 5, when a major break occurred,
there had been five different move-
ments, each of which upheaved the
bottom of the Canal, destroyed con-
struction tracks, and, in some cases,
damaged equipment.

25 Year A4o
A 1-YEAR-OLD cabin boy was on the
crew roster of the Scandinavian motor-
vessel Rena, which transited the Canal
en route from Manila to New Orleans.
His father was master of the ship, his
mother signed on as stewardess and
another of their sons, 7 years old, also
was carried as a cabin boy.
Work was nearing completion on the
Bald Rock Lighthouse, to replace the
Bona Island light, long known as the
last Panama Canal lighthouse south-
ward. The new light is across a 150-foot
channel from Bona Island. Engineers,
mechanics, and others at work on
the new light were conveyed by the
lighthouse tender Favorite.
A Navy Department report to the
House Merchant Marine Committee


-ACCIDENTS-

FOR
THIS MONTH

AND
THIS YEAR


MAY

ALL UNITS
YEAR TO DATE


opposed construction of a Nicaraguan
canal, recommending further study of
the billion-dollar project. Commerce
and War Department and Federal
Maritime Commission spokesmen were
quoted as voicing similar attitudes.

10 yearJ c4go
MARCEL OLLIVIER, Charge d'Af-
faires of the French Embassy in Pan-
ama, planted the first hibiscus in a
hedge at the old cemetery at Paraiso
where a number of Frenchmen who
died during the Canal construction era
are buried. The cemetery had been
cleared of undergrowth and the hedge
planting was part of the work toward
making it a memorial to the French
contribution to construction of the
Canal.
A copy of the film "Operation Door-
step," showing a recent atomic explo-
sion and its effect on two houses during
tests in Nevada, was received for show-
ing at a series of Civil Defense town
meetings.
Main offices of the Locks Division
were transferred from the Administra-
tion Building back to the former
headquarters at Pedro Miguel Locks.

One year c4[o
PASSENGERS disembarking from the
New Zealand liner Rangitiki were
among the first Canal Zone visitors
arriving by ship to be greeted by
members of the new Canal Zone Guide
Service.
An earthquake rated as Force IV in
intensity shook the Balboa Heights
Administration Building. Center of the
quake was some 110 miles southwest of
Balboa, off the Cape Mala area. No
damage was reported.


FIRST AID HOSPITAL A fAr.nC4
ZONE


DAYS
CASES CASES ABSENT
'63 '62 '63 '62 '63 '62
198 205 19 10 123 29
1266(36) 1231 88(9) 50 2761 7182
() Locks Overhaul Injuries Included in total.


RETIREMENTS

EMPLOYEES who retired in May, with
their positions at time of retirement
and years of Canal service:
Amariz Camarena, Carpenter, Terminals
Division, Atlantic Side; 13 years, 11
months, 12 days.
Alexander Centeno, Scrap Materials Sorter,
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 31 years,
4 days.
Cristino Chifundo, Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 16 years, 8 months,
22 days.
Wilbur J. Dockery, Lead Foreman (Fuel
Operations) Terminals Division, Atlantic
Side; 34 years, 8 months, 27 days.
James D. Dunaway, Finance Branch Super-
intendent, Postal Division, Pacific Side;
29 years, 1 month, 28 days.
Cyril L. Edghill, Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion Atlantic Side; 44 years, 8 months,
21 days.
Rupert R. Foster, Leader Flame Cutter,
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 33 years,
5 months, 11 days.
Jonathan Harris, Cargo Marker, Terminals
Division, Atlantic Side; 16 years, 8
months, 13 days.
Leon V. Heim, Customs Inspector, Cus-
toms Division, Atlantic Side; 15 years,
8 months, 29 days.
Arthur J. Hunter, Bookbinder, Printing
Plant, Atlantic Side; 37 years, 4 months,
6 days.
James R. Johnston, Supervisory Operating
Accountant, Accounting Division, Pacific
Side; 29 years, 4 months, 27 days.
Albert King, Leader Seaman, Navigation
Division, Atlantic Side; 23 years, 15
days.
John D. Lowe, General Foreman (Dock-
ing and Undocking), Navigation Divi-
sion Atlantic Side; 12 years, 4 months,
29 days.
Mrs. Marguerite Maphis, Appointment
Clerk, Personnel Bureau; 19 years, 1
month, 18 days.
Thomas Marial, Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 37 years, 7 months,
10 days.
Lyle B. Morau, Police Sergeant, Police
Division, Pacific Side; 18 years, 3
months, 24 days.
Frederick O. Roland, Senior High School
Teacher, Division of Schools, Atlantic
Side; 23 years, 5 months, 7 days.
Walter T. Schapow, Leader Machinist,
Industrial Division, Pacific Side; 26
years, 9 months, 5 days.
Robert J. Sieler, Window Clerk, Postal
Division, Pacific Side; 11 years, 8
months, 3 days.
Channan Singh, Stevedore, Terminals
Division, Atlantic Side; 33 years, 6
months, 18 days.
Freddie S. Southerland, Police Station
Clerk, Police Division, Pacific Side;
23 years, 9 months, 1 day.
Miss Emily M. Thomas, Presser (Garment),
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 21 years,
9 months, 17 days.
Leonard A. Thompson, Stevedore, Ter-
minals Division, Atlantic Side; 15 years,
11 months, 24 days.
Robert Van Wagner, Chief, Employee
Services Branch, Personnel Bureau; 24
years, 4 months, 15 days.
Joel Williams, Fork Lift Operator, Ter-
minals Division, Atlantic Side; 43 years,
28 days.


JULY 5, 1963








ANNIVERSARIES
(On the basis of total Federal Service)


ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Anthony J. Ku .
Leader Joine
William S. Wals on
Operator, Dipper D
Marco Adonia
Helper Electrician
Robert Bennett
Painter

SUPPLY AND r
SERVICE BUREAU
Ignatious F. Prince
Stockman


MARINE BUREAU
Leonard Wolford
Supervisory Marine Traffic
Controller

r ter
Ripton lyn
Helpe G eral)

\ T P STATION AND
ALS BUREAU
Ashby
automotive Equipment
Serviceman
Horace Lewis
Cargo Checker


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
William J. Monzon
Customs Inspector
Herbert L. Clark
Clerk

ENGINEERING AND
CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Patrick A. Alexis
Helper Central Office
Repairman
B. A. Beluche
Surveying Technician
Douglas Kelly
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)
Isaiah MacFarlane
Seaman
Rafael Rodriguez M.
Seaman
Hiram L. Smith
Roofer

HEALTH BUREAU
Ram6n G. Caballero
Nursing Assistant
(Medicine and Surgery)
Nina I. Mitchell
Nursing Assistant
(Medicine and Surgery)
Valentin Navarro
Cook
D. C. Samaniego
Medical Technician
(Chemistry)


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


MARINE BUREAU
Joseph M. Bateman
Leader Lock Operator
(Machinist)
Victor H. May Jr.
Marine Trafic Controller
Rex Victor Sellens
Leader Lock Operator
(Machinist)
Rafael Alvarenga
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Jos6 A. Avalos
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Matilde BeltrAn
f-~9Cer Lock Opeor


Ferdinand L. Laurie
Helper Lock Operator
Aurelio Newball
Clerk
Manuel S. Ponce
Leader Maintenanceman
Pablo Ramos
Boatman
Sydney J. Richardson
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Joaquin P. Ruiz
Seaman (Launch)
Zephaniah E. Scott
Line Handler (Deckhand)


SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Asia L. Bennett
Utility Worker
Alice A. Bonnick
Sales Section Head
Eldica Cumberbatch
Assistant Baker
Jos6 A. Del Cid
Laborer (Heavy)
George L. Douglas
Truck Driver
Mildred R. Henry
Grocery Attendant
Clinton A. Lewis
Milk Plant Worker
Hasborn J. Lindo
Warehouseman
Maud Irene Lynch
Stock Control Clerk
Joseph Rankin
Guard
Ivy Sealey
Grocery Attendant
Prince A. Spencer
Retail Store Supervisor

TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Margaret M. Dietz
Accounting Clerk
F. P. McLaughlin, Jr.
Leader Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
Alphonso Bell
Clerk
Oscar A. Lowe
Leader Stevedore (Dock)
Marcelino Morales
Boiler Tender
Leopoldo A. Murillo
Line Handler


I








PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS


EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between May 5 and June 5 (within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed):

INTERNAL SECURITY OFFICE
Ivan D. Hilliard, Supervisory Security
Specialist (General) (Assistant Chief of
Internal Security), to Security Officer
(Assistant Chief of Internal Security).
Frank Wilder, Security Specialist(General),
to Security Specialist.
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Reinaldo P6rez, Messenger, to Messenger
(Motor Vehicle Operator).
Carol L. Vidaurri, Substitute Teacher, Di-
vision of Schools, to Clerk-Translator.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Howard J. Toland, Police Private, to Po-
lice Sergeant, Police Division.
Carlos A. Diaz, Truck Driver, Dredging
Division, to Detention Guard, Police
Division.
Frank Berry, Fire Protection Inspector, to
Fire Sergeant, Fire Division.
Marguerite G. Arens, Clerical Assistant, to
Administrative Services Assistant, Canal
Zone Library.
Customs Division
Daniel L. Jenkins, Police Private, Police
Division, to Customs Guard.
Joseph F. Dolan, Charles R. Soukup, Cus-
toms Guard, to Contraband Control
Inspector.
Division of Schools
Lucile E. Torstenson, Substitute Teacher,
to Teacher (Elementary-U.S. Schools).
Ariosto E. Ardila, Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Teacher
(Senior High-Latin American Schools).
Wilfred E. Layne, Substitute Teacher, Lat-
in American Schools, to Senior High
Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Alcides Bernal, Charlotte A. Toussaint,
Substitute Teacher, U. S. Schools, to
Secondary Teacher, Latin American
Schools.
Allan B. Forte, Jr., Part-time Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Secondary
Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Col6n Guardia, Sergio A. Ruiz, Luis P.
Sealy, Julio C. Sinclair, Substitute
Teacher, Latin American Schools, to
Secondary Teacher, Latin American
Schools.
Annette P. C6rodova, Millicent F. For-
cheney, Juan Phillips, Luis P. Sealy,
Substitute Teacher, Latin American
Schools, to Junior High Teacher, Latin
American Schools.
Bridget A. Hogan, Alba E. Sosa, Shailer
J. Yearwood, Substitute Teacher, Latin
American Schools, to Teacher (Elemen-
tary-Latin American Schools).
Yuda Morhaim, Thelma E. Osorio, Sub-
stitute Teacher, Latin American Schools,
to Part-time Teacher, Latin American
Schools.
Ivonne M. Frederick, Constance A. Gallop,
Substitute Teacher, Latin American
Schools, to Elementary Teacher, Latin
American Schools.


ENGINEERING
AND CONSTRUCTION
BUREAU
Electrical Division
Lester H. Fennel, Meteorologist (General)
to Meteorologist (Climatology).
Lucio G6ndola, Seaman, Dredging Divi-
sion, to Maintenanceman.
Claude S. Brathwaite, Jr., Laborer
(Cleaner) and Waiter (Special) to
Laborer (Heavy) and Waiter (Special).
Dredging Division
Charles J. Connor, Mate, Dipper Dredge,
to Master, Drill Barge.
Conrad L. Jarvis, Laborer (Heavy) to
Messenger.
Vilando B. Wynter, Helper Rigger, Indus-
trial Division, to Laborer (Heavy).
George Parris, Scrap Materials Sorter,
Supply Division, to Helper (General).
Engineering Division
Numan H. Vasquez, Electrical Engineer
Equipment) to Electrical Engineer
(Power Systems).
Manuel Lopez, Engineering Technician
(Electrical) to Electrical Engineering
Technician.
Ricardo A. Young, Cartographic Compila-
tion Aid, to Surveying Technician.
Julio Jiminez, Truck Driver, to Messenger
(Motor Vehicle Operator).
Maintenance Division
Richard E. Parker, Engineman (Hoisting
and Portable) to Leader Engineman
(Hoisting and Portable).
Clarence W. Dougherty, Towing Loco-
motive Operator, Locks Division, to
Engineman (Hoisting and Portable).
Harold A. Walker, Oiler, to Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Plant Operator.
Osvaldo ArAuz, Helper Sheetmetal Worker
to Roofer.
Gilberto Budil, Truck Driver to Roofer.
Henry G. Fergus, Helper Machinist (Main-
tenance) to Oiler.
Nicomedes Hidalgo, Laborer to Asphalt or
Cement Worker.
Jos6 F. Flores, Laborer to Helper Machinist
(Maintenance).
Joseph E. Brown, Laborer to Laborer
(Heavy).
James D. Maloney, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Laborer.
HEALTH BUREAU
Mary B. Egolf, Clerk-Stenographer to
Secretary (Stenography), Office of the
Director.
Pedro P6rez, Stockman, Supply Division,
to Storekeeping Clerk, Coco Solo Hos-
pital.
Gorgas Hospital
Mary F. Rose, Staff Nurse (Surgery) to
Head Nurse (Surgery).
Charlene C. Johnson, Dental Assistant
(Restorative) to Dental Assistant (Gen-
eral).
Jos6 A. Matos, Truck Driver to Medical
Aid (Ambulance).
Division of Veterinary Medicine
Dr. Louis Fink, Dr. Kenneth C. Zimmer-
man, Veterinarian (Public Health) to
Veterinarian.


Dr. Robert D. Wallace, Veterinarian (Clini-
cal) to Veterinarian.
Dr. Nathan B. Gale, Jr., Veterinarian
(Laboratory) to Veterinarian.
Division of Preventive Medicine
and Quarantine
Adele V. Argo, Staff Nurse (Obstetrics),
Coco Solo Hospital, to Head Nurse
(General).
Maxine G. Davis, Clerk-Typist, from Locks
Division.
Division of Sanitation
Adal S. Dawes, Laborer, Maintenance
Division, to Laborer (Heavy Pest Con-
trol).
MARINE BUREAU
Navigation Division
Ivan N. Hardy, Seaman to Leader Seaman.
Oscar A. Jones, Line Handler (Deckhand)
to Seaman.
Gordon L. Mesquita, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Line Handler (Deckhand).
Damiin Gill, Jr., Counterman, Supply
Division, to Laborer (Heavy).
Earl W. Worrell, Clerk-Typist, Mainte-
nance Division, to Clerk.
Rupert L. Neblett, Arlington A. Petro,
Clerk-Typist to Clerk.
Industrial Division
Walter G. Brown, Inspector (Scales and
Oil Meters) to Leader Machinist.
Joseph F. Green, Domingo D. Hinds,
Robert E. Holland, John L. Irwin, Gust
E. Rosene, Shift Engineer (Mechanical),
Electrical Division, to Machinist (Ma-
rine).
Candelario Pineda, Leader Painter (Main-
tenance) to Painter.
Owen E. Christbpher, Painter (Mainte-
nance) to Leader Painter (Maintenance).
Roberto Carrasco, Scrap Bailing Machine
Operator, Supply Division, to Helper
Rigger.
Guillermo Villarreal, Laborer (Heavy),
Supply Division, to Painter (Maiite-
nance).
Herman Brown, Helper Rigger to Crane
Hookman.
Juan Garcs, Helper Lock Operator to
Helper (General).
Gladstone E. Casis, Vincent C. Lahley,
Robert A. Lord, Hugh L. Reid, Clerk
to Timekeeper.
Locks Division
Denton W. Broad, Daniel P. Kiley, Nils W.
Jonsop, Control House Operator to
General Foreman (Lock Operations).
Robert V. Dean, Leader Lock Operator
(Electrician) to Control House Operator.
Elbert T. Chappell, Jr., Welder, Mainte-
nance Division, to Welder.
Edward B. House, Liquid Fuels Gager,
Terminals Division, to Guard.
Rowland R. Hayward, Guard to Towing
Locomotive Operator.
James A. Jones, Marcos F. Rueda, Painter
to Leader Painter.
Adolphus A. Stewart, Carpenter (Mainte-
nance) to Carpenter.
Cayetano De Hoyos, Marcos Smith, Line
Handler to Helper Lock Operator.


JULY 5, 1963







OFFICE OF THE
COMPTROLLER
Donald J. Bowen, Supervisory Accountant
to Supervisory Operating Accountant
(Chief, Agents Accounts Branch), Ac-
counting Division.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Supply Division
John P. Corrigan III, Supervisory Storage
Officer, Storehouse Branch, to Merchan-
dise Management Officer (Housewares),
Office of General Maneger.
Robert C. Meehan, Assistant Retail Store
Manager, Office of General Manager, to
Supervisory Storage Officer, Storehouse
Branch.
Edward L. Lowe, Retail Store Manage-
ment to Cafeteria Manager.
Rae N. Ebdon, Transportation Loss and
Damage Claims Examiner to Accounting
Assistant.
Margaret M. Larrison, Sales Clerk to
Voucher Examiner.
Winston M. Haye, Leader High Lift Truck
Operator to Supervisory Storekeeping
Clerk.
John H. Francis, Clerk to Accounting
Clerk.
Alfred A. Robinson, Utility Worker to
Warehouseman.
Christiana Cragwell, Bus Boy to Sales
Clerk.
Carlton Dawkins, Laborer (Heavy) to
Warehouseman.
Sislin Lindsay, Presser (Flatwork) to Presser
(Shirts).
Community Services Division
Norman N. Bonnick, Lead Foreman
(Grounds) to General Foreman (Grounds).
Roderick L. Hart, Mail and File Clerk to
Clerk.
Edward B. Webster, Accounting Assistant
to Housing Project Assistant.
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Barbara Berkowitz, Clerk-Stenographer to
Clerical Assistant (Stenography), Water
Transportation Division, New Orleans,
La.
Terminals Division
Donald C. Parker, Robert H. Rathgeber,
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher to Lead Fore-
man (Fuel Operations).
Cedric F. Gittens, Clerk-Typist to Per-
sonnel Clerk (General; Typing).
Te6filo Bryan, Seaman, Dredging Division,
to Guard.


He Made Changes
(Continued from p. 8)
spent Christmas Eve calling on those
on duty in order to offer his personal
greetings and good wishes of the season.
Numerous complimentary letters
have been received by him from ship
operators, attesting to their apprecia-
tion of the Canal's efforts to serve them.
One recent example, from Ralph B.
Dewey, president of the Pacific Amer-
ican Steamship Association, is typical:
"My short stay in Panama renewed
once again my high regard for the fine
job that not only your office but the


F6lix P. Baltodano, Santiago Castillo, Celio
Cedefio, Eduardo L6pez, Joseph Price,
Florentino Sanchez, Juan A. Vega, Dock
Worker to Stevedore.
Harry Gaile, Dock Worker to Carpenter
(Maintenance).
Alfred Davidson, Glenn H. Durant, Carl
R. Kinsman, Calvin A. Phillips, Santiago
Sanguill6n, Gerald A. Small, Clemente
E. Stevens, Cargo Marker to Clerk
(Checker).
Hurut Sheldon, Frederick R. White, Utility
Worker, Supply Division, to Cargo
Marker.
Roberto N. Hall, Frances A. Jolliffe, Utility
Worker, Supply Division, to Cargo
Marker.
Carlos Grenald, Waiter, Supply Division,
to Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Railroad Division
Ralph L. Davis, Yard Conductor and Road
Conductor, to Yard Conductor and Road
Conductor and Train Dispatcher.

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
William E. LeBrun Supervisory Personnel
Security Specialist, Internal Security
Office.
Horace F. Jenner, Merchandise Manage-
ment Officer (Housewares), Supply Divi-
sion, Office of General Manager.
Robert J. Saarinen, Assistant Guest House
Manager, Supply Division, Service
Center Branch.
Gerald H. Halsall, Housing Project Assist-
ant, Community Services Division.
Mazie C. Schwarzrock, Interpreter (Stenog-
raphy), Internal Security Office.
Dorothy H. Benny, Office Services Super-
visor (Typing), Engineering Division.
Betty M. Ragthgeber, File Clerk, Internal
Security Office.
Alice M. Turner, Verna S. Winstead, Li-
brarian, Canal Zone Library.
Dora M. McIlhenny, Library Assistant,
Canal Zone Library.
Eugene L. Buonviri, Irma V. Pasco, Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting
Division.
Lloyd E. White, Clerk, Industrial Division.
John Lawrence, Clerk, Maintenance Divi-
sion.
Luis Fierro, Surveying Aid, Engineering
Division.
Juan GonzAlez, Charles M. Inniss, Time-
keeper, Industrial Division.
Norma M. Jones, Pauline S. Landers, Card
Punch Operator, Accounting Division.


entire Canal management has done in
the matter of vessel dispatch. It is really
an eye-opener to learn the story at
first hand."
What has driven him to the often fre-
netic activity which has characterized
him as Marine Director?
"I prefer working to loafing," he says
with his hearty, good-natured laugh.
"This Canal was built to serve ships and
you can't serve ships on an 8-hour
day and a 5-day week. The shipping
business just doesn't operate that way.
And since I'm of the world of ships,
neither do I."


Some of the equipment behind the reli-
ability of navigational aids lights. At left is
a 4-lamp automatic bulb changer. Center,
foreground, is a motor-driven electric
flasher, and at right is a transistor operated
flasher. In the rear is an 8-lamp automatic
bulb changer, being used experimentally.



Mid-Point in Canal
(Continued from p. 5)
with carboloy inserts and actually
drilled into the rock 8 to 10 feet by
use of a barge-mounted rotary drill
machine. The pipe is reinforced with
steel rails and filled with concrete after
driving.
Nearly half of the approximately 50
wooden pile beacons have been re-
placed in this manner since 1960. Instal-
lation cost of a steel beacon is about
$1,500 and estimated life is at least
20 years.
Wooden beacon installation cost
is approximately $3,000 and life
expectancy only 10 years.
Some buoys and beacons bear frac-
tional numbers, such as 60 and even
60%. These are supplementary aids
installed in critical areas at the request
of the Marine Bureau where single
devices have been found inadequate.
The red glass in the red lights absorbs
approximately 60 percent of the light,
resulting in a reduction of nearly 20
percent in visibility distance for them,
compared with white lights of the same
power. Even the red buoy and beacon
minimum visibility distance in clear
weather, however, is 5 miles.
A unit of the Dredging Division since
1957, the Aids to Navigation Section
now has 82 employees engaged full
time on aids work and 30 employees
making up crews and work parties on
floating equipment who are diverted
part time from dredging work for sea
trips.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW









SH


Little, But Lively
ONE OF THE best customers the
Panama Canal has these days is the
little 183-foot tanker Seatown which
transits northbound one day and south-
bound the next with the regularity of
a ferryboat. Since June 14, 1962, when
the ship started the Atlantic to Pacific
run, the Seatown has made nearly 100
transits. During May, the schedule was
stepped up and the Seatown made 25
transits in that one month. The little
tanker is, without a doubt, one of the
most likely candidates for the best cus-
tomer of the year plaque awarded
annually by the Panama Canal.
Not only does the tanker go through
the Canal more than any other ship,
she gets preferred treatment when she
is carrying high test gasoline. This
means she is on a clear cut preference
list on an equal basis with her 650-foot
super sisters.
The Seatown works for the Panama
Refining Co. and loads oil and other
petroleum products at Las Minas: Bay
for delivery to Balboa. She has a length
of 183 feet and a Panama Canal net
tonnage of 357 tons. This means that
she pays about $240 in tolls when she
is in ballast and about $320 when she
is loaded.


Tanker "Seatown."


I PPI


TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN MAY
1963 1962
Commercial.............. 988 984
U.S. Government .......... 24 16
Free .................... 8 11
Total............. 1,020 1,011
TOLLS
Commercial.... $4,993,868 $5,124,471
U.S. Government 117,173 95,265
Total.... $5,111,041 $5,219,736
CARGO*"
Commercial.... 5,722,332 6,057,628
U.S. Government 91,452 126,131
Free.......... 49,264 58,341
Total.... 5,863,048 6,242,100
.Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
SCargo figures are in long tons.


New Panama Flag Ship
A FAMOUS old troop ship, which made
a number of trips through the Canal
during the last war, is now flying the
Panama flag. She is the former Noor-
dam, a 10,000-ton passenger freight
vessel, sold recently to the Cielomar
Shipping Co. of Panama by the Holland
America Line. During World War II,
the Noordam carried more than 70,000
allied troops and equipment. Recently
together with the Westerdam, she has
maintained direct service between Rot-
terdam and New York fof 150 pas-
sengers and about 7,500 tons of cargo.

New Chinese Freighter
THE MV Oriental Venus, built in
France and delivered recently for serv-
ice with the Orient Overseas Line, Inc.,
made her maiden voyage through the
Canal in May on her way to Formosa.
Wilford & McKay, agents for the line,
say she will join other vessels on the
/Far East-New York run and will make
regular trips through the Canal in the
future.
S The new Chinese freighter, which
flies the Liberian flag, has a hold
capacity of 837,880 cubic feet and
17,660 cubic feet for refrigerated cargo.
In addition, she has accommodations
for 12 passengers in air conditioned
quarters; a deluxe suite, dining salon,
smoking room, library, bar, cafeteria,
and a winter garden with oriental
decorations.


N


G


JULY 5, 1963


Cargo Record
A RECORD CARGO of coal and a near
record for cargo of any type was carried
southbound through the Canal in May
by the collier Nagano. The ship carried
45,809 long tons of coal loaded in
Hampton Roads where this was re-
ported to be a new peak figure for a
single-ship cargo of coal. The loading
required 815 railroad cars, which form
a train more than 6 miles long-a record
for the Norfolk & Western Railway, too.
The Nagano, 757 feet long and with
a 102-foot beam, was on her maiden
voyage to Japan with high grade metal-
lurgical coal for the Fuji Iron & Steel
Co.. She is owned by Oswego Ocean
Carriers, Ltd., is operated by the Marine
Transport Lines, Inc., and is under
Liberian registry. Wilford & McKay,
agents for the ship at the Canal, say
that the ship is expected to return the
middle of July from Peru, where she
is to pick up a cargo of iron ore for
Baltimore. If she takes advantage of
the Panama Canal allowable draft of
37 feet, the Nagano is capable of carry-
ing more than 51,000 long tons of cargo
through the Canal.


Seaborne Salt
ANY CARGO can be carried in bulk
these days, it seems-even salt. The
53,090 deadweight ton Argyll, the
world's largest salt carrier, is expected
to make a trip through the Canal some-
time in August. Although the big ship
was designed to carry salt from Mexico
to the Pacific Northwest, she can be
used for carrying other dry bulk cargoes
such as ore, coal, and grain. Oil could
be carried in the tanks normally used
for ballast.
The ship is equipped with self
unloading equipment which operates
with twin grab bucket, traveling crane,
and conveyer belt system mounted on
the main deck. The bridge is placed
right forward and the main engine aft,
with holds and cargo handling equip-
ment between. With the exception of
the former Sinclair Petrolore, the Argyll,
with a beam of 106 feet, will be one of
the widest ships ever to have transited
the Canal.













Date Due

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORI1DA

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBR A R IES /8s;

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www~archive~orgdetais/panamacanalrevie1 31 2pana

PAGE 6

4

PAGE 7

rT-:, I IN THIS ISSUE The Astronauts Launches Ahoy! v YORf Mid-Point in Canal What's the Question? On Jree 4, U ntieri From the Delaware SC George Washington 1776 To Outer Space g4, Astronaut Gordon Cooper 1963

PAGE 8

JOSEPH CONNOR, Press Officer ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President Publications Editors IDVIM S. PARKER, Lieutenant (iovernor ROBERT D. KERR and Juio E. BRICENO FRANK A. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal ,ul .t .Editorial Assistants Panama Canal Information Officer P sat the Printing Plant, Mount h ope, C. EUNICE RICHARD, TOBi BITTEL, and TOMAS A. CUPAS I)IStributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees. Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each. Postal money oders. ade pavabl to the PanaIma Canal ('omp v should be mnailed to Box M, Balboa Ileiglhts. C.Z. d itorial 0flice, are located in the Admiinistration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z. Index Scenes of the Fourth 3 Mid-Point in Canal_ 4 Launches Ahoy!6 He Changed Things 8 Astronauts_------------------------9 'Slave' Motors ---------------------17 What's the Question? -----------------18 "W e J101d Vizeje Vrutlzi ..Canal History, Retirements -------------20 FREEDOM of the North American colonies was proclaimed Anniversaries --_ _ 21 nearly 190 years ago. The Declaration of Independence was Promotions and Transfers --------------22 adopted by the Continental Congress July 4, 1776. The space age dates back less than 6 years. Shipping____--_ -_-_-24 But the patriots of the North American Revolutionary War and today's astronauts have a common bond: conviction that a free life is the only one worth living. The patriots won freedom. The astronauts' role is to help retain it, to help expand it, to help assure that their Nation maintains such a pace of progress that it can avoid being trampled as many other nations have been. The spirit animating the astronauts must be much like that which stirred the patriots, as expressed in this Revolutionary War patriots' oath: I amn only one, but I am one; I can not do everything, but I can do something; And what I can do, that I ought to do; And what I ought to do, by the grace of God, ON OUR COVER, with the pictures of George I will do. Washington and Astronaut Gordon Cooper, are The sound of freedom may be a Liberty Bell, an outcry against two famous scenes. One is a portion of the famous injustice, the roar of a space craft lift-off. Emanuel Leutze painting of Washington crossFoundation stones are well known: Freedom of religion, ing the Delaware River with his troops Decemwithout decrees as to what is "orthodox;" Freedom of assembly, her 25-26, 1776, during the North American with no curbs by petty officials; Freedom of speech, for open colonies' war for independence. The picture now discussion without abuse or maliee; Freedom of the press, to hangs in the Metropolitan Museum in New York safegiard human rights. Goals of freedom from want and freedom City. The other is a view of the launching of front fear have been added. Cooper from Cape Canaveral May 15, 1963. Frontiers have changed from rugged wilderness to outer space, The United States has put well over 100 vehicles, bit the soig of freedom in hearts is tit same. manned and unmanned, into space. Ilard-bought, freedom slips away if not guarded. Freedom has For more on astronauts, see pages 9-16. And, len a rifle in the hand against aggression, a peaceful harvest, coming back to earth, in this issue you also may the soft glow of candlelight without flare or burst of shell or learn about launches, about the Canal Zone's bom1b. It's a gift no man can give, a way to live-for which many biggest quiz center (aside from Personnel), and have died. about the mid-point in the Canal-both of them. 2 JULY 5, 1963

PAGE 9

THE FOURTH On tke Jbthmu. Over the Years A AW O July 4, 1915, looking west from Administration Building. The late President of the Republic of Panama, Jos6 Antonio Rem6n, and Joseph Harrington, left, then president of the American Society of Panama, smile their approval of the music of Lucho AzcArraga during a 1954 Fourth of July party staged at the Panama City Union Club by the American Society. 'lo

PAGE 10

MID-POINT IN CANAL? Navigationally, Here Although nearing the end of its transit to the Pacific side, the southbound super tanker Vivipara still is entering the Canal-navigationally. It is at the north end of Pedro Miguel Locks. Up to this point, red buoys and to the bottom; a beacon, a fixed mount beacons have been on the starboard (right) hand and black ones to port. signal, either on land or in the water.) From here on, the black ones are on the starboard, the red ones to port. On entering the channel at Naos Island on the Pacific side, and extending north to Pedro Miguel Locks, red buoys and beacons with even numbers (and red lights) are on the starboard, Navigation Aidls Change-O ver Point and black buoys and beacons with odd numbers (and white lights) are to port. Obviously there had to be a changeReason They Don't M atch On M ap over point 'where colors were reversed if standard colors were to be observed in both entrances. Otherwise, ships transiting one direcSHIPS transiting the Panama Canal the Atlantic end, only 12.2 miles from tion would be entering the Canal during southbound still are "entering" the the Pacific end. their entire transit, according to the Canal, navigationally, approximately Geographically, the half-way spot is navigational aids, and those transiting 14% miles after they've actually passed Station 1350 plus 28.75, a point one the other direction would be leaving the half-way point. quarter of a mile west of Darien, the Canal all the way-even when just Northbound ships, however, start to approximately 51% miles west of Gamentering it. "leave" the Canal 14% miles before they boa, and 25.6 from Atlantic deep water As it is, a southbound ship has the leave the mid-point. and Pacific deep water. usual colors all the way to Pedro Miguel Navigationally, the "middle" of the All the buoys and beacons in the Locks, but from there to the Pacific the Canal, lengthwise, is at the north end Canal are colored and numbered, so colors are reversed. The opposite is of Pedro Miguel Locks, 39 miles from that on entering the Canal at Colon, true for northbound ships. and extending south to Pedro Miguel At right is a standard type sun switch operLocks, red buoys and beacons with Arnold S. Hudgins, Aids to Navigation ating on the principle of expansion and even numbers, displaying red lights at Section lead foreman, compares old type contraction of a cylinder sensitive to light, night, are on the starboard hand, and sun switch, right, with tiny new photobut not to temperature changes. At left is black buoxs and beacons with odd electric cell type in his outstretched hand. a reproduction of one of the original numbers, displaying white lights at The old type operates by expansion and installation sun switches such as were in .contraction of a cylinder affected by use in 1915. It operated on the same eight, on the port hand. absorption of light rays, but not by principle. (A buoy is a floating marker moored temperature changes. 1 4

PAGE 11

Geographically, Here Originally Mralores Locks xas to have bten thic chiange-ox er point for reversal of the colors. The buoys and] beacons, spaced in pairs about :3,000 feet apart, are part of the more than 2,000 road signs for ships which are the responsibility of the Aids to Navigation Section of the Dredging Division. These also include markers and lights for ranges, breakwaters, entrances, banks, channels to dumnp areas an(d project sites, and lighthouses extendri j :30t0 miles ot i the This is the geographical half-way point through the Canal. The view is aihhsea ndg 200 miles rot in the looking east in San Pablo Reach, about 5i% miles west of Gamboa. TransitCaribbean and 2M0 miles out in the ing is the Chinese merchant ship Haishang, dwarfing the launch Shad, BaY of Panama. which sweeps the Canal electronically to make sure it's kept clear of About 1,500 of the lights are electriobstructions. Darien is in the background. cally operated, powered by shore current, 82 are operated by acetylene gas, 72 are battery powered, and there are 387 unlighted markers. Of the unlighted ones, 226 mark small boat channels in Catun Lake used by many Panamanian farmers. Buoys are on a general periodic overhaul schedule every 18 months if in salt water, every 5 years if in fresh water. Fifty gas buoys have been converted to electric buoys nnder a program started in fiscal year 1960, and there still are 82 gas buoys to be converted. Electric powered navigation aids are no better visually than the gas aids, but there's substantial dollars and cents savings in servicing. Gas buoys containing four cylinders of 180 cubic feet of compressed gas to a cylinder need resupplying about every :3 months, only every 4 months if equipped with sun valves which conserve the gas Roy R. Shuey, leader machinist, with, left to right, a fixed single burner light, a double supply. flasher unit with multiple burners, and a single flasher with multiple burners. The fixed Batteries placed in the same amount single burner is for a constant light, the double flasher unit for offshore installations having of space that the gas cylinders occupy, two different characteristics in one lantern. The flasher with multiple burners provides however, provide enough power so that a brighter light than does a single burner flasher. they have to be replaced only once a year, reducing the number of servicing Julio Collazos, electrician, with a bank of re-charged batteries ready to be placed in buoys stops and man-hours required by 2 to and beacons. Each charge lasts up to a year to 14 months and some of the batteries have 3 trips a year. been in use for as long as 16 years. The electric powered buoys, lighted with 1,000-hour bulbs costing S1.25 each, are equipped with automatic lamp changers so that if one bulb burns out. another automatically replaces it. There usually are 1 or 2 good bulbs left in each automatic changer at the end of a year. As beacons of wooden pile construetion are due for replacement, they are being replaced by heavy-duty 12-inch steel pipe. In softer bottom foundations such as mud, sand, or clay, they are driven to proper supporting depth xvith a pile driving hammer. In rock bottom, the end of the pipe is specially prepared (Sec p. 23) THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 5

PAGE 12

Carlos H1. Herrera is a foreman at the Launch Repair Shop at G(amboa and has been with the Canal since 1943. He is shown working on the molds of the Lark, a new 50-foot launch under construction at the shop. A carpenter by trade, he has worked on shH maintenance at the Port Captain's Office and at the Industrial Division shops in Balboa. lie is now an expert boat builder. FORTY-ONE Industrial Division in1960 and ums ed from thc Industrial struction and repairs necessary for all plyes-niost of them Panamanians. DIis iin ai ait i in Cristobal to the Dredgother Panama Canal small floating has e bcen working as members of a Iew ig Diisionl \ard ill ( anmboa. Some of equipment. They are getting some new Painama Canal unit and learning new the lmen all ady lad boat building and ideas-such as that of building a boat trades which will make them fai more pair exper ienct antid others had trades upside-down-and putting them into useful ieinbers of the local labor f orce. s hioih w55re -lotld background for their practice. This method, which might be Son of them have been ircruited compared to building a house starting firm oth units and divisions of the with the roof, is expected to work very Panamia Canal and others hae bet-n L A E S ell with small floating equipment. hircd ll Panama, but all rIlfxpli rI it e w it the Panam Canailtc membes of the Ilainich Uwpair ('lilt also take, (-arc of the recOn-

PAGE 13

Paint scraping is part of the work at the Launch Repair Shop. Here veteran employee James Miller works on the Oriole, a Balboa launch which is undergoing extensive repairs at Gamboa. Ak Harold Ranger, right, a third-year boat builder and shipwright apprentice, works with George Phillips, a helper who has been ith the Canal for 22 years. Ranger is a graduate of the Canal That upside-down boat in the background is the U.S. Tarpon, Zone schools and is learning a trade with the Panama Canal upsie-dwiaboatin he ackgoun isthe .S.Taron, Industrial 1)isision. Phillips is a veteran wbo is one of the men a mail and freight launch in the making. The young workman In the foreground is Napoleon Myta, a 26-year-old Panamanian who transferred from the Dredging Division to the new Launch Repair is cutting the framing which will be bent lengthwise over the molds Facilities in Gamboa. and ribbands of the new launch. Ile has been with the Canal 6 months and is using skills he learned as a boat builder in Panama as well as new ones he is learning at the Launch Repair Shop. Caulking a garboard strake of the Panama Surve of jobs is being made by William J. Kilgallen, right, position classification specialist Canal Launch Oriole is Joshua E. Lowe, in the Personnel Bureau, who is shown interviewing a group of employees at the Gamboa who learned boat repair work during a Launch Repair shed. The men are working on the U.S. Tarpon, a new launch being built 16-year period of employment with the for the Navigation Division. From left to right are Carlos 11. Herrera, a foreman; Dinmas U.S. Navy. le has been working with Cornejo Francisco Martinez, and Napoleon Myta. the Panama Canal for the past 2 %-ears and is becoming an expert on small boat A repair work of all types. '0I0

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\lemers (4 the office staff of the Marine Bureau are shown here with Capt. Richard G. Jack. bureau director. Left to right are: Mrs. iEthel Brow% n. statistical clerk; Walter A. Dryja, assistant to the Marine Director: Captain Jack, Mrs. Joan C. Fitzgerald, secretary, and Peter N. Riley, acting administrative officer during leave of absence of Charles T. Jackson, bureau administrative officer. \l I l E D IEC TOl C'apt. Richard taint outsize lattirs niealr the bottom of proti.ess, I think he's proved that he has K kiK man who has made his the chamber walls in Pedro Mligiuel One of ti-l best 'ngineiring minds in opi1dmis li nd and hit i the (anial Iocks were lasted aswa to -remoiv the the (Anl orgmnizatior. ii
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Neil A. Armstrong, 32, was born in Wapakoneta, Ohio. le is 5 feet 11 inches tall, weighs 165 pounds, and has blond hair and blue eyes. The son of Mr. and Mrs. Sterber Armstrong of Wapakoneta, he is married to the former Janet Elizabeth Shearon of Chicago, 111. They have one son, Eric, 5. His last assignment was as NASA test pilot on the X-15 program at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. tI It's a far cry from the age of electronic gadgets and a space craft to a sling shot, homemade, but that's the temporary transition Astronaut John Glenn made. This weapon could be handy for jungle survival. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's 16 astronauts participated in tropic survival training last month at Frank Borman, 34, was born in Gary, Ind. Albrook Air Force Base in the Canal Zone. le is 5 feet 10 inches tall, weighs 163 pounds, and has blond hair and blue eyes. The son of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Borman of Phoenix, Ariz., he is married to the former Susan Bugbee of Tucson, Ariz. They have two sons-Frederick, 11, and Edwin, 9. The Air Force major's last assignment was as instructor at the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. THE PAMA CANAL REVIEW 9Il

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NI. Scott Carpenter, 38, was born in Boulder, Colo. lie is 5 feet 10' inches tall, weighs 155 pounds, and has green eye(s and brown hair. His wife is the former Rene Louise Price of Clinton, Iowa. They have four children-Mark Scott, Royn jay, Kristen Elaine, and Candace Noxon. lie is a lieutenant commander in the Nav. Carpenter was the pilot of the MercuryAtlas orbital flight May 24, 1962. le completed a successful three-orbit space flight gay. Classroom activities were part of the astronauts' training before they took to the jungle in pairs to test their abilities. Here tropical water animal species they might encounter are identified by instructor Hl. Morgan Smith. John Ierschel Glenn, Jr., 41. was born in Cambridge, Ohio. ie is 5 feet 10' inches tall sseidgh 16i pounds, and has green eyes and red hair. le is the son of Mr. and \irs. John Glenn of New Concord, Ohio. and his wife is the former Anna largaret Castor of Nesw Concord. Thes have t% so children, John David and Caroly 1 An .A lieutenant colonel in the Maine Corps, lie has been assarded the Distinguished Flying Cross fise times and holdsthe Air Medal ssith IS clusters. Ile was pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 6 three-orbit space flight February 20, 1962.

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Charles Conrad, Jr., 32, was born in Philadelphia, Pa. le is 5 feet 6 inches tall, weighs 138 pounds, and has blond hair and blue eyes. The son of Charles Conrad, Sarasota, Fla., and Mrs. Frances V. Sargent, Haverford, Pa., he is married to the former Jane DuBose of San Antonio, Tex. They have four sons-Pete, 8, Thomas, 6, Andrew, 4, and Christopher, 2. le is a Navy lieutenant and his last assignment was as safety officer for Fighter Squadron 96. Astronaut James Lovell watches a boa constrictor, one of the jungle hazards included in the indoctrination. Leroy Gordon Cooper, 36, was born in Shawnee, Okla. He is 5 feet 9 inches tall, weighs 150 pounds, and has blue eyes and brown hair. His mother, Mrs. Leroy G. Cooper, lives in Carbondale, Colo. His father, who died in 1960, was a colonel in the Air Force. Cooper's wife is the former Trudy Olson of Seattle, Wash. They have two daughters. Camala K. and Janita L. Ile is a major in the Air Force. Cooper completed a successful 22-orbit mission May 16, 1963, traveling 575,000 miles, or more than enough for a round trip to the moon.

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Virgil Ivan Grissom, 37, was born in Mitchell, Ind. He is 5 feet 7 inches tall, weighs 150 pounds, and has brown eyes and brown hair. His parents are Mr. and Mrs. Dennis D. Grissom of Mitchell. His wife is the former Betty L. Moore, also of Mitchell. They have two sons, Scott and Mark. A major in the Air Force, he holds the Distinguished Flying Cross and Air Medal with cluster. Grissom made a suborbital space flight down the Atlantic range from Cape Canaveral July 21, 1961. TROPIC SURVIVAL SCHOOL AIR FORCE CREWMEN of the U.S. Air Forces poisonous and which edible, how to erect shelters Southern Command are called upon to fly, as a of natural products, techniques of survival medimatter of routine, over some of the most rugged cine, and how to meet the people who inhabit country in the world; their air routes take them the undeveloped and primitive regions of Latin across mountain ranges, over broad lakes and America. streams, tropical rainforests and thick jungle, and A small zoo of animals to be found in Latin arid wasteland. America serves as an invaluable training aid for The nature of these airmen's mission always this part of the course. presents the possibility that any of these airmen When the student has been taught how to survive could find himself on the ground and afoot in the after he is forced down, he then learns how to travel wilderness, with the problem of surviving following over any type of terrain whether lowlands, jungle, a successful forced landing. cloud forest, mangrove, secondary growth, or To teach these aircrev members of the U.S. desert, so that he can make his own way back to military services survival methods under all types civilization, if searchers fail to locate him. of circumstances, the U.S. Air Force operates the Tropic Survival School at Albrook Air Force Base. The course culminates in an exercise under "field At the school, headed by a veteran anthropoloconditions," so that each student can practice the gist, 5 days of lessons begin with emergency procetechniques he has learned in classes, building traps dures for crash landing, ditching, and bailout and and shelters, constructing rafts and hammocks, and use of the survival equipment each plane carries, making an overland trek. ranging from life vests and rafts to flashlights and Graduation day finds each student prepared for signalling mirrors. survival in the Amazon jungles and rivers and Students then progress to the study of survival equally prepared to survive in the freezing cold, techniques, learning what plant and animal life is waterless highlands of the Altiplano. James A. Lovell, Jr., 34, was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall, weighs 165 pounds, and has blue eyes and blond hair. He is the son of Mrs. Blanch Lovell, Edgewater Beach, Fla., and his wife is the former Marilyn Lillie Gerlach of Milwaukee, Wis. They have three children-Barbara Lynn, 9, James Arthur, 7, and Susan Kay, 4. A Navy lieutenant commander, his last assignment was as flight instructor and safety officer with VF 101 at the Naval Air Station, Oceana, Va.

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James A. McDivitt, 33, was born in Chicago, Ill., the son of Mr. and Mrs. James McDivitt of Jackson, Mich. le is 5 feet 11 inches tall, weighs 155 pounds, and has brown hair and blue eyes. He is married to the former Patricia Ann Haas of Cleveland, Ohio, and they have three children-Michael, 5, Ann Lynn, 4, and Patric W., 2. An Air Force captain, his last duty assignment was as experimental flight test officer at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. --T Astronaut Walter Schirra takes a piece of wild pork from roasting stick, part of a jungle meal. Walter Marty Schirra, Jr., 40, was born in Hackensack, N.J. He is 5 feet 10 inches tall, weighs 170 pounds, and has brown hair and brown eyes. His parents are Mr. and Mrs. Walter M. Schirra of Honolulu, Hawaii, where his father is a civil engineer with the Air Force. His wife is the former Josephine C. Fraser of Seattle, Wash. They have two children, Walter HI and Suzanne. Schirra, a commander in the Navy, holds the Distinguished Flying Cross and two Air Medals, He completed a successful six-orbit flight October 3, 1962.

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Elliot NM. See, Jr., 35, was born in Dallas, Tex. Ile is 5 feet 8 inches tall, weighs 150 pounds and has brown hair and blue eyes. le is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Elliot See of Dallas. His wife is the former Marilyn Jane Dcnahy of Georgetown, Ohio. They have two daughters, Sally, 6, and Carolyn, 5, and a son, David, 1. His last assignment was as an experimental test pilot for General Electric Co. at Edwards Calif. rAA 'IfI Astronaut Edward White accepts a piece of the heart of a palm tree from an Air Force instructor as part of a jungle meal. Alan B. Shepard, Jr., 39, was born in East Derry, N.H. le is 5 feet 11 inches tall, weighs 160 pounds, and has blue eyes and brown hair. His parents are Colonel and Mrs. Alan B. Shepard of East Derrv. his father being a retired Army officer. His wife is the former Louise Brewer of Kennett Square, Pa. They have two daughters, Juliana and Laura. Shepard is a comMander in the Navy. Ile was the pilot for the United States' first manned space flight, sub-orbital, down the Atlantic range May 5, 1961. NO

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Donald K. "Deke" Slavton, 39, was born in Sparta, Wis. lie is 5 feet 10 inches tall, weighs 160 pounds, and has blue eyes and brown hair. His parents are Mr. an(d Mrs. Charles S. Slayton of Sparta. His wife is the former Marjorie Lunney of Los Angeles, Calif. They have one son, Kent. Slayton is a major in the Air Force. Slayton was to have been pilot for the mission later assigned to Astronaut Carpenter when a heart condition prevented Slayton's making the flight. Astronaut Scott Carpenter in foreground prepares to taste items on the menu for a jungle meal-including wild deer, wild pork, iguana (lizard), yucca, plantain, and taro root. Edward I. White 11, was born in San Antonio, Tex. le is 5 feet 11 inches tall, weighs 171 pounds, and has auburn hair and brown eyes. The son of Major General and Mrs. Edward H. White of St. Petersburg, Fla., he is married to the former Patricia Eileen Finegan of Washington, D.C. They have two children-Edward, 9, and Bonnie Lynn, 6. The Air Force captain's last assignment was as an experimental test pilot at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

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Thomas P. Stafford, 32, was born in Weatherford, Okla., the son of Mrs. Mary Ellen Crabtree of Weatherford. He is 6 feet tall, weighs 170 pounds, and has black hair and blue eyes. He is married to the former Faye Laverne Shoemaker, also of Weatherford. They have two daughtersDianne, 8, and Karen, 5. An Air Force captain, his last assignment was at the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. Some of the astronauts and members of the official NASA party had time before they left the Isthmus to go sightseeing, including a visit to Miraflores Locks. Here they're briefed on the locks controls by Frank Azcirraga, third from left, of the Canal Zone Guide Service. An informal picture of Astronauts Neil Armstrong, foreground, and John Glenn, in the lobby of the Tivoli Guest House. At left is Holda SAnchez of the Canal Zone Guide Service, one of a group of guides on hand to help during the press conference which followed the training session. John W. Young, 32, was born in San Francisco, Calif. lie is 5 feet 9 inches tall, weighs 168 pounds, and has brown hair and green eyes. lie is the son of William H1. Young of Orlando, Fla. His wife is the former Barbara Vincent White of Savannah, Ga. They have two children-Sandra, 5, and John, 3. The Navy lieutenant commander's last assignment was with Fighter Squadron 143 at Miramar Naval Air Station, San Diego, Calif.

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'Slave" Motors C. N1. Holcomb, leader, lock operator, hitter, lead wires run to similar points These are some of the indicators atop the electrician, at Miraflores Locks, examines on the winding of the receiver. Part of control boards operated by the motors. A one of the motors which actuate indicators pair of rising steni valves is represented by showing position of miter gates, valves, the transmitter motor revolves or moves the double faced index in the foreground, and water level in locks chambers. These with the machine to which it is attached. with horizontal lines to mark the quarter, motors purr quietly beneath the table top As it revolves, the current sent to the half, and three-quarter openings. The of the locks control board. tallest instruments show level of the water receiver causes its moving part to in the various chambers. revolve to the same angular position. This moving part of the receiver, known rom this. *as the rotor, is geared to a pointer, or .for these small model of the locks machine, or to WIDE MODERN use of selsvn (self some other indicating device, which it synchronizing) electric motors can be drives. ized interlocking controls for locks opertraced back directly to original equipThe present motors for control house ation on the assertion of one of its ment installations for the Panama Canal, indicators are smaller than the original engineers, Edward M. Hewlett, that lie one of the earliest, if not the earliest, ones, which were 7% inches in diameter. could make the system work. But it major uses of such motors. The Canal Those now in use measure only about hadn't been devised yet when the selsvn systems still are in operation to 5/2 inches in diameter and weigh only contract was awarded. remotely indicate the position of lock about half as much. The original motors Hewlett consulted with the engineer gates and other machinery. were replaced during the change from of a firm that made interlocking railModern versions of these selsyn 25-cvcle to 60-cycle current completed road switch devices, to obtain a bid on motors, many in miniaturized form, are in 1958. that part of the work. He was told that used to indicate landing gear and flap Indicators are used for all machinery he was suggesting something that "can't positions for aircraft, and by several operated from the control house, to be done at the price von require." manufacturers for elevator control. Use show the operator the position of each \Veeks of reading, designing, and for Navy fire control, a function they machine at all times. In the case of some experinenting by Hewlett followed. still have, dates back to World War I. machines, operation of a motor lasts \Vithin 6 months he had a working The selsyn motor was invented about only a few seconds, and indication of model of the indicating system and the 1908 or 1910 by A. E. Bailey, Jr., for the position of the machine is given by interlocking system, the ontos that were remote indicator measurement of water simple means of red and green lights. accepted, operating when the Canal level, according to historical data of Such machines are the cylindrical opened, and have remained basically the General Electric Co.'s Specialt\ valves and auxiliary culvert valves. It is unchagled ever since. Motor Department and recollections of never expected, inynormal operation, to soone of the senior members of the stop these machines at any intermediate One of the latest type miniaturized selsyndepartment. point in their travel. Only the completed type motors used to indicate landing gear Selsyn motors are used on Canal and wing flap positions in civilian, commachinry whih m at operation is indicated by the red andi~ mercial, and military aircraft. machinery which may be stopped at green lights. intermediate points of travel: machinery General Electric Was awarded the to move miter gates, rising stem G valves, and to indicate water level in construction days contract for centrallocks chambers. They make possible synchronous indicator systems. A complete synchronous indicator consists of a transmitter motor at the machine in the lock wall and a receiver, T o this or "slave," motor at the switchboard in the control house. Transmitter and receiver are identical. From equidistant points on the winding of the transTiHE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17

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WHAT'S THE QUESTION? WAS THE MOON full at the time RECOPILACIONMorgan attacked Old Panama? RECOPI ACIONWhat does the word "maru" mean? DE L EYE IDE L REYNMany of the Japanese ships that transit L Ythe Canal carry the word maru as part of the name. DE LAS INDIAS \hen was the Hotel Washington, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, built MANDADAS IMPRIMIR, Y PVBLICAR and opened? POR LA M\GESTAD CATOLICA DEL REY These are just three of the some 15,000 reference and research questions DON CAR L OS I asked yearly at the Canal Zone Library. About 1,000 questions a month is the N V E S T R O S E N O R. average in the Main Library, Ancon, VA DIVIDIDA EN QVATRO TONMOS, and some 60 percent of that number con el Indicc general, y al principal dcada Tomo el ldict represent official queries. ercwid.0Storguc0' Mrs. Beverly C. Williams is chief reference librarian. Official questions, TOMO PRIMERO. research questions, Panama Collection questions, and any others that require extensive research come to her desk. Mrs. Catherine Brown serves as assistant reference librarian. Mrs. Alice Turner and Mrs. Verna Winstead are relief reference librarians. The Canal Zone Library has been answering questions for almost half a century. It was established August 24, 1914, by Colonel Goethals as the official technical reference library for the Panama Canal organization. Public library services were added later, but the principal mission of the Reference Librarian still is to answer reference or research questions of the Canal organization. One of the oldest, and most interesting, of the books with which the reEa M&d"' PoOL IvLu BE PARLVi, Ano de i68t. search librarian may work is a fourvolume set of old Spanish law books, Recopilacion dc L'yes dc los Reynos de lasv Indias." a compilation of laws printed in Madrid, Spain. in 1681 by order of His Catholic Majesty King Title page of an old Spanish law book, one of a set dating back nearly three centuries. Carlos II. The books were presented to 18 Ju'Y 5, 1963

PAGE 25

the Canal Zone Library by Frank H1. Mari? According to Japanese-speakOfficial services of the Canal Zone Wang, who before his retirement was ing people inl Panama, the word means Library referc c staff ar available adviser to the Canal Zone Governor. ronid, or complete, or perfect. One of from :15 a.m. to 4:15 pm., eekdavs, The volumes are of handmade watered the Canal Zone librarians, by chance, and non-official rferencc ser Vice is paper, bound in skin, with hinges and found this quotation in a novel she was asailablc froit 9:30 a.m. to S:00 p.m., lacings of leather. Pages are adorned reading: (ni Mondays through Fridas. Rcfeiwith ornamental initial letters, charac"Castles were called that if the old clic assistance also is oillable on teristic of carly handwritten and printed fendal days .because thc were Satirdays, work. complete in themselves. So is a ship AiyOnc wi th a questioni is wlncom at sea. to bling it to the Cainal Zoin Library ir .rI staff. ThW r ferecu seruix c, besides satisfigthe reqi remn its of the Panama Mrs. Beverly C. Williams, chief reference re~ereneCanlal inganli/ation, lcilds assistance tio librarian, at left uses a microfilm reader which projects reproductions of pages of otlhrI U.S. agncies on th Isthiulis newspapers onto a screen on which they inluding the Armed Forcus and the may easily be read in the search for State Department, and extends nonreference data. official sirvice to cnploNyes of the U.S. Go\(1 rnment and famiiliis nld other residents of the Istlinis The C,(anal Zoe LibrarN asisumeus thu A auxiliary role of ulcmnentar\ jnior high, highl sc hisil, and( coillcui lilnarx in its And at right she inspects one of the library's many maps. These maps date back to --considerable sirxice to students and 1453, with one a copy on linen of a map teaclies. Tli reference service is availnow in the British Museum. There are a able in thc biaici libraries of the Caial number of other original drawings, some from the archives of French construction Zone, as well as the Main Librarx, and days, others reportedly made by Colombranch librarians and attendeits in cirbian and Venezuelan Jesuit priests. culating libraries refer questions to the reference librarian. Despite the fact that the books are nearing the three-century mark they still may be consulted in the course of research work, as many of the laws they contain have been applicable in Panama. The Canal Zone Library contains approximately 200,000 items, including about 135,000 books, as well as documents, pamphlets, bound and unbound magazines, maps, prints, and maniscripts. Besides this material, the refcrence librarian has a type of working reference file. Since the first reference librarian was assigned to the Canal Zone Library, each has contributed to this file. Here are to be fond the reference librarians' own notes oin difficult and unusual questions that have been asked-and answered. These touch oi subjects that would not show up in a card catalog, like the question on whether the moon was full at the time Morgan attacked Old Panama. The answer to that, by the way, is that quite likely the moon was fill, for thec attack camic in Januar 1671 A studelx of phases of tin' moon of that Mrs. Alice Turner, left, assistant reference librarian, and Mrs. Verna Winstead, general date indicated a full nmoon xxas du. services librarian and relief reference librarian. TiHE PANAMA CANAL REvNTIEw 19

PAGE 26

CANAL HgsToRy RETIREMENTS 50 lfear4go opposed construction of a Nicaraguan canal, recommending further study of EMPLOYEES who retired in May, with PLANS for a tunnel for a Canal crossing the billion-dollar project. Commerce their positions at time of retirement after its completiOn were abandoned and War Department and Federal and years of Canal service: because of cost. A tunnel in the vicinity Maritime Commission spokesmen were Amariz Camarena, Carpenter, Terminals of Paraiso Junction had been conquoted as voicing similar attitudes. Division, Atlantic Side; 13 years, 11 sidcered. A committee was appointed to months, 12 days. study the possibility of utilizing car Alexander Centeno, Scrap Materials Sorter, floats IS I mans Of o(mn1ilatiOn 10 fear.3 4go Supply Division, Pacific Side; 31 years, 4 day S. between the east and west banks after MARCEL OLLIVIER, Charge d'AfCristino Chifundo, Guard, Terminals Divireioval of the (like at Gamboa. faires of the French Embassy in Pansion, Atlantic Side; 16 years, 8 months, Resignation of Maurice H. Thatcher ama, plant(,d the first hibiscus in a Wb days. as a member of the Isthmnian Canal Wilbur J. Dockery, Lead Foreman (Fuel hedge at the old cemetery at Paraiso Operations) Terminals Division, Atlantic Commission and head of the Departwhere a number of Frenchmen who Side: 34 years, 8 months, 27 days. nent of Civil Administration, w'as died during the Canal construction era James D. Dunaway, Finance Branch Superforwarded to Washington, to take are buried. The cemetery had been intendent, Postal Division, Pacific Side; 29 years, I month, 28 days. effect August 8. cleared of undergrowth and the hedge Cyril L. Edghill, Guard, Terminals DiviSlides in the Culebra Cut section planting was part of the work toward sion, Atlantic Side; 44 years, 8 months, because unusually active. Since Febmaking it a memorial to the French 21 days. ruarv 5, when a major break occurred, contribution to construction of the Rupert R. Foster, Leader Flame Cutter, there had been five different moveCanal. Supply Division, Pacific Side; 33 years, ments, each of which upheaved the 5 months, 11 days. w A copy of the film "Operation DoorJonathan Harris, Cargo Marker, Terminals bottom of the Canal, destroyed constep," showing a recent atomic exploDivision, Atlantic Side; 16 years, 8 struction tracks, and, in some cases, s months, 13 days. damaged equipment. smos and its effect on two houses during Leon V. Heim, Customs Inspector, Custests in Nevada, was received for showtoms Division, Atlantic Side; 15 years, ing at a series of Civil Defense town 8 months, 29 days. 25 Yeari ag o meetings. Arthur J. Hunter, Bookbinder, Printing Plant, Atlantic Side: 37 years, 4 months, A 1-YEAR-OLD cabin boy wvas on the Main offices of the Locks Division 6 davs. crew roster of the Scandinavian motorwere transferred from the AdministraJames R. Johnston, Supervisory Operating vessel Rena, which transited the Canal tion Building back to the former Accountant, Accounting Division, Pacific New Orleans. headquarters at Pedro Miguel Locks. Side; 29 years, 4 months, 27 days. Albert King, Leader Seaman, Navigation His father was master of the ship, his Division, Atlantic Side; 23 years, 15 mother signed on as stewardess and On -days, another of their sons, 7 ears old, also e Year go John D). Lowe, General Foreman (Dockwas crriecd as a cabin b1y. PASSENGERS disembarking from the mg and Uncocking). Navigation Diviwas arrid a a cbin ov.sion, Atlantic Side; 12 years, 4 months, Work was nearing completion on the New Zealand liner Rangitiki were 29 days. Bald Rock Lighthouse, to replace the among the first Canal Zone visitors Mrs. Marguerite Maphis, Appointment Bona Island light, long known as the arriving by ship to be greeted by Clerk, Personnel Bureau; 19 years, I last Panama Canal lighthouse southmembers of the new Canal Zone Guide month, 18 days. Thomas Marial, Guard, Terminals Diviwvard. The new light is across a 150-foot Service. sion, Atlantic Side; 37 years, 7 months, channel from Bona Island. Engineers, An earthquake rated as Force IV in 10 days. mechanics, and others at xvork on intensity shook the Balboa Heights Lyle B. Moran, Police Sergeant, Police the new light were conveyed by the Administration Building. Center of the Division, Pacific Side; 18 years, 3 months, 24 davs. lighthouse tender Favorite.' quake was some 110 miles southwest of Frederick 0. Roland, Senior High School A Navy Department report to the Balboa, off the Cape Mala area. No Teacher, Division of Schools, Atlantic House Merchant Marine Committee damage was reported. Side; 23 years, 5 months, 7 days. Walter T. Schapow, Leader Machinist, Industrial Division, Pacific Side; 26 years, 9 months, 5 days. Robert j. Sieler, Window Clerk, Postal -ACCIDENTS Division, Pacific Side; 11 years, 8 months, 3 days. FOR Channan Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Division, Atlantic Side; 33 years, 6 THIS MONTH months, 18 days. QUIET Freddie S. Southerland, Police Station ANRT AID Clerk, Police Division, Pacific Side; ANDFIRST HOSPITAL 2:3 vears, 9 months, I day. TEZONE Miss Emily M. Thomas, Presser (Garment), THIS YEAR 0Supply Division, Pacific Side; 21 years, 9 months. 17 days. Leonard A. Thompson, Stevedore, TerCASES CASES DAYS minals Division, Atlantic Side; 15 years, MAY ASSASSABSENT 11 months, 24 clays. '63 '62 '63 '62 '63 '62 Robert Van Wagner, Chief, Employee Services Branch, Personnel Bureau; 24 ALL UNITS 198 205 19 10 123 29 cars, 4 months, 15 days. Joel Williams, Fork Lift Operator, TerYEAR TO DATE 1266(36) 1231 88(9) 50 2761 7182 minals Division, Atlantic Side; 43 years, Locks Overhaul injuries included in total. 28 days. 20 JULY 5, 1963

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ANNIVERSARIES (On the basis of total Federal Service) ENGINEERING AND MARINE BUREAU CONSTRUCTION Leonard Wolford BUREAU Supervisory Marine Traffic Anthony J. Ku Controller Leader Joine Cyri avid William S. Wals on er inter P LY A D OMMUN Y Operator, Dipper D ed Ripton lyn ERV C BUREAU Marco Adonia Helpe G eral) E ej e G. il nHelper Electrician a r Robert Bennett TRA P STATION AND Painter ALS BUREAU SUPL ADITY .sb SUPPLY AND ITY Automotive Equipment SERVICE BUREAU Serviceman Ignatious F. Prince Horace Lewis Stockman Cargo Checker CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU MARINE BUREAU SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY William J. Monzon Joseph M. Bateman SERVICE BUREAU Customs Inspector Leader Lock Operator Asla L. Bennett (Machinist) Utility Worker Herbert L. Clark Victor H May Jr. Alice A. Bonmick Clerk Marine Trafic Controller Sales Section Head Eldica Cumberbatch ENGINEERING AND Rex Victor Sellens Assistant Baker N R INLeader Lock Operator Jos6 A. Del Cid CONSTRUCTION (Machinist) Laborer (Heavy) BUREAU Rafael Alvarenga George L. Douglas Patrick A. Alexis Line Handler (Deckhand) Truck Driver Helper Central Office Jos6 A. Avalos Mildred R. Henry Repairman Line Handler (Deckhand) Grocery Attendant B. A BelcheClinton A. Lewis B, A. Beluche Matilde Beltrin Milk Plant Worker Surveying Technician r Lock Ope r Hasborn J. Lindo Douglas Kelly ..ut Warehouseman Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom) Boa a Maud Irene Lynch 4~ eStock Control Clerk Isaiah MacFarlane Sylvuer F Joseph Rankin Seaman Guard h es Hazle o Ivy Sealey Rafael Rodriguez M. andler ec Grocery Attendant ez Prince A. Spencer Hiram L. Smith me andler (Deckhan Retail Store Supervisor Roofer Ferdinand L. Laurie Helper Lock Operator TRANSPORTATION AND HEALTH BUREAU Aurelio Newball TERMINALS BUREAU Ram6n G. Caballero Clerk Margaret M. Dietz Nursing Assistant Manuel S. Ponce Accounting Clerk (Medicine and Surgery) Leader Maintenanceman F. P. McLaughlin, Jr. Leader Liquid Fuels Nina I. Mitchell Pablo Ramos Wharfman Nursing Assistant Boatman Alphonso Bell (Medicine and Surgery) Sydney J. Richardson Clerk Valentin Navarro Line Handler (Deckhand) Oscar A. Lowe Cook -Leader Stevedore (Dock) Joaquin P. Ruiz Marcelino Morales D. C. Samaniego Seaman (Launch) Boiler Tender Medical Technician Zephaniah E. Scott Leopoldo A. Murillo (Chemistry) Line Handler (Deckhand) Line Handler THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21

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MOTIONS AND TRANSFERS EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred ENGINEERING Dr. Robert D. Wallace, Veterinarian (Clinibetween May 5 and June 5 (withinAND CONSTRUCTION cal) to Veterinarian. grade promotions and job reclassificaBUREAU Dr. Nathan B. Gale, Jr., Veterinarian tions are not listed): Electrical Division (Laboratory) to Veterinarian. Lester H1. Fennel, Meteorologist (General) Division of Preventive Medicine INTERNAL SECURITY OFFICE to Meteorologist (Climatology). and Quarantine Ivan D. Hilliard, Supervisory Security Lucio G6ndola, Seaman, Dre ging DiviAdele V. Argo, Staff Nurse (Obstetrics), Specialist (General) (Assistant Chief of sion, to Maintenanceman. Coco Solo Hospital, to Head Nurse Internal Security), to Security Officer Claude S. Brathwaite, Jr., Laborer (General). (Assistant Chief of Internal Security). (Cleaner) and Waiter (Special) to Maxine G. Davis, Clerk-Typist, from Locks Frank Wilder, Security Specialist (General), Laborer (Heavy) and Waiter (Special). Division. to Security Specialist. Dredging Division Division of Sanitation ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH Charles J. Connor, Mate, Dipper Dredge, Adal S. Dawes, Laborer, Maintenance Reinaldo PNrez, Messenger, to Messenger to Master, Drill Barge. Division, to Laborer (Heavy Pest Con(Motor Vehicle Operator). Conrad L. Jarvis, Laborer (Heavy) to trol). Carol L. Vidaurri, Substitute Teacher, DiMessenger. vision of Schools, to Clerk-Translator. Vilando B. Winter, Helper Rigger, IndusMARINE BUREAU trial Division, to Laborer (Heavy). .aiato .iv.si. CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU George Parris, Scrap Materials Sorter, Navigation Division Supply Division, to Helper (General). Ivan N. Hardy, Seaman to Leader Seaman. Howard J. Toland, Police Private, to PoEngineering Division Oscar A. Jones, Line Handler (Deckhand) lice Sergeant, Police Division, e Numan H. Vasquez, Electrical Engineer to Seaman. Carlos A. Diaz, Truck Driver, Dredging (Equipment) to Electrical Engineer Gordon L. Mesquita, Laborer (Cleaner) to Division, to Detention Guard, Police (Power Systems). Line Handler (Deckhand). Division. Manuel L6pez, Engineering Technician Damian Gill, Jr., Counterman, Supply Frank Berry, Fire Protection Inspector, to (Electrical) to Electrical Engineering Division, to Laborer (Heavy). Fire Sergeant, Fire Division. Technician. Earl W. Worrell, Clerk-Typist, MainteMarguerite G. Arens, Clerical Assistant, to Ricardo A. Young, Cartographic Compilanance Division, to Clerk. Admnisrate Stion Aid, to Surveying Technician. Rupert L. Neblett, Arlington A. Petro, Zone Library. Julio Jim~nez, Truck Driver, to Messenger Clerk-Typist to Clerk. Customs Division (Motor Vehicle Operator). Daniel L. Jenkins, Police Private, Police Maintenance Division Industrial Division Division, to Customs Guard. Richard E. Parker, Engineman (Hoisting Walter G. Brown, Inspector (Scales and Joseph F. Dolan, Charles R. Soukup, Cusand Portable) to Leader Engi neman Oil Meters) to Leader Machinist. toms Guard, to Contraband Control (Hoisting and Portable). Joseph F. Green, Domingo D. Hinds, Inspector. Clarence W. Dougherty, Towing LocoRobert E. Holland, John L. Irwin, Gust motive Operator, Locks Division, to E. Rosene, Shift Engineer (Mechanical), Division of Schools Engineman (Hoisting and Portable). Electrical Division, to Machinist (MaLucile E. Torstenson, Substitute Teacher, Harold A. Walker, Oiler, to Refrigeration rine). to Teacher (Elementary-U.S. Schools). and Air Conditioning Plant Operator. Candelario Pineda, Leader Painter (MainAriosto E. Ardila, Substitute Teacher, Osvaldo Ariuz, Helper Sheetmetal Worker tenance) to Painter. Latin American Schools, to Teacher to Roofer. Owen E. Christopher, Painter (Mainte(Senior High-Latin American Schools). Gilberto Budil, Truck Driver to Roofer. nance) to Leader Painter (Maintenance). Wilfred E. Layne, Substitute Teacher, LatHenry G. Fergus, Helper Machinist (MainRoberto Carrasco, Scrap Bailing Machine in American Schools, to Senior High tenance) to Oiler. Operator, Supply Division, to Helper Teacher, Latin American Schools. Nicomedes Hidalgo, Laborer to Asphalt or Rigger. Alcides Bernal, Charlotte A. Toussaint Cement Worker. Guillermo Villarreal, Laborer (Heavy), Substitute Teacher, U. S. Schools, to Jos F. Flores, Laborer to Helper Machinist Supply Division, to Painter (MairiteSecondary Teacher, Latin American (Maintenance). nance). Schools. Joseph E. Brown, Laborer to Laborer Herman Brown, Helper Rigger to Crane Allan B. Forte, Jr., Part-time Teacher, (Heavy). Hookman. Latin American Schools, to Secondary James D. Maloney, Laborer (Cleaner) to Juan Garces, Helper Lock Operator to Teacher, Latin American Schools. Laborer. Helper (General). Col6n Guardia, Sergio A. Ruiz, Luis P. Gladstone E. Casis, Vincent C. Lahley, Sealy, Julio C. Sinclair, Substitut HEALTH BUREAU Robert A. Lord, Hugh L. Reid, Clerk Seal, Juio .Siclai, Sbstiuteto Timekeeper. Teacher, Latin American Schools, to Mary B. Egolf, Clerk-Stenographer to Secondary Teacher, Latin American Secretary (Stenography), Office of the Locks Division Schools. Director. Annette P. C6rodova, Millicent F. ForPedro Prez, Stockman, Supply Division, Denton W. Broad, Daniel P. Kiley, Nils W. cheney, Juan Phillips, Luis P. Sealy, to Storekeeping Clerk, Coco Solo HosJonson, Control House Operator to Substitute Teacher, Latin American pital. General Foreman (Lock Operations). Schools, to Junior High Teacher, Latin Robert V. Dean, Leader Lock Operator American Schools. Gorgas Hospital (Electrician) to Control House Operator. Bridget A. Hogan, Alba E. Sosa, Shailer Mary F. Rose, Staff Nurse (Surgery) to Elbert T. Chappell, Jr., Welder, MainteJ. Yearwood, Substitute Teacher, Latin Head Nurse (Surgery). nance Division, to Welder. American Schools, to Teacher (ElemenCharlene C. Johnson, Dental Assistant Edward B. House, Liquid Fuels Gager, tary-Latin American Schools). (Restorative) to Dental Assistant (GenTerminals Division, to Guard. Yuda Morhaim, Thelma E. Osorio, Suberal). Rowland B. Hayward, Guard to Towing stitute Teacher, Latin American Schools, Jose A. Matos, Truck Driver to Medical Locomotive Operator. to Part-time Teacher, Latin American Aid (Ambulance). James A. Jones, Marcos F. Rueda, Painter Schools. to Leader Painter. Ivonne M. Frederick, Constance A. Gallop, Division of Veterinary Medicine Adolphus A. Stewart, Carpenter (MainteSubstitute Teacher, Latin American Dr. Louis Fink, Dr. Kenneth C. Zimmernance) to Carpenter. Schools, to Elementary Teacher, Latin man, Veterinarian (Public Health) to Cayetano De Hoyos, Marcos Smith, Line American Schools. Veterinarian. Handler to Helper Lock Operator. 22 JULY 5, 1963

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OFFICE OF THE F6lix P. Baltodano, Santiago Castillo, Celio COMPTROLLER Cedeio, Eduardo L6pez, Joseph Price, Florentino Sanchez, Juan A. Vega, Dock Donald J. Bowen, Supervisory Accountant Worker to Stevedore. to Supervisory Operating Accountant Harry Gaile, Dock Worker to Carpenter (Chief, Agents Accounts Branch), Ac(Maintenance). counting Division. Alfred Davidson, Glenn H. Durant, Carl SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY R. Kinsman, Calvin A. Phillips, Santiago SERVICE BUREAU Sanguillkn, Gerald A. Small, Clemente E. Stevens, Cargo Marker to Clerk Supply Division (Checker). John P. Corrigan III, Supervisory Storage Hurut Sheldon, Frederick R. White, Utility Officer, Storehouse Branch, to MerchanWorker, Supply Division, to Cargo dise Management Officer (Housewares), Marker. Office of General Maneger. Roberto N. Hall, Frances A. Jolliffe, Utility Robert C. Meehan, Assistant Retail Store Worker, Supply Division, to Cargo Manager, Office of General Manager, to Marker. Supervisory Storage Officer, Storehouse Carlos Grenald, Waiter, Supply Division, Branch. to Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman. Edward L. Lowe, Retail Store Management to Cafeteria Manager. Railroad Division Rae N. Ebdon, Transportation Loss and Ralph L. Davis, Yard Conductor and Road Damage Claims Examiner to Accounting Conductor, to Yard Conductor and Road Assistant. Conductor and Train Dispatcher. Margaret M. Larrison, Sales Clerk to Some of the equipment behind the reliVoucher Examiner, ability of navigational aids lights. At left is Winston M. Haye, Leader High Lift Truck OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not a 4-lamp automatic bulb changer. Center, Operator to Supervisory Storekeeping involve changes of title: foreground, is a motor-driven electric Clerk. William E. LeBrun Supervisory Personnel flasher, and at right is a transistor operated John H. Francis, Clerk to Accounting Security Speciafist, Internal Security flasher. In the rear is an 8-lamp automatic Alfred A. Robinson, Utility Worker to Office. bulb changer, being used experimentally. Warehouseman. Horace F. Jenner, Merchandise ManageChristiana Cragwell, Bus Boy to Sales ment Officer (Housewares), Supply DiviClerk. sion, Office of General Manager. Carlton Dawkins, Laborer (Heavy) to Robert J. Saarinen, Assistant Guest House Mid-Point in Canal Warehouseman. Manager, Supply Division, Service Sislin Lindsay, Presser (Flatwork) to Presser Center Branch. (Continued from p. 5) (Shirts). Gerald H. Halsall, Housing Project Assistant, Community Services Division. with carbolov inserts and actually Community Services Division Mazie C. Schwarzrock, Interpreter (Stenogdrilled into the rock 8 to 10 feet by Norman N. Bonnick, Lead Foreman raphy), Internal Security Office, use of a barge-mounted rotary drill (Grounds) to General Foreman (Grounds). Dorothy H. Benny, Office Services Superchine. The Roderick L. Hart, Mail and File Clerk to visor (Typing), Engineering Division. ma pipe is reinforced with Clerk. Betty M. Ragthgeber, File Clerk, Internal steel rails and filled with concrete after Edward B. Webster, Accounting Assistant Security Office. driving. to Housing Project Assistant. Alice M. Turner, Verna S. Winstead, LiNearly half of the approximately 50 TRANSPORTATION AND brarian, Canal Zone Library .wooden pile beacons have been reTERMINALS BUREAU Dora M. McIlhenny, Library Assistant, placed in this manner since 1960. InstalBarbara Berkowitz, Clerk-Stenographer to Eugene L. Buonviri, Irma V. Pasco, Time, lation cost of a steel beacon is about Clerical Assistant (Stenography), Water Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting $1,500 and estimated life is at least Transportation Division, New Orleans, Division. 20 years. La. Lloyd E. White, Clerk, Industrial Division. Vooden beacon installation cost Terminals Division John Lawrence, Clerk, Maintenance Diviis approximately $3,000 and life Donald C. Parker, Robert H. Rathgeber, sion. Liqud Fuelsrkisatcerto H.eadFre' Luis Fierro, Surveying Aid, Engineering expectancy only 10 years. Liquid Fuels Dispatcher to Lead ForeDiin Soeboys and beacons bear fracman (Fuel Operations). Division. Some bu a Cedric F. Gittens, Clerk-Typist to PerJuan Gonzalez, Charles M. Inniss, Timetional numbers, such as 6012 and even sonnel Clerk (General; Typing). keeper, Industrial Division. 601/4. These are supplementary aids Te6filo Bryan, Seaman, Dredging Division, Norma M. Jones, Pauline S. Landers, Card installed in critical areas at the request to Guard. Punch Operator, Accounting Division. of the Marine Bureau where single devices have been found inadequate. The red glass in the red lights absorbs He Made Changes entire Canal management has done in approximately 60 percent of the light, (Continued from p. 8) the matter of vessel dispatch. It is really resulting in a reduction of nearly 20 spent Christmas Eve calling on those an eye-opener to learn the story at percent in visibility distance for them, on duty in order to offer his personal first hand." compared with white lights of the same gretings and good wishes of the season. What has driven him to the often frepower. Even the red buoy and beacon Numerous complimentary letters netic activity which has characterized minimum visibility distance in clear have been received by him from ship him as Marine Director? weather, however, is 5 miles. operators, attesting to their apprecia"I prefer working to loafing," he says A unit of the Dredging Division since tion of the Canal's efforts to serve them. with his hearty, good-natured laugh. 1957, the Aids to Navigation Section One recent example, from Ralph B. "This Canal was built to serve ships and now has 82 employees engaged full Dewey, president of the Pacific Ameryou can't serve ships on an 8-hour time on aids work and 30 employees ican Steamship Association, is typical: day and a 5-day week. The shipping making up crews and work parties on "My short stay in Panama renewed business just doesn't operate that way. floating equipment who are diverted once again my high regard for the fine And since I'm of the world of ships, part time from dredging work for sea job that not only your office but the neither do I." trips. THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23

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Little, But Lively TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING Cargo Record ONE OF THE best customers the VESSELS IN MAY A RECORD CARGO of coal and a near Panama Canal has these days is the lQ6 A6 record for caro of any type was carried little 183-foot tanker Seatown which Cornmercial. ..988 984 transits northbound one day and southU.S. Government ...24 16 southbound through the Canal in May bound the next with the regularity of Free ..8 11 by the collier Nagano. The ship carried a ferryboat. Since June 14, 1962, when Total .1,020 1,011 45,809 long tons of coal loaded in the ship started the Atlantic to Pacific T Hampton Roads where this was rerun, the Seatown has made nearly 100 TOLLS ported to be a new peak figure for a transits. During May, the schedule was Commercial. .$4,99,3868 $5,124,471 single-ship cargo of coal. The loading stepped up and the Seatown made 25 U.S. Government 117,173 95,265 required 815 railroad cars, which form transits in that one month. The little Total. .S5,111,041 $5,29,736 a train more than 6 miles long-a record tanker is, without a doubt, one of the CARGO* for the Norfolk & Western Railway, too. most likely candidates for the best cusCommercial. 5,722,332 6,057,628 The Nagano, 757 feet long and with tomer of the year plaque awarded U.S. Government 91,452 126 131 a 102-foot beam, was on her maiden annually by the Panama Canal. Fe aN only the tankFree. .o.t. 49,264 58,341 voyage to Japan with high grade metalNot only does the tanker go through lurgical coal for the Fuji Iron & Steel the Canal more than any other ship, Total. 5863,048 6,242,100 Co. She is owned by Oswego Ocean she gets preferred treatment when she 'Includs a II Co.e Sh is oe by se Maine is carrying high test gasoline. This Trans Carriers, Ltd., is operated by the Marine means she is on a clear cut preference Transport Lines, Inc., and is under list on an equal basis with her 6,50-foot Liberian registry. Wilford & McKay, super sisters. New Flag agents for the ship at the Canal, say The Seatown works for the Panama Panama Ship that the ship is expected to return the Refining Co. and loads 'oil and other A FAMOUS old troop ship, which made middle of July from Peru, where she petroleum products at Las Minas Bay a number of trips through the Canal is to pick up a cargo of iron ore for for delivery to Balboa. She has a length during the last war, is now flying the Baltimore. If she takes advantage of of 183 feet and a Panama Canal net Panama flag. She is the former Noorthe Panama Canal allowable draft of tonnage of 357 tons. This means that darn, a 10,000-ton passenger freight 37 feet, the Nagano is capable of carryshe pays about $240 in tolls when she vessel, sold recently to the Cielomar ing more than 51,000 long tons of cargo is in ballast and about $320 when she Shipping Co. of Panama by the Holland through the Canal. is loaded. America Line. During World War II, the Noordam carried more than 70,000 Tanker "Seatown." allied troops and equipment. Recently together with the Westerdam, she has Seaborne Salt maintained direct service between Rotterdam and New York for 150 pasANY CARGO can be carried in bulk sengers and about 7,500 tons of cargo. these days, it seems-even salt. The 53,090 deadweight ton Argyll, the world's largest salt carrier, is expected New Chinese Freighter to make a trip through the Canal some1 THE MV Oriental Venus, built in time in August. Although the big ship -France and delivered recently for servwas designed to carry salt from Mexico -I ice with the Orient Overseas Line, Inc., to the Pacific Northwest, she can be made her maiden voyage through the used for carrying other dry bulk cargoes Canal in May on her way to Formosa. such as ore, coal, and grain. Oil could Wilford & McKay, agents for the line, be carried in the tanks normally used say she will join other vessels on the for ballast. Far East-New York run and will make The ship is equipped with self regular trips through the Canal in the unloading equipment which operates future. with twin grab bucket, traveling crane, The new Chinese freighter, which and conveyer belt system mounted on flies the Liberian flag, has a old the main deck. The bridge is placed capacity of 837,880 cubc feet and right forward and the main engine aft, 17,660 cubic feet for refrigerated cargo. she has accommodations with holds and cargo handling equipfor 12 passengers in air conditioned ment between. With the exception of qularters; a deluxe suite, dining salon, the former Sinclair Petrolore, the Argyll, smoking room, library, bar, cafeteria, with a beam of 106 feet, will be one of and a winter garden with oriental the widest ships ever to have transited decorations. the Canal. JULY 5, 1963

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Date Due Due Returned Due Returned oP 92

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tATh M UNIERSITY OF, FLORIDA 3II 1262 04820 4829