Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


Digitization of this item is currently in progress.
Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00018
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publication Date: July 1963
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
sobekcm - UF00097366_00018
Classification: lcc - HE2830.P2 P3
ddc - 386/.445
System ID: UF00097366:00018
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Matter
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries




From the Delaware


T7, --

George Washington

To Outer Space

Astronaut Gordon Cooper

The Astronauts
Launches Ahoy!
Mid-Point in Canal
What's the Question?

Panama Canal I

JR., Governor-President Publicati
Lieutenant Governor ROBERT D. KERR a
. BALDWIN Official Panama Canal Publication Editoal
information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. E RHARD, T B
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z.

IR, Press Officer
ns Editors
nd Jiuo E. BRICENO


"We Jiold Vheoe eruth . "

FREEDOM of the North American colonies was proclaimed
nearly 190 years ago. The Declaration of Independence was
adopted by the Continental Congress July 4, 1776.
The space age dates back less than 6 years.
But the patriots of the North American Revolutionary War and
today's astronauts have a common bond: conviction that a free
life is the only one worth living. The patriots won freedom. The
astronauts' role is to help retain it, to help expand it, to help
assure that their Nation maintains such a pace of progress that
it can avoid being trampled as many other nations have been.
The spirit animating the astronauts must be much like that
which stirred the patriots, as expressed in this Revolutionary War
patriots' oath:
I am only one, but I am one;
I can not do everything, but I can do something;
And what I can do, that I ought to do;
And what I ought to do, by the grace of God,
I will do.
The sound of freedom may be a Liberty Bell, an outcry against
injustice, the roar of a space craft lift-off.
Foundation stones are well known: Freedom of religion,
without decrees as to what is "orthodox;" Freedom of assembly,
with no curbs by petty officials; Freedom of speech, for open
discussion without abuse or malice; Freedom of the press, to
safeguard human rights. Goals of freedom from want and freedom
from fear have been added.
Frontiers have changed from rugged wilderness to outer space,
but the song of freedom in hearts is the same.
Hard-bought, freedom slips away if not guarded. Freedom has
been a rifle in the hand against aggression, a peaceful harvest,
the soft glow of candlelight without flare or burst of shell or
bomb. It's a gift no man can give, a way to live-for which many
have died.

Scenes of the Fourth- -_- ___
Mid-Point in Canal_
Launches Ahoy!__ --- ______
He Changed Things__________
Astronauts- -__----- _______
'Slave' Motors- __-- _____
What's the Question? --____- _____
Canal History, Retirements --_______
Anniversaries -----
Promotions and Transfers ----_____

ON OUR COVER, with the pictures of George
Washington and Astronaut Gordon Cooper, are
two famous scenes. One is a portion of the famous
Emanuel Leutze painting of Washington cross-
ing the Delaware River with his troops Decem-
ber 25-26, 1776, during the North American
colonies' war for independence. The picture now
hangs in the Metropolitan Museum in New York
City. The other is a view of the launching of
Cooper from Cape Canaveral May 15. 1963.
The United States has put well over 100 vehicles,
manned and unmanned, into space.
For more on astronauts, see pages 9-16. And,
coming back to earth, in this issue you also may
learn about launches, about the Canal Zone's
biggest quiz center (aside from Personnel), and
about the mid-point in the Canal-both of them.

JULY 5, 1963


On the J.j0tmus

Over the Years

July 4, 1915, looking west from Administration Building.

The late President of the Republic of Panama, Jos6 Antonio Rem6n,
and Joseph Harrington, left, then president of the American Society
of Panama, smile their approval of the music of Lucho Azcarraga
during a 1954 Fourth of July party staged at the Panama City
Union Club by the American Society.

Although nearing the end of its transit to the Pacific side, the southbound
super tanker Vivipara still is entering the Canal-navigationally. It is at
the north end of Pedro Miguel Locks. Up to this point, red buoys and
beacons have been on the starboard (right) hand and black ones to port.
From here on, the black ones are on the starboard, the red ones to port.

Navigation Aids Change-Over Poinl

Reason They Don't Match On Mai

SHIPS transiting the Panama Canal
southbound still are "entering" the
Canal, navigationally, approximately
14% miles after they've actually passed
the half-way point.
Northbound ships, however, start to
'leave" the Canal 14% miles before they
leave the mid-point.
Navigationally, the "middle" of the
Canal, lengthwise, is at the north end
of Pedro Miguel Locks, 39 miles from

At right is a standard type sun switch oper-
ating on the principle of expansion and
contraction of a cylinder sensitive to light,
but not to temperature changes. At left is
a reproduction of one of the original
installation sun switches such as were in
use in 1915. It operated on the same

the Atlantic end, only 12.2
the Pacific end.
Geographically, the half
Station 1350 plus 28.75,
quarter of a mile west
approximately 5% miles w
boa, and 25.6 from Atlantic
and Pacific deep water.
All the buoys and bea
Canal are colored and n
that on entering the Can
and extending south to Pc
Locks, red buoys and bi
even numbers, displaying
night, are on the starboard
black buoys and beacon
numbers, displaying whit
night, on the port hand.
(A buoy is a floating ma



Navigationally, Here

to the bottom; a beacon, a fixed mount
signal, either on land or in the water.)
On entering the channel at Naos
Island on the Pacific side, and extend-
ing north to Pedro Miguel Locks, red
buoys and beacons with even numbers
(and red lights) are on the starboard,
t and black buoys and beacons with odd
numbers (and white lights) are to port.
Obviously there had to be a change-
) over point where colors were reversed
if standard colors were to be observed
in both entrances.
Otherwise, ships transiting one direc-
miles from tion would be entering the Canal during
their entire transit, according to the
-way spot is navigational aids, and those transiting
a point one the other direction would be leaving
of Darien, the Canal all the way-even when just
est of Cam- entering it.
deep water As it is, a southbound ship has the
usual colors all the way to Pedro Miguel
cons in the Locks, but from there to the Pacific the
numbered, so colors are reversed. The opposite is
al at Colon, true for northbound ships.
edro Miguel
eacons with Arnold S. Hudgins, Aids to Navigation
red lights at Section lead foreman, compares old type
d hand, and sun switch, right, with tiny new photo-
s with odd electric cell type in his outstretched hand.
:e lights at The old type operates by expansion and
e gts a contraction of a cylinder affected by
absorption of light rays, but not by
irker moored temperature changes.



Geographically, Here

Originally Miraflores Locks was to
have been the change-over point for
reversal of the colors.
The buoys and beacons, spaced in
pairs about 3,000 feet apart, are part
of the more than 2,000 road signs for
ships which are the responsibility of
the Aids to Navigation Section of the
Dredging Division. These also include
markers and lights for ranges, break-
waters, entrances, banks, channels to
dump areas and project sites, and light-
houses extending 300 miles out in the
Caribbean and 200 miles out in the
Bay of Panama.
About 1,500 of the lights are electri-
cally operated, powered by shore cur-
rent, 82 are operated by acetylene gas,
72 are battery powered, and there are
387 unlighted markers. Of the unlighted
ones, 226 mark small boat channels in
Gatun Lake used by many Panamanian
Buoys are on a general periodic over-
haul schedule every 18 months if in
salt water, every 5 years if in fresh
Fifty gas buoys have been converted
to electric buoys under a program
started in fiscal year 1960, and there
still are 82 gas buoys to be converted.
Electric powered navigation aids are
no better visually than the gas aids, but
there's substantial dollars and cents
savings in servicing. Gas buoys con-
taining four cylinders of 180 cubic
feet of compressed gas to a cylinder
need resupplying about every 3 months,
only every 4 months if equipped with
sun valves which conserve the gas
Batteries placed in the same amount
of space that the gas cylinders occupy,
however, provide enough power so that
they have to be replaced only once a
year, reducing the number of servicing
stops and man-hours required by 2 to
3 trips a year.
The electric powered buoys, lighted
with 1,000-hour bulbs costing $1.25
each, are equipped with automatic lamp
changers so that if one bulb burns out,
another automatically replaces it. There
usually are 1 or 2 good bulbs left in
each automatic changer at the end of
a year.
As beacons of wooden pile construc-
tion are due for replacement, they are
being replaced by heavy-duty 12-inch
steel pipe. In softer bottom foundations
such as mud, sand, or clay, they are
driven to proper supporting depth with
a pile driving hammer. In rock bottom,
the end of the pipe is specially prepared
(See p. 23)


.. .

This is the geographical half-way point through the Canal. The view is
looking east in San Pablo Reach, about 5% miles west of Gamboa. Transit-
ing is the Chinese merchant ship Haishang, dwarfing the launch Shad,
which sweeps the Canal electronically to make sure it's kept clear of
obstructions. Darien is in the background.


Roy R. Shuey, leader machinist, with, left to right, a fixed single burner light, a double
flasher unit with multiple burners, and a single flasher with multiple burners. The fixed
single burner is for a constant light, the double flasher unit for offshore installations having
two different characteristics in one lantern. The flasher with multiple burners provides
a brighter light than does a single burner flasher.

Julio Collazos, electrician, with a bank of re-charged batteries ready to be placed in buoys
and beacons. Each charge lasts up to a year to 14 months and some of the batteries have
been in use for as long as 16 years.


'" -

Carlos H. Herrera is a foreman at the Launch Repair Shop at Gamboa and has been with the Canal since 1943. He is shown working on
the molds of the Lark, a new 50-foot launch under construction at the shop. A carpenter by trade, he has worked on shih maintenance at
the Port Captain's Office and at the Industrial Division shops in Balboa. He is now an expert boat builder.

FORTY-ONE Industrial Division em-
ployees-most of them Panamanians,
have been working as members of a new
Panama Canal unit and learning new
trades which will make them far more
useful members of the local labor force.
Some of them have been recruited
from other units and divisions of the
Panama Canal and others have been
hired in Panama, but all became part
of the relatively new Gamboa Launch
Repair Facility, which has been set up
in Gamboa as part of the Panama Canal
Industrial Division.
The new unit was organized in April

New frames for old deck molds on the
Panama Canal launch Skate are being put
into place by Cristobal Joseph, a Panama-
nian carpenter, who has 15 years of experi-
ence with the U.S. Navy and the Panama
Canal. He is now learning ship repair and
shipwright skills.

1960 and moved from the Industrial
Division area in Cristobal to the Dredg-
ing Division yard in Gamboa. Some of
the men already had boat building and
repair experience and others had trades
which were good background for their



new work. Their job: to maintain, repair,
and build small floating equipment for
the Panama Canal.
They took part in a ceremony re-
cently at the Gamboa Launch Landing
and proudly watched the official trans-
fer to the Navigation Division of the
Manta and the Mola, two brand new
harbor launches. The men had reason
to be proud. They had built the
launches themselves from stem to
gudgeon-and with the exception of the
diesel engines, were responsible for
every bolt, every nail, and every coat
of paint.
Two other harbor launches now are
under construction at Gamboa. They
are the Tarpon and Lark, both Naviga-
tion Division launches, which are sched-
uled to go into service next year.
Under the direction of Kenneth
Bailey, an expert shipwright with many
years of experience with the Panama
Canal, the members of the Launch
Repair Unit also take care of the recon-

struction and repairs necessary for all
other Panama Canal small floating
equipment. They are getting some new
ideas-such as that of building a boat
upside-down-and putting them into
practice. This method, which might be
compared to building a house starting
with the roof, is expected to work very
well with small floating equipment.
It is being tried out with the mail-and-
freight launch Tarpon now taking shape
in the shop.

It takes training to do the precise job that
Omar Martinez is completing here at the
Industrial Division Launch Repair Shop.
He is making repairs to the quadrant on
the launch Anayansi. Martinez has been
with the Canal only 6 months and is learn-
ing new tricks of the trade every day
although he has had many years of experi-
ence in boat building and ship repair work
in Panama.

Paint scraping is part of the work at the Launch Repair Shop. Here
veteran employee James Miller works on the Oriole, a Balboa
launch which is undergoing extensive repairs at Gamboa.


That upside-down boat in the background is
a mail and freight launch in the making. The
the foreground is Napole6n Myta, a 26-year-old
is cutting the framing which will be bent length
and ribbands of the new launch. He has bee
6 months and is using skills he learned as a boat
as well as new ones he is learning at the Laun
Caulking a garboard strake of the Panama
Canal Launch Oriole is Joshua E. Lowe,
who learned boat repair work during a
16-year period of employment with the
U.S. Navy. He has been working with
the Panama Canal for the past 2 years
and is becoming an expert on small boat
repair work of all types.

Harold Ranger, right, a third-year boat builder and shipwright
apprentice, works with George Phillips, a helper who has been
with the Canal for 22 years. Ranger is a graduate of the Canal
the U.S. Tarpon, Zone schools and is learning a trade with the Panama Canal
young workman i Industrial Division. Phillips is a veteran who is one of the men
SPanamanian who transferred from the Dredging Division to the new Launch Repair
vise over the molds Facilities in Gamboa.
n with the Canal
builder in Panama
ich Repair Shop.
Survey of jobs is being made by William J. Kilgallen, right, position classification specialist
in the Personnel Bureau, who is shown interviewing a group of employees at the Gamboa
Launch Repair shed. The men are working on the U.S. Tarpon, a new launch being built
for the Navigation Division. From left to right are Carlos H. Herrera, a foreman; Dimas
Cornejo, Francisco Martinez, and Napole6n Myta.

rY '.,

.~~u$ J

Members of the office staff of the Marine Bureau are shown here with Capt. Richard G. Jack, bureau director. Left to right are: Mrs.
Ethel Brown, statistical clerk; Walter A. Dryja, assistant to the Marine Director; Captain Jack; Mrs. Joan C. Fitzgerald, secretary, and
Peter N. Riley, acting administrative officer during leave of absence of Charles T. Jackson, bureau administrative officer.

C. Jack, a man who has made his
opinions heard and felt in the Canal
organization for the past 2 years, will
be leaving the Isthmus early this month
for a new assignment as Commanding
Officer of the U.S. Naval Receiving
Station at Brooklyn, N.Y.
As he prepares to depart the Isth-
mus, Captain Jack can look back at
many improvements in Canal opera-
tions during his stay here. A partial
listing of these includes:
A new work plan for deckhands
which has reduced their hours, in-
creased their average pay, and im-
proved working conditions for them.
(The deckhands now have work
uniforms supplied by the Canal and
their average pay has increased
approximately $10 per week.)
Establishment of career Port Captain
positions on both sides of the Isthmus
and appointment of civilian employees
to the posts for the first time in the
history of the Canal. (Until the past
2 months, both Port Captains always
have been officers of the U.S. Navy.)
Continued reduction in the average
time which transiting ships spend in
Canal Zone waters. The average in fiscal
year 1962 was 15.5 hours, compared
with an average of 21.3 hours in 1959.
(In recent testimony before Congress,
Governor Fleming said of this: "I think
that those employees directly and indi-
r-._rl tl.II.i ->l in the transiting of
vessels are to be commended for this
improved performance.")
Permanent 24-hour operation of the
Canal for the first time since it opened
on ,i.li.t 15, 1914. (This <1..n is
expected to result in still further reduc-
tion in the average time which tran-
silin- vessels spend in Canal Zone
Modification of certain parts of the
locks to permit safer passage of larger
ships than eyer before i ...-li. (Cer-

tain outsize batters near the bottom of
the chamber walls in Pedro Miguel
Locks were blasted away to remove the
interference they formerly offered to
the bilge keels of large ships.)
A new definitive statement giving
the maximum dimensions of ships which
would be accepted for transit of the
Canal and otherwise defining the phy-
sical limitations of the waterway. (The
statement set maximum draft limita-
tions of 36% feet when Gatun Lake is
at 85 feet.)
Establishing that Gatun Lake can be
permitted to rise to 87V feet to permit
even deeper draft vessels to transit
safely. The lake equalled the highest

He Made


level in its history, 87.6 feet, during
January. (Each additional foot of draft
permitted a vessel can mean as much
as $10,000 in cargo revenue for the ship
Admittedly, he's been a burr and
a hairshirt to many in the Canal organ-
ization. But even his critics usually
acknowledge his energetic drive toward
the goals he set for himself and the
One colleague recently commented:
"Captain Jack's been determined that
the Canal be utilize"' to the limits of
its capacity. He set out to determine
what those limits were and how to
increase them, where possible. In the

process, I think he's proved that he has
one of the best engineering minds in
the Canal organization."
This d, t,-riirir,.i ion, established early,
continued right through Captain Jack's
tour of duty. When he discovered that
the bottom of the Canal was creeping
slowly upward in spots-and thereby
reducing the water depth available for
transiting ships-he activated a con-
tinuing program for having the high
spots dredged out, personally keeping
tabs on the work.
Captain Jack insists that the improve-
ments which have been made-and
others for which the way has been
paved-are "Marine Bureau achieve-
ments; not mine. And many outside
of the Marine Bureau have worked
effectively to make them possible."
This is typical of the man. No shrink-
ing violet, neither is he slow to
praise others when praise is warranted.
Repeatedly, in many ways, he has
demonstrated his pride in Marine
Bureau personnel.
"It's a good organization," he says.
"There are hundreds of excellent, con-
scientous, able employees in it who
make operation of the Canal smooth
and efficient. I've had excellent coopera-
tion all along the line in the things
I've tried to do."
The accomplishments during Captain
Jack's tour of duty haven't been simple.
He's stuck his neck out in support of
unproved innovations. He's stead-
fastly supported subordinates who have
done likewise-and suddenly found
themselves in the vise of hindsight
second-guessing by others.
Not an austere man, nor an adherent
of routine, Captain Jack made the
rounds of Marine Bureau operations
without regard for the clock. He's
visited working units at odd hours of
the night, made hospital calls on
injured Marine Bureau employees, and
(See p. 23)

JuLY 5, 1963




It's a far cry from the age of electronic
gadgets and a space craft to a sling shot,
homemade, but that's the temporary transi-
tion Astronaut John Glenn made. This
weapon could be handy for jungle survival.
The National Aeronautics and Space Ad-
ministration's 16 astronauts participated in
tropic survival training last month at
Albrook Air Force Base in the Canal Zone.

Frank Borman, 34, was born in Gary, Ind.
He is 5 feet 10 inches tall, weighs 163
pounds, and has blond hair and blue eyes.
The son of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Borman
of Phoenix, Ariz., he is married to the
former Susan Bugbee of Tucson, Ariz.
They have two sons-Frederick, 11, and
Edwin, 9. The Air Force major's last
assignment was as instructor at the Aero-
space Research Pilot School at Edwards
Air Force Base, Calif.




1tq '

k r

Neil A. Armstrong, 32, was born in Wapa-
koneta, Ohio. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 165 pounds, and has blond hair
and blue eyes. The son of Mr. and Mrs.
Sterber Armstrong of Wapakoneta, he is
married to the former Janet Elizabeth
Shearon of Chicago, 111. They have one son,
Eric, 5. His last assignment was as NASA
test pilot on the X-15 program at Edwards
Air Force Base, Calif.





*k 4

Classroom activities were part of the
astronauts' training before they took to
the jungle in pairs to test their abilities.
Here tropical water animal species they
might encounter are identified by instructor
H. Morgan Smith.

John Herschel Glenn, Jr., 41, was born in
Cambridge, Ohio. He is 5 feet 10 inches
tall, weighs 168 pounds, and has green
eyes and red hair. He is the son of Mr.
and Mrs. John Glenn of New Concord,
Ohio, and his wife is the former Anna
Margaret Castor of New Concord. They
have two children, John David and Carolyn
Ann. A lieutenant colonel in the Marine
Corps, he has been awarded the Distin-
guished Flying Cross five times and holds
the Air Medal with 18 clusters. He was
pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 6 three-orbit
space flight February 20, 1962.

M. Scott Carpenter, 38, was born in
Boulder, Colo. He is 5 feet 10% inches tall,
weighs 155 pounds, and has green eyes and
brown hair. His wife is the former Rene
Louise Price of Clinton, Iowa. They have
four children-Mark Scott, Royn Jay,
Kristen Elaine, and Candace Noxon. He
is a lieutenant commander in the Navy.
Carpenter was the pilot of the Mercury-
Atlas orbital flight May 24, 1962. He com-
pleted a successful three-orbit space flight

Charles Conrad, Jr., 32, was born in Phila-
delphia, Pa. He is 5 feet 6 inches tall,
weighs 138 pounds, and has blond hair
and blue eyes. The son of Charles Conrad,
Sarasota, Fla., and Mrs. Frances V.
Sargent, Haverford, Pa., he is married to
the former Jane DuBose of San Antonio,
Tex. They have four sons-Pete, 8, Thomas,
6, Andrew, 4, and Christopher, 2. He is
a Navy lieutenant and his last assign-
ment was as safety officer for Fighter
Squadron 96.

Astronaut James Lovell watches a boa
constrictor, one of the jungle hazards
included in the indoctrination.

Leroy Gordon Cooper, 36, was born in
Shawnee, Okla. He is 5 feet 9 inches tall,
weighs 150 pounds, and has blue eyes and
brown hair. His mother, Mrs. Leroy G.
Cooper, lives in Carbondale, Colo. His
father, who died in 1960, was a colonel
in the Air Force. Cooper's wife is the
former Trudy Olson of Seattle, Wash. They
have two daughters. Camala K. and
Janita L. He is a major in the Air Force.
Cooper completed a successful 22-orbit
mission May 16, 1963, traveling 575,000
miles, or more than enough for a round
trip to the moon.

Virgil Ivan Grissom, 37, was born in
Mitchell, Ind. He is 5 feet 7 inches tall,
weighs 150 pounds, and has brown eyes
and brown hair. His parents are Mr. and
Mrs. Dennis D. Grissom of Mitchell. His
wife is the former Betty L. Moore, also of
Mitchell. They have two sons, Scott and
Mark. A major in the Air Force, he holds
the Distinguished Flying Cross and Air
Medal with cluster. Grissom made a sub-
orbital space flight down the Atlantic range
from Cape Canaveral July 21, 1961.


AIR FORCE CREWMEN of the U.S. Air Forces
Southern Command are called upon to fly, as a
matter of routine, over some of the most rugged
country in the world; their air routes take them
across mountain ranges, over broad lakes and
streams, tropical rainforests and thick jungle, and
arid wasteland.
The nature of these airmen's mission always
presents the possibility that any of these airmen
could find himself on the ground and afoot in the
wilderness, with the problem of surviving following
a successful forced landing.
To teach these aircrew members of the U.S.
military services survival methods under all types
of circumstances, the U.S. Air Force operates the
Tropic Survival School at Albrook Air Force Base.
At the school, headed by a veteran anthropolo-
gist, 5 days of lessons begin with emergency proce-
dures for crash landing, ditching, and bailout and
use of the survival equipment each plane carries,
ranging from life vests and rafts to flashlights and
signalling mirrors.
Students then progress to the study of survival
techniques, learning what plant and animal life is

poisonous and which edible, how to erect shelters
of natural products, techniques of survival medi-
cine, and how to meet the people who inhabit
the undeveloped and primitive regions of Latin
A small zoo of animals to be found in Latin
America serves as an invaluable training aid for
this part of the course.
When the student has been taught how to survive
after he is forced down, he then learns how to travel
over any type of terrain whether lowlands, jungle,
cloud forest, mangrove, secondary growth, or
desert, so that he can make his own way back to
civilization, if searchers fail to locate him.
The course culminates in an exercise under "field
conditions," so that each student can practice the
techniques he has learned in classes, building traps
and shelters, constructing rafts and hammocks, and
making an overland trek.
Graduation day finds each student prepared for
survival in the Amazon jungles and rivers and
equally prepared to survive in the freezing cold,
waterless highlands of the Altiplano.

James A. Lovell, Jr., 34, was born in Cleve-
land, Ohio. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 165 pounds, and has blue eyes and
blond hair. He is the son of Mrs. Blanch
Lovell, Edgewater Beach, Fla., and his
wife is the former Marilyn Lillie Gerlach
of Milwaukee, Wis. They have three
children-Barbara Lynn, 9, James Arthur,
7, and Susan Kay, 4. A Navy lieutenant
commander, his last assignment was as
flight instructor and safety officer with VF
101 at the Naval Air Station, Oceana, Va.

. t

James A. McDivitt, 33, was born in
Chicago, Ill., the son of Mr. and Mrs.
James McDivitt of Jackson, Mich. He is
5 feet 11 inches tall, weighs 155 pounds,
and has brown hair and blue eyes. He is
married to the former Patricia Ann Haas
of Cleveland, Ohio, and they have three
children-Michael, 5, Ann Lynn, 4, and
Patric W., 2. An Air Force captain, his
last duty assignment was as experimental
flight test officer at Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif.

Astronaut Walter Schirra takes a piece of
wild pork from roasting stick, part of a
jungle meal.

Walter Marty Schirra, Jr., 40, was born
in Hackensack, N.J. He is 5 feet 10 inches
tall, weighs 170 pounds, and has brown
hair and brown eyes. His parents are Mr.
and Mrs. Walter M. Schirra of Honolulu,
Hawaii, where his father is a civil engineer
with the Air Force. His wife is the former
Josephine C. Fraser of Seattle, Wash. They
have two children, Walter III and Suzanne.
Schirra, a commander in the Navy, holds
the Distinguished Flying Cross and two
Air Medals. He completed a successful
six-orbit flight October 3, 1962.

A I16

Elliot M. See, Jr., 35, was born in Dallas,
Tex. He is 5 feet 8 inches tall, weighs 150
pounds and has brown hair and blue eyes.
He is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Elliot See
of Dallas. His wife is the former Marilyn
Jane Denahy of Georgetown, Ohio. They
have two daughters, Sally, 6, and Carolyn,
5, and a son, David, 1. His last assignment
was as an experimental test pilot for
General Electric Co. at Edwards, Calif.

Astronaut Edward White accepts a piece
of the heart of a palm tree from an Air
Force instructor as part of a jungle meal.

Alan B. Shepard, Jr., 39, was born in East
Derry, N.H. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 160 pounds, and has blue eyes and
brown hair. His parents are Colonel and
Mrs. Alan B. Shepard of East Derry, his
father being a retired Army officer. His
wife is the former Louise Brewer of
Kennett Square, Pa. They have two daugh-
ters, Juliana and Laura. Shepard is a com-
mander in the Navy. He was the pilot for
the United States' first manned space
flight, sub-orbital, down the Atlantic range
May 5, 1961.

Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, 39, was born
in Sparta, Wis. He is 5 feet 10% inches tall,
weighs 160 pounds, and has blue eyes and
brown hair. His parents are Mr. and Mrs.
Charles S. Slayton of Sparta. His wife
is the former Marjorie Lunney of Los
Angeles, Calif. They have one son, Kent.
Slayton is a major in the Air Force. Slayton
was to have been pilot for the mission later
assigned to Astronaut Carpenter when a
heart condition prevented Slayton's making
the flight.


Astronaut Scott Carpenter in foreground
prepares to taste items on the menu for
a jungle meal-including wild deer, wild
pork, iguana (lizard), yucca, plantain, and
taro root.

Edward H. White H, was born in San
Antonio, Tex. He is 5 feet 11 inches tall,
weighs 171 pounds, and has auburn hair
and brown eyes. The son of Major General
and Mrs. Edward H. White of St. Peters-
burg, Fla., he is married to the former
Patricia Eileen Finegan of Washington,
D.C. They have two children-Edward, 9,
and Bonnie Lynn, 6. The Air Force
captain's last assignment was as an experi-
mental test pilot at Wright-Patterson Air
Force Base, Ohio.

Thomas P. Stafford, 32, was born in
Weatherford, Okla., the son of Mrs. Mary
Ellen Crabtree of Weatherford. He is 6 feet
tall, weighs 170 pounds, and has black
hair and blue eyes. He is married to the
former Faye Laverne Shoemaker, also of
Weatherford. They have two daughters-
Dianne, 8, and Karen, 5. An Air Force
captain, his last assignment was at the
USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School at
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

Some of the astronauts and members of the official NASA party had time before they left the Isthmus to go sightseeing, including a visit
to Miraflores Locks. Here they're briefed on the locks controls by Frank Azchrraga, third from left, of the Canal Zone Guide Service.

An informal picture of Astronauts Neil
Armstrong, foreground, and John Glenn,
in the lobby of the Tivoli Guest House.
At left is Holda Sanchez of the Canal Zone
Guide Service, one of a group of guides on
hand to help during the press conference
which followed the training session.

John W. Young, 32, was born in San Fran-
cisco, Calif. He is 5 feet 9 inches tall,
weighs 168 pounds, and has brown hair
and green eyes. He is the son of William
H. Young of Orlando, Fla. His wife is the
former Barbara Vincent White of Savan-
nah, Ga. They have two children-Sandra,
5, and John, 3. The Navy lieutenant com-
mander's last assignment was with Fighter
Squadron 143 at Miramar Naval Air
Station, San Diego, Calif.

- ;


C. M. Holcomb, leader, lock operator,
electrician, at Miraflores Locks, examines
one of the motors which actuate indicators
showing position of miter gates, valves,
and water level in locks chambers. These
motors purr quietly beneath the table top
of the locks control board.

From this...

WIDE MODERN use of selsyn (self
synchronizing) electric motors can be
traced back directly to original equip-
ment installations for the Panama Canal,
one of the earliest, if not the earliest,
major uses of such motors. The Canal
selsyn systems still are in operation to
remotely indicate the position of lock
gates and other machinery.
Modern versions of these selsyn
motors, many in miniaturized form, are
used to indicate landing gear and flap
positions for aircraft, and by several
manufacturers for elevator control. Use
for Navy fire control, a function they
still have, dates back to World War I.
The selsyn motor was invented about
1908 or 1910 by A. E. Bailey, Jr., for
remote indicator measurement of water
level, according to historical data of
the General Electric Co.'s Specialty
Motor Department and recollections of
some of the senior members of the
Selsyn motors are used on Canal
machinery which may be stopped at
intermediate points of travel: machinery
to move miter gates, rising stem
valves, and to indicate water level in
locks chambers. They make possible
synchronous indicator systems.
A complete synchronous indicator
consists of a transmitter motor at the
machine in the lock wall and a receiver,
or "slave," motor at the switchboard in
the control house. Transmitter and
receiver are identical. From equidistant
points on the winding of the trans-


matter, lead wires run to similar points
on the winding of the receiver. Part of
the transmitter motor revolves or moves
with the machine to which it is attached.
As it revolves, the current sent to the
receiver causes its moving part to
revolve to the same angular position.
This moving part of the receiver, known
as the rotor, is geared to a pointer, or
small model of the locks machine, or to
some other indicating device, which it
The present motors for control house
indicators are smaller than the original
ones, which were 71/4 inches in diameter.
Those now in use measure only about
5 inches in diameter and weigh only
about half as much. The original motors
were replaced during the change from
25-cycle to 60-cycle current completed
in 1958.
Indicators are used for all machinery
operated from the control house, to
show the operator the position of each
machine at all times. In the case of some
machines, operation of a motor lasts
only a few seconds, and indication of
the position of the machine is given by
simple means of red and green lights.
Such machines are the cylindrical
valves and auxiliary culvert valves. It is
never expected, in normal operation, to
stop these machines at any intermediate
point in their travel. Only the completed
operation is indicated by the red and
green lights.
General Electric was awarded the
construction days contract for central-

To this

These are some of the indicators atop the
control boards operated by the motors. A
pair of rising stem valves is represented by
the double faced index in the foreground,
with horizontal lines to mark the quarter,
half, and three-quarter openings. The
tallest instruments show level of the water
in the various chambers.

... for these

ized interlocking controls for locks oper-
ation on the assertion of one of its
engineers, Edward M. Hewlett, that he
could make the system work. But it
hadn't been devised yet when the
contract was awarded.
Hewlett consulted with the engineer
of a firm that made interlocking rail-
road switch devices, to obtain a bid on
that part of the work. He was told that
he was suggesting something that "can't
be done at the price you require."
Weeks of reading, designing, and
experimenting by Hewlett followed.
Within 6 months he had a working
model of the indicating system and the
interlocking system, the ones that were
accepted, operating when the Canal
opened, and have remained basically
unchanged ever since.

One of the latest type miniaturized selsyn-
type motors used to indicate landing gear
and wing flap positions in civilian, com-
mercial, and military aircraft.







con d Indice general, y al principio de cada Tomo el Indice
S) L' efpci~dltaiteos,qaeconueie.
. 'TOMO PRIMERO. ...-,

____ _ 4

EL MIrid PoI Ivm as PasnLs, Aho de a681.

Title page of an old Spanish law book, one of a set dating back nearly three centuries.

WAS THE MOON full at the time
Morgan attacked Old Panama?
What does the word "maru" mean?
Many of the Japanese ships that transit
the Canal carry the word "maru" as part
of the name.
When was the Hotel Washington, on
the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, built
and opened?
These are just three of the some
15,000 reference and research questions
asked yearly at the Canal Zone Library.
About 1,000 questions a month is the
average in the Main Library, Ancon,
and some 60 percent of that number
represent official queries.
Mrs. Beverly C. Williams is chief
reference librarian. Official questions,
research questions, Panama Collection
questions, and any others that require
extensive research come to her desk.
Mrs. Catherine Brown serves as
assistant reference librarian, Mrs. Alice
Turner and Mrs. Verna Winstead are
relief reference librarians.
The Canal Zone Library has been
answering questions for almost half a
century. It was established August 24,
1914, by Colonel Goethals as the official
technical reference library for the Pan-
ama Canal organization. Public library
services were added later, but the prin-
cipal mission of the Reference Librarian
still is to answer reference or research
questions of the Canal organization.
One of the oldest, and most interest-
ing, of the books with which the re-
search librarian may work is a four-
volume set of old Spanish law books,
"Recopilaci6n de Leyes de los Reynos
de las Indias," a compilation of laws
printed in Madrid, Spain, in 1681 by
order of His Catholic Majesty King
Carlos II. The books were presented to

18 JULY 5, 1963

the Canal Zone Library by Frank H.
Wang, who before his retirement was
adviser to the Canal Zone Governor.
The volumes are of handmade watered
paper, bound in skin, with hinges and
lacings of leather. Pages are adorned
with ornamental initial letters, charac-
teristic of early handwritten and printed

Mrs. Beverly C. Williams, chief reference
librarian, at left uses a microfilm reader
which projects reproductions of pages of
newspapers onto a screen on which they
may easily be read in the search for
reference data.

And at right she inspects one of the library's
many maps. These maps date back to
1453, with one a copy on linen of a map
now in the British Museum. There are a
number of other original drawings, some
from the archives of French construction
days, others reportedly made by Colom-
bian and Venezuelan Jesuit priests.

Maru? According to Japanese-speak-
ing people in Panama, the word means
round, or complete, or perfect. One of
the Canal Zone librarians, by chance,
found this quotation in a novel she was
"Castles were called that in the old
feudal days . because they were
complete in themselves. So is a ship
at sea."

Official services of the Canal Zone
Library reference staff are available
from 7:15 a.m. to 4:15 p.m., weekdays,
and non-official reference service is
available from 9:30 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.,
on Monday through Fridays. Refer-
ence assistance also is available on
Anyone with a question is welcome
to bring it to the Canal Zone Library
research staff.
The reference service, besides satis-
fying the requirements of the Panama
Canal organization, lends assistance to
other U.S. agencies on the Isthmus
including the Armed Forces and the
State Department, and extends non-
official service to employees of the U.S.
Government and families and other
residents of the Isthmus.
The Canal Zone Library assumes the
auxiliary role of elementary, junior high,
high school, and college library in its
considerable service to students and
teachers. The reference service is avail-
able in the branch libraries of the Canal
Zone, as well as the Main Library, and
branch librarians and attendants in cir-
culating libraries refer questions to the
reference librarian.

Despite the fact that the books are
nearing the three-century mark they
still may be consulted in the course of
research work, as many of the laws
they contain have been applicable in
The Canal Zone Library contains
approximately 200,000 items, including
about 135,000 books, as well as docu-
ments, pamphlets, bound and unbound
magazines, maps, prints, and manu-
scripts. Besides this material, the refer-
ence librarian has a type of working
reference file. Since the first reference
librarian was assigned to the Canal
Zone Library, each has contributed to
this file. Here are to be found the refer-
ence librarians' own notes on difficult
and unusual questions that have been
asked-and answered. These touch on
subjects that would not show up in
a card catalog, like the question on
whether the moon was full at the time
Morgan attacked Old Panama.
The answer to that, by the way, is
that quite likely the moon was full, for
the attack came in January 1671. A
study of phases of the moon of that
date indicated a full moon was due.

Mrs. Alice Turner, left, assistant reference librarian, and Mrs. Verna Winstead, general
services librarian and relief reference librarian.



50 year c4go
PLANS for a tunnel for a Canal crossing
after its completion were abandoned
because of cost. A tunnel in the vicinity
of Paraiso Junction had been con-
sidered. A committee was appointed to
study the possibility of utilizing car
floats as a means of communication
between the east and west banks after
removal of the dike at Gamboa.
Resignation of Maurice H. Thatcher
as a member of the Isthmian Canal
Commission and head of the Depart-
ment of Civil Administration, was
forwarded to Washington, to take
effect August 8.
Slides in the Culebra Cut section
became unusually active. Since Feb-
ruary 5, when a major break occurred,
there had been five different move-
ments, each of which upheaved the
bottom of the Canal, destroyed con-
struction tracks, and, in some cases,
damaged equipment.

25 Year A4o
A 1-YEAR-OLD cabin boy was on the
crew roster of the Scandinavian motor-
vessel Rena, which transited the Canal
en route from Manila to New Orleans.
His father was master of the ship, his
mother signed on as stewardess and
another of their sons, 7 years old, also
was carried as a cabin boy.
Work was nearing completion on the
Bald Rock Lighthouse, to replace the
Bona Island light, long known as the
last Panama Canal lighthouse south-
ward. The new light is across a 150-foot
channel from Bona Island. Engineers,
mechanics, and others at work on
the new light were conveyed by the
lighthouse tender Favorite.
A Navy Department report to the
House Merchant Marine Committee






opposed construction of a Nicaraguan
canal, recommending further study of
the billion-dollar project. Commerce
and War Department and Federal
Maritime Commission spokesmen were
quoted as voicing similar attitudes.

10 yearJ c4go
faires of the French Embassy in Pan-
ama, planted the first hibiscus in a
hedge at the old cemetery at Paraiso
where a number of Frenchmen who
died during the Canal construction era
are buried. The cemetery had been
cleared of undergrowth and the hedge
planting was part of the work toward
making it a memorial to the French
contribution to construction of the
A copy of the film "Operation Door-
step," showing a recent atomic explo-
sion and its effect on two houses during
tests in Nevada, was received for show-
ing at a series of Civil Defense town
Main offices of the Locks Division
were transferred from the Administra-
tion Building back to the former
headquarters at Pedro Miguel Locks.

One year c4[o
PASSENGERS disembarking from the
New Zealand liner Rangitiki were
among the first Canal Zone visitors
arriving by ship to be greeted by
members of the new Canal Zone Guide
An earthquake rated as Force IV in
intensity shook the Balboa Heights
Administration Building. Center of the
quake was some 110 miles southwest of
Balboa, off the Cape Mala area. No
damage was reported.


'63 '62 '63 '62 '63 '62
198 205 19 10 123 29
1266(36) 1231 88(9) 50 2761 7182
() Locks Overhaul Injuries Included in total.


EMPLOYEES who retired in May, with
their positions at time of retirement
and years of Canal service:
Amariz Camarena, Carpenter, Terminals
Division, Atlantic Side; 13 years, 11
months, 12 days.
Alexander Centeno, Scrap Materials Sorter,
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 31 years,
4 days.
Cristino Chifundo, Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 16 years, 8 months,
22 days.
Wilbur J. Dockery, Lead Foreman (Fuel
Operations) Terminals Division, Atlantic
Side; 34 years, 8 months, 27 days.
James D. Dunaway, Finance Branch Super-
intendent, Postal Division, Pacific Side;
29 years, 1 month, 28 days.
Cyril L. Edghill, Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion Atlantic Side; 44 years, 8 months,
21 days.
Rupert R. Foster, Leader Flame Cutter,
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 33 years,
5 months, 11 days.
Jonathan Harris, Cargo Marker, Terminals
Division, Atlantic Side; 16 years, 8
months, 13 days.
Leon V. Heim, Customs Inspector, Cus-
toms Division, Atlantic Side; 15 years,
8 months, 29 days.
Arthur J. Hunter, Bookbinder, Printing
Plant, Atlantic Side; 37 years, 4 months,
6 days.
James R. Johnston, Supervisory Operating
Accountant, Accounting Division, Pacific
Side; 29 years, 4 months, 27 days.
Albert King, Leader Seaman, Navigation
Division, Atlantic Side; 23 years, 15
John D. Lowe, General Foreman (Dock-
ing and Undocking), Navigation Divi-
sion Atlantic Side; 12 years, 4 months,
29 days.
Mrs. Marguerite Maphis, Appointment
Clerk, Personnel Bureau; 19 years, 1
month, 18 days.
Thomas Marial, Guard, Terminals Divi-
sion, Atlantic Side; 37 years, 7 months,
10 days.
Lyle B. Morau, Police Sergeant, Police
Division, Pacific Side; 18 years, 3
months, 24 days.
Frederick O. Roland, Senior High School
Teacher, Division of Schools, Atlantic
Side; 23 years, 5 months, 7 days.
Walter T. Schapow, Leader Machinist,
Industrial Division, Pacific Side; 26
years, 9 months, 5 days.
Robert J. Sieler, Window Clerk, Postal
Division, Pacific Side; 11 years, 8
months, 3 days.
Channan Singh, Stevedore, Terminals
Division, Atlantic Side; 33 years, 6
months, 18 days.
Freddie S. Southerland, Police Station
Clerk, Police Division, Pacific Side;
23 years, 9 months, 1 day.
Miss Emily M. Thomas, Presser (Garment),
Supply Division, Pacific Side; 21 years,
9 months, 17 days.
Leonard A. Thompson, Stevedore, Ter-
minals Division, Atlantic Side; 15 years,
11 months, 24 days.
Robert Van Wagner, Chief, Employee
Services Branch, Personnel Bureau; 24
years, 4 months, 15 days.
Joel Williams, Fork Lift Operator, Ter-
minals Division, Atlantic Side; 43 years,
28 days.

JULY 5, 1963

(On the basis of total Federal Service)

Anthony J. Ku .
Leader Joine
William S. Wals on
Operator, Dipper D
Marco Adonia
Helper Electrician
Robert Bennett

Ignatious F. Prince

Leonard Wolford
Supervisory Marine Traffic

r ter
Ripton lyn
Helpe G eral)

automotive Equipment
Horace Lewis
Cargo Checker

William J. Monzon
Customs Inspector
Herbert L. Clark

Patrick A. Alexis
Helper Central Office
B. A. Beluche
Surveying Technician
Douglas Kelly
Oiler (Floating Plant-Boom)
Isaiah MacFarlane
Rafael Rodriguez M.
Hiram L. Smith

Ram6n G. Caballero
Nursing Assistant
(Medicine and Surgery)
Nina I. Mitchell
Nursing Assistant
(Medicine and Surgery)
Valentin Navarro
D. C. Samaniego
Medical Technician


Joseph M. Bateman
Leader Lock Operator
Victor H. May Jr.
Marine Trafic Controller
Rex Victor Sellens
Leader Lock Operator
Rafael Alvarenga
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Jos6 A. Avalos
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Matilde BeltrAn
f-~9Cer Lock Opeor

Ferdinand L. Laurie
Helper Lock Operator
Aurelio Newball
Manuel S. Ponce
Leader Maintenanceman
Pablo Ramos
Sydney J. Richardson
Line Handler (Deckhand)
Joaquin P. Ruiz
Seaman (Launch)
Zephaniah E. Scott
Line Handler (Deckhand)

Asia L. Bennett
Utility Worker
Alice A. Bonnick
Sales Section Head
Eldica Cumberbatch
Assistant Baker
Jos6 A. Del Cid
Laborer (Heavy)
George L. Douglas
Truck Driver
Mildred R. Henry
Grocery Attendant
Clinton A. Lewis
Milk Plant Worker
Hasborn J. Lindo
Maud Irene Lynch
Stock Control Clerk
Joseph Rankin
Ivy Sealey
Grocery Attendant
Prince A. Spencer
Retail Store Supervisor

Margaret M. Dietz
Accounting Clerk
F. P. McLaughlin, Jr.
Leader Liquid Fuels
Alphonso Bell
Oscar A. Lowe
Leader Stevedore (Dock)
Marcelino Morales
Boiler Tender
Leopoldo A. Murillo
Line Handler



EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between May 5 and June 5 (within-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed):

Ivan D. Hilliard, Supervisory Security
Specialist (General) (Assistant Chief of
Internal Security), to Security Officer
(Assistant Chief of Internal Security).
Frank Wilder, Security Specialist(General),
to Security Specialist.
Reinaldo P6rez, Messenger, to Messenger
(Motor Vehicle Operator).
Carol L. Vidaurri, Substitute Teacher, Di-
vision of Schools, to Clerk-Translator.
Howard J. Toland, Police Private, to Po-
lice Sergeant, Police Division.
Carlos A. Diaz, Truck Driver, Dredging
Division, to Detention Guard, Police
Frank Berry, Fire Protection Inspector, to
Fire Sergeant, Fire Division.
Marguerite G. Arens, Clerical Assistant, to
Administrative Services Assistant, Canal
Zone Library.
Customs Division
Daniel L. Jenkins, Police Private, Police
Division, to Customs Guard.
Joseph F. Dolan, Charles R. Soukup, Cus-
toms Guard, to Contraband Control
Division of Schools
Lucile E. Torstenson, Substitute Teacher,
to Teacher (Elementary-U.S. Schools).
Ariosto E. Ardila, Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Teacher
(Senior High-Latin American Schools).
Wilfred E. Layne, Substitute Teacher, Lat-
in American Schools, to Senior High
Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Alcides Bernal, Charlotte A. Toussaint,
Substitute Teacher, U. S. Schools, to
Secondary Teacher, Latin American
Allan B. Forte, Jr., Part-time Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Secondary
Teacher, Latin American Schools.
Col6n Guardia, Sergio A. Ruiz, Luis P.
Sealy, Julio C. Sinclair, Substitute
Teacher, Latin American Schools, to
Secondary Teacher, Latin American
Annette P. C6rodova, Millicent F. For-
cheney, Juan Phillips, Luis P. Sealy,
Substitute Teacher, Latin American
Schools, to Junior High Teacher, Latin
American Schools.
Bridget A. Hogan, Alba E. Sosa, Shailer
J. Yearwood, Substitute Teacher, Latin
American Schools, to Teacher (Elemen-
tary-Latin American Schools).
Yuda Morhaim, Thelma E. Osorio, Sub-
stitute Teacher, Latin American Schools,
to Part-time Teacher, Latin American
Ivonne M. Frederick, Constance A. Gallop,
Substitute Teacher, Latin American
Schools, to Elementary Teacher, Latin
American Schools.

Electrical Division
Lester H. Fennel, Meteorologist (General)
to Meteorologist (Climatology).
Lucio G6ndola, Seaman, Dredging Divi-
sion, to Maintenanceman.
Claude S. Brathwaite, Jr., Laborer
(Cleaner) and Waiter (Special) to
Laborer (Heavy) and Waiter (Special).
Dredging Division
Charles J. Connor, Mate, Dipper Dredge,
to Master, Drill Barge.
Conrad L. Jarvis, Laborer (Heavy) to
Vilando B. Wynter, Helper Rigger, Indus-
trial Division, to Laborer (Heavy).
George Parris, Scrap Materials Sorter,
Supply Division, to Helper (General).
Engineering Division
Numan H. Vasquez, Electrical Engineer
Equipment) to Electrical Engineer
(Power Systems).
Manuel Lopez, Engineering Technician
(Electrical) to Electrical Engineering
Ricardo A. Young, Cartographic Compila-
tion Aid, to Surveying Technician.
Julio Jiminez, Truck Driver, to Messenger
(Motor Vehicle Operator).
Maintenance Division
Richard E. Parker, Engineman (Hoisting
and Portable) to Leader Engineman
(Hoisting and Portable).
Clarence W. Dougherty, Towing Loco-
motive Operator, Locks Division, to
Engineman (Hoisting and Portable).
Harold A. Walker, Oiler, to Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Plant Operator.
Osvaldo ArAuz, Helper Sheetmetal Worker
to Roofer.
Gilberto Budil, Truck Driver to Roofer.
Henry G. Fergus, Helper Machinist (Main-
tenance) to Oiler.
Nicomedes Hidalgo, Laborer to Asphalt or
Cement Worker.
Jos6 F. Flores, Laborer to Helper Machinist
Joseph E. Brown, Laborer to Laborer
James D. Maloney, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Mary B. Egolf, Clerk-Stenographer to
Secretary (Stenography), Office of the
Pedro P6rez, Stockman, Supply Division,
to Storekeeping Clerk, Coco Solo Hos-
Gorgas Hospital
Mary F. Rose, Staff Nurse (Surgery) to
Head Nurse (Surgery).
Charlene C. Johnson, Dental Assistant
(Restorative) to Dental Assistant (Gen-
Jos6 A. Matos, Truck Driver to Medical
Aid (Ambulance).
Division of Veterinary Medicine
Dr. Louis Fink, Dr. Kenneth C. Zimmer-
man, Veterinarian (Public Health) to

Dr. Robert D. Wallace, Veterinarian (Clini-
cal) to Veterinarian.
Dr. Nathan B. Gale, Jr., Veterinarian
(Laboratory) to Veterinarian.
Division of Preventive Medicine
and Quarantine
Adele V. Argo, Staff Nurse (Obstetrics),
Coco Solo Hospital, to Head Nurse
Maxine G. Davis, Clerk-Typist, from Locks
Division of Sanitation
Adal S. Dawes, Laborer, Maintenance
Division, to Laborer (Heavy Pest Con-
Navigation Division
Ivan N. Hardy, Seaman to Leader Seaman.
Oscar A. Jones, Line Handler (Deckhand)
to Seaman.
Gordon L. Mesquita, Laborer (Cleaner) to
Line Handler (Deckhand).
Damiin Gill, Jr., Counterman, Supply
Division, to Laborer (Heavy).
Earl W. Worrell, Clerk-Typist, Mainte-
nance Division, to Clerk.
Rupert L. Neblett, Arlington A. Petro,
Clerk-Typist to Clerk.
Industrial Division
Walter G. Brown, Inspector (Scales and
Oil Meters) to Leader Machinist.
Joseph F. Green, Domingo D. Hinds,
Robert E. Holland, John L. Irwin, Gust
E. Rosene, Shift Engineer (Mechanical),
Electrical Division, to Machinist (Ma-
Candelario Pineda, Leader Painter (Main-
tenance) to Painter.
Owen E. Christbpher, Painter (Mainte-
nance) to Leader Painter (Maintenance).
Roberto Carrasco, Scrap Bailing Machine
Operator, Supply Division, to Helper
Guillermo Villarreal, Laborer (Heavy),
Supply Division, to Painter (Maiite-
Herman Brown, Helper Rigger to Crane
Juan Garcs, Helper Lock Operator to
Helper (General).
Gladstone E. Casis, Vincent C. Lahley,
Robert A. Lord, Hugh L. Reid, Clerk
to Timekeeper.
Locks Division
Denton W. Broad, Daniel P. Kiley, Nils W.
Jonsop, Control House Operator to
General Foreman (Lock Operations).
Robert V. Dean, Leader Lock Operator
(Electrician) to Control House Operator.
Elbert T. Chappell, Jr., Welder, Mainte-
nance Division, to Welder.
Edward B. House, Liquid Fuels Gager,
Terminals Division, to Guard.
Rowland R. Hayward, Guard to Towing
Locomotive Operator.
James A. Jones, Marcos F. Rueda, Painter
to Leader Painter.
Adolphus A. Stewart, Carpenter (Mainte-
nance) to Carpenter.
Cayetano De Hoyos, Marcos Smith, Line
Handler to Helper Lock Operator.

JULY 5, 1963

Donald J. Bowen, Supervisory Accountant
to Supervisory Operating Accountant
(Chief, Agents Accounts Branch), Ac-
counting Division.
Supply Division
John P. Corrigan III, Supervisory Storage
Officer, Storehouse Branch, to Merchan-
dise Management Officer (Housewares),
Office of General Maneger.
Robert C. Meehan, Assistant Retail Store
Manager, Office of General Manager, to
Supervisory Storage Officer, Storehouse
Edward L. Lowe, Retail Store Manage-
ment to Cafeteria Manager.
Rae N. Ebdon, Transportation Loss and
Damage Claims Examiner to Accounting
Margaret M. Larrison, Sales Clerk to
Voucher Examiner.
Winston M. Haye, Leader High Lift Truck
Operator to Supervisory Storekeeping
John H. Francis, Clerk to Accounting
Alfred A. Robinson, Utility Worker to
Christiana Cragwell, Bus Boy to Sales
Carlton Dawkins, Laborer (Heavy) to
Sislin Lindsay, Presser (Flatwork) to Presser
Community Services Division
Norman N. Bonnick, Lead Foreman
(Grounds) to General Foreman (Grounds).
Roderick L. Hart, Mail and File Clerk to
Edward B. Webster, Accounting Assistant
to Housing Project Assistant.
Barbara Berkowitz, Clerk-Stenographer to
Clerical Assistant (Stenography), Water
Transportation Division, New Orleans,
Terminals Division
Donald C. Parker, Robert H. Rathgeber,
Liquid Fuels Dispatcher to Lead Fore-
man (Fuel Operations).
Cedric F. Gittens, Clerk-Typist to Per-
sonnel Clerk (General; Typing).
Te6filo Bryan, Seaman, Dredging Division,
to Guard.

He Made Changes
(Continued from p. 8)
spent Christmas Eve calling on those
on duty in order to offer his personal
greetings and good wishes of the season.
Numerous complimentary letters
have been received by him from ship
operators, attesting to their apprecia-
tion of the Canal's efforts to serve them.
One recent example, from Ralph B.
Dewey, president of the Pacific Amer-
ican Steamship Association, is typical:
"My short stay in Panama renewed
once again my high regard for the fine
job that not only your office but the

F6lix P. Baltodano, Santiago Castillo, Celio
Cedefio, Eduardo L6pez, Joseph Price,
Florentino Sanchez, Juan A. Vega, Dock
Worker to Stevedore.
Harry Gaile, Dock Worker to Carpenter
Alfred Davidson, Glenn H. Durant, Carl
R. Kinsman, Calvin A. Phillips, Santiago
Sanguill6n, Gerald A. Small, Clemente
E. Stevens, Cargo Marker to Clerk
Hurut Sheldon, Frederick R. White, Utility
Worker, Supply Division, to Cargo
Roberto N. Hall, Frances A. Jolliffe, Utility
Worker, Supply Division, to Cargo
Carlos Grenald, Waiter, Supply Division,
to Helper Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Railroad Division
Ralph L. Davis, Yard Conductor and Road
Conductor, to Yard Conductor and Road
Conductor and Train Dispatcher.

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
William E. LeBrun Supervisory Personnel
Security Specialist, Internal Security
Horace F. Jenner, Merchandise Manage-
ment Officer (Housewares), Supply Divi-
sion, Office of General Manager.
Robert J. Saarinen, Assistant Guest House
Manager, Supply Division, Service
Center Branch.
Gerald H. Halsall, Housing Project Assist-
ant, Community Services Division.
Mazie C. Schwarzrock, Interpreter (Stenog-
raphy), Internal Security Office.
Dorothy H. Benny, Office Services Super-
visor (Typing), Engineering Division.
Betty M. Ragthgeber, File Clerk, Internal
Security Office.
Alice M. Turner, Verna S. Winstead, Li-
brarian, Canal Zone Library.
Dora M. McIlhenny, Library Assistant,
Canal Zone Library.
Eugene L. Buonviri, Irma V. Pasco, Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting
Lloyd E. White, Clerk, Industrial Division.
John Lawrence, Clerk, Maintenance Divi-
Luis Fierro, Surveying Aid, Engineering
Juan GonzAlez, Charles M. Inniss, Time-
keeper, Industrial Division.
Norma M. Jones, Pauline S. Landers, Card
Punch Operator, Accounting Division.

entire Canal management has done in
the matter of vessel dispatch. It is really
an eye-opener to learn the story at
first hand."
What has driven him to the often fre-
netic activity which has characterized
him as Marine Director?
"I prefer working to loafing," he says
with his hearty, good-natured laugh.
"This Canal was built to serve ships and
you can't serve ships on an 8-hour
day and a 5-day week. The shipping
business just doesn't operate that way.
And since I'm of the world of ships,
neither do I."

Some of the equipment behind the reli-
ability of navigational aids lights. At left is
a 4-lamp automatic bulb changer. Center,
foreground, is a motor-driven electric
flasher, and at right is a transistor operated
flasher. In the rear is an 8-lamp automatic
bulb changer, being used experimentally.

Mid-Point in Canal
(Continued from p. 5)
with carboloy inserts and actually
drilled into the rock 8 to 10 feet by
use of a barge-mounted rotary drill
machine. The pipe is reinforced with
steel rails and filled with concrete after
Nearly half of the approximately 50
wooden pile beacons have been re-
placed in this manner since 1960. Instal-
lation cost of a steel beacon is about
$1,500 and estimated life is at least
20 years.
Wooden beacon installation cost
is approximately $3,000 and life
expectancy only 10 years.
Some buoys and beacons bear frac-
tional numbers, such as 60 and even
60%. These are supplementary aids
installed in critical areas at the request
of the Marine Bureau where single
devices have been found inadequate.
The red glass in the red lights absorbs
approximately 60 percent of the light,
resulting in a reduction of nearly 20
percent in visibility distance for them,
compared with white lights of the same
power. Even the red buoy and beacon
minimum visibility distance in clear
weather, however, is 5 miles.
A unit of the Dredging Division since
1957, the Aids to Navigation Section
now has 82 employees engaged full
time on aids work and 30 employees
making up crews and work parties on
floating equipment who are diverted
part time from dredging work for sea



Little, But Lively
ONE OF THE best customers the
Panama Canal has these days is the
little 183-foot tanker Seatown which
transits northbound one day and south-
bound the next with the regularity of
a ferryboat. Since June 14, 1962, when
the ship started the Atlantic to Pacific
run, the Seatown has made nearly 100
transits. During May, the schedule was
stepped up and the Seatown made 25
transits in that one month. The little
tanker is, without a doubt, one of the
most likely candidates for the best cus-
tomer of the year plaque awarded
annually by the Panama Canal.
Not only does the tanker go through
the Canal more than any other ship,
she gets preferred treatment when she
is carrying high test gasoline. This
means she is on a clear cut preference
list on an equal basis with her 650-foot
super sisters.
The Seatown works for the Panama
Refining Co. and loads oil and other
petroleum products at Las Minas: Bay
for delivery to Balboa. She has a length
of 183 feet and a Panama Canal net
tonnage of 357 tons. This means that
she pays about $240 in tolls when she
is in ballast and about $320 when she
is loaded.

Tanker "Seatown."


1963 1962
Commercial.............. 988 984
U.S. Government .......... 24 16
Free .................... 8 11
Total............. 1,020 1,011
Commercial.... $4,993,868 $5,124,471
U.S. Government 117,173 95,265
Total.... $5,111,041 $5,219,736
Commercial.... 5,722,332 6,057,628
U.S. Government 91,452 126,131
Free.......... 49,264 58,341
Total.... 5,863,048 6,242,100
.Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
SCargo figures are in long tons.

New Panama Flag Ship
A FAMOUS old troop ship, which made
a number of trips through the Canal
during the last war, is now flying the
Panama flag. She is the former Noor-
dam, a 10,000-ton passenger freight
vessel, sold recently to the Cielomar
Shipping Co. of Panama by the Holland
America Line. During World War II,
the Noordam carried more than 70,000
allied troops and equipment. Recently
together with the Westerdam, she has
maintained direct service between Rot-
terdam and New York fof 150 pas-
sengers and about 7,500 tons of cargo.

New Chinese Freighter
THE MV Oriental Venus, built in
France and delivered recently for serv-
ice with the Orient Overseas Line, Inc.,
made her maiden voyage through the
Canal in May on her way to Formosa.
Wilford & McKay, agents for the line,
say she will join other vessels on the
/Far East-New York run and will make
regular trips through the Canal in the
S The new Chinese freighter, which
flies the Liberian flag, has a hold
capacity of 837,880 cubic feet and
17,660 cubic feet for refrigerated cargo.
In addition, she has accommodations
for 12 passengers in air conditioned
quarters; a deluxe suite, dining salon,
smoking room, library, bar, cafeteria,
and a winter garden with oriental



JULY 5, 1963

Cargo Record
A RECORD CARGO of coal and a near
record for cargo of any type was carried
southbound through the Canal in May
by the collier Nagano. The ship carried
45,809 long tons of coal loaded in
Hampton Roads where this was re-
ported to be a new peak figure for a
single-ship cargo of coal. The loading
required 815 railroad cars, which form
a train more than 6 miles long-a record
for the Norfolk & Western Railway, too.
The Nagano, 757 feet long and with
a 102-foot beam, was on her maiden
voyage to Japan with high grade metal-
lurgical coal for the Fuji Iron & Steel
Co.. She is owned by Oswego Ocean
Carriers, Ltd., is operated by the Marine
Transport Lines, Inc., and is under
Liberian registry. Wilford & McKay,
agents for the ship at the Canal, say
that the ship is expected to return the
middle of July from Peru, where she
is to pick up a cargo of iron ore for
Baltimore. If she takes advantage of
the Panama Canal allowable draft of
37 feet, the Nagano is capable of carry-
ing more than 51,000 long tons of cargo
through the Canal.

Seaborne Salt
ANY CARGO can be carried in bulk
these days, it seems-even salt. The
53,090 deadweight ton Argyll, the
world's largest salt carrier, is expected
to make a trip through the Canal some-
time in August. Although the big ship
was designed to carry salt from Mexico
to the Pacific Northwest, she can be
used for carrying other dry bulk cargoes
such as ore, coal, and grain. Oil could
be carried in the tanks normally used
for ballast.
The ship is equipped with self
unloading equipment which operates
with twin grab bucket, traveling crane,
and conveyer belt system mounted on
the main deck. The bridge is placed
right forward and the main engine aft,
with holds and cargo handling equip-
ment between. With the exception of
the former Sinclair Petrolore, the Argyll,
with a beam of 106 feet, will be one of
the widest ships ever to have transited
the Canal.

Date Due

Due Returned Due Returned

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