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Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Table of Contents
Back Cover 1
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries
PANAMA N CANAL
IN THIS ISSUE
. -- --" . -
L- a- -
I_ -_. --------- -- -. ..
-lr~ -a ---
-a- --u --r~*
, I-- a--~
ROBERT J. FLEMING, JR., Governor-President
W. P. LEBER, Lieutenant Governor
FRANK A. BALDWIN Oficial Panama Canal Publication Editorial Assistants
ma Canal Information Officer Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. EUNC RICHARD, TOBI BITrEL, and TOMAS A. CUPAS
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers. Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
"Sweeping" the Canal ----------_
Successful Suggesters_------ ______
Honor for Professors -----------
The Inter-American Highway - -
W/ho?. . Ie? . .
Promotions and Transfers
OF COURSE I'm going to the Carnival. Isn't everyone?
Carnival merrymakers probably could get along
without me and my kind, but it wouldn't be the same.
We're the spirit and symbols of gaiety, music, song,
and laughter, serpentine-wrapped and confetti-sprinkled.
Carnival, Mardi Gras, Saturnalia, Fasching, Fastnacht
S. .by whatever name such celebrations are known, they
date back to earliest history, are found in all civilizations,
all cultures. For centuries and centuries they've been
annual events to free mankind from cares of daily chores,
open avenues of mirth, mummery, dancing, singing.
Illusion becomes reality, dreams materialize, sorrow,
and worries are forbidden. Through King Momo in
Panama there reign 4 days dedicated to fuller enjoyment
of life. 1 tIglikhr, and, we're told, even some kisses.
The days of Carnival are historically for relief from
the workaday world's weights so all may return to
normal duties with renewed vigor, refreshed hope, and
Canal Traffic, Transits, Trade -
ABOUT OUR FRONT COVER: Its water, he's perched
on an outrigger, and he has a line-but that isn't a new
type lure on it. It's a gadget devised to double check on
sonar devices used to inspect the bottom of the Canal
channel, electronically, for "lumps" or obstructions.
Manning the line is John Flynn, member of the technical
crew of the motor launch Shad of the Surveys Branch.
For more information on their work, see page 5.
FEBRUARY 1, 1963
JOSEPH CONNOR, Acting Press Officer
ROBERT D. KERR and JULIO E. BRICENO
IT'S CARNIVAL time in Panama once
again, and polleras and montunos, cos-
tumes and floats are being readied for
the festivities which this year start
Saturday, February 23, and close at
dawn Ash Wednesday, February 27.
While the Carnival celebration is
scheduled for the latter part of Feb-
ruary, the traditional music of Carnival
has been heard in Panama and in the
Canal Zone since the first days of
January. The first Carnival flag was
raised in Panama City on January 5 and
in the Canal Zone on January 9.
The Canal Zone Atlantic side Carnival
flag raising took place January 26, in
The Paraiso and Santa Cruz com-
munities raised the 1963 Carnival flag
People, people, people .
January 18, the first ceremony taking
place in Paraiso, followed by the Santa
Cruz flag raising.
In Rainbow City, the Carnival flag
went up on January 26.
An unusual note was introduced in
the Carnival flag raising ceremony at
Palo Seco Leprosarium on January 18.
The two queens who officiated are
mother and daughter. The 1962 Palo
Seco Carnival Queen, Angela Calder6n,
is the mother of the 1963 Palo Seco
Carnival Queen, Zenaida Avila.
Throughout January beautiful candi-
dates for Carnival Queen competed
for the coveted crown to be worn by
the representative of each respective
community and each social center.
Coronation Day for the Pacific Side
Colorfully bedecked floats bedecked with beauties, too.
. testimonial to measures of merriment.
Canal Zone Carnival Queen will be
February 15 and a Coronation Ball will
be held at the Tivoli Guest House on
The Atlantic side Carnival Queen will
be crowned on Washington's Birthday,
February 22, at the Breakers Club, and
the Coronation Ball will follow the
Saturday, February 23, will be a busy
day for the Panama City Queen, whose
coronation will take place in the Olym-
pic Stadium, Panama City. During the
day, she will receive an official greeting
from Panama's Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and will be received in audience
by the President of the Republic of
Panama. The Pacific Side Canal Zone
Carnival Queen, the Queen of the
Chinese colony in Panama, and other
Queens will be received by Panama's
President at the same time.
Immediately afterward, Panama City's
Mayor will present the Queens the
"Keys to the City of Panama."
The night will be filled with music
and gaiety, with dances in all the hotels,
and social centers, in the open air dance
pavilions, and in clubs.
Traditional Pollera Day will be
Sunday, February 24, when the Pacific
Side Carnival Queen, accompanied by
King Momo and all the court, will
parade through the Canal Zone and
Panama, up to the Panama Golf Club,
where a dance will be held, attended
also by all the other Carnival Queens
and their courts.
The Carnival Classic is scheduled to
(See p. 4)
(Continued from p. 3)
be held at the Rem6n Race Track in
Panama City Sunday afternoon. All the
Carnival Queens will be honored.
All during Sunday afternoon un-
official parades will be held on the
streets and roads of Panama City, with
groups dressed in Panama's pollera and
montuno winding in and out in a gay
kaleidoscopic scene of color and gaiety.
Pollera Day's events will close with a
dance at the Panama Architects' and
Carnival Monday will be sprinkled
with confetti and looped with serpen-
tine from the "battles" by Carnival
merrymakers up and down Central
and other streets of Panama City.
The Canal Zone Queen on the Pacific
Side will make a tour of her domain
that evening, visiting clubs, hotels, and
social centers, impartially spreading the
music and color of Carnival through
civilian and military communities. She
also x ill attend the Carnival masque-
rade ball at the Panama Hilton Hotel,
where the Panama City Queen will
receive visiting royalty. The Canal Zone
Pacific Side Queen will be joined there
by the Chinese Colony Queen, and other
reigning beauties of the 1963 Carnival.
The climax of Carnival in Panama,
the most important day of all, is Car-
nival Tuesday, when the traditional
parade of floats is held in the afternoon.
Each Carnival Queen and her court
will ride on a gaily decorated float. The
Queens' bands of musicians and march-
ing bands will fill the air with melody,
while the groups of masqueraders will
compete for the prizes offered for the
most original, gayest, and noisiest.
The ascending note of gaiety reaches
a climax in the early hours of Ash Wed-
nesday mor "when it's so late it almost
seems early." The dance music changes
into a funeral march. Pallbearers carry
tiny coffins, in each of which lies a fish,
at the head of a candlelighted parade
that winds through the city's streets.
Now and then recalcitrant merrymakers
may burst into gaiety, but the majority,
bearing lighted candles, pretend to
weep at the sad end of Carnival,
although certain that it will be reborn
once again in another 11 months.
When the rosy fingers of dawn sweep
back the curtains of night, the merry-
makers abandon their masquerade,
dress once more in their everyday cos-
tumes and once again appear as serious
The rlli'.ii, go to church, before
taking up their everyday affairs, and
another Panama Carnival becomes a
] ..' in history.
Governor Fleming chats with the Reverend Juan D. Iriarte, center, Director of Colegio
Javier, and the Reverend Jesuis Hergueta, principal of the primary school, during last
year's Javier Fair.
Javier Fair Feb. 2-10
APPROXIMATELY 50,000 persons are
expected to visit the Javier Fair,
6th annual commercial, industrial, and
electrical exposition, to open at 7 p.m.,
Saturday, February 2, at the Colegio
Javier, Panama City.
Panama's Minister of Agriculture,
Commerce, and Industry, Dr. Felipe
Juan Escobar, will officially open the
Fair, which will continue through
A number of Zonians will be among
those attending and the Panama Canal
will participate officially, having re-
served space in front of the swimming
pool and at the very entrance to the
About 50 local industries and com-
mercial concerns are taking part in this
year's Fair, and Colegio Javier students
will have displays of their own crafts
work and animals stuffed and mounted
by biology students.
February 3 will be "Friendship Day"
at the Fair in honor of the Canal Zone.
The Panama Canal exhibit stall will
feature a Selectrovision display, pictures
of Canal operations and points of in-
terest, models, and organ music by
Frank Azc~rraga, a member of the Canal
Zone Guide Service and well-known
There will be a change of Fair
piogr im every night. President Roberto
F. Chiari will declare the Fair closed
on the final day and Canal Zone Gov-
ernor Fleming is among the dignitaries
invited to attend the exposition.
The Fair hours will be 4 p.m. until
midnight daily. Admission is 15 cents,
with a $1 ticket also available and valid
for all 9 days of the exposition.
Fair days themes are:
February 2-Typical Motif Day,
honoring the Minister of Agriculture,
Commerce, and Industry of Panama.
February 3-Friendship Day, honor-
ing the Canal Zone.
February 4-Panama City High
February 5-Jewish Night.
February 6-Spanish Night.
February 7-Gala Night.
February 8-Chinese Night.
February 9-Carnival Junta's Night.
February 10-Fair Closing Night.
Entertainment will include Spanish
dances, folk dancing, Jewish dances,
and a horse show by Fort Kobbe riders.
Colegio Javier is a Jesuit school for
boys, kindergarten through high school,
with an enrollment near 1,000. The Fair
is being held to raise funds with which
to complete construction of a $200,000
-\mr and a $150,000 church for the
school. Graduates from the school
receive diplomas as bachelor of science,
letters, and philosophy.
FEBRUARY 1, 1963
All set, after only 5 minutes of preparation, and ready to go. The survey boat Shad prepares
to leave the dock in the early pre-dawn on its way to patrol the Canal channel bottom
between Gamboa and Pedro Miguel.
Before the Shad moves away from the dock
in Gamboa, an electronic "fish" is moved
out into place at the end of the outrigger.
A similar device is directly underneath the
boat and a third one on an outrigger on
the other side of the boat. With outriggers
spread, the sonar devices "sweep" a 40-foot
path. All three are 2 feet under the water
surface. The pointed object at bottom of
picture is one of the submerged "fish."
Armando de Sedda, foreground, and Ray-
mond Kielhofer, two of the trained cartog-
raphers aboard the survey boat Shad, check
recorder charts showing depth of the Canal
ANY MORNING at the crack of dawn,
early birds, worms, and any others in
the vicinity of Caillard Cut are likely
to find the Panama Canal motor launch
Shad making a patrol of this narrow part
of the Canal.
Festooned with red lights and decked
with red flags, the Shad moves up the
channel like a bloodhound following a
trail. It sniffs cautiously along the
channel centerline at about 8 knots, and
in sections where dredges have been at
work during the night, the launch circles
back, crosses the centerline, checks any
questionable area of the channel and
A group of serious men bend over a
battery of electronic machines as the
craft proceeds down the Cut from
Gamboa to Pedro Miguel. Two out-
rigger devices extend from port and star-
board, thus accurately covering a width
of 40 feet, and a gasoline-operated gen-
erator, providing power for the delicate
machines, chugs away at the stern.
The men aboard the U.S.S. Shad are
not out fishing-nor are they looking for
gold. They are employees of the Hydro-
graphic Section of the Panama Canal
Surveys Branch checking the bottom of
Gaillard Cut for obstacles, "lumps," or
any other obstructions which might be
a hazard for shipping.
The "lumps" may simply be small
heaps of silt kicked up by deep draft
ships' propellor action. Or they could
be rock upheavals or drop-ins.
The dawn patrol is a daily operation
carried out by Canal engineers and
the Marine Bureau to provide the
safest possible conditions through the
waterway for world shipping.
The morning investigation with elec-
tronic devices was started early in the
1940's under supervision of the Chief
of the Hydrographic Section.
In former years, when few ships
passed through the Cut at night and
before extensive work of Cut widening
started, the task of checking the Canal
channel for obstructions was done with
a simple pipe drag at a known depth
if inspection of the banks indicated that
there had been some movement during
With the beginning of Cut widening
and the marked drop in lake level
because of increased ship traffic and
reduced water supply during the dry
season, the problem of obstructions in
the Cut became more serious.
The daily patrol now is conducted
with a launch fitted with three trans-
ducers or sonar devices, called "fish,"
which extend 2 feet below the water
surface and send electronic signals on
depth of the channel back to three
recorders installed inside the launch.
Each recorder is operated by a tech-
nician who watches it closely. Any
lumps rising above the safe depth of
42 feet below the surface are reported
immediately to the Dredging Division.
Accuracy of the work requires close
cycle control on power generation, con-
trolled to not more that two tenths of
a cycle variation from the 60 cycles
One morning recently, when lake
level was slightly below 87 feet, the
highest lump encountered was 45 feet
below the water surface.
When an area needing immediate
attention is discovered, an emergency
call is made to the Dredging Division,
Port Captains at Cristobal and Balboa
are alerted, and reports made to the
Marine Director and Director of
Engineering and Construction.
The Dredging Division goes into
action first with a dredge to remove
(See p. 11)
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Annual recognition for the top award under the Panama Canal
Incentive Awards Program for 1962 brought gold watches to three
men, supplementing cash awards. Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr.,
is shown presenting the watches to (left to right): Cyrus W. Field,
Owen J. Corrigan, and Ray M. Smith.
SHARING top honors in the 1962
Panama Canal Incentive Awards Pro-
gram were three Industrial Division
employees: Cyrus W. Field, Ray M.
Smith, and Owen J. Corrigan. They
received $260 each for devising a new
and more economical procedure for
fabrication of 28-inch pontoon pipes,
adoption of the suggestion resulting in
estimated average annual savings of
Besides the savings, technical im-
provement and increase of productivity,
side effects were generated improving
Industrial Division shop efficiency and
thereby providing craftsmen for other
Other top 1962 suggesters were:
Roy R. Burgener, Electrical Division,
with a $375 supplemental award for
conversion of microwave impulse re-
peaters for telephone circuits;
Vincent Biava, Dredging Division,
$250, for a new method for recondi-
tioning countershafts and bearings on
the dipper dredges;
Herman H. Keepers, Dredging Divi-
sion, $225. for a way to remachine and
adapt acetylene gas sun switches to
These three ideas, besides netting the
suggesters extra folding money, repre-
sent an estimated total savings of
$15,000 per year in Canal operations.
In all, there were 57 incentive award
winners in 1962. Their ideas on new and
improved methods, product betterment
and savings in manpower, material and
time, and reduction of safety hazards
brought them more than $3,200 and are
expected to improve the Canal opera-
tion's financial status by more than
$52,000 a year.
Eighteen of the incentive awards
winners were Marine Bureau employees,
10 from the Engineering and Construc-
tion Bureau and 5 or more each from
the Civil Affairs Bureau, Supply and
Community Service Bureau, Health
Bureau and staff units.
"If each individual uses his imagina-
tion in a search for improvements, we
will draw on vast resources that will
bring fresh water to the well of prog-
ress," declared President John F. Ken-
nedy in a recent statement on vital
values in suggestion systems.
"To maintain our forward pace," he
said, "it is imperative that we have a
steady flow of constructive ideas di-
rected at all of our problems, large and
small, ranging from those needing the
attention of scholars and experts to those
needing the day-to-day knowledge of
the man on the job."
Here, scholars, experts, and men and
women on the job, were the other 1962
PanCanal incentive awards winners:
Ethel W. Brown, $25, Weekly flier for dry
Richard A. McClean and William T. Lyons,
$25 each, Radio telephone handset
John Chandler, Jr., $15, Messenger bags
Frank V. Kerley, $15, Thatcher Ferry
Russell A. Weade, 235, Lights on Las
Frank R. Costanzo, S2'. Uniform clothing
for Canal seaman and Locks Division
Paul Badonsky, $15, Handbag hooks on
John M. Klasovsky, $50, Cathodic Protec-
tion for miter gates.
John M. Klasovsky and C. V. Scheidegg,
$15 each, Locks divers safety.
Raymond L. Whitney, $15, Safety for
visitors at Miraflores Locks.
Everett White, $15, Uniform headgear.
Carlos Melhndez and Eliot J. Brathwaite,
$12.50 each, Fire extinguishers on locks
Raymond J. Dixon, $15, Phone number
Earl R. Boland, $25, Bulkhead sheathing.
Henry Heppenheimer and Richard F. Pen-
nington, $40 each, Redesign of welder.
Thomas V. Frost, $45, Improved balancing
Carl H. Starke, $125, 28-inch dredge pipe.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
Russell T. Wise, $25, Littering highways.
Contract and Inspection Division
Shirley Finlason, $125, Routine letters to
Delmas A. Swafford, $25, Littering high-
Owen W. Smith and George P. Fullman,
$15 each, Safety switch.
John W. Acker, $25, Abrasive wheels.
FEBRUARY 1, 1963
Roderick N. Macdonald, $15, Nonskid
material for ladders.
De Leon Tschumy and William I. Hollo-
well, $40 each, floculator drive chain and
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Calvin Shepherd, $20, Emergency light.
Evelyn H. Howell, $15, Pencil stubs.
Russell E. Oberholtzer, $25, School bus
Anthony Malagutti, $20, Traffic regulations.
Morris E. Cherry, $15, Water.
John Kozar, $25, Sanitary protection for
Joseph L. Sestito, $20, Box rent cards.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Cyrus A. Morris, $15 each, Improvement
of IBM room and substitution on form.
Warren D. Marquard, $100, Stock control.
Ashton D. Worrell, $15, Unloading ramp.
Eugene A. Johnson, $15, Accident protec-
George E. Shoemaker, $15, Self-checking
Margaret C. Yerkes, $25, Littering high-
Coco Solo Hospital
Alfredo Archibald, $20, Glo-colored vest.
Fred L. Workman, $25, Anti-panic lights
Earl L. McClean, $15, Bags.
Luis E. Wong, $25, Gamboa dispensary.
Mabelle B. Walker, Administrative Branch,
$15, Decals of Canal Zone seal.
Joyce H. Boatwright, Executive Planning,
$15, Cafeteria conveniences.
Maria Hernindez, Office of the Governor,
$15, Pictures of governors in rotunda.
Eloise Smith, Office of the Secretary, $15,
Standard hole punching.
Henry M. Winter, Safety Branch, $15,
Soap tissues in first aid kits.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Chris E. Haywood, $15, Gasoline station
Arthur B. Rigby, $15, Safety hazard at
Joe R. Sanders, $25, Man overboard
Nina J. Jenkins, $20, Handling of national
Carlos M. Garcia de Paredes, $15, Index to
new book titles.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Helen T. Kat, $20, Labor distribution.
Faculty members of the Canal Zone Junior College pictured above are, front row, left to
right: Subert Turbyfill, Mrs. Mary Journeay, Dr. Dorothy Moody, Miss Margaret Gately,
and Kenneth Vinton; second row: Shephard Clark, Morris Finkelstein, Charles R. Bowen,
DeWitt Myers, Dr. Kenneth Lake, and Donald Musselman; back row: Dr. James Johnson,
Dr. Charles L. Latimer, Jr., Dean of the College, and Clarence Vosburgh. (Photo by
FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE FACULTY:
THE CANAL ZONE Junior College
has a distinction shared by only a
handful of colleges and universities:
Every full-time instructor has been
accepted for membership in the Amer-
ican Association of University Pro-
fessors. Few institutions share this
distinction, as requirements for AAUP
membership demand at least a mas-
ter's degree plus 3 years of teaching
experience at the college level.
The 100 percent acceptance is unique
evidence of the training of the faculty
members and also is recognition of the
high standards of selection for teachers
in the Canal Zone Junior College.
C.Z.J.C. has been accepted by the
American Association of Junior Colleges
since shortly after its establishment
almost 30 years ago. It was fully accred-
ited by the Middle States Association
of Colleges and Secondary Schools more
than 20 years ago. This latest honors
listing with the American Association of
University Professors stands as a third
type of recognition.
The association, a national ethical and
professional organization for teachers in
higher education, corresponds to the
American Medical Association for doc-
tors and to the American Bar Associa-
tion for lawyers. It is the recognized
national professional organization for
For some years a few of the faculty
members of the junior college have
been accepted as members of the
AAUP. Last March a Canal Zone
Chapter of the association was officially
launched when Lt. Gov. W. P. Leber
presented the charter from the national
organization. Officers of the Canal Zone
Chapter are: Mr. Turbyfill, president;
Mr. Bowen, vice president; and Miss
The national association has head-
quarters in Washington, D.C. It is a
constituent member of the American
Council on Education and member of
the International Association of Univer-
sity Professors and Lecturers. Indepen-
dently and in cooperation with other
organizations, it has sought the formula-
tion, recognition, and observances of
principles and practices necessary to the
free quest for knowledge.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
1 "-? EVERY MONTH the Inter-American
^ > r^ Highway from Texas to the Canal moves
S 'o sa' w a notch nearer the goal: a hard-topped,
S, "' two-lane 3,142-mile road all the way
through Middle America.
Last fall, the U.S. Congress allocated
,' $32 million to be matched with $16
< I l 9 M million pledged by Guatemala, Nicara-
-A gua, Costa Rica, and Panama for com-
.. pYL 0* pleting some sections and paving others
.. rso to provide an all-weather road.
Year-round access already is an
accomplished fact. Some links are rough
and unpaved. Others are subject to
VED ROAD-CONRETE slides. Along some stretches vehicles
m mm IN coNSTRUCTI o travel by roads that will not be the
SIECT route of the finished highway.
SThe U.S. Bureau of Public Roads has
o. provided technical guidance for the
S, entire Inter-American project.
0 c/fOco One of the most troublesome links
put through in recent years was that in
Motorists entering Panama find a paved highway and beautiful new bridges from the Paso Costa Rica near the Panama border.
de Canoa frontier point to the town of Concepcion and on beyond the city of David in
Chiriqui Province. In the Puerto Escondido area, paving is under way, but traffic moves It required 44 modem bridges, includ-
daily. East of this vehicles must swing out to the scenic coast road which will be by-passed ing many with steel-truss spans. As late
when the shorter, official route is finished. At Santiago, concrete starts again, stretches as last May, motorists had to ford 19
all the way to the Canal. rivers. Now all streams are bridged,
either temporarily or permanently. But
an incomplete approach to one bridge
still requires a shallow ford.
Cars from Mexico, Canada, and Cali-
Travelers pause under the fresh-cut scaffolding providing temporary support for one of
the big new concrete-piered bridges in Costa Rica. fornia-to-Vermont have been rolling into
Panama from Costa Rica. They visit
tourist sites in the Interior and the
terminal cities, and on the Canal
Zone. Some motorists head straight for
Miraflores Locks on arrival.
Many Canal people already have
driven over all of the road or parts of
it, and others plan to do so.
Since 1937, when the "Road to the
States" became a committed project,
Canal employees have been among the
highway's pioneers at road-rut level,
and enthusiastic boosters in the United
States and elsewhere.
The Canal itself has lent encourage-
ment and informal aid to the venture.
Another Zone-based agency has con-
tributed steadily to the physical layout
of the highway. This is the Inter-
American Geodetic Survey, which has
headquarters at Fort Clayton. It is
attached to the U.S. Army Caribbean.
IAGS has made its mapping skills
available when called on to provide
Tn ,.terrain data often useful in the selection
FEBRUARY 1, 1963
of detailed routes, for bridges or road
Here's a profile on what the highway
is like today:
Of Panama's 321-mile stretch from
the capital city to Costa Rica, some 205
miles are paved with concrete. The
paved links on the eastern end are from
Panama City to Santiago, and on the
western end from the Costa Rican
border to a point in the Puerto Escon-
dido area (see map). This leaves, in
the central provinces, somewhat more
than 100 miles of rough-surfaced road
requiring slow vehicle speeds.
Part of the jiggly and often dusty
going follows the route of eventual
paving, but most of it lies along the
winding coastal route of the old National
Highway. This sector now has some
dramatically beautiful lookout points
toward mountains and sea. It will
become a secondary road when the new
and shorter route is built.
Some 28 miles of the new alinement
are neither under construction nor con-
tract. The United States commitment
made last fall included $7.2 million in
matching funds for building this, and
for paving another 35 miles now par-
tially constructed, but not open to
traffic, between Santiago and El Pajal.
The basic United States agreement
with the Central American countries and
Panama was to provide two-thirds of
the cost of a hard-surfaced (black-
In Costa Rica, surfacing with asphalt
will be done on more than 150 miles of
the that country's 410-mile link. About
206 miles already are paved. On the
17-mile section that rises to cross the
12,000-foot pass between San Isidro
General and Cartago, widening and
realinement are necessary, also removal
of slide areas, and stabilization of road-
bed. The United States allotment for
this work is $13.8 million.
In Nicaragua, only a final 28-mile
section remains to be paved of the total
238 miles. United States funds of
$1 million are earmarked.
In Honduras, the entire 97-mile link
is paved. The same is true of El
Salvador's 126 miles of highway.
In Guatemala, some $8.2 million of
the United States allocation will be
spent for 170 miles of roadwork. Most
of this will go into the 95 miles between
the Mexican border and San Cristobal.
In the past, this sector often has been
closed by slides. Work will involve
removing these, building revetments,
base construction, widening, and
eventual paving. Currently some 158
miles of Guatemala's 313-mile road are
11 0. .i .I .
k f' ILF I 'i I 4 I A
M.. ... .
Spanning the Rio Chiriqui Viejo is this new 4-span structure which is one of the first
bridges crossed by tourists who enter Panama from Costa Rica.
Mexico has built all of her road
without foreign aid. Only some 60 miles
of the total 1,587-mile stretch between
Guatemala and Laredo, Tex., are not
black-topped or concrete.
Hotels, pensions, or motels are ade-
quate or better throughout Mexico
and in capital cities along the route.
Motorists are cautioned not to try to
make the trip too fast. And regardless
of maps, it is wise to check on local
conditions with the tourist commission
in each country visited-before any trip.
To the east of the Canal lies the last
uncut area dividing the road systems of
North and South America. This is the
Darien Gap in eastern Panama and
western Colombia, through which no
traffic can pass.
The United States has appropriated
$2 million of the $3 million cost of a
detailed engineering survey on which
the route most desirable for such a road
may be based, and to determine cost es-
timates. Preliminary studies reportedly
are to start this year.
No funds have been appropriated to
build roadways to span this approxima-
tely 450-mile gap through mountains
and river-slashed jungles. At rough pre-
liminary estimate, $100 million would
be required to do so.
To underline the usability of the
Inter-American Highway from the
Canal to the continental United States,
it is planned to assemble a bus motor-
cade in Panama in mid-April to trans-
port officials, businessmen, and others
along the road as far as Mexico City.
From there, the group is expected to
travel by plane to Detroit, New York,
and other centers before going to Wash-
ington for the ninth Pan American Road
In good weather the Rio Corredo, in Costa Rica not far from the Panama border, is shallow
enough to be forded. But a year-round all weather crossing for the Inter-American Highway
required a steel-truss structure on foundations sturdy enough to withstand the freshets
that sweep down from the Talamanca Range.
1 ~ c- I*
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
EMPLOYEES promoted or transferred
between December 5 and January 5 are
listed here. Within-grade promotions
and job reclassifications are not listed.
Mercedes T. Palomeras, Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, from Balboa Bridge Project.
Stephen W. Thorne, Title Printer to Leader
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Henry C. DeRaps, Police Sergeant, Class 3,
to Police Sergeant, Class 4.
Emmett A. Collins, Police Private to Police
Sergeant, Class 3.
Division of Schools
Lucile G. Feeney, Substitute Teacher to
Elementary and Secondary School
Wilfred G. Earle, Leader Heavy Laborer
to Leader Maintenanceman.
Stanley M. Hawkins, Roy Fleming, Leader
Laborer Cleaner to Lead Foreman
NicolAs Barria, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
John B. Corliss, Jr., Electrician to Test
Operator-Foreman (Electrical Power
Jose Dixon, Utility Worker, Supply Divi-
sion, to Helper Electrician.
Scott J. McKay, Chief Engineer, Towboat
or Ferry, Navigation Division, to Chief
Jesse De W. Tate, General Foreman Elec-
trician to Chief Foreman (Electrical
N.\ icrtion Aids).
Howard Green, Leader Navigational Aid
Maintenanceman to Leader Maintenance-
man (Distribution Systems).
LeRoy A. Cooper, Edmond C. Elliot, Clerk-
Typist to Supervisory Timekeeper.
Anderson G. Dow, Clerk to Procurement
Oscar S. Green, Clerk to Property Record
Sidney A. Richards, Harold G. Walkes,
Clerk-Typist to Timekeeper.
Everton R. Archbold, Bertram M. Ramsey,
Homer E. Welsh, Clerk to Timekeeper.
Rudolph A. Richards, Clerk to Launch
Luis G. Fields, Leader (General) to Leader
Maintenanceman (Distribution Systems).
Victoriano Carri6n, Navigational Aid
Worker to Maintenanceman Distribution
Agustin Carrera, Cement Finisher (Lim-
ited), Locks Division, to Cement Finisher.
Aureliano Bejarano, Heavy Laborer to
Dionisio Navas, Laborer Cleaner to Heavy
Dr. Edward W. Healey, Hospital Resident
(2d Year), Gorgas Hospital, to Medical
Officer (General Medicine and Surgery),
Coco Solo Hospital.
Elizabeth M. Hayden, Staff Nurse (Medi-
cine and Surgery), Gorgas Hospital, to
Head Nurse (Psychiatry), Corozal Hos-
Edward T. A. Sterrett, Laborer Cleaner,
Electrical Division, to Nursing Assistant
(Leprosy), Palo Seco Leprosarium.
Andr6s Barria, Laborer (Heavy-Pest Con-
trol), Division of Sanitation, to Animal
Caretaker, Division of Veterinary Medi-
Jorge Torres, Hospital Attendant to Ward
Service Aid, Gorgas Hospital.
Andrew Stohrer, Pilot to Senior Assistant
Captain of the Port.
Kenneth S. Roscoe, Richard C. Sergeant,
Pilot to Assistant Captain of the Port.
Preston M. Trim, Jr., Marine Traffic Con-
troller to Supervisory Marine Traffic
Carlos L. Irumluig, Seaman, from Dredg-
Dixie P. Bender, Towing Locomotive Oper-
ator to Lock Operator (Iron Worker-
George N. Stone, Machinist to Lock Oper-
Bernardino Berrio, Andres Bonilla, Luis A.
De Lo Rios, Melanio Moreno, Painter
(Maintenance) to Painter.
Carlos Ortega, Asphalt or Cement Worker
to Cement Finisher (Limited).
Humberto B. Stelle, Laborer Cleaner, Divi-
sion of Schools, to Line Handler.
Vincent A. Williams, Utility Worker,
Supply Division, to Line Handler.
Nathaniel A. Daley, Foundry Chipper to
Alfred Braithwaite, Laborer Cleaner to
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Diamantina E. Davis, Office Machine Oper-
ator to Bookkeeping Machine Operator,
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Clarence W. Kilbey, Service Center Assist-
ant Superintendent to Service Center
Henry J. Chase, Administrative Officer to
Service Center Assistant Superintendent.
Rutherford P. Rivet, Jr., Guard, Locks Di-
vision, to Service Center Supervisor.
George A. Mercier, Restaurant Manager
(Caterer), to Graduate Intern (Business
Francisco A. Bravo, Clerk to Accounting
Gertrude M. Patten, Clerk-Typist to Clerk.
Clifton O. Bailey, Messenger to Time-
Frederick D. Simmons, Utility Worker to
George M. Weeks, Heavy Laborer to Clerk.
Robert C. Husband, Heavy Laborer to
Stanford M. Clement, Stanley W. Simmons,
Heavy Laborer to Warehouseman.
Ralph E. Holder, High Lift Truck Operator
to Heavy Leader Laborer.
McVin L. Gibbs, Utility Worker to Truck
Phil E. Rowland, Utility Worker to Mes-
Alvin Girdwood Utility Worker to Counter-
Harold C. Blackman, Utility Worker to
Beryl Wright, Counterwoman to Food
Service Sales Checker.
Thelma F. Ward, Counterwoman to Sales
Carlton Dawkins, Waiter to Heavy Laborer.
Byron Dixon, Waiter to Counterman.
Clifford A. Hinds, Bus Boy to Utility
Community Services Division
Concepci6n Barrios, Albert E. Watson,
Lead Foreman (Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator) to Lead Foreman
Darrington A. Moss, Heavy Laborer to
Lead Foreman (Grounds).
Remigio Sanjur, Grounds Maintenance
Equipment Operator to Animal Care-
Florentino Duarte, Gregorio SAnchez,
Laborer to Animal Caretaker.
TRANSPORTATION AND TERMINALS
Glendora A. Dorsey, Cargo Claims Clerk
to Cargo Claims Assistant.
Theodore L. Kaufer, Liquid Fuels Gager
to Leader Liquid Fuels Wharfman.
Joseph F. De Costa, Stevedore to Leader
Teodomiro Erique, Water Service Man to
Leader Line Handler.
Leonard Baldonado, Line Handler to Car-
Oscar Aguilar, Luis C. Mark, Line Handler
Alfonso S. Aribo, Ernest L. Reid, Line
Handler to Water Serviceman.
Aubrey 0. Hall, Vincent J Hall Julio Val-
verde, Dock Worker to Stevedore.
Celestino Ramirez, Dock Worker to Line
Leonard Richard, Utility Worker, Supply
Division, to Cargo Marker.
Napoleon B. Ashby, Service Station Attend-
ant, Supply Division, to Cargo Marker.
Motor Transportation Division
Cleveland H. James, Motor Vehicle Dis-
patcher to Supervisory Motor Vehicle
Antonio Flores, Helper Tire Rebuilder to
OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title:
W. Allen Sanders, Whitney E. Smith, Gen-
eral Attorney, Office of General Counsel.
Lawrence Barca, Jr., General Engineer,
Robert L. Rankin, Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.
10 FEBRUARY 1, 1963
Ethel W. Brown, Statistical Clerk (Stenog-
raphy), Office of the Director, Marine
Doris J. Clendenon, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Dudley G. Jones, Gardener (Management),
Community Services Division.
Elaine E. Heyd, Clerk-Typist, Coco Solo
Ruby C. Smart, Clerk-Typist, Division of
Calvin Thompson, Clerk-Typist, Terminals
Virginia A. Peterson, Clerk-Typist, Com-
munity Services Division.
Stephanie Gordon, Clerk-Typist, Supply
Cynthia Forbes, Clerk-Typist, General
Manager's Office, Supply Division.
Ernesto M. Stewart, Clerk-Typist, Dredg-
Reno G. Patrick, Lifeguard, Division of
Alejandro Gerald, Hector F. H. McCarthy,
Haten C. Springer, Timekeeper, Locks
Alvin L. Cameron, Edwin P. Carson, Carl
DaCosta, Alberto H. Dogue, Cecil J.
Dutton, Herman G. Edwards, William
H. Foster, Aurelio J. Llorach, Pablo E.
Ramos, Randolph F. Simmons, Time-
keeper, Terminals Division.
Facundo Villarreal, Surveying Aid, Engi-
HOW TO DEVELOP
THAT GOOD IDEA
1. Don't try too hard. Don't over-
reach, trying to develop ideas in
areas with which you're unfamiliar.
2. Concentrate on small sugges-
tions. Big ideas are fine, but there
just aren't as many of them. And
smaller awards can count up fast.
3. Don't assume that someone else
has already thought of your idea.
Someone has to be first. Why not
4. Jot down half thought-out ideas,
even if only sketchy notes. Other-
wise you may forget. You can work
out details later.
5. Check out your suggestion
thoroughly, especially if it involves
more than your area. There may be
problems you aren't aware of.
6. Supervisors can help develop
ideas fully. You may have only an
inkling of the scope. Your supervisor
can point out all possibilities.
7. Let your imagination go when
8. Don't be afraid to turn in ideas
that come out of informal group
discussions. You can share the award,
but turn in the ideal
THE PANAA CANAL REVIEW 11
Two members of the survey boat crew lower a 9-foot pipe drag used to test the nature of
any obstruction found. Devices are on board to procure samples of bottom if necessary.
(Continued from p. 5)
the lump. Meanwhile, the obstacle is
reported to pilots guiding ships through
the Canal, and, if necessary, it is marked
with a buoy.
During rainy season, when the level of
Gatun Lake remains high, the morning
patrol from Gamboa to Pedro Miguel
on the centerline usually is sufficient.
In the dry season, when the lake level
is lower, there may be as many as three
or four trips during the day or night
covering the sailing lines on each side
of the channel as well as the area under
Information obtained is telephoned to
the Marine Bureau before shipping
enters the locks, usually at 7 a.m. In
order that the Shad crew can be sure
the recorders report the correct informa-
tion, they are checked out at regular
intervals by means of a strange looking
crow's foot device (see page 1). This
flat metal instrument was developed to
determine the accurate depth recorded
by the transducers. It is lowered to
approximate bottom at a known depth.
If there is a discrepancy, an adjustment
After the regular daily survey is com-
pleted, the men aboard the Shad have
by no means completed their day's
work. They return to the Survey Branch
headquarters at Pedro Miguel and carry
on other routine duties.
The survey boat with its battery of
electronic instruments also is used on
a st.irdb,' basis when there is blasting
in the Cut or when it is necessary to
measure the depth of the bottom of
the channel in any other part of the
Not long ago, the equipment-laden
Shad was taken to Balboa Harbor to
help determine the position of a sand
barge which sank after a collision with
an oil tanker.
The work being done by the Shad is
so important that another Dredging
Division launch is being fitted with
similar equipment and will be used
during busy times as a spare or in
conjunction with the Shad.
50 yea c4go
EXCAVATION FOR THE Atlantic
approach to the Gatun Locks disclosed,
at about 150 feet beyond the lower end
of the locks proper, a sharp dip in the
rock on which the center guide wall was
to rest. It was decided to build the wall
200 feet shorter than was proposed in
the original plans.
Rail traffic problems were of concern
as work progressed on excavation at
the site of Miraflores spillway. In spite
of new trackage, there remained 1,050
feet of single track from the south end
of Miraflores tunnel to Corozal.
Scheduling became a problem, with
approximately 175 trains to pass over
REFTIHRElENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of December to the
employees listed below, with their posi-
tions at the time of retirement and years
of Canal service:
Eduardo Blandon, Stevedore, Terminals
Division; 3 years, 20 days.
Joseph M. Cooke, Supervisory General En-
gineer, Engineering Division; 7 years,
8 months, 9 days.
Felipe M. Divila, Painter, Maintenance
Division; 32 years, 10 months, 16 days.
Ralph Dugan, Jr., Police Private, Police
Division; 16 years, 6 months, 18 days.
Burnett Garero, Heavy Truck Driver, Main-
tenance, Division; 22 years, 10 months,
Alfred R. Graham, Staff Nurse, Medicine
and Surgery, Gorgas Hospital; 18 years,
6 months, 25 days.
Gerald J. Jerome, Leader, Heavy Labor,
Dr,:Ji;rit Division; 46 years, 2 months,
Jose Johnson, Washman, Ancon Laundry;
22 years, 18 days.
Harold Palmer, Clerk Checker, Railroad
Division; 33 years, 2 months, 11 days.
Albert L. Pope, Inspector, Carman, Wood,
and Steel, Railroad Division; 17 years,
1 month, 23 days.
Rudolph W. Rubelli, Pilot, Navigation Di-
vision; 22 years, 6 months, 18 days.
Anthony M. Smith, Extractor and Tumbler-
man, Ancon Laundry; 25 years, 4 months,
Paul S. Stewart, Police Private, Police Divi-
sion; 25 years, 7 months, 6 days.
Joseph C. Stokes, Carman, Wood and Steel,
Railroad Division; 9 years, 1 month,
Jasper Wilmoth, Helper Marine Machinist,
Dredging Division; 21 years, 8 months,
the single track in 10 hours, a rate of
1 in less than 4 minutes. About 80 of
these were dirt trains, the rest passenger
and freight trains.
A train 940 feet long, traveling at
10 miles an hour, took not less than
48 seconds to pass clear of the single
track span, and successive trains in the
same direction could not pass over, with
safe headway, faster than one a minute.
25 year o4go
CANAL ZONE and Panama residents
-2,000 strong-crowded the hangar line
at Albrook Field to witness the history-
making arrival of six new U.S. Army Air
Force B-17 bombers known as "Flying
Fortresses." Under the command of
Lt. Col. Robert Olds, the bombers
were on the last lap of a goodwill flight
to South America which had taken them
to Buenos Aires, Chile, and Peru. They
had made the flight from Lima to Pan-
ama in only 9 hours. The planes re-
mained here 2 days for inspection and
then continued their flight to the U.S.
In Washington, D.C., Adm. William
DuBose, Chief of the Bureau of Naval
Construction, stated that the Panama
Canal could accommodate battleships
up to 60,000 tons, 980 feet in length and
108 feet in beam. He indicated that a
United States fleet powerful enough to
repel simultaneous attacks against both
coasts may be achieved in 7 or 8 years.
Bills providing for widows' annuities
and for 30-year optional retirement for
Panama Canal employees were intro-
duced into the House of Representatives.
In Panama, the Fourth Central Amer-
ican and Caribbean Olympic Games
were held in the newly constructed
10 year c4o
PRICE REDUCTIONS on approxima-
tely 100 food and household items, to
represent an aggregate savings of
$200,000 for customers of the Canal
commissaries during 6 months, were
announced. Egg prices were to be 3 and
4 cents lower per dozen and beef and
sausage products were 1 to 5 cents a
A merger of the Office of the Comp-
troller and the Finance Bureau of the
Canal organization, with two divisions
and four staff groups, was announced.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti, was made a
regular port of call for Panama Line
ships. No change was made on days of
arrival and departure from Cristobal,
but the ships left New York a day earlier
southbound and arrived there a day
later on northbound trips.
One year d4o
An appeal was made to residents of
the Canal Zone to conserve electrical
energy because of the unusually dry
weather and increasingly heavy de-
mands for water for lockages and power
generation. Water levels of Gatun and
Madden Lakes were dropping much
faster than desirable because of dry
weather in the upper river areas
supplying the basin.
The first six new Japanese-built locks
towing locomotives were delivered to
Catun Locks for tests. More than twice
as powerful as the old locomotives, they
also are faster, an important factor in
increasing the number of lockages
possible in a day.
Work on construction of 30 family
units, the first of 119 family quarters
scheduled for Canal Zone Pacific side
communities, was started in Los Rios
Be Careful--Not a Statistic
YEAR TO DATE
FIRST AID HOSPITAL I ,
CASES CASES ABSENT
'62 '61 '62 '61 '62 '61
243 259 9 4 2148 410
2940 3547(699) 128 131(4) 11163 19233(9s)
() Locks Overhaul injuries included in total.
FEBRUARY 1, 1963
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Carl W. Hoffmeyer
Clerk, Mail Handling
Hubert C. A
Alfredo C. C
MARINE B U
Noble A. Phillips
Planner and Estimato
Christian S. Sk
Towing Lo m ator
Charles H. Ar n
OFFICE OF THE
George T. Darnall, Jr.
Valuation Engineer, General
Wilmer L. Downing
Payroll Systems Officer
Richard W. Fuller
AMBwhe General Claims
Donald O. Zobel
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Fitz A. Barnes
Crispin S. Mayers
John H. West
Senior High Teacher, Latin
Leslie 0. Anderson
Clerical Assistant, Typing
Robert H. Elliott
Formula Room Attendant
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
Syble M. Taitt
Pantry Worker, Special Diets
Edna C. Tullis
Nursing Assistant, Medicine
Marquesa H. Francis
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Helper Lock Operator
Vernon A. Charles
Granville E. Downer
Ilper Lock a peor
sn hpC. t
ne an er t
ec can B atswain
elper Lok operator
rrington M s
Helper Lock Operator
Jos6 M. Ozuna
Helper Lock Operator
Helper Lock Operator
Paul H. Zimmerman
Lead Foreman, Marine
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Luis E. Ceballos
Service Center Supervisor
Doris I. Corbin
Maria D. Gil
Hildred G. Gooden
Enid E. Herbert
Hubert G. Hunter
Mary L. John
Emily R. Malcolm
Retail Store Sales Checker
Ella Jean Maynard
Sales Section Head
Myrtle E. Monrose
Stock Control Clerk
Manuel T. Mosquera
Angela L. Price
Herbert W. Rose
Engineer, Locomotive Yard
Edgar C. Erskine
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES
The following table shows the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1963 1962 Transits
United States intercoastal ---- ------------ 101 118 162
East coast of United States and South America --- 621 618 427
East coast of United States and Central America --- 112 88 143
East coast of United States and Far East -------- 531 621 257
United States/Canada east coast and Australasia ---- 81 68 55
Europe and west coast of United States/Canada.. - 232 234 160
Europe and South America ------ ------------ 300 272 116
Europe and Australasia ------ -------------- 92 92 80
All other routes ---- _------------------- 683 653 374
Total traffic------- ------- 2,753 2,764 1,774
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 tons net or over
Gross Tolls *
MonTransits (In thousands of dollars)
Month Avg. No. Average
1963 1962 Transits 1963 1962 Tolls
July 1962- - - - 978 931 557 $4,980 $4,776 $2,432
August- ------ -- 950 934 554 4,926 4,749 2,403
September--_------ 909 892 570 4,617 4,523 2,431
October-- ------- 882 935 607 4,411 4,646 2,559
November- -- -- -- 924 891 568 4,684 4,443 2,361
December -------- 947 938 599 4,983 4,870 2,545
January 1963 ----- 580 2,444
February -__--- 559 2,349
March ----- 632 2,657
April___- __--- 608 2,588
May--- -- 629 2.672
June - - - - 599 2.52
6 months 5,590 5.521 3.455 $2S 601 28 K:n)17 $14,731
Fiscal year_ 11,149 7,062 I $57,290 $29,969
SBefore deduction of any operating expenses.
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1963 1962 1951-55
Number Tons i Number Tons Average Average
of of of of number tons
transits cargo transits cargo transits of cargo
British- ---- - 308 2,117,230 316 1,915,980 301 1,874,647
Chilean - - 31 174,882 38 2SR 785 11 66,740
Chinese- - -- 24 185,755 21 171 821 6 38,938
Colombian - 63 91,331 69 110,841 38 46,028
Danish-- _- 72 397,934 84 372,067 58 213,240
Ecuadoran --.. 16 12,890 13 16,367 36 24,934
French -------.--- 37 189,364 33 236,800 33 147,569
German- ---_- 280 1,000,528 261 764,020 44 92,509
Greek- - -- 122 1,180,611 197 1,828,709 26 219,932
Honduran .---.. 79 53,146 22 27,757 96 120,854
Israeli- -_ -- 26 57,516 18 103,985
Italian ------ 39 166,776 59 354,089 36 185,937
Japanese ----- 221 1,333,398 211 1,204,759 67 406,764
Liberian------ 192 1,653 114 208 1,688,347 43 260,602
Netherlands --- 169 586.,05 135 741,115 32 151,485
Nicaraguan _-- 16 1S. 58- i 6 4,648
Norwegian __- 366 2, 14,62 366 2,590,858 193 747,864
Panamanian___ 104 452,875 106 491,125 115 604,619
Peruvian------ 17 91,168 28 169,320 7 13,512
Philippine-.... 18 55 3; 21 109,732 5 28.
Swedish --__ 91 534 SF1i 85 440,441 43 175 551
United States -_ 419 2 22 577 426 2,560,797 539 3,225,627
All others..... 43 198,113 47 230,561 39 146,209
Total-- 375 1; 4.S.577 21.7 16.-41r 27 1.774 8.797 124
"United States" Returning
THE HUGE luxury liner United States
will make her second visit to the Canal
February 28 as part of a Caribbean
cruise. The big ship docked in Cristobal
last cruise season without any trouble
and spent the day while her hundreds
of passengers took tours of both sides
of the Isthmus. With her 990-foot
length, the United States takes up most
of one of the Cristobal piers.
Other cruise ships due here in Feb-
ruary are the Homeric of the Home Line
on February 10; the Hanseatic of the
Hamburg Atlantic Line on February 6
and 25; the Bremen of the North
German Line on February 28; and the
Stella Polaris on February 28.
The Canadian Pacific luxury liner
Empress of England arrived for a day's
visit in Cristobal yesterday. This was
the second trip to the Canal for the
Empress of England. The first was made
last year when she was on a Caribbean
cruise similar to the one she is making
New Shipping Service
WITH the inauguration of a new service
of the Columbus Line between Aus-
tralia and the eastern ports of the
United States, a number of new ships
will become regular Canal customers.
According to an announcement made in
New York, the Columbus Line will start
the new service with the sailing of the
Cap Vilano, a fast modern motor vessel,
from New York the middle of February.
The Cap Vilano % ill be followed by
the sailing of its sister ship, the Cap
Norte, 1 month later, followed by the
Cap Frio and then the Cap Blanco. With
these four vessels, the Columbus Line
will offer a monthly sailing.
Too Big For The Canal
A JAPANESE shipbuilding company
recently completed another tanker
which never will be able to transit the
Canal. It is the Nissho Maru, which was
launched last July and started her
maiden voyage to Kuwait in October.
With a deadweight tonnage of more
than 130,000 tons, the ship is the largest
oil tanker in the world and is considered
to be of the maximum possible size for
safe operation at existing terminals. She
is 954 feet long, has a beam of 141 feet,
a gross tonnage of 56,431, and despite
her size, can travel at 16 knots.
14 FEBRUARY 1, 1963
TWO OF THE world's most automated
cargo liners are making regular trips
through the Canal these days on speedy
voyages between Japan, the U.S. west
coast and New York. They are the
Kinkasan Maru and the Kasugasan
Maru, sister ships of the Mitsui Line.
The Kinkasan Maru was built last
year as the world's first automated cargo
liner of her size. The Kasugasan Maru,
which returned through the Canal in
December on the second leg of her
maiden voyage, has automation facilities
which have been developed on a far
wider scale. The ship has full automotive
facilities at all three major systems;
deck, engine, and electric, making it
possible to operate with a crew of fewer
than 35 men.
Both ships have been chopping time
off the run between Japan and New
York and have broken a few records for
this voyage. The United Fruit Co.,
which handles ships of this line, says
that they stop here for bunkers and
sometimes for cargo.
Liners To Be Converted
THE PASSENGER liners Himalaya and
Orcades of the P & O-Orient Lines will
be converted this year into one-class
vessels, according to reports from ship-
ping circles. The Himalaya will make
her first voyage after conversion in
November 1963 and the Orcades early
in 1964. Both passenger liners make
occasional trips through the Canal on
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN DECEMBER
Commercial............... 947 938
U.S. Government.......... 40 8
Total.............. 996 953
Commercial .... $4,984,677 $4,871,708
U.S. Government 194,245 28,487
Total.... $5,178,922 $4,900,195
Commercial.... 5,422,391 5,901,604
U.S. Government 78,760 20,914
Free.......... 39,354 49,576
Total.... 5,540,505 5,972,094
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
**Cargo figures are in long tons.
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year
1963 1962 Transits.
to to Total Total Total
Ocean-going - - - - - - 1,439 1,314 2,753 2,764 1,774
Total commercial-- _--__ ... 1,484 1,357 2,841 2,892 2,041
U.S. Government vessels: *
Ocean-going - - - - - 46 49 95 43 148
Small - - - - - - - 24 15 39 52 71
Total Government _---------- 70 64 134 95 219
Total commercial and U.S. Gov- =
ernment --_ ___ __ 1,554 1,421 2,975 2,987 2,260
"Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
**Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated
ships transited free.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
Pacific to Atlantic
(All cargo figures in long tons)
I Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
Ores, various -----__ _-- __ _- _--_-
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt) --
Wheat- ----___________-___- ___
Sugar- -_----------------- ---___
Canned food products__- - - - -
Nitrate of soda_ __ _ _ _
Fishmeal --_ --- _______________
Metals, various ___--- -____ ______-
Food products in refrigeration (except fresh
Oilseeds and products --------
Iron and steel manufactures ____
Pulpwood and products ---_ _____
All others ___-- ___ ____
Atlantic to Pacific
Petroleum and products (excludes asphalt)_ __
Coal and coke -_-- --
Iron and steel manufactures ----___
Metal, scrap -
Wheat --------- ...
Cotton -----_______._____. ____.
Paper and paper products- ---___
Ores, various -_ -- ---- ____
Flour_-- __ _______
Metals, various --- _______
All others -_ ________
Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 1963
1.204 04 4
1 'i,3.01 4
1 S'3 3 1120
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Tolls: Biggest, Littlest
Super tanker Orion Hunter transited early
in January 1962, en route to California.
The 860-foot ship has a beam of 104 feet
and displacement during transit was 60,300
tons. Toll was a record high $30,446.10.
PANAMA CANAL records for calendar
year 1962 show it was notable in other
ways besides recording of the largest
and smallest tolls (see pictures). The
largest commercial cargo was listed for
October 13 when the Ore Meteor trans-
ited, 44,900 long tons, with iron ore en
route from Chile to Baltimore.
Tolls for this amounted to only
$10,836, however, contrasted with the
record $30,000-plus for the Orion
Hunter, because the Canal tolls formula
is based on ships' earning capacity, with
no charge for such space as the large
ballast area around a heavy, compact
The year also saw introduction of
super bulk carriers, designed to carry
coal one way, to Japan, and iron or
grain from the west coast on the return
trip. Two such ships are the Nini and
Sonic, each of which transited with 40
to 45 thousand tons of coal, more than
double most earlier large coal cargoes.
The surplus of shipping in the wake
of the Suez crisis is evident in the load
factor of ships transiting the Canal being
the lowest since 1936. During the first
6 months of fiscal year 1963 traffic and
tolls were up approximately 4 percent
in spite of a drop in cargo of nearly
Before the Orion Hunter's transit, the
top toll for a commercial ship was
$28,021.50 for the Sinclair Petrolore on
December 20, 1959. Largest toll charge
on record for a naval ship is the $28,838
for the battleship Missouri. The liner
Bremen still ranks as the largest ship
in gross tonnage ever to transit the
Canal, at 51,731.
The Orion Hunter's gross is 39,287.
On August 6 the Seatown, of Refine-
ria Panama, S.A., made two transits in
a single day, one with a load of gasoline
and one in ballast.
And in November the first ship trans-
ited with crude oil from Venezuela
bound for the new refinery which went
on stream in Nicaragua.
The Ore Meteor retained listing as
having had the largest commercial cargo
for only 3 months, until her Liberian
flag sister ship, the Ore Saturn, transited
January 15 at 46,265 long tons, also with
iron ore en route from Chile to
The Ore Saturn's draft depth also was
the deepest on record for commercial
vessels, measuring 37 feet 1 inch for-
ward and 37 feet 3 inches aft, vs. a
draft figure of 35 feet 3 inches for the
Ore Meteor. Standard maximum draft
for ships transiting the Canal is 36 feet
6 inches. Ore Saturn still was not at
capacity on load, for she is capable of
carrying approximately 50,000 tons of
Swimmer Albert H. Oshiver transited from
Gatun Locks to Gamboa December 29-30,
1962. The 42-year-old Washington, D.C.,
oceanographer was listed for 5-feet-5 inch
length, 1-foot 3-inch beam, 1-foot depth
and displacement of approximately one-
tenth of a ton. Toll was 45 cents, smallest
ever collected by the Canal, on a minimum
1 net ton charge, with half of the 90-cent
fee rebated because he didn't go through
any locks. Admeasuring Mr. Oshiver, above,
is Chief Admeasurer Robert E. Medinger.
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN
FEBRUARY 1, 1963
Due Returned Due Returned
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 04820 4829