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DLOC PCANAL



PRIVATE ITEM
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Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00012
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama
Publication Date: December 1960
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
Classification: lcc - HE2830.P2 P3
ddc - 386/.445
System ID: UF00097366:00012
 Related Items
Related Items: Panama Canal review en espagñol

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12-13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
        Page
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
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University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries













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W. A. CARTER, Governor-President
JOHN D. MCELHENY, Lieutenant Governor
WILL AREY
Panama Canal Information Officer


Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone


N. D. CHRISTENSEN, Press Officer
JOSEPH CONNOR, Publications Editor
Editorial Assistants:
EUNICE RICHARD and TOBI BITTEL
WILLIAM BURNS, Official Photographer


On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cent each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mail and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box 5084. Cristobal, C. Z.
Editorial offices are located in the Administration Bailding. Balboa Heights. C. Z.


iNoche de Paz!

(Silent Night)

iNoche de paz, noche de amor!
Todo duerme en derredor.
Entre los astros que esparcen su luz
Bella anunciando al Nifiito Jesius,
Brilla la estrella de p'.i
Brilla la estrella de paz.

iNoche de paz, noche de amor!
Oye humilde y fiel pastor,
Coros celestes que anuncian salud,
Gracias y glorias en gran plenitud,
Por nuestro buen Redentor,
Por nuestro buen Redentor.

iNoche de paz, noche de amor!
Ved que bello resplandor
Luce en el rostro del Nifio Jesuis.
En el pesebre del mundo la luz,
Astro de eterno fulgor,
Astro de eterno fulgor.


In This Issue
THIS BRITISH lion, symbolic of the strength of the
empire, isn't doing much roaring these days, but it
soon will be witness to the rough-and-ready noises of
a famous mutiny and the
modern-day mutineers who
reenact it will be trooping
past this lion for many days
in the swashbuckling clothes.
of 18th century seamen.
The lion, as you may have
guessed, is located at the',
entranceway to the good
ship Bounty, which went
through the Panama Canal
last month on its way to take
part in the filming of the
mutiny which made it and its master, Captain Bligh,
famous. For more pictures of the ship and its accoutre-
ments, turn to pages 16 and 17.

WHEN IIEAVY objects come tumbling from above
in Canal workshops or on construction projects, injury
to someone standing below often is avoided because
the would-be victim is wearing a hard hat, designed
specifically to protect his head against serious injury.
The Company-Government Safety Branch does much
of the planning which prevents injuries to Canal em-
ployees. How the Branch performs its duties is des-
cribed on pages 9-11. And for a tale of an Englishman
who apparently never went to sea but nevertheless
played a major role in establishing safety on the high
seas, see the article on page 5.


Index


Check the Plimsoll.
Homemaker for Homeless Pets
Snowflakes in Panama.
75 Years of Swimming .
They Plan for Safety
Mule Drivers Look Back
Examination at the Crossroads
Worth Knowing


5 The "Bounty" Sails Again
6 Cliinne\ s Lure Canal Retiree
7 Annual Report to Stockholder
8 Anniversaries .
9 Promotions and Transfers
12 Canal History, Retirements.
14 More Picnic Areas on Way .
15 Shipping .


23
24

DECEMBER 2, 1960




































Lines fanning out from Canal indicate major trade routes, while darkened areas show leading users of waterway.




Meeting Place Of The World





Commerce and culture


both benefit from meeting

of East and West at

the Isthmian crossing


WHEN RUDYARD KIPLING wrote, "Oh,
the east is east and the west is west and
never the twain shall meet," he was not
thinking of commerce between the two
halves of the world but was referring
to the vast cultural differences which
separate them.
In the field of commerce as well as
culturally, however, the two areas have
been meeting for several hundred years
and never in greater degree than during
the past year at the Isthmus of Panama,
where the Canal which joins the oceans
serves as the link connecting them.
Last year, both east and west and the
economies of countries in each enjoyed
record-breaking benefits from the Isth-
mian waterway, as it carried 60 million
tons of cargo from ocean to ocean at
lower cost than it could have been trans-
ported in any other way.


This unprecedented volume of cargo
was carried by 10,795 ocean-going com-
mercial vessels registered in 38 nations
and c .in ili goods from and to virtually
every point on earth.
The billions of dollars worth of cargo
which passed through the Canal ranged
from refrigerated food products to iron
ore, thus including both finished pro-
ducts which were ready for use and raw
materials for the maws of the world's
expanding industrial machine.
Owners and operators of the cargo
carriers passing through the waterway
were very much aware of the savings
resulting from the Canal's existence,
coupled with the -ff. L Iirn- of its work-
iniL force and the international public
itilit\ concept under which it is op-
erated by the United States.
Even as the waterway was carrying


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






a record volume of c .irco. improvements
were being made to increase its (.p.ip ity
and the speed with which ships can
transit. As 1960 drew to a close, the
Marine Bureau reported that the aver-
age time spent in Canal waters by ships
transiting the waterway had been re-
duced from an average of 17% hours
in 1957 to 16 hours in October 1960.
Further improvement is expected as
projects now under way are completed.
The importance of the Canal to world
commerce and to the entire economy
of various nations whose products move
to market through it is pointed up by
a glance at some of the cargo move-
ments registered during the past year.
Copper and iron mines on the west
coast of South America sold 6,735,000
tons of ore to industry on the east coast
of the U.S. Wheat farmers in Canada
and on the west coast of the United
States sold 1,138,000 tons of wheat to
Europe, Asia, Africa, and South Amer-
ica. Banana growers on the west coast
of Central and South America, including
Panama, sold 1,232,000 tons of bananas
to the east coast of the U.S. and to
Europe. European iron and steel manu-
facturers moved 758,000 tons of pro-
ducts through the waterway for sale
on the west coasts of North and South
America and beyond.
The presence of the Canal and the
low-cost transportation which it offers
made much of this commerce possible
by keeping costs to the eventual con-
sumers low enough to make it economi-
cally feasible for them to buy the pro-
ducts offered.
SThe men and women of the Panama


Canal can take pride in the fact that if
all the ships which transited the water-
way during the 1960 Fiscal Year had
gone around South America instead of
making the Isthmian crossing, they
would have added thousands of miles
to their trips and millions of dollars to
the cost of the cargoes they carried. In
fact, the total extra expense to world
commerce would not have ended there,
because the additional mileage would
have meant that more ships would have
had to be built and operated to carry
the same amount of cargo in the same
period of time.
Some industries, notably banana plan-
tations on the west coasts of Central
and South America and ore mines in
various parts of the world, exist where
they do largely because of the Canal.
Still others, such as the U.S. steel in-
dustry, have been spared the expense of
building duplicate facilities on the west
coast because supplies for its plants in
the eastern part of the U.S. can move
through the Canal at low cost.
Nowhere is the meeting between east
and west more hiithli1ilt.d or apparent
than in the increasing traffic between the
Atlantic nations and the Asiatic area.
During 1960, more than 16 million tons
of cargo passed through the Canal on
its way between these areas. This was
an increase of more than 30 percent over
traffic between these areas through the
Canal in Fiscal Year 1959.
Much of the increase was a direct
result of Japan's increasing industrial-
ization. Bming materials from around
the world, many of which are shipped
to her through the Isthmian waterway,


Japan has climbed to a high position
among the world's commercial nations.
This is demonstrated by the amount of
cargo passing through the Canal to
and from Japan. In 1951, this traffic .
amounted to about 3 million tons and
represented 10 percent of all Canal
cargo that year. In 1960, this volume of
cargo had climbed to 12 million tons, or
about 25 percent of all Canal shipments.
The 1960 movement of cargo be-
tween the west coast of South America
and the east coast of the United States
also demonstrates the increasing value
of the Canal to different parts of the
world. In Fiscal Year 1951, total tonnage
through the Canal between these two
parts of the Western Hemisphere totaled
slightly more than 4 million tons; in
Fiscal Year 1960 such shipments totaled
well over 10 million tons.
While more than 10 million tons each
of petroleum and ores moved through
the Canal during 1960 to claim the top
spots in volume products transported
through the waterway, thousands of
tons of all kinds of other products
pointed up the fact that all types of
industry is served by shipping across
the Isthmus.
With most countries of the world
participating in the increasing volume
of shipping through the Canal, it is vir-
tually impossible to accurately deter-
mine all of the influences which the
waterway has had on the growth of na-
tional economies throughout the world,
but the volume of shipments indicates
it has been considerable and will be
even greater in the years ahead.


Six ships flying flags of as many nations as they arrive at Pedro Miguel Locks symbolize
role the Canal plays in world commerce and the benefits it provides to national economies.


DECEMBER 2, 1960






It's a small mark, but it provides a margin of protection for
both ship and crew. Sailors watch it-and so do Canal officials


The arrow in this picture of the Plagiara shows approximate location of Plimsoll mark.


Check the Plimsoll for Safety


IN ADDITION to the payment of tolls,
one of the requirements which ships
must meet before being allowed to tran-
sit the Panama Canal is to be safely and
legally loaded, according to the rules
and regulations of the Panama Canal.
This requirement is easily checked
by Canal admeasurers and other officials
by a glance at both the Plimsoll mark
carried on the side of the ship about
midway between bow and stern and the
draft marks at the bow and stern.
The Plimsoll mark, a little insignia
of parallel lines on the side of every
ocean-going vessel, serves as the basic
loading guide for the ship, showing the
depth into the water that it can be
loaded legally and safely, according to
national laws and international treaties.
The lines, two on the right of the
mark and three on the left, are to show
safe load limits under various water
and weather conditions for the seasons
and for the particular part of the world
in which the ship will sail. By protecting
against overloading, the lines serve to
avoid unnecessary danger to the crew
and cargo.
Because the ship must pass through
fresh tropical water at the Canal, the
safe loading line which appears at the


very top of the Plimsoll mark is the one
which draws the most attention from
Canal officials. The ship can be loaded
to the top of this line, which is labeled
"TF."
The maximum draft for any ship using
the Canal is 36 feet, so Canal officials
also take the draft marks into considera-
tion. If they indicate that the ship is
drawing more than 36 feet of water, it
is not permitted to transit, even though
the Plimsoll mark shows it to be loaded
safely.
Just as the "TF" line at the top of
the Plimsoll mark has a meaning of its
own, so do the other lines of the mark
have individual meanings. Immediately
beneath the "TF" line and, like it, point-
ing to the right, is a line labeled "F."
This indicates the depth to which the
ship can be loaded for sailing in fresh
water in certain areas of what is known
as a Summer Zone.
The top line of the three on the left
is labeled "T" and indicates how far
into the water the ship may be loaded
if the \ a\.ige is to be made within cer-
tain tropical areas.
Directly under the "T" line is one
labeled "S," which again is in reference
to the Summer Zones, but is in relation


to areas other than those covered by the
"F" line above and to the right. The
bottom line on the mark is labeled "W"
and indicates the level to which the ship
can be loaded for winter sailings in
certain areas.
Seamen of today owe much of the
protection they have against unneces-
sary danger at sea to the man for whom
the Plimsoll mark is named, Samuel
Plimsoll. As far as is known, Plimsoll,
who was born in England in 1824, never
went to sea himself, but he spent a life-
time fighting for the rights of seamen.
He entered Parliament as a Liberal
member in 1868 and began his efforts
to have legislation adopted to improve
conditions on British ships. His first try
was unsuccessful, but in 1873 he was
successful in getting a bill passed. Plim-
soll considered the first bill inadequate,
but was resigned to it as the first legisla-
tion of its kind anywhere in the world.
The following year, however, largely
because of public demand aroused by
Plimsoll's fight, Parliament amended the
original bill into the Merchant Shipping
Act, thus paving the way for legislation
which gradually improved the lot of
British seamen and, i..Iir gridi ll..,
seamen throughout the world.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW







Homemaker For Homeless Pets











The Canal Zone
SPCA doesn't run
a pet shop, but it
takes care of ani-
mals and finds
them new homes
if necessary .-


Theresa Rose and Mary Jane, daughters of Sgt. and Mrs. Richard Zabawa of Fort Kobbe,
with kittens the family gave away with aid of SPCA before transferring from Isthmus.


"Dear Santa,
"I want a cute little kitten more than
anything else for Christmas. I would
like one which is mostly white with a
few black spots. If I can't have a kitten,
though, I'll take a nice dog with a
waggly tail and . "
That kind of letter from a little Suzie
or Tommy poses no special problem for
a Stateside Santa, who has pet shops
only a phone call away. But things are
different on the Isthmus. Or were, that
is, until two years ago, when the Canal
Zone Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Animals was founded.
Backed by both civilians and mem-
bers of the Armed Forces, the SPCA has
moved in to bridge the gap between
humans looking for pets and pets looking
for humans.
The organization has been so success-
ful in its efforts that it now has a long
waiting list of people who want pets.
Quite a few persons on the list want
watchdogs and one request is quite
specific: it is for a "fierce watchdog."
Others are not so specific, asking only
for a dog, while still others specify a
German Shepherd, Cocker Spaniel,
Boxer, or other breed.
Also on the list is a home for a white


cat, two families who want parakeets,
and one person who wants a female
turkey.
On the other side of the fence, so to
speak, are families faced with transfers
and unable to take their pets along.
They look to the SPCA for help in find-
ing a good home for their pet rather
than offering it for sale. The SPCA
makes sure the recipient does supply a
good home, requiring a written assur-
ance to that effect and following up
with a visit to the home after the pet
is supplied.
Before the SPCA was organized here,
the dogs, cats, and other small pets
being left behind or disposed of by
families were destroyed after a four-day
stay at the Corozal Animal Hospital,
where they were impounded. But in the
relatively short time the SPCA has been
operating, homes have been found for
357 animals. During 1960, a total of
116 animals have been placed by the
SPCA Adoption Committee.
Not all of the animals befriended by
the SPCA are cats or dogs. One of the
most publicized was Tingat, an aban-
doned race horse, whose new owner is
Police Capt. William H. Munyon of
Gamboa Penitentiary. The SPCA mem-
bers have set broken wings for disabled


birds and have befriended both ocelots
and sloths. The sloths represent some
special difficulties, for they will eat
nothing but eucalyptus leaves, which
they must pick themselves, while hang-
ing upside down.
Sometimes the unexpected happens
in caring for homeless pets. Two SPCA
members once gave temporary homes
to a couple of female dogs. One ,of the
members found herself, overnight, with
a mother dog and six puppies on hand;
Civic minded officials and the general
public on the Isthmus have joined in
support of the SPCA, a non-profit or-
ganization which raises funds through
pet shows, horse shows, musical con-
certs and membership fees. As a service
organization, it does not charge anyone
for a pet received through its efforts,
but contributions are welcomed.
At present, the Society has 236 mem-
bers, headed by Governor and Mrs. W.
A. Carter and Lt. Gen. and Mrs. Robert
F. Sink and including other high ranking
officials of the Company-Government
and the Armed Forces. The 1961 Ex-
ecutive Board officers are: B. A. Darden,
president; Mrs. Berta Lewis, vice pres-
ident; Miss Janet Childress, treasurer,
and Mrs. Frances Hunnicutt, secretary.


DECEMBER 2, 1960










Snowflakes



In



Panama


Not the real McCoy,

but they are attractive-

and they won't melt.


Toothpick snowflake rivals natural Jack Frost product for artistry.


CHRISTMAS ON THE Isthmus, tempera-
ture-wise, may appear to have much in
common with July in other climes, but
this year there are going to be snow-
flakes round about, here and there, dec-
orating tables and floating through the
air.
Jack Frost, in northern climes, is cre-
dited with creating the snowflake de-
signs but, in the Canal Zone, members
of the Arts and Crafts Group of the
Balboa Woman's Club have been
making their own snowflakes the past
few weeks. And the snowflakes the
women make are bigger and more color-
ful than ;m\ Sefior Frost ever produced,
and far more lasting, considering the
temperatures on the Isthmus in the jolly
Yule season.
Snowflake creation requires patience
and ingenuity. A lot of the former, and
a good share of the latter. Plus tooth-
picks.
The toothpicks are put together in
any shape the snowflake-creator wishes.
Jack Frost's recipe being unavailable,
the Arts and Crafts group started the
snowflake project by placing toothpicks
in the shape of a triangle, held together
with applications of airplane glue.


Triangle was built upon triangle, and
expanded triangle-wise for height and
breadth. Then a lacy-looking weed was
gathered and was wound round and
round the toothpick structure, with a
spot of glue here and there to hold it in
place. The whole was sprayed with
Christmas tree "snow;" hung with
Christmas ornaments and holly, and the
result was a snowflake Jack Frost him-
self would be proud to claim as his own
creation.
The "snowflakes" are effective as table
centerpieces, or when hung upon a
Christmas tree, or as indoor and outdoor
decorations.
While the "snowflakes" are decora-
tive conversation pieces, the Arts and
Crafts Group of the Balboa Woman's
Club has not concentrated entirely on
snowflake production for Christmas
holiday decorations.
Stencil work has been used by some
of the members on tablecloths and other
gift items. A plain white tablecloth takes
on a light-hearted holiday look with a
stencilled design of poinsettias applied
by nimble fingers, and the most prosaic
bit of material, given the stencil treat-
ment, goes through a transformation


that would leave even Cinderella more
than slightly astounded.
Take candle holders, for instance;
delicate flower-adorned holders that
look as if they might be closely related
to those produced in fine china. The
basic materials are easy to find and
assemble. First, the would-be maker of
a candle holder needs a narrow cylinder
of cardboard, which is cut to the re-
quired size. The roll is covered and then
comes the decorating, or fun part. Some
of the members used a floral decorative
arrangement. For this effect, small silk
flowers, the kind that come in colorful
little bunches, are carefully dipped in
wax, one by one, and then are arranged
on the holders to create a ceramic effect.
Or, should a more Christmasy effect
be d sired, Christmas ornaments are
substituted for the flowers.
Santa Claus' own workshop could
hardly be a busier spot these days before
Christmas than the gatherings of the
Arts and Crafts Group. And the frozen
northland can hardly produce more
delicately frosty effects than those in
the centerpieces and Yule ornaments
made by the members.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW












75 Years



Of



Swimming


Millie McKenzie and Ruby Tonge at admission office window of Balboa Swimming Pool.

Employees of Balboa Pool have seen hundreds of swimmers come and go,
including Navy men on liberty and a Zonian who made an Olympic team.


"THESE PORTALS may lead you to
Olympic participation" might well be
the legend over the entrance to the
Balboa Swimming Pool. No one knows
the basis for such an imposing legend
better than Millie L. McKenzie, Ruby
TII,.. and Edward M. Allison, whose
combined years of service at the Balboa
Pool total almost three-quarters of a
century.
Ruby and \li1wI alternate as pool at-
tendants and before their window at


Edward Allison keeps pool clean.


the entrance door to the pool pass all
who enter for a swim. Years ago, when
they first went to work at the pool, there
were cards to be punched before a
swimmer was admitted. Then came
swimming tickets, which had to be pur-
chased. Now there is free swimming,
with display of identification cards the
only requirement for entry.
Mr. Allison, whose service at the pool
dates back 35 years, has the job of
vacuum cleaning the pool and doing
related cleaning work. Originally, the
Balboa Pool was concrete and had to be
drained in order to be cleaned. In 1951,
the pool was tiled and vacuum cleaning
apparatus now is able to do the job the
modern way.
All three of the pool employees re-
member times past when the Fleet came
in and business boomed. Those were the
days when towels were washed at the
pool instead of being sent to the laundry,
as they are today. Ruby recalls she
washed "miles of towels," ran them
through a wringer, and handed them,
still damp, to eager men of the Fleet,
whose days at sea apparently had
whetted their desire to swim.
"We've seen one boy grow up, go to
collt-ge. then come back to become our
boss," Millie said. She was referring to
Don Connors, now coach at the Canal
Zone Junior College and Balboa High
School, who, Millie claims, "was prac-
tically raised in this pool."
"\\ we've seen them come and go; some
just good swimmers, others who have
the makings of experts, like Alan Ford,"


chimed in Ruby. She was referring to
the local Oympic swimmer, who com-
peted against Johnny \\'v.-lsmuller, long-
time movie Tarzan.
Some 7,000 children troop past the
window each month of the school year,
showing their identification cards to
either Millie or Ruby as they pass. The
two women have got along well with all
the children down through the genera-
tions. Yes, generations, for there are a
few instances where children of yester-
year, grown and married, have come
back with their own children to meet
Millie and Ruby-and take a dip in the
"old swimming pool."
The three pool employees are not
among those who deplore the allegedly
wayward ways of today's lilldren. They
all agree that children today are about
90 percent better in behavior than their
counterparts of years past.
Ruby, who was born in Panama and
has lived on the Isthmus all her life, is
the proud owner of a 20-year Safety
Award presented to her for working at
the pool two decades without an ac-
cident. lMllk, who was born in Jamaica,
will complete 20 years of service at the
pool next February.
Mr. Allison, also a native of Jamaica,
has seen the pool change from former
clubhouse management to the Di vision
of Schools and remembers the colorful
times when the Red, White, and Blue
Troupe performed in night swimming
shows at the pool. Like Millie and Rubh,
he also has fond memories of Alan Ford,
Olympic graduate of the Balboa Pool.


DECEMBER 2, 1960







They Plan



For Your Safety






Safety Branch of the Company-Government
uses many techniques to prevent employees
of the Canal from being injured.






WHEN CANAL OFFICIALS were making
plans for the Gatun Locks overhaul
:-M P which will start next month, they came
.CCI .u. up with plans for a new type of scaf-
C, .L nrm folding and hoist. The new scaffold is
lowered or hoisted on the cables which
so suspend it by a new and dilli-,-nt kind
0 of device than any used here in the past.
The new hoisting device is believed
to be safer than former devices, but
S.like the others it still must be coupled
,0 with some kind of secondary protective
"item, just in case of failure. There were
two choices available, but after con-
.I siderable study one was adopted which
a1 involves the use of an automatic grab
\'IPY~ ,' .on the man-lines fastened to the top of
/ the Lock gates and then secured to per-
/ sonnel on the scaffolds. If the scaffold
should fall despite the improved hoist,
a~ the men on it would be left hanging high
up the Lock gate, but they would not
be seriously injured.
A second problem faced in past Lock
overhauls was the use of eye-protecting
goggles by those working on the job.
This year there will be no such goggles,
which are tight-fitting and, in the cli-
mate of Panama, become uncomfortable
after a few minutes. The workers will
have eye protection, but it will be in
the form of a movable plastic shield held
away from the face and fastened to the
hard hat each employee wears.
Both of these modifications of past
procedures in the Locks overhaul work
Warren H. Smith, right, Chief of Safety Branch, and Humberto Mendoza. Safety Director were developed with the help of the
of Fuerza y Luz, examine mouth-to-mouth resuscitation device used by the Panama firm. Safety Branch of the Company-Govern-


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






ment, under the direction of Warren H.
Smith, Chief.
The aim of the safety planning in
connection with the Gatun Locks over-
haul is typical of much of the work done
by the Safety Branch: to prevent ac-
cidents by reducing the probability of
them being caused.
As this indicates, the time to prevent
an accident is before it occurs. To ac-
complish this requires advance plan-
ning, awareness of the probable dangers
and a thorough understanding of how
the potential for mishaps can be reduced
or eliminated.
The planning in connection with the
Gatun Locks overhaul is not, therefore,
an unusual case. Most major projects
are reviewed by the Safety Branch to
make sure safety measures and proce-
dures are prescribed in advance.
But even the most painstaking plan-
ning to eliminate probable causes will
not prevent accidents. All the planning
can do is prescribe methods which are
most likely to prevent them. It cannot
eliminate human foibles from the safety
equation, so accidents do happen, re-
gardless of efforts to prevent them.
It is this fact which leads Mr. Smith
to say, "Most accidents are the result
of unawareness of safe practices, lack
of proper supervision, or disregard of
safety instructions."
When an accident does occur despite
all the efforts to forestall it, the factors
which led to it are analyzed and recom-
mendations made which are aimed at
preventing a repetition of the same kind
of mishap.


A typical accident analysis prepared
by the Safety Branch illustrates the ap-
proach to the problem:
A seaman attempted to jump from
the deck of a partially loaded scow to
the deck of a fully loaded one secured
to it for towing, but some 18 inches
lower than the one from which the sea-
man was jumping. In attempting to
make the jump, the man's feet slipped
on the muddy deck and he fell into the
water between the two scows. In the
fall, he hit the edge of the scow and
suffered an injury to his back and knee.
A life vest he was wearing probably
saved his life, because he managed to
swim from between the two scows to
safety.
"The recommended corrective action
to eliminate this type of accident is to
provide and use ramps and cleats and
non-slip surfaces, or a suitable ladder,"
the Safety Branch analysis says. "An-
other recommended corrective action
good in this and many similar situations
is to urge employees to always wear
work shoes, preferably those of safety
type, which have non-slip soles."
A number of items to be worn for
protection on the job are routine in the
Canal safety program: hard hats, safety
shoes, respirators or masks, goggles for
those working with grinders and at other
jobs where the eyes need protection, and
welding helmets for those so engaged.
The Safety Branch carries out its func-
tions in close liaison with Safety Rep-
resentatives within each of the operating
bureaus. These Bureau Safety Repre-
sentatives carry the main burden of on-


the-job study and evaluation of safety
conditions, solving problems as they
arise, in consultation with Safety Branch
officials if there is the need and time, or
by initiating a program and then sub-
mitting it for review, if there wasn't time
to review it beforehand.
Regulations of the Governor-Presi-
dent for the administration of the Com-
pany-Government safety program lists
nine principles which are important fac-
tors in eliminating the causes of acci-
dents. They are:
1. Active interest and participation
in the safety program by management
and all levels of supervision.
2. Establishment and support of a
central and of local safety committees
reaching each individual employee.
3. Ready compliance by all with
written and oral safety instructions.
4. Effective supervisory safety in-
struction of new employees, borrowed
employees, and regular employees
transferred to new assignments.
5. Prompt reporting and treatment
of all injuries.
6. Continuous inspection and cor-
rection procedures.
7. Strict enforcement of all Gov-
ernment-Company and Bureau safety
regulations.
8. Sound analysis of accident
causes.
9. Prompt elimination of hazards.
The Safety Branch is charged with
acting in an advisory capacity on mat-
ters of safety throughout the Company-


Pacific Locks Safety Inspector L. W. Cham-
bers and Locomotive Operator James
Thompson examine towing cable for barbs,
as Jorge A. DeLe6n and Odilio F. Gordon
hold cable so they can inspect it carefully.


DECEMBER 2, 1960


N '*&&*V. M
















H. H. Shacklett, safety engineer, and Mrs.
Beatrice B. Lucas, secretary, discuss
monthly report which Safety Branch makes
to Governor-President and other officials.


Government, prepares for the Governor-
President and other officials monthly,
quarterly, and annual reports and statis-
tical analyses of accidents and any spe-
cial reports which may be required,
establish safety policies of all types, and
maintain suitable award systems to re-
cognize successful accident prevention
efforts by individuals and units.
Unit awards in the program of safety
prevention recognition include the
Annual Safety Trophy of the Governor-
President, which is awarded each calen-
dar year to the operating bureau


achieving the highest percentage of im-
provement in its own disabling injury
frequency rate over its previous three-
year average, monthly Bureau and Di-
vision Honor Rolls, and annual awards
to shops or units without a chargeable
accident during the calendar year.
In addition to these unit awards, there
also are individual awards to supervi-
sors, Bureau Safety Representatives, safe
drivers, and 20- and 30-year safety
awards to individual employees. The
Safety Branch, in cooperation with Bu-
reau Safety Representatives and various


manufacturers who produce safety
e l'ii nitit, also handles arrangements
for special awards to employees who
have been protected against a serious
injury because they were wearing hard
hats, goggles, or safety shoes.
In addition to the Bureau Safety Rep-
resentatives, Mr. Smith's accident pre-
vention efforts are supplemented by the
work of two safety specialists assigned
to his office, H. H. Shacklett, a safety
engineer, and a supervising safety in-
spector. Mrs. Beatrice B. Lucas is the
office secretary.


He Speaks For Cause Of Safety


IN ADDITION to his duties in connec-
tion with safety planning and accident
investigation, Safety Branch Chief War-
ren H. Smith doubles in
brass as a regular contrib-
utor to THE PANAMA CANAL
REVIEW by writing a short
article on safety to accom-
pany the monthly chart on
accidents.
In preparing his monthly
articles, Mr. Smith is likely
to discuss anything from
safe driving to the history
of goggles or hard hats.
Always, however, his interest is keyed
to the current accident problems in the
Company-Government safety program.
In the same way that many writers
dislike certain words, Mr. Smith has
somewhat of an aversion to words such
as mishap, misadventure, mischance,
and, to a lesser degree, the popular con-


ception of the meaning of the word "ac-
cident." "All these words indicate that
something uncontrollable is involved,"
Mr. Smith says. "Actually, most acci-
dents are caused and are not the result-
of chance, as many people seem to
think," he says. "They are, therefore,
preventable."


-ACCIDENTS-
FOR

THIS MONTH
AND

THIS YEAR


OCTOBER

ALL UNITS
YEAR TO DATE


FIRST
CASE
'60
225
2438


The Safety Sentinel which accom-
panies this article was created to sym-
bolize the necessity for constant watch-
fulness and care to avoid accidents. "In
the final analysis," Mr. Smith says, "ac-
cident causes cannot be discovered and
corrected if we ascribe the accidents
themselves to chance or carelessness."


AID DISABLING
:S INJURIES
'59 '60 '59
237 8 8
2276 111 108


'bU0 5s
288 6251
14498 15306


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






















Locoirotlie operalur keeps sharp eyed watch on mullitude of Ihingi before and during low.



Mule Drivers Look Back


Boatmen receive connecting lines they will carry to ship.


Ct

I'


THtri FEL [T-LFL i'll] ir -Il. l n loIJ-
m,,lnt' la h ( .... 11-4 [ 1.t -0,mah Ill.
Lot k1 ..I t-, F .- .-'... ',,1i ,1 al.: oI r:.- ,-
of curiosity and watchful inspection by
virtually everyone who visits or transits
the Canal. Tourists aboard ship watch
them, visitors to the Locks watch them,
Canal pilots watch them, and even blase
ship crewmen swing their gaze to them
on occasion.
But while all these people scrutinize
the powerful mechanical mules and the
men who operate them, what do the
operators of the locomotives watch?
THE REVIEW had Official Photogra-
pher William E. Burns check on this
aspect of Lock operation and the pic-
tures on these pages are his answer. But
as two of the pictures indicate, even Mr.
Burns couldn't resist the temptation to


.afrI th I,, l ,.im _il es in .action, p.-r.
t. hld'K '.'-n th: ilCrp irhln,; whichh
ni,. r h-im trorrm Flr ii:, el ,A orne Laok
chamber to the level of the next. (In-
cidentally, the mechanical mules don't
do any towing while on tlo-. inclinir
the operators let the tow:srg it bl. go
slack before starting up or down them.)
As the pictures show, the opir Ilors of
the electric locomotives ".lurh .i tIhe
boatmen receive the lines usel to carry
the towing cable from the locomotive to
the ship, watch as the cables are fas-
tened and drawn taut, then keep an eye
on several vlii.t, at once as they begin
the t .... l..l!.i il.. Ail pilut boa,.d
the hi-. ih ...I .' r, pr...e dsi- .g i the
Lock wall, and the controls of she loc--
motive.


Towing cable goes slack as locomotive climbs incline at Gatun Locks before resuming tow.


Locks workers prepare to fasten lines between locomotive and P & T Adventurer.

12 DECEMBER 2, 1960 THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 13


Locomotives tilt toward sky as they move from level of one Lock chamber to another.


~" ~-~























K ~..i


Governor Carter answers questions of Robert Kee, BBC-TV, as Will Arey, Panama Canal Information Officer, watches filming.


Newsmen Visit Isthmus For:



Examination At The Crossroads


THE PEOPLE who live at the cross-
roads of the world had the eyes and
ears of the world on them during Nov-
ember, including the red "eye" which
shows that a television camera is in
operation.
In addition to the news media which
have part time correspondents here,
three full-fledged crews from national


Gov. W. A. Carter concentrates on query.


television networks and one representa-
tive of a U.S. newspaper chain visited
the Isthmus during the month.
All the television crews were doing
special documentaries on Panama and
the Canal Zone and all three of them
interviewed Gov. W. A. Carter during
their stays here. His answers to the
various questions asked will be carried
on networks stretching from London to
Honolulu and from Nome to Miami.
The three special crews of television
men all were on the Isthmus when seven
Cuban sailors jumped ship at Gatun
Locks and were among approximately
30 newsmen on hand at the Corozal
Immigration Station when the Cubans
were interviewed two days later. Films
of the interview, much of which was
conducted in Spanish, have been tele-
vised throughout most of Latin America.
A British Broadcasting Corp. team,
with Jeremy Murray-Brown in charge
and Robert Kee as interviewer, aimed
its documentary film at giving Euro-
peans an understanding of the Panama
Canal. The Canadian Broadcasting Co.,
with Michael MacLear as interviewer,
was interested primarily in the Canal
and the attitudes toward it held by U.S.
and Panamanian officials, while a Na-
tional Broadcasting Corp. team in-
cluding Robert Blair of NBC-TV news


and Edward Scott, longtime Isthmian
newsman, filmed an hour-long docu-
mentary of the Canal and the people
on the Isthmus.
The films made by the three teams
are scheduled for showing in the re-
spective countries represented within
the next month or two and some of
them may later be shown on the Isth-
mus by special arrangement with the
firms producing them.


Harry Rasky of NBC-TV intent on reply.


DECEMBER 2, 1960























Seven Cubans who jumped ship at Gatun Locks and asked for
asylum in the Zone told their stories to newsmen in mass interview.


It takes a lot of gear to make a good television film, as this pre-
interview scene of the team in Governor Carter's office shows.


Governor Carter faces Michael MacLear in Company Board Room,
as Canadian Broadcasting Co. cameramen prepare to film interview.


Worth Knowing

Foundation Tests For Gorgas Hospital Building
PRESSURES UP TO 100 tons per square foot will be used to
test the strength of the rock on which the foundations of the
new seven-story Gorgas Hospital building will be built. The
tests will be made by the Panama Canal Maintenance Division
with pressure applied on a steel column sunk 50 to 60 feet
into the earth. Applied with hydraulic jacks, the pressure will
give engineers a chance to observe how the column settles to
determine how heavy a foundation the bed rock can sustain.
Preparation for the work was started in November by the
Case Foundation Company by drilling a four-foot hole 60 feet
deep in the lower parking lot at Gorgas Hospital, the site to
be used for the new building, which will be the highest oc-
cupied structure in the Canal Zone when completed.

Gatun Locks Overhaul To Start In January
VISITING WILL be restricted at Gatun Locks during the pe-
riodic overhaul of the Locks which is to start next month, R.
C. Stockham, Chief of the Locks Division, announces. All
visitors will be excluded from the Atlantic side Locks from
January 30 through February 18, while the east lane is being
overhauled.
Visitors will be allowed on the upper east level, however,
during the overhaul of the west lane and while the center wall
culvert is unwatered, Mr. Stockman said. This work will be
done between January 9 and January 28 and February 19
through March 11.

Fire Damage Repaired In Administration Building
THE SECOND FLOOR offices in the West Wing of the Admin-
istration Building, which were heavily damaged by a fire on
August 2, have been rehabilitated and all offices housed there
have moved back from temporary quarters.
The repair work, which cost approximately a quarter of a
million dollars, included replacement of wooden floors with
vinyl tile and fire resistant rugs, installation of fireproofed
vertical blinds and lighting fixtures, as well as replacement of
furnishings damaged beyond repair by the blaze.
Wooden louvers in the walls of the section have been elim-
inated in the rehabilitation, with solid mortar walls replacing
them. Offices in the damaged area include those of Governor
Carter and Lieutenant Governor McElheny, the Executive
Secretary, the Marine Director, Executive Planning Offices,
and the Panama Canal Information Office.

Professional Baseball League To Play In Balboa
FOR THE FIRST time in a number of years, the Professional
Baseball League of Panama has scheduled games in the ball-
park of the Balboa Stadium during this year's season. The first
game in the Balboa Stadium will be on January 12 and others
will be played on January 25 and 29.
The January 12 game will be between the Azucareros and
Cerveza Balboa, the second between Comercios and Marlboro,
and the third between Marlboro and Azucareros.
In a letter to Raul Arango, President of the Baseball League,
advising him that the Stadium would be available for games
on those nights, H. L. Donovan, Civil Affairs Director, con-
gratulated the organization on the great effort being made to
keep baseball alive on the Isthmus and the amount of work
that Mr. Arango and other officers of the League are doing
toward that end.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










The "Bounty" Sails Again


THE "BOUNTY mn," great-great-grand-
daughter and spitting image of the ship
Captain Bligh made famous nearly 200
years ago, came through the Canal last
month on her way to Tahiti to make a
movie. Except for a diesel auxiliary, a
radar and an air-conditioning system,
which wasn't working when she left
Balboa, the Bounty resembled her
famous ancestor almost to the last bolt.
She did one thing, however, that the
original Bounty could never have man-
aged. She clipped several thousand miles


off her voyage to the South Seas by
taking a short cut through the Panama
Canal.
The Bounty was expected to make
most of the trip to Tahiti under sail. Her
master, Capt. Ellsworth Coggins, an old
sailing ship man from Nova Scotia, and
his 26-man Canadian crew will handle
the ship during the filming of "M'lutinl
on the Bounty," starring Marion Brando
as Fletcher Christian and Trevor Howard
as Captain Bligh.


Prow of Bounty features female figurehead.


Bounty III had sails furled while undergoing air conditioning repairs at Pier 10.


DECEMBER 2, 1960




















Mark Thompson, chief engineer of the Bounty, and R. R. Will,
Cristobal Harbormaster, inspect one of guns to be used in movie.


Canal Pilot Andrew Stohrer tries hand at wheel of sailing ship.


Capt. E. B. Rainier, Assistant Cristobal Port Captain, and Ross
MacKay, first mate of the Bounty, examine breadfruit tree to be
planted on Pitcairn Island as memorial to original Captain Bligh.


Chimneys Lure

Canal Retiree

REBUILDING chimneys is like child's play for Robert J.
Huntoon of Rutland, Vt., despite his 85 years. A 1937 retiree
of the Panama Canal, Mr. Huntoon recently completed re-
building the second chimney on his three-story, 16-room home.
Mr. Huntoon did all the work himself, tearing down the
old chimneys and then c(.,\ ii,' bricks and mortar up 45 feet
of ladder to build the new ones. The job apparently didn't
wear him out particularly, either. Just as he was finishing work
on the second chimney, he issued a challenge to the winner
of a horseshoe pitching match-as soon as he could climb
down from his rooftop perch.
A Spanish-American War veteran, Mr. Huntoon came to
the Canal Zone in April 1914, as a plumber in the Supply
Division. He later transferred to the Otfif.. of the Quarter-
master, where he was working as a foreman in 1920. During
his service in the Canal Zone, he spent a year with the Health
Bureau, but was in the Supply Division again when he retired
at the age of 62. After retirement, he returned to live in his
native State of Vermont, where he was born on March 28,
1875.
A daughter, Mrs. J. E. Erikson, still lives in Margarita in
the Canal Zone and his granddaughter, Barbara Erikson,
reigned as the first United Fund Queen of Canal Zone com-
munities, having been named in the Telethon windup of the
United Fund Drive at the end of October.


Mr. Huntoon waves trowel in cheery greeting to photographer.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








Annual Report To Stockholder


Statement issued today

gives resume of 1960

Canal Operations


As A NUMBER of Panama Canal im-
provement projects were pushed for-
ward to meet the increasing demands
of world shipping, the Panama Canal
Company invested $14.7 million in the
waterway and supporting facilities
during the Fiscal Icar which ended
June 30.
The extent of the investment during
the past year is disclosed in the Annual
Report of the Company's Board of Direc-
tors to the stockholder, Secretary of the
Army W\ilk it M. Brucker. The report,
compiled at Balboa Heights, was issued
today.
The level of capital expenditure was
$3.4 million above the $11.3 million
spent during Fiscal Year 1959 and pe7
million above the $7.7 million spent
during Fiscal Year 1958.
While the report shows a rise in tolls
revenue from $46 547,000 in Fiscal
Year 1959 to 551.S03.000 in 1960, total
operating expenses also showed a sharp
increase, rising more than $3.26 mil-
lion from $84,267,339 in 1959 to
$87,523,089 in 1960.
With the increase in total tolls re-
venue, net revenue for the year was
up from almost $3 million in 1959 to
slightly more than s' q million in 1960.
As the report points out, "Net revenues
do not reflect any charge for deprecia-
tion or amortization on certain assets-
land titles, treaty rights, and excavation
of channels, harbors, basins, and other
works-which cost about $291 million.
If these assets were depreciated, the
charge against earnings would approxi-
mate `5 5 million annually."
The report takes special note of the
"comprehensive program to increase the
capacity of the Canal and replace worn
out and obsolescent capital plant" since
the 1951 reorganization of the water-
way's operations. "To date," the report
says, "this program has been success-
fully financed from funds generated by
operation of the Company."
In discussing the various improve-
ment projects, the report notes that
work presently under way and sched-


Comparative Statement of Revenue and Expenses
Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1960 and 1959


Revenue:
Tolls......................... ............. ...
Credit for tolls on U.S. Government vessels ............
Commodities sold .................................
Service sales and rentals. ...........................


Operating expenses and deductions:
Payroll and related costs...................... ...
Material and other operating expenses .................
Cost of commodities sold. ..........................
Depreciation .....................................
Net cost of Canal Zone Government. .................
Interest on net direct investment of U.S. Government....
Total op, r I i. expenses and deductions ........
Net revenue. ........................................ .


1960

50 'lSl.'-12
121.i04
18,025,457
23,601,929
93,430,418

43,112,837
4,363,648
13,338,218
4,981,952
12,801,246
8,925,188
87,523,089
$5,907,329


1959

$45,571,564
975,057
18,452,121
22,252,129
87,250,871

41,065,800
4,103,316
13,685,418
4,787,254
11,646,136
8,979,415
84,267,339
$2,983,532


Statement of Changes in Equity of the United States Government
Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1960


Net direct
investment
interest-
bearing
Equity at July 1, 1959. .................. .$34,) T7'2 175
Additions:
Net revenue....................
Restoration of emergency fund held
by U.S. Treasury. ............
Excess of market over book value of
properties transferred to Republic
of Panama under 1955 Tr'- it ....
Property transfers, other Federal
agencies, net. ................. 120,646
Property transfers from Panama
Ci, ,1 h;. net ............. 102,656
l i t, I, |,T.T, plant............. 42 j20
,4'-1 '-1 3(7 1)7


Reductions:
Capital repayment-Public Law
86-200 provided that the $10 mil-
lion i.In...:. -11 fund held by U.S.
Treasury be deemed a capital re-
paym ent.....................
Market value of properties trans-
ferred to Republic of Panama
under 1955 Treaty .............
Net capital losses ,r. uilit.: from 1955
Treaty .......................
Settlement of canal pilots' compensa-
tion claims ,ri .i, : for periods prior
to June 30, I'M ..............
Property transfers to Panama Canal
Company, net. ................


Equity at June 30, 1960 .................


Retained
revenue
nmn-interest-
bearing


Panama Canal
bridge
non-interest-
bearing


DECEMBER 2, 1960


$90,040,821 $20,000,000
5,907,329
10,000,000

1,936,778




107,884,928 20,000,000


10,000,000

1,031,000
297,492


89,957


11,418,449
-. J 51'.2 4S


$107,884,928


102 656
102,656
$1 ..97,344







uled for Gaillard Cut is expected to cost
a total of $46,639,000. This includes the
current widening work and bank light-
ing through the Cut. It notes that the
$11,609,000 widening of Paraiso-Cuca-
racha Reach was 90 percent complete
at the close of the Fiscal Year and will
be complete by the end of the calendar
year.
The $12,300,000 Empire Reach pro-
ject, for which a contract was awarded
on March 25, 1960, is scheduled for com-
pletion in Fiscal Year 1962 and will
complete the widening of the channel
for approximately 60 percent of the total
length of the Cut. The $22 million
widening of the remaining three miles
of the Cut is combined in a single project
which current plants call for starting
late in Fiscal Year 1962.
The report notes that the $730,000
job of lighting the banks of the cut "to
make possible the safe i.ighttiri- naviga-
tion by all classes of ships was nearing
completion at the close of the year."
The report also mentions the new lo-
comotives ordered for use at the Locks,
at a total cost of $7,844,000. The first
six of the locomotives are scheduled to
arrive for testing at Miraflores Locks in
October 1961.
The $820,000 job of changing the
lighting at the Locks to a system of
shadowless artificial lighting was almost
complete at the close of the year and
studies were under way which are aimed
at reducing to a minimum or elimina-
tion of regularly scheduled Lock lane
outage for overhauls.
The report points out that work con-
tinued during the year on the $20 mil-
lion high-level bridge across the Canal
at Balboa and the installation of "a
modern and economical microwave
communication system" to replace the
old trans-Isthmian telephone cable in-
stalled in 1914, as well as the installa-
tion of a new maintenance-free elec-
tronic system for reporting rainfall at
various points on the Isthmus.
The $8,300,000 program of replace-
ment of obsolete and substandard U.S.
citizen housing on the Pacific side was
started during the year, the report notes,
adding that it is to be carried out over
a period of six years.
The report quotes the opinion of the
office of the Comptroller General of the
United States that the accompanying
financial statements "present fairly the
financial position of the Panama Canal
Company" for Fiscal Year 1960, "in con-
formity with the principles and stand-
ards of accounting prescribed for execu-
tive agenckis by the Comptroller General
of the United States applied on a basis
consistent with that of the preceding
ea r and with applicable Federal laws."


PANAMA CANAL COMPANY
Comparative Statement of Financial Condition
June 30, 1960 and 1959


ASSETS
Current Assets:
Fund balances with U.S. Treasury and cash:
Fund balance in U.S. Treasury checking account..
Cash in commercial banks, on hand, and in transit.

Accounts receivable:
Canal Zone Government-net settlement.........
U.S. Government agencies .....................
Republic of Panama.........................
Other ............. ......................


Notes receivable. ................................
Inventories, principally at average cost:
Materials and supplies, less allowances for excess,
obsolete, and inactive stocks of $1,040,915 and
$954,894, respectively. ................... ..
Merchandise held for sale ...................


Other current assets. ............................
Total current assets. ................ ..

Long term notes receivable. .........................
Fixed Assets:
Cost. ..........................................
Less depreciation and valuation allowances ..........


Panama Canal bridge:
Fund balance with U.S. Treasury .................
Construction work in progress......................


Deferred charges and other assets......................


LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Current Liabilities:
Accounts payable:
U.S. Government agencies. ...................
Other....................................


Due U.S. Treasury. ..............................
Employees' leave liability. ........................
Accrued liabilities:
Salaries and wages...........................
Claims for damages to vessels ................
Other.....................................


Other current liabilities. ..........................
Total current liabilities. ................
Reserves:
Overhaul of locks. ...............................
Non-capital power conversion costs .................
Maintenance of channels .........................


Equity of U.S. Government:
Net direct investment, inrllt.rit-bcarin. ..............
Retained revenue, non-interest-bearing .............
Panama Canal bridge, non-interest-bearing ...........


THE PANAMA.CANAL REVIEW


1960


$22.169,057
6.12' 121
2S.297.l 2

1,461,256
739,302
1,445,770
1,517,501
5,163,829
1,069,500



5,011,627
3,373,373
8,385,000
237,724
43,153,135



617.7r0.372
1 3-, 1 2,,2 1 1
425,628,133

15,782,633
4,114,711
19,897,344
1,808,007
$490,486,619

1960


$1,749,115
4,643,188
6,392,303
1,330,010
7,428,319

1,742.7192
445,013
678,230
2,866,035
1,639,360
19,656,027

2.F63.023
666 {t-
1 .200.11 (11
4 52'.172

338,519,248
107,884,928
19,897,344
466,301,520
$490,486,619


1959


$19,037,013
(6 iS .3o-
2.5,2; 2 1,

1,668,051
813,761
645,440
1,333,289
4,460,541
1,039,500



4,541,346
3,534,062
8,075,408
25 717
39,087,546

1,069,500

605,654,626
188,287,562
417,367,064

18,456,515
1,543,485
20,000,000
2,886,664
$480,410,774

1959


$1,543,831
3,357,130
4,900,961
1,958,159
7. (60.,2 5

1,325,700
409,515
456,480
2,191,695
582,597
16,693,637

2,374,666
1 .2-"I 5

4,004.241

349,672.075
90,040,821
20,000,000
459.712,896
$480,410.774








ANNIVERSARIES

(On the basis of total Federal Service)


L F AIRS EAU


Sup enlent
Sup rix endent


CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Carroll E. Kocher
Tour Foreman, Airmail
Robert J. Sieler
Window Clerk
George L. Cain
CustomsI v
ENGINE N COI
STRUCTION U AU
Charles T. Edwa
Maintenanceman
Kenneth A. Brown
Glazier
William A
Laborer
HEALTH BUREAU
Rixford U. Chase
Medical Technician
Carlos Ramirez
Laboratory Helper
OFFICE OF THE COMP-
TROLLER
J. R. DeGrummond, Jr.
Accountant


MARINE BUREAU
Edward Folse
Towboat or Ferry Master
Edward J. Cullen
Chief Engineer, Towboat or
Ferry


SuaXxweisry Clerk
Arnold A. Grenion
Stock Control Clerk
Astor N. Lewis
Stock Control Clerk
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
David D. Whittaker
Chauffeur
Samuel B. Lashley
Truck Driver


CENTRAL EMPLOYMENT
OFFICE
Michael E. Charles
File Clerk
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Elizabeth W. Rowley
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
Eloise Monroe
Elementary and Secondary
School Teacher
David W. Lowe, Jr.
Fire Lieutenant
Kenneth R. Coleman
Fire Lieutenant
Joseph A. Forde
Laborer
ENGINEERING AND CON-
STRUCTION BUREAU
Ray D. Wilson, Jr.
EL'III. rIr, Technician
Livingston B. Reece
Helper Armature Winder
Mateo Ariza
Helper Plumber
Wilfred N. Grant
Cook (Flo.itin, Equipment)
Alfred W. Browne, Jr.
Fireman (Fl. itnt; Plant)
Willard W. Huffman
Central Office Repairman
'Walter W. Shan
Oiler i F tl,. Plant)
Alton Lewis
Helper Plumber
Alberto Arispe C.
Leadsman
Stanley Small
Seaman
Max M. Schoch
Lead Foreman, Public Works
Road Construction
Manuel M. Tello
Warehouseman
HEALTH BUREAU
Roy T. High
Pharmacist
Daniel G. Roper f
I'h irrol... Helper


Frederick H. Taylor
Operating Room Nursing
Assistant
Jos6 Vergara R.
Pest Control Laborer

MARINE BUREAU
Edgar Mapp
Seaman
Noel R. Anderson
Oiler, Floating Plant
Alfred A. Stewart
Oiler, Floating Plant
Prudencio Sianca
Boatman
Daniel Thompson
Helper Lock Operator
Bernard Serbino
Painter Mair ance
Stephen J. H
Chauffeur
Alfred L. Brady
Seaman
Howard Richards
Launch Opera
Joseph G. Gr
Helper Lo Op
Luis A. Newall
Launch O
Hugh C. Christie
Leader Lock Operator
Machinist
Edward H. Womble
Lock Operator Shipfitter
Harold M. Brathwaite
Oiler, Floating Plant
Lino Coco
Helper Lock Operator
Alfred V. George
Seaman
Gerardo Rosas
Seaman
Enrique Garcia
Helper Lock Operator
Albert A. Elliott
S Seaman
Manuel I. Alvarado
Oiler
7 Ram6n A. Gonzilez
Helper Lock Operator


OFFICE OF THE COMP-
TROLLER
William A. Wichmann
Supervisory Auditor
Alice H. Roche
..'i. ,liiri, Clerk
Theodore R. Jemmott
Bookkeeping Machine
Operator

SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Mary M. Markham
Sales Section Head
Andr6s Nufiez
Warehouseman

accounting rk



mandolin. Gins
ales Section e
Ve ncio Ara

LabMurill
La i
Josephine E. Smith
Sales Clerk
Ina R. Wilshire
Counter Attendant
Froilan L6pez
Warehouseman
Weynell Inniss
Sales Clerk
Florence C. Connolly
Utility Worker
Wilhelmina S. Smith
Utility Worker
Magdalena L. Pierre
Timekeeper
Jose D. Moreno
Laborer
Ralph H. Worme
a Laborer
A. Braithwaite
Dry Cleaner


John Yard
Laborer Cleaner
Jos6 I. Herrera
Laborer
Ruben H. Blanchett
Clerk-Typist
Hortence C. Thomas
Food Service Sales Checker
Naziana A. Cenac
Sales Section Head
Maurice L. Wilson
Warehouseman
B. H. Cumberbatch
Laborer
Gilberto Jiminez
High Lift Truck Operator
Albert E. Reid
Laborer
Ema C. Spencer
Retail Store Sales Checker
Alfonso Jones
Laborer
Nicolas Aguilar
Laborer
Lilian A. Ritson
Sales Section Head
Arturo Rangel
Cemetery Worker
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Joseph G. Reardon
Supervisory Timekeeper
E. Calder6n
Oiler, Floating Plant
Bruno Nazas
Helper Automotive Machinist
Kenneth R. Vaz
Supervisory Cargo Clerk
Peter A. Tortorici
General Foreman, Ship Cargo
Operations
Natividad Rangel
Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman
Pablo E. Ramos
Clerk
David M. Wallen
Helper Liquid Fuels
Wharfman


DECEMBER 2, 1960


I








PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS

October 15 through November 15


EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between October 15 and
November 15 are listed below. \ithii-
grade promotions and job reclassifica-
tions are not listed.
ADMINISTRATIVE BRANCH
Mrs. Mayra I. Caropresso, from Qualifi-
cations Rating Clerk, Central Employ-
ment Office, to Translator.
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Horace L. Smith, to Customs Inspector.
Mrs. Katherine Murphy, Mrs. Ofelia I.
Serrano, Mrs. Mary W. Seikel, Mrs.
Clara M Adriance, to Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher. ,
Elizabeth Tapiero, to Elementary Teacher,
Latin American Schools.
OFFICE OF GOVERNOR-PRESIDENT
Warren H. Smith, to Safety Officer, Chief
of Safety Branch.
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Mrs. Edith W. Cotton, to Freight Rate
Assistant, Accounting Division.
ENGINEERING AND CON-
STRUCTION BUREAU
Office of the Director
Russell T. Wise, from Safety Inspector,
Safety Branch, to Supervisory Safety In-
spector.
Mrs. Betty J. Farrell, from Clerk-Stenog-
rapher, Community Services Division,
Accounts Maintenance Clerk.
Dredging Division
Lloyd A. Roberts, from Third Assistant
Engineer, Steamship Division, SS "Cris-
tobal," to Engineer, Dipper Dredge.
Fred Miller, from Guard, Locks Division,
to Towboat or Ferry Master.
Jack W. Rocker, from Lock Operator Ma-
chinist, Locks Division, to Floating
Crane Engineer.
David J. Burkett, to First Mate, Pipeline
Dredge.
Gertrudis Rodriguez, to Debris Control
Winchman.
Adolfo Calder6n, to Oiler, Floating Plant.
Engineering Division
William C. Willoughby, from Industrial
Engineer, Industrial Division, to Me-
chanical Engineer.
Electrical Division
Donald E. Judson, to Power System Dis-
patcher.
Maintenance Division
Carmine Ammirati, to Lead Foreman Plas-
terer, Tile and Block Setter.
James P. Young, Jr., to Leader Plumber.
Andres Medina, Misael Rivera, to Plasterer,
Tile and Block Setter.
Andr4s DeGracia A., from Kitchen Atten-
dant, Supply Division, to Laborer.
Michael A. Haywood, Bias Romero R., from
Dock Worker, Terminals Division, to
Laborer.
Ricaurte Robles, to Heavy Laborer.
HEALTH BUREAU
Mrs. Billye J. Henry, to Dental Surgery
Assistant, Gorgas Hospital.
MARINE BUREAU
Industrial Division
Paul H. Zimmerman, to Lead Foreman
Marine Machinist.
James P. Boukalis, to Leader Machinist.
Earl A. Escalona, to General Helper.


James E. Scott, Samuel Hawkins, Carlos
A. Beaumont, to Maintenanceman, Rope
and Wire Cable.
Locks Division
Carl A. Yarbro, to Lock Operator.
Robert J. Blevins, to Towing Locomotive
Operator.
Thomas C. Clarke, Jr., to Lock Operator
Machinist.
Joseph D. Powlett, to Maintenanceman.
Glanville L. Wilson, to Leader Boatman.
Rail Rodriguez B., to Clerk.
Lester H. Barrows, to Lock Operator Car-
penter.
John J. Christopher, Eustaquio Galvin,
Eugene A. Tucker, Hubert A. Gray, to
Carpenter Maintenance.
Juan D. Troncoso L., Di6genes Torres G.,
Antonio Ramirez, Calvin C. Wilson,
Adriano Navalo, Ivan Burke, Jr., Leo-
poldo A. Anderson, Jos6 D. Sandino,
Teodoro Cruz, Leroy A. Finn, Samuel
G6mez, Horace L. Morgan, Juan Oliva,
Manuel A. Richard, Alfred Taton, An-
tonio E. Vasquez, Douglas O. Yearwood,
to Helper Lock Operator.
Navigation Division
John H. Morin, to Probationary Pilot.
William H. Nehring, Joseph L. McDaniel,
John H. Stone, Jr., to Pilot-in-Training.
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
SERVICE BUREAU
Supply Division
Mrs. Violette D. 4Alen, to Supervisory
Clerical Assistant Offit. of Manager.
Charles M. Nelson, to Commissary Store
Manager.
Philip S. Thornton, to Service Center
Manager.
Bart J .Elich, to Supervisory General Mer-
chandise Officer.
Mrs. Ana Bowen, Gladys H. McKenzie,
Silvia D. Waterman, Alfonso L6pez Z.,
to Sales Clerk.
Carlos E. G6mez D., from Laboratory
Animal Caretaker, Division of Veteri-
nary Medicine, to Sales Clerk.
Henry M. Gatherwood, Alva J. Henry,
Henry B. Thomas, Joseph Rankin, Harold
N. Lewis, Amadio Bringas, Walwin Hoy,
Ted O. Gill, to Guard.
Rudolph Adonia, to Warehouseman.
Victor Kourany, Avis B. Ramirez, Fitz-
gerald Burnham, Clifford Rose, Mrs.
Beryl G. George, to Clerk.
Clifford A. Springer, to Laborer Cleaner.
Kermit Pusey, Joseph O. Inniss, to Counter
Attendant.
Leon V. Deterville, to Accounting Clerk.
Mrs. Dauhney E. Heron, to Food Service
Sales Checker.
Edward E. Watson, George E. Benjamin,
to Storekeeping Clerk.
Mary C. Simpson, to Ticket Seller, Balboa
Theater.
Solomon H. DaCosta, to Laundry Checker.
Community Services Division
Mrs. Rochelle H. Head, Clerk-Stenogra-
pher, from Division of Schools.
Silvano Batista, to Heavy Laborer.
Michael H. Barnett, Leroy Inniss. Dorothy
E. Scott, Ethel L. Lucas, Charles A.
Russell, Berenice L. Jordan, Clara M.
Read, to Accounts Maintenance Clerk.
Juan A. Hernindez, Herminio Figuerna,
Ricardo Armstrong, Laurence Milville,
Pablo C. Petit, Rito Ruiz, Daniel Si--
chez, William Thompson, Clinton H.


Stair, to Grounds Maintenance Equip-
ment Operator.
Filomeno Pascual, Enos E. Dean, Filix
Salazar C., to Field Tractor Operator.
TRANSPORTATION AND
TERMINALS BUREAU
Railroad Division
Alberto Rios, Ladislao Escobar, to Tie
Tamping Machine Operator.
Terminals Division
Alfred A. Hall, to Supervisory Clerk
Checker.
Francois O. Modestin, to Supervisory Cargo
Clerk.
Howard H. Carey, to Leader Liquid Fuels
Wharfman.
Alvin E. Donaldson, from Kitchen Atten-
dant, Supply Division, to Dock Worker.
Rupert H. Scales, Gerardo Gill, Joseph R.
Alleyne, Carlos R. Cameron, to Clerk
Checker.
Pedro A. Rios, to Oiler.
Litbert G. Hinkson, to High Lift Truck
Operator.
Jimmy H. Pomroy, to Liquid Fuels Dis-
patcher.
OTHER PROMOTIONS
PROMOTIONS which did not involve
changes of title follow:
Paul T. Dunn, W. Allen Sanders, General
Attorney, Office of General Counsel.
William S. Acheson, Towboat or Ferry
Master, Navigation Division.
Myron A. Schroeder, Accountant, Account-
ing Division.
Mrs. Helen T. Kat, Time, Leave, and Pay-
roll Clerk, Accounting Division.
Mrs. Elaine M. Payne, Clerk-Typist, Ac-
counting Division.
Mrs. Marie G. Housley, Clerk-Typist, In-
dustrial Division.
Charles F. Kline, Ceneral Engineer, En-
gineering Division.
Robert B. McIlvaine, Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.
Thomas W. Grimison, Engineering Drafts-
man, Industrial Division.
David W. Sullivan, Arthur W. Farrell,
Thomas B. Idol, Guard Supervisor,
Dredging Division.
Garfield Mayers, Guard, Maintenance Di-
vision.
Rafael Herrera, Manassa Garrick, Boo' -
keeping Machine Operator, Accounting
Division.
Joseph A. Taylor, Library Assistant, Civil
Affairs Bureau.
Reuben J. Aikman, Clerk Typist, Railroad
Division.
Dario E. Pdrez, John P. Montgomery, Al-
fonso L. King, Sylbert A. Bowen, Vict r
E. Bailey, Guard, Drd-iinc Division.
Genarina Sinchez, Sal- C(h rk, Supply Di-
vision.
Peter A. Warner, Lead Foreman, Public
Works, Maintenance Division.
Mrs. Mary T. Helm, Clerk Typist, Divi-
sion of Schools.
Nelson R. Clark, Hermanus A. Kleefkens,
L. D. Bowman, Jr., Joseph M. Hunt,
Rufus C. O'Neal, Leonard Wolford, Su-
pervisory Marine Traffic Controller, Na-
vigation Division.
Richard W. Thompson, Preston M. Trim,
Jr., Frank P. Marczak, Oscar O. Brown,
Jr., Martin S. Sawyer, Philip F. Whit-
ney, Rutherford B. H. Stroop III, Wil-
liam E. Weigle, Jr., Marine Traffic Con-
troller, Navigation Division.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








CANAL



- HI STORY


50 Years Ago
PRESIDENT TAFT'S decision to grant
longer leaves to the Canal's hourly em-
ployees was received on the Isthmus 50
years ago this month, but more than
100 boilermakers already had returned
to the United States. Beginning with
the New Year, hourly employees were
to receive four weeks leave with pay
each year. They could defer two weeks
of the leave, allowing them to accumu-
late six weeks with pay for the second
year.
The slide on the east bank of the
Canal opposite Las Cascadas, which
originally became troublesome in April
1908, broke loose again on December 4,
1910. Before the material could be
cleared away, a much larger break oc-
curred on December 13 and carried
away all tracks on the east half of the
Canal prism before stopping. Despite
the setback from the slides, excavation
during December in the Central Di-
vision was 1,408,881 cubic yards. This
made output for the year of 1910 total
b.552 '61 cubic yards, the largest in
this division during any calender year
since the United States began work on
the Canal.
Christmas trees were imported from
the United States, Santa Clauses put
in an appearance and there was an
abundance of town parties and other
festivities to mark the holiday celebra-
tion for the 2,000 North American chil-
dren in the Zone 50 years ago.

25 Years Ago
As WAR CLOUDS loomed in Europe,
there was concern in official circles over
Canal defenses. Congressman Charles
A. Wolverton of New Jersey, a member
of the Panama Canal Committee, said
after a visit to the Zone that the Canal's
air defenses were inadequate and that
present strength should be more than
doubled.
Toward the end of the month, Gen.
Lytle Brown, Commandant of the or-
ganization then known as the Panama
Canal Department, proposed a five-
year, $25,000,000 Canal defense pro-
gram to Congress. The plans called for
a large scale construction effort, which
General Brown said were necessary for


efficient functioning of the military
defenses for the Canal.
Official figures released during the
month showed a decrease in both tran-
sits and tolls for the year of 1935, as
compared with 1934. Meanwhile, P. V.
G. Mitchell, Vice President of the Inter-
national Mercantile Steamship Co.,
urged revision of Panama Canal tolls.
Treaty negotiations between Panama
and the United States were in progress
in Washington, but no definite outcome
was expected until after the first of the
year. Zone residents came in for a
tongue-lashing in a "Washington Post"
article authored by Paul V. Shaw,
former Columbia University professor,
who attacked both their mentality and
their attitudes toward other people.

10 Years Ago
As 1950 DREW to a close, U.S. citizen
employees of the Canal organization
faced payment of a retroactive income
tax for 1950. Several bills had been in-
troduced in Congress which were de-
signed to eliminate the retroactivity
feature of the law extending the income
tax to Zonians, but none had been
passed. The Internal Revenue Bureau,
meanwhile, announced plans to open an
office in the Zone early in January.
Although the dry season was due to
arrive any day, December of 1950
started off with torrential rains. Floods
in the Darien region left 2,500 homeless
and there were a number of slides on
the Trans-Isthmian Highway.
The Panama Canal organization
issued an official announcement that the
Cristobal Coaling Plant, which had been
operated for 35 years, would be closed
at the end of 1951 because of lack of
demand for coal.
With the end of World War II more
than five years in the past, the Pacific
Maru, first Japanese ship to make the
Canal transit since July 1941, arrived
December 10 from Kobe, enroute to
Philadelphia.

One Year Ago
THE CANAL ITSELF provided the only
link between the two sides of the Zone
a year ago this month as slides and


washouts disrupted all traffic on the
Boyd-Roosevelt tligh\\.i and a slide
derailed a Panama Railroad train. Mail,
supplies, and personnel were shuttled
back and forth between Gamboa and
Gatun, bypassing the blocked section of
railroad and highways, by Dredging Di-
vision launches. Rainfall was so heavy
and continuous that all 14 gates at
Gatun pillka ,,i were opened for the first
time in 16 years and the second time
in the history of the waterway.




RETIREMENTS
RETIREMENT certificates were presented
at the end of November to the em-
ployees listed below, with their birth-
places, positions, years of Canal service,
and future residence.
Winston P. Abernathy, Kentucky; Time,
Leave, and Payroll Clerk, Accounting
Division; 17 years, 11 months, 11 days;
Kentucky and Florida.
Ralph E. Blevins, Virginia; Pumping Plant
Operator, Maintenance Division; 12
years, 1 month, 6 days; Tampa, Fla..
Peter H. Borger, New York; Pumping Plant
Operator, Maintenance Division; 25
years, 9 months, 7 days; Panama.
Russell H. Brubaker, Ohio; Supervisory
Baker Specialist, .Supply Division; ,18
years, 6 months, 9 days; Lakewood, Calif.
Egbert S. Clarke, Barbados; Badcedue Room
Worker, Terminals Division; 45 years,
3 months, 9 days; Brooklyn, N.Y.
John E. Davis, California; Pumping Plant
Operator, Maintenance Division; 21
years, 9 months, 27 days; Panama.
Miss Monica E. Farley, Minnesona. Ele-
mentary and Secondary L hliol Teacher,
Division of Schools; 35 years, 7 months,
27 days; undecided.
Edward McDonald Gittens, Colon; Cable-
splicer Helper, Electrical Division; 23
years, 9 days; Colon.
Mrs. Zelda E. Glassburn, New York; Super-
visory Certification Clerk, Central Em-
ployment Office; 19 ...r,. 9 months, 25
days; St. Petersburg, FI.I
Earl H. Johnson, West Virginia; Wood and
Steel Carman, Railroad Division; 16
years, 11 months, 8 days; Panama.
Pedro Lucero, Panama; Dock Worker, Ter-
minals Di\ ,ioin. 31 years, 6 months, 6
days; Panama.
Edward W. Millspaugh, New York; Lock
Operator Pipefitter, Locks Division; 20
years, 1 month, 23 days; Florida.
Jos6 E. Silva R., Panama; Deckhand, Na-
i,.,tiion Division; 18 years, 9 months,
26 tl,... Panama.


DECEMBER 2, 1960














More Picnic


Areas


On The Way


Fenced area atop Contractors Hill to be picnic grounds when completed.


MORE PICNICS, moonlight barbecues,
and small-boat cruises in local waters
are in the offing for Panama Canal em-
ployees and their families as part of the
general plan for improved recreational
facilities within the Canal Zone.
The development of several scenic
picnic areas, including one atop Con-
tractors Hill, is included in plans being
prepared by the Canal organization's
Recreational Facilities Committee,
working under the general direction of
the Engit- lin and Construction Bu-
reau Director.
Also slated for construction as part
of the program are several new launch-
ing ramps to facilitate the launching of
small boats. Ramps presently are avail-
able only at private clubs and boating
areas.
New ramps are to be located in
Gamboa near the former police boat-
house, in Gatun on the embankment
between the railroad tracks and Gatun
Locks, and in Cristobal in front of the
electrical power station. Madden Lake
ramp faciliti.- are to be improved and
work already is under way on a 700-foot
ramp near the Dredging Division Docks
at Diablo Heights. Parking areas for
boat owners will be built near all launch
ramps.
In addition to the spectacular Con-
tractors Hill site, other picnic areas to be
developed are located across the high-
way from Summit Garden and in a
scenic spot above the Miraflores Filtra-
tion Plant.
Work on improvement of the picnic
sites and the new launching ramps will
be started early next year by the Pan-
ama Canal Maintenance Division, using


funds allocated especially for that pur-
pose. Organization of the Recreational
Facilities Committee and studies for
improving recreational facilities in the
Zone were ordered by former Gov. W.
E. Potter as a result of suggestions
received during Civic Council meetings.
The working committee is headed by
M. S. Slotkin, Assistant Designing En-
Liin._l, and includes G. C. Lockridge,


Supervisor of Physical Education and
Athletics for Canal Zone Schools; R. G.
Laatz, planner in the field office of
the Maintenance Division; and N. L.
Randall of the Engineering Division
Projects Branch. Charles McG. Brandl,
Project Engineer for the widening of
Gaillard Cut, was original chairman of
the committee, but now is serving as an
honorary member.


Better facilities for launching boats are included in the recreation improvement program.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW








O r


December Cruise Ships
FIVE CRUISE SHIPS carrying an aver-
age of 500 tourists each % ill call at
Cristobal during the month of Decem-
ber. One of them, the Holland Amer-
ican Liner Nisuw Amsterdam, will make
two trips during the month, one bring-
ing her into Cristobal December 8 and
the second the d.1, after Christmas.
Other cruise vessels scheduled during
the month are the Cunard Liner Man-
retania on December 26, the Holland
American Liner Rotterdam on Decem-
ber 29, the Bianca C. of Atlantic Cruise,
Inc., on December 31, and the Italian
Line's Cristoforo Colombo, due the same
day, on hsr first visit to Canal ports.
With the exception of the Bianca C.,
which is l.ijlinii her cruise in Miami,
all the vessels are sailing out of New
York.
"Paraiso" Returning
THE PANAMA CANAL'S dipper dredge
Paraiso, which was leased three years
ago to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


I PP

TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN OCTOBER
1959 1960
Commercial................. 853 913
U.S. Government............ 11 16
Total................ 864 929
TOLLS *
Commercial ..... $3,823,672 $4,497,912
U.S. Government. 62,859 84,377
Total..... $3,886,531 $.-.582.2bt
CARGO (long tons)
Commercial...... 4,288,638 5,067,301
U.S. Government. 89,761 112,200
Total..... 4,378,399 5,179,501
*Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small!


for use on the Great Lakes and the St.
Lawrence Seaway, is due to return to
the Isthmus about the middle of De-
cember. The dredge will return home
the same way it was sent to the United


Controllable pitch propellers are one of the important features of the three new, high-
powered tugs now being built for the Panama Canal Company by the Diamond Manufac-
turing Co. in Savannah, Ga. Tugs used in European harbors have been equipped with this
special type of propeller since World War II, but they have come into general use in the
United States only in recent years. The propellers being installed on the new Canal tugs are
of Norwegian design and were built in the United States by the Wagner Machine Co. of
Long Island City, N.Y. They will permit the tug to maneuver forward and backward without
the use of a reverse gear and are especially useful on tugs working in confined waters, such
as the Gaillard Cut. The first of the three tugs, the John F. Wallace, was launched in
Savannah last month and will be ready for delivery about mid-December. The second will
be ready early in February and the third in mid-March. Panama Canal crews will be sent
to the U.S. to bring the new craft back to the Isthmus as they are completed and accepted.


N


G


States-as a passenger on a U.S. Navy
floating dry dock.
Preparations for the return of the
dredge were started in October and
actual departure was scheduled from
Boston the latter part of November. It
will be accompanied by the three 1,000-
cubic yard scows, one of which will
travel in the drydock with the Paraiso,
while the other two will be towed
behind. The drydock and scows will
be ',mIhblt down the east coast by a
s .i'oiii tug. After arrival here, the
dredge %. ill be overhauled and put back
into working condition by the Panama
Canal forces. It then will be placed in
use on the widening of Gaillard Cut.

Testing "Hercules'" Strength
THE STRENGTH OF the Canal's 250-ton
floating crane Hercules, which will be
used in January during Locks overhaul,
was tested at the Industrial Division in
Cristobal last month. The big crane will
be used to lift the massive Gatun Locks
miter gates off their pintles and float
them onto concrete blocks where they
will be overhauled. During this time the
crane will be required to handle ap-
proximately 200 tons in weight. The
tests at the Industrial Division estab-
lished that the Hercules, built to lift 250
tons, could l' ......fullh lift up to 330
tons.
The Hercules has been in Canal serv-
ice since before the First \o rld War. It
was built, together with the Ajax.. in
Germany and was towed across the
Atlantic to Panama. The Ajax was sold
several years ago, leaving the Hercules
as the largest floating crane in Canal
service.

New Rice Carriers
SOME OF THE Isbrandtsen Line ships
which run liIgI.ml1'. through the Canal
on a round-the-world service, may soon
be carrying rice in bulk from the Pacific
Coast to Puerto Rico. According to the
Pacific SfiiP,,pl the shipping company
was expected to sign contracts with the
Grossjean Rice Milling Corp. & Farmers
Cooperative to move 42,000 tons of rice
from the Pacific Coast to Puerto Rico
annually beginning in January. Twelve
Isbrandtsen vessels will be refurbished
for this service at a cost of S7'i 1,000.
No advance notice of the arrival of the
first ship at the Canal has been received
here yet-by C. B. Fenton & Co., agents.


DECEMBER 2, 1960
"h


24 ,







3 1262 00041 5843



LATIN
AMERICA















D ATE DUE

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