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Title: Panama Canal review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00009
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: Spring 1975
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
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Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 18b
        Page 18c
        Page 18d
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Matter
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text
















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/panamacanalrevie1975pana














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PANAMA CANAL



SPRVIENG 1975
SPRING 1975


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IVlU S. YPARKERL TIE VVILLIE K. rnrtl n
overnor-President C N Editor, English Edition
ANAMA CANAL JOSE T. TURON H.
HARD L. HUNT Editor, Spanish Edition
eutenant Governor Writers
ViNK A. BA N VC CANEL, FANNIE P. HERNA
NKh A. BALDW\ IN FRANKLIN CASTRELLON, DOLORE E
anal Information Officer Official Panama Canal Publication AND PANDORA G. ALEMAN
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
The Panama Canal Review is published twice a year. Yearly subscription: regular mail $1, airmail $2, single copies 50 cents.
For subscription, send check or money order, made payable to the Panama Canal Company, to Panama Canal Review, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Office is located in Room 100, Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Panama Canal Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.


Contents


In the Wake of Drake 3
Transit of "Golden Hinde"
revives interest in the audaci-
ous Elizabethan.

Some Fancy Shirts From
Far-off Shores 9
A short shirt tale.

The Age of Aquarists 13
These fishermen give them an
aspirin and bring 'em back
alive.


A Horse in the House 19
By hand or with net, feeding
a seahorse requires finesse.


More Than A Book of Numbers 22
Phone directories reflect chang-
ing times from construction
days to present.


MU U ru
-i-. rc


Culinary Capers
A riot of rice recipes.


Shipping Notes


Nat, 32
Oldest town on the Isthmus
enters the industrial age.

Credits: Photos by Don Goode (p. 5 "Golden
Hinde" and p. 11 traffic controller), Kevin Jenkins
(p. 6), Mike Goode (p. 11 Ponamanian dancing
couple). Sketch p. 4 by Capt. Adrion Small.


i,

.-I mp


Our Cover

Photographing a galleon undri- ful ll
sail might sound simple but e-rttjIie the
shot of the Golden Hinde, \ hi.: 1. .q[ipc: ,
on the cover, was not an eas\ ta.k.
Intent on capturing the ship .I. Ith h.I:
sails unfurled, the photographer fal-
lowed her on a launch as she left B Ilb.ai
on her way to California.
As soon as she was free of the ~uie.
which had towed her through the C.na.il.
her crew set about the task of puttnii1 i'p
the sails.
But there were no strong winds and
the sails hung limply. Capt. Adrian
Small, master of the ship, decided to
start the small engine to help maneuvci
the vessel into a better position to .:t.: h
the wind. Of course, with the first tl,.l_,
of the motor, the 16th century atr.....
phere vanished in a puff of grey :;sn,.,k,
from the exhaust.
Finally, after much exertion on tche
part of the captain and crew, the lhp
was in just the right position, the wind
filled her sails, the engine was shut
down, the scene was perfect, but only
for a moment. The 20th century in-
tervened again when a small pl.irn
began flying back and forth ..lh-.:tl
above the ship.
At last, the plane flew out of .i.'lt but
a tropical rain shower caused .in'thle-
delay.
The Isthmus was fast fading. into thel
background as the ship mov,.ed al.ri.
under full sail. Hurriedly the pl.'..t.ori-
pher focused the camera just in time to
spot several small boats sailing in be-
tween the Golden Hinde and the launch.
Responding to much yelling and waving
of hands, the small boat owners moved
out of range and the photographer cap-
tured the scene on the cover only
seconds before an ominous black cloud
appeared overhead.
The cover photograph, as well as all
others in this issue, unless otherwise
credited, are by Arthur L. Pollack.


SPRING 1975


"'~~"


17TTT T I1 T' Tl" T" A Dn


NDLZ
S'.r,* 1 n








In thle




Wake





0 f







Willie K. Friar
IT WAS A STRANGE SIGHT-A
small 16th century galleon sailing
serenely past the modern gargantuan
tankers and container ships lying at
anchor off Balboa waiting their turn to
transit the Panama Canal.
The small sailing ship, her sails set
taut, was the Golden Hinde, a replica
of the ship on which Sir Francis Drake
circumnavigated the globe.
From the time the Golden Hinde
anchored off Portobelo early in Decem-
ber 1974 until she completed transit of
the Canal, she attracted unusual interest
on the Isthmus, where Drake has always
been an important part of the local
history.
Drake's victories over the Spanish
along the Las Cruces Trail are well
known and a lively interest in locating
the lead casket in which he is supposed
to have been buried at sea near Por-
tobelo has continued through the years.
An island in the vicinity is still known
as Drake's Island.
It was on the Isthmus that Drake,
after climbing to the top of a tree and
viewing both oceans, fell on his knees
and asked God to give him "life and
leave to sail an English ship in the South
Sea." His prayer was answered later
when he succeeded in circumnavigating
the world on the Golden Hinde.
On his trip in 1577, Drake took the
Golden Hinde through the treacherous
waters of the Strait of Magellan and
harassed Spanish ships along the Chilean
and Peruvian coasts before arriving in
California. The replica of the ship, en-
route from England where she was built,


K-


The "Golden Hinde" lies at anchor off Portohelo in the area where it is
believed that Drake was buried. The galleon also stopped briefly at Nombre de Dios.


Drake's Drum
Drake he's in his hammock an' a thousand mile away,
(Capten, art tha sleeping' there below?)
Slung atween the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay,
An' dreaming' arl the time o' Plymouth Hoe.
Yarnder lumes the Island, yarnder lie the ships,
Wi' sailor lads a-dancin' heel-an'-toe,
An' the shore-lights flashing an' the night-tide dashin',
He sees et arl so plainly as he saw et long ago.


to San Francisco where she will be on
permanent exhibit, took the shot cut
through the Panama Canal. The in-
surers of the ship, which is valued at a
million dollars, took a dim view of
having her go through the Strait of
Magellan.
Plans are to berth the ship at Fisher-
man's Wharf in San Francisco to com-
memorate Drake's voyage and his land-
ing on the west coast of America in 1579.
The Golden Hinde replica was de-
signed by Chris Norgaard, a Californian,
for a consortium of San Francisco busi-
nessmen including Albert D. Elledge,
president of a tugboat and harbor tour
line, and Art Blum, public relations
consultant.
The idea to build such a ship for San
Francisco germinated in the mind of
Art Blum, at least 10 years ago. Pre-


Henry Newbolt

liminarv designs were produced about
5 years later following considerable re-
search. Although often reported in the
press as "an exact replica," this would
be impossible as little is known about
the original Golden Hinde.
After studying every scrap of his-
torical evidence available, including
manuscripts which described Drake and
his ship and viewing paintings of the
period, Norgaard came to the conclu-
sion that the Golden Hinde was a classic
example of a mid 16th century warship.
It is believed that the ship was built in
France and was bought by John Hawk-
ins, Drake's uncle.
Norgaard was greatly influenced by
Nuito da Silva, the Portuguese pilot
captured hv Drake, who became his
navigator. He had a high opinion of the
ship and wrote: "The Capitana (flag-


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


I






The replica was

built to

commemorate

Drake's landing

on the coast of

California

in 1579


ship) is in a great measure stout and
strong. She has two sheathings, one as
perfectly finished as the other. She is
fit for warfare and is a ship of the French
pattern, well fitted out and furnished
with very good masts, tacke and double
sails. She is a good sailor and the rudder
governs her well . She is. water-fast
when navigated with the wind astern
and not violent but when the sea is high
she labours and leaks not a little . ."
It is interesting to learn that the new
Golden Hinde had the same problem.
(From the Captain's Notes a short time
after leaving England: "We have been
pestered with small leaks at bow and
stern, only apparent when the ship is in
a heavy sea.")
Since no detailed records of the de-
sign of the original ship existed, Nor-
gaard relied to some extent on the ratios
of lengths to depth and width, which is
the way shipbuilders of the 16th century
worked. Matthew Baker, an English
shipwright, working some years after the
supposed date of the construction of
Drake's ship, explained the process in a
unique manuscript preserved in the
Pepvs Library at Magdalene College,
Cambridge:
Proportiones for shipping
The bredth is arbitrarie, ye depth must never
he more then 1/2 ye bredth, nor less then 1/3,
The length never less then double ye bredth
nor more then treble . .
The size of the Golden Hinde was
determined to a certain extent by the
known size of the dock at Deptford,
England, where the original vessel lay
for almost a century before she rotted
away. A brick wall was built around her
on the orders of Queen Elizabeth I to
help preserve her as a museum piece.
There was a somewhat whimsical
proposal at that time that she be hauled
to the top of the tower of the old
St. Paul's Cathedral and kept there per-
manently as a "reminder and treasure
for all Englishmen."


It was reported that she was also used
as a restaurant and Pepys wrote of
visiting the ship in 1662 and noting that
the timbers were rotting. About this
time the decision was made to break up
the ship. The only relics remaining
today are a chair of polished oak made
from the ship's timbers, which is in the
Bodleian Library at Oxford, and a table
in the Middle Temple in London.
From the information concerning the
Deptford berth of the original ship,
Norgaard estimated the Golden Hinde's
dimensions to be 75 feet on the water-
line; 102 feet overall (not including the
bowsprit); maximum breadth 20 feet;
extreme draft 13 feet, her mainmast
80 feet tall, her foremast 71 feet and
her mizzenmast 361/2 feet. The replica
carries a total of 4,150 square feet of
sail and displaces 290 tons.


The planning of other aspects of the
construction also required much atten-
tion to detail. The lower deck has 14
long-barrelled cannon, typical of a ship
of the period, complete with loading
and priming gear at each gun station.
Lanterns and small arms racks are also
fitted on this deck. In the hold are shot
and powder-kegs along with a store of
small arms, cooking utensils, barrels,
and tools of the period.
Beneath the afterdeck of the ship are
two cabins. First, Drakes, where he
"entertained" San Juan de Ant6n, the
captain of the famed treasure ship,
Nuestra Seiora de la Concepcidn (Our
Lady of the Conception) which was
called by the crew the Cacafuego. Drake
treated the captured captain in a gentle-
manly manner while he held him aboard
the Golden Hinde for the 3 days re-
quired to remove a fortune in gold,
silver, and jewels from the Spanish ship


and transfer it to the hold of the Golden
Hinde while the ships stood off the coast
of Peru. When Drake released the cap-
tain, he gave him a number of gifts in-
cluding a gilt corselet and 600 pounds
of iron as well as a letter of safe conduct
in case he should encounter other
English ships.
Drake's cabin is the most uncomfort-
able part of the ship during rough
weather. Beneath it is the Great Cabin,
complete with a beautifully carved oak
table capable of seating 10 people. Since
the furniture was recorded as being the
finest of the period, hand-carved replicas
in English oak were commissioned for
the ship.
On the poop deck is a "round house"
in which Drake spent many hours paint-
ing with his young nephew, John Drake.
The main deck, in front of the Great


Cabin, where Drake was knighted by
Queen Elizabeth 1 following his circum-
navigation of the world, has a crucifix
and a grog cask and on the fo'c'scle
forward of the main deck are two small
cannon.
Carving on the ship is limited to a
gilded figurehead representing a hind
(hind is spelled with an e in the name of
the ship because research revealed that
was the way it was spelled in Elizabe-
than times) and a gilded lion mounted
on top of the rudder-post.
Once the designer had completed his
plans, the search began to find someone
to build the ship. The owners finally
settled on J. Hinks & Sons, of Appledore
in North Devon, England. Hinks had
recently built a replica of the 17th cen-
tury ketch Nonsuch, the ship of the
Hudson's Bay Co., which is now in a
museum in Canada. The Hinks family
has constructed wooden sailing ships


SPRING 1975






since 1844 and the policy of the ship-
yard has been to continue the methods
of wooden shipbuilding that have been
used for hundreds of years.
They used old fashioned tools includ-
ing chisels, augers, and adzes for much
of the work but they also used modern
saws and electrical tools on some
structural features.
For rigging the ship, Hinks called on
two retired craftsmen, Joe and Oswald
Bennett. Both are over 70 and had
worked on some of the last square-rigged
ships sailing out of Appledore, the last
port in England to operate commercial
sailing ships.
It was decided that the timbers used
in the original ship were probably
English oak, elm, and pine and a search
for the right timbers included visits to
timber yards throughout the country.
Finding the tree for the mainmast of
the Golden Hinde involved visits to
estates as far afield as Scotland before a
suitable one was found on an estate in
Devon.
The keel was laid September 30, 1971
with the keel bolts driven home by the
Mayor of Plymouth and the Earl of
Mount Edgcumbe, the present owner of
Buckland Abbey, Drake's country home.
Two months later, the Duke of Edin-
burgh came by to watch the men at work
on the laying out of the ribs of the ship.
The launching, by the Countess of
Devon with a bottle of mead, took place
April 5, 1973. During the ceremony an
engraved Devon cider flagon containing
water drawn from the River Tavy near
Drake's former home was presented to
the owners to be carried to California
on the ship.
SAfter being on display in England,
the ship, with Capt. Adrian Small as
master, sailed from Plymouth, Septem-
ber 29, stopping at Falmouth, England;
Lisbon, Portugal; Bridgetown, Barba-
dos; Cartagena, Colombia; Nombre de
Dios and Portobelo, Panama; before
arriving at the Canal.
Driae's ship sailed out of Plymouth,
December 13, 1577. She was at that
tiriie ,nimed Pelican, but Drake changed
the nrme to Golden Hinde at the eastern
entrance to the Strait of Magellan to
honor his patron and good friend, Chris-
r topher HIadden. The figure of a hind or
.leer was a part of his crest. (While
Strnniting the Canal, a Panama Canal
laurich carrying a photographer ap-
proached the ship, the crew noted with
amusement that the name of the launch
w as Pelican.)
Most of the crew of 18 are seasoned
sqi'are rigger seamen, having sailed with
SCaptain Small on the replica of the
,vn,,such during her voyages around the


south coast of England and the Great
Lakes of Canada. Chris Daniel, the first
mate, of the National Maritime Museum
in London, is an expert in old naviga-
tional instruments and carried out a
number of experiments with old period
instruments during the voyage.
Talking with the captain and crew of
the Golden Hinde about their crossing
of the Atlantic and walking through her
narrow low passages one can well
imagine what life was like on the original
ship when Drake and at least 80 other
men were packed aboard her during the
circumnavigation. Records show that
they negotiated the Strait of Magellan
in a raging storm with at least 90 men
aboard since they had collected crew
members from other of Drake's ships.
Most of the men huddled together
in complete darkness below deck while
others lay on deck between the cannon
with the icy sea sloshing back and forth
over them with every roll of the ship.
They were a discontented lot, having
already spent more than 7 months away
from home and found no treasure, only
half naked natives who ate bloody raw
seal meat. They had resorted to eating
penguins themselves.
The stout little ship, however, was a
match for the raging storms in the Strait
and was able to make its way around the
world, after the historic landing on the
coast of California, and return to Ply-
mouth September 26, 1580, with what
some have estimated at today's valuation
as $50 million in silver and bullion taken
from Spanish ships. An exact accounting
was never made public so no one can be
sure of the value but all historians agree
it was a fortune.
Sixteenth century ships, like the
Golden Hinde, were not built with the
comfort of the crew in mind. The men
were expected to find places to hang
their hammocks among the guns and the
cargo.
The new Golden Hinde has narrow
wooden bunks built-in but because of
the dark cramped quarters below many
of the men prefer to sleep on the deck.
A few other modern additions in-
clude a generator to provide electric
lights and a radio as well as a small
auxiliary engine for maneuvering in and
out of harbors. Living conditions aboard
the ship, however, are Spartan and
everyone must be capable of performing
all the necessary tasks including climbing
the rigging.
There is little leisure time for the crew
while at sea. Much of the time during
the crossing of the Atlantic was spent
in maintaining the sails and wood
structures.
One of the worst jobs on a sailing ship


Oswald Bennett, who is 77 years old,
one of the riggers for the "Golden Hinde,
binds a rope-end.


A shipwright tightens a elamp on the
planking near the stem.


Pitching the seams to make
them watertight.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


























Gov. and Mrs. David S. Parker
welcome the ship's owners and officials of
the San Francisco Convention and Visitors
Bureau who, accompanied by
a group of other California businessmen,
flew to the Isthmus to transit the Canal
aboard the ship. Left to right are: Albert
Elledge, co-owner, Mrs. Parker, Dick
Buxton, Governor Parker, Harry Orchard,
and Art Blum.


Keeping alice

sailing ship

traditions


is tarring down the rigg!ni .\lor. '- ith
this hot and dirty work. there '. -.lso
the chipping off of old v.:rimih and the
revarnishing of masts and other wooden
parts.
Although food on the s.hp imclnde-
much of the type that Drake carr.ed
such as salt pork and beef, corned beet.
and dried fish, this is suppleierrnted It
canned food.
Throughout the voyage it .'. as (he cus
tom of the master to muNter .11i harndi on
the quarter deck for "d'. Ine ser.icie to
give thanks to the Almrrhl\ for a Nafe
passage." This was al:o c.-.tomin of
Drake, who was a devo:it Luitheran
Captain Small noted tt it o:n tithe .,p
they are trying to keep alive filingng i h;p
traditions, not specifically, thoie from
Elizabethan days.
It is not possible to repn-rit the lot\.
which is beautifully written n C.ptailr
Small's Spencerian script but theie Lrile
notes (printed at right i .hich it.h hur-
riedly made for the REveIE .'hile he
was in Panama give a first h ind .iccoiint
of what it was like crossing thi: Atliritic


A c re%, member holtdk Snjch "%%ho joined
the 4iip in England a' a ne%%1% born killen.

---n t.Groldpid HIpidc Thr lIg %.ill be
tuirnrid ovu'r t- the n'.iinrN at tFe end oI
the trip pIIt ,is Drake presvrtted his hlo
to (Q)itteii Elizaibuth I. UritOrturiateIk that
Ioo. 4. hiCh ciovrc-.t d ttIh11 '.'. '','do2t f c ircIin.
rni.'iv2i;tioi, a z rtal hiitc-ncda clociiirtrit,


(lie stri, Ic- of a tiji throuahoi it Ihe trari

.%fter sptridirg alur. '~i %e eks in BalI
L[.o. Nhe left Dec emberr 11.1 for NcapI lco,
ar.1 iriiZ there laniarp-. 5). The shir %il(I
heopenern d to (lie; pill-dic in ",.in FranciC; c.':
Noilnetuine in thie sprnniz.


At left: Members of the crew climb to the top of the masts for a good view of the Canal.
Below: The gilded carved figurehead of a hind is clearly visible on the
stern as the ship joins a tanker in Gatun Locks.


I,


SPRING 1975








Cotjninq the Affan+ic on



A 16AII Cen+wzt Gaeecan


Captain Small's notes:
Sailed Plymouth 29 September.
Put into Falmouth as did Drake's
small fleet of five ships. Sailed Fal-
mouth 1 October with fresh northerly
winds increasing to gale force. Vessel
ran before the gales and made very
good time, 130-150 miles per day.
Reached Lisbon in 6 days and 3 hours
(a total of 824 miles). Anchored at
Cascais Bay at mouth of Tagus River
as Drake had done on earlier voyages.
We spent 5 days in Lisbon taking
on provisions and water. Sailed Lis-
bon October 11 for the Atlantic cross-
ing for Barbados. Took the southern
route towards the Canaries and Cape
Verde Islands as the winds were still
strong from the north. Blew strong
gales as we approached Palma about
12 days out.
Palma is the westernmost of the
Canary Islands and was our last
sight of land for several weeks. It
served to establish our position from
which point we steered westwards.
Heavy seas and strong winds con-
tinued putting a great strain on the
hemp rigging and wooden masts.
About the 18th day, the weather im-
proved and the ship settled down to
a steady 3-4 knots in the northeast
trade wind. Everyday progress was
made towards our destination. Had
only two days of complete calm and
even so made about 40-50 miles.
Towards the West Indies, the trade
winds increased in strength and we
sighted Barbados 33 days out from
Lisbon . all hands in good health.
ship undamaged, still plenty of
drinking water left.
The water ration started with
about 15 gallons per day for all hands
and for cooking but was later in-
creased to 20 and 25 as we were
making good time. It was Novem-
ber 13 when we arrived Barbados.
The only port is Bridgetown where
we tied up along with the luxury
cruise liners. The island is green and
beautiful. Watered ship and took on
fresh provisions (including 100 co-
conuts) and sailed after 5 days.
Enjoyable visit, very friendly people.
Next day we sailed close by St. Lu-
cia Island and into the Caribbean


Aboard the ship, Captain Small,
dressed in Elizabethan costume, talks
with Rev. Edwin C. Webster, Dean
of the Cathedral of St. Luke in Ancon.
Dean Webster is recognized as an
authority on Drake's local exploits.




THE MASTER OF THE "GOLDEN HINDE"
One of the few experienced sailing ship captains still active today, Capt. Adrian
Small, with his full red beard and pipe, dressed in Elizabethan costume, looks
the part of a 16th century sea captain.
Captain Small, who is 44 years old, began his career as an apprentice aboard
the Finnish four-masted Passat during her voyage around the world from 1946 to
1948 which included an eastward rounding of Cape Horn. After brief service in
the British Merchant Marine, he spent several years employed by the film in-
dustry, sailing the ships featured in "Billy Budd," "Damn the Defiant" and
Hawaii" among other productions. He was introduced to the movie business by
Capt. Alan Villiers in 1954 and served with him aboard the Pequod, the ship
used in the Hollywood version of "Moby Dick." He also served with Villiers in
1957 as his second mate on the Mayflower replica.
At the time that he was selected as captain of the Nonsuch, the replica of the
Hudson's Bay Co. ship, he was already one of the most experienced square-rig
sailors in the world.
When it was time to choose a master for the Golden Hinde, Captain Small, of
Brixham in Devon, was the obvious choice. In addition to his other qualifica-
tions, some insisted he even looked like Drake and the British thought it was
appropriate that he came from Drake's own part of the country.


Sea. Coasted the Spanish Main and
after 10 days put into Cartagena ...
a short visit of 2V days . incredibly
ancient walled city with modern
Miami-type city spreading around the
shores of the Bay. After Admiral
Vernon's attack, the Boca Grande was
closed with a submerged breakwater.
We went in by Boca Chica... same
as Drake did.
Three days after leaving Cartagena
we dropped anchor at Nombre de
Dios. It was not a safe anchor-
age and I can well understand why
the Spaniards shifted their base to
Portobelo.
The shore looked inviting, green
hills and thick jungle I suppose, but
we had not time to explore. We
anchored at dusk and sailed at dawn.
No one, I think, had seen us.


Half a day's sail took us to Porto-
belo. We fell in love with the place
and did explore the town and ruined
forts. It reeks of history-the ghosts of
Spaniards and heaps of silver bars.
Anchored off the town, we used our
boats to explore the shore.
Regretfully we weighed anchor
and stood out of Portobelo on the
morning of December 5. Carrying a
fresh east wind we sailed along the
coast and shortly after noon were off
Cristobal harbor. We sailed through
the breakwater in fine style with all
sails set and Elizabethan banners
flying (also Stars and Stripes).
On the 7th of December we were
towed through the Canal to the Pacific
shores. Sailed approximately 5,300
miles from Plymouth, England to
Panama in 53 days.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Drake's Golden Hinde
Visited California
Almost 400 Years ago
The replica of the Golden Hinde was
built to commemorate Drake's landing in
California, June 17, 1579, where he spent
5 weeks overhauling his treasure-laden ship.
Several historical reports state that he
ordered "a plate of brass" (one report said
it was lead) to be engraved with a record of
his taking possession of the land for England
and naming it Nova Albion. Albion, white
land, was a Roman name for England.
While the extraordinarily friendly natives
watched, the plate was nailed to a post
along with a sixpence placed so that Queen
Elizabeth's head, which appeared on the
coin, showed through a hole that had been
made in the plate.
In 1936, a brass plate that fits this de-
scription was found near San Francisco but
although studied by many experts, its
authenticity has never been fully proved or
disproved.
A subject of controversy also is the exact
location of Drake's anchorage. Historians,
geographers, and anthropologists have at-


N-E vEnn An' r T pr


t of WE 'T' .'rI T r.
THE CGACE O(f cIDAnD in rHE .
The "Plae Ef B" now ZAy ETH oe Entrance o AtI Bint
Svat Berele. foRface hs in TAk E Pancl hom. B i
-IUGj,6IME wHftrf KIncG AP9 JJJ2LE f~LYf~EfiO
1rtEIRRIPIGHr ARD TITLE Ir THE WHOLE LA[1D vnroV HE
M Ai~fhfS' EEPEIl G. oL' A lnAE Jy m M fEAn r
flnWr[E ,rnim AtL 0mEn AS' 10lkPL~ir.O f




A f

The "Plate of Brass" now displayed near the entrance to the Ban:roft L brar
at Berkeley. A facsimile hangs in Drake's ancestral home. B ckland .]bbev.


tempted to solve the problem. The sites con-
sidered most likely are the areas now known
as Drake's Bay and San Francisco Bay.
Heated debates on the location of the


anchural .ir,,a ndi .1''LhtiII1,A I' NO the p'ldat
conltiuc I 1 ,r Lr.,tr. l.rL.lo't
logs of ri,. ir,:un~rla ,.11 gatir, 4ool tle th,
argumnk i


Exploration of Drake's Burial Site Planned


This spring, the Marine Archaeological
Project Panama will begin a search at Porto-
belo for several shipwrecks of great his-
torical importance.


Sidney Wignall holds the Duke of
Edinburgh Gold Medal awarded to him
hy Prince Philip for his expedition's
excavations of Spanish Armada ships.
His current expedition will work
off Portohelo for 6 months.


In the course of this exploration, Sydney
Wignall, the leader of the expedition, a his-
torian and marine archaeologist from Colyn
Bay in North Wales, will also search for the
lead coffin in which Sir Francis Drake was
reported to have been buried.
Drake's burial has been described as
follows:
"His interment was after this manner:
His corpse being laid into a coffin of lead,
he was let down into the sea, the trumpets
in doleful manner echoing out this lamenta-
tion for so great a loss, and all the cannons
in the fleet were discharged according to the
custom of all sea funeral obsequies."
Wignall believes it is possible that the
senior surviving officer, Col. Sir Thomas
Baskerville, scuttled English and Spanish
ships in the area where Drake was buried in
the bay and that the expedition, while
searching for these ships, might locate his
coffin. Wignall says that he knows the exact
weight of the lead sheathing and the loca-
tion of the Drake burial site within a margin
of error of not more than 300 meters.
If the coffin is located and it contains
human remains, a detailed anatomical exam-
ination will be carried nut by Professor
R. G. Harrison, of Liverpool University. He
is one of Europe's leading anatomical scien-
tists, whose examinations and blood tests of
the Pharaohs, Tutenkhamen and Smenkare,
recently aroused great interest.
The expedition is supported by the Coun-


cil for anh.ial A.rihaeolo of Grent
Britain .aniJ r ill opratc mi Parrnama nia
waters for nmounth %% il permits ,u,.l b'.
Panama
The .1 A P idl *,.ar,hl for a .:ara el
possibi: abarnioned at Porit-belo in 1503
by Chr.-.:.r-her C(olumb,0i r'. o Ehza.hl-thadl
ships, the Delight and the Elizabeth and
several Spanish frigates scuttled by Drake's
men following his death.
The expedition will work under the super-
vision of the Panama Government. A con-
servation laboratory, the first of its kind in
Central America, will be set up by the ex-
pedition and after completion of the project,
it and all recovered objects will be tuirncI
over to Panama.
The project is designed for scientific. arl
historical investigation only, with no inl.rt;t
in treasure wrecks. None of the ships the
expedition seeks contained treasure. Wignall
said that the goal is: "To strive to enrich the
sum of man's knowledge of his great mari-
time historical heritage."
He will produce a series of documentary
films for international distribution and xw il
write a book which will be published simul-
taneously in England and the United States.
With staff members from eight different
countries, including a number of leading
scientists, Wignall regards the project as
an opportunity for international oop,:ra.i or
in the fields of history and ,,:lrn,:c


SPRING 1975


I_








Some [ancy Shirts




[rom Far-Off Shores

(and some prefer

the local product)


By Vic Canel
FROM THE PHILIPPINE BARONG
tagalog to the Paraguayan ahoi toi
to the African dashiki and the Venezue-
lan liquelique, you're apt to see them all
in this tropical crossroads of the world.
Of course, there are also the classical
guayabera and Panama's own camisilla
and montuno, along with shirts from
China, India, Mexico, Guatemala, Nica-
ragua, and many other lands.
Social gatherings in the tropics often
tend to be informal and men wear fancy
or distinctive shirts instead of coat and
tie. And Panama's centric geographical
location and heterogeneous population
make it a great place for shirt watching.
Most often seen here and throughout
the Caribbean area is the guayabera or
variations of that four-pocket shirt with
vertical pleats at front and back. Derived
from the Spanish word "guayaba" (gua-
va), the guayabera originated in Cuba,
where it was worn chiefly by the "colo-
nos" or gentlemen farmers. The original
guayabera was made of fine linen and
was worn heavily starched and impec-
cably ironed. It had long sleeves and a
collar that could be buttoned and worn
with a black bow tie, which made it
acceptable dress at places where coat
and tie were required.
The price of a guayabera was deter-
mined by the number, size, and work-
manship of the tucks and the quality of
the linen. Even back in the late twenties
and early thirties, when prices were so
much lower than today's, affluent colo-
nos paid as much as $25 or $30 for a
fine guayabera.
In the Philippines, the barong taga-
log, an elaborately embroidered, long-
sleeved shirt with French cuffs and no
pockets, is worn as formal attire. With
open collar, it is equivalent in elegance
to wearing a dinner jacket, but button
the collar and it ranks with white tie
and tails.


The elegant barong tagalog comes from the Philippines, while the sophisticated version
of the guayabera, below it, is a product of Puerto Rico.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW














V.


"Where did your


shirt come from?"


is often asked


question on the

Isthmus.



Traditionally, the intricate embroi-
dery on the barong tagalog is done by
women in the outlying towns or "barrios"
of the Philippines. Embroidering the
pre cut lengths of cloth is an exacting
chore, for the women must know exactly
where to place the embroidered designs
so that they are symmetrical when the
shirt is ultimately cut out and assembled.
The finer Philippine shirts are made
to order. The customer buys the embroi-
dered material and takes it to a tailor
who turns out the finished product.
Some shirts are entirely covered with
embroidery. These are referred to simply
as "all over shirts" and the material alone
may cost close to $200.
Similarly, the Paraguayan ahoi toi
(which in Guarani means fine cloth),
was originally embroidered in private
homes, then made into shirts or dresses.
At first they were made mainly as wed-
ding shirts, with a similar design for the
bride's gown. Today it is a big industry.
Shirts and dresses, made of new syn-
thetic materials, some even equipped
with the adhesive Velcro closures, are
now being exported.
Typical of Venezuela is the liquelique
which is not really a shirt, but a com-
plete costume consisting of a Mao-type
jacket with metal buttons and matching
trousers. The name is believed to be a
corruption of the French word liquette,
a synonym of shirt.
From Guatemala come brightly col-
ored homespun cotton shirts with bold
and distinctive designs woven into the
cloth. A favorite subject is a stylized
version of the quetzal, the bird that


At left, from top: Somewhat less formal than the barong tagalog is the short sleeve model,
also from the Philippines. From India, a high collared, intricately embroidered
long sleeve shirt which is available in Panama's Hindu shops. A stylized version of the
quetzal, Guatemala's national emblem and unit of currency, dominates most designs
from that country. A touch of distinction added to this guayabera is an embroidered
Aesculapian staff to proclaim the profession of its owner, Dr. R. R. Pierson,
of the Panama Canal Veterinary Medicine Division.
Above right: Made of unbleached muslin, Panama's montuno shirt is decorated with
a variety of cross-stitch designs.


SPRING 1975


serves as the country's national emblem
and lends its name to the unit of
currency.
The Nicaraguan version of the pop-
ular guayabera, produced in many col-
ors, usually features embroidered pas-
toral scenes paralleling the vertical tucks
in front. The embroidery is most com-
monly done with thread several shades
darker than the shirt material.
Increasingly popular on the Isthmus,
as with young people everywhere, are
the embroidered, light cotton shirts and
blouses from India. Made in short, long
and three quarter sleeves, they are worn
by both men and women. Most are em-
broidered with floral designs, some have
tiny mirrors sewn into the embroidery.
Hindu shops in Panama report that they
are currently among the fastest selling
items.
Also available in Panama shops are
richly embroidered shirts from Hong
Kong. Like the Philippine and Para-
guayan shirts, embroidery work is done
on lengths of cloth and the shirt assem-
bled later. In this case the cloth is hand
embroidered in China. The Hong Kong
shirts, still another variation of the gua-
yabera, have only two pockets below
and no breast pockets. Made mostly of
polyester and cotton, they come in
white and a variety of pastel colors.
The advent of black consciousness in
recent years has contributed to the pop-
ularity of the West African dashiki, a
loose fitting pullover shirt with a deep
slit neck and flowing sleeves. The bold
prints and brilliant colors of the dashiki
made their first appearance in the West-






em Hemisphere when they were adopted
b \ blacks in the United States, but are
no,-.' a common sight on the Isthmus and
are worn by all races.
The shirt industry in Panama produces
a wide variety of original designs under
internationally known labels. Famous
brands such as Arrow, Jayson, Manhat-
tan and Christian Dior are designed and
manufactured locally under franchise.
The Jayson and Christian Dior fran-
chises are held by a firm headed by
young Victor M. Azrak, whose late fa-
ther, Mois6s Azrak, founded the com-
pany in 1958. His mother is the chief de-
signer. The factory employs nearly 200
people and turns out more than 1,000
shirts a day. Specialized seamstresses
work on various components of the
shirts-some models requiring up to 45
separate operations.
Azrak obtained the Christian Dior
franchise about 2 years ago. Some of
the finer Dior models retail for as much
as $50.
Manhattan shirts are turned out in a
neighboring factory which also produces
about 1,000 a day. Here too, though
advice and technical assistance is pro-
vided by the parent factory, shirt
designs are exclusive.
Though Manhattan also has a line


At right: From West Africa comes this
colorful dashiki worn by Edmund F.
Johnson, an employee of the
Balboa Heights Post Office.
Below left: The traditional Panamanian
camisilla is correct attire for
the partner of a women wearing
the classical pollera.
Below right: Matching shirt and dress
embroidered with local scenes is the
pride of this square dancing couple,
Al and Anne Richardson,
of Gatun.


4

"-



-- i~~i'


L1P

~~r

k-p


Popular for Work or Play


William Bennett, control house operator at Miraflores Locks,
wears the typical Panamanian guayabera, considered by
many ideal for work in the tropics.


r ARM L

--



- '". ...." .: '.,

Guayaberas for boys also are available locally. Wearing styles
in white and blue, Larry R. Rogers and his son, Larry, Jr.,
go for an outing in Balboa.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


)9







At left: Busy seamstresses turn out more
than 1,000 shirts a day at
this Panama factory.
Lower left: Expert cutters follow patterns
to produce the components that will
later be assembled by the seamstresses.
Left below: Buttons are the specialty
of this operator. Some shirt models
require up to 45 separate operations.
Below: Attractive packaging is an
important factor in modern shirt
marketing. Each garment is carefully
ironed and placed in cardboard-backed
cellophane sheaths.


-of women's wear, the local factory pro-
w I duces only men's shirts and trousers.
Materials are imported from Europe,
Japan and the United States. As pro-
tection for the local industry, manu-
facturers are exempt from import duty
on thread, buttons, snaps and other
accessories.
During his most recent visit to the
Panama factory, Herb Kay, technical
manager for the International Division
of Manhattan, who travels the world
over to offer advice and solve technical
problems, provided a preview of things
to come in men's shirt fashions. Solid
colors are in for next year, he says, and
ties are on the way out. The trend, he
says, is toward longer shirt collars, to
be worn open and overlapping the jacket
collar.
Packaging, Kay says, is among the
most important phases in shirt market-
ing and techniques have changed radi-
cally through the years. Shirts used to
be delivered to the retailer in bundles
and it was up to him to make the mer-
chandize appealing to the customer.
Now, each shirt is carefully ironed and

, .' < tt ___
-L< :


attractively packaged by the manu-
facturer.
Many locally manufactured shirts are
sold in Canal Zone retail stores today.
In the early days of the Canal, com-
missary customers did not have a very
wide selection of styles, though the
prices were considerably lower, as indi-
cated by this notice in the Panama
Canal Record of July 7, 1915: "Cata-
logue and samples of shirts from Yama-
toya Shirt Co. in Yokohama, Japan,
received. Shirts made to order are of
pongee, silk and crepe, and can be
ordered through the Depot Commissary,
Cristobal, at catalogue prices plus a sur-
charge. The listed price: 27 yen ($13.80)
per dozen and up."
Shirt styles vary widely. Collars
change in size and shape, sleeves may be
short, long, puffed or snug. But Pan-
ama's two traditional shirts, now worn
only on special festive occasions such
as carnival, have remained constant
through the years.
The most elaborate and colorful em-
broidery is found on the montuno. The
intricate cross stitching and distinctive
designs require many months of pains-
taking work. Bands of embroidered
figures, sometimes animals, sometimes
flowers, adorn the front of the shirt on
each side of the collar opening. These
are called pintas. Below the collar open-
ing is a large central design called "el
coraz6n"-the heart. A straight, almost
knee-length shirt with wide sleeves and
snug, embroidered cuffs, the montuno is
made of unbleached muslin. It ends in
a fringe raveled from the cloth itself.
The full montuno costume consists of
the shirt, calf-length trousers of the same
material, a hat woven from wild palm
fronds and a straw bag with shoulder
strap, called a chacara.
Somewhat more formal if less color-
ful is Panama's camisilla, a long sleeved,
pleated shirt of white linen with a man-
darin style collar and gold buttons. This
shirt worn with black trousers, is con-
sidered to be the correct costume for a
man accompanying a woman dressed in
Panama's elaborate pollera dress, a
multi-tiered, elaborately embroidered
gown enhanced by such accessories as
heavy gold necklaces and shimmering
head adornments called "tembleques."
Pictured on these pages are just a few
of the shirts from many lands collected
and worn by residents of the Isthmus,
where, along with the ships and the
products of the world, there is a constant
parade of fashions from afar.


SPRING 1975






A ANYONE WILL TELL YOU THE
Isthmus is a fisherman's paradise,
but of late local aquarists have given the !
old sport a new angle. Not content '" .
merely to keep the freshwater "tropical" *. '
aquarium fish that are available in any *
well-stocked hobby shop from New York t'.
to California, more and more Isthmian -
fish fanciers are going out to capture
lenizens of the deep, both freshwater
and marine, for their tanks.
Dr. Horace G. Loftin (Assistant for
Environment-Energy to the Chief of
the Executive Planning Staff) noted in
his Ph. D. dissertation, "The Geograph-
ical Distribution of Freshwater Fishes in
Panama," that in the 1850's a "Capt.
J. M. Dow, captain of the old Panama
Railway Co.'s steamer Guatemala, was
apparently the earliest serious collector
of Panamanian fishes." Many others, .
both scientists and amateurs, have fol- -.
lowed his lead. A.l- -. -"'
Carl Chapman, a music teacher at i,. .,
Curundu Junior High, makes frequent b '..' ".' .-.





TkB AP of A anoraAlea

By Pandora G. Aleman


trips to the interior and sometimes takes
students snorkeling up the as yet un-
tamed Bayano River. Since arriving in
Panama, Chapman has kept only native
fish. "Here I was, in the tropics," he
says, "so I thought I'd set up a real
tropical aquarium."
The enthusiasm is contagious. Gilber-
to Young, a systems analyst with the
Systems Division, used to go regularly
to rivers and streams near Chepo with
a friend who liked to catch and breed
his own fish, which he then sold in order
to buy more equipment. Young caught
the bug too, as a glance at his 50-gallon
tank will show.


Other zealous collectors can be found
at monthly meetings of the Canal Zone
Aquarium Society, headed this year yv
Robert E. Daisev. The group, which
boasts a membership of some 137 adults
and about an equal number of children,
last year sponsored expeditions to a rive"
near Chepo and to Portobelo.
The group has heard various speakers
including Dr. Donald L. Kramer, a
biologist with the Smithsonian Tropical
Research Institute who is studying the
feeding and air-breathing behavior of
freshwater tropical fish. He recommends
walking up a river or stream as one of
the best ways to see the jungle. There
are no ants and no bushes to clear, and
the sandy or granite stream bed makes
for easy walking.
His wife, Vanessa, who assists him in
catching fish and in keeping records,
wears long pants and a long-sleeved
shirt as well as sneakers and socks, so


mosquitos will have a hard time finding
a target.
Dr. Kramer suggests that the novice
will be more comfortable starting out in
clear streams where he can slip on face-
mask and snorkel and study the fish in
their natural habitat. He adds that in
swift-running streams, especially in un-
inhabited areas, there's little danger of
disease.
There mav be more danger of snake-
bite in the dry season, when the bush-
master and fer-de-lance come down to
streams to feed on frogs, he says, but
adds that his expeditions here have
netted him nothing worse than muddy
feet and some mosquito bites.
Chapman, who perhaps goes a bit
farther afield than most, has in the past
9 years seen one fer-de-lance and two
bushmasters-all verified, as he brought
back the heads for identification. Once,
out around Huile, he was passing his net


At left: This redlip blenny, perched in his favorite clump of lettuce coral, is the clown
of Dr. Melvin M. Boreham's saltwater aquarium. Above: This scene, difficult to
capture, features Dr. Boreham's large queen angel, at left, and a smaller one, at center.
At the base of the featherdusters, right, is a four-eyed butterfly fish. A dark stripe
camouflages its eyes and the dark spot toward its tail misleads any would-be predators.
The angelfish like to peck at the coral and at the "Caulerpa" plants, left foreground.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





under the overhanging roots of a tree
when a hissing sound alerted him that
he was the unwelcome intruder in a
crocodile's home.
But none of this seems to disturb the
dedicated ichthyophile greatly. David
Carlson, a student at Curundu Junior
High, isn't much bothered by the pros-
pect of running into snakes. After all, he
once had a pet boa.
Luckily, not all the exotic fish are
found in exotic places. About the only
place that isn't good for collecting fresh-
water fish is Gatun Lake, which since
1967 has been taken over by the
peacock bass. This beautifully marked,
delicious fish-not a bass at all, but a
species of cichlid-was brought in from
Colombia to stock a small man-made
lake. During the rainy season, the lake
overflowed and the fish found their way
to Gatun Lake, where they fed voraci-
ously on the small native fishes, now all
but extinct in those vast waters.
You don't need much in the wav of
equipment to enjoy the sport. Besides a
facemask and snorkel-Chapman savs
the "ping-pong ball" type is best in swift-
running streams-and a net of some
kind, it's a good idea to take along a
cooler or a bucket or two, with a battery-
operated aerator if you are far from
home. To transport his catch. Chapman
puts water and fish in large plastic bags
and adds a quarter of an aspirin to each
bag. This, he says, tranquilizes the fish,
which then require much less oxygen
than they normally would.
Dr. Kramer has a variety of nets at
his lab in an old bunker near Naos
Island. It takes two people to work the
seine, a net stretched between two
poles-basicallv like the common min-
now seine, but with heavier weights
along the bottom.
He also has a large square-bottomed
dip net on a long handle and an A-frame
net. a sort of scoop-like affair that works
like a one-person seine. He sometimes
uses the metal minnow traps commonly
used to catch live bait.
Chapman uses an apron of mosquito
netting to go after his fish. The apron
ties around the neck and has elastic at
the wrists and lead weights along the
bottom-another one-man seine. Using
mask and snorkel, he crawls upstream.
If he picks up a rock, anything hiding
under it or clinging to it finds itself in
the net. When he stands and brings his
arms up. he usually has a variety of fish
from which to choose.
Most fish captured locally are not as
colorful as their South American rela-
tives or those which have been specially
bred by aquarists, but with their varied


personalities they are no less fascinating
to watch. Through careful breeding and
crossbreeding, more colorful strains can
be developed-a challenge that a few
local aquarists have taken up.
The collector will find it easy to pick
up the wild molly, several of its near
relatives, and other live-bearers in his
seine.
This family of fish has long fascinated
aquarists because of its unique manner
of breeding. The male fertilizes fully
formed eggs in the female's egg duct;
the eggs hatch and the young grow in
the protection of the mother's body.
They are delivered one at a time, folded
head to tail, and soon straighten and
swim for refuge. A plus for the aquarist
is that these promiscuous fish multiply
rapidly without his having to play
Cupid. Chapman says a cross between


Asp! i n-' may


1h lp to


calm the


catch


the native molly and the more colorful
"store-bought" hybrid molly produces
offspring with the hardiness of the Pan-
ama molly and the fanciness of the
hybrid.
In the wild, several of these little fish
perform the very useful function of
eating the larvae of mosquitoes that
carry malaria and yellow fever. In
"Exotic Aquarium Fishes," William T.
Innes notes that "success in building and
maintaining the Panama Canal de-
pended partly on the solution of the
fever problem" and credits one member
of the Gambusia genus with helping to
make Panama habitable to foreigners.
The "mosquito fish" found here takes
its name not from its dietary habits but
from its size. According to Innes, it is the
smallest of the aquarium live-bearers,
with an overall length of about half an
inch.
The aquarist usually learns the hard
way not to tangle with one member of
the characin, or tetraa," family found
here in abundance. Members of the
Roeboides genus are nice to look at,
with their silvery body, reddish fins, and
black spot at the base of the tail. Their


sloping forehead gives rise to the nick-
name "humpbacked tetra." The fish
seems to have a lot to offer the aquarist-
but it's murder. Roeboides has a nasty
habit of ramming other fish with spikes
on his snout, knocking loose a scale or
two which he then dines on at his
leisure.
Another family of fish commonly
found in Panamanian streams is the,
cichlids. Innes says that "high-strung"
cichlids change colors rapidly, and this
is borne out by Chapman's observation
of color change after feeding-or even
when excited by a finger being wiggled
in water at the top of the aquarium.
They have the most personality of all
local freshwater fish, he says, being tem-
peramental and moody to the extent of
eating well one day and, the next, letting
even live baby guppies go unmolested.
Chapman says he found his fish liked
to dine on slivers of corbina roe. But
Sid, a blue cichlid (also known as blue
acara or chogorro) belonging to friends
of the Kramers, has a predilection for
cockroaches. There's no accounting for
tastes.
Dave Carlson has some zebra cichlids,
which he also calls "striped convicts,"
that have dark spots by day and stripes
by night. The female of the species has
most of the color, an oddity among
aquarium fishes.
Dave is rather proud of having caught
two of the elusive knife fish. These
graceful fish, relatives of the so-called
electric eel, propel themselves backward
or forward with equal ease, by the ripple
of a fin.
Chapman reports finding three mem-
bers of the broad-sole family, those
peculiar fish that lie on one side and in
maturity have both eyes on the upper
side, in the Ipate River. When these
relatives of the flounder undulate the
fins at the edges of their bodies they
glide horizontally like, as Innes says, "a
pancake being propelled through the
water."
The long, slender, delicate pipefish
is a marine specimen that here in the
tropics has moved into freshwater. Dave
Carlson found a small one, along with
what seems to be a freshwater eel of
respectable size, in a Corozal drainage
ditch. Looking at the slim pipefish, one
would never guess that it's related to
that marine charmer, the seahorse. In
both, the male carries the eggs in a
pouch until they hatch, and both have
difficult-to-please palates, preferring
live food of just the right size.
Even the hobbyist who doesn't fill his
aquarium with fish he has caught him-
self makes room for the local catfish,


SPRING 1975







Coral and plants provide hiding places


Dr. Boreham readies his camera and movie light and waits for a fish to swim into range. His 83-gallon marine aquarium,
which he built himself, is set up to resemble a coral reef in miniature.


valued as peaceful scavengers that help
to keep the tank clean.
The graceful Pimelodella, commonly
known as the striped catfish, and its
larger relative Rhamdia abound in Pan-
amanian streams. Hidden in the dorsal
(or back) and pectoral (or breast) fins
of the innocuous-looking Pimelodella are
three venomous spines that can leave
the unwary collector's finger smarting
for an hour or more.
The Plecostomus and the whiptails
are well-known local suckermouth ar-
mored catfish. (No catfish has scales;
the armored catfish are covered with
bony plates.) These fish use their sucker-
like mouths, located on the underside of
the head, to scrape algae and other
material from the aquarium bottom arnd
sides, plants and ornaments.
Plecostomus, light brown with dark
spots, tends like most catfish to hide or
lie quietly during the day. Dr. Kramer
says it is much easier to catch at night,


an assertion that most collectors are
reluctant to verify.
Two types of whiptail catfish are
found in Panama. In the smaller Lori-
caria, common in the Canal Zone area,
the "whip" appears only at the top of
the tail fin. Appropriately enough, the
male has a "beard" of short bristles.
David Carlson has one of the much
larger but still peaceful Sturisoma genus,
which has "whips" at the top and bottom
of its fin. It is found farther away, in the
Mamoni River of the Bayano basin and
the Ant6n River, Cocl6 Province.
Anyone who wants to can populate
his tanks with freshwater shrimp. Those
with small foreclaws are less likely to
annoy or damage the fish, though all are
fascinating to study as they scavenge,
picking up miniscule particles and trans-
ferring them from claw to claw until
they end up in the shrimp's tireless
mandibles.
Even the aquatic "weeds" proliferat-


ing in the waters of Gatun Lake are a
boon to the aquarist. Hydrilla and horn-
wort provide good hiding places for
small fish, and duckweed, a small float-
ing leaf, gives needed shade where an
aquarium gets too much overhead light.
Water lettuce, another floating plant,
has fluted, velvety, light green leaves
which add to the tank's beauty. And the
floating water hyacinth, which because
of its rapid propagation is probably a
greater threat to navigation than any
other plant, not only produces a beauty-
ful white, blue, or violet flower but has
blue-black bushy roots that according to
Innes are ideal for breeding fishes that
drop adhesive eggs near the surface-a
group that includes goldfish.
Fascinating as it can be, an aquarium
filled with local freshwater fish is to the
aquarium filled with marine, or salt-
water, fish what black-and-white is to
technicolor.
Many are those who head out to en-


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Fish fanciers find field

trips are half the fun


Above: David Carlson goes after a native cichlid in one of
several tanks he has in his hobby room. At right: Face down with
mask and hand net in a well-shaded stream near Gamboa,
he demonstrates one of many techniques used by hopeful
collectors. Fish captured go into the cooler at water's edge.


joy for a brief while the wonders of the
Panamanian seas-particularly the Carib-
bean coral reefs-but few attempt to
bring the beauties of those waters into
their living rooms, and rarer still are
the individuals who succeed.
Dr. Melvin M. Boreham of Coco Solo,
the medical entomologist with the San-
itation Division who works on mosquito
control research, might be called the
dean of local marine aquarists. His
aquarium is an outstanding example of
what can be done in creating a miniature
coral reef in the living room.
After coming here in 1966 he visited
the coral reefs and was fascinated by the
fish. He had previously had a 15-gallon
freshwater aquarium, and decided to try
his hand at the marine variety. He be-
gan with a 20-gallon tank and soon real-
ized that keeping saltwater fish was
quite different from maintaining a fresh-
water aquarium.
For one thing, freshwater fish are
much more adaptable than marine fish,
since they must adjust to variations in
water quality caused by the annual
rainy season-dry season cycle. On the
other hand, the environment provided
by Panamanian seas has remained rela-
tively constant since the Isthmian land
bridge between North and South Amer-
ica emerged from the ocean three or
four million years ago. According to
some experts, the coral reef is probably
the most stable environment on earth,
while the quality of seawater in an
aquarium is subject to rapid and drastic
changes.
To combat this, the aquarist should
begin with the largest tank he can man-


age. Secondly, he should thoroughly un-
derstand the importance of using the
right type and quantity of gravel and
a subgravel filter. A book by Stephen
Spotte, "Marine Aquarium Keeping," is
highly recommended by Dr. Boreham as
it covers setup of the tank in detail.
After having trouble with his 20-gal-
lon aquarium, Dr. Boreham built an 83-
gallon all-glass tank. (The metal com-
monly used to strengthen freshwater
tanks corrodes readily in the presence
of salt water.) On top of the subgravel
filter is 4 inches of 3/16-inch to ,-inch
gravel coral.
The importance of such a setup lies
in the fact that if the aquarium is prop-
erly seasoned before a large number of
fish are added, beneficial bacteria col-
lect on every surface of every piece of
gravel. As the aquarium water is drawn
through the gravel, the bacteria act on
the highly toxic ammonia which consti-
tutes the major waste product of the
fishes, transforming it first into nitrite
and finally into relatively nontoxic
nitrate.
Even with all this, Dr. Boreham ad-
vises the marine aquarist to change
10 to 25 percent of the water in the tank
monthly, either bringing new water from
the ocean in plastic 5-gallon "jerry cans"
or making up a new solution from syn-
thetic sea salts. This is to replace trace
elements and to reduce the nitrate level,
both of which benefit the fish.
An aid to the aquarist, freshwater or
marine, who wants to keep his pets free
of disease is an ultraviolet sterilizing
unit. Water is pumped through Dr.
Boreham's unit at the rate of 200 gallons


per hour, and harmful bacteria and
free-swimming stages of protozoan
parasites are killed.
In addition, Dr. Boreham tries to pro-
vide his fish the hiding places and "terri-
torial space" they need. Overcrowding
puts the fish under psychological stress,
making them more prone to disease.
Because marine fish have a strong
sense of territorial rights, Dr. Boreham
makes a practice of either rearranging
the coral when adding new fish or add-
ing the new fish at night, when the
others have eaten and are ready to retire
to their chosen niches.
He uses a timer on his aquarium lights
to control the day-night cycle, giving
the fish 12 hours of each. He says the
period of uninterrupted darkness is cru-
cial to the well-being of reef fish. They
get fidgety and squabble just before the
lights go out, as they get ready to set up
for the night. The smaller, more defense-
less fish, ever alert, ever wary, move
from their daytime hiding places to
different ones to elude potential enemies.
Proper food is important too. Dr.
Boreham, like many others, makes his
own, using gelatine, raw shrimp, water,
a good commercial flake food, and
spinach.
By speaking to the Aquarium Society
and other local groups about marine
aquariums, using slides and movies
taken of fish in his aquarium to illustrate
his points (he titled one talk "Under-
water Photography Without an Under-
water Camera Housing"), Dr. Boreham
has interested others in the hobby.
His neighbors, George and "Bobbie"
Egolf, were given encouragement on


SPRING 1975






the idea by Dr. Boreham who lent a
helping hand. Now they have built and
are operating a 112-gallon aquarium and
their son, Bruce, is becoming an accom-
plished collector and photographer of
coral reef fish.
The Daisey family of Corozal is an-
other example. Robert E. Daisey, a ma-
rine engineer with the Ports Division,
his wife Lori, and daughters Cheri,
Cindy, and Rena like doing things
together and are always ready to take
up a challenge.
The Daiseys' collection of saltwater
fishes started with Amigo, a damselfish
captured near San Carlos, on the Pa-
cific side. (Incidentally, they keep Pa-
cific and Atlantic specimens together in
water they get from the Pacific Ocean
at Fort Amador.) Now, not only do they
have two successful 30-gallon saltwater
tanks, but Cheri plans to get an A.S.
degree in marine biology at Canal Zone
College and may go on for further de-
grees after that. She would like to be a
crewmember of a seagoing laboratory
like Jacques Cousteau's.
The Daisevs have not hesitated to
innovate. Instead of gravel they use
crushed shell from Farfan Beach, which
they say helps maintain the water's
alkalinity. They siphon off and replace
about 10 percent of the water each
week. Using sea water in a special con-
tainer, they raise brine shrimp to adult-
hood to supplement their fishes' diet.
Bob Daisey installed an air com-
pressor with storage tanks that hold
enough air to keep the filtering-aerating
units going for 6 to 8 hours in the event
of electrical failure. Because the com-
pressor goes on and off automatically
and runs only about 10 minutes out of
every hour, he figures the unit both
saves them money and conserves energy.
The marine aquarist is rewarded with
more beautiful hunting grounds and
more spectacular quarry than his fresh-
water counterpart. No local dealer
stocks marine fish, so he must don mask,
snorkel, and flippers or tennis shoes and
either embark for or wade into his
chosen area. He can take along a copy
of the "Fishwatcher's Guide to West
Atlantic Coral Reefs," which is printe-l
on plastic pages so he can study the fish
he sees while submerged.
Tennis shoes are important to the
waders because they offer some protec-
tion from the long, sharp, venomous
spines of the black sea urchin. The col-
lector soon learns also to shun the in-
nocuous-looking fire coral and bright-
orange fire sponge, both capable of
inflicting nasty "burns."
As for barracuda, Dr. Boreham says


A local suckermouth armored catfish of the popular "Plecostomus" genus, shown
clinging to a plant leaf, shares one of the Daisey family's tanks with
some aristocratic black angelfish.


he knows of no unprovoked attack on
man in clear water, though in murky
water they may possibly mistake the
flash from a ring or a bracelet (so keep
jewelry covered with gloves) for fish.
His wife, Kathy, developed an aversion
to eels after an encounter with a 3-foot
specimen with a nasty temper. Dr.
Boreham reassuringly notes that local
eels are neither poisonous nor electric,
though they can bite. The closest call
the Daiseys have had was when a shark
moved in between Lori and daughter
Cheri. A friend yelled, "Shark! Freeze!"


Dr. Boreham demonstrates inner workings
of an ultraviolet sterilizer which assists in
disease control within a saltwater or
freshwater aquarium.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW






Uninvited guests


often add interest


to the aquarium



but to her mother's dismay, Cheri kept
moving in for a closer look.
With all of this, there isn't a marine
fish fancier around who won't tell you
it's all worth it when he gets his prizes
home. Dr. Boreham's two brilliant blue
and gold queen angelfish are the pride
of his tank. His two redlip blennies are
clowns, playing games with the other
creatures and posing for him in a clump
of lettuce coral. The rock beauty, bright
gold with a large dark spot, and
the spectacular black-and-white spotted
drum, with its graceful, high-flying
dorsal fin, are among his favorites.
Adding to the beauty of his miniature
reef are the featherdusters, a type of
tubeworm attached to the no-longer-
living coral he uses in the tank. Its deli-
cate, feathery tentacles rise from the
tube in a spray of splendor, searching
for tiny food particles and delighting the
eve of the observer.
Uninvited guests sometimes come in
with his coral: sea urchins, crabs, bright-
colored sponges, sea stars, and once a
charming little fish known as a secretary
goby. The goby lived in a tiny cave in a
hunk of coral, and except at feeding
time only his alert little head could be
seen. Unfortunately, the little fellow
mysteriously disappeared when a baby
octopus made his entrance, unobserved,
in a later batch of coral.
The Daiseys are particularly proud of
their pair of red-and-white candv-
striped banded coral shrimp, their
orange starfish, and their adult seahorse,
Duke. (Mrs. Daisev's account of their
adventures with Duke follows on p. 19.)
The male shrimp sometimes posts
himself in a protective position above
his mate, and at feeding time, he carries
food to her. He also performs a valuable
service for the fish in the tank, including
the seahorse, by periodically removing
any microscopic parasites they have
picked up.
The rivers of Panama are many and
the oceans are wide. If you think you'd
like to join the fun, you'll find lots of
room and plenty of helping hands along
the way.


IN 11iE 1 l'ECI L COLOR SECTION
Ihe salla acr Aquarium
A royal gramma, left, and a queen angel are two of the 15 brilliantly
colored, darting fish supported by Dr. Boreham's miniature coral reef.
Another, a four-eved butterfly fish, can be seen behind one of the finger
corals. To create a natural as well as beautiful environment, Dr. Boreham
uses several types of aged coral and living plants such as the bush-like
Penicillus seen in the foreground. This photo and that of the seahorse on
the fourth page of the center section are by Arthur L. Pollack.

On The Coral Reefs
The underwater photographs in the centerfold, all taken on the local
coral reefs, show the diversity of spectacular fish, corals and marine crea-
tures available to the saltwater aquarist. The barracuda (5) was photo-
graphed by Dr. Greg Quick and the other subjects by Dr. Phillip Akers.
Both practice at Gorgas Hospital.

The diagram, below, will help to identify the various specimens:
1. Yellowtail Damselfish
2. Rock Beauties
3. Juvenile Grey Angelfish
4. School of Pacific Wrasse
5. Atlantic Barracuda
6. Secretary Goby in a coral head
7. Neon Gobies near their burrow in a polyp-covered rock
8. Flamingo Tongue Snail on a Gorgonian (soft coral)
9. Anemone colony.
10. Flower coral
11. A Crinoid
12. Serpulid Worms on brain coral
13. Queen Angelfish being cleaned of parasites by a smaller fish, a
common health practice among marine fishes which also occurs in saltwater
aquariums.


SPRING 1975





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WE HAVE A HORSE IN THE
Iouse!" Busy at work in the
kitclnic :,.id hearing that call from the
h1.i..2 roor-, some mothers might have
bcl.: .stu nied, but not me. My husband,
Pob. :ind daughters, Cheri, 17, Cindy,
15. ii rF.:na, 6, are all extremely active
*miil full of pranks. Nothing amazes me
|1n'. lio eI
EIteIIIL,, the living room and not
co.n-iug c e,'-to-eye with a hay-and-oats
eater, and hearing the laughter of my,
hiish ,i..1 sindl Cheri, I laughed also-from
pt.u re. hnii,it relief!
The, I s.tw the ice chest at their feet
i.Ir tli: bIattery-operated aerator going
*:-ind c u iit on to what they meant by
"1101 i'i "
.\ e.a igo at Christmas I had given
iiV,' hI'lI..1.,l one aquarium. During the
pi'at ,'<.i tie number had grown to 21.
\t Fiit ., c had been strictly freshwater


specimen. A friend had given him to
Cheri. When the temperature of the
water in the ice chest matched that of
the aquarium, we gently released him
into the aquarium. We kept a close
watch on him for the next 12 hours to
be certain that no other specimens in
the tank molested him.
We did not know that as beginner
marine aquarists we had taken on per-
haps more than we were ready for.
Dwarf seahorses are relatively easy to
raise, as they feed eagerly on brine
shrimp. Adult seahorses are another
matter.
Although Dynasta (as we called our
seahorse) appeared happy in his sur-
roundings, he refused any and all forms
of food we offered him. After the third
try, we knew we were in trouble.
We searched our library and dis-
covered that adult seahorses cannot see


the tiny brine shrimp but will eat baby
guppies or small shrimp. We released
several baby guppies into the tank,
hoping Dynasta would take them. He
never had a chance; the other fish got
them before he even knew they were
there.
During this time, we had made it a
point to place our hands in the tank,
handle Dynasta, let him curl his tail
around a little finger, and teach him that
the hand was not to be feared. This
helped us solve the first stage of our
feeding problem. Cheri took a live guppy
and, holding it by its tail, slowly lowered
it to Dvnasta. He looked it over very
carefully', and then-Snap!-he ate it.
She offered another, and again he ate it.
The next feeding time I offered the
guppy, and he took it. He had accepted
us, and he was now accepting food-
live-so long as we hand-fed him. But


A


By Lori Daisey


fi.sh mi:sers and breeders. When Cheri
co ii, snorkling and developed an in-
teresit ;, scuba diving and marine life,
'. c l'cg.in going as a family on field trips
to the beaches and reefs. We discovered
a whole new world. After joining the
Canal Zone Aquarium Society and hear-
ing talks and seeing films presented by
Dr. Phillip Akers, and Dr. Mel Boreham,
a medical entomologist, and being the
kind of family we are, we were well into
the challenges of marine aquarium
keeping.
Looking into the ice chest, I saw my
very first live adult seahorse. He was a
heautv, 632 inches long and a perfect





At left: Duke, the Daisey family's adult
seahorse, enters the net to feed on tiny
shrimp as the other inhabitants of the tank
investigate the proceedings. At left in
the aquarium is a French angel, to the rear,
a rather shy flame cardinal, and in the
right foreground, a pair of banded
coral shrimp.
At right: Neither Duke nor Frenchie
shies away as Cheri's hand
invades their domain.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


entj











"More, please."





I didn't like the idea of having to do this
3 to 4 times a day. Who wants to feel
like a murderer that often?
I felt we should find another source
of food for Dynasta. I telephoned Dr.
Boreham, who suggested I try seed
shrimp. I had none and they are avail-
able only near the Tarpon Club at the
Gatun spillway. Dr. Boreham, a real
friend in need, came all the way across
the Isthmus to bring me a supply from
his freezer.
I thawed out a very small portion of
the seed shrimp. Taking one; I offered it
to Dynasta. He looked at it, flipped his
tail and swam off. Well, I said, that's
that. However, as I took the seed shrimp
out of the water I noticed one of the
eyes was missing. Also, I realized that
the dead seed shrimp had naturally made
no movement. The guppy, of course,
always wiggled. I took another, making
sure it had both eves and no disfigure-
ment, and this time I moved my fingers
in a circle, making the shrimp appear to
be rolling and thrashing. Snap! Dvnasta
ate it. I repeated the process. Snap!
Again he took it. I was delighted.
At this stage you would assume we
would have been satisfied. But Dynasta,
one animal, was requiring at least an
hour a day to feed (seahorses eat slowly),
and after every feeding my hands and
arms were soaking wet. I decided to try
something else.
At the next feeding, I placed Dynasta's
food in a long-handled net. I waited until
he was close to the front glass and
slowly lowered the net on the other side
of him, so no fish could grab his food.
He gave it a good look, but he made no
move towards the food. I then gave the
net a slight back-and-forth movement.
causing the seed shrimp to appear to be
boiling around. Before I knew it,
Dvnasta was in the net and eating
greedily, and I was not soaking wet!
About this time we received a phone
call from another friend. He had a
couple of adult seahorses, both refusing
to eat. Would we help? Bob and Cheri
grabbed the ice chest, the battery-
operated aerator, a 5-gallon jug of salt
water (we keep 40 gallons on hand for
emergencies) and rushed out. About an


Dule. loo)k l in lririp ol er ,r1ll btlforc delitling Io line while e ihe
banded coral shrimp below move in to see what's going on.


hour later, they returned with two very
thin seahorses. My heart sank when
I saw them. They had both turned
black-a sure death sign.
Going by our previous experience with
Dynasta, we placed our hands in the ice
chest and gently massaged their leathery
backs, racing against time, hoping they
would quickly realize that the hand was
a friend.
Sadly, we lost one, a female, within an
hour. The other, however, let us pet his
back and showed no signs of panic. We
then offered, by hand, a live guppy.
Weakly, he looked it over, while we held
our breath. Snap! He took it, swallowed
it, and raised his little crown up towards
us as if to say "Thank you. More, please."
We offered him another, he took it, and
we began to have hopes of saving him.
For the next 24 hours we hand-fed
him in relays. As soon as he began to
move around on his own and show
strength enough to protect himself, we
gently put him in the aquarium with
Dvnasta. They were like two long-lost
friends. I have never seen such a beau-
tiful water ballet as they put on together
that day.
At the next feeding, I was concerned


over the new seahorse (which we now
called Duke). It would be his first "net
feeding" experience. Would our trick
work on him as it had on Dynasta?
The net was lowered, complete with
seed shrimp. Dynasta was into it like a
shot. Duke followed along and for a few
minutes just sat there, his tail hooked on
the rim of the net, his body only barely
inside. Dynasta was happily eating
away. Duke just looked things over.
I could see once again several months of
feeding problems ahead. Just when I was
about to give up, he stretched further
into the net, looked the shrimp over-
I gave the net a tiny wiggle-and he
struck! Down one went. He struck again,
down went another. Evidently Duke had
decided, if it's good enough for my
buddy, Dynasta, then I'll give it a try.
About a week later, I made a deadly
mistake. We had gone snorkeling at
Galeta Island and brought back some
finger coral. I put it in with Dvnasta an-
Duke to enhance the beauty of the tank.
That evening I found Dynasta with
his head caught in the jagged openings
of the coral, thrashing and trying to free
himself. While I held Dynasta, Bob
gradually applied pressure to the coral


SPRING 1975







































Duke snaps up a seed shrimp as Frenchie tries to figure
out how he can get his share. The proximity of food
brought even the normally nocturnal flame cardinal, left
foreground, out of hiding.

until it broke. I immediately released
Dynasta, who swam to his usual tree
plant. We looked him over closely, and
could see no external injury at all. But,
sadly, Dynasta refused his next feeding.
He never ate again, and he died.
Any of you who may consider keeping I -f
seahorses, please learn from our own ---
heartbreaking experience. Never place -' a L
any decorative item that has holes in it
in the aquarium housing your seahorses
regardless of how pretty you might think
it will make the aquarium look. It's not
worth the price you'll pay.
I am happy to say that Duke and our
other species are still thriving. We hope
in the near future to locate a mate for
Duke. Who knows? We may just end
up with an entire family of "horses in
the house!"


Now accustomed to net feeding, Duke shies away from the
handheld baby guppy offered by Cheri. The French angel,
at right, shows no interest in the proceedings.


Guest writer Lori Daisey is married to
Robert E. Daisey, a marine engineer with
the Ports Division. Her article "Can I Have
a Horse, Daddy?" about the family's paso
fil, horses appeared in Horse Lover's Maga-


Lori Daisey watches as daughter Cheri moves Duke from one part of the tank
to another. The Daiseys say almost all of their fish will allow
themselves to be handled.


Tln PANAMA CANAL REVIEW










iore


By Dolores E. Suisman


THE PANAMA CANAL telephone
directory is a gold mine of infor-
mation. It's an almanac, a history, and,
if one wishes to be prosaic, it can even
be used to look up a telephone number.
For 60 years, its size and content
have reflected the growth and organiza-
tion of the Company. The buildup of
services as they became necessary and
the decline of services as they became
available in the Republic of Panama and
through mail and freight service from the
United States are quickly visible. The
increase in personnel during wartime
and the decrease with the return of
peace are shown in its pages. In a very
real way, it tells the story of the Panama
Canal.
The first edition, published Decem-
ber 1, 1915, by the Panama Canal Press
at Mount Hope, was a modest 59-page
pamphlet-type publication bound in
Government-green paper.
It was divided into two sections: a
list of departments and divisions of the
Canal organization and branches of the
Army, and an alphabetical list of in-
dividuals. Out of a workforce of 26,897
employees, the 2,000 who had occasion
to use a telephone in the performance
of their duties were listed. Of these,
only 343 rated a residence phone.
The first name in the alphabetical
listing was Abston, J. M. and the last
was Zunder, F. F. Neither a familiar
namo.


o umers




of Numbers


But many of the names in the 60-
year-old book are well known today.
Cen. George W. Goethals, office phone
Balboa 230, residence phone Balboa
300, is one.
Other names in the 1915 book have
been in every edition from that day to
this.
One is Benny, W. E., Foreman,
Paraiso Shops, Mechanical Division,
whose son, Benny, W. L., and grand-
son, Benny, W. L., Jr., are in the 1974
book.
There was a Hummer, C. D., Wreck-
master (Hercules and Ajax), Mechanical
Division; the father of Hummer, C. W.,
whose name appeared in the 1925
directory, and the grandfather of
Hummer, C. W., Jr., Assistant Chief of
the Dredging Division.
In 1915, De La Mater, W. W., Audi-
tor's Office, Fortifications Division, was
listed. After he died, the '32 book added
De La Mater, Mrs. Ann, secretary to
the Superintendent of Schools. Today,
their son, William L. De La Mater, is
listed as Aide to the Governor.
Although telephones had been in use
in the Canal Zone since 1910, an official
directory provided a golden opportunity
to tell residents how to use a telephone;
which it did in great detail.
"To Make a Local Call," it read,
"Place the receiver to your ear and when
Central answers with the expression
'number' give the number. The operator


A Book


will repeat the number. If the party fails
to answer, the operator will say, 'They
don't answer'."
The section entitled "To Make a Call
to a Distant Exchange," included direc-
tions for calling such "distant" ex-
changes as Pedro Miguel.
Cross-referencing became more com-
plicated as the Panama Canal telephone
directory grew in size and scope.
Logically enough, in 1915 you turned
to T to find "Telephone Branch, Elec-
trical Division." But by 1916, in the big,
new 80-page directory, when you turned
to T you found "Telephone, see page
28," and on page 28, under E, you
found "Electrical Division, Telephones."
Looking under C for the number of
the Corral, you were referred to B for
Balboa Corral, G for Governor's Coach-
man, N for New Corral, or O for Old
Corral.
Suggestions played a minor part in
actually changing the directory. But
that didn't stop suggestions from flood-
ing in, often the same suggestion year
after year. There were suggestions that
maps be included, and that they be
deleted; that tide tables be included.
and that they be deleted; that vertical
index tabs be used and that horizontal
index tabs be used. There were sugges-
tions for looseleaf notebook directories
and for directories with wood covers
(from a man who made a wood cover
for his phone book every year). And for


SPRING 1975





60 '.I:rs including 1974, there were
siiL_>:st!i'siS that every listing include a
p..st ..tfi,.l: box number.
BHit it .'.as the cross-referencing that
el- ted ri,.ore suggestions and complaints
than lan, ..ther subject.
One: "To find the number of the Cen-
tral Labor Office, it is necessary to know
that it comes under the Personnel Bu-
reau, and to know that it is not listed
at all under Central Labor Office, the
name by which it is ordinarily known, 60
buit under Chief, Local Rate Employ-
nu: lit Branch."
Another: "To locate the telephone Years
number of the Administration Building IYears
Janitor, you have to look under Housing
Division, Balboa Heights: Housing
Office, Janitor Foreman; Basement,
Administration Building."
And from the most persistent sug-
gester: "It is suggested that in the future
editions of the phone directory that
credit unions be listed together in a
bunch. There are quite a bunch of them
by now and it would simplify matters
somewhat for subscribers. They don't
always know the exact name but they do
know the species of animal."
If suggestions did not change the di-
rectory, they convinced the Executive
Secretary there was a problem. In 1917,
he wrote to the Panama Canal office in
Washington, for a copy of the Washing-
ton, D.C., telephone directory "and in-

These odd-looking telephones in use when early Panama Canal
directories were published would be collector's items today
if any could be found.


With the only complete collection of Panama Canal directories
stacked high on his desk, James W. Riley, Communications
Manager, Central Office, thumbs through the latest edition.


The 1919 directory in this busy office meets original specifications
which included the requirement that a hole be punched in the
corner and a wire loop provided for hanging it on a hook.


[mw P, N NfN C NN NL :EV1E"%.

















Uf)` I


Adrien M. Bouche, retired Canal
employee, finds his name in the 1975
telephone book just as he did 60 years ago
when the first edition came out.

formation which may be obtained with-
out expense relative to the procedure
followed in collecting and compiling
telephone directory data."
The result was a 110-page "big-city"
type telephone directory with Panama
Canal activities, military activities, and
individuals in one alphabetical listing.
But if the problem of organization
was solved, cross-referencing was still
in its infancy.
The following year, an announcement
in THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD re-
ported a new directory in print and
tnat "cross references are used exten-
sively to assist in finding a number with
a minimum of research."
"Used extensively" was an under-
statement.
Now to find a military number, you
had to know you were to look under M
for "Military" where you were advised
to see A for Army, B for Bands, Army,
C for Camps, F for Forts, G for Guards,
N for Navy, T for Troops, or U for
U.S. Army.
The situation didn't improve with age.
Thirty years later, you could find four
and five consecutive listings, all fol-
lowed by a reference to another listing
where you might or might not find a
telephone number: Terminals Building
(see Port Captain); the Texas Company
(See Texas Petroleum); Ticket Offices
(see Railroad Division); Time Inspec-
tion (see Accounting Division); Time
Keepers (see Division concerned); ad
infinitum.
Every year the original little pamph-
let grew as personnel increased and
pages of information were added.
The 10th anniversary edition, pub-
lished in January 1925, introduced the
new and sensational automatic tele-
phones.
Now instead of jiggling the hook for
the operator, you were told to dial 112


for a fire, 113 for police, 114 for in-
formation or 0 for an ambulance or the
emergency operator.
Instructions for using the automatic
phones began with the exclamation
CAUTIONII! CAUTION!II centered at
the top of the page. Under this warning
were listed all ot the things you could
do wrong. The list ended with the dis-
quieting thought that "You will prob-
ably disconnect your telephone if you
hang up the receiver before you finish
talking."
Once an item was in the directory,
it took a declaration of war, subterfuge,
or a drastic budget cut to get it deleted.
The warning that you could disconnect
your phone by hanging up the receiver
was reprinted in every issue for 27 years.
It wasn't long before the information
pages included rates for long distance
telephone calls (all calls beyond Darien
cost 25 cents); hospital visiting hours,
business hours in the Administration
Building (8 to 12 and 1 to 4, except Sun-
days and holidays); business hours for
16 post offices, a complete restaurant
schedule and departure and arrival times
of a launch service to Taboga Island.
Then the tide tables that were to be-
come so controversial appeared, the
Panama Railroad timetable, hours of
business for commissaries and club-
houses; and later, hours of operation for
gasoline stations, banks, storehouses,
libraries and schools.
There was no end to the vital inform-
ative material that was added year
after year. Soon there were moonrise
and moonset tables, sunrise and sunset
tables, passenger connections from the
Canal Zone by ocean or air, an airmail
schedule (to Miami and Brownsville
four times weekly), sailings of the Pan-
ama Railroad ships.
And warnings. Subscribers were urged
to keep social calls on residence phones
to a minimum during business hours
and were told they must not use a Pan-
ama Canal telephone in any manner
whatsoever to request or transmit in-
formation concerning lottery numbers or
tickets, or any other business pertaining
to lotteries.
There were directories within the di-
rectory-a Directory of the Panama
Canal, a Directory of Officials of the
Panama Government, and a Directory
of the Diplomatic and Consular Corps
Accredited to the Republic of Panama.
There was even an 11-page alpha-
betical list of every steamship line that
had a representative on the Isthmus
with capsuled information about the
services it offered for subscribers who
had to know that "The Societe Fran-
caise d'Armement has a freight service


with steamship Alsace betv.een Le
Havre and Chilean Ports."
The additional pages of irdi.rnattion
and the needs of the employ ees in-
creased the size of the telephone dire.-
tory.
There were soon 17 retail commis-
saries listed, 9 clubhouses, 6 churches,
and 4 private clubs.
There was an abattoir, a bakery, a
coffee roasting plant, two ice cream
plants, and farms-the Corozal Hospital
Farm, Mindi Chicken Farm, Mount
Hope Hog Farm, New Chilibre Chicken
Farm, New Chilibre Truck Farm.
And a cattle industry with eight list-
ings-Caimito Pasture, Mandingo Pas-
ture, Frijoles Plantation, Juan Mina
Plantation, Miraflores Pasture, Mount
Hope Pasture, Paraiso Pastures and
Summit Plantations and Pastures.
The book continued to grow bigger,
the listings more numerous, the cross-
referencing more complex. But nothing
increased so much as the cost.
The price of printing 2,000 copies of
the first directory in 1915 was $145. By
1918, that figure had doubled. The
Army picked this unfortunate time to
reply to the annual request for updated
telephone listings with a request for
three Army lists-one alphabetical, an-
other classified, and a third to be in-
serted in the regular Panama Canal list-
ing. And, they asked, please print each
list on a different and distinctive colored
paper.
When apprised that this special treat-
ment would cost $600, they decided to
let well enough alone.
By the time the book was 5 years old,
the cost of printing had increased to
$1,435 for 4,000 copies, and a commit-
tee was formed to study the matter. For
2 years there had been an edition in
January and July. This luxury was the
first to go. But when the committee
found that telephone expenses were in
excess of revenue, they decided that 154
pages for a directory of a telephone sys-
tem with only 2,518 subscribers "seems
larger than necessary."
Although anxious to economize, com-
mittee members were unanimous in
their decision that employees could not
take their old phone books with them
when they moved because "it is not con-
sidered sanitary to carry the old books
along with the phone to new quarters."
After many meetings, the committee
wrote a report that ended: "The ques-
tion is largely whether the Canal wishes
to issue a first-class book, such as the
present one, or to issue a less attractive-
looking book." They compromised by
keeping the first-class book and adding


SPRING 1975





t, re. :rnt.,es. b selling the book to
.u b .cnber for 40 cents and allowing
ib .crilberi to the Panama and Colon
telephoit: s.rn ice to have their names
inserted in the Canal directory upon
pa rr:-rnt of $I.
Siiice jui.t about everyone wanted his
ninm: irneijtil,:l this brought about the
pri:bl:I of '.'.h.ht type of subscriber
could be listed without offending the
user of the directory.
Liquor companies were among others
not considered proper for inclusion in
Lthl Canal directory. It was 30 years
b: f:o,rt: a realistic Governor penciled the
note "no objection to any legitimate
business" on a memo and that ban was
lifted.
One of the few events that could and
did reduce the information pages of the
Canal directory was the advent of World
War II.
"Perhaps enemy countries should not
be listed as having diplomatic and con-
sular officials in Panama," someone sug-
-:-ted. Someone else wrote, "In view
O.f the existing international situation it
is extremely difficult to determine just
who should be included in our telephone
directory." And the diplomatic and con-
sular lists were never seen again.
The Army worried that "non-secret
telephone directories in general use
constitute a perfect means for enemy
agents to acquire complete information
concerning military units," and the
military disappeared from the directory.
Now changes often meant less rather
than more. The farms, the pastures, the
markets were long gone and, in 1952,
the directions for using automatic
telephones were at long last removed.
But the tide tables, which had stirred
more controversy than any other sub-
ject-pro and con-seemingly were to go
on forever. Then, in 1965, a daring deci-
sion was made, and a memo worthy of
war plans written: "Cleared with Gov-
ernor. He was informed of possible re-
percussions. Following is decision. Re-
move from telephone book. Put notice
in new directory. No SPILLWAY or any
other notice."
Some changes were more dramatic
than others. After the military was listed
in the directory for a few post-war years,
they were notified that the Canal could
no longer afford to carry their listings,
and a joint military-Panama Canal fea-
sibility study of a uniform format for
military and Panama Canal directories
resulted in the large book that first
appeared in 1958.
Staples became a big issue in 1959
when townsite maps appeared. If letters
from subscribers are to be believed, no
one ever looked for directions or a house


The Making of the Telephone Book 1975


Albert Farrell types card strips for new
entries and removes the old ones to
produce up-to-date pages for reproduction
at the printing plant.

number except to find that what they
were looking for was directly under
the staple.
The trust), old staples were thought
of almost fondly in 1974 when faulty
glue caused the directory to come apart
page by page after it was used a few
times.
For the most part over the past 20
years, the telephone book went unmo-
lested. Few people thought about chang-
ing it. In 1963, emergency numbers were
moved to an inside page and there was
an illustrated cover. A few years later
photographs appeared on the cover, and
a contest in 1970 resulted in a two-color
cover.
In 1972, the last big change: every
page of information was printed in both
English and Spanish.
A collection of the directories-and
there is only one-is an invaluable source
of information. Without it, we might not
know that Crede Calhoun was the first
Civil Affairs Director. That the sun rose
in Balboa at 6:11 a.m. on August 26,
1926. That the tide was high in Cris-
tobal at 2:22 a.m. on December 7, 1941.
This might have been lost forever if,
on September 25, 1914, the Executive
Secretary hadn't scribbled a note to the
"Supt. Telephone and Signals," asking
that "as soon as practicable, please get
up and have printed on cards a tele-
phone directory for this building."
That was yesterday. Today it is a
modern, color coded book with a 2-year
calendar, a map showing time zones and
area codes in the United States and an
explanation of civil defense warning
signals. And tomorrow-who knows.
Maybe tide tables.


Mrs. Judith Holder. Electrical Division
Administrative Officer, delivers page
panels of the 1975 directory to Juan
Fernmndez, left, and Rafael Camargo,
right, who make the plates for
printing the directory.


Roy Goreng checks uncut pages of
townsite maps as they come off the press.


After the famous faulty-glue fiasco of 1974,
Jose Aguilar makes sure the stapling job
on the 1975 book is done to perfection.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW





Culinary
Capers


SPRING 1975





IT HAS BEEN USED TO PAY
t.T.c., debts and wages, and to
pe'ppe' tIhe bride for good luck. It has
s.., cmd millions from starvation and today
p:.ri'. ;id half of the world's population
. ith 2I prcr'ent of its calories. More rice
;i coiiii.med throughout the world than
:ir, other food.
The tiny, but mighty, little grain has
been around for a long, long time-about
5,000 years-and it has had an important
role in the history of mankind. Early)
Asian historical records show that, in
China, in 2,500 B.C., it was so highly
regarded that only the Emperor was
privileged to grow it. It had a place in
religious rites, as a temple offering, and
was a symbol of happiness and abun-
dance.
The cultivation of rice spread slowly
to the Mediterranean civilization. The
Egyptians were growing it in the 4th
century B.C. It was cultivated by the
Greeks and the Romans and much later
the Moors took it to Spain from where
it was introduced into the New World
with the conquest.
In the United States, South Carolina
was the first to grow it and after the
Civil War, Louisiana became the rice
center. Now it is grown also in Missis-
sippi, Arkansas, Texas and California
with Louisiana and Mississippi produc-
ing mainly the long-grain type and Cal-
ifornia growing the round-grain, known
also as Japanese rice.
According to a 1964 study by the In-
terrnaitional Rice Research Institute,
there are more than 9,779 varieties of
rice and many different types, shapes,
and colors cultivated throughout the
world. The two main types are upland
rice, which is grown in ordinary soil, and
aquatic or lowland rice, grown in hot
marshy regions or irrigated fields. It is
prepared for sale as brown, unpolished,
polished, or coated. What we call wild
rice is not a true rice at all, but the grains
of a perennial grass native to North
America.
The lowly grain has been assimilated
into the cooking of nearly every region
on the globe with many countries pro-
ducing at least one rice dish that has
become universally known.
The Spanish have combined rice with
seafood and vegetables to give us paella;
in Italy, where surprisingly more rice
than pasta is consumed, rice is cooked in
chicken broth to produce the delicious
risotto; the Mideastern countries saut6
rice in, butter, olive oil and onion (often
addiig slivered almonds) and produce
p'l!al And so it goes, each country eating
rice plain, boiled or sauteed, in soups, as
i irr.n dish combined with seafood,


poultry or meat, with vegetables, and as
a dessert.
An important staple in the Panama-
nian diet, rice usually is served twice a
day and in large quantities. Per capital
consumption averages 320 grams a day
which amounts to about 220 pounds a
year, and, in comparison with other
Latin American countries, only Surinam
and Guyana, with a daily per capital con-
sumption of 600 grams, eat more rice
than Panama.
From 100,000 to 110,000 hectares of
Panama's soil is devoted to the cultiva-
tion of rice and the 1973-74 crop pro-
duced approximately 3,574.600 quintals
hundredweightt) of unhulled rice, yield-
ing 60 percent of this amount in polished


and cook for 14 minutes. (Do not stir or
disturb while it is cooking.) Remove
from heat and serve. For a fluffier rice
leave cover on an additional 10 minutes
and let it steam.

Sauteed Rice
Melt 1 tablespoon butter in heavy pot.
Saut6 1 medium chopped onion over
medium heat until golden. Add 1 cup
rice and stir until each grain glistens.
Add 2 cups water or chicken broth and
1 teaspoon salt. Bring to a boil and
continue as for boiled rice.
One of the most delicious rice dishes
made in Panama is rice cooked in coco-
nut milk.


By Fannie P. Hernandez


rice. The province with the highest
yield is Chiriqui, where 46 percent of
the entire crop is produced. Cocl6 Prov-
ince ranks second and Veraguas, third.
The three principal varieties produced
in Panama are: Nilo 1 and Nilo 2, the
extra-long grain rices which constitute
from 70 to 80 percent of the crop,
which originated in Surinam and were
developed in El Salvador in Central
America; and a variety known as CICA
4, developed in Colombia.
Though there are many theories on
the methods of cooking rice, two simple
methods which produce fluffy well-
cooked grains are boiling it in water or
other liquid and sauteing raw rice in
butter or oil and then steaming it. Two
things should be remembered in cooking
rice: It should be cooked in only as much
liquid as it can absorb to preserve its
valuable vitamins and a heavy saucepan
or pot with tight-fitting cover is a must.

Boiled Rice
To make 3 cups of rice, put 1 cup of
raw rice, 2 cups of water, 1 teaspoon
salt and 1 tablespoon butter in a heavy,
2-quart saucepan. Bring to a boil over
high heat and tiwn heat to low. Stir it
once with a fork, cover with a tight lid


Arroz con Coco
(Coconut Rice)
1%2 cups rice
1 coconut, grated
1 cup boiling water
1,2 teaspoon salt
I teaspoon butter
3 cups water
Pour boiling water over the grated
coconut, let it set a few minutes. When
it is cool enough to handle, squeeze the
coconut to obtain the milk. Add the
3 cups of water to the grated coconut
and set it aside. Put the milk in a heavy
pot and let it cook down until coco
butter forms and is a little toasted. Add
the rice and stir until it is golden color.
Squeeze the grated coconut again and
add this water to the rice with the salt
and butter. When the liquid has been
absorbed, turn heat to low, cover
tightly and cook from 15 to 20 minutes.
A sweet rice that is not a dessert is
rice with raisins, often cooked in coco-
nut milk, but water will do fine. Delici-
ous with ham.

Rice with raisins, one of Panama's
favorite rice dishes, is shown at left.
The recipe appears on the next page.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


re ~iee




k *;a~i~



























The cooking of rice, basis for many dishes,
requires careful measuring and a heavy
pot with a tight fitting cover.


Rice with guand6, one of Panama's
traditional rice dishes, has a flavor all its
own. While cooking, guand6 exudes a
pleasing bouquet, made even more
appetizing when coconut milk is used
for the liquid.


Arroz con Pasas
(Rice With Raisins)
2 cups rice
4 cups water or coconut milk
1 cup raisins
7i lb butter
2 sticks cinnamon
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup brown sugar (not packed)
Cook raisins in butter until plump.
Remove with slotted spoon. Add rice to
butter and stir until grains are golden.
Add liquid, salt and the raisins. Boil
briskly until liquid is just about all ab-
sorbed. Sprinkle the brown sugar on top


and when it has melted and almost dry,
cover, lower heat to as low as possible,
and cook 20 minutes. Remove from heat.
With a big spoon stir up from bottom of
pan and mix carefully.
As typical of Panama as the Panama
hat is rice with guandt, a pea which
resembles a small bean and has a unique
flavor. Guand6, also called pigeon peas,
are available in bunches or shelled at
the market when in season or in cans at
the supermarkets.
Arroz con Guandd
(Rice With Guandri)
,' cup guandui
1 cup rice
1 teaspoon salt
1 coconut, grated
4 cups hot water
Put the grated coconut in water. Let
it set a few minutes, then squeeze to
obtain the milk. Cook the guandti in
the liquid until it is reduced to 2 cups.
Add rice and salt. Cook over high heat
until liquid is absorbed. Cover and
steam for 14 minutes. (A delicious aroma
will permeate the kitchen.)
Arroz con Polio came from Spain to
Mexico, then Peru, Colombia and Cuba,
and each country has its own version.
Panama has several. Here is one:
Arroz con Polio
(Chicken With Rice)
1 3-lb chicken, cut up
1 cups rice
3 cup olive oil
3I teaspoon salt
pincl of pepper
3 pimientos cut in strips
2 large ripe tomatoes, cut up
1 clove garlic
1 teaspoon oregano
2 peppercorns
hot water or hot chicken stock
I teaspoon capers
12 black olives
In a mortar, pound garlic, salt, pepper-
corns, pepper and oregano in a little
oil. Rub chicken pieces with this mix-
ture and let it season a few minutes. In
a heavy pan (or paila), brown chicken
in the oil. Add tomatoes, capers, olives,
2 of the pimientos. Cook until chicken
is almost tender. Add rice and hot liquid
to cover about an inch. Cover and
simmer until the liquid has been ab-
sorbed and rice is tender. Garnish with
remaining pimiento strips. Some cooks
add a cup of cooked peas just before
serving.
With an abundance of seafood avail-
able in Panama, there are dozens of
recipes combining rice with one sea-
food or several. Here is one that is
served in many Panamanian homes.


Arroz con Cjaiaronel
(Rice With Shrw p i
I onion, chopped
2 tomatoes
2 cloves garlic
2 pounds shrimp
1 small can tomato past.e
2 tablespoons olive ,oil
2 cups rice
4 cups water
olives and capers I.- ria ,.
Fry the onion, tcniarnee; a.nrd iM.ii c iln
oil. Add the cleaned ra," ,;hlrnp Add
4 cups hot water and :ook fior 5 ininute;
Remove the shrimp .dd thi ni.e r,, the
liquid and cook until irce is rellderi Add
the shrimp, capers and ,.l-i.es and mix
carefully with a fork C'*.. : and rd remn\:
from heat. Serve after 5-101 nuijrte .
Rice is used in rP:iarini.iian Jeeertn;.
too, in either a rice pudding, similar tr
our old-fashioned rice pudding. .,
favorite rice dessert made with c..<-.:.rit
milk and chocolate.

Arroz con Cacao
(Chocolate Rice)
L4 cup rice
1 cup water
1 cup coconut milk
4 sticks cinnamon
1 can condensed milk
I small can chocolate syrup
a cup sugar
Soak the rice overnight iI einoigh
water to cover. Add coconut milk id
cinnamon sticks to rice. Sinmmer lril it
has dissolved, adding more cx.,li- it
milk to maintain a soft c.:r.ns;ist; :' R:-
move cinnamon sticks. Add sugar, con-
densed milk and syrup. Cook stirring
constantly over low heat until custard
like. Cool. Serve with coconut cream.
Not a Panamanian recipe, this ver-
sion of rice pudding comes from Brazil.

Arroz con Caf6
(Coffee With Rice)
L- cup rice
2 cups strong coffee (made with instant or
brewed)
3 tablespoons butter
3 eggs, well beaten
' cup Karo (dark)
, cup sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla
'~ teaspoon salt
1,2 cups milk
Cook the rice in the coffee for 20
minutes. Add butter. Combine the eggs
with remaining ingredients and add to
the rice and coffee. Pour into a buttered
baking dish. Set the dish in a pan of
water and bake 30 minutes. Serve warm
with milk or cream.


SPRING 1975







Shipping


-- 4


V' --
*1',




7t


Notes


ADMIRAL SAMUEL E. MORISON,
Pulitzer Prize winning author, best
known for his books "The European Dis-
cover) of America: The Northern Voy-
ages" and his latest book "The European
Discovery of America: The Southern
Voyages" was aboard the SS Santa Mer-
cedes this year when she sailed from Los
Angeles around South America. Morison
was selected by the Prudential Lines to
retell the adventures of the famed navi-
gator, who first discovered the Strait of
Magellan in 1520. The Santa Mercedes
took only 2 days to transit the Strait com-
pared to the 37-day voyage of Magellan.
During the cruise, the ship called at
Balboa, NManzanillo, Acajutla, Cartage-
na, Curacao, La Guaira, Rio de Janeiro,
Santos and Buenos Aires before transit-
ing the Strait at the height of what is the
summer season in that area.
Morison, who is now 87 years old, is
a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at
Harvard and winner of every prize for
history and belles lettres in the United
States (among them the Pulitzer Prize
twice and the Emerson-Thoreau medal).
He is also a mariner who has recon-
noitered and often duplicated the well
known voyages made in the age of
discovery.
Morison could add another dimen-
sion to the trip through the Strait be-
cause of his vast knowledge concerning
Magellan's original voyage.


The "Royal Viking Sky," one of the
three cruise ships of the Royal Viking
Line, passes through Gaillard Cut.


In his book "The Southern Voyages,"
he points out, for instance, that Magellan
put to sea on the first voyage around the
world with the full knowledge that three
Spanish captains on his fleet planned to
murder him.
It was on Palm Sunday at St. Juliin
in Patagonia that the mutineers finally
attempted to put their plan into effect.
They seized three of Magellan's ships
and demanded his surrender. Magellan,
however, through audacity and extra-
ordinary seamanship managed to recap-
ture his fleet with only one loyal man
injured. Since mutiny was a capital
offense, Magellan had one captain drawn
and quartered, the second hanged, and
the third one was marooned.
As cruise passengers relaxed in com-
fort dining on choice foods, they could
not but be awed by the accomplishments
of Magellan under such hardship con-
ditions. Morison reported that food be-
came so scarce on the first long haul
across the Pacific that rats were sold for
food at $1.16 gold and sailors often
resorted to eating the leather chafing
gear off the yards.


The Santa Mercedes and her sister
ships, the Santa Mariana, Santa Maria,
and Santa Magdalcna, make regular
visits to the Isthmus on their sailings
from west coast ports to Canada, Mexico
Central America, the Caribbean and
around South America every 14-16 days
throughout the year.

Trans-Canal Cruises
More and more cruise ships are fea-
turing trips through the Panama Canal.
During 1975, approximately 8,000
passengers will sail with Royal Viking
Line on 16 Trans-Canal cruises, originat-
ing from both coasts and including one
from New Orleans.
In its promotional material, Royal
Viking Line writes of the Canal:
"Time was, a trip through the Panama
Canal suggested banana boats, steaming
jungles and small bands of intrepid
travelers determined to reach a distant
port in faraway South America, or even
points beyond. Today. things are differ-
ent, passengers have a front-row seat for
the trip, in a choice of air-conditioned
lounges."
Royal Viking ships offer all first-
class accommodations (with 94 percent
having an ocean view) for approximately
500 passengers with spacious staterooms
and public area. The decor is Scandi-
navian, with artwork by the area's finest
artists. Dining is international with na-
tive specialties from some ports of call
included in daily menus. As on the
Prudential trip around South- Amer-
ica, guest lecturers provide information
about the various ports of call.
One of their lecturers was Irving
Stone, author of "The Agony and the
Ecstasy," .The President's Lady" and
"Lust for Life." He was on the Royal
Viking Sea when she transited the Canal
on January 12 during a 96-day around-
the-world cruise.
Although the Royal Viking Line is
only a few years old, its three ships, the


.. .. ... ..
IL 'I r
.J" '


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


D
P
I rl

i












Nationality
Belgian---------
British ---------
Chilean------
Chinese Nat'l. ___--
Colombian--------
Cypriot--------
Danish-----------
Ecuadorian- --_-
French- ----
German, West -----
Greek---------
Italian -----------
Japanese ----------
Liberian----------
Netherlands ------
Nicaraguan -----
Norwegian -------
Panamanian ----
Peruvian---------
Polish -------
South Korean __
Soviet_-----
Swedish--------
United States ----
Yugoslavia _------__
All other -- _--
Total -----


1975 1974
No of Tons--


No. of Tons
transits of cargo
71 535,377
638 7,030,475
68 828,951
80 1,050,329
70 148,780
136 911,080
151 1,204,269
50 419,881
123 733,936
379 2,303,193
633 9,410,121
116 743,403
646 6,042,448
950 17,812,491
207 921,077
42 75,266
428 6,815,866
509 3,825,363
97 1,012,647
45 288,509
56 384,599
76 487,638
171 1,753,471
538 4,649,986
43 468,751
434 3,399,216
6,757 73,257,123


Trade routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over)
East coast United States-Asia _.__----_-___ ----_
Europe-West coast South America -_------- -
East coast United States-West coast South America------
Europe-West coast United States/Canada --___-_
Europe-Asia _________-----_ -_-___----_ _---_
Europe-Oceania __ ___-----------
East coast Canada-Asia -------- -__--
United States Intercoastal (including Hawaii)--__--------
East coast South America-Asia --_ ___---_-------.
West coast South America-West Indies___ --_
All others .___. .__ _____ __.__ -._ __ .
Total_ _________


Month
July -----
August _
September-
October ---
November--
December--
January--.
February-
March .---.
April __
May--
June --
Totals for fis


No. of Tons
transits of cargo
78 279,717
638 6,924,670
43 665,614
104 1,146,805
94 230,816
107 649,689
175 1,362,868
46 509,732
113 663,295
378 2,516,863
701 9,478,162
135 1,025,817
643 6,923,312
894 15,417,105
229 1,334,531
37 68,318
518 7,636,929
505 3,256,365
90 838,128
20 92,909
50 302,761
132 822,350
163 1,248,731
616 5,045,671
34 448,961
425 3,332,238
6,968 72,222,357


1965-69
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
39 100,725
679 5,072,872
60 406,198
57 443,818
117 225,971
7 50,000
198 1,137,816
33 41,799
107 421,446
590 2,063,139
255 2,606,268
110 743,021
468 3,431,691
674 8,920,295
257 1,086,592
36 55,717
739 7,171,883
261 1,215,812
79 387,875
7 56,174
14 87,421
27 207,691
225 1,462,003
823 4,602,063
12 134,854
368 1,435,550
6,242 43,568,694


1975
1,595
540
624
389
435
250
163
200
132
132
2,297
6,757


19 74
1,777
547
640
422
374
238
226
206
133
172
2,233
6,968


Avg. No.
transit
1965-69
1,389
651
895
484
107
191
99
258
96
130
1,931
6,231


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)1
First Avg. No. First Average
holf transits half tolls
1975 1974 1965-69 1975 1974 1965-69
--- 1,219 1,210 1,067 $11,834 $9,697 $6,322
1,121 1,127 1,044 12,254 9,663 6,298
-- 1,095 1,125 1,015 11,928 9,530 6,139
---- 1,125 1,220 1,049 11,855 10,170 6,387
--- 1,086 1,160 1,021 11,150 9,772 6,258
1,111 1,126 1,035 11,487 9,886 6,409
1,200 1,003 --__ 10,574 6,167
1,026 922 _--_ 8,988 5,654
---- --- 1,189 1,098 -- 10,137 6,748
----- -- 1,202 1,087 -- 10,016 6,681
1,229 1,110 10,417 6,854
----1,219 1,052 -- 10,573 6,609
:al year__ __ 14,033 12,503 -- $119,423 $76,526


1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.


CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS
First Half Fiscal Year


SPRING 1975


PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 6 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1975
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1975 1974
Commercial----------_ 6,757 6,968
U.S. Government_---- 107 95
Free__-----------____ 2 10
Total _--_----_ 6,866 7,073
TOLLS o
Commercial ..$70,533,506 $58,750,924'
U.S. Govern-
ment ------ 882,164 540,368
Total-_ $71,415,670 $59,291,292'
CARGOe (Oceangoing)
Commercial 73,257,123 72,222,357
U.S. Govern-
ment -----. 348,541 258,436
Free- ------
Total_. 73,605,664 72,480,793
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
** Cargo figures are in long tons.
1 Revised.


Royal Viking Star, Royal Viking Sea,
and Royal Viking Sky have attracted un-
usual attention because of their beauty
and Norwegian style.
Many visiting the ships at the Canal
have expressed curiosity concerning the
origin of the stylized bird on the ships'
stacks.
When the Royal Viking Line set out
to develop a total design system for its
ships, it began with the emblem, which
was inspired by a symbol of the ancient
Norsemen.
From history and folklore, ancient
tapestries and stone rubbings, the line
gathered information about birds and
their role in the Viking Age (800-1000
A.D.). The Vikings paid great homage
to heraldic birds and eagles. Tradi-
tionally, the eagle was a divine and wise
creature, closely associated with Odin,
the one-eyed chief god of the North who
lived in Valhalla. Norse kings, vikings,
and great deities were envisaged and
symbolized as eagles.
Prophesies of the era told of a forth-
coming struggle between the gods and
powers of evil, predicting that the cock
of Valhalla would crow to awaken Odin's
warriors, and that it would be "omi-
nously echoed by the soot-red cock of
hell."
The Royal Viking Line revived this
venerable symbol of the Vikings in 1970
when three Norwegian steamship com-
panies joined forces to form this new
cruise line.

Fertilizer for the Arabs

The first shipment of liquified manure
passed through the Panama Canal re-
cently enroute to Lake St. Charles, La.,
where it was pumped aboard an oil
tanker for shipment to Bahrain and
Dubai on the Persian Gulf. The 850,000


TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
First Half Fiscal Year






gallon shipment originated in Tacoma,
Wash.
It is being shipped to the Middle East
for a billion-dollar desert reclamation
project financed by Arab oil money.
Plans are to mix it with pulverized wood
chips, spread it on the desert sands, and
plant grass to build soil and prevent
wind erosion. The two Arab states have
contracted for 50,000 metric tons a year,
according to an official of Worldwide
Brokers, of Galliano, La. The North-
west quota is 250,000 gallons a month,
according to a local contractor.
Since the dairy business is suffering
from the recession, this new project is
considered a life saver for the industry.
As one farmer said, "We have been
operating $3,000 a month in the red.
Now we can make up to $4,000 a
month on manure. It seems like a fairy
tale."

The Use of English

New value has recently been given to
English by its official adoption by the
International Maritime Consultative Or-
ganization as the common sea language,
according to a report in Fairplay Inter-
national Shipping Weekly.
In commenting on this, Fairplay
noted:
"In a world in which a misunderstood
message or order could result, say in
the destruction of most of the beaches
of north-west Europe by a wrecked very
large crude carrier, the importance of an
internationally accepted means of com-
munication is clear enough, and the
English speakers of the world may well
feel grateful that it is their language
which has been chosen. Those who be-
lieve that they speak the tongue of
Shakespeare, however, may well raise
an eyebrow at some of the words which
are said nowadays to be theirs-doppler,
mach number, coriolis, isogriv and VOR-
TAC, for example, the latter being
defined as "a co-location of VOR and the
distance-measuring element of a TACAN
ground beacon."

Largest Ship Afloat
The American Bureau of Shipping
has recently classed the largest vessel
afloat. It is the 476,292 dead weight
tonnage Globtik London. The vessel, of
British registry, is approximately 1,181
feet long, 203 feet wide, and 118 feet
in height from the keel to the main deck.
During 1974, the ABS classified seven
other tankers of over 250,000 dead
weight tonnage.-WKF


Commodity
Manufactures of iron and steel- __
Petroleum and products________________
Ores, various_______________ _
Sugar _____ -- ------_ _-__-____________
Lumber and products____________________
Pulpwood _____________________ ______
Coal and coke _-- ___________________
Metals, various ---------.__-__-_______
Bananas ------__ ---_.___ ____________ -
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas). --
Sulfur --........__ ............._
Fishmeal_ ------_________ --__________
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts--____-__
Paper and products -________
Chemicals, unclassified __________
All other__________________ _____
Total -__---_ ________


1975
4,832,370
4,385,673
3,117,063
1,842,260
1,674,555
919,416
881,163
834,817
789,980
714,949
686,437
537,532
509,580
353,146
245,251
6,377,983
28,702,175


1975
Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total


3,335
194
3,529


3,422
160
3,582


6,757
354
7,111


1974
3,401,890
5,843,529
3,074,279
1,832,808
2,640,783
809,518
297,038
475,767
764,270
813,758
401,777
232,146
461,982
244,083
153,874
5,583,155
27,030,657


5-Yr. Avg.
1965-69
1,816,926
643,782
2,957,624
1,460,243
2,196,431
374,817
95,051
651,078
623,764
499,550
103,009
754,400
38,594
141,696
118,463
4,354,577
16,830,005


Atlantic to Pacific
First Half Fiscal Year


Commodity


Coal and coke ---------_
Petroleum and products __________
Corn --------.____________
Phosphate---- ----._______
Wheat __ --- _____- _
Soybeans ----___-__---________________
Ores, various -----------______________-
Sorghum -_
Manufactures of iron and steel ______
Metal, scrap --__
Sugar ___ __
Fertilizers, unclassified ____________
Metals, various (excluding scrap)_______
Chemicals, unclassified ____________
Paper and products ------ ----_____
All other --------------
Total- __-----_---------____..


CANAL TRANSITS-COIMMERCIAL


Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing _-_____ ________
Small 1 ________
Total Commercial-__-_____---

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing________ ______
Small 1 -----___


1975
13,019,920
7,577,168
3,392,113
2.826,222
2,738,492
1,911,300
1,232,583
1,183,903
1,050,553
1,036,239
756,192
636,954
503,338
466,329
378,770
5,844,872
44,554,948


1974
8,262,531
8,749,089
5,675,008
2,545,084
3,301,650
2,065,802
1,250,883
1,458,630
805,054
1,994,046
715,768
642,653
362,340
712,419
383,702
6,267,041
45,191,700


5-Yr. Aug.
1965-69
4,483,207
7,382,958
1,339,076
1,911,363
621,073
1,165,254
816,530
N.A.
907,176
1,458,047
406,555
218,304
661,758
428,399
349,756
4,589,233
26,738,689


Avg. No.
transits
1974 1965-69


Total Total


6,968
365
7,333


6,231
276
6,507


53 54 107 95 447
24 33 57 58 63


Total Commercial and
U.S. Government ------ - 3,606 3,669 7,275 7,486 7,017
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
free.


THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)

Pacific to Atlantic
First Half Fiscal Year


AND U.S. GOVERNMENT
First Half Fiscal Year


































-. -, .
-'~' .1 a~


Pastoral But Progressive

By Jos6 T. Tufi6n


N EARLY 1520, MORE THAN 100
years before the Pilgrims landed at
Plymouth Rock, a small group of Spanish
colonials founded Nata de los Caballe-
ros, the oldest city on the Isthmus. Its
predecessors, Santa Maria la Antigua
and Nombre de Dios, in Darien, were
burned by Drake in 1595 and Morgan
destroyed Old Panama in 1671.
Nati served as an outpost for the con-
quest and colonization of the western
part of Panama and for 300 years, until
1820, was the capital city for western
Panama.
Its inhabitants engaged in farming
and cattle raising activities and in the


later part of the 16th century they lived
mainly from the profits of corn sent to
Panama for feeding the mules and slaves
that carried goods between Panama and
Nombre de Dios.
For many years Nata remained a
sleepy, interior rural community. Its in-
habitants eked out a living using primi-
tive farming methods. With the excep-
tion of the ancient church with the
colonial facade and the old tower, and
a sterling silver pelican, a treasure rem-
iniscent of past glories, which attracted
tourists who ventured to the interior.
Nata had little impact on the remainder
of the Republic after the colonial era.


But in 1938, when Compaflia Pa-
namefia de Alimentos, S.A. (Panama
Foods Co.) established a milk processing
plant there, Nati and the surrounding
areas gradually were revitalized from a
centuries-old lethargy. The plant's tall
chimney, visible from a distance, signi-
fies that Nata has entered the industrial
era and once more is playing an impor-
tant role in the destiny of her country.
Beginning modestly with an annual
production of 519,000 liters of milk,
Panama Foods has experienced a pro-
gressively increasing rate of growth.
Today's annual milk production of 20
million liters is evidence of the com-
pany's tremendous impact on farming
and cattle raising in the Central Pro-
vinces of Panama. In addition to pro-
ducing evaporated and condensed milk,
the company has expanded its activities
to include the processing of other foods
that are produced in the area and is
today the most important commercial
canning industry in the country.
In 1947, the farmers of Nata wit-
nessed the beginning of a new project
that would soon make possible their
entry into the modern marketplace.
The company, using new technology,
began experimenting with the growing,
processing, and marketing of toma-
toes. Two years later with the fruition
of much research and development,
408,611 pounds of tomatoes were pro-
cessed by the company and the well-
known Maggi products, including paste,
sauce, juice and catsup were produced
in Nati and sold on the local market.
Company agriculture experts advise
tomato growers on the control of dis-
eases in tomato plants, a major problem
in the tropics, and teach them how to
improve the quality of the product. The
company has established a 50-hectare
experimental field near Rio Hato in
Cocld Province, where these experts are
continuously experimenting with irriga-
tion methods, various insecticides, fer-
tilizers and herbicides in their efforts to
produce the best quality tomato varieties
for industrial purposes. Plans are to
attempt to increase production to 80
million pounds a year, and to export
these products.
At another experimental tomato field
in Rio Grande, an area about 40 kilo-
meters from Rio Hato, technicians are
experimenting with tomato varieties
resistant to fungi, bacteria, and other
soil-born diseases that cause tomatoes to
wilt in unfavorable environments such
as that caused by flooding in that area.
Tomato wilt has been one of the most
bothersome problems to tomato growers.
Experimenting with a variety of seeds
brought from all over the world by the

32 SPRING 1975


Above: Showing the ravages of time is one of the two bells that called worshipers
to mass at the old Church of Nati during colonial days. The bells, which were
cast in Lima in 1690, are currently displayed at the Museum of Colonial Religious Art
at the old Santo Domingo Chapel in Panama City.





Natiji..il Agriculture Institute, the Min-
isrry .4 Agricultural Development and
Lv P:in. ma University, several varieties
h.,,e bLen developed that seem to be
reL, trat to wilt.
At harvest time, as many as 150 to-
mato pickers are employed and there
are plans to mechanize the operation to
reduce the high cost of production and
ultimately benefit both the growers and
the company.
In addition to processing milk and to-
matoes, Panama Foods cans guandu, a
small pea-like legume which grows on
vines about 6 feet high, often referred to
as "pigeon peas" by the English speak-
ing population on the Isthmus. The
guand6's distinctive flavor and pleasing
aroma while cooking make it a favorite
food of Panama, where erroneously it is
often considered a product grown only
in this country. Actually, guand6 is
popular in Puerto Rico, the Dominican
Republic, Jamaica, Brazil, Trinidad and
in Kenya and Uganda in Africa.
In the past, Puerto Rico was one of
the main producers, but due to the high
cost of harvesting, its cultivation has
fallen off and today the Dominican
Republic is the main exporter.
Aware of the nutritional value of
guandu, the United Nations has dis-
patched dietary experts to India and
Cevlon (now known as Sri Lanka) to
if.'rni the inhabitants of these famine-
plagued areas of the merits of guand6
and to encourage its local cultivation.
In general, the main problem in the
cultivation of guand6, which requires
very little care in the field, is the high
cost of harvest and the shelling of the
pods, which is done by hand. In Panama,
where it is largely a home production,


with the farmer planting his own guandu
fields, then selling the yield to the com-
pany, it has so far been economically
successful.
Benefitting from the industrialization
of this legume are approximately 400
families, mainly in the areas around
La Atalaya in Veraguas Province. They
are supplying Panama Foods approxi-
mately 1,600,000 pounds of guand6 a
year. The company would like to triple
guandu production in the next 2 years,
with hopes of obtaining a market for
this product in the United States.
Although the Panama Foods installa-
tion at NatA processes products grown
only in that area, the impact of the in-
dustry extends to the provinces of Cocl6,
Los Santos, Herrera and Veraguas, with
a total population of about half a
million.
In 1970, now producers of Nestle,
Maggi and Libby products in Panama,
the company extended its sphere of
activities to the fertile lands of Chiriqui
Province and took over the manage-
ment of the Chiriqui Milk Co. in Boque-
r6n. Here it processes powdered milk,
fruit juices and vegetables that are
grown in the cooler areas of that
province.
But one of the principal functions
of the Boquer6n installation is found
41 kilometers northeast of there, at San
Andr6s, more than 400 meters above sea
level, near the Costa Rican border. It is
a pineapple plantation of the finest in-
dustrial quality and constitutes one of
the company's most important projects.
The fertile volcanic soil of the region and
the infrared rays of the sun at that par-
ticular altitude give the pineapple the
ideal flavor for industrial use, according


a .'::


F
1


A chemist tests the purity of Panama
Food Company products at a modem
laboratory in the Nati installation.




Revitalized from

a centuries-old


lethargy


A field of grain and a dairy herd that supplies milk to the Chiriqui Milk Plant in Boquer6n form a scene of tranquil beauty.


FHi PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33


'I


-.1111111
aw *AWAM
. .. ...




,gu!I


/ I

t t


, t


Employees of the Boquer6n processing
plant check beet slices prior to canning.
Fruits and vegetables of the area are
processed at this plant.


A smiling employee operates a machine
which extracts juice from the delicious
oranges grown in the Boquer6n area.


Cans are manufactured at the Panama
Foods Company plant at Nati. These
will be used for evaporated milk.


II -~.


Cans of diced beets are
packed in cartons at the
Nata plant. Also shown are
cases of maracuya juice.





I


to Juan Wintgens, head of the Agricul-
ture Department of the company. Com-
menting on the excellent quality of
another variety of pineapple produced
S in Panama, the delectable "water pine-
S apple" grown in Taboga, \Vintgens ex-
plained that it is perhaps the most tasty
fresh pineapple, but it is not suitable
- for canning.
S The San Andres pineapple field covers
22 hectares, each hectare containing
40,000 pineapple plants. Slips have been
S imported from Martinique and Hawaii,
with superior results from the "smooth
Cayenne" variety from Hawaii.
Pineapple cultivation requires a large
investment, extensive fumigation, weed-
ing, fertilizers and constant care. This
project is in its infancy and large scale
production will depend on the ability of
4 individual growers to supply the com-
pany with sufficient fruit.
Located at the pineapple plantation,
and appearing a little out of place in
S this environment, is a row of stables
I housing several dozen high-grade cal. ei
They are part of 2,000 purebrd-'l that
the company is planning to dirnbule
among its milk suppliers to impr-. r I he
quality and quantity of milk with rrult -
ing benefits for the company ari-d Ih-
suppliers. The calves will be sold t r, he
cattle raisers at a nominal cost, .'.hch

Shown are two varieties of tomatoes
that seem to be resistant to wilt, one of
the most bothersome problems to tomato
growers coping with the tropical
environment.


SPRING 19'75


-- i-'F"






.\AritIllure expert Alberto Dclgado, at
ilhli. di.tusscs the characteristics of the
pinie.ppk that make it suitable for canning
with Jean P. Robert, left and Juan
Wintgens, engineers working with the
Panama Foods Company.




Passion fruit is


popular new


local product


can be deducted from their payments
for supplying milk. Dairy experts also
will continue to offer technical assistance
in matters of feeding and disease control.
A short distance from the pineapple
plantation, the company has a 2-hectare
plot planted with granadilla, one of
several varieties of passion fruit, com-
monly known as maracuya. The fruit,
about the size and shape of a small pear,
has a tough hull and the inside contains
small black seeds surrounded by aro-
matic, yellow pulp. Its taste somewhat
resembles the peach with a tinge of
apricot and the exotic tang of guava.
A little juice goes a long way as it has a
penetrating flavor but it is ideal for
mixing with pineapple and other fruit,
in cocktails, punch and for flavoring fruit
desserts. Since it is said that the taste
lingers like a happy memory, it is in
great demand. The plant, a vine, needs
very little care and hardly any invest-
ment. It is a matter of planting, putting
a stick in the ground for it to climb on,
and waiting for the fruit to fall when
it is ripe. Because of these attributes
Panama Foods is encouraging the cul-
tivation of maracuva.
The overall economic impact of Pan-
ama Foods on the five provinces where
the company operates is difficult to
determine. However, in purchases, serv-
ices and salaries, the company's output
is approximately $15 million a year.
And benefits derived from its numerous
experimental projects and the technical
assistance offered to the hundreds of dirt
farmers and cattle raisers are incal-
culable.


A field of maraeuya, a
species of passion fruit, in
San Andr6s, Chiriqui
Province. Juice of the
maracuya is in great demand
internationally.


Part of the herd of 2,000
purebred calves to be
distributed to their milk
suppliers by the Chiriqui
Milk Company to improve
the quality and quantity
of milk.


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