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David S. Parker
Charles I. McGinnis
Frank A. Baldwin
Ponoma Canal Information Officer
PANAMA ,. CA NAL
Official Panama Canal Publication
Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer
Willie K. Friar, Jose T. TuA6n
Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hern6ndez,
and Franklin Castrell6n
Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Subscriptians: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year.
Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Othces are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Panama's Winged Jewels 3
A benign climate and varied
vegetation assures a bounty of
butterflies for the serious col-
The Pollera 8
From a humble beginning
in the slave quarters, it has
become the much admired
national costume of Panama.
United Nations Visits
the Canal 12
United States U.N. Ambassa-
dor John Scali invites del-
egates to Miraflores Locks.
Culinary Capers 15
Natural tropical juices to
quench a thirst.
Only a thin sheet of paper is
needed to practice this ancient
"San Juan Prospector" Breaks
Jumboized ship squeezes
through in ballast.
Life aboard today's super
ships is something like sub-
Art on the Isthmus 31
Dynamic developments in the
Canal Zone and Panama.
Canal History 35
"You look very familiar, but I can't
recall your name." In human social
circles such an admission is embarrass-
ing. But in the world of butterflies it is
easy to understand why a beholder
would long remember the striking
beauty of these fragile, colorful crea-
tures while having trouble with their
Be that as it may, the diagram below
will introduce you to the lovely Panama
specimens with the strange sounding
names that grace the cover of this issue
of THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW.
1. Rhetus arcius thia Mor.
2. Pierella incanescens ocreata Salv.
3. Phoebis argante Fabr.
4. Morpho granadensis polybaptus
5. Dismorphia amphione amphione
6. Papilio protesilaus dariensis R.&J.
7. Dismorphia dejone Hew.
8. Hamadryas amphinome Linn.
9. Diaethria marchalii Gu6r
10. Nessaea aglaura Dbdy & Hew.
11. Anteros formosus micon Stich.
12. Thecla bitias Cramer
13. Anaea marthesia Cramer
14. Morpho cypris bugaba Stgr.
15. Phoebis philea Linn.
16. Heliconius doris eratonius Linn.
17. Parides childrenae childrenae
18. Morpho amathonte centralis Stgr.
19. Mesene phareus rubella Bates
20. Catonephele numilia esite Feld.
21. Thecla telemus Cramer
Al l \
A benign climate, rich and varied vegetation
and great diversity of terrain have
combined to produce an extraordinary
abundance of butterfly life on the Isthmus.
SPARKLING SAPPHIRES STUD-
ding the dark green forest canopy"
-Thus an enthralled newcomer to the
Isthmus described the dazzling spec-
tacle of blue Morpho butterflies viewed
from a low-flying light aircraft. Locally
known as "Royal Blues," these huge but-
terflies with wingspans up to 6 inches
are unique to the American tropics, and
rank among the most beautiful crea-
tures to be found in nature.
At least five distinct species of Mor-
pho make their home in the forests of
Panama. Males are frequent sights,
With his net in hand, Charles Myers, of Margarita, holds a lonely vigil at Cerro Canpana, where the ruggedly varied terrain
is a favorite hunting area for butterfly collectors. Above: The fisheye lens captures a dramatic view of a butterfly
surrounded by Panama's jungle foliage.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Well over 1,100
species are known
flaunting their brilliant color over the
forest canopy and along trails and rivers.
Greatly prized by collectors are their
scarce and more somber mates, which
unobtrusively wend their way through
the foliage tending to egg laying chores.
In Brazil, Morphos are raised com-
mercially for the purpose of making
showy trays out of their wings. The
colors never fade, as they are produced
in a purely physical way by diffraction
of light in specialized scales in the
wings, rather than by pigmentation.
Splendid as are the Morphos, they
are rivalled on the Isthmus by many
hundreds of other species, attired in a
veritable kaleidoscope of colors and
patterns. Panama's benign climate,
rich and varied vegetation, and great
diversity of terrain have combined to
produce an extraordinary abundance of
butterfly life. Well over 1,100 species
Gordon B. Small. a teacher at Canal Zone College, looks
o'er his ex~enie collection of butterflies in his home in Diablo.
Butterflies from his collection appear on the co'cr
and ha'e been used in illuslraions throughout the article.
Six new species of butterflies discovered in Panama during the last 10 years,
four nf which are from the Canal Zone. Even in such relatively well known areas
as the Canal Zone, new species continue to he found.
:ire nloown, and probably more await
discovery Quitt an incredible number
when orn considers thtif less than 700
species a.e knIo.wT, ii the entire United
StItes. .1 counrtr with an area more
thin 125 times luger.
Due to Scales
Together %nith the moths, butterflies
are niembers of the group of insects
known as Lepidoptera. The term is
derned from the Greek words lepis
I sede and pteron wing and uidi-
c. ts thl.t these uisects .ar distin-
gulshed b\ the possession of scales on
theLr %u-igs. All the %aried color effects
of i butterfly's nlr.gs are due to these
Nature does not really distinguish
butterflies from moths. \'anous struc-
tiuril differences can be c:it.-d to sepa-
r.te the trwo but exceptional cases are
all too frequent. It suffices to s.i that
most butterflies are bnghtlv colored and
ti\ u-i the bnght sunlight. whereas most
moths are dull and nocturnal.
As is well known, butterflies repre-
sent the adult phase of a creature thlit
has progressed through the stages of
egg, caterpillar, and pupa before re:,ch-
ing its final winged form. The caterpd-
lars of butterflies are exceedingly vora-
cious and devote virtually every waking
moment to gorging themselves on the
leaves of their specialized food plants.
They store up so much energy that
feeding for the winged adult is hardly
necessary-more of a snack than a meal.
Fortunately for the human race, the
caterpillars of relatively few species
are addicted to plants of agricultural
or economic importance, and, of these,
even fewer are numerous enough to be
Most butterflies are closely associated
with a particular species of plant, on
which their caterpillars feed to the ex-
clusion of all others. Sir Winston Chur-
chill became aware of this when he en-
deavored to determine the particular
plants that it would be necessary to
grow in his garden to attract butterflies.
To the dismay of his gardener, it turned
out that several showy species could be
enticed only by beds of stinging nettles!
In the tropical forest, individual spec-
imens of a given plant often tend to
be widely separated from each other,
and consequently, the butterflies as-
sociated with these plants may seldom
be seen, even by experienced collec-
tors. In addition, the character of the
forest changes markedly as one ascends
At right: Long handled
nets are a necessity
for the capture of many
high flying species.
Here, Charles Myers
patiently stalks an
elusive specimen at
Below right: Carefully
squeezing the butterfly
on the thorax to
immobilize it, Myers
captures a specimen in
a bait trap. Two other
specimens can also be
seen resting on the
netting. The container
on the platform holds
the concoction of
banana, sugar and rum
which attracts the
."- ,*. -"'.
S- .) *
Spreading the wings of butterflies for display is a time consuming
task demanding care and patience. Specially designed
spreading boards are used. The wings are coaxed into proper
positions with long sharp pins and held firmly in place
with thin pieces of slick paper.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
Transparency is a remarkable feature
of some tropical butterflies. To
demonstrate their transparency, the
butterflies above were placed on a
magazine. These belong to three
different families, all of which are almost
invisible during flight.
The butterfly is a
hunted creature that
survives like the
master spy by
Though appearing virtually identical,
these five butterflies are, in fact, five
distinct species, representing three
different families. They are members of
the dominant mimicry club found in the
Canal Zone. All are distasteful to
predators except the species in the lower
left hand corner.
mountains or travels to areas of different
geological characteristics. So, it is not
surprising that many of the butterfly
species found on the Isthmus, say, at
an elevation of 2,500 feet at El Valle,
are quite different from those in the
Madden Forest Preserve.
Bocas del Toro
Considering these factors, it is doubt-
ful that one man could ever succeed in
collecting all the species of even a
limited area like the Canal Zone; and
thus, the never ending search for rarities
is one of the fascinations of making a
collection. A number of the species
known from Panama are so scarce or
localized or elusive that only one or two
specimens have ever been captured.
Remote forested areas of the provinces
of Bocas del Toro and Darien are vir-
tually unexplored for insects, and hold
the lure of unknown species.
In the tropics, butterflies have rather
brief lives, most individuals probably
not surviving more than a month. But
a few hardy types of the temperate
zone can endure almost a full year,
hibernating through the hostile winter
Flowers are visited by many butter-
flies in search of nectar, yet some
disdain flowers altogether, preferring
oozing sap or the juice of fermenting
fruit. Collectors capitalize on this pred-
ilection by preparing such recipes as
rotting bananas, molasses, and brown
sugar, spiked with a dash of rum. The
concoction is left to ferment for sev-
eral days, and then placed in specially
designed traps. In this way certain
magnificent and unusual denizens of
the forest canopy can be lured to
ground level and captured easily.
We are apt to regard butterflies as
delicate ornaments aimlessly flitting
about the countryside. Indeed, one ar-
dent naturalist of the Victorian era
declared that the presence of butter-
flies provided clear proof of the exist-
ence of God. What possible explanation
could there be for such resplendent,
fragile, useless creatures, other than
they were expressly created by the
Almighty simply to gladden the eye of
Unfortunately for such romantic no-
tions, the butterfly is far from a care-
free creature. At all stages of his life,
he is beset by a multitude of perils, to
which the majority of his brethren
The winged adult is entrusted with
two vital missions-reproduction and
dispersal. Males often stake out terri-
tories which they defend belligerently,
viciously flying at potential rivals or
other insects which invade their do-
main. Should a female appear, she
is quickly courted, and after a short
display of feminine coyness, is usually
Far from being mere trappings, the
resplendent colors and striking patterns
of a butterfly's wings are the product
of millions of years of evolution through
the process of natural selection, and
play a vital role in his survival. For ex-
ample, eyespots are a conspicuous fea-
ture of the wings of many butterflies.
In the "owl butterflies" they are large
and conspicuous, and presumably serve
to startle potential predators. The drab
brown butterflies known as Satyrs,
which fly amid the gloom of the forest
floor, are equipped with a series of eye-
spots on the edges of the wings. There
is some evidence that these serve as a
kind of target for predators. A poten-
tial villain scoring a bull's-eye would
have nothing but a chunk of indigest-
ible wing to show for his markmanship.
Copies of Dry Leaves
Many species of butterflies are col-
ored so as to blend in with their sur-
roundings when at rest. Most spectac-
ular of these are a group of butterflies
that become faithful copies of dry
leaves when they alight on a twig. One
kind in particular has so perfected the
disguise that it not only appears iden-
tical to a dead leaf complete with stem
and veins, but also has several small
transparent areas in the forewing, sug-
gesting grubholes. The likeness to the
real thing is so uncanny that it seems
almost incredible that it could have
been brought about by natural proces-
ses. Even the most dispassionate scien-
tist must be given cause for wonder.
Another remarkable protective effect
is attained by certain small butterflies
known as "hairstreaks," because of the
fine hairlike lines on the undersides of
their wings. At the lower end of the
under surface of each hindwing is an
evespot together with a projecting pair
of thin filaments, suggesting antennae.
In this way a realistic false head effect
is produced when the insect is at rest.
Some hairstreaks have, in addition, dark
stripings that pass uninterrupted from
the upper wings to the lower wings.
and focus one's attention on the false
head area. As soon as the butterfly
alights, it moves its hindwings back
and forth, causing the dummy anten-
nae to twitch provocatively. Thus a po-
tential predator is prone to lunge at
6 SPRING 1973
the sham head, and the butterfly makes
a hasty exit with the loss of only a por-
tion of its wing, and perhaps a little
In some butterflies, a bold striking
pattern and slow lazy flight are used to
advertise the fact that their bodies
contain noxious substances and that
they would make for a decidedly un-
savory gastronomic experience for a
predator. Benefitting by bitter experi-
ence, birds, for example, come to rec-
ognize particular patterns as a sort of
warning signal, and give their owners
wide berth. With admirable economy,
distasteful butterflies tend to standard-
ize into a few distinctive patterns-in do-
ing so, they gain the advantage that the
bird's learning process is simplified, and
so, fewer of their number are lost. Even
the birds benefit, for they then have less
unpleasant experiences. All gain, except
the befuddled lepidopterist, who finds
himself confronted by a multitude of
butterflies which all look very much the
same, but in reality are a composition of
many distinct species. Butterflies which
have adopted a common warning pat-
tern are said to form a "mimicry club,"
and their members are conspicuous
sights in the forests of the Isthmus.
The mimicry phenomenon is extreme-
ly complex and .fascinating. For ex-
ample, a few perfectly savory species of
butterflies have succeeded through the
process of natural selection in adopting
the warning pattern of the distasteful
butterflies of a mimicry club. They
have, so to speak, crashed the party.
The birds thus avoid them, assuming
they are noxious. Paradoxically, these
imposters must be rare, otherwise the
predators would not learn to associate
their particular pattern with distaste-
Disguises and Mimicry
The butterfly is thus a hunted crea-
ture that survives like the master
spy-by disguises and intrigues and
mimicry. But the butterfly can go the spy
one better; he sometimes is invisible.
Deep in the shade of the forests are
found a number of butterflies which
have foregone color almost completely,
to the point where their wings are
largely transparent. Flitting ghostlike
through the dappled light and shade
they are almost impossible to follow
It is fascinating to note that in trans-
parent species of different families,
nature has used different devices to
achieve the common goal of transpar-
ency. In the butterflies of one family,
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 7
the scales are modified in shape, being
reduced to fine hairs; in another, the
scales retain normal shape, but are
greatly reduced in size; in yet another,
the scales are set up on edge, so that
light passes between them. These facts
supply the theorist of evolution with a
fine example of how a single effect,
transparency, can be brought about
by a wide variety of chance genetic
mutations and the process of natural
Subjects for Research
For the geneticist, then, butterflies
are excellent subjects for research, and
the tropics an ideal outdoor laboratory.
To the nonprofessional enthusiast as
well, the living insect soon becomes
even more intriguing than the dried
cabinet specimen. Consider, for ex-
ample the great migrating hordes of
black and green "butterflies" that sud-
denly appear in Panama from time to
time. Resembling butterflies both in ap-
pearance and behavior, certain struc-
tural peculiarities indicate that they
should be classed with the moths, in
the genus Urania. At times, during the
most recent large movement, in August
and September of 1969, dozens would
pass by a given point in a few moments.
All were traveling strongly and pur-
posefully in the same direction as if
with some single minded intent to
reach a definite destination.
Why do they migrate? Where are
they headed? Are they, like lemmings,
fated to perish without ever reaching
a final destination?
Recent research by Dr. Neal Smith
of the Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute has shed some light on ques-
tions such as these, but also poses even
more. His documented records indicate
that eastward movements involve a
great many more individuals and occur
at a different season of the year from
westward ones. Surprisingly, some
flights are accompanied by reproductive
activity, and others are not. In the first
case, an advantage could certainly ac-
crue to the species by disseminating its
eggs over a wide territory during migra-
tion. But what is gained by migrating
after the eggs have been laid?
Clearly, we still have much to learn
about the behavior of the migrating
Urania moths, but even if man succeeds
in unlocking all their secrets, a myriad
other mysteries will ensure that the
Lepidoptera will remain ever alluring
The largest butterfly in Panama, the Owl,
is seen only at dusk and dawn. Its large
eyespots seem to frighten potential
predators when the butterfly is at rest.
A "dead leaf" butterfly at rest.
Note the stem and the line bisecting
the wing suggesting the midrib of a leaf.
Directly above this line are two
transparent spots imitating grubholes.
A hairstreak butterfly illustrating the
false head effect. The broad white bands
focus attention onto a brightly colored
area from which filaments protrude
suggesting antennae. A potential predator
is prone to lunge at this spot and miss
the real body which is some distance
from the provocative area.
By Jos6 T. Tufi6n
T HE APPAREL OF SLAVE WOM-
en and nursemaids during the
Spanish colonial era of the Isthmus has
become, with the passing of time, the
national costume of Panama and one of
the most beautiful and most admired
typical dresses of the world.
From its humble beginnings in the
servants' quarters of the wealthy of Old
Panama, the pollera gradually invaded
the refined drawing rooms of high so-
ciety, becoming a prized possession of
all Panamanian women, from the runlstic
maidens of the countryside to the high-
born ladies of the aristocracy.
There are those who claim that the
pollera had its beginning in Spain be-
cause of its similarity to the modest
dress worn by women in the small towns
of Spain in colonial days. And still others
will insist that the pollera originated
with fashionable ladies of Old Panama.
The idea most accepted, however, is
that the dress was inspired by the gar-
ment worn by the black slaves, later
becoming the dress of the women of
the populace, evolving into what it is
today, the national costume for women
and a symbol of Panamanian nationality.
There are three classes of polleras:
the formal dress known as the pollera
de gala; the pollera montuna, the every-
day dress: and the wedding pollera,
originally from the Ocu area.
According to Panamanian folklore,
the all white pollera was worn by the
nursemaids, while other female servants
wore the brightly colored calico skirt
that became the pollera montuna, the
The Formal Pollera
The formal pollera for festive occa-
sions and holidays is made of fine white
linen, cambric or voile. At least 12 yards
of material go into its making. It must
be pure white to form a background for
the blended tints of embroidered de-
signs of flowers, birds, garlands or other
combinations of designs, preferably of
native origin and feeling. Exquisite de-
signs are made in cross-stitch or by the
use of a more elegant needlework
known as "talco en sombra," which is
characteristic of Panama. It consists of
two pieces of material sewn together.
A design is made on one piece of the
fabric, and the design is then carefully
cut out and its edges hemmed with tiny
The formal pollera consists of the
blouse (wider than the montuna blouse),
the skirt and the petticoat or petticoats,
as one to three are worn under the
gown. The blouse of all three polleras
is white and worn off the shoulder. For
the formal dress, the blouse has a neck-
band at the top of the bodice made of
the traditional "mundillo," the fine hand-
made bonelace made in the Interior, and
edged with lace. The band has openings
in the front and in the back, where wool
pompons are placed. The neckband is in-
terwoven with wool of the same color as
the pompons. Two ribbons, called "ga-
Ilardetes," hang from the waist, one in
front and one in the back, and match
the color of the wool. The heelless shoes,
soft slippers in velveteen or satin, also
are of the same color as the wool pom-
pons No stockings are worn.
A beautifully embroidered ruffle of
fine wide Valencian lace is attached to
the mundillo band and falls to the mid-
dle of the bodice. Another ruffle is added
under the first one an-1 this falls to the
waist, or to a little lower than the waist.
Both of these ruffles are exquisitely em-
broidered or worked in "talco."
The blouse has push-up sleeves with
an embroidered ruffle, also trimmed in
The skirt of the formal pollera is
always made of fine white maternal, fine
enough for the handwork on the petti-
coats to show through. It is loose. full
and long, reaching the ankles. The skirt
is two piece; the upper section comes
to the knees and is separated by an in-
sertion of mundillo lace, with the mate-
rial gathered in such a manner that it
can be spread out and be admired.
Twice as much fabric goes into the
lower part of the skirt, making a circle
Above: The intricate handwork on
the petticoat of the white wedding pollera
is displayed by Miss Marilyn Escobar
who is seen at right lighting a candle
in Panama's famous
Church of the Golden Altar.
* 0 * dP .
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 9
" I* I
Participating in the folkloric dances
held at Old Panama during the dry season
is Miss Marta Vega
wearing the montuna.
Golden chains, including the t.picalh Panamanian "cadena chala." and other
gold jewelr,. such as coins in filigree frame.s are worn %iith the formal pollera.
The elaborate jewelry and combs, encrusted with pearls, are as impressive
from the back as from the front.
The edge of the skirt is trimmed with
about 25 yards of lace, 4 or 5 inches
wide. The magnificent skirt is gathered
at the waist and tied by four narrow
ribbons, two crossing in the front and
two in the back, running through the
button holes of two gold buttons at
either side of the waist.
The petticoats are handmade of very
fine white linen, as elaborate as the
10 SPRING 1973
Framed hy the modernistic sculpture which stands in front of the Pacific-Atlantic Bank in Panama, Leyda and Marilyn Escobar
display the magnificent skirts of their polleras. The unusual metal sculpture is by Adolfo Arias, Jr.
skirt, with laces, cutwork and em-
broidery. Usually two are worn with the
pollera. sometimes three.
The hairdress is an important part of
the pollera. The hair is parted in the
center and tightly pulled back behind
the ears, forming two braids. The braids
are covered with several pairs of "tem-
bleques," the glittering sprays of flower-
like filigree ornaments made of gold and
silver and pearls, their flexible stems
"trembling" as the wearer moves. Two
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 11
kinds of combs are worn, one crested
with elaborate gold work, called "de
balc6n" as they resemble the design of
balcony railings. These are placed
toward the back of the head on either
side. The others are called "de perlas"
because the gold work is encrusted with
pearls. These are worn a little to the
front of the head. Earrings are large,
of various shapes, in gold or silver, with
rosettes of pearls or coral.
Several gold chains around the neck,
from four to eight, are part of the
jewelry worn with the formal dress.
These include coral and pearl rosaries,
gold coins in filigree frames on plain
gold chains, a gold cross on a chain or
a narrow black ribbon, gold cords with
religious emblems, scapularies, and the
"cadena chata," the flat chain with a
gold fish at the end. It is absolutely
Panamanian in significance and, accord-
ing to legend, in the old days, when a
(Please see p. 24)
U.N. Security iCouncil'
Visits the Panama Canal
Maintenance Division employees put up flags of the 15 nations,
participating in the Security Council meeting, along John F. Kennedy Avenue
near Panama's Legislative Palace.
Gov. David S. Parker takes delegates on a tour of Miraflores Locks. Right to
left, are: Governor Parker; Kurt Waldheim, U.N. Secretary General;
John Scali, U.S. Ambassador to United Nations; Yakov Alexandrovich Malik,
U.S.S.R. Ambassador to United Nations; Sir Colin Crowe, U.K. Ambassador to
United Nations; Mrs. Waldheim; and Mrs. Malik.
NOT SINCE 1956, WHEN THE
Presidents of the American
States met in Panama, had so many of
the world's dignitaries visited the
Panama Canal in one day.
The day was March 15.
Delegates to the U.N. Security Coun-
cil, which met at Panama's Legisla-
tive Palace from March 15 through
March 21, were guests of John Scali,
the U.S. Ambassador to the United
Nations, during a tour of Miraflores
Locks, following the opening session of
They were met at the locks and es-
corted to the Miraflores Theater, where
they were greeted by Gov. David S.
Parker. Here they were given a 40-
minute briefing on the Canal by Col.
A. L. Romaneski, Engineering and
Construction Bureau Director.
Governor Parker then led the dele-
gates on a tour of the control house and
they were taken through the tunnel in
the center wall before going aboard the
craneboat Atlas for lunch. The Atlas
was tied up at the east wall of the
upper lock chamber so that delegates
could have a vantage point for viewing
transiting ships. The Dredging and Nav-
igation Divisions and the Executive
Planning Staff were among the many
Canal units working closely together in
the planning and handling of all aspects
of the visit.
It was a clear sunny day and televi-
sion cameramen, shooting in color, had
a field day photographing the transit of
the Polar Paraguay, a sparkling white
German ship carrying refrigerated
cargo from Morocco to Ecuador, and
the bright red container ship Columbus
Australia, also a German-flag ship,
which was en route from. the east coast
of the United States to Australia.
The yacht Fiesta, which had set out
from Pier 18 in Balboa with an esti-
mated 530 guests of the Panamanian
Government aboard, came astern of the
Atlas about 2:45 p.m. and the delegates
and other guests went aboard her to
complete the tour which ended at Pedro
Some of the delegates who visited the
Canal Zone were: U.N. Secretary Gen-
eral Kurt Waldheim, of Austria; Ambas-
sador Yakov Alexandrovich Malik, of
U.S.S.R.; Panama's Ambassador Aquili-
no E. Boyd; Ambassador Louis De
Guidirigaud, of France; Sir Laurence
McIntyre, Australia's Ambassador; In-
dian Ambassador Samarendranath Sen;
Ambassador Joseph Odero-Jowi, of Ken-
ya; Ambassador Chaidir Anwar Sani, of
Indonesia; and Ambassador Javier P6-
rez De Cubllar, of Per6.
12 SPRING 1973
Other high ranking officials on hand
at Miraflores included: Panama For-
eign Minister Juan Antonio Tack; Galo
Plaza Lasso, of Ecuador, Secretary
General of the Organization of Amer-
ican States; U.S. Ambassador to Pan-
ama Robert M. Sayre; British Ambas-
sador to Panama Dugald Malcolm;
Cuban Foreign Minister Raill Roa; and
Foreign Minister of Costa Rica Gonzalo
In Panama for the Security Council
meeting, in addition to the 15 United
Nations ambassadors, were high rank-
ing officials from 38 other countries and
240 foreign newsmen.
Throughout the meeting, as well as
long before it opened, U.S. agencies on
the Isthmus worked in close coopera-
tion on arrangements for the visit to
Detailed plans were worked out to
assist the international press and to
accommodate the delegates and other
dignitaries. Days before the meeting,
newsmen began arriving in Panama
and documentary movies of the Canal
were filmed by television crews from
Russia, France, and the United States
to be shipped back for televising in
these countries prior to the meeting of
the Security Council.
The U.S. Information Service set up
a press center at the Panama Hotel
where press kits containing information
about the Canal were available. The
Panama Canal Information Office pro-
vided basic information about the Pan-
ama Canal in nine languages-Russian,
French, Italian, Spanish, Japanese,
Chinese, German, English, and Por-
Robert Emerick, of
Advisor, Dr. Jorge
Illueca, and his
wife on their arrival
S Ambassador to the
F, Joseph Odero-
Jowi, and his wife
are escorted to the
by Frank A.
William De La
Officer and Aide
to the Governor,
Ambassador to the
Sen and his wife
on the tour of the
them to the left
Panama, P. M.
D'Souza and his
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
THE PANAMA CANAL ,
John F. Shea, of the Graphic Branch.
sets up movie equipment at Miraflores.
Booklets containing the briefing
given at Miraflores Locks were made
up in Spanish, French, and English and
distributed to newsmen and delegates
following completion of the tour.
Employees of the Translator's Office,
along with some part-time help brought
in for the project, did the translations
into French and Spanish and the Print-
S ing Plant staff worked long hours turn-
ing out the brochures in time for the
Printing Plant employees work rou-
tinely with Spanish but the French pre-
sented some problems. Because of the
various diacritical marks peculiar to the
French language it could not be set on
the linotype. It was set instead on an
ancient monotype machine that dates
back to 1920, identical to one that was
used by the Canal during construction
days. The operator succeeded in doing
a good job of setting the type although
he had no knowledge of the French
Another of the units of the Canal
organization having a hand in prepara-
tions for the meeting of the Security
Council was the Maintenance Division,
which was assigned the job of putting
up the flags of the 15 participating
countries along John F. Kennedy Ave-
nue near the Legislative Palace.
Hamblin H. Sisnett, hand compositor,
makes up pages of a brochure,
"The Panama Canal in International
Commerce" which was distributed
to delegates and newsmen.
William O'Sullivan, official translator,
points out a correction in one
of the French brochures to Harold Lewis,
Sandor Liptai, of the Canal Zone
Guide Service, hands out brochures
in three languages as the delegates
leave the "Atlas."
By Fannie P. Hernindez
T TROPICAL FRUITS FOR MAKING
drinks have been ignored by na-
tives and newcomers alike who find it
easier to reach for a soda-type bever-
age than to avail themselves of natural
juices to quench a summer thirst. The
abundance and excellence of fruits on
the local market call for a redress of
this oversight and an upgrading of their
category on our list of drinkables.
We all know the gustatory pleasure
derived from a cold lemonade, and the
healthful qualities of orange and grape-
fruit juice. Most of us, however, have
little notion of the true qualities and
attributes of many local noncitrus fruits
as a source of delicious beverages.
Discovering a new beverage is always
a special pleasure, particularly if it is
readily available and reasonable. Let
us consider first the versatile coconut.
Who can pass up the cool, pure fresh-
ness of green coconut beverage, known
in Panama as "pipa" water, once having
tasted the sweet, clear liquid of the un-
ripe coconut! Always pure and cool in
the container that nature provided, the
liquid could well be that "nectar of the
gods" so often alluded to by one who
has just satisfied a raging thirst.
Fruit of the Palm
The refreshing and palatable drink is
from the fruit of the palm tree, the
constant supplier of food, shelter,
clothing, timber, wax and wine. Fur-
nishing tannin, dyeing agents, resin and
a host of minor products make it the
most valuable tree to the native popula-
tion in the tropics and one of the
world's most important crop trees.
The ripe fruit gives us the familiar
shredded coconut, and oil from it is
used in making soaps, shampoos, deter-
gents, oils, margarine, vegetable short-
ening, synthetic rubber, glycerine, hy-
draulic brake fluid and plasticizing for
Mounds of green pipas and ripe
coconuts can be found throughout the
year at markets, at fruit stalls along the
highway, and in every town and village
in the Republic.
To enjoy the cool beverage, simply
cut off the top of the pipa and drink it
directly from the fruit or use a straw.
Or pour it into a pitcher, spoon out the
tender jelly-like pipa meat and add it
to the water. A little sugar to taste may
be added. For a more "spirited" bever-
age, add rum, gin or vodka.
Less known is the refreshing drink
made from the fruit of the tamarind
tree. Misnamed by Europeans who
Sipping through a straw, this young lady
enjoys "pipa" water, always pure
and cool in the container that
thought the brown pods were fruit of
the palm because the Arabians called
it "tamar hindi" or Indian date, the
tree is not a palm at all. It is a tall,
stately tree with lacy foliage that curls
up at sundown. A tamarind is often
planted near the house as a wind-
The fruit is really a pod, from about
Maturing at different times,
a coconut palm may provide green "pipas"
for a refreshing and palatable drink
and ripe fruit for the familiar shredded
coconut we find on the grocer's shelf.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW
1 inches to 8 inches long, often grow-
ing in clusters of three or four. The pods
are filled with seeds and an acid, juicy
pulp, dark brown in color. The beverage
is made by shelling the fragile, tree-
dried pods, removing the sticky pulp
from the seeds and mixing it with
water. The pulp is considered to have
laxative properties while the seeds are
Chicha de Tamarindo
The popular native beverage is called
Chicha de Tamarindo and here is one
way to make it:
2 cups tamarind seeds, removed from the
1 quart of water
1 cup of sugar, more or less
Place the shelled tamarinds in a large
bowl and add 2 cups of water. Using
your hands, rub the seeds to remove the
pulp. Strain through a sieve and repeat
the process using the remainder of the
water until all the pulp is removed from
the seeds. Add sugar to taste. Mix well
and serve very cold. This makes a strong
beverage. Dilute to your taste.
To make Tamarind Balls which can
be stored and used for making bever-
age, candy or sauce when tamarinds are
out of season, simply add about 3 cup
of sugar to 1 cup of tamarind pulp and
knead until you have a smooth dough.
Add no water. Make balls about the size
of a walnut. Roll in course sugar and
store in a tightly covered jar.
A beverage fruit relatively new on
the local scene is the naranjilla, in-
troduced to the Isthmus from Ecuador
by Fritz Collins, a well known fruit
grower in the highlands of Boquete in
Chiriqui Province. Naranjilla is also a
popular fruit in Colombia where it is
known as lulu. Colombians mix the
strained fruit juice with condensed
milk and call it "sorbete de lulu." The
fruit is about the size of a small orange,
the color of an orange and grows on a
bush similar to a tomato plant. Its thin,
smooth skin peels easily, much like
removing the skin from a ripe tomato
that has been dipped in hot water.
To make naranjilla beverage, peel
three ripe naranjillas, cut them up and
place in a blender with two cups of
water and half a cup of sugar. Whirl for
about 2 minutes. Strain to remove the
tiny seeds. Serve over ice. Tastes a little
like fresh sweet apple cider.
One of the lesser known beverage
fruits is nance, a small tart, yellow
cherry-like fruit with a strong flavor and
penetrating scent. It is sold at markets
and along the highway in the Interior,
packed in water, usually in bottles. The
flavor of nance varies slightly from tree
to tree and generally requires an ac-
quired taste for most foreigners. Used
fresh with water and sugar as chichaa
fresca," it is a refreshing beverage. Fer-
mented, it becomes a potent chichaa
Chicha de Nance
Two species of nance are common
in Panama, nance colorado and nance
blanco. Both grow profusely in acid
soil. The bark of the nance colorado is
used by campesinos to treat fish nets
against mildew and fungus. It also is
used for medicinal purposes such as the
treatment of "athlete's foot" and other
skin fungus diseases. Wood of the nance
trees is highly in demand for firewood
as it burns leaving a fine white ash.
Nance is harvested by shaking the tree.
Come October you can buy a bottle of
those "yellow things" on your way to
the Interior and make Chicha de Nance
this way: Mash the contents of 1 bottle
of nance. Add about a quart of water.
Add sugar to taste and serve very cold
or over ice. It is a great thirst quencher.
Fruit beverages are good the year
around, but sorrel, the light, spicy con-
coction made from the bright, red
blossoms of a shrubby plant of the
ornamental hibiscus family, combined
with other flavorings, seems to be most
appropriate during the Christmas sea-
son, when it is available. Sorrel is also
related to the okra family. It is not
really a fruit but the petals of a flower.
The deep, red petals have a tangy
flavor similar to the cranberry. Make
sorrel beverage like this:
2 cups sorrel petals
i ounce crushed ginger root
1 small piece orange peel
% cup sugar
4 cups boiling water
Cut off the hard portion at the base
of the flower, discard the seed pod.
Wash the sorrel petals. Place in a large
bowl with the ginger, cloves and orange
peel. Add the boiling water and let it
steep overnight. The following day.
strain the liquid and add the sugar. Stir
well and serve cold or with ice. By
adding a dash of rum, you have a
delicious, heady beverage.
Cashew "apples," naranjillas, tamarind pods, a pineapple
and a guanabana, a few local fruits that make delicious beverages.
16 SPRING 197'
Chicha de Marafion
Plentiful on the local market, espe-
cially in the early part of the rainy
season, is the cashew apple, that is not
a true fruit. The real fruit of the cashew
are the roasted nuts we buy in cans.
The exceedingly juicy marafion, as the
cashew apple is called in Spanish, when
fully ripe makes an excellent drink. The
marafion tree is beautiful with its bright
red or orange colored "apples."
To make Chicha de Maraiion, cut up
the fleshy, fully ripe "fruit" and press
it in a food mill and then strain. Add
water and sugar to taste. Or better still,
whirl in a blender with water. Strain
and then add sugar. Serve cold or over
Chicha de Guanabana
Delicious beverages are made with a
combination of fruit pulp or juice, milk,
crushed ice and sugar, the amount of
sugar varying with the sweetness of the
fruit and one's taste. Topping the list
of these milk sherbert-like beverages is
Chicha de Guanabana or soursop bev-
erage. The fruit is large and dark green
and filled with soft, snowy white pulp
and deliciously flavored juice. It grows
on a small, slender tree, often growing
directly from the trunk. It should be
picked from the tree while it is still
firm and kept at room temperature until
ripe. Make it like this:
1 large ripe guanabana, 2 or 3 pounds
2 cups evaporated milk
2 cups water
1 cup sugar
Cut the guanabana in half. Cut out
the core and scoop out the pulp. Place
the pulp in a fruit press and squeeze
out the juice. Add a little water to the
pulp and squeeze again, repeating the
process until all the pulp is pressed out
and only the seeds are left. Add the
milk and sugar. Blend well and serve
cold, preferably over crushed ice. A
teaspoon of vanilla may be added.
The same process may be followed
to make milk-fruit beverages from ba-
nanas, papaya, mangoes and melon,
always removing the seeds first.
Chicha de Arroz con Pifia
Since it was first discovered by
Columbus on the West Indies Island
of Cuadeloupe in 1493, the pineapple
has been one of the world's favorite
fruits. In addition to using it as food
and beverage, the Caribs placed a pine-
apple on their doors as a sign of hospi-
tality. It was so highly esteemed by the
earliest settlers in the new world that
the pineapple motif soon became a
favorite European decoration.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 17
Commercially, in addition to the fruit
and juice, the pineapple shells, ends,
and trimmings are processed to make
citrus acid used in making drugs, soft
drinks and foods. Even the enzymes
from the stumps of the mature plant
are used in the brewing of beer and as
a tenderizer. Many thousands of tons
of pineapples from Hawaii are carried
through the Canal each year en route to
world markets. Several varieties are
available in Panama during dry season
and the beginning of rainy season. Pan-
amanians will tell you that the world's
best pineapples come from the Island
of Taboga. One of the favorite bever-
ages in Panama is made from the peel
of the pineapple. Here is a recipe for
making Chicha de Arroz con Piiia:
9 cup of rice
1 cup of evaporated milk
sugar to taste
Select a good sized pineapple. Wash
it thoroughly and peel it. Boil the peel
with the rice in water to cover. When
the rice is tender, discard the pecl and
strain. Add milk and sugar to the liquid
and serve very cold.
Here is another Panamanian favorite:
Cut off a pineapple about 1 inches
down from the top. Remove the core
being careful not to cut through the
bottom. Pour rum into the pineapple.
Put the top back on it and place in the
refrigerator overnight. The pineapple
absorbs the rum and the rum takes on
the pineapple flavor. You will have a
delicious rum drink. Slice the pineapple
and serve as a fruit course or use as a
garnish. (Especially good with ham.)
While her mother shops at the
Chinese garden in Curundu,
Digna Mercedes Tang, 3-year-old
daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Carlos M.
Tang, of Panama, samples
the juice of a coconut.
One of the most common of wild fruit
trees in Panama is the jobo, which
reaches a height of from 40 to 60 feet
and bears an abundance of fruit. The
ripe fruit, about 1V inches long and
% inch across, makes an excellent
beverage. It has a thin, bright yellow
skin and a soft juicy pulp around a
large seed. The flavor varies considcr-
ably from tree to tree, ranging from
sweet to sweet-tart. Harvesting the jobo
is easy as the fruit falls when it is ripe.
Pick it up from the ground before the
insects and birds get to it.
To make Chicha de Jobo: Wash the
ripe fruit and, using your hands, re-
move the pulp from the large seed.
Press it through a strainer. Dilute the
pulp with water to suit your taste. Add
sugar and serve over ice.
The flesh of the pulpy fruits is also
commonly used in making sauces, can-
dies and ice cream in Panama and all
A VERIT.\BLE MENAGERIE OF
animals and birds covered the
table in the home of Mrs. Kanoko
Schear and her nimble fingers quickly
folded a sheet of paper and another
small crane was added to the collection.
Mrs. Schear was practicing the an-
cient art of paper folding, known as
origami to the Japanese. The classical
technique involves producing hand-
made artistic objects without the use of
scissors, knife, or glue. One simply
creases the paper to create the figures.
In Japan, the art is known to date
back to as early as 1336 but probably
was practiced even before that. In re-
cent years, there has been an upsurge
of interest with events such as San Fran-
cisco's International Paper Airplane
Contest attracting a great deal of public
attention. At this contest, a professor
from Brown University won the top
origami prize for his model of a super-
sonic transport plane.
And according to a story that ap-
peared in newspapers this year, there
may be profit as well as pleasure in the
practice of origami. A New York ad-
vertising executive who was folding
paper airplanes for his young son ap-
parently has inadvertently discovered a
whole new concept in aerodynamics.
He plans to market the new type plane
he folded as either a toy or a new
airplane design or perhaps both.
Mrs. Schear pointed out that since
no tools are needed and suitable paper
is readily available, origami is an art
:lmosn ain\m.ne of any .ge t.rn enloy.
licr son, Fiank, N.hOI. is .,nl) 7 years old.
has already become adept at the art and
has a box full of figures to prove it.
Three-year-old John has not taken it up
yet but is enthralled at watching a sheet
of paper quickly transformed into a
crane, turtle, or boat in the skilled
hands of his mother.
Origami paper from Japan, which is
sometimes available in shops in Pan-
ama, is used by Mrs. Schear for some
figures but she said that gift wrapping
paper or any thin crisp paper that will
take a sharp crease may be used. Even
brown paper bags can be used for larger
figures. Some models require paper that
is colored on both sides while for others
paper colored on one side and white on
the other is needed.
Came to Canal Zone
Mrs. Schear came to the Canal Zone
in 1964. She met her husband, Gerard
K. Schear, Administrative Officer in the
Administrative Services Division, at
Sophia University in Tokyo where he
was taking courses in Japanese and the
history of the Far East. They were
married in Ancon and now live in
Since she came to the Isthmus, Mrs.
Schear has served as interpreter and
volunteer guide for various Japanese
visitors to the Canal including members
of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense
Force, whose vessels make periodic
visits to this area. She also translated
Mrs. Kanoko Schear demonstrates how
to fold a sheet of gift wrapping paper
to make a crane, which is a
peace symbol in Japan.
18 SPRING 1973
Or i gah me
By Willie K. Friar
the basic information brochure of the
Panama Canal into Japanese for dis-
tribution to newsmen during the recent
United Nations Security Council meet-
ing in Panama, and is frequently called
on to act as interpreter for seamen who
are patients at Gorgas Hospital.
She whetted the appetite of more
than 100 fourth-graders at Balboa Ele-
mentary School, for more information
about Japan recently, when she was in-
vited to give a talk and an origami
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 19
demonstration as a part of their Social
Studies course. The children came home
with a surprisingly sophisticated knowl-
edge of origami, much to the surprise
of many parents. Some gave their par-
ents demonstrations on how to fold a
special "tricky boat," a little paper boat
that, however you turn it, is always
right side up.
Practitioners of origami include peo-
ple of all professions but magicians, in
particular, are attracted to it. The Great
Houdini became so interested in it that
he wrote a book on the subject. Shari
Lewis, who is well known as a ventrilo-
quist and puppeteer, also practices it
and collaborated recently on an origami
book. More than 20 other books on the
subject have been published in the
United States in the last 10 years.
The most famous present day artist
is Akira Yoshizawa, of Tokyo, whose
clear directions on folding have become
the international language of origami.
The miniature parakeet at left
is only 3 inches long and requires
a multitude of folds. Photographed
close-up, perched on a tree limb,
he presents a remarkable life-like
He has devoted his life to the art and
spent 23 years perfecting one of his
figures, a cicada.
On a goodwill tour in New Zealand,
Yoshizawa entertained mentally ill pa-
tients and illustrated how valuable the
art can be for therapists in mental in-
stitutions as well as in regular hospitals
where patients, though confined to beds,
can spend the time creatively learning
a new art.
Any babysitter, who is looking for a
means of keeping children happy, need
look no further. Children of all ages
respond immediately to watching the
magic of a square of paper being
changed into a bird, a turtle, a bat, or
even Whistler's Mother.
In addition to the fact that no tools
are necessary, there is another advan-
tage to origami as a hobby. One can
practice it anywhere as all that is
needed is a piece of paper. And if no
ordinary paper is readily available, one
can use a dollar bill, which is actually
ideal for origami. Even a devalued
dollar will do.
LIKE TO TRY IT?
Here are directions for
making a very simple bird,
not the rather complicated
one shown above. Fold the
paper by numerical order
and then draw in the eyes.
Ir By classical tradition, models are made
1 by folding only, no cutting, or pasting
Above: John, who is 3 years old,
lies in his mother's lap and plays with
the origami crane she just created,
while 7-year-old Frank displays a few
of the many figures he has fashioned from
varied colored paper. At right:
Laundry detergent and a mirror were
used by photographer Steve Bissell to
create this interesting landscape featuring
a penguin made by Mrs. Schear.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 21
Transited in Ballast
ANAMA CANAL RECORDS FOR
size and tolls were broken in April
when the 972.68-foot bulk carrier San
Juan Prospector transited the Canal en
route from Trinidad to Peru.
It was the first transit for the bulk
carrier since she was jumboized in Japan
a few months ago. The transit was car-
ried out so smoothly that it paved the
way for future use of the Canal by both
the San Juan Prospector and her sister
ship the San Juan Pathfinder, due here
in the fall. Both are expected to make
several trips through the Canal each
The two vessels are Marcona Corp.
bulk oil-ore carriers which were en-
larged by Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy In-
dustries from 75,000 deadweight tons to
108,500 tons by the addition of a mid-
section. When the Pathfinder is com-
pleted in July, she too will have a length
of 972.68 feet and a beam of 106 feet
which gives them about 12 feet on each
end and 2 feet on each side when they
go through the Panama Canal's 1,000-
foot-long locks. The lock chambers are
110 feet wide.
Tolls were computed at $40,951.44 on
a Panama Canal net tonnage of 56,877
which are record breakers on both
counts. Because of their size and depth,
the two ships probably will always tran-
sit in ballast which means they pay 72
cents on each Panama Canal net ton.
The 950-foot Tokyo Bay held the
record of being the longest ship to tran-
sit and the Hamburg Express paid the
record tolls of $40,936.50 up until the
arrival of the San Juan Prospector. Be-
cause they carried cargo-both ships
paid laden tolls of 90 cents per Panama
Canal net ton.
They are container ships operated by
the Trio Alliance, a consortium made
up of the Overseas Containers Ltd., the
British Ben Line, Hapag Lloyd A.G. of
Germany and the Japanese shipping
companies of Mitsui-OSK Lines and
Nippon Yusen Kaisha.
The record for the largest cargo to be
carried through the Canal is still held
Before and after. The "San Juan
Prospector," above, was one of the
largest ships to use the Canal in 1964
when she measured 835 feet in length.
Tnday again breaking records, with a
length of 972.68 feet, she slides through
Miraflores Locks on her first transit
after being jumboized in Japan.
22 SPRING 1973
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL
(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
First Half Fiscal Year
Petroleum and products ______-
Manufactures of iron and steel-----
Lumber and products --_____ -
Sugar, raw _______----------
Metals, various --------
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) ---
Bananas ----_- __-____ _
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts --- ___-
Paper and paper products __-__--_____
All others ---------- ----
Atlantic to Pacific
First Half Fiscal Year
Coal and coke --_ _-- __ ___-
Petroleum and products ---------
Ores, various - ------
Metal, scrap ------. ________
Manufactures of iron and steel ----
Chemicals, unclassified-- ----
Fertilizers, unclassified _- _- ____
Paper and paper products _------ _______..
All others --------- ------- ------
CANAL TRANSITS COMMERCIAL AND U.S.
First Half Fiscal Year
U.S. Government vessels: 2
Small '----_-- ----------
Total Commercial and
U.S. Government ---_ _---
Pacific Atlantic Total
106 108 214 208 124
32 34 66 87 82
3,746 3,692 7,438 7,257 6,123
1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior lo July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited
by the Arctic, a bulk carrier that brought
60,391 long tons of coal through the
Canal in March 1970 en route to Japan.
The San Juan Prospector broke a
Canal record for size when she made
her first transit in 1964 and measured
only 835 feet. She arrived here the last
time April 6 from Trinidad with a draft
of 33 feet and started transit at 5:45
a.m., April 7. She cleared Balboa at
4:20 p.m. The transit was made without
incident with the assistance of two tugs
at the locks.
Since the bridge is amidships, only
two Panama Canal pilots were required
to guide the big ship through the
Canal on her April 7 transit. They were
Capt. William Hopkins, Assistant Port
Captain in Cristobal, who had the
first control, and Capt. Chris Cunder-
sen, Navigation Division Marine Train-
ing Officer, who had control of the
last half of the passage. They were
joined at Gamboa, or halfway through,
by Capt. Robert J. Norman, Marine
Director; Rufus O'Neal, Chief Marine
Traffic Controller; E. E. Hamlin, Jr., Di-
rector of Admeasurement; and Richard-
son Selee, representative in Panama of
the Marcona Corp., owners of the ship.
Owners have explained that the deci-
sion to expand the two vessels' capacities
by jumboizing is based upon the short-
age of new building dockspace created
by the tremendous worldwide demand
for large tanker-type hulls, which has
stretched the backlog of orders at ship-
yards well beyond 1975. Also enlarged
is the Marcona's San Juan Exporter,
originally a 106,220 deadweight ton
ship, which has been converted to a
141,700 ton ore slurry carrier at Nippon
Kokan's Tsu Shipyard in Japan, where
she was originally built in 1967.
Largest of her kind when she was
launched, the vessel now is the world's
largest of a different type. She now has
an overall length of 996 feet, a draft of
57 feet and is the world's new front
runner among slurry carriers.
Jumboization of the San Juan Path-
finder and San Juan Prospector makes
it possible to use them in the highly
profitable Sumatra-California oil trade
in combination voyages and at the same
time maintain their current Peru-Japan
ore lifting capabilities. Conversion does
not increase fuel consumption, and
through addition of a bulbous bow, the
speed reduction resulting from the
10-foot increase in draft will be limited
to 0.3 knots.
In Panama. the ships are represented
by Boyd Bros., well known local
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 23
All others ---
No. of Tons
transit of cargo
No. of Tons
transit of cargo
TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES
First Half Fiscal Year
Trade routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1973 1972 1961-65
United States Intercoastal_--_--- ------- --------- 215 145 231
East coast of United States-West coast of South America_. 581 452 1,208
East coast of United States-West coast of Central America 324 311 241
East coast of United States-Far East_ ------ ----- 1,739 1,433 1,133
East coast of United States/Canada-Oceania--- _------- 189 187 171
Europe-West coast of United States/Canada ---------- 423 399 459
Europe-West coast of South America ..----------- 605 629 592
Europe-Oceania ------------------ 252 234 176
All others----------- ---2------ 2,569 2,847 1,420
Total ------------------------- 6,897 6,637 5,631
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)!
Avg. No. Average
First Half transit First Half tools
Month 1973 1972 1961-65 1973 1972 1961-65
July .-------------------- 1,138 1,194 960 $8,518 $8,017 $4,929
August ...------- ___-- 1,221 1,197 949 9,522 8,513 4,920
September-------- --- 1,116 1,191 908 8,896 8,417 4,697
October --------------- 1,174 1,068 946 9,298 7,241 4,838
November------_------- 1,141 964 922 9,130 6,645 4,748
December.---- -------- 1,107 1,023 946 8,958 7,267 4,955
January----------------- ___- 1,179 903 --- 8,895 4,635
February----_ ----_ _-- 1,116 868 8,233 4,506
March..----------__ ---- 1,290 1,014 9,297 5,325
April--------_ ------- ___- 1,191 966 9,180 5,067
May -------_ --- --- _____ 1,261 999 _- 9,127 5,232
June ------ __ -- 1,092 954 7,933 5,013
Totals for fiscal year -- ---- 13,766 11,335 _-- $98,765 $58,865
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.
PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC
STATISTICS FOR FIRST 6 MONTHS
OF FISCAL YEAR 1973
TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
Commercial _------ 6,897 6,637
U.S. Government------ 214 206
Free --_---------- _17 31
Total ------- 7,128 6,874
Total _- $55,662,200
CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY
First Half Fiscal Year
Avg. No. Avg. tons
transits of cargo
Commercial_. 60,049,885 51,553,579
ment__-- 848.066 821,399
Free --__- 8,490 41,532
Total 60,906,441 52,416,510
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.
(Continued from p. 11)
wet nurse had successfully weaned a
baby, the mother presented her with a
cadena chata as a reward.
The montuna pollera with its colorful
skirt is worn with a Panama hat, known
as "pintao," that is made in the moun-
tain area of Cocl6 Province. The slippers
match the color of the pompons and rib-
bons. The blouse is similar to the pollera
blouse but much less elaborate and with
only one ruffle.
The wedding dress is similar to the
formal pollera, but always all white,
with the embroidery and applique work
done in white. The wool pompon and
wool woven in the top of the blouse is
usually a pale pink or light blue.
The petticoats, of course, are white,
magnificently embroidered and lace
Although many women make their
own polleras, spending months and per-
haps years to complete them, most of
the polleras are made by expert seam-
stresses in the Provinces of Herrera and
Los Santos, especially in Las Tablas.
These women may be seen sitting in
their doorways making mundillo or em-
broidering sections of material. A num-
ber of women may be working on one
pollera which may take a year to com-
plete and cost several hundred dollars,
depending on the work that has gone
into its elaboration. Polleras are heir-
looms, handed down from one genera-
tion to another, and very fortunate in-
deed is a young girl who inherits a
formal pollera and the jewels that go
Smorgasbord and Wives Aboard
Keep Morale High on Super Ship
"No man will be a sailor who has contrivance enough to
get himself into a jail; for being in a ship is being in a jail
with the chance of being drowned .... A man in jail has
more room, better food, and commonly better company."
So wrote Dr. Samuel Johnson about the life of merchant
seamen in the 1700's. Typical food aboard ships was duff,
a mixture of flour and sea water, usually boiled; tough salt
beef; and beer because the stale drinking water soon filled
with wriggling organisms. By the 1800's life aboard ship
was so miserable that the British resorted to kidnapping men
to complete crews. This was one of the principal causes of
the War of 1812.
Floggings were the order of the day for even such minor
offenses as talking while on deck and because the ships
were small, little valuable space was allotted for the crew.
They were often issued hammocks and simply fitted in
around the cargo. There was always overcrowding as extra
crewmen were signed on in anticipation of the number that
would die before the voyage was completed.
As late as 1938, seamen were found to have such a high
death rate that the British Medical Journal commented that
"in many cases it is quite obvious that nobody has given
any serious thought to the comfort and convenience of
Fortunately, modern technology has changed all that.
Dr. Johnson could hardly have imagined the life of crews
aboard today's super tankers and giant container ships.
A writer for the REVIEW recently transited the Canal
aboard a container ship to report what life is like for the
crew when comfort and convenience are given top priority
in the designing and equipping of a ship.
By Eunice Richard
C APT. IVAL FALCK HUSUM,
master of the 902-foot Norwegian
container carrier Toyama, stood on the
bridge of his spanking new ship and
watched the tropic dawn break over the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge.
"I haven't been ashore in Panama
since 1957," he said, "and I don't expect
to while I am master of this vessel."
Although the Toyama was making
her second trip through the Panama
Canal, and is expected to transit every
few months in the future, the ship will
never stop here on her regular appointed
Like the "Flying Dutchman" travel-
ing around and around the world-
doomed ever to sail the high seas, its
modem counterpart goes to sea and
sees the sea and not much else.
Twenty-four hours in the seven or
eight ports of call around the world is
the maximum time that most of the big
container ships can spend in harbor if
they are to operate economically and
Victims of progress, the master and
crew of the Toyama are not exactly
birds in a gilded cage but they could
have been subject to boredom and
depression if the owners and operators
of the new fast cargo vessels had not
made sure that life aboard ship would
be made as attractive as possible.
When the Toyama arrived at Balboa
recently, she had just completed a trip
across the Pacific from Tokyo at a cruis-
ing speed of about 28 knots. She waited
outside Balboa until dawn the following
day in order to make a daylight transit.
She was to sail immediately from Cris-
tobal after transit for Rotterdam, Hol-
land, Giteborg, Sweden, and Hamburg,
Germany. Then she would be off again
around the world with brief stops at
Rotterdam, Singapore, Hong Kong,
Kobe and Tokyo. The Toyama can be
unloaded only in those ports that have
container ship handling facilities.
The 36 officers and crew of the big
ship are housed in comfortable air-
conditioned cabins which feature wall-
to-wall carpeting, thermostat control of
temperatures, private baths, a desk and
an easy chair for reading. Most cabins
have large windows instead of portholes
and there is a telephone in each cabin
to connect its occupant with the rest of
the ship. Because of the height of the
ship, there is an elevator to take crew-
members from deck to deck.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 25
Capt. Louis NI. Pascavage, veteran Panama Canal pilot, takes control of the "Toyama"
as it approaches Miraflores Locks northbound. Two other pilots are standing
forward on the bow and a fourth will take the second half of the
transit as a control pilot.
On the bridge are some of the most
modem navigational instruments avail-
able. The equipment includes two radar
sets with data-radar which is a calcu-
lator with its own radar screen coupled
to the radar sets. There also is a com-
puter-controlled mechanism, part of an
integrated anti-collision, navigation and
autopilot combine. One of the most ex-
tensive data systems made for naviga-
tion of a cargo vessel, this equipment
takes care of the greatest part of naviga-
tion at sea. The plant receives positions
and weather via satellite about once an
All this makes work much easier and
more pleasant aboard the Toyama and
gives the crew leisure time for reading,
athletics, or other recreation.
The owners of the Japanese built
Norwegian giant were thinking not only
of the comfort of the crew when the
ship was designed but gave particular
emphasis to the general welfare and
interest of the Norwegians who make
up the majority of the crew and whc
are physical fitness buffs.
Just behind the deckhouse there is a
swimming pool that can be used in
nearly all kinds of weather. Not one of
Stewardess Gerd Hansen helps serve her
husband Second Engineer Ingod Johan
Hansen some of the Norwegian delicacies
that fill the luncheon table
aboard the "Toyama." Food for the entire
voyage is put aboard in Sweden.
26 SPRING 1971
iii ::i --- -L _- "" ----: -" -- -, -"-
....... .. 'I...
those boxes that are drained when the
vessel enters port, the pool looks more The "Toyama" at anchorage in Gatun Lake waiting her turn to transit
like the type that would be part of the Gatun Locks on her way to Cristobal and Europe. The "Toyama" is the largest
Lido dek on a cruise ship. ship in the Willh. Wilhelmsen fleet of cargo ships and the first
Lido deck on a cruise ship. all-container ship under the Norwegian flag.
Aft of this is an exercise area equipped
with a ping-pong table, stationary bi-
cycle machine, and a deck tennis court.
Movies are shown in the main lounge
several times each week, and a bar,
which is open to the crew on a regular
basis each day, is part of the combined
officers and crew dining area.
The transit started at 5 a.m. with
sandwiches and coffee served on the .
bridge for the crew on duty and for the
four Panama Canal pilots who were to
take the ship through the Canal. They
weren't ordinary sandwiches either.
They were hefty open-faced Scandina-
vian type snacks designed to keep a
husky man satisfied until breakfast,
which was served about 3 hours later.
Food is of prime concern to anyone
who goes to sea and a happy ship is one
that sets a good table. Chief Steward
Nils Olsen is proud of the compact
modern galley aboard the Toyama,
which is presided over by Chief Cook by
Arne Larsen and a cook apprentice, Leif
Erline Tjonsoy, two Norwegians who
First Officer Tor Odd Bierkeng charts
the course the ship will take
after leaving Cristobal for Europe.
Even though occasionally working
overtime, the men have much leisure
time aboard a modern ship.
TmE PANAi CANAL REVIEw 27
At right: An afternoon swim in the ship's
pool is an attraction for a large number ol
the crew of the "Tovama." The pool is an
all weather facility situated between the
cabins and the containers on the deck
Below: Some of the crew members aboard
the "Tovama" act like tourists and take
pictures as the ship moves through Mlra-
flores Locks on her way from Tokyo. Japan.
to Hamburg, GermanN
believe in serving hearty food in an
The officers and crew joint dining
salon is filled with serve-yourself de-
vices which make a meal a sort of super
cafeteria with a smorgasbord atmos-
phere. Breakfast, for instance, features
such conventional things as boiled eggs
and cornflakes along with Scandinavian
specialties of tinned fish, and an assort-
ment of cheese. Bread is made aboard
ship along with rolls and pastry and
several different beverages are available.
The officers and crew come to the
dining area when they can during the
hour or so that the meal is served. Two
attractive stewardesses take care of the
tables, the dishes, and the food supplies.
Both are wives of crewmembers.
Chief Steward Olsen, who also han-
dles the bar and the supplies, said that
because of the speed of the ship, stores
put aboard in Sweden are sufficient to
last the entire voyage. Less cold storage
space is needed on this ship than on the
older slower vessels and only a small
addition of fresh fruit or vegetables is
needed en route.
Traveling around the world in an
easterly direction at 28 knots has
caused some problems never considered
by the owners, operators and builders
of the Toyama. The stewards' depart-
ment, as well as the officers on the
bridge, find it a little disconcerting to
lose an average of an hour every other
28 SPRING 1973
At left: Not very many people can bicycle
through the Panama Canal. This "Toyama"
crcwmember gets his exercise on the sports
" deck and watches the Miraflores control
- *_tower pass by.
Below: Capt. Ival Falck Husum proudly
surveys his domain from the decks of the
new container ship "Toyama" which he
commands on her second voyage through
the Panama Canal.
day only to gain it all back in one fell-
swoop when the ship crosses the inter-
When the men and women aboard
the Toyama are not eating or working,
or playing, they may be found in their
comfortable cabins, sleeping, reading,
writing or studying. Taking great pride
in their wall-to-wall carpeting, most
members of the crew leave their shoes
outside the door to their cabins in the
Japanese style in order to keep the car-
peting from being soiled by grease or
oil from the decks or enginerooms.
Even the smallest cabins have arm-
chairs. a desk, lamps instead of berth
lights, and a sofa-type bed giving the
living quarters a studio-type effect.
Some cabins, especially those of the cap-
tain and the senior officers, are over-
sized in order to permit wives to come
aboard for a voyage or two. Since the
men never get home while on a tour of
duty, the wives, who are not on board,
meet their husbands in Holland or
Sweden whenever it can be arranged.
This rather isolated way of life is
relieved somewhat by the fact that by
company rules, the officers can work
9 months and take off 3. A Norwegian
law now being passed will provide most
with a tour of 6 months at sea and
6 months at home with pay.
The Toyama bears a Japanese name
partly because it was built by the Mit-
sui Shipbuilding Co. Ltd. in Japan and
partly because all the ships of the Wilh.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 29
11 mow -- -. -
I" I- Vj9_..,2_
Typical of the trend toward comfortable accommodations is this spacious crew recreation room aboard the "Toyama," where
crewmembers can gather during off-duty hours for reading, playing chess, or other activities.
Wilhelmsen Line of Norway have
names beginning with "T." "Toyama"
means rich mountain in Japanese and
there is a mountain by that name in
Part of the ScanDutch Consortium,
the Toyama is the largest in the Wilh.
Wilhelmsen fleet of cargo ships and the
first all-container ship under the Nor-
wegian flag. Two smaller vessels will be
added to the consortium by the com-
Other members of the group operat-
ing between Europe and the Far East
are the East Asiatic Co. of Denmark
with two ships, the Sealandia and
Jutlandia; and Koninklijke Nedlloyd of
Holland with two under construction in
Germany; and the East Asiatic Co. of
Sweden with the Nihon. All are Panama
C. B. Fenton & Co., a well-known
local shipping agency, represents the
Toyama and all other ships in the Scan-
Dutch Consortium at the Canal.
The increased use of the Panama
Canal by the big container ships is
regarded by Arne Hauge, manager of
the company on the Pacific side, as a
reflection of a growth of the container
trade following a worldwide trend with
the emergence of the simple but revolu-
tionary concept of cargo handling and
carriage in containers.
Most shipping companies have in-
vested recently in the big box ships
because it means greater transport
speed, lower shipping costs, and less
intermediate handling and exposure of
products consigned to overseas markets.
The container ships carry no ma-
chinery for loading or unloading. The
big boxes are handled by huge dock-
side gantry cranes. The Toyama carries
2,208 containers of the 20-foot size in
the holds and stacked on deck. One of
the eight holds is designed for refriger-
Mrs. Gerd Hansen, an attractive Norwegian lass employed
as one of two stewardesses, relaxes in her comfortable
cabin aboard the "Toyama" when she is off duty.
Nils Olsen, Chief Steward on the "Toyama," relaxes
in his comfortable and attractive cabin. Windows facing
forward give view of Canal as "Toyama" transits.
By Vic Canel
"Art is a human activity having for its purpose the
transmission to others of the highest and best
Feelings to which men have risen."
SIERE HAVE BEEN GOOD
artists on the scene in Panama
since long before the Republic was born.
But only in recent years has the local
art community shown strong signs of
developing the elements that can make
it an important art center.
The problem in the past, most artists
agree, is that there were no galleries to
exhibit and sell their work. There was
no competition, little incentive for an
artist to develop his talents.
Attempts by individuals to establish
art galleries failed for lack of support.
A few of today's well known Pan-
amanian artists like Carlos Arboleda,
Guillermo Sinclair and others who stud-
ied art in Europe began returning to
Panama in the early 1960's. Perhaps this
was the prelude to the slow but steady
development of Panama's art commu-
nity, which today has some good things
going for it.
Perseverance on the part of a few art
lovers ultimately resulted in support by
government and private organizations.
Credit for the development of Pan-
ama in the art world is shared by indi-
viduals and institutions who have strug-
gled long and hard to attain interna-
tional recognition for Panama's artists.
Foremost among the art patrons in
Panama is Dr. Felipe O. Perez, prom-
inent lawyer, journalist, art critic and
collector. Dr. P6rez started his collec-
tion in 1925, when he purchased a
painting by Epifanio Garay. He has sub-
sequently acquired paintings-mostly by
Panamanian artists-which have been
taken on extended exhibition tours of
the United States.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 31
NEW ERA DAWNING FOR
PALADINS OF PALETTE
Viewed through the contours of a piece of sculpture, a group of students work
on macrame at the Art and Cultural Center, a branch of Panama's Ministry of Education.
Whimsical hardware sculpture made from scrap parts is the specialty of Ken Pinkerton, an engineer with the Panama Canal
organization. The young customer's fancy was caught by the funny little men with the spring legs and the ball bearing tummies.
Stevens' Circle, in the Canal Zone, serves as an open air art gallery during
the dry season. Usually sponsored by the National League of American Pen Women,
the sales provide a ready outlet for Panama and Canal Zone artists.
Outdoor art sales at Stevens' Circle often find native artists like Uriel Diaz,
a Cuna Indian from the San Bias Islands, offering paintings with local motifs, wood
carvings or the popular "molas"-the typical apliqu6 work of the Cuna Women.
Crowds gather early on a Saturday
morning to browse for bargains
among the many displays.
32 SPRING 197"
Above: Brothers Eugenio and Jorge Dunn, of Panama City,
arrange their paintings for display during a sale
at Stevens' Circle. Below: Snoozing in the morning sun,
this tyke takes ten while pop poses for a portrait
by Canal Zone artist Al Sprague.
A customer looks over a collection of paintings, pen and ink
drawings and etchings depicting local landmarks
and historical sites. The ruins of Old Panama and the bridge
that spans the Pacific entrance to the Canal are favorite subjects
of many local artists.
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW 33
:: s.-i^ '-^^cp^-'^^^^-*-a ef:1fccpfc~frp^^ ^ ^
Below: Carlos Arbolcda, one of Panama's
most noted sculptors and the director
of the Art and Cultural Center of Panama's
Ministry of Education, instructs student
Ivonne J. de Bustamente.
T +I '- lo' 1 1 T T ri?? ? l 4 11 *:4 ? I 1 Tf 1: f
Today, Dr. Perez' collection is valued
at more than a quarter of a million
dollars. Virtually every square foot of
wall space in his three-story house in
Panama is covered by paintings and
etchings. In addition, there are pieces of
sculpture on the porch and on every floor
of the house. Paintings which have
found no room on the walls are stacked
along the baseboards. Others, as vet un-
framed, are stacked in portfolios. But
Dr. Pdrez knows exactly where each one
is, and where, when and by whom it was
Recently, he loaned about a fourth of
his collection for an exhibit in the lobby
of the Chase Manhattan Bank main
office in downtown Panama. The paint-
ings and sculptures on exhibit were
insured for $100,000.
But it takes more than art lovers and
collectors like Dr. Perez to create an
important art center.
The Instituto Panameiio de Arte was
founded in February 1963 by a group
of Panama art patrons headed hv Patri-
cia de Picard Ami. who served as its
first president. Other charter members
were Graciela de Eleta. Gabriela de
Motta, Aida de Guizado, Estela Haseth.
Maria de Canel6pulos and Edna de
The institute survived solely on con-
tributions from its members and patrons
until 1968, when it was granted a
$5,000 yearly subsidy by the Panama
government. A driving force behind the
institute today is Olga Zubieta de Oiler.
Though a mother of five, she devotes
much time to organizing exhibits and
managing the center, which lately has
held many international shows.
Past presidents of the Instituto Pana-
mefio de Arte, in addition to Mrs. Patri-
cia de Picard Ami, have been Adolfo
Arias Espinosa, the late Isaias Garcia,
Part of the extensive art collection
owned by Dr. Felipe O. P&rez,
prominent Panama attorney, is displayed
in the lobby of the Chase Manhattan Bank.
The total collection, valued at $250,000,
includes works hy all
of the country's top artists.
Ral6 Rodriguez Porcell, Julio Bricefio,
who served for 3 years, and Di6genes
de la Rosa, who has served since 1971.
Among other art centers of Panama
which serve as training centers for the
development of new talent as well as
for the exhibition of works by estab-
lished artists are the Centro de Arte y
Cultura. a department of the Ministry
of Education under the direction of
Carlos Arboleda, and the Escuela de
Providing a link between the Panama
and Canal Zone art communities is the
National Leaguc of American Pen
Women, in which United States and
Panama artists collaborate in organizing
art exhibits in both jurisdictions.
Everyone connected with the art
world in Panama agrees, however, that
the greatest boost to Panama's develop-
ment in the art world has been the
yearly contest sponsored by Xerox,
which started in 1969. On even years,
starting in 1974, the contest will be in-
ternational in scope. For the past 5
years it has been confined to entries
from Panama and the Canal Zone but
has become the most important artistic
event of the vear.
Commenting on the Xerox contest in
the 1972 program, Dr. Felipe O. P6rez
pointed out that the company has
achieved its basic purpose "to bring
together the trend makers and the
promising younger talents."
Panama's only commercial gallery, a
recent addition to the local art scene,
was opened in partnership by Octavio
M6ndez Guardia, an architect; Antonio
J. Alfaro, a young businessman; and
Juan C. Marcos, a painter.
Called Nova Art Gallery, it repre-
sents some of Panama's better known
artists. Among those registered with
the gallery are Guillermo Trujillo, Al-
fredo Sinclair. Eudoro Silvera, Luis
Aguilar Ponce, Alicia Viteri, Manuel
Vasquez, Antonio Alvarado, and Nessim
Of the painters represented at Nova,
Sinclair, Trujillo and Bassan have been
first prize winners in past Xerox
50 Years Ago
THE 172-FOOT SEAGOING DIE-
sel yacht Ohio, reportedly the
largest American built diesel yacht,
arrived at the 9-year-old Panama Canal
easily in 1923 on her way from New
York to San Diego. She was the property,
of newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps
and cost $220,556. She was only a few
months old when she arrived at the
Canal for the first time but during the
subsequent 3 years of operation, she
cruised 96,992 miles. The Ohio was
particularly designed for extended off-
shore cruising. In addition to commodi-
ous accommodations for the owner and
guests, provision was made for quar-
ters for a clerical staff so Scripps could
handle urgent business matters by radio
The maneuvers of the combined At-
lantic and Pacific United States fleets
were an impressive sight off the Panama
Pacific coast 50 years ago. In March
1923, the two fleets lay at anchor in
Panama Bay off the Fortified Islands
and some of the smaller craft were
anchored within the harbor.
Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby
arrived March 12 to witness the maneu-
vers, which highlighted tactical exer-
cises and special firing, terminating in
the sinking by gunfire March 22 of the
dismantled battleship Iowa.
The Secretary went on board the
U.S.S. Maryland after he made the
Canal transit aboard the U.S.S. Hen-
derson. The Maryland was the flagship
of Adm. Hilary P. Jones, commanding
the combined fleets. Members of the
Congressional party and newspapermen
went aboard the various battleships to
witness the maneuvers.
According to an account in the Pan-
ama Canal Record, the Iowa fitted with
radio devices which permitted distant
control of its engines and steering gear,
was sent to the bottom by guns of the
battleship U.S.S. Mississippi. The firing
was spread over 2 days. On the first
day, March 21, 108 5-inch and 80
THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEw 35
14-inch shells were fired. These projec-
tiles were designed to explode on con-
tact and do as little damage as possible
to the ship. When firing ceased, the
bow of the Iowa was 3 feet under
water, but the special radio apparatus
was still intact, and it was possible to
keep the vessel afloat until the follow-
ing day. On March 22, the practice
concluded with nine salvos from six
14-inch guns firing regulation armor-
piercing shells. The ninth salvo was
fired at 4:13 p.m. and the Iowa sank
4 minutes later in 75 fathoms of water
approximately 55 miles south of Balboa.
25 Years Ago
CONSTRUCTION OF A SEA LEVEL
canal at Panama as soon as possible was
recommended to the House Foreign
Relations Committee by Senator Mike
Mansfield, of Montana, on his return
to Washington from an Isthmian visit.
The Canal Zone became a haven in
April 1948 for more than 200 men,
women and children who were flown
here from Bogota after the Ninth Inter-
American Conference was interrupted
hv rioting which followed the assas-
sination of liberal leader Jorge Eli6cer
Early in 1948, the first step in the
formation of the present Panama Canal
Company was taken when Gov. Joseph
FIFTY YEARS AO-Ships of the United States fleets anchored in the harbor at Balboa.
FIFTY YEARS ACO-Ships of the United States fleets anchored in the harbor at Balboa.
Mehaffey left for Washington to attend
hearings on the bill providing for re-
incorporation of the Panama Railroad
Panama Canal employees learned in
May 1948 that a general tax revision
bill in preparation by the House Ways
and Means Committee proposed the
extension of full income taxes to all
civilian and military personnel sta-
tioned in possessions of the United
States as well as the Canal Zone, Puerto
Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Pacific
Canal Zone school officials announced
plans to establish a junior unit of the
ROTC at Balboa High School. The unit
was organized at the beginning of the
school year with more than 100 cadets.
10 Years Ago
CONSTRUCTION OF 83 APART-
ments in the townsite of Pedro Miguel
was started in February 1963 by the
Panama firm of Diaz & Guardia which
made a low bid of $1,064,593 on the
project. This was the second group of
quarters included in a long-range plan
for replacement housing.
The Panama Canal went on a per-
manent 24-hour operation on May 12,
1963, for more efficient handling of the
gradually increasing number of ships
transiting the waterway.
The 22,000-ton nuclear powered ship
Sacannah arrived at the Canal for the
second time early in 1963 from the
west coast and was docked at Balboa.
Visitors were allowed on board during
the 3-day stay in port.
The Panama Canal Division of the
National Maritime Union of America
was extended official recognition by the
Panama Canal in accordance with the
executive order providing for employee-
management cooperation in the Federal