Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Panama Canal review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097366/00004
 Material Information
Title: Panama Canal review
Physical Description: v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Publisher: Panama Canal Commission
Place of Publication: Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publication Date: Fall 1972
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: PANAMA CANAL ZONE   ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note: Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097366
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01774059
lccn - 67057396
issn - 0031-0646
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Other version: Panama Canal review en espagñol


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Matter
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text


Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries



'" -ME

David S. Parker
Charles I. McGinnis
Lieutenant Governor
Frank A. Baldwin
Panama Canal Information Officer


Official Panama Canal Publication

Margan E. Gaadwin, Press Officer
Publications Editors
Willie K. Friar, Jas6 T. Tui6n
Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hern6ndez,
and Franklin Castrell6n

Review articles may be reprinted without further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year; back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year.
Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.



John F. Stevens 3
An amazing engineering ge-
nius, he knew there was more
to digging the Canal than
simply making the dirt fly.
Modish Molas 8
San Blas needlework is adding
a splash of color to clothing.
Funny Things Happen 12
For the men who put the
ships through, a day may in-
clude anything from platy-
puses to pigeons.
Culinary Capers 15
Whether Boquete oranges or
cashew-apples, Panama's fruits
make exquisite preserves and
"Tokyo Bay" Topples Records 18
Largest container ship in the
world transits.
Mobile Masterpieces 20
Imaginative busdrivers deco-
rate their vehicles with por-
traits, pet names, and prov-
South America on (?) a day 23
Coping with old and new
money is one of the hazards.
Medical Sleuths 26
Excellent medical resources
are available to students plan-
ning a career in medical
A Different Way to San Jos6 29
Travel off the beaten path.
Shipping 31
A look at the elegant cruise
ships which use the Canal.
Canal History 35


est container ship in the world
and the largest ship to transit the Pan-
ama Canal, is a snug fit in Miraflores
Locks with her beam of nearly 106
feet. The 950-foot-long British flag
vessel, which transited April 19, 1972,
is the largest to go through the Canal
since the 936-foot Bremen, a German
passenger liner, made her only transit
in 1939.
The giant ship, like many other reg-
ular customers of the Canal, was de-
signed to fit neatly into the 110-foot
by 1,000-foot locks. Several ,c.ars ig.:.
the maximum size for ship irsini the
waterway was set at .ppr.:.\iinateil
800 feet for length and 1:i2 Ict K .: r
beam, but subsequent ch.ing.,:s in s5np
design and improvements ini C.mal
capacity have given shipowners and
designers a bonus.
The new Cunard liner, Queen Eliza.
beth II, was built with the idea of trran-
siting the Canal although her length is
963 feet. There was some hesitation on
the part of Canal officials not long ago
when the 990-foot United States was
scheduled to transit on a cruise. She
never did but the Canal has dci..-l.:d t.:i
give it a try on an experim:.ntal basis
if she does plan a transit in th,: frine
More photographs and th.: st.:.r ,. A
the transit of the Tokyo Bay .ipa,.ir or,
pages 18 and 19. The cover ph.:.i.:'tr.ilph
is by Melvin D. Kennedy, Jr

Artwork in this Issue: Toni McGrath
(page 3); Peter Gurney (pages 12 and 14);
Carlos Mindez (page 15); and Leslie High
(page 20).

FALL 1972

: r~

i3r~Q '


John F. Stevens, an amazing engineering

genius used to the challenge of the frontier,

knew there i, l more to y.,,- C tl: Canal

than Ih. y makingg 1t1.

though President Theodore Roose-
S} velt was telling everyone that he was
going to "make the dirt fly," privately
he was admitting that things on the
Isthmus were in a "hell of a mess."
John F. Wallace had just resigned as
chief engineer and the President was
seeking a successor. He chose John F.
Stevens, a forthright leader who
brought to the office a new vigor, cour-
o age and determination, which many
believe saved the Canal project.
The new chief engineer arrived in
Colon on July 25, 1905 and left imme-
diately on a tour of the work. What he


dirt fly"

saw convinced him that the President
had not exaggerated the difficulties. The
challenge, however, did not dishearten
him. In Culebra Cut (later to be named
Gaillard Cut) he saw steam shovels
standing idle and seven work trains de-
railed and lying in a ditch while workers
milled about uncertain as to what they
were supposed to do.
He watched two laborers lift a wheel-
barrow, which they had loaded with
dirt, onto the head of a third man, who
balanced it precariously and solemnly
marched off to the dumping area.
As he looked over the broken down
undersized rolling stock of the Panama

By Willie K. Friar

F Vu .'" ,
Sandy Tompkins, art student at Balboa High School, puts finishing touches on her rendering of Stevens' Circle, which has become a favorite
site for art exhibits and a meeting place for teenagers. This monument to John F. Stevens stands in a small park in the center of Balboa on
the Pacific side of the Isthmus. In the background is the Administration Building of the Panama Canal.


Stevens halted all excavation and put men to work

paving streets, fighting yellow fever and malaria, building

piers, machine shops, hospitals, police stations, jails, churches .

Fumigation squads.

Railroad, someone pointed out proudly
that there had been no collisions for
some time. Stevens answered, "A colli-
sion has its good points as well as bad
ones. It indicates that there is something
moving on the railroad."
Stevens was 52, in 1905, when he
accepted the position of chief engineer.
Powerfully built and strikingly hand-
some, he was a man of commanding
presence and considerable physical cour-
age. He was not an "office engineer"
but a pioneer accustomed to facing the
challenge of the frontier. Like many
other engineers of that day he had never
received any formal training although
he had a long career building railroads.
The Apaches
Two stories are typical of his charac-
ter. In the 1870's while working on the
Arizona Railroad, a construction gang
was cut off by the Apaches and the fore-
man offered a reward of $500 to any-
one who could get through to them.
Stevens was the only man to volunteer.
He made the trip on foot through more
than a hundred miles of Apache
territory and led them to safety.
Ten years later, he set out from Mon-
tana with two Indian guides and a mule
to try to find a route for the Great
Northern Railroad across the Rockies.
The mule died and the guides deserted
but Stevens pushed on alone to discover
and survey the vital pass. Railroad men
and mapmakers wanted to call the pass
Stevens Pass, but he declined the honor.
He was used to working in the wilder-
ness with rugged men. On one occasion,
a gang of Italian laborers took a violent

Typical street scene in 1905.

dislike to him because he had ordered a
contractor to bur the carcass of a mule
that had died of disease. The men
claimed it for food and a crowd of them
chased him a half mile down the rail-
road track waving knives and clubs and
yelling wildly. Some of the irreverent
thought that it was a good joke on the
"old man." With these and many other
similar experiences behind him, Stevens
was not dismayed by the problems he
faced on the Isthmus.
He was the first to realize that the
Canal could not be built until certain
preparations were made and he set
about creating the fundamental organi-
zation under which the Canal was
He realized that the needs were san-
itation, housing and feeding, transpor-
tation, and proper equipment, and he
ordered a halt at once to all Canal work
until a proper environment could be
created and all elements necessary to
the construction assembled.
Yellow Fever
He handled the problems of trans-
portation and equipment himself. For
the other fields he found the best men
available and put them in charge. He
recognized Gorgas for the expert that he
was and put him in charge of sanitation.
giving him all the supplies and men he
needed to cope with malaria and yellow
fever. Before this, Gorgas had met con-
stant frustration and had been told by
Adm. John G. Walker, Chairman of the
First Canal Commission, "the whole
idea of mosquitoes carrying fever is the
veriest balderdash."
He placed housing and feeding of
workers in the hands of Jackson Smith,

Laying brick at Railroad Station.

who had worked on large construction
projects in Mexico and Ecuador. One
of his first steps was to build a cold
storage plant, ice cream plant, bakery,
coffee roaster, and a laundry.
Stevens saw the need for a com-
missary system on arrival when he
heard of men going into the jungle for
bananas or into the swamps for sugar
cane because they were unable to afford
to buy food from the local merchants.
Eggs were selling for $1.50 a dozen.
Fish prices had risen because fishermen
refused to make two catches a week
having discovered that with the large
number of new arrivals competing for
the limited supply they could make as
much on one haul as on two.

No Refrigeration
There was no refrigeration service on
the Isthmus so he ordered cold storage
equipment installed on Panama Rail-
road steamers, a cold storage plant built
at Colon, and refrigerator cars procured
for the railroad.
Frozen products were brought t fr.:m
New York and deposited in cold sto:'r.c,
at Colon and daily deliveries of perish-
able food and ice were made at to:, ns
across the Isthmus.
At first there were problems ith
delivery and Stevens once wrote t.:. th,:
commissary manager, "I cannot im.-iine
why it should take so long to fill tlr
order, and if this is the way the Chi, :f
Engineer's requests are to be handled,
I cannot imagine what attention any
requests from any of my subordinates
would receive. I presume this can be
remedied and those requisitions filled
much more quickly than in this case; if
not, I would like to be advised."

FALL 1972

On another occasion he wrote, "Refer-
ring to the supplies which were ordered
Friday for my house, my attention was
called to the condition in which one of
the cans of ham was received, which
was, to say the least, terrible. This
morning it was not possible to get within
5 feet of it. 1 wish you would kindly see
that such supplies are not sent to me as
it only requires returning of same to the
Between 1905 and 1907, he saw to it
that all the buildings required-quarters,
hospitals, school houses, churches, jails,
fire and police stations-were promptly
erected and put into service.
Tangles of Red Tape
Under his supervision, about 5,000
new buildings were built, old French
buildings were renovated, streets paved,
new harbor installations constructed, a
sewage disposal plant built, and water
mains put in. He installed a telephone
system that made it possible for him to
talk with any of the offices, however
small, along the Canal route.
When Stevens arrived on the Isthmus
few laborers seemed to know what they
were supposed to do, and those who
did had to cope with tangles of red
tape. One regulation, for instance,
required written permission to saw any
board more than 10 feet long. Stevens
began cutting away at the stream of
unnecessary paperwork.
Looking over the excavation sites, he
saw, at once, that more equipment was
needed and soon realized that the whole
procedure for purchasing had broken
down. His next step was to create a
machinery department to recommend

Workmen cooking beside the railroad track.

the particular type of equipment
Twenty-five years later, Stevens wrote:
"The Department of Machinery was of
the utmost importance. A quantity of
construction plant, tools and machinery
such as never before had been gotten
together in the history of the world was
planned, specified, requisitioned, pur-
chased and delivered to the site in
record time. This equipment consisted
of almost every mechanical device
which judgment and experience indi-
cated was best adapted to do quickly
and economically the vast work which
lay ahead of the engineers.
"Detailed specifications for individual
classes of machinery such as locomo-
tives, cars, steam shovels, etc., were
drawn up by the department. Cast steel
was substituted for iron, copper boiler
tubes for ones of iron and a like standard
of excellence was insisted on for the
entire list. The numbers involved were
enormous. I remember, for example,
purchasing on a single order 125 loco-
motives and 75 steam-shovels, and on
another 900 Lidgerwood dumpcars.
. .. Some French cars, locomotives and
dredges were, it is true, reconditioned
and put into service but 95 percent of
the equipment used in building the
canal was new; and of the immense
amount ordered during my time as
Chief Engineer, every single item, I am
told, was well-adapted to its job.
Nothing was wasted."
Stevens was one of the greatest rail-
road authorities of his day. From laying
track in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona
and finding and surveying routes in

One of the new mess halls at worksite.

Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, he had
gone on to become president of one of
the largest companies in the United
States. He saw at once that the Panama
Railroad, antiquated and rusty though
it was, must be made into the instru-
ment of disposal for the spoil from the
digging of the Canal.
Stevens was the first man to think of
using the Panama Railroad as a con-
vevor belt to move the soil that was dug
out. One of the big problems of the
French was how to transport the spoil
efficiently. By the end of 1906, Stevens
had rebuilt the railroad, recruited new
men from the United States to run it
and established a good working rela-
tionship between those who worked on
the Canal and those who worked on the

Greatest Single Factor
All material in Culebra Cut was waste
and had to be disposed of, and Stevens
designed a simple but extensive and
flexible system of trackage which proved
a success and was in use until the last
yard of material had been removed from
the Cut. Stevens said of the system:
"This was probably the greatest single
factor, in the nature of a machine, that
contributed to the successful building of
the Canal."
When he arrived on the Isthmus,
there were only 35 locomotives, 24
coaches and 560 flatcars. When he left
after 18 months, there were 293 loco-
motives, 52 coaches, 16 cold storage
cars, and 3,915 flatcars. In place of the
73 miles of light-weight track, there
were 350 miles of heavy relaid track.
The new railroad was the busiest in the

Dining room of Tivoli Hotel.

... houses, hotels, schools, mess halls, a cold

plant, bakery and laundry, and setting up a

commissary system.



world, running up to 570 trains a day
compared to 20 in the past. The trip
across the Isthmus had been cut from
532 to less than 2 hours.
Surveying the railroad system, Stevens
said, "I don't mind trying to make the
dirt fly, now that we have somewhere
to put it."
With the proper preparations made,
Stevens ordered excavation to begin in
Culebra Cut in early 1906. It was now
necessary to know what kind of Canal
was to be built-a sea-level or a lock
type. He had drawn up plans for both
but was convinced that the only prac-
tical plan was a lock type. Still he was
faced with the problem of convincing
Congress and the Senate. A subcommit-
tee of Congress voted in Mav 1906 in
favor of building the Canal at sea level.
Roosevelt had doubts and summoned
Stevens to Oyster Bay to get his opinion.
Of the meeting, Stevens said, "I talked
to Teddy like a Dutch uncle . and
soon convinced him that a canal with
locks was the only possible answer."
The President was convinced but
not the Senate and Stevens was
forced to argue his case before a Senate
He had firsthand information of the
volume and the violence of the waters
of the Chagres River which had been
called "the lion in the path of a sea-level
canal," as well as all other problems
involved in the construction of such a
He set about in a straightforward
manner to convince the committee,
though he hated the job of lobbyist.
After he outlined his plan, which in-
cluded an earth dam across the Chagres

at Gatun near the Caribbean end of the
Canal, one Senator was concerned
about whether or not it would be abso-
lutely safe and suggested it be rein-
forced with a masonry core. Stevens
considered this an unnecessary expense.
The Senator did not agree and said,
"I suggest you are too positive in your
opinions, Mr. Stevens."
"Well, I am a positive man."
"I suggest to you that this dam ought
to be made stronger."
"The dam is strong enough. This is
like killing a duck; when you kill him
he is dead; there is no use trying to kill
him deader."
Finally Stevens' plain speaking and
common sense prevailed. The Senate
voted 36 to 31 for a lock canal, and the
House followed suit.
Years later Stevens wrote in the
Journal of the Society of Civil Engi-
neers: "I have been privileged to do
some little service to my country, and
the greatest service I ever gave it was,
I am sure, the part I took in preventing
foreign votes from foisting a useless
thing-namely a sea-level canal as pro-
posed by the majority of the Consulting
Board-upon a too credulous American
Roosevelt Visits
Stevens returned to the Canal Zone
and the work was continuing at a steady
pace when the President made his visit
in November. Stevens was with him
throughout his tour of the Canal con-
struction sites. Roosevelt saw and
approved the layout of the complex but
elastic trackage system on different
levels within the Culebra Cut, the effi-
cient coordination of train schedules
with excavation and the judicious choice
of dumping sites. He was photographed
in the driver's seat of a 95-ton steam
shovel while he watched how well the

system worked; that trains did not have
to wait for their loads; and shovels did
not stand idle for want of flatcars. He
then singled out Stevens for special
mention and commended him for "ad-
mirable results" and added that he
hoped that they would continue.
Stevens Resigns
But Stevens was not to continue with
the Canal. He suddenly resigned and
terminated his service March 31, 1907.
Why did he do it? There have been
many explanations but Stevens himself
refused to discuss the matter, except
after many years, when he wrote:
"Various reasons for my resignation
were given by irresponsible scribblers.
They all had points of similarity, as they
were all stupid and mendacious. In one
respect they were exactly alike; they
were all absolutely untrue. I resigned
for purely personal reasons, which were
in no way, directly related to the
building of the canal, or with anyone
connected with it in any manner."
Stevens stayed on only long enough
to transfer authority to Maj. George W.
Goethals, who had been appointed by
the President to replace him.
When Stevens left the Isthmus April 8,
the reception at Cristobal brought to-
gether almost every American in Cris-
tobal and as many as could be brought
from the rest of the Canal Zone in a
series of special trains. It was the largest
crowd that had ever gathered to say bin
voyage to a ship leaving Colon.
In a final ceremony at the ship,
Stevens was told that the men had sub-
scribed for some tokens of their regard.
These included a silver service, a watch
and a gold ring. Three gifts had been
selected because the men wanted him
to have something he could pass on to
each of his three sons.

~LT --'-

President Theodore Roosevelt, in white suit, is accompanied by Stevens, second from the
President's left, as he tours construction sites in November 1906.

FALL 1972

For many years, Stevens had worn a
plain gold ring of which he was par-
ticularly fond. It had been stolen and
the men had ordered one made up as
much like it as possible. They also pre-
sented petitions signed by more than
10,000 workers. The original petition
had read: "Please withdraw your res-
ignation and remain in charge of our
work. We will show our appreciation
and loyalty by working for you even
harder than we have up to this time."
A group of foremen suggested that the
wording be changed "for the men con-
sider that they can hardly promise to
work harder than they have been as
each and all of them have given their
entire efforts." They added however that
the sentiment toward Mr. Stevens "is
one of admiration and respect."
Just before he went aboard the SS
Panama, Stevens replied to the farewell
speech by W. G. Bierd. He said that
2 years before he was almost overawed
by the amount of preparation and con-
struction work required, but that con-
ditions were now such that he felt ab-
solutely assured the Canal would be
opened by January 1915. He asked the
men, as their sincere friend, to take any
little differences and complaints directly
to Colonel Goethals, for whom he asked
the same loyalty as heretofore had been
shown to himself. And in paying tribute
to Colonel Gorgas he said that until he
lifted the dark cloud which sanitary con-
ditions placed over the work, he was in
doubt as to success. But when this doubt
had been removed he knew that the
Canal would be pushed to completion.
Gen. George W. Goethals consistently
made a point of emphasizing his appre-
ciation of the work done by Stevens.
Typical were these remarks made at a
meeting of engineers in Portland, Oreg.

Stevens in the office which
he built at Culebra
overlooking the excavation
of what is now Gaillard Cut.
Not an "office engineer," he
spent much of his time
walking the Canal route and
talking with the men.
"There are three diseases on
the Isthmus," he told them,
"yellow fever, malaria,
and cold feet. And the worst
of these is cold feet."

The Chief Engineer on an outing with Mrs. Stevens, who
influenced him to accept the Canal position, telling him
that his whole career had been in preparation for this
great engineering command.

(Please see page 33)


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Stev ens moved the headquarters of th~e engineering organization from Panama to a new town which he built near the Culebra excavation site.
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Stvn mvdte eduatr f h ngneig raizto ro aam oane on hc e ul na h Clba xaaio ie


~ _

Photographs by
Arthur L. Pollack



\\'lile thL- Cun. '..omen i in P.inama'
S ,' Blas il.r, ds aire doing 1 .xactl
. h a, th.-\ .d'l.a, s did itih them-
.e.'iriue tliiir as L bl.imcs-mola fanclcrs
;n Panamai anjd the Canal Zonen- ar
ifishioning thcr, into re.r. tliin froii
." rs:-s t':' iripshI .dc
And th1r:- i n:. cenicrati ii .ip ,. icr-
t iir 1iic i, icoiccri,-rl Theit aj-- found
or. tihc s.1t iol iccna.iLers (r iin as e ll
ji the sktri of mothLliri's parit dri:s
Cr.iidmothir nai' hai. a n,.l-d,:-:c
iatted k'ijitirr,. ba. c hilI:- hcr er.ind-
daihtcr cirric' a m:ola i:.lildcr b-ie
Thl it L Jitioinail nimoli which h is piro in:z
o pop1i1l r v. ith amrati-ir rs ,.ell as; pro:
tc-fi:oi i i d] -cr s, i. s i cit.ini .ljar in
shl t .r-d .:,rists of thri:-e- to fi.c la'.,:-s
of ,Iiousi C ol..cd Co:':to,, clOt, Th,
Ih lihi..it? d.:-si ,S ai t ;hl-ion:rcd b', cut-
ting thri..lo h 1h l'.. .- I loth t.. i h
colo:.r J:1sieid jard the ol ,: :f the cl -
111 .3ic st*.'.r S.. thajl thi qtitchir, c ri-
not b,:- sc-ii The: techlirnijqu has be
d c1i 1I ,cd .,s "i:r v rsc .1 p 1i. 11c or
.% .,i 1 k nil tr ir .


Mrs. Sherry Holland, of Diablo, models a skirt which she designed to be worn opened up the side or the front.

FALL 1972

The Cuna seamstress makes no pre-
liminary drawing but starts out with a
picture idea and develops the design
as she goes along. A good mola may
take a month or two to make.
Custom-made molas may be or-
dered-at a slightly higher price. Just
show the inventive folk artists of the
San Bias a picture or sketch of the sub-
ject you want depicted and you'll have
a mola that is not only personalized, but
a unique conversation piece. Of course,
the results are sometimes surprising.
A likeness of your family dog, for exam-
ple, may be so highly stylized that he'll
come out looking like a giant anteater.
But no one else will have a mola like it.
Until recently molas were simply
framed on a background of colored
burlap and hung on a living room or
den wall, but they are now being given
new dimensions by imaginative people
with a propensity toward individualism.
On these pages are some of the inter-
esting ways molas are being used by
Isthmian residents with a flair for

Zindy Wiggs and her colorful shoulder bag attract the attention of the Deakins twins,
Tim and Tom, as she strolls down the street in Gamboa.

'-- .

Viveca Kochman, Canal Zone College student, wears a brightly
colored traditional mola blouse with white bell-bottomed pants.

fl Y Y.-^ W ^ -:'.-.'7<

Mrs. Earl R. McMillin, of Gamboa, models mola-covered shoes.
At left is a handbag featuring the same colors as the shoes.


Mrs. Charles Griffiths, wife of the Commander of the U.S. Naval
Forces Southern Command, who collects items with a
turtle motif, holds a turtle made from a mola which was given to
her by a friend as a souvenir of Panama. On the floor are a
few others from her collection. At right: A unique piano bench
cover made by Mrs. William H. Beeby, of Balboa Heights.

ffr67t r it. III
w ~- '~

The Classic Cuna Costume

las to a blous
and one in back, usu
design and color. TJ
and a yoke edged w
blending color.

;e, one in front
ally of the same
hey add sleeves
ith borders of a

The early Cuna blouses were
knee length and were decorated with
a band of red at the bottom. As
colored cloth became more common
and as island traders brought in
needles, thread and scissors, in ex-
change for coconuts, the women ex-
panded their decoration, shortened

An attractive San Bias seamstress wears
the typical everyday costume of
the women of the Islands.

the blouse to waist length, and
gradually developed the technique
of cutting outlines of the desired
figures in the top layer of cloth
allowing the next layer to show the
Not unlike fashion-conscious wom-
en all over the world, a San Bias
lady discards a blouse when the
colors get dull or when she feels the
need for a change in wardrobe.
Having discovered that tourists
will buy almost anything made of
molas, she usually offers the used
blouse for sale or rips it apart and
sells the two molas separately. Seri-
ous collectors are always on the
lookout for these as they know that
the Indian women save the best
ones for themselves and the used
molas, though faded, are often su-
perior in design and in needlework.

10 FALL 1972

Quite different from the traditional Cuna blouse is this one
made by Mrs. Holland. Around her waist is a mola necktie.

Thirty molas were needed to make this banquet-sized tablecloth
which Capt. Julius Grigore, USNR, took with him when he left
the Canal Zone following his retirement.

_~-a ,Ii

Anne Castles, Canal Zone College student,
wears a bikini which she made
from two molas.


= From Platypuses to Pigeons

iunny TLhinrp tappn

Along the PanWaa Canaf
By Jose T. Tufi6n

platypuses, coping with a phos-
phorus fire, removing a raccoon from a
towing locomotive, or being chased by
a barracuda, are not a part of the every-
day life of the people who keep the
ships moving through the Panama
Canal, but these and many other such
incidents illustrate that life is not
always routine along the waterway.
Although transiting ships often re-
quest unusual supplies, there was a
flurry of excitement in the 1950's when
it became necessary to fly in 10,000
earthworms from the United States to
supplement the diet of three platypuses
that were being taken from Australia
to a zoo in the United States.
About the same time that the earth-
worms were being flown to the Canal
Zone an unusual fire broke out aboard
a ship transiting the Canal. The ship
was carrying a cargo of phosphorus
which was destined to be made into
matchheads. Cristobal firemen wet the
cargo down, quenching the fire. A short
time later, they discovered, however,
that the phosphorus had gotten into
cargo nets and onto docks where once
it dried out, workmen walking through
it were starting new fires with every
step in the same way that a match
ignites when struck. Finally, all the
phosphorus was removed but not before
some of the men had gotten a "hot
Locks Division towing locomotive
operators like to tell of the time when
ship traffic was stymied at Miraflores for
2 hours by a "gato solo," a small raccoon
native to Central America. The animal
hid out in the interior of a towing loco-
motive making it necessary to dis-
connect electrical equipment while
everyone searched for him. As helping
hands approached, the frightened ani-
mal crouched deeper inside the mech-
anism. Finally, while ships' crews stood
by and visitors cheered, a fire hose was
used by locks employees to dislodge
their unwelcome guest.

Gatun Locks, which are located fur-
ther from civilization and closer to the
jungle than the locks on the Pacific side,
have had more than their share of
jungle visitors. There have been cai-
mans, snakes, small jungle animals and
birds. Then one day in 1952, lock em-
ployees were startled to see a deer
swimming in the channel just above
the locks. Linehandlers put out in a
rowboat to rescue the animal but the
deer drowned. The softhearted em-
ployees sadly lifted the body upon the
locks wall and tried to give it artificial
respiration, but in vain.
The crew of a transiting ship was
surprised one sunny morning, to see a
flock of pigeons taking off from the
lock wall at Miraflores. Seagulls, peli-
cans, sea terns-yes. But pigeons-hardly.
These birds were a special breed of
homing pigeons that had been shipped
to the Canal by their owner in the
United States. The idea was to set them

free at the Canal and let them find their
way back to San Antonio, Tex.
The flock of 19 pigeons had arrived
en Pan Am flight 401 consigned to
Frank A. Baldwin, Information Officer.
They were released 2 davs later by
Judy Frizell and Jane Holgerson, Canal
employees. Whether it was the weather
or the Canal that set their navigation
systems awry, no one knows. But 18
of the pigeons were never seen again.
The 19th turned up a few weeks later
when a resident of the interior of Pan-
ama near Santiago came by the Infor-
mation Office saying a pigeon had
taken up with his chickens and he
would like to present a bill for food to
its owner.
Linehandlers, who row out to in-
coming ships at the locks to take on
the ship's lines and connect them with
the towing locomotives, usually live a
fairly placid life. So imagine the sur-
prise of two boatmen on the sea side
of Gatun locks, when a huge barracuda

FALL 1972

II c~



leapt from the water with such force
that it landed in the rowboat. After a
few desperate attempts to kill the
monster, the men left the boat to the
barracuda, jumped out, and swam to
shore. Later they were able to pull the
boat in and kill the maneater. They
found that the fish weighed more than
54 pounds and had teeth measuring
3 inches.
Although the locks were built to
accommodate the largest ships in exist-
ence in 1914 and were expected to be
large enough for anything that would
be built for some time, it was only 14
years later that the U.S. Navy aircraft
carrier Lexington knocked down a
number of heavy concrete lampposts
at Catun and Miraflores Locks.
According to a newspaper account
of the passage, the U.S.S. Lexington
arrived in Balboa the afternoon of
March 26, 1928, little the worse for
the 12-hour trip through the Canal.
But four of the concrete lampposts were
missing from the locks and a handrail
on the Pedro Miguel Locks had been
smashed flat.
The Lexington took a toll of three
lampposts at the Catun Locks as she
was being stepped up to the lake level
and another at Pedro Miguel when
the vessel became slightly turned in
the channel and the prow struck the
post, crumbling it into rubble.
No one had thought that the Lexing-
ton would be much trouble since her
sister ship, the U.S.S. Saratoga, had
made the transit a short time earlier
without incident. They were the largest
ever to transit the 110- by 1,000-foot
locks up to that time. They were 888
feet in length and had beams of 107.9
Because of this accident, the Pan-
ama Canal removed the handsome
lampposts and replaced them with
metal ones located at a greater distance
from the wall of the locks. These in
turn were replaced by aluminum posts
in the 1960's after the aircraft carrier
Valley Forge knocked down the visitors'
pavilion at Miraflores and came within
inches of flattening the metal light posts.
The ornamental tops of the old lamp-
posts were not lost to posterity however.
They can still be seen these days along
streets in the Canal Zone and decorating
driveways and gardens in the Republic
of Panama.
The wealth of fish in the locks be-
came known to the Panama Canal em-
ployees as soon as one of the chambers
was unwatered for inspection and re-
pair not many years after the Canal was
opened to commerce.


-i MiNV



All the lampposts along the locks' wall are still in place as the U.S.S. "Saratoga" transits in
March 1928, but her sister ship, the U.S.S. "Lexington," which came along shortly afterward,
knocked down four of them at Miraflores and Gatun Locks.




'U ;

I*',. i

.-- - * -

The old lampposts were taken down and their decorative tops were used to line driveways
and as traffic bumpers. One of them offers a challenge to Luis Sullivan who takes a leap
while he waits for the schoolbus at Pedro Miguel.


Workmen found that the chambers
acted as huge fishbowls, and, with the
exception of a shark that followed a
ship from the Pacific into Miraflores
and died in the fresh waters of Mira-
flores Lake, they and transiting ships
lived in peaceful coexistence.
Many a snapper and snook captured
in the locks have been served at Canal
Zone dinner tables. During locks over-
hauls, employees often are seen going
home with loads of fresh fish slung over
their shoulders.
Not so welcome are some of the other
things that turn up or sink down in the

_) ( W

A large rope fender of the type used
on tugs was located in Miraflores Locks
recently by a diver, who was called
when one of the lock gates refused to
close. The wayward fender held up
traffic in the west lane for an hour and
47 minutes.
Recently, a truck ran off the bridge
crossing the lower end of Gatun Locks.
Traffic in the Canal was delayed while
a locomotive crane fished it out. Then
there was the boy who rode off a locks
wall at Miraflores on his bicycle. The
boy managed to swim to safety before
traffic was disrupted and the bike was
recovered a few hours later.

After a slide in Gaillard Cut September 21, 1915, this island came up from 30 feet of water.
Legend has it that a dipper dredge operator promptly planted a British flag on it.

Other debris found in the Canal and
the locks range from pieces of ships'
keels that somehow break off from the
larger vessels, logs of various sizes that
float in from flood-swollen rivers, and
once, a 10-ton boulder was found bv
a diver in the southern approach to
Miraflores Locks east chamber.
It also has been necessary from time
to time to fish people out of the locks,
particularly at locks overhaul time
when visitors, taking a look at the
floor, take a misstep and end up in a
sump hole.
During the early days of the Canal
operation, an island suddenly appeared
in the Canal channel following a slide
in Gaillard Cut. Oldtimers say that a
dipper tender sitting in the boom of
the dredge Paraiso "discovered" the
island and promptly placed a small
British flag on its top. The flag planter,
who tried to include Great Britain in
the Canal operation, was identified as
a native of Ireland, who said he did it
in the name of the "auld country."
Cristobal harbor held much excite-
ment in the early days of the Canal
and oldtimers still remember the whale
that moved into Limon Bay about 50
years ago. The 120-foot mammal,
weighing 125 tons, grounded in the
shallow waters east of the Canal prism
and remained there until it was killed
2 days later by a group of Canal em-
ployees who planned to render its
blubber at the Mount Hope abattoir.
The whale carcass was towed to
Pier 6 in Cristobal but the 75-ton loco-
motive crane was unable to lift it
from the water to the railroad flatcars
assembled for transportation to Mount
When salvage efforts were abandoned
shortly after, the whale was towed
about 12 miles out to sea by a Panama
Canal tug where it was later bombed
and sunk by U.S. Navy planes from
Coco Solo. Thus was eliminated the
only whale ever known to menace the
navigation of the Panama Canal.
Still there are people living near the
Canal who remain oblivious to all of
the unusual happenings. Their attitude
is something like that of the old man
who during the last days of the con-
struction of the waterway was warned
that the rising waters of the newly made
Gatun Lake would soon flood his house,
and he must move. He sat calmly
beside his hut as the water began to
rise around his feet and said, "I've
heard that story before. The French
told my father that 30 years ago."

FALL 1972



By Fannie Hernandez

rS N-I

QP 4 O I
BR S 40

regard with simple awe those people
who have the temerity to make their
own bread and marmalade.
But it is surprisingly easy and,
although it can be time consuming, the
smell that comes from the kitchen when
bread is baking or marmalade is cook-
ing is only slightly short of heaven.
Show me the man who can resist
a slice of warm homemade bread,
dripping with creamy butter and
smeared with homemade jam or mar-
malade and I will show you a cold-
hearted Scrooge with the bah and
humbug thrown in free for Christmas.
Bread can be made in a delightful
variety of ways anywhere but there are
few places in the world where the
ingredients for easily made marmalade
and preserves hang from a tree or a
bush nearly all year-around as they do
on the Isthmus.
Panama's citrus fruits could well hold
their own anywhere in the world.
Oranges, both sweet and sour varieties,
tangerines, grapefruit, limes-all tree-
ripened-are available the year-around
and most plentiful during the citrus
season from December through March.
It is not unusual to see golden oranges
and white orange blossoms on the trees
at the same time. The same occurs with
Seedless Boquete oranges, about the
size of grapefruit and larger, are a beau-
tiful sight and delicious eating. The
common all-purpose oranges are sweet
and juicy, their natural sugar devel-
oping as they ripen on the trees.
Anyone with an orange tree on his
premises may find himself with more
than he can use and a good way to use
up the bonanza is to make orange mar-
malade. Here is a recipe for a marma-
lade similar to the English type:

8 oranges, quartered
2 small limes, quartered
8 cups sugar
' teaspoon baking soda
a dash of salt
Remove the spongy inner portion from
the peel of four oranges and with a
sharp knife, cut the peel into very thin
strips. Do the same with the limes. Put
in a cooking pot and add three cups
of water, the soda and salt. Cover and
simmer for 30 minutes, stirring occa-
Separate the pulp from all the oranges
and limes, being careful to remove all


Most people who enjoy cashew nuts
are not aware that the nut is found
hanging from a pepper-shaped red or
yellow fruit called cashew apple. Very
common in Panama, cashew trees are
known as the fences that grow and bear
fruit in April and May. When farmers
need new fences they simply plant
cashew nuts, seedlings or pieces of
branches of the tree and in a few years
there is a fruit-bearing fence! In the
tropics, most fruit trees are not difficult
to grow. Simply plant a seed and let
nature do the rest. They need little
The attractive cashew-apple has a
spongy pulp which contains a milky
juice that is sweet with a tart aftertaste
when eaten fresh. It can be used for
making a delicious wine, candied, or
for making preserves. Here is one way
of making cashew-apple preserves that
are delicious on ice cream or served
with cream cheese as a dessert.

Cut enough of the fruit into strips to
make four cups. Place in cooking pot
and add four cups sugar, one cup water
and one tablespoon lime juice. Cook over
a slow fire until the fruit is tender and
the liquid thickens. Put in sterilized
glasses. Keeps in the refrigerator for


the white part. Add the fruit pulp and
juice to the cooked peel. Heat to a boil
and stir in the sugar. Cook at a slow
rolling boil until the liquid begins to
thicken. This will take about an hour.
Remove any scum that may form on
the top. Let it set for a few minutes and
stir up. Put in sterilized jars and seal
with paraffin or let it cool and freeze in
containers. The marmalade also may be
put into sterilized jars or glasses and
placed in the refrigerator. It keeps fine
for months.

V| S v


~ ._ -~ *^fc. r-*- -

~~-- -

2' cups diced firm ripe mangoes Add the lime juice to the mangoes
1 tablespoon lime juice and set aside. Sift the dry ingredients
2 cups flour together and add the nuts and raisins.
1I teaspoons baking soda Mix lightly with a fork and then add
1' teaspoons cinnamon the sugar.
1- teaspoon salt In another bowl, beat the eggs, add
,' teaspoon salt the oil and beat to a froth. Add the
, cup ,hopped nus mangoes and then the flour mixture,
, cup raisins, soaked in brandy tossing lightly until it is all mixed.
13' cups brown sugar, not packed Line the pans with waxed paper and
3 eggs grease. Bake at 3250 for an hour or until
% cup vegetable oil clone. (Test with a toothpick.)

FALL 1972

For the cook who is not allergic to
lesser known fruits in the realm of trop-
ical cooking, we offer a few more reci-
pes that are sure to upgrade the acconm-
plishments of even the most versatile.
A favorite fruit of Panama is the
mango that grows in various shaps-
round, long, narrow and kidney-shaped.
Sizes vary from a large one the size of
a papaya to a small one about the size
of a peach. Mangoes have a smooth
skin that ranges in color from all shades
of yellow to orange and red, with a pale
yellow pulp running into orange. The
taste has been referred to as a delicate
combination of apricot and pineapple
Few items in the food world equal the
exquisite flavor of a cool, ripe, sliced
mango at the breakfast table.
After eating your fill and baking nies
and chutney, try making something A.
little different. Here is a recipe for a
delicious, moist, mango-nut bread tlhat
comes to Culinary Capers from Hax jii
through the courtesy of Emily Bolton.
president of the Balboa Women's Club.
and Mrs. Joseph Lockman of Panama.
who discovered the treat on a recent
trip to Hawaii. Mrs. Bolton added her
individual touch to the recipe b.
soaking the raisins in brandy, while
Mrs. Lockman substituted brown sugar
for the white sugar called for in tli
original recipe. The bread freezes beail-
tifully and the Balboa Women's Club
has been busy baking and freezing it for
the annual bazaar bake sale. This recipe
makes one large loaf and a small orn,

For a cranberry-like sauce to be used
as a relish for meats and fowl, try the
fruit of the grosella tree, a small, yellow-
ish fruit with a tiny seed and an acid
Juicy pulp. The fact that it turns rcd
when it is cooked makes it a perf,-ct
substitute for cranberry sauce. Here is
one way of making the grosella sauce
Clean and sort the grosellas anid
place in a pan with a little water. Cook
until tender, being careful they do not
scorch. Put them through the ricer and
measure the pulp. For each cup of
pulp, add one cup of sugar. Add a little
water. Cook until the sugar is dissol\h-d
and then boil rapidly until thickened.
stirring constantly. Add a dash of
powdered ginger. Put in sterilized
glasses and seal. Also keeps fine in htic
refrigerator for several months.

Panama's tree-ripened fruits give an
exquisite flavor to breads and preserves.

Reminiscent of

Grandmother '

K then

For those who have the time and do
not mind getting their hands in dough,
here is a recipe for homemade bread
that is reminiscent of grandmother's
kitchen and the good fragrance of bread
baking. Since the art of breadmaking
requires skillful kneading and what may
be considered "hard work," you might
as well make three loaves as one will
surely be eaten while it is still warm
from the oven.

2 tablespoons sugar
2 tablespoons lard or shortening
3X cups boiling water
3 teaspoons salt
2 packages dry yeast or 2 yeast cakes
1 cup lukewarm water
12 cups flour, sifted
In a large bowl, mix sugar, lard, salt,
and boiling water. In a small bowl,
sprinkle the yeast in lukewarm water
and let it set. When the boiling water
has cooled, stir up the yeast and add to
the water mixture in the big bowl. Add
six cups of flour and mix with a wooden
spoon. Add three more cups of flour
and mix. Then place the dough on a
wooden board and add the remaining
flour, kneading with the hands. Knead
until the dough no longer sticks to the
board and cover with a towel. Let it
rise in a warm part of the kitchen until
it doubles in bulk. Knead again and let
it rise again. Divide the dough into
three pieces and form into loaves. Place
in greased loaf pans. Let it rise again.
(About an hour should be enough.)
Bake in a preheated oven at 3750 for ^
about an hour or until the loaves are
golden brown and sound hollow when
tapped. Turn each loaf on its side to
cool. Try it with some of the orange

Three golden loaves of freshly baked bread .
and English type Bitter-Sweet Marmalade.


Boquete oranges.

^c- **fc

...... i .


container ship in the world,
made Canal history in April 1972 when
she became the largest ship to transit
the Panama Canal. She also set a new
record for tolls, paying $40,045.50.
The vessel arrived at Cristobal the
day before her scheduled transit and
because of her size waited outside the
breakwater until dawn before she could
start up the Canal channel. She carried
four Canal pilots.
The 950-foot container vessel was a
snug fit in the Panama Canal locks with
her beam of nearly 106 feet. She was
the biggest thing to go through since
1939 when the 936-foot SS Bremen, a
German passenger liner, made her only
It is possible that the Tokyo Bay, and
four similar vessels being built in Europe
for the European Far East trade, will be
the largest ever to go through the Canal.
She and her sisters are to go on a reg-
ular schedule between European ports
and the Fai East and will pass through
the Canal on an average of one
each month.
The five container ships owned by
the Overseas Containers Ltd., have a
service speed of 26 knots and carry
more than 2,000 containers each. They
are members of the Trio Alliance, a cnn-
sortium of British, German, and Japa-
nese shipowners formed to promote con-
tainer service between Europe and the
Far East.
In addition to the Overseas Contain-
ers Ltd., other companies in the group
include the British Ben Line with three
ships; Hapag Lloyd A.G. with four
ships; Mlitsui-O.S.K. Lines with two;
and Nippon Yusen Kaisha with three.
By coincidence, another member of
the Trio Alliance transited the Canal
northbound at the same time that the
Tokyo Bay came south. She was the
882-foot Elbe Maru owned by Mitsui-
O.S.K. Lines of Japan making her
maiden voyage from the Far East to
Europe. The two vessels met in Gamboa
Reach. The Elbe Maru is a sister ship
of the Rhine Marti which made her first
transit in February 1972 and until the
arrival of the Tokyo Bay held the rec-
ord for paying the highest commercial

The world's Ia cntainer ship moves through Gaillard Cut, where the 50-mile-long Canal crosses the Continental Divide.



Za r


A LONG WAY UP-Two Panama Canal
deckhands chmb up the Jacob's ladder on
the side of the "Tokyo Bay," which is taller
than a seven-story building. The giant
vessel requires 24 decklands, two boat-
swains, and four Canal pilots for her trip
through the Isthmian waterway.

With only slightly more than 2 feet to spare on each d 25
feet on each end, the container ship "Tokyo Bay" Otes into
Gatun Locks at the beginning of her transit of the&lIThe
world's largest and most powerful container ship began transit
at 4:30 a.m. and cleared Canal waters at about 4:06) 4lthe
west chamber, dwarfed by the "Tokyo Bay," is the 'hticello
Victory," which is 736 feet long and has a beam i'"2 feet.
d~t eer.

Two of the largest ships ever to use the Panama Canal, the 950-foot
"Tokyo Bay," and the 882-foot "Elbe Maru," pass at Gamboa Reach
on their maiden transits. The "Tokyo Bay" was making a south-
bound transit and the "Elbe Maru" was going north. They are two
of the 17 giant ships being placed in service by the Trio Alliance.
Hundreds of Isthmian residents and Canal officials lined the banks
of the Canal on both sides of the Isthmus to see the two big ships.

The 855-foot-long "Rhine Maru," which for a short time held the
record for paying the highest commercial Panama Canal tolls,
passes Contractors' Hill on a recent northbound transit. The vessel
held the tolls record until the arrival, in April 1972, of the "Tokyo
Bay." A member of the Trio group of container ships, the "Rhine
Maru" travels between Europe and the Far East at a maximum
speed of 26 knots. The ship is owned by the Mitsui-O.S.K. Lines.

si qM FP


By Vic Canel

The artwork on Panama buses and "chivas"

is a colorful expression of individuality

"Mr. Big Stuff," may sound like
titles for X-rated movies, but they're
These, along with many proverbs,
sayings and catch phrases, are names
given to their vehicles by imaginative
Panamanian bus operators as an ex-
pression of their individuality. Usually
lettered on the rear of the bus in Old
English script with fancy flourishes and
capricious curlicues, the names are a
part of the colorful decorations that
makes Panama's buses unique.
The more elegantly decorated buses
have brightly colored paintings inside
and out, ball fringe on the windows,
religious figurines and fanciful touches
which may include gaily dressed dolls
or crocheted items.
Perhaps as a tribute to Panamanian
womanhood-or to womanhood in gen-
eral-a girl's name is often painted on
each of the side windows.
Naming buses is said to have started
when the first self-propelled public
conveyances made their appearances in
the cities, during the second decade of
the century. Those early vehicles,

called "chivas" (goats) were nothing
more than sedans or pickup trucks
with the after end removed and re-
placed by a wood and tin body. They
accommodated six or eight passengers
on lateral benches and the entrance was
at the rear.
The name "chiva" is said to be
derived from the fact that the solid
wheel vehicles jumped like mountain
goats when driven over Panama's cob-
blestone streets.
Samuel Lewis, a retired Panamanian
journalist and publisher, recalls that
among the early pioneers of public
transportation in Panama, circa 1911,
was a Jamaican chiva operator who for
reasons known only to himself, per-
mitted no women aboard his rattletrap
conveyance. He would drive down the
street soliciting passengers and shout-
ing: "Men Only!" But apparently his
male chauvinism was no obstacle to
success. Mr. Lewis says he prospered
and soon bought a second chiva.
Operators gave chivas pet names to
distinguish them from those of their
competitors. Their efforts at originality
produced some fairly spicy names and,

at one point, the mayor of Panaijmj
ordered names removed from all pu.blit
conveyances. The custom was liter
revived however and extended t,- Ithe
larger buses.
Some of the first chivas were chain-
drive Ford pickup trucks operirted h.
East Indians in turbans. Hindu.s '.ere
the principal operators of bus trarnspor-
tation in Panama before World \\War II
In the beginning, there was no .-r-
ganized transportation and rin larce
fleet operators. But enterprising ir-di-
viduals ran their own jitney ser ni.e I,
take employees to work. Among the first
was a Canal employee named H.irrn
Conley who had a small bus iin hic
he took coworkers from Ancon ht the
Administration Building and back dur-
ing the 1920's. But a great maj.,-rit olf
bus operators in the years that fiollo%'.d
were East Indians.
During World War II, whcn the
number of workers in the Zone m-
creased with the employment of addi-
tional personnel for defense projects,
concessions were granted to some 20
bus operators to provide service in the
Canal Zone, including military reserva-

FALL 1972


A bigger than life-size
portrait of Franco Nero, star
of Italian Western movies,
peers menacingly at
tailgating motorists from
the rear of this Chorrera
bus. The actor also is
featured in the interior
decorations which include a
cartoon reproduction over
the mirror that says
"Love is . to travel with
Franco Nero every day."
The fancy sign on the
rearview mirror says
"I will always be for you."

tions. Most of the concessionaires and
their drivers were Hindus.
Gas and tire rationing and the un-
availability of spare parts combined to
make this service something less than
efficient. But it was not until 1952 that
the services were consolidated and a
single concession granted. The prin-
cipal stockholder was an East Indian
merchant, Gursan Singh Gill, who
owned two oriental stores in Panama
City, and most of the drivers, of course,
were Hindus.
Eventually, Gill bought out his five
partners and sold out to the present
operators of the Canal Zone bus service.
The 70 or 80 chivas still seen in Pan-
ama are destined to disappear as the
country streamlines its public transpor-
tation system and consolidates inde-
pendent operators and cooperatives
into two principal organizations, a co-

Bus paintings portray everything from
comic strip characters to figures of Greek
mythology. This bus, named "Prometheus
in Chains," features a painting of the titan
atop the Caucasus as well as a scene of
Panama City's Balboa Avenue.



r ,

Teodoro "Billy" Madrifian has specialized
in painting scenes on buses since the 1940's.



operative known as the Cooperativa de
Transporte Metropolitano, and a cor-
poration called Corporaci6n Unica de
The evolution from the eight-pas-
senger chivas to the gaily painted 50-
passenger buses of today was gradual.
Chivas made from cars and pickups
were used until the early thirties. Then,
in 1934, a Colombian, the late Froilin
Arce, got the idea of buying ,i-ton
chassis and motors and building the
bodies locally.
Those chivas remained in service
until after World War II. Then, in 1946,
the first "busitos" made their appear-
ance. These are the small, 16-passenger
blue buses which at that time sold for
$3,600 complete or $900 for the chassis
and motor only.
In 1960, local operators began to
import 24- to 30-passenger buses and,
as the city grew and the demand for
public transportation increased, 40-
and 50-passenger buses costing $9,000-
$10,000, were placed in service.
But throughout, the chiva has sur-
vived and is patronized by faithful
passengers who usually ride the same
one each day and know each other as
well as members of a car pool.
Among the principal routes served
by today's chivas-mostly of 1952 vint-
age-is the one extending from down-
town Panama along Balboa Avenue to
the shanty town called Boca la Caja,
east of Paitilla Airport. The ride to the

end of the line costs 10 cents, but the
chiva will take you as far as Santo
Tomas Hospital for only a nickel.
One driver on this route, Juan Anto-
nio Olivares, has been behind the wheel
of chivas for 32 years. In addition to
the Chiva he drives on the Boca la
Caja route, he owns a small busito. As
a small fleet owner-five buses or less-
he belongs to an organization called El
Tercer Crupo (the third group), made
up of small independents who are not
affiliated with either the cooperative or
the corporation.
So there are basically three types of
buses in Panama-the venerable chivas,
the "busitos" and the larger buses.
Though the earlier chivas were painted
with bright and imaginative designs,
most of the surviving ones are plain.
The greatest profusion of artwork is
now found on the larger buses. There
are paintings of pastoral scenes, reli-
gious motifs, well-known landmarks
such as the bridge that spans the en-
trance to the Panama Canal, the ruins
of Old Panama, likenesses of film and
TV personalities and even comic strip
characters. A random sampling of
buses along busy Via Espafia or Cen-
tral Avenue during rush hour can be
an amusing pastime. One bus is named
"Marshal Dilo"-phonetically honoring
the character portrayed by James
Arness in the TV series "Gunsmoke."
Others are named "The Fugitive" and
"The Untouchable." Still others bear

phrases and sayings such as "Let's
Forget the Past"; "God Forgives, Not I";
"Forgive Them Lord"; "It's All In The
Game"; and "What You See Is What
You Get." A few of the signs are in
Many of the buses have been lettered
and decorated by Teodoro "Billy" Ma-
drifnn, a former employee of the Pan-
ama Canal Dredging Division, who
began specializing in the art back in
the forties.
Billy says the custom of painting
scenes on buses got sta led when one
bus operator conceived the idea and it
was later noted that tourists were
stopping to photograph his bus. The
idea caught on quickly and soon oper-
ators were competing for originality.
As they did, the decorations became
more and more elaborate.
The cost of bus decorations' varies
according to how elaborate they are.
A simple scene on the back of the bus
may cost anywhere from $15 to $25.
A complete job, with paintings inside
and out, lettering of names, phrases
and girls' names in the windows can
cost up to $120.
Many Panama bus riders are likely
to view with nostalgia the passing of
this charming custom as the Panama
Government prepares to modernize its
public transportation system with shiny
new buses which have large picture
windows, but, alas, no expressions of

Some "chivas" do double duty. Those that come from
the interior carrying produce, passengers and chickens are
popularly called "Chivas Gallineras" (Chicken Chivas).


m'a mIII I
CHp6 V,

-- 1 J_ .^-.

Paintings of Panama's famous flat arch bridge and its historic cathedral
along with a couple in typical dress help to publicize some of the
country's tourist attractions.

22 FALL 1972

goes further in South America,
so they say. But those preoccupied U.S.
tourists, counting on their fingers as
they wander from shop to shop in San-
tiago, Rio, or Buenos Aires, are prob-
ably uncertain just how far it is going
for they are bewildered at trying to
figure out the local exchange rate.
One tourist discovered that he was
getting excellent service from almost
everyone after he tipped a bellhop the
equivalent of $6 for opening the
It works the other way too. Try giving
a tip which amounts to several U.S.
Money exchange is one of the haz-
ards of modem air travel. Visitors go
from one country to another so quickly
that there is no time to obtain coin of
the realm let alone figure out its value
in relation to the U.S. dollar.
It gives a traveler a desolate feeling
to find he has purchased something, or
is about to purchase something, only to
discover that the money in his purse
has no more value than wampum.
Of course this happens only in small
shops, en route from an airport, or di-
rectly after arriving at a hotel when the
hall porter or a bellboy stands around
A Financial Wizard
In most hotels in South America, the
traveler can get his money exchanged
at the hotel desk. The question of how
much to tip comes next and unless one
is a financial wizard, there seems to be
no way to figure out the problem
There are several dandy little books
put out by banks and tourist agencies
to help the hapless traveler on money
matters. But none of them can do much
for the person who tries to add up a
dinner bill which includes a cover
charge, a sales tax, a percentage for tips,
and sometimes a donation to the local
Red Cross.
Perhaps the most discouraged trav-
elers are those who return after a shop-
ping expedition and find that they have


on (?) a day

paid more for their purchases than they
would have if they had obtained the
same items in a luxury store in New
York. This can happen easily when one
is not only figuring the exchange rate
but also sorting out "old and new
money" and determining the different
values of each.
In Argentina and Brazil, although
new currency was issued several years
ago, old bills and coins, as well as the
new, are in circulation. And shop-
keepers sometimes quote prices in the
old currency.
The Argentines and Brazilians seem
to accept it all as a matter of course,
but for the new arrival it boggles the
mind, especially if one is not only
counting Brazilian cruzeiros but trying
to figure out the difference between
Portuguese and Spanish.

Money Exchanges
In most countries of South America
there are regulations that money can
be changed only at the official rate
and at government authorized money
But a tourist with U.S. dollars to con-
vert may find himself surrounded with
self appointed money changers who
come in the form of maids, bellboys and
even hotel clerks who will come to
the hotel room, knock discreetly and
whisper the latest exchange rate on the
black market. In one country, standing
outside most banks and hotels are eager
looking young men carrying brief cases,
who are not businessmen but "un-
official" money changers who ask "cam-
bio?" in a discreet tone as anyone with
a camera around his neck approaches.
A Burglar
After the tour is over, there is still
another money problem for the tourist.
What to do with all those small bills and
coins that manage to hide in the bottom
of pocketbooks. The problem was solved
for one tourist when a burglar entered
her hotel room, snatched up the accumu-
lation and disappeared out the window.
The police recovered the loot and
solemnly read off the list of currency:


30 Peruvian soles; 15 Ecuadorean su-
cres; 20 Chilean escudos; 10 Para-
guayan guaranies; 4 Brazilian cruzeiros;
5 Argentinian pesos; and 4 Italian lire
(she had traveled South on an Italian
Sightseeing South American style is
fun. One only has to relax and enjoy it.
Traffic in most of the cities has to be
experienced to be believed. A taxi ride
is a wild experience and there is a fleet
of Volkswagen taxis in Rio that travels
at 120 kilometers an hour whose drivers
could qualify for the Indianapolis
According to the newspapers there
are frequent accidents, but most res-
idents seem to emerge unscathed after
a wild ride through the center of the
city with every other vehicle jockeying
for position on a three-lane throughway.
Most taxi drivers speak English, or a
reasonable facsimile of the language,
and like cab drivers everywhere they
are delighted to point out interesting
landmarks. They also like to expound

on local politics and their philosophy of
life. Most everyone seems to have an
uncle in New York, Miami, or Los
Angeles through whom they have accu-
mulated a vast store of information
about the United States.
Because of the age and size of many
of the taxis in some South American
cities, the number of passengers per taxi
is limited strictly by law. Woe unto
those who think they can get a party of
six into a five-passenger car. The taxi
driver will usually refuse to budge.
However, there was at least one case
where the driver was persuaded to take
a whole group when one member of the
party agreed to lie on the floor of the
Oversize Veal Cutlet
Speaking of the floor of the car, in
Chile, some of the drivers fill the floor
of the passenger compartment with
sawdust on rainy days to soak up the
excess water that collects. It sounds like
a good idea but it is rather disconcerting
to discover that the last 3 or 4 inches of
one's trousers are coated with a layer
of the fine sawdust or that the jacket
you accidentally dropped on the floor
resembles an oversize breaded veal
Rates vary according to the city but
they also may change from one month
to the next. In this case, the taxi driver
will take the amount registered on the

meter plus an additional amount, which
he apparently figures out on a slide rule
and then adds a percentage for a tip
provided by law. (In one city, it was a
matter of reading the meter and then
doubling it.) He won't refuse an addi-
tional tip but then he won't stand
around with his hand out either. In
most cases, he is a polite fellow even
when faced with a group of confused
and excited visitors who aren't quite
sure where they are going or occasion-
ally even what city they are in (if they
are on the "Around South America
Quickie Tour"). Rio and Buenos Aires
seem to be confused most frequently as
demonstrated by one lady, who to the
consternation of the taxi driver, asked
him what the Brazilian embassy was
doing in Rio as he drove through Bue-
nos Aires pointing out the sites of
Rides into the country are in com-
parison, pretty tame affairs. During the
day the driver jogs along at an even
pace and is fairly good at repairing a
tire or making an ailing engine regain
its health. Many motorists either are
good mechanics or they have access to
good mechanics as a matter of necessity
since there are a large number of old
cars on the road. In Uruguay there are
early Model "T" Fords which qualify
as classic cars in the United States.
It is at night that the automobile
drivers of South America come into

24 FALL 1972

their own and the North American
visitors retire to the ranks reserved for
the children and those not fleet of foot.
In most places, there seems to be a
law that the headlights on a car are
illegal and that only dims or parking
lights are to be used even on the open
highways. This gives most visitors the
feeling that they are groping through
a London fog with a candle but the
local citizens have the art of night
driving down to a fine point. They bolt
along the country highways at a normal
daylight pace and turn on their lights
only when their radar warns them that
a similar darkened vehicle is approach-
ing in the other direction. This proce-
dure blinds both drivers but they pass
with room to spare and continue on in

Hundreds of Fireflies
In many cities, automobiles travel
with dim lights. Drivers turn on the
brights only at street corners or when
they apparently want to get the lay of
the land. It gives an eerie impression
from a high building at night with the
lights of the moving vehicles blinking
off and on like hundreds of restless
Most visitors making either a lei-
surely tour or a fast swing by air through
the hospitable lands to the south will
compare notes and agree that travel is
indeed broadening. Some tourists mere-
ly groan and declare they are eating
their way through South America.
Whether travel is by ship or plane,
there is some kind of a conspiracy to
keep the passenger fat, dumb, and
happy while he is aboard. Unless one
boards a plane in the middle of the
night, food comes at regular intervals
which get closer if one passes a time
zone. Food may be anything from a
five-course meal to a light snack of
soup and several kinds of three-layer
sandwiches-with something sweet, of

"Medias Lunas"
After leaving the plane or ship, the
tourist is introduced to the delight-
ful South American habit of eating five
or six times a day. The way South
Americans manage to pack five meals
into a day is easy. They are spaced
throughout the day. After breakfast,
which often includes tasty crusty crois-
sants in Argentina, which they whim-
sically call "medias lunas" or half
moons; a pre-lunch snack at 11 a.m.;
lunch at 2 p.m.; tea at 5; then comes
dinner up to midnight. And anyone who


Few visitors leave Paraguay without a
sample of the famous fanduti or spider-
web lace. It is made only by the women
and some items of intricate design take
up to 5 years to complete.

manages on less than three courses at
lunch, a full-course high tea, and a five-
course dinner is a piker.
Lunch and dinner are accompanied
by two or three kinds of wine and may
be preceded by cocktails and followed
by liqueurs. Because of the high cost
of imported gin or whisky, cocktails
usually are the delightful pisco sours
which taste innocuous but pack a wallop
as one group of visitors found to their
surprise. Pisco is a grape brandy, best
known in Peru, although it is served in
Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay.
Meat has traditionally been a staple
diet in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay-
and by meat, they mean beef or beef-
steak. At present there are certain meat-
less days, weeks, or as in Uruguay 6
meatless months, which means that
during these periods beef is not served
in restaurants nor can it be purchased
in the public markets. Instead, the

Popular with tourists shopping in Peru are
llama and alpaca rugs, hoth the all white
and the brown and white styles, which
come in a variety of designs and shapes.

visitor is offered a menu which lists
such things as lamb, chicken, a wide
variety of seafood, and a dozen or so
other delicious dishes guaranteed to
make one forget the beef.
South Americans consider these meat-
less days a hardship and it may be for
those who have become accustomed to
a daily diet of beef but visitors are
happy with the substitutes and the
variety of delicious ways they are
The Argentine's well-known love of
beef extends to almost every part of the
cow and it may come as a shock to dis-
cover exactly what that delicious little
tidbit you nibbled with your drink really
is. Those at all squeamish might be well
advised to skip reading the English
translation if there is one, because the
language there appears to have been
taken from a veterinarian's anatomy

Meatless Days
If it is not a meatless day, one way
to tell when one has arrived in a South
American beef eating country, without
looking at the road signs is to stand in
the main plaza and sniff. The smell of
grilled beef fills the air as every res-
ident, whether he is roasting his lunch
on an open air fire or eating in a road-
side restaurant, has his noon meal. The
same thing happens at night and it may
in the morning, if anyone gets up early
enough to find out. But most South
Americans are continental breakfast
eaters unless the), have had a close
association with the British, whose
influence is still felt over the land.

Up There
The French also have left their in-
fluence on the cooking of South Amer-
ica and any visitor who thinks that he
can leave the groaning board with a cup
of black coffee is mistaken. Dessert or
"postre" is likely to come in the form
of French pastry or ice cream tortes
loaded with fresh whipped cream-none
of that synthetic dietetic stuff. Most
tourists make a mental note to go on a
diet when they get home and proceed
to dig in.
With such gustatory adventures and
a very favorable rate of exchange await-
ing them in South America, more and
more Isthmian residents are heading
that way and finding it fun, while on
vacation, instead of saying "down there
in the Canal Zone," to be able to say
"up there in the Canal Zone."
E. R. and W. F.

Medical Sleuths

Canal Zone College in joint program with

Gorgas Hospital trains medical technologists

to fill growing needs of modern medicine.

Er`FO']' | /7 / / m
Anna A. Haug, of David, is training to become a medical technologist. Here she does an
analytical test to find the hydrogen-ion concentration of an unknown
in chemistry class at Canal Zone College.

tim lies in critical condition in
Gorgas Hospital's emergency room.
Cristina Quiros Bunyea swittl ana.lyzes
a blood sample to determine th: type so
that the blood transfusion th.t m.ay sJ\ e
the man's life can be admirnier,'d
Since this is an emergency she puts
this particular job on her top priority
list. But across the hall, Aneeli Scott
and Diovelis Diaz can work v ith less
urgency. While one tests blood serum
for antibodies, the other ero'.\s a.id
identifies bacteria taken from a patient's
These top-level medical la.loratory
workers and their colleagues :.,1o .na-
lyze chemical composition of body
fluids and tissues, look for p.irasite.
examine urine specimens, run tcrts on
toxic substances and perform numerrous
chemical, microscopic, bacteriological
and other medical tests to help physi-
cians diagnose and treat disease.
They are medical technolo- sts, mem-
bers of one of the newest and fastest
growing associated medical profeslioi,
indispensable in the practice of modem
medicine. These medical leiidthi work
behind the scenes and ha-e sometJiei
to do with just about every patient '.lho
enters and leaves a hospital Their snr -
ices to humanity are available 24 hours
a day, 365 days a year.
Excellent medical resources in the
Canal Zone are available to students
planning a career in medical technolo-
gy. For the past several years, Canal
Zone College and the Gorgas Hospital
School of Medical Technology have
offered a joint program in the field. The
4-year program has been approved by
the Middle States Association of Col-
leges and Secondary Schools and the
Governor of the Canal Zone, giving the
college authority to grant the bachelor
of science in medical technology degree.
It was awarded for the first time in May
1970. Six bachelor of science in medical
technology degrees were conferred the
following year and eight medical tech-
nologists received their degrees last
The training program consists of 3
years of studies at Canal Zone College.
mainly in chemistry and biology, and a
fourth year of internship at one of the
400 approved schools of medical tech-
nology in the Canal Zone, the United
States, or Puerto Rico. The training is
rigorous and demanding and due to the
advanced scientific nature of the stud-
ies, a student at the end of 3 or 4 years
is well prepared for professional train-

FALL 1972

At a Coulter Counter in the Hematology section of the Gorgas
Hospital Laboratory Service, Diovelis Diaz is
screening for blood diseases such as anemia and leukemia.
Miss Diaz is a May graduate of the
Canal Zone College-Gorgas Hospital Medical
Technology 4-year program.


At Gorgas Hospital, Ignacio Scope, who received a
bachelor of science degree in medical technology last May,
works on an analysis which gives the results of six
different tests at 1-minute intervals-glucose, creatinine,
potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride.
A newer and more sophisticated machine at the
hospital does 12 tests.

ing in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy,
optometry, nursing, veterinary science,
chemistry and biology.
In addition to the general education
requirements in English, social science,
humanities, science, mathematics, and .A
physical education, medical technology
students are required to take zoology,
anatomy, microbiology, histology and
parasitology, in the biological field. In
the physical sciences, they are required
to complete laboratory and lecture
courses in general chemistry, organic
chemistry, qualitative analysis, quan-
titative analysis and general physics. w
During the fourth year of internship,
the student completes courses in hema-
tology, clinical chemistry, clinical bac-
teriology, clinical parasitology, serology,
blood bank, urinalysis, histopathology,
mycology and clinical microscopy. At
Gorigas, he receives 52 weeks of train-
nmg. rotating in the different depart-
ments of the hospital's Laboratory
Serx ice.
The. majority of candidates from A recent graduate of the Canal Zone College-Gorgas Hospital School of Medical
Carjal Zone College have interned at Tcchnology 4-year program, Ena Archibold de MendizAbal,
C.,rgas,. but since the number of quali- differentiates white blood cells.


With increased emphasis on

research in medicine and in industry

the demand for qualified technicians far exceeds

the supply

fled candidates exceeds the capacity of
Corgas, several have gone to approved
hospital schools in the United States.
Most of the medical technologists em-
ployed at Corgas Hospital have been
trained under the joint Canal Zone
College-Corgas Hospital School of
Medical Technology Program.
Following successful completion of
the internship year, they are eligible to
register for the national board examina-
tion administered by the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists. Upon
successful completion of the examina-
tion, they are ready for employment as
registered medical technologists.

Roberto Beverly, left, and Annie Fifer
are distilling water during a
chemistry laboratory class at Canal
Zone College.

Canal Zone College has formal agree-
ments with Tampa General Hospital;
Baptist Memorial Hospital, Jackson-
ville, Fla.; University of Puerto Rico
Medical School; Berkshire Medical
Center, Pittsfield, Mass.; Veterans Ad-
ministration Hospital, and Jackson Me-
morial Hospital, Miami, Fla. Candi-
dates are also eligible to apply to any of
the other approved schools.
The cost of training to the student is
modest. Tuition is paid for only the first
3 years and the fourth year of study is
free of charge. Most of the schools of
medical technology in which Canal
Zone College candidates have been
accepted pay the student a small sti-
pend. Gorgas Hospital is currently pro-
viding each student with a stipend of
$1,300 per year and Tampa General
Hospital is paying $1,620 a year. There
are no fees or charges of any kind at
these two institutions. Some of the

schools provide room and board and a
few have additional fringe benefits.
During the current year, medical
technology has been selected as the
major field of study by 70 students
attending Canal Zone College. High
school preparation for medical tech-
nology majors should include at least
3 years of mathematics and 2 years of

. & .. .i "' ;7 j

A close working relationship exists
between the Canal Zone College science
faculty and the Corgas Hospital lab-
oratory staff. Honorary faculty rank was
conferred this year on Dr. Gordon
Flake, Dr. Carolina White and Dr. Jerry
L. Harris, three Corgas doctors who
serve as instructors of the fourth-year
classes and supervise the laboratory
work of the intern students. DeWitt
Myers, chairman of the science depart-
ment of the Canal Zone College, is the
educational advisor to the Gorgas Hos-
pital laboratory staff. The college has a
medical technology advisory committee
composed of Dr. Harris Meyers, Dean
Glen E. Murphy and Norman Alten-
berg, college registrar. Ricardo Valla-
rino, supervisory medical technologist
at Corgas Hospital, is the college in-

structor for the first year course on the
introduction to medical technology.
Medical technology as a profession is
said to have originated in 1896 at J.h'lrns
Hopkins University in Baltimore but it
was not until World War 1 that medical
laboratory science began to be recog-
nized as a specialty. Today, it is a highly
sophisticated profession, invaluable to
health specialists. Due to population

growth and the increasing complexity of
medical science, the demand for med-
ical technologists is constantly expand-
ing. More and more people are using
hospitals, laboratory tests are routine in
physical checkups, and more hospitals
are being built. Medical technologists
are needed also in industrial medical
laboratories, in medical research pro-
grams, and other areas of development
and research. The ever increasing em-
phasis on research in medicine and in-
dustry offers the medical technologist
unlimited opportunities for promotion
to supervisory and chief technologist
positions. As the demand for qualified
technicians far exceeds the supply, the
outlook for employment opportunities is
bright indeed. F. H.

FALL 1972



- to Saim Jle -

a dance, but its memory lives on
in Sixaola, Costa Rica.
That's the nickname for a gasoline-
powered conveyance that runs on a
narrow gauge railroad between this tiny
town on the Panama border and Fields,
Costa Rica, some 20 miles away. And
if you ever ride it or watch it sway as
it rumbles down the track, you'll know
how it got its name.
Few Canal Zone or Panama City
residents enter Costa Rica at that point.
Most fly directly to San Jose or take the
Pan-American Highway on the Pacific
side of the country. But, if you like
beautiful scenery and the adventures of
traveling off the beaten path, take a
train to San Jos6.
The entire trip cannot be made by
rail, but a good portion of it can. In
fact, it combines air, bus, rail and water
transportation, which makes the ad-
venture even more interesting. And it
can be done over a long weekend, if
you fly back.
Shifting of holidays to Mondays will
provide Panama Canal employees with
no less than eight 3-day weekends in
1973 and a good opportunity to visit
many of the interesting spots that lie
within easy reach.
The charming Costa Rican capital,
with its pleasant springlike weather,
has always been a favorite destination
for Isthmian residents on brief holi-
days. But by the circuitous route, getting
there is half the fun.
The highlight of the trip is a spec-
tacular, 6-hour train trip from Puerto
Lim6n, Costa Rica's busy' Atlantic sea-
port, up to San Jos6.
Bill Hall and Al Jenkins, of the
Comptrollers Office, made the trip last
spring. Though they took 4 days, it
can be completed within a 3-day week-
end, as was done a few weeks later by
a Canal Zone couple.
Hall and Jenkins started their trip at
7 a.m. with a COPA flight from Tocu-
men International Airport that took
them first to the island capital of Bocas
del Toro Province and, after a brief stop,
on to Changuinola. During the hour
and a quarter flight from Panama to
Bocas, COPA serves the Panamanian


version of a continental breakfast-
coffee and a tasty empanada.
The low-level flight from Bocas to
Changuinola offers a view of the
seemingly endless orderly rows of ba-
nana trees and the railroad bridge over
the Changuinola River.
If you are lucky, the flight to Chan-
guinola will get you there in time to
catch the passenger train that leaves
each morning at 9 a.m. for the 8-mile
run to Guabito, on the Costa Rican
border. If you miss the train, as usually
happens, a taxi will take you there for
$5 over a dirt road that parallels the
tracks, though not always on the same
side. Hall and Jenkins had allotted
one day for visiting the banana planta-
tions. They overnighted at the Chan-
guinola Hotel which is just a short walk
from the airport. The couple who made
the trip later missed the train by about
5 minutes, but beat it to Guabito in
a cab.
Formalities for exiting Panama and
entering Costa Rica at this point are
not at all complicated. You show Pan-
amanian officials your Canal Zone exit
permit, then walk a narrow pedestrian
plank across the railroad bridge that
spans the Sixaola River, which marks
the boundary between the two coun-
tries. At Sixaola you check in with
Costa Rican immigration authorities.
A simple tourist card or a visa is the
only document required.
"The Twist" is a yellow truck with
flanged wheels which pulls a small
passenger coach and an open freight
wagon along the narrow gauge track. It
runs on a rather erratic schedule which
bears little relationship to the official
looking timetable posted in the immi-
gration office. Speculation on arrival
and departure times seems to be a
popular local pastime. When the Canal
Zone couple arrived in Sixaola they
took note of the posted timetable and
sat down to wait for the 10:30 a.m.
departure. When the scheduled time
had come and gone, they were told
that "The Twist" had had some me-
chanical trouble the day before and
would be delayed for an indefinite
period. Shortly after noon a man walked
up to them and gravely volunteered

the information that "The Twist" would
not operate at all that day. Five min-
utes later it appeared on the horizon.
An alternate means of transportation
from Sixaola to Puerto Lim6n is pro-
vided by not one, but two (count them)
air taxi services which also will take
you all the way to San Jos6 should you
despair and decide to forego train
travel altogether. The train ride from
Lim6n to San Jos4 should not be missed,
however. And those trains do operate
on a strict schedule.
Even flying from Sixaola to Lim6n
involves a short rail trip. Transporta-
tion of passengers and luggage to the
landing strip is accomplished on a
small flatcar-drawn by a burro.
But those who elect to take their
chances on "The Twist" will be re-
warded with an interesting, scenic
trip. The 20-mile ride to Fields costs
3 colones or the equivalent of 40 cents.
The railway serves as main street for
the towns of Daytonia, Paraiso and
Margarita, and houses in these towns
line both sides of the track.
All along the route the air is filled
with the strong, sweet smell of fer-
menting cacao pods and occasionally,
"The Twist" will stop at one of the
many plantations to pick up a load of
beans. The fruit has been harvested by
independent farmers since 1969, when
the fruit company withdrew from the
cacao business.
Fields is the end of the line and here
most travelers on this route begin to
feel the need for nourishment. There
is a small restaurant featuring simple
native dishes. Knowledgeable visitors
will stake out a table and put in their

If you tire of waiting for "The Twist"
and opt for an air taxi flight
from Sixaola to Lim6n, you are
taken to the airfield in a
burro-powered railcar.


Expert hoatmen pole passengers
across the Estrella River to
Penhurst, Costa Rica, to board the
train to Puerto Lim6n.

food order as soon as possible, since a
full "Twist-load" of hungry passengers
frequently is more than the restaurant
can handle.
The next leg of the trip, from Fields
to the banks of the Estrella River, is
usually made in a fairly comfortable
bus. The couple who followed Hall and
Jenkins made the 25-mile trip in a stake
body truck, which perhaps offered an
even better view of rich tropical jungle
scenery as it lumbered along the hilly,
dirt road. Roughly midway, at Cahuita,
there is a brief rest stop with just about
enough time to buy a soft drink at the
general store and take a short walk
down one of the town's grass-covered
streets, leading down to a beautiful
beach. Fare for this leg of the trip,
whether by bus or truck, is 7 colones,
or about 90 cents.
When passengers alight at the edge
of the Estrella River, a horde of small
boys swarms around them vying for
the right to carry their luggage while
the adult cayuco operators beckon them
toward their dugouts. It costs only 1
col6n, or 13 cents to cross the river
into Penhurst.
If the food ran out before you got
your order in back at Fields you'll
probably be ready to try the candle-lit
restaurant across from the Penhurst
railroad station before train time.
The train for Lim6n leaves at 7:30
p.m. The trip takes 3 hours and costs
3 colones. There is one kerosene-lit
passenger coach and a number of
freight cars loaded mostly with cacao.
By the time the train arrives in Puer-
to Lim6n, one is ready to bed down
for the night. There is a choice of three
moderately priced hotels within walk-
ing distance of the railroad station-
the Caribe, the Park, and the Lincoln,
all about equal in quality and price.
Rates run between $3 and $4 per
person. The Caribe and the Park should
by rights switch names, for the Caribe
overlooks the park and the Park over-
looks the Caribbean.
Puerto Lim6n bears a striking like-
ness to Col6n or to practically an)' port
city in Central America, for that matter.
If you decide to tarry there, there are
a few interesting sights. Among the
favorite pastimes for visitors is to go to
the teeming piers and watch the load-
ing and unloading of ships. There is a
well-kept park with walks shaded by
West Indian laurel trees. A half hour
away by bus is the Balneario Portete,
where there is a small bathing beach
and restaurant. The road to Portete
follows the coast and offers some
beautiful scenery.

But whatever you do, or howe'.cr
long you stay in Lim6n, be sure tc. hbu
your ticket for the train to Cost.i Ri,-i
as far in advance as possible. St.a s are
limited. The best train to San I'-,se is
the Pacheco, which leaves promptt\ I
at 6:10 a.m. Get to the station early
and sit on the left side to enjoy the spec-
tacular view. The fare is $2.10 and for
a few extra colones you can reserve a
seat in the "carro sal6n."
The scenery changes rapidly as you
travel toward San Jose. First you are
going through cacao country. Early in
the journey you come to a junction
called La Junta, where a spur line called
Linea Vieja (Old Line) comes in from
the left. This was originally intended
to go all the way to San Jos6, but the
route was changed when it was found
it was impossible to circle around the
west side of the volcanoes into the cen-
tral plateau. But the spur proved use-
ful anyway and has been in operation
ever since. Here you will see many
people making connection with the
main line.
During most of the trip, the railroad
follows the raging Reventaz6n River
as it courses between cliffs alive with
jungle growth.
En route, you will see two volcanoes,
Turrialba and famed Iraz6. And the
scenery gets more and more spectacular
as the train climbs higher. In the
30-mile stretch from the city of Turrial-
ba to Cartago, just 12 miles out of San
Jose, you climb 3,000 feet. The air is
crisp and filled with the sweet scent
of pines.
You arrive in San Jos6 shortly after
noon, just in time for lunch. And you
will probably be ready to eat unless
you were tempted to buy some of the
empanadas, hard-boiled eggs, ice cream
and other offerings hawked by small
boys at each of the train stops.
On the hour-long flight back to Pan-
ama one might look back on the long
overland trip with the satisfaction of
having experienced an adventure that
the ordinary tourist does not enjoy.
Once you have made the trip, you
probably will never make it again, but
chances are you'll never regret having
made it.


Those who have made the trip de-
scribed in this article recommend that
you take along a book or magazine to
read, perhaps a package of cookies to
nibble on, a canteen of drinking water,
and, to better endure the long periods
on wooden seats, an inflatable cushion.

FALL 1972



es are becoming more pop-.
ular than ever as travelers discover the
joys of living at sea under the same
luxurious conditions that the), would
rnd at a first-class hotel with such things
as sightseeing tours, gourmet meals, or-
chestras, entertainment, and superb t
service thrown in for good measure.
In addition, man)' cruises can be
combined with air or rail transportation
for a more varied vacation. Tourists V
now can travel from Europe by air and -
return by ship or go from the U.S. east \ ,
coast by train to California and catch a
ship that will take them back to the
east coast via coastal ports and the
Caribbean Islands. Many of these hand- The P & O Line luxury liner "Canberra" has been passing through the Canal since 1963.
She is the biggest passenger liner to be built in England since the "Queen Elizabeth" and
some cruise ships make regular trips is one of the largest commercial liners to use the Canal. She is passing through Miraflores
through the Canal and often stop long Locks with a few of her 1,000 passengers on top deck watching operations. While transiting
enough to let their passengers enjoy the the Canal, luncheon is served on deck and the P & O menu includes everything from kanga-
many interesting sights on the Isthmus. roo tail soup and cumquats to Halibut Cutlet Baron Brisse and Cromesques Toulousaine.

New in looks and new in design was the
passenger liner "Southern Cross" when she
made her first visit to Canal waters in
April 1955. Built in Belfast, Northern Ire-
land, primarily for low-cost travel, she
has accommodations for 1,600 passengers.


A sleek addition to the list of cruise ships passing through the Canal is the German vessel
"Hamburg" which was completed in 1968 in Germany. The vessel, which is the fourth
German ship to carry the name Hamburg since the beginning of the century, makes a
southbound transit while the west lane at Miraflores Locks is out of service for overhaul.
Known for the amount of space set aside for both public and private rooms, she has
319 spacious cabins including 20 deluxe apartments which accommodate 600 passengers.

-~ ..
p v "

-nr~ I~

The Holland America cruise liner "Rotterdam" enters the Panama Canal from the Pacific entrance passing under the bridge that crosses
the Canal at Balboa. The big ship is escorted by two tugs and usually docks at Balhoa before continuing on her cruise schedule. The
"Rotterdam" is a regular visitor to the Canal during the winter cruise season. She has accommodations for 1,369 passengers.

..... ..- ...

Framed by tropical trees and plants that grow in profusion along the banks of the Panama
Canal, one of the Norwegian America Line's luxury cruise ships, the SS "Sagafjord" sails
majestically through Miraflores Lake after completing a southbound transit through Pedro
Miguel Locks. Filled with carefree cruise passengers, the vessel is on her way from New
York to the South Seas on a leisurely 3-month trip. This vessel makes several visits to the
Canal each winter. During the summer she spends her time carrying passengers on tours
of the North Sea and Scandinavia. She has been a Panama Canal customer since 1965.

The "Ocean Monarch," formerly the Cana-
dian Pacific Line "Empress of England,"
passes through the Panama Canal on her
first trip under her new name. She has
accommodations for more than 1,300 pas-
sengers and a crew of 488. She made a
cruise through the South Pacific recently

32 FALL 1972

a.~,: "lerql~-- .......... -

Manufactures of iron and steel --------- --
Ores, various -___ _________________
Boards and planks ---------___ --__
Sugar ____________________
Petroleum and products -------_________
Fishmeal -- ---- __-___ __
Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) ..
Metals, various --_ _-
Plywood and veneers _____________
Pulpwood -- -- ___ ___ _____
Petroleum coke----- ____ ___
Bananas-- _______________
Autos, trucks, accessories and parts ____
Sulfur --------_____
Paper and paper products -- ---------
All others ..----
Total -


Coal and coke _____ _____
Petroleum and products -___
Phosphate -
Corn ___ -- ___-
Soybeans --
Ores, various __
Wheat --- ___
Sugar --- ___ ___________-
Manufactures of iron and steel ----__-_-
Metal, scrap -- __ __ -- -_
Sorghum -------_ ______ __ __
Chemicals, unclassified _----__
Fertilizers, unclassified --- __- __
Paper and paper products --------______-
All others ----__----
Total -------






5-Yr. Avg.

5-Yr. Avg.


Fiscal Year

Commercial vessels:
Oceangoing ------ -__ _______
Small 1 ------
Total Commercial----

U.S. Government vessels: 2
Oceangoing ------
Small --1------


Atlantic Pacific
to to
Pacific Atlantic Total

6,955 6,811 13,766
451 326 777
7,406 7,137 14,543

219 194 413
59 89 148

Total Commercial and
U.S. Government------_ 7,684 7,420 15,104

Avg. No.
1971 1961-65

Total Total



503 250
123 157

15,227 12,289

1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited

(All cargo figures in long tons)
Pacific to Atlantic
Fiscal Year


TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels)
1972 1971
Commercial______-- __ 13,766 14,020
U.S. Government______ 413 503
Free_ __-___ 59 94
Total..-_______ 14,238 14,617
Commercial. $98,833,373 $97,418,550
U.S. Govern-
ment 2.655,316 3,147.987
Total .$101,488,689 $100,566,537
CARGO"O (Oceangoing)
Commercial 109,271,968 118,634,184
U.S. Govern-
ment ___ 1,742,303 2,236,627
Free 62.532 139,843
Total 111,076,803 121,010,654
Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing
and small.
00 Cargo figures are in long tons.

(Continued from page 7)
"Do you know that there is nothing
so annoying to me as the statement so
generally made in my presence that I am
the 'Genius of the Panama Canal.' I do
not like it. Frankly, it is a fact that
Stevens devised, designed, and made
provision for practically every contin-
gency connected with the construction
and subsequent operation of the stupen-
dous project and when he turned over
the office of Chief Engineer to me,
everything was in the very best working
order or ready for the successful pros-
ecution of the work-my effort was to
see that the project, as conceived de-
signed, laid out, and duly recorded, was
carried out accordingly; submit required
reports, approve expenditures, fill va-
cancies. It is therefore to him, much
more than to me, that justly belongs the
honor of being the actual 'Genius of the
Panama Canal;' no; not me."
Stevens and Goethals remained good
friends throughout the years and
Stevens said of him, "I felt well assured
that the work which had been so near
my heart, had been given into com-
petent hands, as the future proved in
ever way to be the case."
After returning to the United States,
Stevens spent many years in active rail-
road administration and then 6 years as
a consulting engineer and 2 as president
of the Hill Lines' subsidiaries in the
Pacific Northwest.
He was sent by the U.S. Government
to Russia during World War I, when he
was 64 years old, where the Russian
government under Alexander Feodoro-
vitch Kerensky was attempting to re-
organize the country and restore order

Atlantic to Pacific
Fiscal Year



Israeli _
Irish- .
South K
Soviet .
All othe

East coa
East coa
East coa
East coa
All othe

Fiscal Year




No. of Tons No. of Tons Avg. No. Aug. tons
nalitj transits of cargo transit of cargo transits of cargo
e ---- --------- 21 45,167 2 1,710
159 526,280 129 307,260 46 168,966
---- 25 58,526 22 62,720 2 19,891
1,472 12,408,313 1,558 14,288,579 1,294 8,292,285
127 1,239,966 156 1,463,656 120 849,621
,Nat'l... 170 1,505,415 155 1,497,313 81 594,921
ian -- 249 518,991 225 539,744 256 408,588
.-- 106 826,646 183 1,340,478 -
-. ---- 86 781,622 86 842,313 3 14,596
S- 382 2,113,069 454 2,055,308 307 1,548,545
ean -- 65 108,614 63 98,767 42 49.491
33 214,723 45 352,262 24 107,205
206 913,914 259 1,023,723 144 771,293
West_ 937 4,628,907 1,069 4,918,407 1,122 3,391,774
-_--- 766 8,034,968 629 7,735,546 632 6,180,888
an---- 94 92,868 94 64,712 197 153,814
---- 60 827,066 45 767,813 1 16,445
---- 45 293,796 65 413,454 65 253,130
27 431,520 20 354,363 5 55,527
S 273 1,670,300 237 1,395,979 190 1,126,250
e---- 1,533 11.572,991 1,462 13,541,685 835 4,871,840
-__- 1,700 22,453,442 1,587 25,201,391 951 9,348,846
--__-- 68 391,101 48 336,610 25 77,779
ands-.. 524 3,017.077 494 2,648,769 621 2,793,040
uan..- 131 230,759 106 190,654 52 80,143
ian _- 1,239 14,790,317 1,202 16,011,868 1,436 10,931,401
nian -- 898 4,012,173 948 3,699,065 461 1,968,519
n_____ 153 991,264 199 1,247,065 119 547,814
ne---- 92 654,583 105 861,164 70 310,866
--- 24 92,117 25 109,747 --- -----
orean 90 667,389 82 639,812 10 44,398
- 174 985,690 126 859,443 23 164,686
70 105,735 49 166,209 13 52,230
--.--- 410 2,795,999 479 3,366,568 336 2,157,223
rean -- 22 103,964 28 134,779 ---- --
States__ 1,165 7,740,111 1,368 8,246,308 1,708 10,191,486
vian __- 81 792,230 74 1,075,103 13 106,870
rs _- 110 641,279 123 723,102 129 460,828
rotal___ 13,766 109,233,725 14,020 118,626,906 11,335 68,112,909
Fiscal Year
Avg. No.
de routes-(Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1972 1971 1961-65
States Intercoastal (including Hawaii) 377 359 445
ist of United States-West coast of South America _. 980 1,123 2,355
st of United States-West coast of Central America 667 732 500
st of United States-Far East ------------ 3,142 3,374 2,220
Ist of United States/Canada-Oceania-------- 326 386 321
-West coast of United States/Canada------------ 909 1,040 954
-West coast of South America----------___ 1,298 1,240 1,236
-Oceania---------------------------- 518 555 397
rs ---------- ----- ---- 5549 5,211 2.907
rotal ---------------------------- 13,766 14,020 11,335
Vessels of 300 net tons or over-(Fiscal years)
Transits Tolls (In thousands of dollars)

Month 1972
July- --------- 1.194
August __----- 1,197
September------------- 1,191
October-------- ------ 1,068
November ---- -------_ 964
December------------- 1,023
January--- ----------- 1,179
February-- ----------- 1,116
March ------------- 1,290
April--------------------- 1,191
May -------------1,261
June ------------- 1,092
Totals for fiscal year -. 13,766
1 Before deduction of any operating expenses.


Avg. No. Average
transit tolls
1961-65 1972 1971 1961-65
960 $8,017 $8,118 $4,929
949 8,513 8,221 4,920
908 8,417 7,979 4,697
946 7,241 8,095 4,838
922 6,645 7,363 4,748
946 7,267 7,690 4,955
903 8,895 8,157 4,635
868 8,233 7,814 4,506
1,014 9,297 8,929 5,325
966 9,180 8,349 5,067
999 9,127 8,422 5,232
954 7,933 8,243 5,013
11,335 $98,765 $97,380 $58,865

out of the chaos following the collapse
of the Czar's regime. Rasll". srx ce
was essential to success arld the United
States sent a transport ..,'aid to assist
the Russian officials in their oi-tlrts.
An Inter-Allied Techiic.-l Board of
eight nations including China. (.r-at
Britain, France, Italy, Czechliosloakia,
Japan, Russia, and the Unrit,:d States
attempted to keep oprn the Trans-
Siberian Railway. Steenis .as thie
United States member and chairman.
About as much tact vwas ,-reuir:d to
handle the Inter-Allied B :),d as to cop,
with problems of the Siberianr Railka',.
Stevens not only was successful but
achieved greatness in this position.,
probably the most difficult undertaking
of his life. The railway onrilinrli-nt .,d
the military protecting it ithdirj: in
1921 but Stevens, with onl', ore o r t o
assistants, continued in an, ad\ i;,r\
capacity until 1923.
Stevens lived to be 90 \ears .old .ind
his career spanned more ti.han 5S ',ars,
including railroading in the l'lited
States; work on the Panama Canal: and
his Russian service from 1917 to. 1923.
He kept an active inlirest in all 'ia
his work and a keen sense of humor He
returned a number of tinimes to sre the
Canal in operation and in 1933 % her
he was asked for a photograph to. be
placed in the Governor's offcI-c he wrote
that he was sending one taken several
years before, adding "I would d inot like
to be shown by a vert recent photo
which of course could onl' depict how
age has robbed me of my former manl'

The 5-Cent Stamp
Plans had been put forward to issue
a 5-cent stamp honoring himr bul t t as
discovered that living persons could nrot
be depicted on Canal Zone stamps and
in 1936 a letter was written telling him
this. He answered, "The old P. 0. stamp
matter seems to be having trouble.
Well, I am sorry for it, but I an not
going to willingly die to please LTncle
Sam or adjust myself to his regulations '
In his "recollections" as he called
them, Stevens wrote a chapter of ad\ ice
to "young engineers who must carry
on." It contains a revealing glimpse into
his character.
He wrote: "While the rewards are iot
always in the shape of great material
wealth as the world regards i alth,
they will come in the knovw.ledlge that i %e
can leave a good name to our posterity.
and that we have contributc-d some-
thing to the comfort and happiness of
succeeding generations."

34 FALL 1972


to a good start in the Canal Zone
50 years ago. The Panama Canal had
been in operation nearly 10 years and
World War 1, with the resulting difficul-
ties for Canal traffic, was over. Ships
were beginning to use the Canal on a
peacetime basis and some of the larger
passenger and cargo ships made transits.
One of the first was the steamer Em-
press of Australia owned by the Canadi-
an Pacific Railroad, which arrived at the
Canal July 1, 1922, from Hamburg and
made the transit July 6 after receiving
repairs at the Cristobal shops. She was
conspicuous in Canal waters because of
her size, according to the CANAL REC-
ORD, and was one of the largest ships to
have made the transit up to that time.
She was 590 feet long with a 75-foot
beam and a registered gross tonnage of
21,447 tons. The Empress was built in
Germany as the Tirpitz and was on her
way to enter the transpacific service.
A high record for tons of cargo car-
ried through the Canal was set in July
1922 by the steamer Marore of the Ore
Steamship Corp. She made the transit
July 19 with 20,000 tons of iron ore
bound from Cruz Grande, Chile, to New
York. The previous record was set by a
sister ship, the Bethore, making the
transit in May with 19,000 tons of ore.
The Tivoli Hotel, center of the social
scene in the Canal Zone, was condemned
as a firetrap by the Canal Zone Fire Di-
vision. To eliminate this hazard, auto-
matic sprinklers were installed through-
out the hotel by a New York firm at a
reported cost of $27,688.40.
Some people on the Isthmus were
worried about flaming youth in 1922.
The Star and Herald published a fea-
ture story saying that flappers were not
popular in the Canal Zone. "Bobbed
haired girls who powder their knees
must play second fiddle to their more
conservative sisters who wear their hair
long and don't roll their stockings," the
paper said.


25 Years Ago
paralysis in Panama and the Canal Zone
had health authorities worried both on
the Isthmus and in Washington, D.C.
25 years ago. Officials of the U.S. Public
Health Service and other agencies ob-
served the epidemic closely and assured
local authorities that they stood ready
to do everything in their power to limit
the spread of the disease.
Meanwhile it was announced in the
local newspapers that a $1 million ob-
stetrical building would be built for
Gorgas Hospital as part of a long-range
plan for improvement of medical facili-
ties at this Canal Zone institution. Funds
for the building were to be provided in
an appropriation bill signed in August
1947 by President Truman.
A steady employment level for the
next 2 years, followed by an increase in
the number of Panama Canal employees,
was predicted in 1947 by Canal person-
nel officials. The prediction was based

SS "Empress of Australia" in south end of Gaillard Cut near Paraiso. Equipment, at right,
belonged to the Panama Canal Dredging Division, which was based at Paraiso before the
construction of new headquarters in Gamboa.

on the fact that the Canal was approach-
ing normal peacetime operations for the
first time since 1939 and on the belief
that Congress would approve some type
of construction for enlargement of Canal
facilities. The Canal's peak employment
was reached in 1942 when construc-
tion on the third locks was in progress.

70 Years Ago
ice, an elite corps of multilingual men
and women who lecture aboard ships
and escort visitors to the locks, Gaillard
Cut, and other points of interest in the
Canal Zone, was organized 10 years ago.
Taking a personal interest in providing
information for tourists and local res-
idents on the engineering and natural
wonders of the Canal Zone, former Gov.
Robert J. Fleming, Jr. was most instru-
mental in the formation of the service
which has been popular from the start.
During the first fiscal year, 84,688
visitors took a look at the locks installa-
tions under the supervision of the Canal
Zone Guide Service. By 1971, the
millionth person had visited the locks
since the inauguration of the service
with more than 100,000 touring the
locks each year. These figures do not
include the hundreds of persons who
took advantage of the Guide Service for
tours to other points of interest.
The program also included the instal-
lation of attractive "Center of Interest"
signs in both English and Spanish along
the streets and highways of the Canal
Zone. Similar signs were erected to mark
recreation sites.

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