<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the Governor of the Panama...
 Appendix A: Report of the engineer...
 Appendix B: Report of the marine...
 Appendix C: Report of the engineer...
 Appendix D: Report of the resident...
 Appendix E: Report of the resident...
 Appendix F: Report of the superintendent,...
 Appendix G: Report of the chief...
 Appendix H: Report of the...
 Appendix I: Report of the executive...
 Appendix J: Report of the district...
 Appendix K: Report of the special...
 Appendix L: Report of the chief...
 Appendix M: Report of the general...
 Appendix N: Preliminary report...
 Appendix O: Report of the...
 Appendix P: Tables
 Appendix Q: Acts of Congress affecting...
 Appendix R: Charts showing organization...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


PCANAL DLOC



Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00037
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Running title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication: Washington, D. C.
Creation Date: 1916
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
System ID: UF00097365:00037
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    List of Illustrations
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
    Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 63
        Page 64
    Appendix A: Report of the engineer of maintenance
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
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    Appendix B: Report of the marine superintendent
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
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        Page 220
    Appendix C: Report of the engineer of terminal construction
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
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        Page 280-1
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        Page 280-20
    Appendix D: Report of the resident engineer, building division
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
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    Appendix E: Report of the resident engineer, dredging division
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
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        Page 310-1
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        Page 310-15
        Page 310-16
    Appendix F: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
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        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
    Appendix G: Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
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        Page 350
        Page 351
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        Page 353
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        Page 355
        Page 356
    Appendix H: Report of the auditor
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
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    Appendix I: Report of the executive secretary
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
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        Page 522
        Page 522-1
        Page 522-2
    Appendix J: Report of the district attorney
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
    Appendix K: Report of the special attorney
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
    Appendix L: Report of the chief health officer
        Page 537
        Page 538
        Page 539
        Page 540
        Page 541
        Page 542
        Page 543
        Page 544
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        Page 582
        Page 582-1
        Page 582-2
        Page 582-3
        Page 582-4
    Appendix M: Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
        Page 583
        Page 584
        Page 585
        Page 586
    Appendix N: Preliminary report upon the possibility of controlling the land slides adjacent to the Panama Canal
        Page 587
        Page 588
        Page 589
        Page 590
        Page 591
        Page 592
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        Page 596
        Page 597
        Page 598
    Appendix O: Report of the geologist
        Page 599
        Page 600
        Page 601
        Page 602
        Page 603
        Page 604
    Appendix P: Tables
        Page 605
        Page 606
        Page 607
        Page 608
        Page 609
        Page 610
    Appendix Q: Acts of Congress affecting the Panama Canal and Executive orders relating to the Canal Zone, index
        Page 611
        Page 612
        Page 613
        Page 614
        Page 615
        Page 616
        Page 617
        Page 618
        Page 619
        Page 620
        Page 621
        Page 622
        Page 623
        Page 624
        Page 625
        Page 626
        Page 627
        Page 628
        Page 629
        Page 630
        Page 631
        Page 632
        Page 633
        Page 634
        Page 635
        Page 636
    Appendix R: Charts showing organization of the Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co., July 1, 1916, index
        Page 637
        Page 638
    Back Matter
        Page 639
        Page 640
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
















UNIVERSITY


OF


FLORIDA


... . . .. y.. � * * * *,*


i_ i_ lllll i i~ i_ �









ANNUAL


REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR


P


AN AMA


OF

CANAL


FOR THE


FISCAL


ENDED


YEAR


JUNE 30


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TABLE


OF


CONTENTS.


Kr
**:
gX^,


eqlfrt of the Governor of The Panama Canal- ----------------
Construction ----------1 -- -------------------------- - - - - - - - - - - - ---


Division of terminal construction
Dry docks_ _---- ___--__---__
Entrance basin --------�___
Cofferdam - -- --.. - .-


Entrance Pier No. 9-----
Balboa coaling plant-- -
Unloader wharf, Dock No. 7.
Reloader wharf, Dock No. 6-
Coal-handling plant----
Repair wharves and commerce:
Reinforced concrete pontoons.


Cristobal coaling plant.
East breakwater-----
Building division .......
Operation and maintenance_.
Electrical division ........
Municipal engineering division-
Meteorology and hydrography-
Surveys ._..-.-------.


- - - -


al pier


~- --- '------------------C---I-----------------------------------------------------------


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - - -


Office engineer- - - --.----
Office of the marine superintendent-------------------------
Dredging division_---------------------------------------
Slides-- -- _-_ ---...
Mechanical division------ - ------------- --------
Supply department - - - - --_
Quarters ..........---------------------- -----------
Corrals - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -
Material and supplies_-
Scrap ..---.---- -------- - - -
Fuel-oil plants and storage
Gasolineli-ne...------------------ - - - - -- - ---
Subsistence__ .. - - - - -----------------------------------------------------------


* r _fl.. - - - -. _._ .- -1. .- -_ 2


Page.
1
1


. . . . -y- -- - -- --_ ". _










Report of the Governor of The Panama Cana
Executive department-Continued.
Police and fire division ---------
Division of schools--- ....-------
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds-- -
The courts -----------------------
Relations with Panama ------


l---Continued,


------l--~-a--- -


- - -- --------- ---------i ---. -- - --T


--_ ..
-- - - -

-A-


Law ---- - ---------------------------- - - - - - ------- ---- ---- --I
Health Department ------------------- ------ ------------------
Division of hospitals .-- - -
Colon hospital -------------------------

Panama ------ -- --- ---------------------------------
Colon _ ..---------------------------------------------------------- ---
SSanitation.. - --------------------- --- ---------------------------------------------- -

Washington office ....-------------- -- - -- - ----------------------- ---------- -
Fortifications ---...... --- - -- ---------- ---- ------------------


Pagt
54


5(5


5T
582
60




62
62
62
63
64


APPENDIX A.


Report of the engineer of maintenance --- - --..------ ----
Organization a-a- -----------------------------------
Lock operation and maintenance -------------
Water storage and consumption in Gatun Lake-------
Arrow signals ----- -------------------------------------- --


Auxiliary culvert valves_ -----
Back fill and gra4ing------
Bronze bolts -------------- - -
Bulkheads, center wall-------
Cable crossover tunnel and pumps_--
Caissons, spillway ---------
Caisson, lock floating -. - ----.--
Chain fender machines....----------
Chain fender test -------


Preparatory


-- - -- -- -.--. - -
-- �--- - a a a a -------------- ---

-- r - -- - - - - a-- --- ---- - --------------- -

--------------- -----------
----------- -------------a-
--------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------
I---------------------a---

----- ---------------------------- - - --- -- -


work on machines.


Protection of bow of ships--
Data obtained ---------------
Test with steamship Allianca-
Locomotives test-------------
Steamship Cristobal test----
Damage to chain and hawse pip
Theory of operation ----


Explanation of
Care of valves.


a... .. .. .. .. .. -- .. - --- - ----------- --
------- ----------------
... a------------------------------------ . -- - a----- - -
----------------- -------- ----

------ ----*---.---- ------------- --------
e - aa---- - - -- ---- a
---.- -- ----------


different results obtained-


- - - ---- - ------MN- --------- - ------


TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


-1" .*, : * ' *


C�


}






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of maintenance--Continued.
Lock operation and maintenance--Continued.


Page


ckag es - ... - ---- -
Electrolysis and corrosion
Lock gates _..--.--
Cylindrical valves ---
Rising-stem valves__


------- - -- ------ --------- -------- ---- --_- -3_ __ a_

.I-------------------------------- --- - - - - - - - - -


Side seals of valves--


Top-gate seal--- ----------- ---- ---- -----
Piers and side sealsa--a aaaaaaaaa
Roller tra ins . .- - -- -- -- - . ... . . - - - - 4 - - -- - - -


C o n clu sio n s ---...........................................................................................................
Miter forcing machines.. ........... .......-
Painting -- ---a .-------.. --.. .....-..-- - ..-.-..-.-._..-.-.-.-._.-.......


Regulating valves-
Repair pits___ -. -
Repair shops --.--


-a--"-lL"1-"-C-
-''-�~~~ ~ ~ ~ a - *---I------I+-~-- --


Snubbing buttons -.--.------.-- -- --------. -_
Spare arts-------- --
Spillway caissons s
Spillway, Miraflores
Turnouts
Telephones_ ---....----------------------- -------_
To ing locomotives
Transformer rooms- -_-----------_---
Whistles .--- ..-
nGatun Locks e k
Locka ge operation---------------------- - -. -----------------


Operating machinery..
Emergency damsa
Miscellaneous work-
Special
Pacific locks ....


-a
a- a
.a a
-- - - - -
-a


Operation__-_ ______
Water ---_-------_---_---__-_------ -
Traffic -me- a - a a-- -�-
Ma intenance............


Emergency dams
Miter gates
Transformer roow


Control
Chain
Mess h
Electrical divis


houses -


n s-------------------------


fenders
al ls a-- -- --------------_-_----- -_ __-- -
ion_-_-_----___-


___________________ _____






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Electrical division--Continued.


Page.


Operation of telephone and telegraph system ..... .__--
Operation of railway signal system and accegsories- -_,,_
Northern and southern districts, operation and maintenance work
Armature winding and electrical repair shop--------------.-
General electrical construction work,.. .... __----
Power plants, substations, and transmission lines
Underground conduit lines and underground and overhead
distribution lines--_ -- ..-. _ -.--. . --.- - - - -- - - --- -. --
Street lighting .-- ------ -- -- -- .- - ------- -.---. - --
Motorizing Mount Hope Dry Dock pumps.------
Grader barges for dredging division------------
Berm cranes - --...---.--.--- - -- ------ - - - - -- -.-.--
Shopyard lighting system_ -- - -. - - - - ---- --- --, --- --
Balboa Dry Dock pumping and air-compressor plant
New piers -..... --- -- -------------- -.. . -----
Installation of electric meters- .. ------------ .- ---
Electrical installation work in buildings-----......---- - -


Miscellaneous- --------
Municipal division__ --------------
Southern district--- --
Army work - -- -- - - - ---
Corozal district, Army work--
Balboa district, Army work --.-.
Health department work.....


Marine division work......


Mechanical division
Miscellaneous- --
Straight municipal
Maintenance work_
Panama Citv constr


- -p---- -- - -- a- - - - - - - - - -
-j --. ju-uu ju^ ^if---- - --- - -- -I - - - a
~- - -- C~- lr-C~----------------- -
--- - a- n


l-- --r-r----- ---- - - -
~CI~- ~C----------I-
I m ..

mm~-N


- ---~----rr


and terminal construction work ----....
construction ork-------------------
construction wor --------- ----


auction and maintenance work_


Northern district --- ----
Army work-----------------


Termil
Supply
Panan
Miscel
Report
Operation
Mount


aal


construction


work ---.- ---- --


- a


r department work__
la Railroad work ---- -.------------
laneous _ _ _ _ _-- ----- --- --- ...
t of water-collection office, Colon--
of waiter-purification plants ----
Hope purification plant ------


Aeration


---I--- --


-f--- -- - - "-- -- - I- -- *- -- -* -*
- - - - -----.iBki^W iA h~^4ir- Mth �iM*M-*lHh4lll:~i*IW-4H -I~f


--- --1---- ----


Alum ........---------------- ------ . -- - --


basin --- ---------------


117
118
119
119
119
120
120
120


C(,M - 1 5 Lh :k r L. E' J 1'V u W







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Municipal division-Continued.
Operation of water-purification plants-Continued.


Page.


Agua Clara purification plant
Mixing chamber---
Sedimentation basin---
Rapid sand filters
Clear-witer basin.-
Chemical treatment---
Bacteriological data.--.-
Physical and chemical dat


OP 8 tP R .iv at
SUP 1. un dene
MiraHores uriHeaticul ant


JA.T* U MLtiJ 1t.1 IA LV. LL'JAJ


Aeration basin-.----
Sedimentation basins-
Rapid sand filters---
Clear-water basin.-
Sterilization chamber-
Bacteriological data--
Physical and chemical
Operative data-
Superintendence- -- -
Reservoirs---- -----
Plankton studies------


--- w ffw*IP f i ^tf m 4M- ^m-Wi ii- -M - - - - - - - - - - -HH N Mh4HMrMf tttf ttttf IW*i||:*f1MU 4H


- ----- - ---- - -- ---- - a
- - - - - - - - - -
----------------
- - -----------


i, a- - --


- ---- - - ----
- - - -
- - - - - - - -- -
- - - - - - - ---


1- - ---- -� -� -- -1 1-Ir-~


- - --CII--CI -I-- ~---�I
- - ------ --- -Il--C--

---- _- - - a ---, - -- - - - - -




I---l~l-�r-r-- -------
I-I------r- C-- - ----------------


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Tables accompanying physiologist's report, list
Section of meteorology and hydrography_-


of_----


M eteo rology ------ - - -------


Precipitation - ---------------------------------------
Temperature- -------------------------------- - - -
SWindr - ------------------- -------
Atmospheric pressure ----------------------
Relative humidity--------------------------


Evaporation-- --_��� - - _�____ ^ _ � � _- --

Sea temperature - ---- ---------------




Tables accompanying meteriological section, list of_-- -
HIydrographyti--------------- -------- -- ----


Currents in lower approach to Miraflores Locks-- -
Miscellaneous- - ---------------------


-- -II







VIII


TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.


Section of surveys-Continued.


Fuel-oil storage - ----- -- ------ -.-


Joint Land


Commission-------


Supply department past
General surveys------
Miscellaneous .------
Section of office engineer_


res. .... . . . .
_E _-^LJ J.- *llh--- *-a M|^---- ^ --- .^-- ^ K


Page


S
----------- - ---
- - ---- -- - -


APPENDIX B.


Report of the marine superintendent-


Organization


Tables--
Summary of traffic through The Panama Canal since its opening


to commercial


tr affic .---------------


Number of vessels of various nationalities passing through The


Panama Canal ---------- - - ------ - - - - - - - - -


Distribution


year


of traffic through


Panama


Canal


1916 ---------------------------------


Atlantic
Pacific


to


to Pacific- -- - - - -------------- -


to Atlantic ---------


Measurement of vessels


and application of tolls


in the fiscal
---- - - ---- - --
---- -- - - - ---


- -- -------- --
-- - -


Steamboat-inspection service ---.-----


APPENDIX


Report of the engineer of terminal construction_


Organization ---


office engineering.-


Coaling plants, dry dock,
Coaling plants--


Dock


No. 1


and floating cranes_---


223


Entrance Pier No. 9-
Radio stations----


- ----- -- -- -- -- - -
------- - - - - - ---- -- - --


Floating cranes- - - - - - -- --


Balbon


wharves


pier_--- --


Construction work, field engineering and inspection --------
Pacific terminals----- ----------------------------
General......-------------------------------------
Dry Dock No. 1 -_.-- --------------------------------------


Entrance
Entrance


basin___


Pier


No. 9_


r*~ -�


Design and


""lp$""" "FI"F:Ei"B"""";


:*: !M






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of terminal construct
Construction work, field engineering and
Pacific terminals-Continued.
Tables-
General summary of work_-
Excavation - - - - - -- - -
F ill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-------- --


on-Continued.
inspection-Continued.


Concrete placed
Reinforcing steel placed --------��--.--- - ...
Fixed steel placed--
Structural steel__---------
Misellaneous---------------------------
Piles driven_ - - - - -
Ca is son operations - - , - - -
Steam shovel excavation-
Summary of Sosa Hill operations
Atlantic terminals. - -- -- ----------------------------------------
Cristobal coaling plant ----- -_------
Tables-
Rein forcing iron_----
Piles driven_ .. ..........--
B ack fill - - - - - - - ---- -- - - - - - - - - - -


Progress of cylinders---- - -
Excavation....__. ....._. . ._-_--.
Summary of erection of wharf decking steel-
Tracks-------------� _�-�----
Fixed iron_
Concrete..------------
1E a s t b r e a k ~x- a t e r - _ - - - -------------------------------_ _ _- - ----- --------------- ---------------------
East brea kwater- .... _ ..-- - ----- -
Tables-
Trestle reconstruction- --
Trestle construction-------------
Dry fill in place-plowed off Lidgerwood cars.
Placing concrete blocks
Hydraulic filling -- --_-
Concrete-block production
Manufacture of concrete blocks at Gamboa__.
Tables-
Walker and Torbert contract-rate of manuf
concrete blocks and total to date- --
Rate of shipment -
Pier No. 7 and other work- - ----


Page.
242
242
244
246
248
2570
252
253
254
255
258
258
259
259

262


------------W


I________


acture






OF CONTENTS.


Report of the resident engineer, building division--Continued.
Building operations_ --.- - -- - ---- -- --- ---
Buildings authorized and constructed -------------
Canal and Panama Railroad buildings __- ----- --
Army buildings- -- - ---.-.-- . --- -- - - - --- -- - ---- --------
General building operations-- ..-..-.------------------ --
Comparative costs.....-.----------------------------


New Ancon HospitaL - --- ---
Group 4, section A ....
Colon Hospital -. . -- -- ----
Pacific terminal building
Bachelor quarters___-----
New An con Hospital -
Dispensary and admitting office- -.---
Laboratory building -- - -- ----
Ward group No. 5----------------


PagE,
281
281
282
283
284
286


- - - - - - - -------------------------------- - -
S- - --------------------------------------------------------
S- - ---------------------------------
- - - ---------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - - -
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Force-... ----..--


APPENDIX E.


Report of the resident engineer, dredging division-----------
Division organization --- - -- - - - - - - ---- ----------------
------Dredging - -- ------- - --------- --- ------ --.-------- -------------------- m.----- . - _
Tables-
Output of all dredges, with total and unit costs--- ----
All yardage actually handled, with total and units costs..


Yardage
Yardage
Locks
Yardage
Yardage
Number


removed, i
removed, f
to GamboE
removed,
remaining
of days d


first dis
irts dis
t Dike
second
to be r
redges


trict,
trict


Pedro Miguel Locks to sea_-
(Gaillard Cut), Pedro Miguel


district-- -.----
emoved from the canal prism --.-


were retired


repairs


newals -
Subaqueous rock excavation . ---------- - -------_
First district, Gamboa Dike to Panama Bay---------


Rock removed by dr
Second district
Dredging operations---
First district------
Yardage excavated
Lake and Gaillard
Distribution of matei
Dumps -
Second district


edges_ - ---


--- - -- - _ w _ _ - - *-- - - - I - - - --- - -- -k w-


from Pacific entrance, Mirafl
CutL --- - -- -____- - - ----
rial removed from Gaillard Cut


--ores
lores
-- - --
-- -----M-


--------------------------------- - - - - - - --.............. ^ _ ..... .. ^ . ^__.^ . ^_ ^^_ ...-...^ _.^^ ^^- .UU iU a-*--*iu- IIJ..J............
- - - - - - - - - - - --************** *************** *********- '^ *'^r-- rT^ ^^r -- - - - - - - -- - - - - - ---- -v^^*r*W� ff^TW^~p ^^^p^ ^^ |||^MIF-?


TABLE


" ;!"






OF COENENTS.


Report of the resident engineer, dredging division--Continued.
Water hyacinths -- -------- - - - - - - ---------------------------------------- -------
Surveys-1 .- -. - - -I - --a- - ---- -- - -- -.-- - - - ---- ------ --------
Office-----------------------------------------------------------
Tables-
Dry excavation-Panama Canal and auxiliaries
Dredge excavation-Panama Canal and auxiliaries -- -----


Page.
306
307
307

308
309


APPENDIX F.


Report of the superintendent,
Organization ------------.
Ge neral
Dry docks and shops-.
Miscellaneous --------
Tables accompanying repo


mechanical


rt, list


division


of- --_�-


APPENDIX G.


Report of the chief quartermaster,
Organization


supply


department


Personnel


Labor -.--------
Quarters ----
Zone sanitation --
Corrals ----------
Material and supp
Operation of store


-- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----
~~~-- ----------------------------------------------------------a


lies.
,s-


Scrap ....--------------
Sales --------- - -- --------
Fuel-oil plants and storage-
Gasoline storage
Subsistence rt---g---l
Mount Hope printing plantL


Operations of the
Tables-
Force actually,
Force report!
High and low
Occupants of
Applications


commissary


branch


y at work on June 21, 1916-.-------- ---
s by months, including contractors' force ...
r force records by fiscal years-
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad quarters___
for married quarters on file June 30, 1916..---


Animals in corrals
Value of material


I June 30, 1916- --- ---- ---
received during fiscal year on requisitions__-


TABLE







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief quartermaster, supply division-Continued.
Tables-Continued.
Fuel-oil storage facilities on the tank farms of Th
Canal o.i - by - ---- --.
Fuel oil handled by The Panama Canal_


Panama


- _ a C? -_ -_ -_ -


Page.

856


APPENDIX H.


Report of the Auditor------ -- - ----�-------


Organization ---
Paynsaster --
ColleAtor-1 -othe
Accounting to the
Claims for refund


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -
----- - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - -


Treasury
of tolls.-


Clainis for damages to vessels
Examination of pay rolls .
Canal appropriations----
Exchange of property with I
Construction of canal. ----
Manufacturing plants----
Operation and maintenance
Overhead expenses.
Canal Zone accounts-
Clubhouse accounts ---
Claims for injuries and death
Coupon books
Inspection of accounts .


Bonds
Time


of employees
inspection


S


for collections -. - -. . --- --


s passing through the locks-------



Panama Railroad -.-.........

-- - - --


S----


-- - - - - -
--- - --- ---


--- - - - - - - - -
-- - - --- - - --- -
-- - - - ----- - - -
-- - - - - - - . - -------------------------------------------------------------------


Storehouse


accounts.


Commissary- ----------------___-------__
Panama Railroadn r.--t l---- - ---- -- _- --
Tables accompanying report, list of ........_. ..


APPENDIX I.


Report of the executive secretary
Orga nization - --------
Executive office --� �
Bureau of clubs and playgroun
Division of civil affairs_.
Shipping commissioner__
Customs- .-----.------ -.


Licenses and taxes-


n


ds_--- - _._........
------------------------------+------- - im- - - - --� --* ^^- ^^4^^- *AIH MP 4W ^^^I^H ^HW4l||| u^i~i IIHH- IM fWll^ UN
--- - - --Wr V- 1 hf - - pmHffVm Wr ^R:--- *m-^^ :M:i^~ ^-K4H- tPf t--'^*^u i^;--1* W :-- --W*kh--i~^ ji^ �B tHf


* f l I nn l rflflflfl#U Ao<


!M'


N-


AC^M






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


XIII


Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Executive office-Continued.
The courts -------------..-- ---.- .-------- - - - ----__-_____
Special attorney and district attorney -- --..-----.-----
Relations with Panama .-- - ------ -- ---..
Legislation ----- - --.- - --. --------- --------.-- - --- --------- - ---- - - ,- --- ---- _---
Tables-
Vessels entered and cleared and seamen shipped and discharged
at Balboa and Cristobal .----.-----------�__ __-___
Number of estates received and settled and amount of funds han-
dled--------------------------------------------- --
Number of estates of deceased and insane employees, by nation-
alities, settled by administrator of estates- ----_-_ -


Page.
490
491
491
493


494

4094

495


-


-


Number of free entry requests on freight shipments approved, to-
gether with commodities imported
Postal service-


Number
ernme
Number
tered
Letters
Number
chang
Number
railwm
Amount


of mail parcels on which duty has been paid(
snt of Panama, and amount of duty, by offices
of insured and C. O. D. parcel-post parcels an
articles delivered, by offices
and parcels registered, by offices ----_-
and destination of dispatches of mail by
e office at Cristobal


of pouches, sacks,


I


to Gov-

d regis-


the


and registered sacks handled


y-mail messengers'^--- ---- -
of money orders, by offices, payable to the remitter


and drawn on the issuing office remaining unpaid
30, 1916-- -
Deposit money-order and postal-savings transactions_
Business of Canal Zone postal system-------
Postal receipts and expenses
Total cash transactions of Canal Zone postal system
Free entry requests on freight shipments
Police and prisons-
Police force as of June 30, 1916
Distribution of police force by stations and substation
Strength of police force by months__
Changes in police personnel
Fines imposed on police officers for violations of poli0
and regulations- - - ----- ---


3n June


n


ce rules


Number of arrests, by fiscal years, made in
organization__-_______
Number of arrests, by months, during fiscal


Canal Zone since


year.__






OF CONTENTS.


Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Tables-Continued.
Police and prisons--Continued.
Value of labor performed by Zone prisoners confined in the
common jail. . _-- -,-.-..a....a............ -_ .., ___
Animals impounded and fees collected.. _-_-..._.. _.
Convicts discharged from penitentiary during fiscal year.,.
Crimes committed by convicts confined in penitentiary_____
Nationality of convicts confined in penitentiary . ...____
Convicts received at penitentiary during fiscal year ... -
Sentences of convicts confined in penitentiary on June 30,
1916 ..... __ ___ ..... .... .... ....
Convicts and Zone prisoners deported during fiscal year... _
Cost of subsisting, guarding, and clothing convicts confined
in the penitentiary.--___________-....- -. .-a...._-....
Value of the labor performed by convicts employed on public
improvements and value of labor of convicts assigned to
inside labor at the penitentiary
Deaths, by months, investigated by coroner during fiscal
year . .. . -. . . -- _ .. _-
Causes of deaths investigated by coroner .......
Nationality of persons whose deaths were investigated by
coroner .-. ___-_ __
Fire section-
Fire personnel - - - . _ -._._ _______ _ __
Distribution of fire personnel, by stations..........
Enlistments and separations, fire force, during fiscal year___


Statement of damage
Property involved in
By whom fires were
Classification of fires
Classification of fires
Classification of cause
Manner in which fires
Distribution of alarr
Statement of fires am
Distribution of fire
Inspection of fire hos
Volunteer companies.
Volunteer companies-


resulting from fire during fiscal year__
fires during fiscal year---__ __-_
extinguished -.-... ... .. ..-..... �


according to ownership of property
by buildings -,_ ---__ .__..______
ses of fires ,- -__ -.. ___._ -__
were extinguishedL...------- _
as by towns -,_________ --.. - _--


d losses of property..-........ _
quipment..... ....- .- - --
e and extinguishers, etc., by months-_.

-summary of drills and passes issuedL


Canal Zone census-summary of house-to-house canvass taken
between June 1 and 10, 1916--...._..............-_ .._.. ___
Schools-
A .. t , S I V*-k* - . - -..


TABLE


Page.






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Tables--Continued.
Schools---Continued.
Report of annual physical examine
children during October, 1915.
Money received during year on ac
etc., and tuition, and turned in
lector .-----------------------
Supervisory visits by superintende
Epitome of more important school
June 30, 1913, to 1916, inclusive.


Page.


nation of white grade-school

count of sale of text-books,
to the Panama Canal col-

nt, by months --.-__._--_
statistics for years ended
- - - - -- ------------------------


APPENDIX J.


Report of the district attorney -.. --------- -
Cri in, al prosecutions_-- - _-------------- ------ -------- --------------
Summary of criminal prosecutions for the fiscal years 1915 and 1916_

APPENDIX K.


Report of the special attorney --.-.-.-- -- --
Statement of Panama Railroad leases and licenses


1916 .....-..-----.---
Panama Railroad cases settled during fiscal year __r..
Cristobal division, district court of the Canal Zone_
Balboa division, district court of the Canal Zone--
Panama Railroad cases pending at close of fiscal year
Cristobal division, district court of the Canal Zone_
Balboa division, district court of the Canal Zone--


in effect July 1,


------------------------------------------------------- -
----------------------------------


APPENDIX L.


lReport of the chief health officer ....
General remarks-_---.....................


Vital statistics - - -
Employees. __--------------__ ----- _-___ _ __-_ __
Effects of season_ ......___--�.--_.-_-�-.--
Effects of race ........
DeportatRio ns -
Canal Zone_-_-_------------ -- ------------------ -
Panamal City- -- ----- ------ ------------- -- - -- ----------- - - ---

I l A iv i i of h sp:tals -- - - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aivision of hospitals. .................................
Ancon H-jospitalt___ --_-____-__-_-____


Patients- ........
Permanent buildings







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief health officer--Continued.
Vital statistics-Continued.
Division of hospitals-Continued.
Santo Tomas Hospital . --.
District dispensaries ----.---
Medical storehouse .--- ----.


Sanitation -..
Canal Zone
Panama -
Diseases
General


-----------------------
- --------- - --- - - a- a


------ - ------------------ ------------------ --------
-___--- ---------------------- ------------------- -------------a--
- ~-----------~- -------- - - - - - - - - - ---- - -------------------------


sanitation


-- - - - - - --- -- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -
-~~~ - - - -------------------- -- - --- ---


Mosquito work --- - --- -------------
Rat destruction --------------
Fly prevention -------
Stables - ----- --- - -- ------ ------------ --------.
Building inspection, construction, and repair.
Sidewalks - - ------- - --- - .. -


Food


-------------
-----------------------------' ------

---------------------------
-- --- - -


inspection


Street cleaning and sprinkling.
Garbage collection and disposal
Colon -----------------
General sanitation -----.----
Mosquito, rat, and fly work_-
Food inspection --------
School inspection a---.--
Street cleaning -------------
Garbage removal- .-..----
Build*ings -a----------- ---
Notifiable diseases--
General - - ---------------- --------- - -----
Quarantine division -...--.----.
Tables accompanying report, list of .


S---- - - ---C--- - - --- --- - - - - -


----,,,,* --------
- a - a - a--r------------r--------------------- - - -
- ---------------------------- ---C--------------------------- -
- I -- - ----- -------------- -C------------------------
-a------------------------------------------------- - a -f*^W tem ^^ *--�'M-Wf' 111111^^Bf 411HR^^* ^^ ^^^ Ulll 1^^


-�-~-----C--- ------- - ---- - -* -- - -
-~-7-------- a -------------

---I-- I---I--------- - - - - l--
S- - - r - - ---- a a - - ---- a -------


-- -- --f - -------- ------^-- - -
- -- ---- ---- ---- --- --


Page.
548
549
549
549


551
551
552
552
553
553
553
553


554
554
554



555
555
555
556


557
557

557


APPENDIX M.


Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the


Washington office_.


APPENDIX N.


Preliminary report of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences


upon the possibility of controlling the landslides
Panama Canal ------------ -------------------........... --
In~trodluction .........................------

The three great sli es.. ........ ...............
Dominant importance of the three great slides


adjacent to The


-I---- -------- --
af--L-:-- ak a a a - a a a--
:-- : ---:-: ----- -


587
587


s


p


I * _ ~_ ^1 I _ _1 1 * ~






TABLES


OF CONTENTS.


XVII


Preliminary report of committee of National Academy, etc.-Cont'd.
IRemiedial measures -. ..---.------------------.- -------__--_
Control of the water . -. . . .. .^.....-_
Relief of pressure , -. .------------------ -------..--.--- ..
Studies for the future-- ------------- -..... .-....
Detection of movements of earth or rock ..............._
Core borings - - - - .---.. . ...------------ - --.-------..---.... ... ..----
Underground water and related data-__--- __
Mechanical testing of the rocks--.------
EIarthquake studies/7 -- - - -� - _ __


General


Page.


conclusions.--


APPENDIX


Report of the geologist_ -_ _�-�_ -..._--_
Introduction -
Return to the Canal Zone in December, 1915
Through the mails many slide cures were recommended__
Experiments to determine the water content of the sliding formation
and the possibility of draining it
Results of the experiments


Minor remedies -_ --- --- ,
Future of the slides ---- ------
Table--Yardage of excavation in slides of


Gaillard


Cut


APPENDIX


Tables showing
Department
Supply depa
Health depa
Executive d
Washington


increases in salaries and personnel
of operation and maintenance
irtment -
Lrtment
department
office -. - - -- ------------------.----------------- --- --- -- -------- -------------


APPENDIX


Acts of Congress affecting The Panama Canal and
relating to the Canal Zone, index ----- ....-


Executive


orders


APPENDIX R.


Charts (in portfolio) showing organization of The Panama Canal and the
Panama Railroad Co., July 1, 1916, index - - - - - - - - ---
nrnno/c\ -4 0- ra





















a
igh















LIST


OF


ILLUSTRATION


APPENDIX


[Report of engineer of maintenance.]


Plate.


1. Miraflores Locks.
2. Miraflores Locks.
3. Miraflores Locks.
4. Miraflores Locks.
5. Miraflores Locks.
6. Miraflores Locks.
7. Miraflores Locks.
8. Miraflores Locks.


Lower butt strap gate,


No. 119.


Blistering of paint and rust spots on gate No. 119.


Cleaning gates Nos.


114 and 115.


Gate No. 116.
Marine growth on gate No. 119.
Top seal casting upper rising stem valve.
Upper rising stem gate valve.


Rising


stemn


valve,


removable


strip.


Gatun Locks.


One and one-half inch steel nuts from cylindrical valve.


10. Electrplytic action on impeller and lower casing head of one of the twenty-


inch floating caisson


pumps.


Electrolytic action on impeller and lower casing head of one of the twenty-


inch floating


caisson


pumps.


12. Finished asphalt street.
13. Roadbed as prepared before applying asphalt.
14. Shaping of roadbed before final rolling for asphalt covering.


15. Roadbed before squeegee coat


:s applied.


in portfolio.


62. Monthly


comparisons


between


rainfall


Gatun


Lake


level


, lockages,


useful


and wasted water.


63. Comparison between the total available water and


that actually


used


each


month.
64. Comparison between commercial and noncommercial vessels and lockages.
65. Comparison between gold and silver force, Division of Locks.


66. Chain fender tests
67. Chain fender tests


(Drawing 5023-9).
(Drawing 5023-10).


68. Transmission


system.


Load


curves


for period


June


, 28. 29,


and 30, 1916.


machinery-steel


Following plates, 62 to





LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Plate.


74. Miraflores Locks.


Current velocity-direction data, along lower guide wall,


west side.


75. Chagres River drainage basin.


Alhajuela average monthly discharges.


76. Gatun Lake


watershed.


Total


yield for


Gatun


Lake,


year


1915,


season 1916.


. Gatun Lake and Chagres


River


hydrographs.


Typical


freshets,


November


15-17,


1915.


78. Gatun Lake water supply


Operating uses, year


1915 and dry season 1916.


79. Chagres


River


drainage


basin.


Alhajuela


discharge


mass


curves.


Gatun Lake watershed.


Yields, storage, and losses mass curves.


Year 1915


and dry


season


1916.


81. Chagres


River


drainage


basin.


Curves


of discharge


duration.


Fourteen-


year period 1902-1915,
82. Gatun Lake watershed.


inclusive.
Total yield massed, maximum, average, and mini-


mum years,


period 1911-191


inclusive.


APPENDIX


['Report of engineer of terminal construction.]


Plate.


16. Gamboa concrete block manufacturing plant.


Looking north, showing 40-ton


crane


handling


blocks,


the large


hook


same.


General


view


storage pile and trestle with tracks supporting mixing plant.


Gamboa


concrete


block


manufacturing


plant.


Looking


engine used for moving the plant and supplying steam


south,


to its units


showing


the elevation of cement from the car to the operating platform.


18. East breakwater, Limon Bay.


Plowing 25-ton concrete blocks from cars to


form


breakwater.


March 13,


1916.


19. Pier


No. 7.
1915.


Rear view


concrete-mixing plant for caissons.


September


Cristobal


coaling station.


Looking southwest


on unloader wharf,


showing


collier


Ulysses


at wharf for tests.


February


1916.


21. Cristobal coaling station.


Lookin


south from end wharf viaduct.


Collier


Ulysses


at dock.


February


1916.


22. East breakwater.
23. Balboa terminals.
24. Pacific terminals.


Atlantic terminals.


Coaling plant from the harbor
General view of Dry Dock No.


machine shops and entrance basin.


July


* (copy of drawing).
1 from Sosa Hill, showing


1916.


25. Pacific terminals.
26. Balboa terminals.
27. Balboa terminals.
28. Pacific terminals.


Coalin


g plant and entrance basin to dry dock.


Coaling station from Sosa Hil


Interior of Pier No. 18.


Pier


No. 18,


April


April


1916.


20, 1916.


Pacific terminal office building and portion


of inner harbor.


29. Balboa


terminals.


Protection


dike


for Dry


Dock No.


after


blast.


Low


j






LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Plate.


Balboa


terminals.


Dock


before


flo, od ing.


Looking


ea st.


April


1916.


35. Pacific


Zone.


terminals.
June 27,


dredge


Corocza


entern


(lock


, Balboa,


Canal


1916.


Following plates, 83 to 93,


in portfolio.


83. Pacific terminals.


Dock No. 1.


Assembly


details


of cast-iron


blocks.


84. Pacific


terminals.


Dock


No. 1.


General


nayout


details


of bilge


block slides,


wall bracket, and nosing.


85. Pacific terminals.
86. Pacific terminals.


Dock No. 1.
Dock No. J


Details of blocking


General


ayout


system.


details


of block-


ing system.


Pacific


terminals.


Dock


No. 1.


Snubbing


post


bollards


for dry


dock


entrance pier.


Pier
Pier


General plan, elevations


No. 7.


sections.


Concrete mixing plant for cylinders.


Cristobal


terminal


piers.


General


plan.


91. Concrete block plant.
92. Concrete block plant.
foot concrete blocks.


Walker and Torbert contract.
Walker and Torbert contract.


General


plan.


Wooden forms


for 7-


93. Concrete block


plant.


Walker and


Torbert contract.


Tackle


for handling


25-ton


concrete blocks.


APPENDIX D.

[Report of resident engineer, building division.]


36. Balboa


Heights, from Ancon


Hill.


. Balboa and


the Pacific terminals.


38. New dry dock,


Balboa.


Air compressor and


pump building.


39. Fort Grant.


Coast Artillery post.


40. Pacific terminal building, Balboa,


Canal


Zone.


New steam laundry, Ancon,


Canal Zone.


42. New


concrete quarters for bachelors,


Ancon


Canal Zone.


43. Balboa Prado from


Sos'a


Hill.


APPENDIX E.


[Report of resident engineer,


dredging division.]


44. Ga


illard


Looking south


from


west


bank.


Dredges


widening


channel


tn NW) fofo


Tnhlr


14 1Q01





XXII


LIST


OF ILLTUSTBATIONS.


Plate.


48. Gaillard Cut,


Cluebra.


Looking


south from west bank.


Channel completely


blocked 1
material.


slides


from


November


east and


west


banks.


Dredges


excavating slide


1915.


49. Gaillard


Cut.


Looking


north


from


Gold


Hill,


showing


feet wide.


July


1916.


50. Gaillard


Cut.


Culebra


slide


of September


18-19.


Looking


north


from


Contractors


Hill.


French


dredge


No. 5 and


Marmot


making


opening


(first)


cut through slide.


September 21, 1915.


Gaillard


Cut.


Looking north


from


Contractors


Hill,


showing progress


widening channel through the Culebra slides.


52. Gaillard Cut.


Culebra slide,


west.


Dredges removing the slide from canal


prism.


Looking


south from Culebra.


August


1915.


53. Gaillard Cut.


Looking north from west bank.


July


14, 1916.


54. Gaillard


Cut,


Culebra.


Looking


north


from


Contractors


Hill.


Dredges


removing slide material


from canal prism


channel practically


closed


meeting
Gaillard (
tractors


of slides from the banks.


Slides


Hill,


showing


in west


dredges


October 21, 1915.


banks.


widening


Looking


channel


from


north- from


300 to


Con-


500 feet


3,000 yard barge being loaded from suction dredge.


July 3,


1916.


56. Gaillard Cut,


Culebra.


Looking north from Contractors Hill, showing bar-


rier across canal formed by slides from east and west banks.


November


18, 1915.


Gaillard


Cut,


Culebra.


North


side of


slide


barrier


across canal,


showing


15-yard dipper at work.


November


16, 1915.


South shore of Limon


Bay.


Looking west from


canal


, showing dikes


groins.


June,


1916.


Following plates, 94 to 97


Topography of east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.


December


1915.


95. Topography of east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.
96. Topography of east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.


July


1915.


June 15, 1916.


Scour survey


of south shore of Limon Bay,


showing bank erosion,


1905 to


July,


1916, and effect of rock dikes and wooden groins.


APPENDIX


[Report of executive secretary.]


58-A.
58-B.


Canal Zone grammnuar


school field and athletic


meet, Balboa.


Canal Zone grammar school field and athletic meet, Balboa.


May 27, 1916.
May 27, 1916.


APPENDIX


[Report of chief health officer.]


in portfolio.






LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


XXIII


Plate.


Electrical


division.


Division of municipal


engineering.


Marine division.


Division


of terminal


construction.


Building division.
Dredging division.


Mechanical


Supply


108. Accountin


division.


apartment.
g department.


Executive department.
Health department.
Washington office.
Fortifications.


Panama Railroad





















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:<


w













ANNUAL


REPORT


OF THE
GOVERNOR
OF


THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


THE PANAMA


CANAL,


OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, September 11, 1916.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the annual report covering the


construction, operation,


maintenance, sanitation, and protection of


The Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916.
CONSTRUCTION.


The department of operation and maintenance,


under which all


construction work was done, continued in charge of the Governor,


who was assisted in


the administration of the department by the


engineer of maintenance, Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, United States


Army,


and


by the


marine


superintendent,


Capt.


Hugh


Rodman,


United States Navy, until October 1, 1915,


when he was succeeded


by Commander H. I. Cone, United States Navy.


m"* * * 1 � 1 1


1 * Wi


hae principal construction work carriea on during tme year was
done in connection with the terminals, and the erection of buildings for


various


purposes; the electrical, municipal, and


dredging


divisions


did a large amount of construction in connection with both the ter-
minals and the new buildings.
DIVISION OF TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION.
The division of terminal construction, under Rear Admiral H. H.


Rousseau,


United States Navy,


was charged


with


the design


and


construction of dry docks, shops, coal and fuel oil plants, floating
1� I 1 -1 * - - . , a ** ** .7 *. A� -1





THE PANAMA CANAL,


Dry docks.-The construction of the dry docks was undertaken,
with the authority of Congress, when it became apparent that, because
of the lower unit costs secured during the construction of the canal
than were used in the preparation of the estimates, there would be


sufficient money for the purpose.


Following the views advanced by


the Navy Department, two dry docks were contemplated, located on
the Pacific side-Dry Dock No. 1 was designed and built of sufficient
size to admit any vessel that can use the locks (the dimensions are
given in detail in the annual report for 1915)--and Dry Dock No. 2,


350 feet long and 59 feet wide, for smaller craft.


As the construc-


tion was authorized in view of the possible savings, when it became
evident that both dry docks could not be built and the canal com-
pleted construction on No. 2 was stopped, but it was left in such


shape


that it can


readily


completed


at any time should it be


deemed necessary.
Early in the fiscal year the excavation and cleaning of the rock in


preparing foundations for Dry Dock No. 1 were completed.


Most of


the mass concrete had been placed by the end of the last fiscal year;


that remaining to


be done was at the entrance on either side, the


pump well, and the opening in the wall which was left to accommo-


date the mixing plant.


The reinforced concrete still to be placed


was


for the


several machine


rooms,


copings,


drains, gutters,


numerous small lots around the metal parts and the


The permanent mixing plant used in


coping lever.


the construction of the dry


dock remained in service until the latter part of August, 1915, when
it was removed and the mixers mounted on cars fitted with towers


and chutes for delivering the concrete into forms.


The trestle lead-


ing into the dry dock was dismantled in December, 1915.


The floor


was finished in January, 1916, with the exception of the traverse slots


for the keel and bilge blocks,


which were subsequently cut in the


concrete.
and 17,757


There were placed 12,897


cubic yards of mass concrete


cubic yards of reinforced concrete, in which 1,043,366


pounds of reinforcing steel and 1,122,236 pounds of fixed steel were


embedded.


The average cost of the mass concrete was $5.5882 per


cubic yard and of the reinforced concrete $7.7338 per cubic yard.
The low cost compared with concrete placed in the locks is due to the
use of sand and gravel secured from the Chagres River, not accessible





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


The miter gates to the dry dock are of the same design as those


used in the locks


and the


various members and plating were fur-


nished


by the same contractors,


McClintic-Marshall


Construc-


tion Co.


The erection and riveting were done by hired labor.


The


south leaf was erected, riveted, and placed on its pintle by Novem-


ber 27


, 1915, and the north leaf by December 14, 1915.


The cost of


erecting the gate leaves, exclusive of the greenheart, was $98.9205 per


ton.


The miter posts and the quoin posts are of greenheart timber


obtained from British Guiana.


The gates will finally receive a coat


of bitumastic solution and one of enamel.
The machinery for the pumping plant for unwatering the dock was


furnished by


Henry


. Worthington under contract.


It was com-


pleted by the close of the fiscal year and tested out subsequent thereto;
the results were very satisfactory as its efficiency was in excess of


that specified by the contract.


The cost, including the bonus earned


for increased efficiency


amounted


to $151,476.


The


flooding and


sluicing valves are complete, and the dry dock is in condition for use.


Entrance


basin.-No


excavation


was


necessary


entrance


basin during the year, except some hand work in connection


with


placing a concrete apron in front of the entrance of Dry Dock No. 1,
and leveling the bottom of this basin so that it would all be below


elevation minus 45.
at a cost of $1.3009.


The amount excavated was 1,300 cubic yards,
All tracks and other material were removed


prior to April 1.
Cofferdam.-The cofferdam, which kept out the water from the area
occupied by the dry dock, unloader wharf, entrance pier, and basin,


during construction, was drilled for blasting during February


and April.


, March,


Sufficient drilling was done by April 1 to permit an open-


ing to be blasted through the cofferdam approximately 180 feet wide.


In blasting, care was exercised so as to protect


from injury.


the completed work


No dredges were available until toward the close of the


fiscal year, wheh an opening was made sufficiently large for the dock-


ing of the Corozal, one of the units of the dredging fleet,
1916.


on June 27


Entrance Pier


9.-The gravity wall,


which


was designed


form the south wall of proposed Dry Dock No. 2,


fiscal year.


was completed last


Of the linOrth authorized themr vet, remnined th hean.-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


Balboa coaling plant.-This plant, a description of which is given
in previous reports, occupies an area of 9.4 acres, of which 350 by 300
feet is constructed for the subaqueous storage of coal, with a bottom
elevation of 18 feet below mean sea level; the balance of the inclosed
space has an elevation of 10 feet above mean sea level, and is available


for leasing to private interests.


The work performed during the year


on the coaling plant consisted of a continuation of the construction of


the coal


pockets


and


wharves,


and


erection of


coal-handling


machinery under contract.


The Panama Railroad tracks were removed


from the site of the east coal pocket, the excavation in the pocket com-


pleted, the floor leveled and riprap retaining walls built in.


There


were excavated 1,760 cubic yards of rock, at $0.3936 per cubic yard,
and 1,636 cubic yards of concrete laid, at a cost of $10.1749 per cubic


yard.
were


Prior to flooding the subaqueous storage pocket, cross-sections


taken from


which


the capacity of the pocket could later be


computed.
Unloader wharf, Dock


7.-At the close of the previous fiscal


year,


the unloader wharf was completed up


to the point where it


intersects the cofferdam, or about four-fifths of its length.


The wharf


is constructed on piers resting on solid rock with decking of steel
incased in concrete. To carry the wharf construction through the


cofferdam


without admitting water, interlocking sheet steel piling


was driven and the area occupied by each pier thereby inclosed. To
get the piers to proper grade, it was necessary in some cases to resort
to caissons. All foundations were completed in March and the floor
system in April. There were placed during the year 4,835 cubic yards
of mass and 2,483 cubic yards of reinforced concrete, at a cost of
$5.2984 and $8.3116 per cubic yard, respectively.


Reloader wharf, Dock


No. 6.-At the close of the last fiscal year


most of the cylindrical piers were finished; those remaining were near


junction


of the unloader and reloader wharves, and the 8-foot


diameter


piers


under


wharf


bunker.


Two


difficulties


were


encountered


working


8-foot


cylinders:


When


reached stiff clay the frictional resistance became so great as to pre-


vent further driving of


the shell,


and


at about 50 feet


below


ground level the pressure on the shell was great enough in several


cases


crush


the caisson.


To overcome


c ifi ul tri es


a short


;i"B;;


I,





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


of the dock this anchorage is a continuous concrete wall 6 feet wide


by 9 feet high, supported on two rows of wood piling.


To minimize


the thrust still further, the back fill is sloped 1i feet horizontally to
1 foot vertically from a line 25 feet back of the wharf, the slope being


riprapped down to low water.


There were driven during the year


1,693 linear feet of 6-foot and 184 linear feet of 8-foot caissons and


61 linear feet of 4-foot caissons.


Concrete filler in the substructure


consists of 6,182 cubic yards, and in the superstructure of 4,757 cubic
yards, all of which was reinforced, and was placed at an average cost
per cubic yard of $7.4154 and $9.1686, respectively.
Coalwhandling plant.-The unloader towers, as a part of the coal-


handling plant, were completed in their essential parts.


The reloader


towers, and the conveyor system, were completed but the machinery


was not all installed.


The rehandling plant consists of


berm


cranes used for laying concrete during the construction of the Pacific


locks.


They have been reerected and are ready for operation.


Repair wharves and commercial pier.-The two remaining caissons


of Dock No. 13, quay walls C-D-E,
poured early in the year. Later an


were finished and the floor slab
extension was authorized neces-


sitting the placing of 21 more 6-foot caissons, and also caisson sup-
ports for the crane tracks from the dry dock to Dock No. 13, requiring


seven 6-foot and five 4-foot caissons.
finished by the end of December, 1915
delayed the completion of the wharf.


All of these foundations were
. Delay in receipt of steel has
The average cost of excavation


in caissons was $2.6519 per cubic yard, and the average cost of con-
crete filler, including reinforcement, was $6.1334 per cubic yard.


Fill was placed behind Dock No. 14,


quay wall E-F, consisting of


Sosa Hill rock plowed off Lidgerwood cars from a track near its rear


face.


The anchorages were all put in place, the ground leveled


piping installed, and the permanent tracks brought to their final level.
Pier No. 18 is for commercial use; it is the first of a series shown


on Plate No. 93, accompanying the annual report for


1915


for the


development of Balboa Harbor, should additional facilities be required


on the Pacific side.


The back fill in the central portion, between the


inner rows of cylinders, resting on the soft underlying mud


slight spread at different points along the pier.


caused a


This was overcome


by taking out the ton of tfhe fill an nlno aCin n two additional 2-inch




IL"
4 . . ' ' T .


THE


PANAMA


CAaI


cubic


yard.


The


roof


similar


that


placed


on the


shops'


buildings.


Sliding doors furnished


J. Edward


Ogden


complete the inclosure of the pier.


dredging,


The cost of the pier, exclusive of


was $1,028,399.34.


Reinforced concrete pontoons.-It was decided to construct the four


reinforced


concrete


pontoons


or barges


used


as small-boat


landings in slips Nos. 17


and 19, Balboa, on the floor of the dry dock,


this being the most convenient location for the purpose.


The dimen-


sions of the


pontoons are


120 feet 6 inches long by 28 feet 2 inches


wide


by 7


feet 10 inches deep, and


they were designed to float with


a 3-foot freeboard.


The entire bottom, sides, interior bulkheads, and


frames up to a height of 6 feet,


or 2 feet from


the top,


were cast in


one continuous
cost $44,111.76.
proofed by the


pour.


The


pontoons complete,


with all accessories,


After the forms were stripped the sides were water-
" Sylvester process."


Cristobal coaling plant.-The Cristobal coaling plant is constructed


at the north end of


the island formed by the French Canal and The


Panama Canal as now constructed.


It occupies an area of 19 acres.


Of this an area 307 feet by 500 feet is for the subaqueous storage of


coal, the


bottom of


this


area


being at 28 feet


below mean sea level.


The


rest


area


had


been filled in


2 feet above mean sea level with material


and leveled


excavated


)ff at elevation
by the dredges


along


sides


wharves


constructed


as part of


the coaling


station.


This area is provided


for leasing to private coal dealers, as


policy adopted does not contemplate the United


States creating


a monopoly


on coal


vessels


utilizing


canal--merely


as a


regulator of prices.


The


wharves


on three sides


area


reserved for subaqueous


storage are constructed


by 6-foot diameter steel


cylinders driven


hard rock, excavated and filled with concrete reinforced with vertical


steel rails.


The caissons for the end wharf were completed in Decem-


ber,


1915,


thereby finishing


the substructure.


Much


difficulty was


experienced with two of the caissons under the wharf bunker,
collapsed in August, due to heavy pressure on the north side.


which
After


unsuccessful
their places,


attempts


had


been


made


drive


8-foot


cylinders


the design was changed by substituting 6-foot cylinders


driven one on each side of the two 8-foot cylinders, and connecting





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


station.


A system of floating fenders was installed to breast vessels


about 5 feet away from the concrete docks.
along each side of the plant across the end


An oil pipe was laid


wharf


and across the


French Canal connecting with the oil supply at Mount Hope.


This


oil line was provided with suitable outlets, so that fuel oil can be sup-


plied to vessels lying alongside.
supplying water to vessels. For 1
tie encasement of floor girders ]


Similar arrangements were made for
the reinforced concrete floor slab and
17,211 cubic yards of concrete were


laid, at a cost of $4.6351 per cubic yard.
During the year the dredging division completed the excavation to


minus 41,


entrance


a slip 250 feet wide along the


unloader wharf,


basin and berthing space along the wharf,


mately 80 per


cent


the slip 300


feet


wide


along


and approxi-
the reloader


wharf.


Under the wharves coral rock and sand were pumped so as


to form a retaining wall between the cylinders to


2 feet above mean


sea level, to afford a


protection


tlhe coal in subaqueous storage


against wave action.
The plant to operate in connection with this coaling station con-
sists of four unloading towers, two stocking and reclaiming bridges,
steel viaduct and reloader towers, together with a conveyor system


for the wharf bunker.


The coal-handling machinery and accessories


are being supplied under contracts with Augustus Smith and the Hunt
Construction Co., the latter company furnishing the unloading towers.
Arrangements were made looking to the completion of the unloading
towers ready for operation by September 1, 1915, and the desirability
of using -these for handling coal to ships before the rest of the plant
was completed resulted in a modification of the contract providing
for the addition of two loading-out chutes to each unloader tower, at


an aggregate cost of $5,140.


The expectation as to the completion


of the unloading part of the plant was not realized


completed until February, 1916.
were commenced February 28, 191(


for it was not


The tests of the unloader towers
i. Owing to the fact that a num-


ber of adjustments and modifications were considered necessary to
correct defects and deficiencies in order to secure compliance with the


specifications, the towers were not accepted
accepted by The Panama Canal. The bala
tically completed but not accented.


, nor have they yet been
nce of the plant is prac-





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


which


will assist in


breaking up


waves.


outer


end is


bent


back, forming an ell 235 feet long.
The rock used in its construction was taken from Sosa Hill, on the
Pacific side, from which was also procured such armor rock as could


economically


quarried


rest of


armor


being supplied


concrete


rock,


blocks manufactured especially for the purpose.


dumped from either side of


a double


trestle


left a


The core
depression


between the two mounds thus formed which was filled by coral rotk


and


sand,


placed


a suction


dredge


operating


vicinity


Coco Solo.


Prior to


the beginning of the year the trestle used in constructing


breakwater


had


been


washed


away,


as noted


previous


annual report,
was continued
was recovered


by two northers, and the salvaging of trestle material


until


and


October


used again.


1915.
Work


A large amount of material
on the new trestle was corn-


pleted


on October 7


. A single track trestle, 444 feet long, was


built


for the ell


, and 1,644 linear feet of double track were driven, equal to


a total


of 1,866 linear feet of


double-track trestle


which


101,530


linear feet of piling were used.


Quarry


trestle


possible,
503,659
$0.5803


62,389
water.


operations


warranted,


and


quarry was


cubic


cubic


yards


cubic
yards


securing


were


begun


in order to


operated


as soon
procure
on two


as the


as much


levels.


rock were excavated,


yard


, of


which


359.472


condition


armor rock as


During the


year


an average cost of


cubic


armor rock were shipped


this


rock


7.433


cubic


yards


yards


core


the east


were


and


break-


removed


stripping.
The amount of wet fill handled by the dredging division and placed


body


breakwater


aggregated


326,213


cubic


yards,


which 155,036 cubic yards were placed during the year.


134,502 cubic yards were pumped along the
the shore to give it lateral stiffness. As it w


the base of the breakwater sufficiently broad by


the trestle


In addition,


trestle connecting with
ras not possible to make


dumping rock from


, when the core-rock fill was completed the toe of the slope


on the harbor side was extended by dumping hard dredged material


from scows and


by pumping


coral rock and sand from a


borrow pit


near the shore at Coco Solo.


The scow material was obtained from


1 _ _~ _ I _ _1 L _ _





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


nation of the relative costs led to the conclusion that it would be


cheaper to substitute for this rock concrete blocks.


A contract was


entered into for the manufacture of 10,000 of such blocks, measuring
7 feet on the side, containing 12.3 cubic yards, and weighing about


50,000 pounds, at a cost of $0.385 per cubic yard.


Under this con-


tract there were delivered and placed in the east breakwater 6,182
blocks, and 590 blocks were used in repairing the west breakwater,


which was damaged by the norther during the previous year.


The


material used was


run-of-bank Chagres gravel,


with cement in the


proportion of about 6 to 1.


to 4} to


This mixture was subsequently changed


Progress under the contract for blocks was not satis-


factory, and in order to


increase the supply of blocks over those


secured under contract the manufacture of blocks by hired labor was
undertaken at Coco Solo and at the coaling station by the terminal


division.


The blocks manufactured at the coaling station for the


breakwater were 5 feet 3 inches on the cube, containing 5.3 cubic


yards.


The mixture was run-of-bank gravel and


cement,


4� to


Those manufactured at Coco Solo measured 6 feet 3 inches on the


side, containing 9 cubic yards each of the same mixture.
number of blocks manufactured at Coco Solo was 3,644,


The total
at a cost of


$3.6810 per cubic yard, and at the coaling station 4,121, at a cost of
$3.9934 per cubic yard.
The terminal division had supervision over the construction of Pier


No. 7 for the Panama Railroad Company.


tion of the shed,


The dock, with the excep-


was practically complete at the close of the year;


total


amount


expended


was


$1,366,815.02; there


remains,


complete the pier for operation,


the erection of the shed,


which is


now in progress.
For further details concerning the work of terminal construction
attention is invited to Appendix C.

BUILDING DIVISION.


The building division continued in charge of Mr. George M.


Wells,


resident engineer, and was subdivided for administrative purposes


into five districts, as outlined in the previous annual report,


until


September 1, when, due to the advanced stage of the work, the Fort
A/�, ,v,,,, " j^-k f f^ * *4*j J f--^ � j ^ ^ �- ^I-^1 - ^ L, ^-1 .___ _| -f -. L 1-- L1 ,4h^. i 1�- &-&* " A ^I- --�r^Ev^






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


the annual report for


fully


justified


1915,


change


was continued, and the results obtained


from


previous


method


swinging


different gangs from building to building.


With a foreman in charge


of each building, responsibility is fixed and a healthy rivalry created
with resulting economy of construction.
In 1908, after the building division as it then existed was disbanded,
a number of the foremen remained on the Isthmus and were without


work.


They were


willing


furnish


labor


and


erect


buildings


contract, and it was found that frame buildings could be constructed


more cheaply by this method than by hired labor.


As the building


program for the year was


a large one,


with


additional


work


same


character


estimated


current


year,


was


decided


ascertain


whether the contract method would be the cheaper under


conditions existing at present.


Consequently, contracts were let for


construction


four


4-family


frame


houses


and


two


4-family


concrete houses.


These were located on


the same types erected


the same streets as houses


canal forces, and


the conditions were


identical.


The results show a material saving in both types of con-


struction by doing the work by the hired-labor method.


Subsequent


to the completion of the contracts all buildings were constructed by


hired labor exclusively


while the costs, if


anything, have


been still


further reduced.
The first concrete buildings erected were of hollow concrete blocks,


investigation showing this method


be cheaper than hollow tiles,


and it was beli
this climate.


ieved


that solid concrete walls would be too damp for


Plaster and stucco made the concrete block construc-


tion more expensive than poured reinforced concrete.


Walls of con-


create


, by


proper


treatment,


can


made


waterproof;


reinforced


concrete is


more substantial and resistant


earthquakes;


and


concrete block


construction has been displaced by poured reinforced


concrete


main


walls and


floors,


with


blocks


for partition


walls


only.


To avoid the expense of white plaster,


the interior of all con-


create buildings are now finished in cement, the surface being treated
mechanically and painted in suitable colors.


The


manufacture


December,


1915,


hollow


which


concrete


time


blocks


plant


was


was


continued


closed


down.


until
The


a


1 , - * J I - . I - K 1 �* . .*I


-: *I *t * -�


1


_ _ - - � - - - _ _ - - _






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


permanent character, intended to remain for the full life of the frame,


12 to


15 years at least, corrugated iron is


not so satisfactory in that


deteriorates


rapidly,


is a source


expense


upkeep,


and


unsightly.


vanous


After


kinds


careful
roofing


consideration


material it


was


and


experimentation


decided


adopt


with
Sred


asphalt shingle as


the most satisfactory for our purpose,


first cost,


maintenance, and durability being considered.


beginning of


the fiscal


year 60


buildings


various


kinds


were


under


construction.


During


year


these


were


completed


and 68 additional buildings were commenced for the canal and


Panama Railroad.


For the Army 43 buildings were under construc-


tion July


menced


1915.


during


These


year


were
under


completed


and


additional


more


were com-


appropriation


that


became available.
Of the Panama Canal buildings the hospital groups were the largest.


The hospital buildings, at the beginning of the operating period,


in such


condition


that some


were


deemed


unsafe for further


were
occu-


pancy, and


all were in a dilapidated


condition,


the greater number


at Ancon and those at Colon having been taken over from the French,


and therefore in use for a number of years.


Estimates were prepared


and submitted


to Congress for rebuilding


the entire


plant


within


period of five years,


and


the first appropriation


was made available


for beginning the work at Ancon and for the construction of


a hos-


pital at Colon.


The money for the Ancon


unit was applied


two


ward


buildings,


feet


feet,


accommodating 29


patient


each ward,


with porches entirely surrounding them.


A service see-


tion, 32 feet by 92 feet,


toilet
rooms


accommodations,
on each floor..


connects
a dining


these
room,


two


the exterior


ward groups,


nurses


and


rooms,


providing


and


interior walls


special
of less


than 6


inches were made of


reinforced concrete, and


the others were


built up of cement blocks with a hard smooth cement-plaster finish.


The floor slabs were constructed


of reinforced


concrete and most of


the rooms


were provided


with red


or white


floors.


interior walls and ceilings were treated with enamel washable paint,


which giv
building.


a pleasing


effect


interior


and


makes


a sanitary


The roof of yellow pine, covered with red vitreous tile,


and


S1 . .*. . 1 .. . *. jI 1 � 1 * "3 . � I4


?s






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


which


divides


group


into four distinct units with


intercommu-


nicating passageways. In the central unit are located the operating
suite and administrative offices. It is 45 feet wide by 53 feet 6 inche


long,


with


an extension in front


24 feet


by 20 'feet 4


inches,


which


forms a covered entrance way and makes provision for an operating


room


on the second floor with exposure on


three sides.


The ward


buildings,


approximately


40 feet


120 feet,


on either side of


central unit, are divided into various wards and provide rooms with


a total capacity of 50 patients.


The general-service building, 41 feet


by 83 feet, comprising the kitchen, dining rooms, and helpers'


quar-


ters,


also


a central location


directly in


the rear of the adminis-


tration unit.


All exterior porch and intermediate walls 6 inches and


over were constructed of reinforced concrete and interior walls hav-


a thickness


less


than


6 inches


cement


block


covered


with


smooth hard


cement


finish.


The


roof


is similar in


construction


the Ancon building.


The cost of the hospital was $172,169.70.


A new building, covering an area of 147 feet 8 inches by 42 feet 8


inches,
ity to


was constructed


the piers and


during the year at Balboa, in close proxim-


docks of the Pacific terminal


terminal building at a cost of $70,594.76.
of the receiving and forwarding agent of


of the canal as a


It is for the general offices
the Panama Railroad, the


captain


port,


and


pilots'


dormitories.


is three stories


height,


'the


first


being utilized


Panama


Railroad,


the third


by the captain


port,


while


the second story is


divided into


offices,


which are rented individually or en suite as offices for various


steamship companies using the canal.


A new


ice plant


was


constructed for the


Panama Railroad


com-


missary


at Balboa and a new laundry


at Ancon.


Both are of rein-


forced concrete and cost $130,683.79 and $73,000, respectively.


Extensive


repairs


were


made


Ancon


Administration


Building.


The


porches


were


badly


eaten


and


rotted,


as were


the floor and


other parts of the building.


It is now in good


condi-


tion, reinforced concrete being used wherever practicable.


ovation cost $27,960.85.


The ren-


It is utilized in part by the District Court


the Canal Zone


and


offices for the court officials,


by the special


attorney,


and


rooms


not


needed


canal


present


a . - - 1 a . - *






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


quarters were determined by a board of


officers consisting of Col.


William F
ton, Maj.
program t


Blauvelt, Lieut. Col. Charles F


William E.


asB


Cole,


in accordance


and Capt.


with


Mason, Maj


Wood.


the estimates


T. Clay-


The building


submitted


basis for the appropriation.


In addition to completing all those esti-


mated, from the same appropriation quarters were provided for the
Commanding General and his staff and such other buildings as were
authorized by the Secretary of War.
For further details concerning the operations of the building divi-
sion, together with costs of various buildings, attention is invited to
Appendix D.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.


The engineer of maintenance, Lieut.


Col. Chester Harding, United


States Army, was in charge of the maintenance and operation of the
locks and had supervision over the electrical and municipal divisions,
meteorology and hydrography, general surveys, and the office engi-


neer.


On November 1, 1915, the fortification construction work was


transferred to the engineer of maintenance, and on June 1, 1916, the
work remaining uncompleted under the terminal construction divi-
sion was transferred to his charge.


'When the change in organization provided


by the Panama Canal


act was under consideration, I made the recommendation, under date
of November 14, 1913, that the engineer of maintenance succeed to
the vacancy in the office of Governor of The Panama Canal, thereby
assuring a succession which would result in a stable organization. I


recommended the assignment of Lieut.


Col. Harding for duty with


the canal as engineer of maintenance with this idea in view.


With


the main work completed and the reorganization effected, I requested
relief from office effective November 1, and as this was authorized, I
requested the assignment of Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow, United States


Army, for duty with the canal,


with


the prospect of his becoming


engineer of maintenance should the plan originally proposed be car-


ried out.


He was assigned to duty as assistant to the engineer of


maintenance on August 19, 1915.


I submitted my resignation effec-


tive November


1, and when enroute


to the canal


to wind up my


affairs I learned of the conditions that had been produced by reason






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


At the


and


time the looks were watered


put


first-class


condition.


The


the gates had
interiors of tl


been painted


gates


were


coated with bitumastic enamel under a five-year guarantee, and the
exteriors covered with various kinds of submarine paints.


When


floating


caisson


arrived


December,


1914


was in-


stalled at the lower east lock at Miraflores and the chamber pumped


, permitting an examination of the gates,


valves, and fixed irons.


At that time they were found to be in good condition, although there


was


some


rusting


plates


and


rivets.


January,


1915,


west chamber at


Miraflores


was pumped


out after


being submerged


about
from


15 months.


experience


The paint on


gained


from


the gates was


various


paints


blistering badly,


applied


other


and
lock


gates it was decided that something must be adopted that would give


better protection


used.


Difficulty


than anything in
had been experiP


the paint line that had


3nced


with.


paints


applied


been
i the


spillway gates at Gatun


and because of the condition of the interior


of the gates on which bitumastic enamel had been used it was decided
to test out the use of this material on one of the spillway gates. It


appeared
teed the


to give adequate protection


effectiveness


of his


material


and as the contractor guaran-


five


years


a contract


was


entered into for coating all of the lock gates with bitumastic enamel.


The gates at Gatun


were coated and


the woik finished.


Due to the


condition of the pumps in the caisson, the impeller blades of cast iron


being


entirely


eaten


away


work


on the


Pacific


side


was


corn-


pleted.
Observations


during


past


year


disclosed


that


corrosive


action on the cylindrical valves has been severe.
west flight of Gatun Locks was drained, and all
drical valves were examined. Marked corrosion


In July, 1915, the
the accessible cylin-
was taking place on


certain


parts


valves


, although


entire


valve


was made of


cast


iron


design.
segment


or steel, no
n the lower


nuts


disappeared


were


bronze


level


corroded


parts


being


adopted


an average


min


It was also found


some
that 1


cent of


cases


fully


half


original
the seal


nut


had


bolts holding the stops in


place


were in such


condition


that


they


had


be replaced in every


valve in the lower level.


All valves were put in good condition and


1 1


n- * 1


1 I


* i -


aL L - :. f - . L - n rJ N Un t: a auh n a a . t.. % a* n j. j W h nf*w wt a n "mn V


* * 1


* .


I






REPORT


valves at Gatun and th
been violently attacked.
comes in contact with 1


valve is


being rapidly


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


upper and lower valves


Miraflores have


The bottom seal casting of the valve which


babbitt


eaten away.


metal seal


on the


A number of


bottom
valves


Pacific locks were in such condition


that


bottom seal had


machined off to make the valve tight.


In order to protect the valve


from any further electrolytic action


between


cast-steel seal and


lower


babbitt


metal


seal,


babbitt


metal


was


removed


and


replaced with a seal of greenheart lumber.


Some of the bronze side


seals


and


springs


were


found


broken


both


Miraflores


and


Gatun.


Otherwise the seals were in good condition and required only


a small amount of


draw filing to make


the contact surfaces perfect.


The top gate valve seal is of cast steel and is held in place by bronze


bolts.


In practically every instance the corrosion has been excessive


around


the heads of


bronze


bolts,


cutting


away


metal


and


in some cases allowing the bolts to loosen and fall out.


Several cast-


mgs


had


replaced.


The


worst


case


corrosion


seal


occurred


on the upper valves at Miraflores.


At Gatun


practically


all valves were installed


with fixed side seal


castings,


which all gave evidence


considerable corrosion,


sufficient to cause any leaks.


At Miraflores removable side seal strips


were


machinery


steel,


and


in every


case


corrosion


had


reached


such a point that all side seals had to be replaced.


Inasmuch as the


corrosion had apparently been aided by the proximity of the bronze


side seals


which


bear upon


them,


was


decided


replace all ma-


chinery steel with lignum-vitte wood


in this way tending to place an


insulating


substance


in contact


with


bronze.


porous


con-


create around the fixed irons was removed and replaced with cement,
and wherever babbitt metal had been used to fill the recessed holes for


bolt heads at the Pacific locks


the metal was removed and replaced


with cement.


both


Atlantic and


Pacific


locks


considerable


corrosion


roller trains has occurred


the rollers of which are made of tool steel.


the Atlantic


were


missing.


locks a number


were


replaced,


rollers,
and the


bolts,
heads


and


filler


castings


bolts


were


riveted over to prevent further losses.


Similar conditions were found


of +.ta Paa innirci on A n1 cl +^ r nk a 1 r4 l I 4-n


,Y . 4- � 4-


4%^ -,1f I i ^n


y-fnr






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


more


complete


protective


measures


were


taken,


as follows


bronze side seals were lined up and strips of zinc bolted to the valve
each side of the seals at the bottom of the valve; (2) where necessary,


bottom


valve seal was machined


off to give solid metal contact


with
out


bottom seal


and replaced


all removable side seal


with lignum-vit e


wood strips.


strips were taken
Where removable


strips were not installed


wooden side seals;


the fixed irons were milled down to take the


all babbitt metal used in the assembly of the


valve for imbedding and protecting boltheads from corrosion and for


calking


purposes


was


removed


and


replaced


with


cement;


babbitt metal used in the bottom seal was removed and replaced with


greenheart lumber


bitumastic


enamel.


all steel


This


left


I work
only t


valve was coated


bronze


side


seals


with


exposed;


(7) all fixed irons were coated with bitumastic enamel
nel-iron supports for the rollers were coated with bitu


; (8) the chan-
rmastic enamel


and arrangements made to lubricate the roller trains and tracks with


crude oil


during operation and while


valves are submerged;


all submerged portions of the valve stems were coated with bitumastio


enamel


(10)


all bronze bolts are being replaced with steel as fast as


breakage occurs.
On October 1'


1915


counterweight


spillway


gate


No. 13


at Gatun gave way and dropped into its pit,


demolishing all weights.


This machine had


been


operated for several


days,


and


was not


being operated at the time of the accident.
found that all four manganese bronze coun


On investigation it was
Iterweight bolts had given


way
.


Each


spillway


counterweight


consists


cast-iron


blocks


weighing 750 pounds each, resting on a cast-iron base plate and sup-


ported
steel y


45,701
each


0C


by four
broke at
pounds,


lj-inch manganese


top.


and,


bolt supports


The


assuming


11,425


total


that


pounds,


bronze
weight


load is


or a stress


bolts running into


a cast


counterweight


equally
>f 4,750


distributed,
pounds per


square inch of metal.
cal division for test,


Sections of the bolts were sent to the mechani-


.


which gave an ultimate tensile strength of 61,400


pound
bolts


and


tested.


63,900 pounds per square inch, respectively, for the two


This


would


indicate


a factor


safety


about


All guard-valve counterweight bolts were examined and instructions


* � l 1 P " " t 1 1 Pl


- . .


*






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


out appreciably stopping its headway broke the chain.


the machine had been


The fact that


blocked made it impossible for the fender to


operate,


but


, nevertheless,


the apparent ease with


which


vessel


went through the chain called attention to the desirability of a work-
ing test to determine the effectiveness of the fenders, and a committee
was appointed to make a series of experiments upon one of the chain-


fender


machines


Gatun.


Considerable data


were


obtained,


and


the results of the tests indicated


that the chain-fender machines will


operate satisfactorily when


properly adjusted,


and


that


no difficulty


would be encountered in stopping any vessel approaching the locks


at a speed under two miles per hour.


Some minor modifications were


made in the apparatus.
Owing to the fact that the slides in Gaillard Cut interfered with the


operation of the canal between September 18, 1915, and April 15,


1916


the number of lockages made during the year does not compare favor-


ably with


those of


previous


year


The


number


lockages


Gatun was 2,254


, of which 1,779 were commercial


lockages for


1,980


vessels


at Pedro Miguel 2,317 lockages, of which 1,825 were commer-


cial lockages for 1,925 vessels


at Miraflore


2,277 lockages,


of which


1,842 were


commercial lockages


1.926


vessels.


The


number


commercial vessels exceeds the


number


commercial lockages,


due


to the fact that whenever possible tandem lockages


were made, i. e.,


two


vessels were locked


through


the same


time.


The


difference


between


commercial


lockages


and


lockages


is accounted


the fact that there is no record given of the number of


canal barge


tugs,


launched


etc.


which


were


locked


through from


time


time.


ELECTRICAL DIVISION.


This division continued in charge of Capt.


William H.


Rose


United


States Army


The duties of the division comprised the operation of


all steam and hydroelectric power plant


the Balboa air compressor;


the electrical


transmission


and


distribution systems,


and house


and


street lighting systems;


the telephone, telegraph, and automatic rail-


way signal system of the Panama Railroad


the design and construe-


tion of all extensions and additions to such systems


and


the instal-


lation,


operation,


maintenance,


-f -u - a - I .


and repair of electrical apparatus of


___1 _ _


"111






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


increasing th
cable feeders


capacity of


oil switches


the station


by about 40


per cent.


New


, and other auxiliaries for taking care of this


increased


output have also


been


ordered,


as well as


two new


4,000


k.v.a.


44,000 volt transformers for the Gatun substation.


Attention


was


called last


year


necessity for arranging for


increased power, and the appropriations for the coming year provide


for an


extension


the hydroelectric station


by the construction


another


building


same size


as the


present


one,


the addition


three


new penstocks and


been found


station from
feeder cables


advisable


2,300


between


one new
change


6,600 volts


4,500


k.w. generator unit.


voltage


to reduce


the hydroelectric station


generating


the number and cost of


and


the Gatun sub-


station.
The average production cost of current of the hydroelectric station


during the fiscal year was $0.0006


per k.w


hour, including all opera-


tion, maintenance, repair, and division overhead charges,


but not in-


eluding depreciation.


Including


a charge


3 per cent


the. cap-


ital cost of the entire power system for depreciation, the cost of gen-
erating power at the hydroelectric station was $0.0027 per k.w. hour;


as distributed from substations, including all


charges,


the cost of the


current for power purposes


was


$0.00773


k.w


hour.


The cost


for lighting service, including the maintenance of house lighting sys-


teams and lamp


renewals


was $0.0145


k.w.


hour.


The


cast-iron


liner


plates


and


floor


plates


installed


on the


baffle


piers of


the Gatun spillway were in such condition as


to necessitate


replacement.


The


concrete


behind


iron


liner plates


was


badly


rotted away and while thoroughly repaired


the action since has been


such


necessitate


another


overhauling


during


next


dry


season.


On June


1916


, 1,878


telephones


were in service.


During the


last six months of the year there was an average of 15,165 telephone
calls per day.
A large amount of construction was done by this division on under-


ground


lines,


conduit


lines


and


as well as in street and


underground


and


overhead


yard lighting systems.


distribution
Motor-driven


pumps


were installed at Mount Hope Dry Dock.


Two hydroelectric


-1 J? 2_. i - A1 I --


-- .-


-__ 1_ T _1: .. . _.... yei _-1 ... .





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.
The organization of the municipal engineering division remained


unchanged and continued in charge of Mr. D.


Wright, as municipal


engineer.


The municipal division has charge of all water-supply


sys-


teams on the Canal Zone, including the operation of the water-purifi-
cation plants.


The water supply for the Isthmus,


with the exception of that for


the three military posts on the west side of the canal, is furnished by


three systems.


The water for points north of Gatun,


with the ex-


ception of Toro Point, is furnished by the Mount Hope plant,


which


includes the pumping station and the water-purification plant located


at Mount Hope.


The water is taken from the Brazos Brook Reser-


voir, supplemented by water obtained from Gatun Lake, at elevation


plus 75, through a 20-inch pipe laid in a tunnel 6 feet by 6 feet.


The


average amount of water handled at this station during the year was
131,232,000 gallons per month.
The water for Gatun and 'Gatun Locks is furnished by the plant
located at Agua Clara, and is obtained from the Agua Clara Reser-


voir, purified in


the filtration


plant located near the reservoir and


forced by pumps at this station through the distribution system, sup-


plying Gatun and the locks, and
reservoir located 14 miles east of G


also to a 300,000-gallon concrete
ratun, which acts as a surge tank.


The average amount of water handled at this station during the year
was 22,580,000 gallons per month.
The water for Paraiso and all points south, including Panama City,


is furnished


by the


Miraflores


plant,


which includes


pumping


station at Gamboa, Miraflores, and Balboa, and the purification plant
at Miraflores, together with the distribution systems and reservoirs.


The water is obtained from


the Chagres River at Gamboa, and is


pumped from there to Miraflores, from which point, after purification,
it is supplied to all points south of Paraiso and east of the canal.
The total quantity of water handled by this system during the year
amounted to an average of 248,963,000 gallons per month.


The municipal division also


has charge of the


water-supply


sys-


teams for the troops on the west side of the canal, the water at these
points being obtained from the Rio Grande and Comacho Reservoirs,






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


A large amount of ro
the year, particularly in


lad-construction


work was carried


on during


the Southern District in and around Balboa


and


Ancon.


The


extension


Balboa


townsite


improvements


was commenced in March


, and was in progress during the rest of the


year.
streets


This
and


consists


the installation


Balboa lying between
of new quarters to be


necessary


grading,


of water and sewer lines in


the existing town and Ancon Hill,
built during the current year. A]


construction


that part of
to take care
11 of the road


construction


was of Telford base with concrete asphalt surface.


Several important items of


construction


work were


performed


the municipal division for other divisions of The Panama Canal,


Panama Railroad


and


the Army


and a part of the work was still in


progress a
water and


close


year.


sewer systems, roads and


The


principal items consisted


pavements for the Army posts


Fort


Amador and Fort Randolph


and the


construction


pave-


ments and grading around


the Balboa shops and


terminals.


connection


with


water-supply


systems


Zone,


Mr.


George C.


Bunker is employed as physiologist, in charge of the purifi-


cation
Notes


plants and


on the


results


work
of his


the laboratories connected


investigations


tropical


therewith.


waters


during


the past
forth in


year,


publication.


carried


report,
They


and
will


on by


are
be 1


him


and


such


Found


under


interest


accompanymg


direction,


were set


warrant


their


report


municipal engineer, in Appendix A.


METEOROLOGY


AND HYDROGRAPHY.


This division continued in charge of Mr. F


Willson, chief hydrog-


rapher.


The


1915, from


tide


the old


gauge a
location


Balboa


was


moved


on 'September


under the Panama Railroad steel pier to


new


concrete


weather


of Mexico,


received
interests.
weather


dock


conditions


and


and


No.


Arrangements


prevailing


South Atlantic


distributed


conditions


request of
prevailing


were


over the Caribbean


Ocean


port


each


captains


Argentine


over


the


Canal


day
and


made


Sea,


other


Government


Zone


whereby
the Gulf


m. are


shipping
he daily


a. m. are


cabled


Buenos Aires.


- a - * -" - .. .. a - A






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


The average temperature for the year
on the Pacific coast, and approximately


the normal on the Atlantic.


1915 was near the normal
1 degree Fahrenheit above


At Balboa Heights the maximum tem-


perature was 93� F., on April 11, and the minimum, on January 31,


690 F.


At Colon the maximum was, on September 27


o F., and


the minimum on February 10, 72� F.
The wind movement over the Canal Zone for the year


1915 was


slightly over the average. Northerly winds prevailed.
No fogs were observed during the year 1915 at the Atlantic coast,
but a total of three fogs was observed at the Balboa Heights station


near the Pacific coast.


Numerous fogs were observed at the interior


stations


where


fog records


kept,


and


practically


observed


lifted or were dissipated by 8.30 a. m.
Fifty-nine seismic tremors were recorded at the Balboa Heights


seismological station during the fiscal year.


Six of these disturbances


were of sufficient intensity to throw the pens from the instruments,
and quite a number were strong enough to be generally felt in the


Canal Zone.


Most of the tremors were of comparatively local ori-


gin, less than 600 miles distant.


There was an apparent revival of


activity in the Los Santos Province that reached the maxima during
the latter part of November, 1915, and during the first part of Feb-


ruary,


1916.


After this


time


the scene of


activity shifted


northwest, culminating in


tremors of


April 26, during


one of


which considerable damage was done to the wharf and merchandise


stocks of the United Fruit Co. at Bocas del Toro.


The intensities of


the various shocks varied from I to V on the Rossi-Forel scale of I to X.


The yield


of the Gatun Lake


watershed


during


the dry season


months of 1916, January to April, inclusive, was normal, or an actual
yield of 2,200 second-feet against an estimated yield of 2,160 second-


feet.


It was necessary to waste during January over 2,000,000,000


cubic feet of water, but during February, March, and April the inflow


was exceeded


by water usage for municipal purposes and


evapora-


tion.


From January 1 to May 1 the lake was lowered 0.42 of a foot,


representing a loss of 1.95 billion cubic feet of storage.


The 2,000,


000,000 cubic feet of water which were spilled after all the regular


demands for water Ld been met would have bee]
S 1 A .5 . - - - - - . w -


n sufficient to pro-
S - '..T






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


way, or a sufficient quantity of water to make 1,773 through lockages


each month.


Based on 30-day operation


this would


mean 59 look-


age
In


S


day


over


this connection


and
it


above


nay


the average


be stated


that


traffic


past


year.


lockages
vessel le


which


!aves


lower chamber,


can


upper


and


Vici


made ii
flight i
e versa,


hour


Gatun


3 is
just


both chambers


that one


enters


being used.


SURVEYS.


The


surveys


were


handled


parties


under


direction


of Mr.


Malsbury,


assistant engineer.


The monumenting of


boundary


lines


between


the Canal Zone


and


the cities of Panama


and


Colon,


in accordance


with


treaty


proclamation of February


1915


was finished.


A regulation con-


create monument was set on the Corundu River near bridge No.


65 of


the old Panama Railroad;


the stone


bridge on


the Corozal road and


concrete


bridge


on the


Tumba-Muerta


trail


were


stenciled;


brass plug was set in


the concrete curb at the


junction of the Corral


and


Tivoli roads


, and an iron spike


was driven in


Tivoli road at an angle point on the boundary line.
tions at Colon 16 monuments were set on line, an(


the center of the
For the delimita-


several brass plug


reference points were set on


the offset line in Folks River.


An iron


was set


in concrete


Old


Point


Folks


River.


Brass


bolts


were set in the sea walls at both ends of the line.


of Colon Harbor was staked


across


The azimuth line
the Cristobal fire


station
The


All regular concrete monuments were properly stenciled.


100-foot contour survey was finished,


uments set.


Monuments set on


with a total of 843 mon-


the 5-mile line were numbered con-


sistently with


etc.


This


The


division


monuments


regular
made


on this


5-mile line t
a number of


line


, usmg


ype of monument


surveys


throughout


! fractions 1/2,
was also used.


year,


addition


to other miscellaneous work.


OFFICE ENGINEER.


The office continued in


charge of Mr.


Embree as office engi-


never.


who has


charge


drafting


forces


ocks


.- A �* r * *. v --- - - - - -- .-- -


operation


and


maximum number of


assuming


as another


.*





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


together with the supervision of the port captains, the board of local
inspectors, the pilots, the operation of lights and beacons, and the
inspection and admeasuring of vessels.


As already noted, Capt.


Hugh Rodman,


United States Navy,


was


detached and succeeded by Commander


Cone,


United States


Navy, on October 1, 1915.
After trial it was decided


for the best interest of the canal as well


as for shipping using it, to have pilots detailed as lock pilots, and two
were accordingly sent to each set of locks, acting under the direction
of the lock superintendents.
Slides in Gaillard Cut interrupted traffic from August 7 to August


10, 1915,


from September 4 to September 9, 1915, and from Septem-


ber 18, 1915, to April 15, 1916.


Punta Mala lighthouse


was erected and put into commission on


July


1915.


Bona Island lighthouse


was placed in


commission


August 2, 1915; on November 25, 1915, it was struck by lightning,


but was relighted the following day.


The lighthouse on Taboguilla


Island was placed in commission August 10, 1915.


proved satisfactory and economical.


All three lights


Some slight changes were made


in aids to navigation and in the characteristics of lights, as experi-
ence and local conditions seemed to dictate, in order to facilitate the
transit of shipping, both by day and night.


A new signal station


was erected at Sosa Hill.


It commands a


splendid view of Balboa Harbor and enables the captain of the port
to communicate with ships much more expeditiously than was possi-
ble before.


The mooring stations at


Gamboa


and


Empire


were


maintained


throughout the year.


The former is permanent; its mooring buoys


were renewed and heavier moorings laid.


It was found desirable to


establish


another


temporary


mooring


station


near


Paraiso.


This


will probably be maintained until the channel through the slides is
in such shape that vessels can safely transit it without delay.
During the part of the fiscal year that the canal was open to traffic


a total of 411 vessels passed from the Atlantic to the Pacific,


as conm-


pared with 530 for the previous fiscal year, and 376 passed from the
Pacific to the Atlantic, as compared with 558 during the previous
'r l 0 lb +1 � .eIl . 4 . . 1 Sn I jl 1 1






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


the canal


amounted


3.140.046


tons,


as compared


with


4,969,792


for the fiscal year 1915.


The total cargo tonnage passing through the


canal


in the


coastwise


trade


was


444,388


tons


fiscal


year,


as compared with 951,044 tons for the previous fiscal year.


While it is


be remembered


that the canal was closed for seven


months
ference


fiscal


in the


year,


coastwise


this


traffic.


alone


does


account


for the


dif-


The lines which formerly used


canal in the coastwise trade took advantage of the scarcity of bottoms


and


chartered


their


steamers


enormous


rates,


which


was


more


profitable than continuing in the coastwise trade.


The


board


admeasurers


conducted


operations


in the


same


manner


as in


previous


fiscal


year.


The


requirement


that


United States net registered tonnage be considered in the assessment


tolls


added


numerous


greatly


changes


and


the work


interpretations


board,
placed


especially


upon


because
United


States


rules


United


measurement


States


Department


Commissioner


Commerce.


The


Navigation
application


of the United States rules for measurement has resulted in exempting


practically


sheltered


spaces


and


deck loads


vessels


transiting


the canal,


which, in turn, has resulted in discrimination against most


United S bates vessels utilizing the waterway,


due


the fact


that almost


of the


United States vessels are so constructed


that


they
other


unable


hand


take


United


advantage


States


rules


shelter-deck space.


provide


exemption


certain cabin space above the upper deck that is not a deck attached


hull


against


which


foreign


would,


vessels


in most


and


cases,


favor


result
United


in discrimination


States


passenger


steamers


national register


vessel


were recognized as a


factor in the levying of tolls.


time goes on


and


traffic increases,


with a resulting increase in


number


and


classes


vessels


using the canal,


the necessity


adopting some one rule


and


experience has shown


levying the


beyond


toll,


a doubt


s becomes more evident,
that the fairest rules for


determining the


tonnage


a vessel on a


just basis are the Panama


Canal rules of measurement; in short,


ship.


on the earning capacity of the


It is again recommended that legislation be secured authoriz-


_






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


has been made to have the offices of the captains of the port centers
of information on all matters relating to shipping.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix B.
DREDGING DIVISION.


The dredging division continued in charge of Mr.
resident engineer, assisted by Mr. James Macfarlane,


of dredging.


W. G. Comber,
superintendent


The division is divided into two districts, the first em-


bracing all dredging operations in


the Pacific entrance, Miraflores


Lake, and Gaillard Cut; the second district, all dredging operations
in the Atlantic entrance and Gatun Lake to Gamboa Bridge.
As stated in the annual report for 1915, all dredging done in any
part of the canal necessary to complete the channel to its full width
and depth was charged against construction funds, and all dredging
done in portions of the canal where the full width and depth had
been secured at the time the canal was opened to the use of com-
merce became a proper charge against and was paid for from main-


tenance funds.


Consequently, part of the dredging operations con-


stituted construction work and
The dredging equipment in


was


paid for from such funds.


use during the year consisted of


sea-


going suction dredge Oulebra; pipe-line dredges Nos. 8, 8, 88, 84 85,
and 86; the 15-yard dipper dredges Gamboa and Paraiso; the 5-yard
dipper dredges Cardenas, to September 30, 1915, Chlagres, to October


31, 1915, and Mindi, to


November 3, 1915; seagoing ladder dredge


Corozal and the French ladder dredges Nos. 1


and


5 and


Marnmot;


the Gopher was in service until August 15, 1915; drill barge


the


rock


breaker


Vulcan;


and


15-yard


dipper


Teredo
dredge


Cascades.


This dredge is an improved model of the dredges Gamboa


and Paraiso, certain changes in design having been suggested by the


officials of the dredging division


to overcome some of the defects


that had developed in the other two dredges of this type, which had
been in operation for some time before the Cascadas was ordered.
To assist in washing down slides and to arrange drainage through


them


two


hydraulic


graders


were


buil t,


both of which


went into


commission in December, 1915.


Nine additional dump scows were added


the equipment em-






THE


PANAMA


CANAL


of 80.2734 per cubic yard; Cucaracha slide, 264,850 cbic yards, at a
(~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ , -_- - ^^ 1 i JKi ^ B11T


cost


yards
slide;


$0.3470


excavated


cubic


since


Pacific


making


dredging


entrance,


between


a total


division


begat


Miraflores


4,616,37
i work


Locks


ubio


on this


and


deep


water at


8.964


cubic


yards of


earth and 39,160


cubio yards of


rock


a cost per cubiO yard of


$2.26,


the high


cost


being due to


drilling and blasting rock areas to be removed later, the latter being


broken up by the rock breaker


Vulcan and by the drill barge; and in


the Atlantic entrance 20,746 cubic yards of earth


at a cost of $0.1323


per cubic yard.
The spoil from Gaillard


Cut was disposed of


on the dumps located


in Gatun Lake from mile 30 to San Pablo


, mile 24; in the Rio Grande


Valley south


east


bank


Cudaracha


canal


Miraflores
between


Lake;


Cucaracha


Paraiso


slide


, and


and


along


Paraiso,


There
Rio C


were


Grande


dumped in


Gatun


Valley 966,149


Lake


cubic


11,126,625


yards


cubic yards,


in Miraflores


Lake


and in
72,214


cubic yards


in swamps around Paraiso 501,615 cubic yards; and in


canal


The


material


between


Cucaracha


dumped in


and


Paraiso


canal was from


1,116,461


cubio


ladder and


yards.
dipper


dredges
fAg~yp


was


working


blocked,


and


on the south


has


been


side of


practically


Culebra slide


rehandled


while


and


from the prism.
A large part of the work done by the dredging division


signed
cubic


by the
yards,


slides,


and


a cost


there was


$0.2820


removed


cubic


a total of


yard


the canal
removed


was occa-
12,695,059
the total


amount removed 10,872,509 cubic yards were rock and


1,822,550 cubic yards,


the balance,


was earth.


Surveys of the canal in the vicinity of the active slides were made


daily; the channel
shipping.


was dragged and marked


prior to


passage of


The


period


over


animated


existed


spirit


was


obtaining
he subject


period of my
the dredging


any


in the


organization


much


connection


force


prior period.


during


commendation,


with


canal


seems


The


dredges


construction


but


work,


surpass


were


looking


the spirit


that


operated


back
that


which
hours


every


day,


including


Sunday


and


holidays,


a period


four


/jj j


yard,






REPORT OF THE GOVEBNOtR.


cubic yards of No. 1 gravel, and 50,852 cubic yards of No.
All gravel was delivered to the Gamboa handling plant.


2 gravel.
Sand was


passed through a three-eighths-inch screen, No. 1 gravel through a
2-inch screen, and No. 2 gravel through a 2-inch screen.
The old slide at Buena Vista showed signs of new life in December,


1915, and on January


1, 1916, a crack had developed, starting at


station 1559 and running over the top of a small hill 300 feet west


of the prism line at station


station 1567.


1563 and


joining the canal again at


The material was stiff clay and soft rock.


On Jan-


uary 3,


1916,


the hydraulic grader began operations, starting at a


point about 50 feet back of the crack and cutting a uniform slope
from the point of beginning to the base of the slide at the water's


edge.


This


method stopped


the movement and


material has


remained quiescent during the rest of the year.
The three rock dikes built on the south shore of Limon Bay in


1915, 600,


1,100, and 1,600 feet west of the canal prism,


to stop


the erosion of the beach at this point, have proved entirely success-


This beach receded between 1905-1911


feet annually.


525 feet, or about


July, 1911, to June, 1912, the beach receded 75 feet;


1912-13,


feet;


1913-14,


feet;


1914-15,


feet;


1915-16,


since the dikes were completed,


there has been no change.


Only


a few thousand yards of silt were deposited in the canal opposite


this point during the year,
the hundreds of thousands.


where in past years the silting ran into


There


will


found


accompanying


detailed


report


dredging


division


* removed from
auxiliary work
mencement of


statement


the canal prism


accomplished


the canal


showing
by the


by these


construction


the ar
dredges,


appliances


nount


material


together with all


since


by the Americans in


conm-
1904.


with a total cost per yard of $0.2667; also a statement of the work


done by steam shovels during the same


period


, together with


cost.
For further particulars of the operations of the dredging division
attention is invited to Appendix E.

SLIDES.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


theories that have


been advanced


and


the remedies


that have


been suggested.
For some unaccountable reason there seems to be a general belief


that the entire length of the Cut is affected.


A report emanating


recently from English sources states that the bottom of the canal
through this section is found to be a bog, which is being constantly
pushed up, and through which the dredges have difficulty in main-


training a channel; further,


that it is acknowledged on the part of


those in charge that the canal is a failure, and that American engi-
neers are seeking information in England relative to the Nicaragua


route.


Such reports are false, and there is no foundation for them;


yet they seem to have gained credence probably because a pending


treaty


between


United


States


and


Nicaragua


contemplates


securing from the latter all rights for building a canal on its territory.


Nicaragua route


was at one


time


the one most generally


favored by the United States, investigations by commissions, boards,
and commercial bodies, covering a series of years, have been made


of the route, and


data of all kinds collected; consequently every-


thing that is known about that route can be found at home,


out the necessity of seeking information in England.


with-


It makes a


good news item,


however; makes converts


belief that


entire 8.75 miles of the Cut is unstable, liable to collapse or upheaval,
completely closing the canal for all time, is useful in assisting ship-
ping companies to take advantage of present conditions to charter
ships at excessive rates instead of complying with their obligations,
and permits an increase in insurance rates.
Gaillard Cut extends from Pedro Miguel to Gamboa, a distance of


8.75 miles.


The canal prism through this section averages 300 feet


bottom width, and has a de
ing channel was excavated


Spth of 45 feet.


through rock, all


Every foot of the exist-


of which,


though of


various kinds and densities, had to be drilled and blasted in order


to remove it.


of the material,
encountered in


It is possible that the water may have softened some


yet it is known


the excavation


by contact with water.
been stable with the e


that


were


the softer varieties of rock


protected from


The bog theory is a myth.


xeeptions of the portions in


disintegration
The Cut has
the vicinity of






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


breaks


resulting


from


deformation


crushing


underlying


strata' which, under changed conditions, could not bear the weight
of the superimposed mass, and caused a vertical settlement or drop


overlying


material,


which


subsequently


moved


into


prism.


Final rest will be secured when all the material that is in


motion has been removed.


As is shown


by experience with smaller


breaks that have occurred from the same cause,


when the


end


reached the final surface will be concave, or bowl shaped.


When water was turned into


the Cut on October


1913,


channel was completed to full width and depth except at Cucaracha,
where the steam shovels were making but little headway against
the slide; three benches which had been left (one at La Pita Point,
one on the east side near Empire, and one on the west side oppo-


site Cucaracha)


the inclines, one at either end of the Cut;


remains of two small slides,


one on


and the


the east side, of the "break"


variety, and the other on the west side, a typical slide of clay which
occurred prior to the removal of the steam shovels, both of which,


between Empire and Culebra,


were cleaned up by the dredges and


have remained quiescent since.
Cucaracha slide is on the east side of the canal south of Gold Hill.


It began to


give


trouble as early as 1884, during the operations of


the French Canal Co.


, but all the indications pointed


to a surface


movement only.


The French built an elaborate system of drainage


to overcome the difficulty, and,
excavation was suspended, fourth<
ity resulted in renewed activity


while successful so long


as work of


er deepening of the Cut in the vicin-


, with complete destruction


of the


drainage system;


remaining part


this system


was carried


away by the slide in 1907.


The slide gave trouble in 1906,


when


excavation proceeded through this section.


The difficulties increased


as the depth increased and in the autumn of 1907 became most for-


midable.


From this time until 1910 the difficulties became less, and


it was believed that they had been overcome and that the clay re-


mining would be supported by


a rock dike which was uncovered


and which apparently possessed ample strength to retain


above and back of it.


the mass


On January 20, 1913, the rock dike broke at


or below the bottom level


the canal and


completely filled






THE


PANAMA CANAL,


cut, as well as the cost, is conclusive that this method was the most
efficient and economical way of handling the material.


In July


cargoes


1914
the


troubles in Mexico interfered with


Tehauntepec


route,


and


shipping


the handling of


interests


were


clamoring for relief.


The dredges had secured a channel through the


slide
the
the


and


canal
traffic.


Panama Railroad


between
While


terminal


full


depti


operated


ports,
i and


but


a line of barges through


these


could


width had not


not


handle


been secured


through the slide,


pwg,


the channel was sufficient for the passage of ship-


and consequently the canal was opened to commerce in August,


1914.


Several


movements


have


occurred


since


Cucaracha


but


they


were


August,
from th


handled


1916,


easily
when


and


not delay


a movement occur


northeast corner


slide


commerce u
ed, bringing


area,


until


last of


down material


and moved huge


rock


boulders across the center line of


the channel, so constricting it as


to force a suspension


navigation


on August 30,


est mass of rock occupied a length of 65 feet.


1916.


The larg-


The bowlers required


drilling and blasting operations in


feet deep


time


and


in a flintlike
drills before


substance


they


could


order to remove them.


were


drilled


broken


great


Holes 20


expense


sufficiently for the


dredges


handle,


and


closure


canal lasted


eight days,


although two small ships were passed


through in the interval.


Gold


sediment;
deposits


Hill is of basalt,


ary


deposits


thrown


that


already


in a molten state


existed


on either side of the stem, giving to


and


poured


through
d over


the vertical section the


general shape of


stem,
under,


a mushroom.


being left unsupported


and


The


portions projecting beyond


broke when


the rock thus detached


the material moved from


came down


with


the rest of


material at Cucaracha.


This same


action


occurred


on the opposite


side


Gold


Hill


within


a few


months


after the


east Culebra slide


became active.


slide


developed


during


excavation


in 1906


north


Gold


Hill on


the east side of the Cut.


movement which flattens the slop4


This was a typical slide, a surface
e. and slides of this character had


occurred in


this locality during the French occupancy.


The French


1






REPORT OF THE GOVERN T OR.


panied by an upward movement of a portion of the bottom of the


excavated area a little distance from


the foot of the slope.


This


was followed later by a settlement of the mass between the crack


and the Cut,


which ultimately slid into the prism.


affected but a few hundred feet,


but as the depth


The first break
of excavation


increased


breaks


became


quantities of material involved;


more extensive


then


they


oc


both in length
:curred on both


and
the


east and west banks,


the upward movement along the bottom


the excavation


continuing until


area affected


extended for a


length of 2,000 feet north of Gold Hill.


The borings of record failed


to disclose any weak underlying strata.
The cause undoubtedly was the unequal distribution of the pres-


sure exerted by the adjacent banks.


Such being the case, it fol-


lowed that if the height of these banks were reduced the movement
would be lessened, and if reduced sufficiently would cease entirely.


Subsequent events proved this to be correct.


The banks were light-


ened by taking material from the top, and there resulted final slopes
through this portion of the Cut of 1 on 1� to 1 on 6i for the east side


and from 1 on 2.46 to


1 on 4.35 for the west side;


the slopes con-


sisted


a series of steps.


The


entirely, as already noted, and


upheaving of


bottom


the canal prism was carried


ceased
to full


depth and width throughout the entire 2,000 feet.
Toward the close of the dry season, in April,


1913, a crack ap-


peared on the east side opposite Culebra, about 1,300 feet from the


prism, in an old French dump.


It was parallel to


the canal, did


not join the banks, there was no breaking up of the banks between
it and the Cut, nor any subsidence-in short, there were none of the


indications that accompanied


previous


breaks.


The geologist


lived that it was due to the deformation of the underlying strata
and advocated lightening the banks by sluicing and steam shovels,


which was done.


While this work was in progress the crack gradu-


ally closed, and though the surface between the crack and the Cut
was in places noticeably below the level of the surface to the east
of the crack, the closure was construed to mean that a condition of


equilibrium had been reached.


The canal through this section was


completed,


the water was


turned in,


and no


further


trouble


was


. a . .. S .1 .






THE PANAMA CANAL.


similar slide occurred


water.


on the west side after the prism filled with


In both instances the movements were typical of the ordinary


slides-an adjustment of the slopes.


The material was easily han-


died by the dredges and the channel freed of all obstructions before


the canal was opened to navigation.


October 14, 1914, when,


This condition continued until


without any warning, a section of the east


bank north


Gold


Hill settled


vertically


20 feet.


This section


measured 2,000 feet along the prism face, and extended back about
1,000 feet from the axis of the canal, generally along an irregular
curved line, but did not extend back to include the crack that had


developed in 1913.


The top of the bank was from 300 to 350 feet


above sea


level.


After


settlement


upper


surface


portion that broke away remained practically parallel to its original
position, and the existing benches of the upper part of the slide had
not changed their relative positions, though they were badly broken
up, but the lower strata were squeezed out across the canal, reducing


the depth


of water from 45 feet to 9 inches at one point within an


hour's


time.


Subsequently the broken mass moved into the Cut,


was the case with other breaks.


Navigation was suspended for a


week, but after this and until August, 1915, the dredges were able for
the most part to keep up with the material as it came down, and
would have been able to maintain such condition had not a movement


occurred on


the west bank, necessitating work on this side to


detriment of the east side.
A crack was found on the slope of Zion Hill in June, 1914, higher


up than the crack already mentioned,


but observations made upon


it showed


no movement,


and


the solidity


was


never


doubted. Subsequent to the break on the east
general breaking up of the west bank followed.


side, a gradual but
The crack on the


slope increased in size and new ones developed farther up the hill,
until finally one extended to elevation 480 above sea level, the limit
of the present break. The movement into the Cut from the west
bank occurred early in August, 1915, when a section of Zion Hill
broke away and settled down. The edge of the break on this side is
also a curve.
The movements from the two sides were toward the central portion


*ss' .EE






REPORT OF THIE GOVERNOR.


gradually settle down vertically,


with very little lateral movement,


pushing out the material along the prism face.
When the break occurred on the east side it was realized that it
would extend eventually back to the limiting cracks, and that all the
material lying above some surface, concave in shape, unless removed,


would eventually enter the prism.


It was impossible to handle any


of it by hydraulics away from the Cut, and the only other method


would
ground


steam


and


shovels.


would necessitate


These


could


only


the establishment


operate


on firm


dumps.


The


number of shovels that could be worked would be limited, and con-


siderable excavation would be required before


could be attacked.


the sliding material


The dredges were capable of and were removing


over 1,000,000 cubic yards per month without any of the. difficulties
attending steam-shovel operations, and what could be accomplished
by the latter would be relatively so small and the cost so high that
the idea of introducing steam shovels was abandoned and the decision
reached that the material must be removed from the canal side by the
dredges.


From experience with


other breaks


it was known that the move-


ment


would


continuous.


settlement


occurs,


which


material is pushed into the prism; the movement is at first heavy and


rapid, gradually diminishes, and finally ceases.


This condition of rest


is disturbed either by the rains or by the operations of the dredges


cutting into the banks.


As all the material


liable to move must be


taken


by the


dredges from the Cut, there would come a time


when the machines would be idle,
additional material for them to ha


waiting for a movement to give
ndle. The judicious application


of hydraulicking


bank would


avoid


such


a condition,


conse-


quently pumps for sluicing operations were installed on two barges.
These have been used for cutting and maintaining surface drainage


and for washing down material to the dredges,


when the conditions


warranted it.
The finished section from Gold Hill north left an enormous mass of
hard rock on the east side and at the northwest corner of Gold Hill.
When the break occurred in 1914 this mass of rock was moved slowly


into


prism,


but finally


came


rest and seemed


hold the


Sa : a . _- - -






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


Cucaracha, and the direction of the movement was due, no doubt, to


the retaining effect of "Gibraltar,


though


this took up slow move-


ments at times when the heavier masses back of it were disturbed by


subsequent settlements.


width


prism


through


the slide


section


remained


fixed for the project-300 feet bottom width-every movement that
occurred on either the east or west bank would contract the channel,


and


should


a movement


occur


in both


banks


same


time


would probably result in closing.the canal to navigation.


sity


of restoring the channel


maintenance of navigation


tion


width


sufficient


The ne


permit the passage of ships and


were


take


main
care


considerations.


material


An a


fces-
the
ddi-


pushed


subsequent
training a ch
material haC


movements,


lannel,


was


thereby 3
considered


been removed.


This


ncreasmg
advisable


the c
until


Chances


t


a modification


main-


he
of


loosened
the pro-


jected width,


which was increased to 500 feet,


100 feet on either side


of the original prism lines.


The


conditions


canal


closed


as they


existed


then-in


navigation indefinitely


November,
There was


1915-found


across it


isthmus 250 feet long in the direction of the axis of the canal, the top


which


was


about


feet


above


water;


dredging


operations


were


confined to the north of this isthmus, working toward the south,


with arrangements made for washing down the material in case it was


advisable


accelerate


motion


any part


the sliding area,


and with the project modified so as to give a completed width north
of Gold Hill of 500 feet.


In October,
ra member


1915


the President nof the


National


Academy


United States was advised


Sciences-which


was


organized by an act of Congress to give expert advice to the President
and Congress on scientific matters-who stated that one of its mem-
bers had made an extensive study of earth slides in tropical countries,


and was convinced


that there were relatively simple ways by which


they


could


be stopped,


and


suggested


that


a committee


mmmg


engineers and geologists of the academy be appointed to consider his


propositions.


consequence


this


President


United


States


requested


that


a committee


appointed


National


-- - - K-


**i






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


but


that


the report. of the committee would


be able


restore con-


fidence in
knew that


project,


especially


the methods adopted


as those connected


would


overcome


with


work


the difficulties for


good and all, given the time and money, and that the waterway would


be all that had been


expected.


Probably


greatest


mjury


done


canal


was


through


Prof.


Benjamin Le Roy


Miller, Ph. D.,


who occupies the chair of geology


at Lehigh


University


On returning to New


York from


Costa Rica


he stayed here a couple of


days awaiting a steamer.


He was given


every facility to examine the slides at Culebra,


which


were


then


their worst,


and he


is reported


have said


for publication


on his


arrival in the United States that he had made a


"thorough examina-


tion


slides,"


and


conditions


found were


as follows-the


statement appearing in quotation marks in


the press item:


At the Culebra Cut


* * cracks have formed over


1,300 feet back from the


canal, and all of the ground intervening is moving toward the Cut.


There is no doubt


that much rock, now apparently stable, also will move, as its support is withdrawn by
the removal of loose earth and rock. Before the canal can be said to be completed
and permanently opened to traffic, the amount of material that must be taken out
will not fall far short of the amount already taken from the Culebra Cut.
Transportation companies planning to use the canal should realize that they must


not expect uninterrupted service for several years.


may be opened,


During the dry season the canal


but it is certain to be closed during the rainy season when the earth


is soaked with water and its movement toward the canal facilitated.
In view of the extent of the material that has now started toward the Cut, it seems


that steam shovels should again be employed.


of Zion Hill must be removed


Practically all of Gold Hill and much


and to wait until the earth breaks loose and enters the


Cut where the dredges can attack it seems unwise, and unquestionably longer delays


the completion of the project.


If dredges alone are employed, as at present, the canal


may be kept clear during the months when rainfall is lightened,
to come the rainy season is almost certain to cause such slides i
for weeks or even months.


The "thorough examination"


but for many years
s to close the canal


occupied fully three or four hours of


his time.


The position


that he occupied in


one of


the leading uni-


versities of the United States gave credence to his statements,


which


were copied broadcast, and commented upon editorially to the detri-


meant of the canal.


His dire predictions were naturally unsettling to


shipping


interests,


which


were


guided


them


some


extent


. -. - d-I -m






THE PANAMA CANAL.


that time they expected that their final report would be completed


in April, but up to date it has not been received.


report will be found in Appendix N.


The preliminary


It will be noted that the state-


ment made by Prof. Miller, that practically all Gold Hill and much of
Zion Hill must be removed, is not concurred in; and in this connection
it should be remembered that a committee of this character expresses
its opinions guardedly, for whatever happens they must be found on


the right side.


They advocated, as a matter of scientific interest,


the making of an accurate triangulation of the hills in question-


Gold,


Contractors,


Culebra,


and Zion-which has been


done.


checks made at frequent intervals the slightest movement on


Part of any of the four hills would be disclosed at once.


No movement


of any kind has taken place.
The committee expressed the belief that every available and prac-
ticable device for controlling the water, both on the surface and under-
ground should be employed, and to this end advocated covering the


slopes with vegetation


cracks


to prevent surface wash, closing peripheral


, draining undisturbed and threatened areas, and draining by


tunnels.
For several years the expedient of covering the slopes with vegeta-
tion has been carried on, starting under the direction of Dr. Pittier,


of the Smithsonian Institution.


Where the surface of the ground is


in mo ion, as in the case of active slides, the roots are disturbed, and


the steady growth of vegetation is impracticable.


Trees and vege-


station of all kinds growing on the surface of the ground which broke


in October,


1914,


were carried


down


slide


and


exercised no


deterring effect whatsoever.


On sliding ground there is not sufficient


time to plant anything and no good would be accomplished.


Where


the banks consist of the red clay of the country, it is only after con-
siderable difficulty that grass of any kind can be grown on them.
Vegetation stops erosion; on this account the work was undertaken
and is being carried on.
When peripheral cracks occur in rock with sufficient earth covering
they may be effectually closed by the use of a hydraulic grader, as
was done in an incipient slide on the west bank of the canal near


Las Cascadas.


The sluicing down of the earth into a uniform slope


rHF lMKK
*IE::E






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


to close them permanently without expense that is disproportionate
to the results obtained.
In compliance with the expressed wishes of the committee while
on the Isthmus, subsurface tile drains have been installed within an


area on Culebra Hill as an experiment.


Also, as suggested by the


committee, the fault fissure under the hard Obispo tuff on the north
side of Contractors Hill has been sealed and a concrete-lined drain


constructed, draining the surface water into the canal,


with a view


to the protection of the Cucaracha rock beds adjacent to this portion
of Contractors Hill.


It is admitted


that if


water could


be entirely


excluded


earth movements would cease


, but unfortunately this is impossible.


With the heavy tropical downpours the best that can be done is by


drainage, to carry away what falls as rapidly


as possible,


but ground


water can not be eliminated.


So far as concerns ground water, the


construction of the canal has created entirely new conditions.


old tributaries of the Chagres River and


The


those of the Rio Grande,


which formerly were natural drains, are now well above the water
surface of the canal, and the canal has become the drainage channel


for the country for miles on either side.


Even assuming that were it


possible to devise a system for getting rid of ground water, it must still


exist below the surface of the water in the canal itself.


The slides


in question affect the banks for a considerable distance down, prob-
ably below the bottom of the canal, and if ground water be primarily
the cause, then it can not be removed from the strata at which the
trouble starts.


Surface drainage


excavation.


was


maintained


throughout


period


The aj acent country on either side of the canal


dry
was


drained


through the east and


west diversions,


which continued


as drains, discharging their accumulated waters into the Chagres.


In relieving the pressure, force pumps on barges have enabled


washing down of part of the material,


as already


explained.


the
The


hydraulic grader which was constructed in July


commission in August, 1914,


, 1914, and put in


was built especially for opening chan-


nels to expedite surface drainage at various points along the line of
the canal, and to maintain them, and this work has been carried on,






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


Drainage


by tunnels has


been


considered in connection


with data


obtained since


committee's


report


was


written,


as the result of


experiments suggested


by the chairman


committee,


Van 4


Hise


, through


whom


services


Prof.


Warren J


Mead,


University of
Mr. Donald F


Wisconsin,


were


secured,


and


who


was


assisted


MacDonald in making tests of the rock formation in


which the east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides have occurred.


I have
hereto


received


appended,


from


Mr.


marked


MacDonald


"Appendix O,


, the geologist,


a brief


report,


which states the result of


the experiments, as follows:


Twenty-one average


samples of the


Cucaracha or sliding formation


were


taken


from below the water level of the canal.


These samples, completely saturated,


con-


trained 12.20 per cent of water by weight, or 27.8 per cent by volume.


The 16 average


samples taken from well above the level of ground water, where the rocks were much


jointed and fractured and, therefore, perfectly drained,


water by weight.


contained 10.60 per cent of


As shown above, 12.2 per cent of water by weight fills all of the pore


spaces of the rock; therefore, 10.6 per cent by weight fills only 87 per cent of them,
leaving 13 per cent of the total pore space as having been emptied by drainage and by


drying.
rock.


Now, 13 per cent of 27.8 per cent is 3.6 per cent of the total volume of the
This shows that natural drainage of the most perfect kind would not remove


more than 13 per cent of the water by weight, equivalent to 3.6 per cent of the volume


of the rock.


However, most of the samples from the drained rock were taken very


close to the surface, so that very likely they lost some of their water through drying
out by the heat of the sun, for the dry season was more than a month old at the time
they were collected.
These facts show that while the sliding rocks have a high percentage of pore space,


the pores are mostly of capillary


and are filled with water which obeys the laws of


capillarity and


which can not,


therefore,


be drained off.


These experiments defi-


nitely established that all cures by drainage which had
the canal authorities were absolutely futile, and the m


been offered to and urged on
Loney which might have been


wasted in worthless tunnels,


wells, and acres of asphalt covering,


was saved for the


only remedy that could bring permanent cure under the circumstances-dredging.


Before


considering


the suggestions


that


have


been made


for con-


trolling or preventing the slides other than those already mentioned,


it may


this


well


direction


to state


what


prior


was attempted


occurrence


by the
slides


canal forces in


which


now


active.


During the excavation


the Cut 22 slides and


breaks of


various


extent occurred.


The steps taken to protect exposed slope


by vege-


^ii:i


:






REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR,.


It was thought that in case of clay slides heavy riprap dumped on
the surface would find its way through the loosened material to firm


ground and check the movement,


less as the piling.


but this method was found as use-


Most of the riprap rock was taken out at the foot


the slope as the excavation


concreting


face


proceeded
prism to


Experiments


prevent


were


made


disintegrating


effect of the air on some of the softer rocks; this was done by use of a


cement


gun,


by plastering


reinforced concrete


rail.
nant


anchored


surface


with


the side of


cement


prism


mortar


with


None of these methods was satisfactory or durable.


of the French drains


, which proved inadequate,


and


pieces of
The rem-


were dug out at


the bottom of the prism.


The conclusion was reached


that the only


cure was the removal of all loosened material as it came into the Cut,


and in case of breaks to


relieve the weight,


where possible,


from


upper parts of the banks by steam shovels or sluicing operations.


considering


any


method


stopping


slides


some


concep-


tion must


had


enormous amount of


material involved,


well as


method


in which it


acts.


The


banks


present


giving


trouble are from 300 feet to approximately 550 feet above sea level,


and extend back 1,300 to


1,800 feet from the faces of the prism, and


from


these


broken for
As already


farthest
a depth


explained,


points to
extending


water surface


least


the movement is


entire


bottom


mass


canal.


by fits and starts, sudden at


first


and


gradually


subsiding,


with renewed


activity


after


a period


quiescence.


For instance,


in August,


1916


a general


movement


occurred at the east Culebra slide and consisted of a settlement from
20 to 25 feet vertically down at the rear portion of the area affected,


some


1,300 feet from


prism,


by which a


mass of


material from


lower part


was


projected


into


Cut


beyond


center


line


reducing


depth


water


along


this


line


an average


5 feet.


Because of the width of the new channel


, as well as the depth, navi-


gation
mous


was not interrupted,


amount of


material


but some


that


must


idea may


held


had


back


any


the enor-
artificial


construction


or device


similar


those


which


have


been


proposed,


and


impossibility


their construction must


recognized.


Suggestions


most


frequently


made


have


been


along


line


�_




* r


THE


and


PANAMA


cANAL.


tying the piles ta anchors driven in


done, nor would it secure the result ant i
this scheme.


the firm ground can n bhe
cipated by the' ropoce-s of


The


construction of retaining walls would require


the excavation


material


material


secure


foundations,


in motion,


when


necessitating
need for th4


remnval of


retaining wall


would no


longer exist.


There is no form of


construction that could


be designed
excavation


that would hold


foundations


back the superimposed mass-while the


was


inm progress.


The


construction


of inverts to hold down the bottom of the prism is impracticable and
impossible.


Wire


netting


rolled


over


bank


and


held


place


stakes


would not prevent the movement,


but would seriously interfere with


the -dredges


in removing


material


littered


with


sections


wire
slide.


mesh,


which


would


Consolidating


break
mass


loose


with


injecting


every


grout


movement


would


also


impossible; the


pipes could not


be driven


' the earth and rock, as it now comes into tl


to firm ground below and
he Cut, can be much more


easily


handled


than


would


the case


were


this


material solidified


by cement.
It was suggested that the slopes and the surface of the ground adja-


cent


which


would


Cut


covered


exclude


water


with
from


asphalt,


tar,


ground.


or some


This


preparation


was


also


pro-


posed by a member of the committee from the National Academy of


Sciences.


That


committee did


not include it among its recom-


mendations seems conclusive that in its opinion it was not practicable,
and no further comment seems necessary.


A number of


difficulties,


theories have


among them


that


been
there


advanced


as to


the cause of the


exists a huge reservoir of water


within


the earth and the pressure therefrom produces the slides.


this


be so


pressure


being sufficient


break the ground


would


release the water and allow its escape.


All the water that is drained


from the slide areas is accounted for by the rainfall and by the escape


any


ground


water


that


movement


might


liberate,


and


theory is


untenable.


The mutual attraction


of the large masses on


either side of the Cut is assigned as the cause for bringing down the


I


I _ _






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


eruptive material, sometimes for a long distance, to the place of the


least resistance."


Coming from


a man


with such large


practical


experience, it undoubtedly carried conviction to the minds of many


who read it.


Since Senator Kearns's


examination was more thorough


than that made by Prof. Benjamin Le Roy Miller, Ph. D., it is com-
forting to note from his judgment also that Gold and Contractors
Hills are not likely to fall into the Cut.
Senator Kearns is in error when he states, " Since it (the canal) was
first opened to navigation on August 14, 1914, it has been closed and
out of commission virtually two-thirds of the time." The canal was
opened to traffic August 15, 1914, and up to June 18, the date of the
article, the canal was closed 232 days out of 656 days, or approx-
imately one-third of the time, instead of two-thirds, as stated.
Another error is that there was an upheaval in the bottom of the


Cut at some other point than the Culebra section.


At no portion of


the canal has there been any upheaving except in the 2,000 feet north


of Gold Hill.


This upward movement first occurred when the excava-


tion had reached elevation 175 feet above sea level, or 135 feet above


the finished bottom of the canal.


The upheaval, as the result of the


present slides, reached an elevation of 65 feet above the water surface,


or 110 feet above the bottom of the canal.


In no case was there a


movement at the bottom that was not preceded by a movement in


the adjacent bank.


The movement in the bottom ceased entirely in


1913, when the side slopes were made sufficiently flat to reduce the
pressure exerted by them to less than that required to accomplish


this upward movement.
again subsequent to the


The


upheaving


break in


October,


bottom


1914,


when


occurred


huge


masses of the banks crowded toward the axis of the canal and dis-
turbed the condition of pressure that existed prior to the occurrence


of the slides.


Part of the shoaling in the canal is undoubtedly due


to the resistance to the motion of the mass at some part of the bottom,
which throws part of the slide itself upward with the effect shown.


According to Senator Kearns's


theory, gases forming somewhere in


the interior of the earth in escaping carry with them eruptive material
to the place of least resistance, or in this instance through the bottom


of the canal.


The breaks,


which produced fissures several hundred






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


the banks we are able to reach bottom grade and keep it.


Under the


circumstances,


those


on the


work still


adhere


their


LbeliefB


that


subterranean gases have nothing whatever to do with the movements
that have occurred.


The


and


methods


maintain it,


proposed for securing


adopted in


October,


a channel


1915,


through


were


laid


the slides
before the


committee of the National Academy of Sciences, including the sluicing


operations proposed on


the west side,


which modified the plan in any waz
by a number of people seeking to


but no suggestions were made
The various propositions made


help us in our troubles were care-


fully considered, as were also the theories advanced setting forth the


probable
posing, f


causes.


or suitable


There


were


monetary


a number


of letters,


consideration,


to cure


writers


the slides


pro-
but


these were filed.


None of the suggestions or theories tended in any


way to change the plans adopted.
The dredges did their work so well that a channel was cut through


the Isthmus connecting the


two


banks


of sufficient size


to pass the


small ships still


tied up and awaiting transit.


April 15,


1916


sufficiently stable channel had


been secured


to warrant opening the


canal
date.


navigation,


and


transit


shipping


continued


Except at "Gibraltar" the waterway is 500 feet wide with 40-


foot depth


over the greater part,


this depending on


the movements


that occur in the banks.


So far as the Culebra slides are concerned,


worst


is over;


intervals


between


movements


becoming


greater and
"Gibraltar,


the quantities of


material less;


the only danger being at


" but it is hoped that the excavation continued along the


lines


contemplated


adopted pri
of shipping.


sm line


will


enable


widening


without interfering in


this


section


any way with


transit


The reopening of the canal was at the beginning of the


rainy season, and thus far the rainfall has been above the normal.


The recent movement at Cucaracha was, as usual,


coming as it did from the high ground in


slide area.


the unexpected,


the northeast corner of the


The difficulty attending this was not a question of amount


of material, for the dredges could cope easily with the movement on


this score


the hard flinty rock was difficult to break up,


and caused


irritating and aggravating delays.






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


shops; the Cristobal roundhouse, and car shop; and the car inspec-
tion forces at Balboa and Mount Hope.
The amount of work on the dredging equipment and vessels using
the canal was sufficient to permit organizing the forces at Paraiso


and the dry-dock shops at Cristobal on a marine basis.


work at Balboa increased materially.


The marine


It was anticipated that the


Paraiso shops would not be operated during the past fiscal year, but
due to the slides in Gaillard Cut it developed that these shops per-
formed more work than at any time since their establishment.
At the end of the year the capstans and the traveling crane for
Dry Dock No. 1 had not been delivered, and the official test of the


dock pumps had not


been


begun.


It was


possible,


however,


June 28, to dock the seagoing ladder dredge Corozal and to remove
the water from the dock with the main pumps.
Delay in the completion of building No. 29 for covering the air-
compressor plant and dock pumps prevented starting the new electric-
driven air-compressor plant until April and kept the old Balboa plant


in service under


electrical


division.


Three


electrically driven


air-compressor units were purchased for installation in building No.
29, but in view of the delay in their installation and the bad condition
of the air compressors at Cristobal dry-dock shops, it seemed desirable


to divert one of them to Cristobal.


As purchased, there were two


units of 2,500 feet capacity and one of 5,000 feet capacity.


the former was installed at Cristobal.


One of


It is now found that the three


machines intended for use at Balboa will probably be insufficient to
supply all demands, and it is intended to add another 5,000-foot unit,
thus making the total capacity 12,500 cubic feet per minute instead
of 10,000 cubic feet, as originally designed.
Provision for car-shop work at Balboa proved inadequate during
the rush of railroad transportation incident to the closing of the canal
in September, 1915, necessitating the opening of the old car shops at


Cristobal for work on box cars and Roger ballast cars.


These shops


were closed on July 29, 1916, and the work transferred back to Balboa,


where conditions had improved so as to
there.


permit its being handled


The purchase of


new


tools


and


increase


amount of






THE PANAMA CANAL.


proved inadequate to supply compressed air, and one of the Babcock
& Wilcox boilers formerly in use at the Gold Hill sluicing plant was
erected and connected to a 2,500-foot air compressor from the old
Empire air-compressor plant; the pumps for water service under the
municipal engineering division were supplied with steam from the
same boiler, thus permitting one force to handle both the air conm-


pressor and the pumps.
At the dry-dock shops, Cristobal,


very little work incident to im-


provement of the plant was done, with the exception of installing the
new electric-driven air-compressor and electric motors for operating
the dry-dock pumps.
All heavy repairs to locomotives were made at the Balboa shops
and covered general overhauling of 14 engines, besides those being
repaired and packed for shipment to the Alaskan Engineering Corn-


mission; 4 were completed for the latter purpose, and


under repairs with the expectation


4 are now


that they will be shipped so as


to arrive in Alaska before the close of the season for navigation.


Extensive


repairs


were


made


launch Birdena,


De Lesseps, launch No. 26, and the tugs Reliance and Bolivar.
The floating cranes Ajax and Hercules were transferred from the
mechanical division to the dredging division in October, 1915.


The


fuel-oil


pumping plants


were


operated


by the


mechanical


division until September 1, 1915,


supply department.


when they were turned over to the


Two additional 55,000-barrel fuel-oil tanks were


purchased and at the close of the fiscal year one at Balboa was ready


for service


while the foundations had been prepared for the one at


Mount Hope and the work of its erection had begun.


Two 5,000-


barrel gasoline tanks-one at Balboa and one at Mount Hope-were


erected and connected.


A 500-barrel tank was also erected at Balboa


with connection to a standpipe for filling tank cars on the tracks of
the Panama Electric Co. for transporting fuel oil to their plant in
Panama.
The necessity for using air drills on the banks abreast the slides
required considerable compressed air immediately adjacent to the
work. This was obtained by installing two 2,500-foot air compressors,


from the old


Emnire


air-comoressor ulant.


on board the seagoing






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


the Panama Railroad, 5 for the Army,


8 for the Navy,


4 for indi-


viduals and


companies,


for the east


breakwater,


and 2 for the


Panaman Government.


Work


done


individuals


and


companies


included


extensive


repairs to the boilers of the steamships


Whitgift and St. Louis, to the


rudder of the Curacc and to the stern of the Elm Branch.


Three


manufacturing orders of considerable magnitude were accomplished


for the Ferrocarril de Arica a La Paz,


consisting of six


cast-steel


frames for geared mountain


climbing


locomotives,


3,000 semisteel


rail chairs, and 16 steel gears for use on locomotives.


For further details


, and a statement of the amount of work done


during the year by the


various shops, attention is invited


Ap-


pendix F.
SUPPLY DEPARTMENT.

The supply department has charge of the storage and distribution
of materials and supplies for use of The Panama Canal and its em-
ployees; for other departments of the United States on the Isthmus


and their employees;


for vessels of the United States, and for other


vessels when
and messes;


desired


them.


operates


commissaries,


hotels,


has charge of the maintenance of buildings and


assignment of


quarters and


care of


grounds.


It recruits and


dis-


tributes unskilled labor and is in charge of all animal transportation.


The department continued in


charge of Maj


Grove, United


States Army.
The labor force remained practically intact during the greater part
of the year, because of the terminal construction and the dredging in


Gaillard Cut.


In May, due to the near completion of the dry dock and


coaling stations, the force was reduced


the force report showing a


total of 23,462 employed on June 30, 1916, as compared with 26,897


employed on June 30, 1915, or a net reduction of 3,435.
surplus of labor throughout the year in all grades. TI


There was a
ie repatriation


of those for whom it was impossible to find work was continued, and
1,661 took advantage of it, at a cost to the canal of $33,919.65. No
contract laborers were recruited.
Quarters.-The village of Corozal was abandoned effective Decem-
1 -" -�l-i i, i I -� * 11 � 1 1 ,1






THE PANAMA CANAL.

Additional quarters were completed and occupied as follows:


Fifteen 4-family, seven 2-family,


2-family, ten 4-family


twelve 1-family, all frame; two


concrete; one special bachelor apartment,


concrete; one special bachelor apartment, frame.
Corrals.-There was no decrease in the demand for wagon trans-


portation, all animals being worked to their full capacity.


Due to


improved road conditions, particularly on the Pacific terminal, motor
trucks were substituted for animal-drawn wagons, both for delivery


service and trucking.


amounted


Animals dying or destroyed during the year


: animals


surveyed


and


sold,


and


animals


corrals at the close of the fiscal year totaled 519-horses 118, mules
390, and ponies 11.
Material and supplies.-A total of 1,776 requisitions were prepared
and forwarded to the general purchasing officer, as compared with


1,428 during the previous year.


The total value of material received


was $9,945,390.32, as compared with $8,018,418.03 for the previous
year, the increase being largely due to the increased prices of mate-
rial. The local purchases amounted to $1,569,812.15, as compared
with $1,360,469.71 for the previous fiscal year.
There was a general increase in the price of many of the staple
articles of material, especially iron and steel; the average price of


steel and iron on hand June 30, 1915, was
pared with $2.17 per cwt. on June 30, 1916.


$1.63 per cwt., as com-


All storehouse operations were placed under the supervision of a
general storekeeper, comprising the storehouses at Balboa, Paraiso,
the obsolete stores at Mount Hope and at the dry dock, Cristobal.
On June 30, 1916, the value of material in stock was $4,198,392.34,
as against $2,925,332.91 on June 30, 1915, not including the stock


obsolete


and


retired


material


and


equipment


on hand


Mount Hope store.


The increase in the value of the stock material


was due, in large measure, to an increase in the purchase price of a


large number of items.
567,024 barrels.


The consumption


cement amounted


Scrap.-The policy of concentrating at the obsolete storehouse at
Mount Hope all surplus, obsolete, and scrap material and equipment


was continued.


The sales of this material continued to be made,






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


rail to the David Kaufman & Sons Co., Elizabethport, N. J., for


$48,280.


Under a later circular,


13,310 net


tons of miscellaneous


scrap


were sold


Federal Iron


Steel


for $78,333.98,


890 net tons of miscellaneous scrap to the David Kaufman & Sons
Co. for $4,147.20; and 810 net tons to N. Samuels & Sons Co., of


New


York, for $3,936.50.


All of the material sold


under the first


circular was paid for in full by the purchasers,


it remains on the Isthmus.


but a large part of


About 890 tons of material under the


second circular has been paid for, but not removed from the Isthmus.
The contractors are paying storage on all the material sold but not
yet removed.
Material to the value of $220,116.40 was sold from the storehouses


to the


United States Army organization stationed on the Isthmus.


The principal items consisted of forage, lumber,


and general hardware.


building material,


There was an increase in value of supplies


sold to steamships in transit through the canal and those touching


at the two


terminals.


The value of supplies sold was $70,918.22,


representing miscellaneous ship supplies for 860 steamers.


Surplus


and


obsolete


material


with


appraised


valuation


$222,735.24


was


forwarded


United


States


for sale.


Local


credit and cash sales of obsolete material and equipment amounted
to $205,473.94, and obsolete material to the value of $292,994.89 was
issued and transferred from the obsolete store to divisions of the canal.
There was on hand on June 30, 1916, surplus and obsolete material
with an appraised value of $665,396.40.
Fuel-oil plants and storage.-The supply department took over the
construction of the Balboa and Mount Hope fuel-oil plants on Sep-


member 1, 1915.


The Panama Canal received during the year 676,497


barrels, of which 579,389 were stored in its tanks at Balboa and the


balance,
517,191


97,108


barrels


Mount


Hope.


barrels were drawn from Balboa and


the amount stored,
108,746 from Mount


Hope for use by The Panama Canal.


To outside parties 48,427 bar-


rels were sold from Balboa, and


12,093


barrels from Mount Hope.


Oil handled for individuals and companies through the oil pumping


plants aggregated 893,165 barrels,


and the total amount of fuel oil


handled through the Balboa and Mount Hope oil plants was 2.256.119






THE PANAMA CANAL.


the tank above the surface of the gasoline.


Mount


Hope,


with a capacity


of 200,000


Storage tank No. 27 at


gallons,


was


completed


December 15, 1915.


Up to the end of the year it had not been con-


sidered necessary to order a supply of gasoline for the Atlantic side.
The total amount sold to outside parties was 199,280 gallons, and
used by The Panama Canal 362,371 gallons.
Subsistence.-The supply department continued the operation of
the Washington, Tivoli, and Aspinwall Hotels, also the line restaurants


and


laborers'


messes.


The


Hotel


Washington


owned


Panama Railroad Company and the remainder by The Panama Canal.
The revenues of the Tivoli and Washington showed an increase over
the previous year of $33,310.26.
The Tivoli Hotel showed a net profit of $24,929.85, compared with


a loss of $1,974.16 for last year.


Had a charge been made for build-


ing repairs a net profit of $17,007.51 would have been shown.


some of this increase may be due to the tourist traffic,


While


the larger part


is due to the interest of American business men in Panama and South
America. It is believed that this element of the business will increase
and that there will be a demand on the hotel facilities in the future


accommodations


representatives


American


business


enterprises.
The existing structure (frame) is badly ant-eaten and rotted, so
that extensive repairs will have to be made or a new building con-
structed, and I am including in the estimates for the next fiscal year
the sum necessary for building a new structure of reinforced concrete.
The experiment with the Hotel Aspinwall at Taboga was continued,
but employees availed themselves of the opportunity so little that
on July 1, 1916, the hotel was closed, the loss amounting to $4,554.09.
The hotel at Corozal was closed when the village was vacated and
turned over to the Army.


The net revenue for the year from restaurants


and messes was


$661,017.90, while the total cost of operations was $648,565.39, result-


ing in a profit of $12,452.51.


Had the charges for building repairs,


fuel,


light,


etc.,


been made


there would have


been a net loss of


$3,727.68.


No charge for equipment has been made, but is absorbed


T atin + li- nman -r Q M n .; c3






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


ceding year.


To the equipment were added five Chandler & Price


platen presses with motors for operating,
items, at a total cost of $1,960.30. The v


and various other small
ralue of the equipment on


hand is $37,897.57.
The commissaries of the Panama Railroad were operated by the


supply department.


On account of the high cost of beef purchased


in the


United


States


purchase of local


cattle was continued,


ranges provided for fattening, and an abattoir constructed.


During


the year the abattoir was enlarged and a fattening house constructed,


which is being operated in connection with it.


A total of 7,762 cattle


were killed and 3,843,377


pounds of


dressed beef


turned


value of which amounted to $446,682.69.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix G.

ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT.


out,


The organization


department


was unchanged


during the


year.


Mr. H. A. A. Smith, as auditor, continued at the head of the


department, and immediately in charge of the division of auditing


and accounting, Mr. John H. McLean, as paymaster, and Mr.


Clear, as collector.


T. L.


The office of the department in the Washington


office was under Judge B.


F. Harrah, as assistant auditor,


Virgil C. Miller, as disbursing clerk.
The paymaster disbursed $26,933,528.35,


was


made on


account o:
pay-rolls,


Panama


Railroad


mainly on account of


of which
Company


coupon


with Mr.


$8,694,110.12
. Collections


books and meal


tickets, amounted to $2,709,743.60.


Of this amount $2,556,093.08


were disbursed directly


by the paymaster, and


balance


trans-


ferred to the collector'
Washington, D. C., es


account.


The Commercial National Bank of


tablished a branch on the Isthmus,


which was


made a Government depository as well as a fiscal agent.


Collections


made


and


repaid


appropriations


amounted


$7,220,622.65.


The sum of $2,756,764.83 was collected and deposited


as miscellaneous receipts.


Under the provisions of section 3 of the


sundry civil act of March 3, 1915, the Comptroller of the Treasury


detailed


employees,


one


from


office


auditor,


War


Department. and the other from the office of the Comntroller of the






THE PANAMA CANAL.


made July 1, 1916.


Of this amount $19,224,873.30 were for fortifi-


cations; $1,000,000 to cover the four annual payments of $250,000
each to the Republic of Panama, and $6,000 for the expense of pre-


senting the steam launch Louise to the French Government.


In ad-


edition, $7,050,000 were appropriated for operation and maintenance,
sanitation, and civil government for the fiscal year 1917, and $6,440,-
000 for the fiscal year 1916, while $4,289,159 were charged against the
operation and maintenance of the canal for the year ending June 30,


1915.


Of the stock of material and supplies on hand $2,225,000 will


be used and charged against the operation and maintenance of the


canal.


Three million


four


hundred


thousand


dollars were


appro-


priated for colliers, $800,000 for Dock No. 6, Cristobal, and $600,000 for
new boilers in the steamships Ancon and Cristobal, which, deducted
from the total sum appropriated, leaves $370,950,116.72, or a balance


of $4,250,783


available for appropriation within the limit of cost


of the canal and the authorized bond issue.


Up to June 30,


1916,


the miscellaneous receipts covered into the


Treasury, exclusive of tolls and Canal Zone revenues, amounted to
$6,832,144.14, so that the cost of the canal to date, so far as con-


struction is concerned, amounts to $364,117,972.58.


account of receipts from future sales of


This takes no


construction material and


equipment, payments to be made by the Republic of Panama for the
sums expended on account of waterworks, sewers, and pavements in


the terminal cities, and


the equipment transferred


to the Alaskan


Engineering Commission and the State Department. The estimated
value of the items so transferred aggregated $7,155,978.80. In addi-
tion to the construction of the canal, covered by the estimates on
which the bond issue was authorized, a dry dock, two coaling stations,


terminal piers, and wharves have been built,


as well as a new hospital


at Colon and new building for the Ancon Hospital, none of which was
contemplated. Furthermore, injury claims amounting to more than
$1,000,000 were paid, and not provided for in the estimates of 1908.
Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, which requires
the reimbursement to the United States for expenditures for water-
works, sewers, and pavements in the terminal cities, the expenditures


to June 30. 1916. totaled $3.853.576.15.


The United States has been






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


terminal $1,551,747.62 were expended for the Cristobal coaling plant


and $42,771.88 for the fuel-oil plant.


At the Pacific terminal $3,062,


379.61 were expended for the dry dock and $953,332.82 for dredging


the inner harbor; for the coaling station


$920,226.68; Balboa shops,


$232,418.97;


fuel-oil


plant,


$58,068.42;


permanent


townsites,


$278,011.34, and for permanent buildings, $1,019,089.82; at Mount


Hope for sanitary fill


$22,089.62, and for the construction of roads,


not including townsites, $76,877.03.


For maintenance and


operation $6,999,750.15 were expended,


against


$4,123,128.09


last


year.


The


main


item


expense


was


$3,513,350.06 for dredging 12,430,209 cubic yards of material due to


the slides,


while


during


previous


$1,633,030.06 for the removal of
from the same causes.


year


there


were


4,710,566 cubic yards of


expended
material


The tolls collected amounted to $2,399,830.42,


383.69 last year.


as against'$4,343,-


Accompanying the detailed report of the auditor


is a statement showing the tolls collected from


each ship and


amounts that would have been collected under the Panama Canal


rules.


The business operations show a profit of $11,898.44,


as against


the loss of $56,400.78 last year.
Under claims for injuries and deaths, 2,349 accidental injuries and
39 accidental deaths of Panama Canal employees occurred in connec-


tion with their work.


Of the injuries reported, claims in 741


cases


were approved and 35 disapproved.
proved and 6 were disapproved, w.


Fourteen death claims were ap-
hile 19 cases were pending at the


end


of the


year.


On account of injuries


to employees


,341.85


were allowed, and on account of deaths $33,321.07


To employees


of the Panama Railroad


$9,056.66


were allowed


for injuries,


and


$3,330.24


were


allowed


on account of


deaths.


The


total


amount


paid by The Panama Canal as compensation on account of injuries
and deaths of employees since August 1, 1908, the effective date of
the act of May 30, 1908, was $1,338,653.69.
Coupon books to the value of $3,250,132.50 were issued during the


year to employees on


pay-roll


deduction.


Commissary


and hotel


coupon books to the value of $1,615,903.80 were sold for cash.


Meal


tickets to the value of $126,397.87 were issued to silver employees.




3?


THE PANAMA CANAL.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.


The department embraces the various civil functions pertaining to


the government of
special attorney an


the Canal Zone,


the courts,


the district attorney, and


the offices of


the Canal Record.


It is in charge of Mr. C. A. McIlvaine, executive secretary, acting under
the Governor. The organization of the executive department and of
the executive office was continued along the lines set forth in the an-
nual report for 1915.


DIVISION OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.

The work of the customs, posts, local licensing, administration of
estates of deceased employees, shipping commissioner, and publica-
tion of the weekly bulletin, the Canal Record, was carried on by this
division.


Shipping


commissioner.-The


shipping


commissioner


exercised


practically the same powers as are exercised by American consuls in
foreign ports. As this power was questioned Congress was requested
to enact legislation making it definite, and provision was made in the


act approved August 21, 1916, accomplishing the purpose.


same


connection,


diplomatic


and


consular


appropriation


In the
)n act,


which became a law on July 1


included The Panama Canal Zone in


the countries to which relief and protection of American seamen would
be extended.
Customs.-On September 15 the Government of Panama was noti-
fied that the existing Chinese exclusion laws would not be held to
apply to Chinese crews of vessels. Customs officers were directed to
continue checking the Chinese crews, but to make no further effort to
prevent them from coming ashore in the Canal Zone.
The act of August 21, 1916, confers upon the President authority
to make rules and regulations touching the right of persons to enter
the Canal Zone, and besides other things, to require a ship bringing
an undesirable to the Canal Zone to return him to the place of origin.
During the year 395 prohibited aliens arrived at Balboa and 158 at
Cristobal, in transit to the Republic of Panama and other countries.
Bv authority of the Panaman officials 343 were allowed to disembark,






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


fine of $5,000
exceeding two


and
yearn


a minimum fine of $50


3,


and imprisonment not


or both such fine and imprisonment.


There


were 38 arrests of persons and


vessels on


this charge,


of whom


were acquitted. In the majority of cases found guilty the minimum
fine only was assessed. The largest fine assessed any individual was


$100 and the heaviest fine against a ship was $190.


It is difficult to


cope with the problem when such penalties are inflicted.
The total number of vessels entered at the canal ports was 2,130,


and the total number of vessels cleared was 2,123.


There were


2,631


seamen shipped on American vessels and 2,475 seamen discharged.
Licenses and taxes.-Licenses and permits were issued to the number


2,569,


of which


1,078


were


for motor vehicles.


Motor-vehicle


license fees in the Canal Zone have been considered excessive, and
by the act of August 21, 1916, the President is given power, among
other things, to make rules for regulating licenses and taxing the use
or operation of all self-propelled vehicles using public highways in


the Canal Zone.


Under this law the license fees may be reduced.


Postal service.-Postal receipts for 1916 were $1,060.90 more than


previous


year; the


expenses


were


$9,739.19


less.


The


deficit


was $44,527.14, as compared with $55,327.23 in 1915.


In connec-


tion with this deficit it must be remembered that the postal service
is still burdened with a subsidy to the Panaman Government equiva-
lent to 40 per cent of its total stamp sales, amounting to $27,207.86


1916,


and


that


the service has not


been


allowed


credit in


accounts for interest earned by money-order and postal-savings funds


deposited in banks, amounting in 1916 to about $39,000.


This latter


handicap, however, is removed by the act of August 21, 1916.
Deposit money orders issued had a total value of $1,101,190 and
payments of deposit money orders during the same period aggregated
$1,103,340, leaving a balance on deposit, June 30, 1916, of $350,650.
These deposit money orders form the postal savings system on the


Canal Zone and draw no interest.


Under the act of August 21, 1916,


however, interest will be allowed at the rate of


2 per cent.


Mail addressed to ships transiting the canal is sent to the office of
the captain of the port at which the ship is due to arrive first, and is
delivered to the ship by the boarding officer of the tomn serviicn,






54 THE PANAMA CANAL.

In June, 1915, the limit of weight of mail matter of the third and
fourth classes was raised from 11 to 20 pounds, to conform with the
parcel post weights in effect in the United States.
Canal Record.-The Canal Record is devoted to the publication of


shipping news, statistics of traffic,
ments, notices, and circulars. T


Executive orders, official adver tise-
he cost of publication was reduced


from $13,585.15 in 1915 to $10,806.28


in 1916.


Collections on


count of subscriptions and the sale of extra copies and bound volumes
amounted to $561.50.


POLICE ANDD


FIRE DIVISION.


Contrary to expectation, police work did not diminish during the


year 1916 and the appropriations were therefore inadequate.


Changes


were made


which resulted in


the discharge of 23 second-class,


colored,


policemen,


and


the reduction in


pay


42 first-class,


American, policemen, and 13 second-class.


For military reasons the


force of policemen on the locks was increased by 41 first-class officers
on April 20, and these men were recruited from the military force


on the Isthmus.


A patrol launch was operated at the Pacific entrance


of the canal to prevent smuggling and irregular trading, one at the


entrance of Gaillard Cut


, at Gamboa, and one at Gatun, making the


regular inspection
the Canal Zone.


trips and assisting in


the work of


depopulating


Continuous guard duty was performed by police-


men


Pedro


Miguel


and


Miraflores


Locks, and three plain-


clothes officers were stationed at Gatun Locks, which were guarded
by the military forces.
During the year 4,480 persons were arrested, of whom 274 were


females.


Of the 4,167 tried, 3,389 were convicted, 767 were discharged


and 11 were awaiting trial at the close of the year.


Of the remaining


313 arrested and held in custody, 4 were sent to the asylum for the


insane,


quarantine


64 were turned over to the military authorities,


authorities,


extradited, 8 forfeited


43 to the


27 to the Panaman Government, 3 were
their bail by failure to appear for trial, 97


were deported, and


66 were returned


to merchant vessels.


There


were 5 homicides committed.


One offender, a woman, was acquitted,


1 ixrna aonfatn,,rl +r 1 Irar a nt r m nrin.l ;n +thna rnnf.jtanfth*xr 1 f.tn 9l






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


tion of a new road roughly paralleling the canal on the east side, an
extension of the highway from Panama to Gamboa, and 5X miles


were completed.
at $10,256.60, at


labor


performed


The


labor performed


the rate of


inside


10 cents p


prison,


on road
er hour,


other


work was


and


than


valued


the value of
maintenance,


amounted to $148.10.


The cost of subsisting and guarding the con-


victs amounted to $18,525.32,. of which $4,935.21 were expended for
subsistence for convicts, $1,356.32 for subsistence of guards, $7,173.32


for salaries of officers and guards of the penitentiary


and $5,061.03


for salaries of officers and guards on road work.
The fire force remained the same as at the close of the last fiscal


The only important fire occurring in the Canal Zone was on


the S. S. Antonio Lopez at Cristobal,
a loss of $20,000.


DIVISION


which was extinguished after


OF SCHOOLS.


Schools for white children were conducted at Empire,


for the first


grades; Paraiso,


first


three


grades; Pedro


Miguel,


first


seven


grades; Colon Beach, first four grades; Cristobal, eight grades and
two years in high school; Ancon and Gatun, eight grades; Balboa,


eight grades and four years in high school.


Children living in villages


where the schools did not offer the work for which they were fitted
were furnished transportation to the nearest school furnishing proper


facilities.


The school at Corozal was closed November 19, 1915, and


the children of officers and enlisted men of the Army quartered there
were furnished transportation to attend school at Balboa.
Physical examinations of pupils in the grade schools were made


in October.


Physical training was continued under the direction of


the physical directors of the various clubhouses.
A four-year commercial course was added to the high-school work


at the beginning of the school year, and 45 pupils were enrolled.


subjects


taught


are


bookkeeping,


business


law,


commercial


The
geog-


raphy, commercial history, spelling, writing, commercial correspond-


ence,


business


arithmetic,


typewriting,


and


Gregg


system


shorthand.


A two-months'


vacation course of woodwork and shop


drawing at the Balboa workshop was offered to boys who would be
in the seventh and i rhth war d nf th a hrih roh nnl nA t ftlp nnn;n a


year.


t






THE PANAMA CANAL.


noons of each week at the Balboa high school, and their progress was
more satisfactory than heretofore.


The schools for white children had an


enrollment of 1,366.


Alien


employees of the canal and the Panama Railroad residing outside
the Canal Zone had, prior to this school year, been allowed tuition


to the schools free of charge.


This privilege was withdrawn at the


beginning of the year, and consequently four rooms in the Cristobal
school for colored children and the entire Ancon school were closed


and the force of teachers reduced by seven.


The eight grades were


taught at La Boca and Paraiso, and the first six at Empire, Gatun,


and


Cristobal.


The


number


children


enrolled


colored


schools was 783.


Sixteen


buildings


were


used for school


purposes,


for white


children and 5 for colored children.


At Cristobal, on account of the


noise caused by the construction of a new building, it was necessary
to abandon the schoolhouse occupied by white children and to move


the white school


building occupied


by the colored school.


The colored school was removed to the Lodge Hall.


Sites


concrete


buildings


for white schools


were selected at


Balboa, Ancon, Pedro


Miguel,


Gatun,


and


Colon


Beach.


Money


was appropriated for expenditure during the current year for this
purpose, and it is expected that the new buildings will be ready for
occupancy by the time the schools open in October, 1917.


BUREAU


OF CLUBS AND


PLAYGROUNDS.


Clubs and playgrounds were conducted, as in previous years,


under


the supervision


of secretaries furnished


by the international com-


mittee of the


Young Men


Christian Association.


Clubhouses for


gold


employees were operated


at Cristobal,


Gatun, Pedro


Miguel,


Corozal, Ancon, and Balboa and for silver employees at Gatun and


La Boca.


The clubhouse at Ancon,


composed


of the old district


quartermaster's office and an extensive addition,


was erected at a


cost of $21,863, derived from clubhouse funds collected since 1907,


and was opened on April 8.


The clubhouse at Corozal was closed


Novemb
Paraiso


er


and


was


taken


over


by the Army


authorities.


the Lodge Hall was used one evening a week for moving'






REPORT


ing on June 30, 1916.


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


Of the cases decided 91 were civil


57

,284 probate,


and


criminal.


There


were


sessions


court.


There


were


581 marriage licenses issued by the clerk of the court, and 136 deeds


recorded.


The sum of $4,761.80 was collected in fines, costs,


and fees.


the magistrate's


court for the


Balboa subdivision


4 cases were


pending


beginning


and 2.136 cases were settled


,I t;e year
, leaving 1(


, 2,233


cases


were


docketed


cases pending at the close


of the year.


Of the cases docketed, 96 were civil and


2.137


criminal.


criminal


cases


, 50


were


dismissed,


were


committed to


the district court


and


there were


1.606 convictions and


acquit-


tals.


Collections on account of fines and fees amounted to $5,995.50.


In the magistrate'


court for the Cristobal subdivision 5 cases were


pending at the
during the year


beginning
of which


fiscal


year


, 2,403


were


125 were civil and 2.278 criminal


docketed


, leaving


cases


pending


close


year.


The


criminal


cases


resulted in


cases


were


1,659 convictions,
committed to th<


410


acquittals,


district


court.


60 dismissals, and


total


$6,053.53


was collected in fines and fees.


The district attorney, in his annual report,


Appendix J, again corn-


ments


on the


results


jury


trial


and


recommends,


as heretofore,


that jury trial
as follows:


be confined


capital cases only


statement


The results of jury trials continue to be unsatisfactory, particularly with reference


to white American defendants.


Since the Executive order of July 4, 1913, authoriz-


ing jury trials in all felony cases, no white American has been found guilty when


tried by a jury.


This failure to convict is not due to lack of evidence or conflict of


evidence.


The evidence in many of the


cases


has been convincing, but the jurors


are unwilling to convict and do not seem inclined to accept any responsibility for
the enforcement of the laws of the Canal Zone.
I renew the several recommendations heretofore made that the Executive order
be so amended as to permit jury trials only in capital cases.


RELATIONS


WITH


PANAMA.


Negotiations


correspondence


or personal


conferences


between


executive
Republic


secretary


and


Panama


secretary


included,


among


f foreign
others, t


relations


following


subjects in addition to routine matters:


The exemption of


contract laborers of The Pan am a Canal and


iJAnl -j






bt THE PANAMA CANAL.

intoxicating liquors to the San Blas Indians; free railroad transporta-


tion for


Panaman Government officials and employees; regulation


of traffic over the Gatun Lake; payment of duty to the Republic
of Panama on sales of supplies to vessels which pass through the canal
and which do not belong to the United States; opium traffic in the


Canal Zone and


the cities of Panama and


Colon; demolition, for


sanitary reasons, of stables located in


unimproved sections of the


city of Panama; matter of imposing a penalty for wireless installations
in Panama; objection to the establishment of saloons in Colon near


the boundary
employees free


line; importation
of customs duty


of playing cards and


overcrowded


condition


tobacco for


of Santo


Tomas Hospital and the urgent necessity for providing additional
accommodations for the sick; taking over by the United States of
a certain tract of land in the vicinity of the mouth of the Chagres
River; location of the statue of Christopher Columbus at the Atlantic


entrance of the canal; reduction of


the stock of Panaman pesos in


circulation by 1,000,000 for the benefit of the Panaman Government,


The


Panama


Canal,


and


business


interests


generally;


proposed


common incinerator for disposing of garbage from Balboa, Ancon,
and the City of Panama; supervision of the Panama elections; pro-
hibition of gambling in the cities of Panama and Colon; and the de-
portation of undesirable Americans.
Attention is called again to the necessity of an agreement between
the two Governments of the United States and Panama for modifying


Taft


agreement,


which


is, in


many respects,


disadvantageous


both Governments, and should


be substituted by an agreement


made in accordance with our present mutual needs and with our rights
under the treaty.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix I.
LAW.
During the year Judge Frank Feuille continued as special attorney,
for the purpose of codifying the laws of the Canal Zone and defending
the interests of the United States before the Joint Land Commission
in the acquisition of lands under private ownership, which are being
taken over in accordance with the Executive order of December 5,


Iml'


Tjnle , ,-^ 4 aA nt ^v A tint' 4^ *n1 n. dlirrrrnnn n an A i -ba 't


Cjrn ro ivy fii i ^11





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


rating to quarantine; and


the laws relating to taxation.


Most of


these subjects were incorporated in a bill presented to Congress by


the Hon.


C. Adamson, chairman


the House Committee on


Interstate and


Foreign Commerce,


which


committee


jurisdic-


tion of canal matters.
During the last fiscal year the land office settled by private agree-


Sent and paid 586 claims, aggregating the sum of $335,740.50.


This


amount includes the large claim of Cov. Reuben S. Arcia, of Colon,
for his Rio Indio and Mindi lands and improvements thereon, for


the sum of $95,000.


The total number of claims settled and paid


by the land office since the work of clearing the Canal Zone was cornm-


menced


on January


1913,


was


4,182,


aggregating


sum


$851,566.64, exclusive of any award made by the Joint Land Commis-


sion.


A total of 5,244 claims, aggregating a sum of $1,100,469.94, has


been settled and


paid through the law department since August


1908, when that department was authorized
handle such matters.


by Executive order to


The Joint Land Commission appointed under Articles


VI and XV


of the Panama Canal treaty made 18 awards during the year.


These


awards involved 27 claims, some of the claimants having more than


one claim


before


the Commission.


The


awards aggregate


sum of $10,675.


The Commission dismissed 854 claims because pay-


ment had been made by the land office, and 16 were dismissed on


account of insufficiency of the evidence.


One claim was dismissed


request of


claimant's


counsel


because


property is


located within the Canal Zone, and one was dismissed for want of


jurisdiction.


The total number of dismissals by the Commission was


872.


The Commission


disagreed


cases,


6 of which


cer-


tificates of


disagreement covering 9 docket numbers were perfected


and submitted to the umpire during the fiscal year.
It is of interest to note that the work done by the Commission


during the
$45,524.38,


expenses


period


covered


by this


of which $44,664.65


this


sum


does


special


report


cost


United


were for salaries and


include


attorney's


office.


proportionate


The


number


States


$859.73


share


cases


pending on June 30, 1916, was 1,020, and the claims filed for these


aggregated $12,308,834.15.


Five of the awards made


by the Corn-






#60


THE PANAMA CANAL


On June 30, 1916, there were 32 licenses in effect, which were issued
by the land agent for The Panama Canal within the Canal Zone.
These licenses included lots occupied by various oil companies for oil-


tank sites, church


lots, and


one


license


2 acres of ground at


Porto


Bello.


The


total rental


collected


on licenses


was $10,918.


This is a considerable increase over the previous year, because of the


fact that since January


1916, all rentals from the Mount Hope


tank farm


were


collected


The


Panama


Canal


instead


Panama Railroad Company.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix K.
HEALTH DEPARTMENT.
The health department is charged with the care of the sick and in-
jured of the Canal Zone, the prevention of disease in the Canal Zone
and the cities of Panama and Colon, street cleaning and garbage
removal in the latter cities, and all matters relating to quarantine.
The department was in charge of Lieut. Col. Charles F. Mason, United


States Army


until June 7


, 1916,


when he was relieved at his own


request on account of ill health from long service in the Tropics.


was succeeded by Lieut. Col. D. C. Howard,


United States Army,


Who was assigned to duty as chief health officer on June 22, 1916.


No cases of yellow fever, smallpox


Isthmus during the year.


or plague originated on the


Four cases of yellow fever were received


at Balboa quarantine, all from Buenaventura,
ondary cases developed.


Colombia.


No sec-


The


health


employees continued good.


The


total admission


rate to hospitals and quarters was 301.09, compared with 337.21 for


1915.


Rates are based on the annual rate per 1,000 employees.


The


total admission rate to hospitals only for the year was 164.78, com-
pared with 204.18 for 1915; and for disease alone, 125.88 as compared


with 156.81 for


1915.


The total death rate for


1916 was 6.65, as


compared with 5.78 for 1915, and the death rate from disease 4.98
as against 3.61 for 1915. Conditions with regard to malaria are im-
proving steadily each year. The total admission rate for malaria to
hospitals and quarters was 34, as compared with 66.60 for 1915, a


reduction of 48 per cent from


the rate of the previous year.


The


- - - a* a .


r





REPORT OF T ri GOVERNOR.


DIVISION OF HOSPITALS.

The average number of patients constantly present in Ancon Hos-


pital was- 748 as compared


with


previous


year.


The


average number of employees constantly sick in hospital was 267 as
compared with 331 for the previous year.


Wards 3 and 4 were vacated in August,


1915, demolished, and the


first ulit of the permanent hospital erected on their site was com-


pleted and turned over for occupancy in June.


The building con-


training


out-patient


clinic,


X-ray


apparatus


and


library


vacated and turned over to the building division in August,


for use as a local field office.


was
1915,


Wards 1 and 2 were vacated in June,


1916, demolished, and on their site construction was begun on the


second


unit


permanent


hospital.


Wards


and


were


vacated in June, 1916, demolished, and construction started on the


new Board of Health Laboratory.


The permanent concrete crema-


tory building was completed, cremating apparatus set up, and opera-


tions resumed in January,


1916.


Two


permanent


buildings


were


added to the hospital farm at Corozal; one a modern, concrete, fly-


proof compost pit containing four compartments,


carpenter shop.


and


the other a


A steam plant consisting of boiler, pipe line,


and


sterilizer was constructed to provide for the proper sterilization of all
milk containers, as well as the disinfection of beds and bedding.
There were 253 patients in the asylum on July 1, 1915; 146 males


and 107 females.


At the close of the fiscal year the number of pa-


tients remaining was 291, of whom 173 were males.
The farm was reorganized and the position of assistant farm man-


eager created.


At the close of the year there were 9 white and 44 black


cripples assigned to the farm.
Considerable trouble was experienced with the milk from the dairy
early in January, and a thorough investigation and examination of the
probable causes were made by Physiologist G. C. Bunker, as the result
of which improvements were introduced and more care given to the
milk, with satisfactory results.
Golon Hospital.---A new hospital and dispensary building was com-


pleted and turned over for occupancy on May 16, 1916.


Work is in


progress toward


the construction


L-


a reinforced


concrete garage.


4i3~~ rir " a





THE PANAMA


CANAL.


PANAMA.

The rapid growth of the city eastward toward the Sabanas, away
from the Canal Zone, has necessitated extending anti-mosquito work


that


direction,


including


construction


and


maintenance


extensive additions to the ditching.


Up to the present time the cost


of this work has been borne by the Government of Panama and the
Panama Land & Development Co. *
The Panama Railroad Company completed its public stables on B
Street, which were constructed so as to limit fly breeding and rat in-


festation.


This is


one


most important sanitary


accomplish-


ments during the year,


number


dirty


and made possible the elimination of a large


ill-kept stables in


most congested


portions of


the city.
An average of 5,000 loads of garbage of all kinds was collected per


month,


approximating


9,000 cubic


yards, including


house garbage,


rubbish, refuse,


public


dump


and stable
r disposal.


manure,


The


all of


erection


which


was hauled


a modem incinerating


plant for the destruction of garbage and refuse is an urgent necessity.


Another


necessity is


manure with


a view to


installation


making it


a compost


available for fertilizer


or treating
and at the


same time obviating the possibility of fly breeding.
COLON.


There has
measures.


been


a great improvement resulting from


anti-matarial


The total number of cases reported for the last six months


of the present fiscal year was 52, as compared with 99 for the last six


months <
through
nillo Isla


preceding


fiscal


year.


the complete elimination


nd


The


anopheles


reduction


was


secured


breeding on Manza-


, in Colon and Cristobal proper, by a combination of ditch-


and


filling


certain


areas


previously


characterized


by persistent


breeding,


as well as by increasing the number of weekly inspections of


each area, and oiling when necessary.


SANITATION.


The work of tnis division continued along the usual lines, covering


.a -. i-: . -nh 1 --n t 1


<- - ,, 1


21 nn*-� atv nn n


fIn annn+1 nfl


m fI J I ** C I It .I .. tWtfl * SI****IUBtt * I ~ L� I t I I. *r. U j Ijl U*I fl * a -I * I I.II


1






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


The increased number of ships at the terminal ports increases the
opportunities for contamination of the Canal Zone by plague-infected


rats.


Men are employed to kill rats by all means possible, especially
- J L


along the water fronts.
i The number of sanitary districts remained the same as last year


until


Corozal


was


turned


over


military


forces,


when


inspection and upkeep of one-third of the district was assumed by
the troops, and the remaining two-thirds added to Ancon, the inspec-
tor for which was allowed an assistant.
For further particulars, attention is invited to Appendix L.

WASHINGTON OFFICE.
The scope of the work handled by the Washington office was aoout


the same as reported for the previous year.


It continued in charge


of Maj.


. C. Boggs, United States Army,


as general purchasing offi-


cer and chief of the


Washington office of The Panama Canal until


March 10, 1916, when he was succeeded by Maj.
States Army.


Earl I. Brown, United


The recruiting of skilled mechanics in the United States was more


difficult,


especially


during the


latter part of


year,


due


activities at shipyards and other manufacturing establishments and


the rising scale of wages paid at such plants.


fact


that


about


cent


those


This is evidenced by


tendered


employment


failed to accept.


During the year 1,176 persons within the United


States were tendered employment for duty on the Isthmus in grades


above that of


laborer;


persons accepted and were appointed,


covering 73 different positions.


The


total value of


orders


placed


by the


Washington


office


was


$8,495,099.59, as compared with


the grand
principal


total
items


of purchases since


equipment


,307,689.34 in 1914-1


1904


purchased


$11 8,159 ,23
ilbO, loy,--o0.


during


bringing
15. The


year


were


1 refrigerating plant, $47,850; 1 engine lathe, $36,960; sectional steel


doors and accessories for piers Nos. 7 and 18, $121,837.80


keel blocks


and bilge blocks for Dry Dock No. 1 at Balboa, $50,390.70; 4 wooden


dump scows, $120,000;


2 steel dump scows, $160,000;


2 oil


storage


tanks, $25,200; one 50-ton locomotive crane for Dry Dock No. 1 at
- i i- . .t. . -- --I /. .f E . . * j 9- . __ _ _ .- - -





64 THE PANAMA CANAL.
FORTIFICATIONS.
Work was continued during the year on the gun and mortar bat-
teries, on the range-finding and fire-control systems, on the mount-
ing of ordnance, on the installation of searchlights, on maintenance
of all completed work, and of clearings and trails connected with the
fortifications.
The work was in charge of Lieut. Creswell Garlington, United States


Army, until November


, 1915,


when the fortification division was


abolished and


added as a section


the work


of the engineer of


maintenance under Lieut.
neer of maintenance, with


Col. Jay J. Morrow, assistant to the engi-
I Lieut. Garlington as assistant engineer.


During the fiscal year a part of the work of maintenance of clear-


ings and trails was transferred to the Commanding General,


States troops, Panama Canal Zone,


United


and at the close of the fiscal year


all fortification work was transferred


to Maj


Clarence O. Sherrill,


Corps of Engineers, Canal Zone district engineer officer, reporting to
the Chief of Engineers, United States Army.
The following appendices are inclosed herewith:
Increase in salaries and personnel, submitted in compliance with
the act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, Appendix P.
Laws recently enacted affecting the canal, and Executive orders
issued during the year, Appendix Q.
Chart showing the organization effective July 1, 1916, Appendix R.
Respectfully submitted.


GEo.


GOETHALS,


Governor, The Panama Canal.


Hon. NEWTON


Secretary oj


D. BAKER,
f War, Washington, D. C.











APPENDIX A.
REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


OFFICE OF THE
Balboa
Srm: I have the honor to s
done under the jurisdiction of t
June 30, 1916:


THE PANAMA CANAL,
ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE,
Heights, Canal Zone, July 31, 1916.
Submit the following report of work
his office during the fiscal year ending


ORGANIZATION.


The duties of the engineer of maintenance remained as outlined in
the last annual report, except that on November 1, 1915, the fortifica-
tion construction work was transferred to the jurisdiction of the
engineer of maintenance, and on June 1, 1916, the work remaining
uncompleted under the terminal construction division was transferred
to his charge.
The undersigned has been assisted in these duties since August 19,
1915, by Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow, Corps of Engineers, United States
Army, who was on that date appointed assistant to the engineer of
maintenance, and who for a period of about five months has had full
charge of the work during the absence of the undersigned on leave
and when the undersigned was Acting Governor during your absence
from the Isthmus.
The various divisions have been in charge of the following men:
Electrical division.-Capt. William H. Rose, United States Army,
electrical engineer, and Mr. Hartley Rowe, electrical superintendent.
Fortification division.-Lieut. Creswell Garlington, United States
Army, assistant engineer.
Locks division.-The Atlantic locks have continued under the
direct charge of Capt. T. H. Dillon, United States Army, as superin-
tendent, with Capt. Earl J. Atkisson, United States Army, as assistant
superintendent. The Pacific locks were under the charge of Mr.
F. C. Clark until March 2, 1916, upon which date he resigned, and
Mr. R. H. Whitehead was appointed superintendent, effective the
same date. Mr. W. R. Holloway was appointed assistant superin-





THE


PANAMA.


CANAL.


Municipal division.-Mr. D. E. Wright, municipal engineer.
Section of meteorology and hydrography.--Mr. F. . Willson, chief
hydrographer.
Section of office engineer.-Mr. C. J. Embree, office engineer.
Section of surveys.-Mr. 0. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer.


LOCK


OPERATION


AND


MAINTENANCE.


WATER


STORAGE


AND


CONSUMPTION


IN GATUN


LAKE.


There are se


Several plates accompanying this report


which are in-


tended to give a graphical illustration of certain items of interest in the
operation and maintenance of the locks and canal.
Referring to plate No. 62, the upper diagram gives the number of
inches of rainfall for each month throughout the year, the figures
given being the record for Gatun Lake area and not for the whole
Isthmus. The next diagram gives the average Gatun Lake level,
while the third shows the number of lockages (commercial and non-
commercial) which were made during each month of the year. The
next diagram indicates the number of million cubic feet of water
added to and taken from storage. That is, whenever Gatun Lake
level is raised, the storage capacity is increased and the amount of
water so accumulated is indicated by the areas above the neutral axis,
while water drawn from storage is shown by the areas below the line.
The lower diagram on this plate illustrates the quantity of water
available throughout the year and the relative amounts actually used.
The following table gives the average quantity of water available and
a statement of how it was used:


Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average


monthly
monthly
monthly
monthly
monthly
monthly
monthly
monthly
monthly


loss by evaporate
loss by wastage
loss by leakage,
loss by transfer
loss by leakage,
amount used for
amount used for
amount used for


tion, Gatun Lakem...... .
over Gatun spillway.
Gatun spillway.......
to Miraflores Lake.....
Gatun and Pedro Migu
r pumping..............
r ockages.......... ..
r hydroelectric station..


amount added to storage. ..............


Million cubic
feet of water.
............... 1, 926. 61


el Locks


- ft -* f * p< �.


S- --. * - * - * 2,
* . :a :* *i e ir:r* a a a - a n a" 2


150.00


Total average net yield per month .-........... .


18,130.46


It is interesting to note that an average of 7.21 million cubic feet
of water has been used for each through lockage from ocean to ocean.
The above figures show that an average of 12,787.47 million cubic
feet of water was wasted over Gatun spillway, or sufficient water to
make 1,773 through lockages each month. Based on 30-day opera-






REPORT


OF ENGINEER


OF MAINTENANCE.


since the canal channel is at elei
would necessitate keeping the la
water in storage has een taken
all times above that elevation.
water used equals 5,127.93 mill
storage equals 28,050 million c
equals 12,787.47 million cubic ft
able amount for each month of


includes leakage
Plate No. 64
The number of
of noncommercial


been made


launches, etc.,
The number of
lockages, owing
are made, e. g.,
Plate No. 65


throughout the
The canal wa
15, 1916.
Unusual deta
dams are referr(


ratio
ke l
ast
The
Lion
ubic
et p
the


n plus 40 feet, a
wel above plus 8(
;he amount which
summation of th
cubic feet per m
feet per month
er month-gives


year


The


'-U


area


40-foot channel
), therefore the
I is available at
e three areas-
onth; water in
; water wasted
the total avail-
" Water used"


e, lockages, hydroelectric, pumping, and evaporation
illustrates the number of lockages made each month
noncommercial lockages coincides with the number
ial vessels, the reason for this being that no effort hai
keep a record of the number of canal barges, tugs
which have been locked through from time to time
commercial vessels exceeds the number of commercial
to the fact that whenever possible " tandem lockages'
two vessels locked through at the same time.
illustrates the force employed by the locks division
year.


iS (

ils
ed


closed


traffic from September


in the operation or maintenance of
to in the following paragraphs.


1915,


the locks


.


.3
r


1


April

s and


ARROW"


SIGNALS.


Last year reference was made to the fact that 15-foot arrow signals
had been mounted near the end of each approach wall, with the idea
of using them for signaling to pilots. The signals were equipped with
Stamps and are visible both night and day. This year local manual
operation of the signals has been abandoned and motor drives have
been installed, which are controlled by switches mounted on the con-
trol boards. The remote control of the arrow signals was completed
as follows:
Pacific locks, July, 1915.
Atlantic locks, August, 1915.


AUXILIARY


CULVERT


VALVES.


In November, 1915, it was necessary to
culvert valve at Miraflores Locks (cast wall
the bonnet of the old valve cracked. The
signed and tested for extra heavy service.
ann or wfl inezzt linA nvn raln-a 'R_-? .�+ Porl rnt


install a new auxiliary
) owing to the fact that
new valve has been de-
A better compression
WanimiAl n Rhi�� 1�11.;


*





THE. PANAMA CANAL.

BRONZE BOLTS.


On October 10, 1915, the engineer at Gatun hydroelectric station
advised that the counterweight of spillway gate No. 13 had given
way and had dropped into its pit, demolishing all weights. This
machine had not been operated for several days and was not being
operated at the time of the accident. Upon investigation it was
found that all four manganese bronze counterweight bolts had given
way just under the head.
Each spillway counterweight consists of 56 cast-iron blocks weighing
750 pounds each, resting on a cast-iron base plate and supported by
four 1 -inch manganese bronze bolts running into a cast steel yoke
at the top. The total weight of the counterweight is 45,700 pounds,
and assuming that the load is equally distributed, each bolt supports
11,425 pounds, or a stress of 4,750 pounds per square inch of metal.
Sections of the bolts were sent to the mechanical division for test,
and gave an ultimate tensile strength of 61,400 pounds, and 63,900
pounds per square inch, respectively, for the two bolts tested. This
would indicate a factor of safety of about 13.
Immediate instructions were issued to the lock superintendents


requesting them to
to replace all bronz
On October 21,
counterweight of gi
counterweight into
at the time of the
Upon examination
of the nuts on the bh


the fir
appeal
angles
about
1 inch
the twi
The


r
Ti


pound
each 1


examine the guard
e with steel if any
1915, the naval
lard valve No. 226
its well. The guar
break and had n<
two fractures wern


olt, and the (


st break. The fi
'ance, with what
to the length of
one-third fibrous
long showing on
o formations.
total dead weigh
s, which under
eg of the U bolt


mersed).
load (24,'
13,900 p<
between
square in
Under
advised 1


A
600
oun
the
ch,
dat


assuming th


racture j
appeared
the bol


otherr at
ust abc
d to b
t. The


valve counterweight bolts and
defective ones were found.
,ronze U-bolt supporting the
at Gatun failed, dropping the
I valve was not being operated
t been closed for some time.
found, one at the top of one
the shoulder of the U opposite
)ve the nut was crystalline in
e a fibrous formation at right
fracture at the shoulder was


s and two-thirds crystalline, a vertical crack
one side of the bolt marked the plane between

it of the guard valve counterweight is 28,580
normal conditions would make the load on
.12,300 pounds (with the counterweight im-
.e worst condition, that of throwing the entire


pounds) on one leg
ds per square inch.
two legs, the stress
or an indicated facto
;e of December 29. 19"


that an examination of


of the U bolt, the stress would be
If the load were equally divided
would be about 6,950 pounds per
r of safety of nearly 9.
15, the Pacific locks superintendent
Miraflores spillway counterweight


I






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


BULKHEADS,


CENTER


WALL.


At Gatim the middle level, west bulkhead was not removed, but
the other five bulkheads were taken out and coated with enamel at
the time the gates were protected. At the Miraflores Locks the bulk-
heads on the east side of the center wall were removed and coated
with enamel, the work at the Atlantic and Pacific locks being com-
pleted on the following dates:
Miraflores, center culvert, east lower level, June 15, 1916.
Miraflores, center culvert, east upper level, chamber side, March
14, 1916.
Miraflores, center culvert, east upper level, culvert side, March 24,
1916.
Gatun, center culvert, east and west bulkheads, July 15, 1915,
and October 15, 1915.


CABLE CROSSOVER TUNNEL AND PUMPS.

The last two cable crossover sump pumps at lower Miraflores were
installed during August, 1915, making the final dates of completion
of the installations as follows:


Place.


Gatun................. . ... ...................................... ..... .......
Pedro M iguel ..................................................................
Miraflores ......................................................................


Number
of pumps.


Date.


May 9,1915
Apr. 10, 1915
Aug. 26, 1915


The installation of these pumps has kept the tunnels comparatively
dry, all linings having been cleaned and oiled during the year.

CAISSONS, SPILLWAY.


The spillway caisson for (
water in September, 1915.
Miraflores spillway caisson
in the water when the west
the next fiscal year.


3atun


was


painted


and


placed in


has been enameled and will be placed
chamber at Miraflores is flooded during


CAISSON, LOCK FLOATING.


The floating caiss
1914, and was prac
1 . 1 1l.. Trnnr wrhir


on was received upon the
tically out of service, exe
,h A aitn arrn n yamorfn on 1- r


Isthmus on October 29,
cept for tests, until July
a "rn aar irn rnnvr if- tn th A






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


of the cast iron impellers of the machines had been eaten away through
electrolitic or corrosive action, practically putting the pumps out of
commission so far as effective work was concerned. Additional
impellers have been ordered, and as soon as received the caisson will
be entirely overhauled and put in first-class condition. (See Plates


Nos.


10 and 11.)


cHAIN


FENDER


MACHINES.


On September 4, 1915, the S. S. Lux Blanca approached the lower
end of Miraflores Locks while the chain fender was up and the sema-
phore in the danger position. The vessel struck the fender and
without appreciably stopping its headway broke the chain and went
through into the lock chamber. The fact that the machine had been
blocked made it impossible for the fender to operate, but nevertheless


apparent


called
the ef


ease


attention
fectiveness


with
the
the


which


desirability


fenders.


vessel


went


a working


and a committee


through


test
was


the chain
determine


appointed to


make a series of tests upon one of the chain fender machines at Gatun.
The report of the committee is quoted as follows:


CHAIN


FENDER TEST.


In accordance with your instructions of October 21, 1915, a board composed of
ain T. H. Dillon (Chairman), Captain E. J. Atkisson, Mr. F. C. Clark, Mr. . H.
head, and Mr. C. J. Embree, arranged to make tests of chain fender machines


under service conditions.


at Gatun Locks with the S. S
November 5th and with the S.
follows:


These tests were carried out on chain fenders Nos, 810-811


Alliance on


October 26th,


with six locomotives on


Cristobal on November 16, 1915.


Report of tests


PREPARATORY WORK ON MACHINES.


Ros


valves, auxiliary


valves


needle valves were


examined,


chain


cleaned of grease so the hawse pipe friction would correspond to previous tests. Tanks
were washed out and machines were placed in what was considered a normal condition


of maintenance.


The proper instruments were installed to secure data desired.


the first test (S. S. Allianca) the valves were set to open at 360 lbs. at 12 notches opening
of needle valves.


PROTECTION


OF BOW


OF SHIPS.


3. A rope mat 25 feet long and 2 feet in diameter was woven through and around the
chain and a rope mat 2 feet thick hung over stem of the ship. A timber fender was used
on the first run with the S. S. Allianca in' addition to the rope mat, but was removed
on later runs as serving no useful purpose. Rope fenders were hung from lock walls
and men stood-by to drop fenders between ship and walls if necessary. No damage
to ships occurred as result of test. There was no appreciable tendency of ship to sheer
off on striking chain. Six locomotives were attached to ships to assist them m getting
up speed and for braking if necessary. No braking was done by locomotives except
on one test where valves were blocked open intentionally to determine pressure due
to friction of water in pipes with open valves.


1.
Capt
Whit


was






REPORT


OF ENGINEER


OF MAINTENANCE.


i. Simultaneous time interval signals were installed for second and third tests.
j. Travel time diagrams were taken for movements of one Ross valve on
Cristobal test.
5. Similar runs were made differing by only one variable so that the effect of change
inm this variable could be determined; for example, changing between runs only the
number of valves in operation, or speed of ship, etc.


TEST WITH


S. ,8.


ALLIANCE.


Twelve runs were made with the S.


S. Alliance (total displacement, 4,221 tons)


at speeds varying from 1.23 miles per hour to 3.38 miles per hour. The distances
traveled after striking chain varied from 14.5 feet to 52 feet. The setting of auxiliary
valve was changed from 360 Ibs. to 250 lbs. for the 8th run, also various openings of the
needle valve from 6 to 15 notches.
7. The result of these tests was satisfactory as showing a sufficient strength of chain
and the opening of the Ross valves under pressure. They were unsatisfactory in that
the Ross valves did not always function properly in maintaining a uniform resistance
pressure. Except on the 5th and 8th runs, the valves either remained open or closed
only after an interval of time during which interval the valves offered no appreciable
resistance to outflow of water and paying out of chain. The only resistance of any
moment tending to stop the ship with one or more valves fully open is the weight of
the cylinders and friction of moving parts. Consequently, except on the 5th and 8th
runs, the distances traveled by the Allianca after striking the chain exceeded the
theoretical although the ship was stopped before it would have reached the gates.
Had the ship been of greater displacement under same conditions of valve operation
the resistance above mentioned would not in every case have prevented traveling the
distance between chain and gates.
8. After Allianca tests were completed the machines and valves were thoroughly
overhauled and placed in perfect operating condition.

LOCOMOTIVE TEST.

9. After overhauling the valves 6 locomotives (3 on each wall) were used to draw
out the chain in much the same manner as would a ship, their cables being fastened
to the center of the chain. The operation of the valves was more satisfactory than
was the case in Allianca test, but there was still considerable fluctuation as evidenced
by the pressure curve. This fluctuation was decreased by the use of springs installed
to increase tendency of valves to close and maintain a more nearly constant pressure.
It was to be expected also that the strain exerted by the locomotive would not be so
nearly constant as that exerted by a ship.


S. S. "CRISTOBAL"


TEST.


10. Everything was again placed in perfect operating condition for the test with the
Cristobal (displacement 18,000 tons) and record indicator was placed on one Ross valve.
Ten trial runs were made, all except two being at approximately two miles speed.
The first run was made at 1.64 and the eighth at 2.45 miles per hour, the latter speed
being the maximum that could be obtained in distance available. The operation of
the valves in every way was satisfactory and the distance travelled after striking,
corresponded closely with the theoretical. With auxiliary valves set at 360 lbs. and
the needle valves at 12 notches and at 2.45 miles per hour speed the maximum pres-
sure developed in the cylinders was approximately 550 lbs. per sq. in., the Ross valves
opened and floated at approximately .7 inch rise and ship was stopped in 57.5 ft.
which is almost exactly with the theoretical.






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


THEORY


OF OPERATION.


13. The proper functioning of the chain fender machines when chain is struck by
a ship depends upon the successful. operation of two resistance valves which may be
connected in parallel at each chain fender machine. At practically all chains includ-
ing the chain under test these valves are of the Ross type the theory of which is as
follows;
14. The water pressure in the main or upper chain fender cylinder caused by ship
striking the chain is transmitted thru small pipes to an auxiliary valve of safety,
spring, diaphragm type which opens at a certain pressure for which it may be set and
permits water to flow from head of cylinder to the chamber in bottom of Ross valve.
Connected to this same chamber in bottom of Ross valve is a small needle valve which
permits the escape of a certain portion of water coming through the auxiliary valve
depending on opening of the needle valve. The working part of the Ross valve
consists of a movable stem having two pistons. The openings and parts are arranged
to form a balanced system except for pressures from chain fender cylinder acting on
top of 2" stem tending to close the Ross valve and the pressure transmitted through
the auxiliary valve acting on bottom 6" piston tending to open the Ross valve.
15. When chain is struck the action of check valves closes the system and the
pressure increases until auxiliary valve opens. This transmits the pressure to bottom
of 6/ piston of Ross valve, thus overcoming the effect of corresponding pressure on the
top of 2" stem and causes stem to rise and opens the valve. The stem of the valve con-
tinues to rise and increases the opening until pressure in chain fender cylinder drops
sufficiently to permit closing of the auxiliary valve whereupon the now unbalanced
pressure acting on top of the 2" stem causes Ross valve to close, the water in bottom
chamber escaping through the needle valve, which is set at small opening to permit a
cushioning effect in the seating of the valve. This opening and closing of the Ross
valve continues until a balance in pressure between the 2" and 6" pistons is obtained.
This balance is struck when the pressure required on the 6" piston in order to hold the
valve is the same as that required for discharging thru the needle valve the quantity of
water entering through the auxiliary valve. Theoretically this should cause a fairly
uniform resistance pressure slightly in excess of setting of the auxiliary valve.
16. The functioning of the Ross valves and the resistance to paying out of the chain
are thus seen to depend upon the differential action of the auxiliary valve and the
needle valve and the potential unbalanced pressure on top of the 2" stem which tends
to close the valve. Increasing the setting of the auxiliary valve increases the pres-


sure required to open the Eoss valve. Increasing the opening of the needle valve de-
creases speed of opening and increases speed of closing of Ross valve, causing higher
pressures. Decreasing opening of needle valve increases speed of opening of Rom
valve and decreases speed of closing, causing lower pressures.
17. The pressure curves show that the initial pressures run considerably higher than
the setting of the auxiliary valves. These high pressures cause wider opening of
Ross valves than that which is merely sufficient to cause the desired resistance. The
excess opening causes a rapid drop in cylinder pressure after reaching a maximum.
The drop in pressure is further accelerated because the stem of Ross valve continues to
rise and increases the opening until the cylinder pressure falls to point about equal to
setting of the auxiliary valve. In other words, the valve is opemng while pressure is
rising, reaching a maximum and dropping to a point equal to setting of auxiliary


valve.
18. The force tending to close the Loss valve is the cylinder pressure which sets on
the top of the 2" stem. It is fully effective only when this pressure is less than setting
of auxiliary valves, or when auxiliary valves are closed. The closing effort is greatest
at instant of closing of the auxiliary valves, and rapidly decreases as the cylinder
pressure decreases.


,78*-






REPORT


OF ENGINEER


OF MAINTENANCE.


as it was desired to make same under normal condition of maintenance.


The valves


were merely taken apart and examined and tanks were washed out to prevent possi-
bility of silt interfering with operations of the auxiliary valves. No attempt was
made to have valves close of their weight after being operated by hand as no necessity
j . - - - > * - - " - - *


for this was foreseen.


After the Allianc tests were completed the Boss valves were


thoroughly overhauled, a new leather placed in one valve and the other leathers soft-
ened up. One valve stem which was sufficiently bent to cause valve to operate with
difficulty when moved by hand was straightened in the lathe. Glands were loosened
upso that valves closed by their own weight.


22. It is understood that the itoss valves are designed to reduce high pressure to
lower pressure in same pipe system. In such a system there is always some pressure
on the exit side, and consequently no opportunity for the pressure on the entrance
side to drop to a point below which the unbalanced closing pressure could not over-
come some considerable friction. On the chain fender machines, however, there is no
appreciable resistance to flow beyond the valves as piping is short to air. A sluggish
valve might work satisfactorily in a reducing system, but might fail under a chain
fender test. Test No. 12, run with Allianca with Ross valve blocked open, indicates
no appreciable pressure in cylinders. With open valves, therefore, or at slow speeds
with partly open valves, the closing pressure is either not sufficient or drops too
quickly, and their own weight is the only force tending to close the valves. With
conditions as in chain fender machines, therefore, the adjustments of Ross valves


and accessories must be carefully made and maintained


. It is noted also that the


sag of the chain was considerably greater in the Allianca test than in the Cristobal
test, being 8 to 9 and 3 feet, respectively. Increase in sag serves to increase initial
speed of cylinder travel, causing higher pressures and wider opening of Ross valves.
High initial pressures offer more opportunity for failure of valves to close.
23. The result of the complete overhauling and installation of springs to assist


closing of the valves was evident in the locomotive test, and to a smaller degree in


the Cistobal test. The effect of the springs is neglible in opening. On the Cristobal
test everything was operating so smoothly that minor changes such as variation in
setting of auxiliary valves, needle valves, springs, use of one or both valves on each
machine, change of speed, etc., while making appreciable difference, were not suf-


ficient of themselves to cause valves to fail.


CARE OF VALVES.


24. Based upon result of these tests and also upon the fact that if any one of the four
valves at each chain fender fails all would fail, the Board recommends the following,
covering care and maintenance of the valves:
1. Valves should be thoroughly overhauled every 6 months, leathers soft-
ened up or new leathers placed and friction of moving parts eliminated so that
valves close by their own weight.
2. One valve at each machine should be set with auxiliary valve to open at
300 Ibs. and 6 to 12 notches (one to two complete turns) opening needle valve.
The second valve at each machine should be set with auxiliary valve to open
at 400 lbs. and needle valve set at 6 to 12 notches (one to two complete turns).
Both valves should be connected in service and ready for emergency operations.
3. Install spiral springs on valve stems below valve to assist valve in closing.
Strength of springs should be such that they will be only under slight compres-
sion when valves are fully closed and 100 lbs. compression when Ross valves
are open one inch.
4. Reduce settings and operate valves with operating pumps, then reset as
prescribed in paragraph No. 2 above, every three months.
E WXTQt nut +..a + n Iroa7- /vnnnn " +nrhnn tnlnio onA maIra miro taitf thonr iQ nh Oflf. ru nr


f





74 THE PANAMA CANAL.

over all regulating and needle valves to prevent unauthorized persons
gaining access to or tampering with the adjustment of the mechan-
isms. Arrangements were also made to put ventholes in the top of
all water tanks of chain fender machines in order to allow the escape
of air at the time the machines operate. Ratchet-driven pawls have
been installed on the lower chains at Miraflores, so that either the
high or low tide chain can be easily thrown in. See Plates Nos.
66 and 67
CONDUCTOR SLOTS.
All conductor slots and rails have been overhauled, cleaned, and
painted, putting both the towing and return tracks in condition for
operation.
DECK LIGHTS.

Arrangements were made to replace. practically all deck lights at
the Pacific and Atlantic locks. It has Leen found that it is a very
difficult matter to prevent the deck lights chipping and breaking out
of the concrete as a result of being heated excessively by the sunlight
and then suddenly quenched by tropical showers. The most effective
means of preventing the breaking of the deck lights has been to
paint the circumference of the light with a plastic compound, which
allows for the expansion of the glass after being embedded in the
concrete.
EMERGENCY DAMS.
As a part of the operating work at each of the locks two drill
operations of the emergency dams are made each month, the usual
crew being nine men. In order to accustom the men to operating
under any condition, at least one of these operations is made at night
under artificial light.
If the dams had to be operated in an emergency, the noise of the
passing water would make it impossible to give verbal directions;
therefore, all operations are carried out in silence, arrow signals being
installed near the gates on each girder so that the silver operators
can signal when the hooks are clear or in place on the gates. Ad-
ditional lighting has been installed and an indicator has been placed
on the gate machines for aligning the clutches so that the machines
can be changed from one gate to the gate next without resetting.
All clutch operating solenoids on the girder hoist machines have been
removed during the year and will be operated by hand in the future.
The Atlantic locks have installed lamps in each girder, gate, and
wedge motor in order to keen the insulation dry and ready for service.