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|Table of Contents|
|List of Illustrations|
|Report of the Governor of the Panama...|
|Appendix A: Report of the engineer...|
|Appendix B: Report of the marine...|
|Appendix C: Report of the engineer...|
|Appendix D: Report of the resident...|
|Appendix E: Report of the resident...|
|Appendix F: Report of the superintendent,...|
|Appendix G: Report of the chief...|
|Appendix H: Report of the...|
|Appendix I: Report of the executive...|
|Appendix J: Report of the district...|
|Appendix K: Report of the special...|
|Appendix L: Report of the chief...|
|Appendix M: Report of the general...|
|Appendix N: Preliminary report...|
|Appendix O: Report of the...|
|Appendix P: Tables|
|Appendix Q: Acts of Congress affecting...|
|Appendix R: Charts showing organization...|
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
|Table of Contents|
Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
Appendix A: Report of the engineer of maintenance
Appendix B: Report of the marine superintendent
Appendix C: Report of the engineer of terminal construction
Appendix D: Report of the resident engineer, building division
Appendix E: Report of the resident engineer, dredging division
Appendix F: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division
Appendix G: Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department
Appendix H: Report of the auditor
Appendix I: Report of the executive secretary
Appendix J: Report of the district attorney
Appendix K: Report of the special attorney
Appendix L: Report of the chief health officer
Appendix M: Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
Appendix N: Preliminary report upon the possibility of controlling the land slides adjacent to the Panama Canal
Appendix O: Report of the geologist
Appendix P: Tables
Appendix Q: Acts of Congress affecting the Panama Canal and Executive orders relating to the Canal Zone, index
Appendix R: Charts showing organization of the Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co., July 1, 1916, index
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
... . . .. y.. � * * * *,*
i_ i_ lllll i i~ i_ �
*1L t I
0 : .
* � 0
* 4 * ,
<* � 1
eqlfrt of the Governor of The Panama Canal- ----------------
Construction ----------1 -- -------------------------- - - - - - - - - - - - ---
Division of terminal construction
Dry docks_ _---- ___--__---__
Entrance basin --------�___
Cofferdam - -- --.. - .-
Entrance Pier No. 9-----
Balboa coaling plant-- -
Unloader wharf, Dock No. 7.
Reloader wharf, Dock No. 6-
Repair wharves and commerce:
Reinforced concrete pontoons.
Cristobal coaling plant.
Building division .......
Operation and maintenance_.
Electrical division ........
Municipal engineering division-
Meteorology and hydrography-
- - - -
~- --- '------------------C---I-----------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - - -
Office engineer- - - --.----
Office of the marine superintendent-------------------------
Slides-- -- _-_ ---...
Mechanical division------ - ------------- --------
Supply department - - - - --_
Quarters ..........---------------------- -----------
Corrals - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -
Material and supplies_-
Scrap ..---.---- -------- - - -
Fuel-oil plants and storage
Gasolineli-ne...------------------ - - - - -- - ---
Subsistence__ .. - - - - -----------------------------------------------------------
* r _fl.. - - - -. _._ .- -1. .- -_ 2
. . . . -y- -- - -- --_ ". _
Report of the Governor of The Panama Cana
Police and fire division ---------
Division of schools--- ....-------
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds-- -
The courts -----------------------
Relations with Panama ------
- - -- --------- ---------i ---. -- - --T
-- - - -
Law ---- - ---------------------------- - - - - - ------- ---- ---- --I
Health Department ------------------- ------ ------------------
Division of hospitals .-- - -
Colon hospital -------------------------
Panama ------ -- --- ---------------------------------
Colon _ ..---------------------------------------------------------- ---
SSanitation.. - --------------------- --- ---------------------------------------------- -
Washington office ....-------------- -- - -- - ----------------------- ---------- -
Fortifications ---...... --- - -- ---------- ---- ------------------
Report of the engineer of maintenance --- - --..------ ----
Organization a-a- -----------------------------------
Lock operation and maintenance -------------
Water storage and consumption in Gatun Lake-------
Arrow signals ----- -------------------------------------- --
Auxiliary culvert valves_ -----
Back fill and gra4ing------
Bronze bolts -------------- - -
Bulkheads, center wall-------
Cable crossover tunnel and pumps_--
Caissons, spillway ---------
Caisson, lock floating -. - ----.--
Chain fender machines....----------
Chain fender test -------
-- - -- -- -.--. - -
-- �--- - a a a a -------------- ---
-- r - -- - - - - a-- --- ---- - --------------- -
----- ---------------------------- - - --- -- -
work on machines.
Protection of bow of ships--
Data obtained ---------------
Test with steamship Allianca-
Steamship Cristobal test----
Damage to chain and hawse pip
Theory of operation ----
Care of valves.
a... .. .. .. .. .. -- .. - --- - ----------- --
... a------------------------------------ . -- - a----- - -
----------------- -------- ----
------ ----*---.---- ------------- --------
e - aa---- - - -- ---- a
---.- -- ----------
different results obtained-
- - - ---- - ------MN- --------- - ------
-1" .*, : * ' *
Report of the engineer of maintenance--Continued.
Lock operation and maintenance--Continued.
ckag es - ... - ---- -
Electrolysis and corrosion
Lock gates _..--.--
Cylindrical valves ---
------- - -- ------ --------- -------- ---- --_- -3_ __ a_
.I-------------------------------- --- - - - - - - - - -
Side seals of valves--
Top-gate seal--- ----------- ---- ---- -----
Piers and side sealsa--a aaaaaaaaa
Roller tra ins . .- - -- -- -- - . ... . . - - - - 4 - - -- - - -
C o n clu sio n s ---...........................................................................................................
Miter forcing machines.. ........... .......-
Painting -- ---a .-------.. --.. .....-..-- - ..-.-..-.-._..-.-.-.-._.-.......
Repair pits___ -. -
Repair shops --.--
-''-�~~~ ~ ~ ~ a - *---I------I+-~-- --
Snubbing buttons -.--.------.-- -- --------. -_
Spare arts-------- --
Spillway caissons s
Telephones_ ---....----------------------- -------_
To ing locomotives
Transformer rooms- -_-----------_---
Whistles .--- ..-
nGatun Locks e k
Locka ge operation---------------------- - -. -----------------
Pacific locks ....
-- - - - -
Water ---_-------_---_---__-_------ -
Traffic -me- a - a a-- -�-
al ls a-- -- --------------_-_----- -_ __-- -
Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Operation of telephone and telegraph system ..... .__--
Operation of railway signal system and accegsories- -_,,_
Northern and southern districts, operation and maintenance work
Armature winding and electrical repair shop--------------.-
General electrical construction work,.. .... __----
Power plants, substations, and transmission lines
Underground conduit lines and underground and overhead
distribution lines--_ -- ..-. _ -.--. . --.- - - - -- - - --- -. --
Street lighting .-- ------ -- -- -- .- - ------- -.---. - --
Motorizing Mount Hope Dry Dock pumps.------
Grader barges for dredging division------------
Berm cranes - --...---.--.--- - -- ------ - - - - -- -.-.--
Shopyard lighting system_ -- - -. - - - - ---- --- --, --- --
Balboa Dry Dock pumping and air-compressor plant
New piers -..... --- -- -------------- -.. . -----
Installation of electric meters- .. ------------ .- ---
Electrical installation work in buildings-----......---- - -
Municipal division__ --------------
Southern district--- --
Army work - -- -- - - - ---
Corozal district, Army work--
Balboa district, Army work --.-.
Health department work.....
Marine division work......
Panama Citv constr
- -p---- -- - -- a- - - - - - - - - -
-j --. ju-uu ju^ ^if---- - --- - -- -I - - - a
~- - -- C~- lr-C~----------------- -
--- - a- n
l-- --r-r----- ---- - - -
I m ..
and terminal construction work ----....
construction wor --------- ----
auction and maintenance work_
Northern district --- ----
work ---.- ---- --
r department work__
la Railroad work ---- -.------------
laneous _ _ _ _ _-- ----- --- --- ...
t of water-collection office, Colon--
of waiter-purification plants ----
Hope purification plant ------
-f--- -- - - "-- -- - I- -- *- -- -* -*
- - - - -----.iBki^W iA h~^4ir- Mth �iM*M-*lHh4lll:~i*IW-4H -I~f
--- --1---- ----
Alum ........---------------- ------ . -- - --
basin --- ---------------
C(,M - 1 5 Lh :k r L. E' J 1'V u W
Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Operation of water-purification plants-Continued.
Agua Clara purification plant
Rapid sand filters
Physical and chemical dat
OP 8 tP R .iv at
SUP 1. un dene
MiraHores uriHeaticul ant
JA.T* U MLtiJ 1t.1 IA LV. LL'JAJ
Rapid sand filters---
Physical and chemical
Superintendence- -- -
--- w ffw*IP f i ^tf m 4M- ^m-Wi ii- -M - - - - - - - - - - -HH N Mh4HMrMf tttf ttttf IW*i||:*f1MU 4H
- ----- - ---- - -- ---- - a
- - - - - - - - - -
- - -----------
i, a- - --
- ---- - - ----
- - - -
- - - - - - - -- -
- - - - - - - ---
1- - ---- -� -� -- -1 1-Ir-~
- - --CII--CI -I-- ~---�I
- - ------ --- -Il--C--
---- _- - - a ---, - -- - - - - -
I-I------r- C-- - ----------------
Tables accompanying physiologist's report, list
Section of meteorology and hydrography_-
M eteo rology ------ - - -------
Precipitation - ---------------------------------------
Temperature- -------------------------------- - - -
SWindr - ------------------- -------
Atmospheric pressure ----------------------
Evaporation-- --_��� - - _�____ ^ _ � � _- --
Sea temperature - ---- ---------------
Tables accompanying meteriological section, list of_-- -
HIydrographyti--------------- -------- -- ----
Currents in lower approach to Miraflores Locks-- -
Miscellaneous- - ---------------------
Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Section of surveys-Continued.
Fuel-oil storage - ----- -- ------ -.-
Supply department past
Section of office engineer_
res. .... . . . .
_E _-^LJ J.- *llh--- *-a M|^---- ^ --- .^-- ^ K
----------- - ---
- - ---- -- - -
Report of the marine superintendent-
Summary of traffic through The Panama Canal since its opening
tr affic .---------------
Number of vessels of various nationalities passing through The
Panama Canal ---------- - - ------ - - - - - - - - -
of traffic through
to Pacific- -- - - - -------------- -
to Atlantic ---------
Measurement of vessels
and application of tolls
in the fiscal
---- - - ---- - --
---- -- - - - ---
- -- -------- --
-- - -
Steamboat-inspection service ---.-----
Report of the engineer of terminal construction_
Coaling plants, dry dock,
and floating cranes_---
Entrance Pier No. 9-
- ----- -- -- -- -- - -
------- - - - - - ---- -- - --
Floating cranes- - - - - - -- --
Construction work, field engineering and inspection --------
Pacific terminals----- ----------------------------
Dry Dock No. 1 -_.-- --------------------------------------
Report of the engineer of terminal construct
Construction work, field engineering and
General summary of work_-
Excavation - - - - - -- - -
F ill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-------- --
Reinforcing steel placed --------��--.--- - ...
Fixed steel placed--
Piles driven_ - - - - -
Ca is son operations - - , - - -
Steam shovel excavation-
Summary of Sosa Hill operations
Atlantic terminals. - -- -- ----------------------------------------
Cristobal coaling plant ----- -_------
Rein forcing iron_----
Piles driven_ .. ..........--
B ack fill - - - - - - - ---- -- - - - - - - - - - -
Progress of cylinders---- - -
Excavation....__. ....._. . ._-_--.
Summary of erection of wharf decking steel-
1E a s t b r e a k ~x- a t e r - _ - - - -------------------------------_ _ _- - ----- --------------- ---------------------
East brea kwater- .... _ ..-- - ----- -
Trestle reconstruction- --
Dry fill in place-plowed off Lidgerwood cars.
Placing concrete blocks
Hydraulic filling -- --_-
Manufacture of concrete blocks at Gamboa__.
Walker and Torbert contract-rate of manuf
concrete blocks and total to date- --
Rate of shipment -
Pier No. 7 and other work- - ----
Report of the resident engineer, building division--Continued.
Building operations_ --.- - -- - ---- -- --- ---
Buildings authorized and constructed -------------
Canal and Panama Railroad buildings __- ----- --
Army buildings- -- - ---.-.-- . --- -- - - - --- -- - ---- --------
General building operations-- ..-..-.------------------ --
New Ancon HospitaL - --- ---
Group 4, section A ....
Colon Hospital -. . -- -- ----
Pacific terminal building
New An con Hospital -
Dispensary and admitting office- -.---
Laboratory building -- - -- ----
Ward group No. 5----------------
- - - - - - - -------------------------------- - -
S- - --------------------------------------------------------
S- - ---------------------------------
- - - ---------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - - -
Report of the resident engineer, dredging division-----------
Division organization --- - -- - - - - - - ---- ----------------
------Dredging - -- ------- - --------- --- ------ --.-------- -------------------- m.----- . - _
Output of all dredges, with total and unit costs--- ----
All yardage actually handled, with total and units costs..
of days d
to be r
Pedro Miguel Locks to sea_-
(Gaillard Cut), Pedro Miguel
emoved from the canal prism --.-
Subaqueous rock excavation . ---------- - -------_
First district, Gamboa Dike to Panama Bay---------
Rock removed by dr
Lake and Gaillard
Distribution of matei
edges_ - ---
--- - -- - _ w _ _ - - *-- - - - I - - - --- - -- -k w-
from Pacific entrance, Mirafl
CutL --- - -- -____- - - ----
rial removed from Gaillard Cut
-- - --
--------------------------------- - - - - - - --.............. ^ _ ..... .. ^ . ^__.^ . ^_ ^^_ ...-...^ _.^^ ^^- .UU iU a-*--*iu- IIJ..J............
- - - - - - - - - - - --************** *************** *********- '^ *'^r-- rT^ ^^r -- - - - - - - -- - - - - - ---- -v^^*r*W� ff^TW^~p ^^^p^ ^^ |||^MIF-?
Report of the resident engineer, dredging division--Continued.
Water hyacinths -- -------- - - - - - - ---------------------------------------- -------
Surveys-1 .- -. - - -I - --a- - ---- -- - -- -.-- - - - ---- ------ --------
Dry excavation-Panama Canal and auxiliaries
Dredge excavation-Panama Canal and auxiliaries -- -----
Report of the superintendent,
Dry docks and shops-.
Tables accompanying repo
Report of the chief quartermaster,
Zone sanitation --
Material and supp
Operation of store
-- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----
Sales --------- - -- --------
Fuel-oil plants and storage-
Mount Hope printing plantL
Operations of the
High and low
y at work on June 21, 1916-.-------- ---
s by months, including contractors' force ...
r force records by fiscal years-
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad quarters___
for married quarters on file June 30, 1916..---
Animals in corrals
Value of material
I June 30, 1916- --- ---- ---
received during fiscal year on requisitions__-
Report of the chief quartermaster, supply division-Continued.
Fuel-oil storage facilities on the tank farms of Th
Canal o.i - by - ---- --.
Fuel oil handled by The Panama Canal_
- _ a C? -_ -_ -_ -
Report of the Auditor------ -- - ----�-------
Accounting to the
Claims for refund
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -
----- - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - -
Clainis for damages to vessels
Examination of pay rolls .
Exchange of property with I
Construction of canal. ----
Operation and maintenance
Canal Zone accounts-
Clubhouse accounts ---
Claims for injuries and death
Inspection of accounts .
for collections -. - -. . --- --
s passing through the locks-------
Panama Railroad -.-.........
-- - - --
-- - - - - -
--- - --- ---
--- - - - - - - - -
-- - - --- - - --- -
-- - - - ----- - - -
-- - - - - - - . - -------------------------------------------------------------------
Panama Railroadn r.--t l---- - ---- -- _- --
Tables accompanying report, list of ........_. ..
Report of the executive secretary
Orga nization - --------
Executive office --� �
Bureau of clubs and playgroun
Division of civil affairs_.
Customs- .-----.------ -.
Licenses and taxes-
ds_--- - _._........
------------------------------+------- - im- - - - --� --* ^^- ^^4^^- *AIH MP 4W ^^^I^H ^HW4l||| u^i~i IIHH- IM fWll^ UN
--- - - --Wr V- 1 hf - - pmHffVm Wr ^R:--- *m-^^ :M:i^~ ^-K4H- tPf t--'^*^u i^;--1* W :-- --W*kh--i~^ ji^ �B tHf
* f l I nn l rflflflfl#U Ao<
Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
The courts -------------..-- ---.- .-------- - - - ----__-_____
Special attorney and district attorney -- --..-----.-----
Relations with Panama .-- - ------ -- ---..
Legislation ----- - --.- - --. --------- --------.-- - --- --------- - ---- - - ,- --- ---- _---
Vessels entered and cleared and seamen shipped and discharged
at Balboa and Cristobal .----.-----------�__ __-___
Number of estates received and settled and amount of funds han-
Number of estates of deceased and insane employees, by nation-
alities, settled by administrator of estates- ----_-_ -
Number of free entry requests on freight shipments approved, to-
gether with commodities imported
of mail parcels on which duty has been paid(
snt of Panama, and amount of duty, by offices
of insured and C. O. D. parcel-post parcels an
articles delivered, by offices
and parcels registered, by offices ----_-
and destination of dispatches of mail by
e office at Cristobal
of pouches, sacks,
and registered sacks handled
y-mail messengers'^--- ---- -
of money orders, by offices, payable to the remitter
and drawn on the issuing office remaining unpaid
30, 1916-- -
Deposit money-order and postal-savings transactions_
Business of Canal Zone postal system-------
Postal receipts and expenses
Total cash transactions of Canal Zone postal system
Free entry requests on freight shipments
Police and prisons-
Police force as of June 30, 1916
Distribution of police force by stations and substation
Strength of police force by months__
Changes in police personnel
Fines imposed on police officers for violations of poli0
and regulations- - - ----- ---
Number of arrests, by fiscal years, made in
Number of arrests, by months, during fiscal
Canal Zone since
Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Police and prisons--Continued.
Value of labor performed by Zone prisoners confined in the
common jail. . _-- -,-.-..a....a............ -_ .., ___
Animals impounded and fees collected.. _-_-..._.. _.
Convicts discharged from penitentiary during fiscal year.,.
Crimes committed by convicts confined in penitentiary_____
Nationality of convicts confined in penitentiary . ...____
Convicts received at penitentiary during fiscal year ... -
Sentences of convicts confined in penitentiary on June 30,
1916 ..... __ ___ ..... .... .... ....
Convicts and Zone prisoners deported during fiscal year... _
Cost of subsisting, guarding, and clothing convicts confined
in the penitentiary.--___________-....- -. .-a...._-....
Value of the labor performed by convicts employed on public
improvements and value of labor of convicts assigned to
inside labor at the penitentiary
Deaths, by months, investigated by coroner during fiscal
year . .. . -. . . -- _ .. _-
Causes of deaths investigated by coroner .......
Nationality of persons whose deaths were investigated by
coroner .-. ___-_ __
Fire personnel - - - . _ -._._ _______ _ __
Distribution of fire personnel, by stations..........
Enlistments and separations, fire force, during fiscal year___
Statement of damage
Property involved in
By whom fires were
Classification of fires
Classification of fires
Classification of cause
Manner in which fires
Distribution of alarr
Statement of fires am
Distribution of fire
Inspection of fire hos
resulting from fire during fiscal year__
fires during fiscal year---__ __-_
extinguished -.-... ... .. ..-..... �
according to ownership of property
by buildings -,_ ---__ .__..______
ses of fires ,- -__ -.. ___._ -__
were extinguishedL...------- _
as by towns -,_________ --.. - _--
d losses of property..-........ _
quipment..... ....- .- - --
e and extinguishers, etc., by months-_.
-summary of drills and passes issuedL
Canal Zone census-summary of house-to-house canvass taken
between June 1 and 10, 1916--...._..............-_ .._.. ___
A .. t , S I V*-k* - . - -..
Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Report of annual physical examine
children during October, 1915.
Money received during year on ac
etc., and tuition, and turned in
Supervisory visits by superintende
Epitome of more important school
June 30, 1913, to 1916, inclusive.
nation of white grade-school
count of sale of text-books,
to the Panama Canal col-
nt, by months --.-__._--_
statistics for years ended
- - - - -- ------------------------
Report of the district attorney -.. --------- -
Cri in, al prosecutions_-- - _-------------- ------ -------- --------------
Summary of criminal prosecutions for the fiscal years 1915 and 1916_
Report of the special attorney --.-.-.-- -- --
Statement of Panama Railroad leases and licenses
Panama Railroad cases settled during fiscal year __r..
Cristobal division, district court of the Canal Zone_
Balboa division, district court of the Canal Zone--
Panama Railroad cases pending at close of fiscal year
Cristobal division, district court of the Canal Zone_
Balboa division, district court of the Canal Zone--
in effect July 1,
lReport of the chief health officer ....
Vital statistics - - -
Employees. __--------------__ ----- _-___ _ __-_ __
Effects of season_ ......___--�.--_.-_-�-.--
Effects of race ........
DeportatRio ns -
Canal Zone_-_-_------------ -- ------------------ -
Panamal City- -- ----- ------ ------------- -- - -- ----------- - - ---
I l A iv i i of h sp:tals -- - - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aivision of hospitals. .................................
Ancon H-jospitalt___ --_-____-__-_-____
Report of the chief health officer--Continued.
Division of hospitals-Continued.
Santo Tomas Hospital . --.
District dispensaries ----.---
Medical storehouse .--- ----.
- --------- - --- - - a- a
------ - ------------------ ------------------ --------
-___--- ---------------------- ------------------- -------------a--
- ~-----------~- -------- - - - - - - - - - ---- - -------------------------
-- - - - - - --- -- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -
-~~~ - - - -------------------- -- - --- ---
Mosquito work --- - --- -------------
Rat destruction --------------
Fly prevention -------
Stables - ----- --- - -- ------ ------------ --------.
Building inspection, construction, and repair.
Sidewalks - - ------- - --- - .. -
-- --- - -
Street cleaning and sprinkling.
Garbage collection and disposal
General sanitation -----.----
Mosquito, rat, and fly work_-
Food inspection --------
School inspection a---.--
Street cleaning -------------
Garbage removal- .-..----
Build*ings -a----------- ---
General - - ---------------- --------- - -----
Quarantine division -...--.----.
Tables accompanying report, list of .
S---- - - ---C--- - - --- --- - - - - -
- a - a - a--r------------r--------------------- - - -
- ---------------------------- ---C--------------------------- -
- I -- - ----- -------------- -C------------------------
-a------------------------------------------------- - a -f*^W tem ^^ *--�'M-Wf' 111111^^Bf 411HR^^* ^^ ^^^ Ulll 1^^
-�-~-----C--- ------- - ---- - -* -- - -
-~-7-------- a -------------
---I-- I---I--------- - - - - l--
S- - - r - - ---- a a - - ---- a -------
-- -- --f - -------- ------^-- - -
- -- ---- ---- ---- --- --
Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the
Preliminary report of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences
upon the possibility of controlling the landslides
Panama Canal ------------ -------------------........... --
The three great sli es.. ........ ...............
Dominant importance of the three great slides
adjacent to The
-I---- -------- --
af--L-:-- ak a a a - a a a--
:-- : ---:-: ----- -
I * _ ~_ ^1 I _ _1 1 * ~
Preliminary report of committee of National Academy, etc.-Cont'd.
IRemiedial measures -. ..---.------------------.- -------__--_
Control of the water . -. . . .. .^.....-_
Relief of pressure , -. .------------------ -------..--.--- ..
Studies for the future-- ------------- -..... .-....
Detection of movements of earth or rock ..............._
Core borings - - - - .---.. . ...------------ - --.-------..---.... ... ..----
Underground water and related data-__--- __
Mechanical testing of the rocks--.------
EIarthquake studies/7 -- - - -� - _ __
Report of the geologist_ -_ _�-�_ -..._--_
Return to the Canal Zone in December, 1915
Through the mails many slide cures were recommended__
Experiments to determine the water content of the sliding formation
and the possibility of draining it
Results of the experiments
Minor remedies -_ --- --- ,
Future of the slides ---- ------
Table--Yardage of excavation in slides of
increases in salaries and personnel
of operation and maintenance
office -. - - -- ------------------.----------------- --- --- -- -------- -------------
Acts of Congress affecting The Panama Canal and
relating to the Canal Zone, index ----- ....-
Charts (in portfolio) showing organization of The Panama Canal and the
Panama Railroad Co., July 1, 1916, index - - - - - - - - ---
nrnno/c\ -4 0- ra
[Report of engineer of maintenance.]
1. Miraflores Locks.
2. Miraflores Locks.
3. Miraflores Locks.
4. Miraflores Locks.
5. Miraflores Locks.
6. Miraflores Locks.
7. Miraflores Locks.
8. Miraflores Locks.
Lower butt strap gate,
Blistering of paint and rust spots on gate No. 119.
Cleaning gates Nos.
114 and 115.
Gate No. 116.
Marine growth on gate No. 119.
Top seal casting upper rising stem valve.
Upper rising stem gate valve.
One and one-half inch steel nuts from cylindrical valve.
10. Electrplytic action on impeller and lower casing head of one of the twenty-
inch floating caisson
Electrolytic action on impeller and lower casing head of one of the twenty-
12. Finished asphalt street.
13. Roadbed as prepared before applying asphalt.
14. Shaping of roadbed before final rolling for asphalt covering.
15. Roadbed before squeegee coat
and wasted water.
63. Comparison between the total available water and
64. Comparison between commercial and noncommercial vessels and lockages.
65. Comparison between gold and silver force, Division of Locks.
66. Chain fender tests
67. Chain fender tests
, 28. 29,
and 30, 1916.
Following plates, 62 to
74. Miraflores Locks.
Current velocity-direction data, along lower guide wall,
75. Chagres River drainage basin.
Alhajuela average monthly discharges.
76. Gatun Lake
. Gatun Lake and Chagres
78. Gatun Lake water supply
Operating uses, year
1915 and dry season 1916.
Gatun Lake watershed.
Yields, storage, and losses mass curves.
year period 1902-1915,
82. Gatun Lake watershed.
Total yield massed, maximum, average, and mini-
['Report of engineer of terminal construction.]
16. Gamboa concrete block manufacturing plant.
Looking north, showing 40-ton
storage pile and trestle with tracks supporting mixing plant.
engine used for moving the plant and supplying steam
to its units
the elevation of cement from the car to the operating platform.
18. East breakwater, Limon Bay.
Plowing 25-ton concrete blocks from cars to
concrete-mixing plant for caissons.
on unloader wharf,
at wharf for tests.
21. Cristobal coaling station.
south from end wharf viaduct.
22. East breakwater.
23. Balboa terminals.
24. Pacific terminals.
Coaling plant from the harbor
General view of Dry Dock No.
machine shops and entrance basin.
* (copy of drawing).
1 from Sosa Hill, showing
25. Pacific terminals.
26. Balboa terminals.
27. Balboa terminals.
28. Pacific terminals.
g plant and entrance basin to dry dock.
Coaling station from Sosa Hil
Interior of Pier No. 18.
Pacific terminal office building and portion
of inner harbor.
flo, od ing.
Following plates, 83 to 93,
83. Pacific terminals.
Dock No. 1.
wall bracket, and nosing.
85. Pacific terminals.
86. Pacific terminals.
Dock No. 1.
Dock No. J
Details of blocking
General plan, elevations
Concrete mixing plant for cylinders.
91. Concrete block plant.
92. Concrete block plant.
foot concrete blocks.
Walker and Torbert contract.
Walker and Torbert contract.
93. Concrete block
[Report of resident engineer, building division.]
Heights, from Ancon
. Balboa and
the Pacific terminals.
38. New dry dock,
Air compressor and
39. Fort Grant.
Coast Artillery post.
40. Pacific terminal building, Balboa,
New steam laundry, Ancon,
concrete quarters for bachelors,
43. Balboa Prado from
[Report of resident engineer,
tn NW) fofo
48. Gaillard Cut,
south from west bank.
No. 5 and
cut through slide.
September 21, 1915.
widening channel through the Culebra slides.
52. Gaillard Cut.
Dredges removing the slide from canal
south from Culebra.
53. Gaillard Cut.
Looking north from west bank.
removing slide material
from canal prism
of slides from the banks.
October 21, 1915.
3,000 yard barge being loaded from suction dredge.
56. Gaillard Cut,
Looking north from Contractors Hill, showing bar-
rier across canal formed by slides from east and west banks.
15-yard dipper at work.
South shore of Limon
Looking west from
, showing dikes
Following plates, 94 to 97
Topography of east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.
95. Topography of east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.
96. Topography of east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.
June 15, 1916.
of south shore of Limon Bay,
showing bank erosion,
1916, and effect of rock dikes and wooden groins.
[Report of executive secretary.]
Canal Zone grammnuar
school field and athletic
Canal Zone grammar school field and athletic meet, Balboa.
May 27, 1916.
May 27, 1916.
[Report of chief health officer.]
Division of municipal
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, September 11, 1916.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the annual report covering the
maintenance, sanitation, and protection of
The Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916.
The department of operation and maintenance,
under which all
construction work was done, continued in charge of the Governor,
who was assisted in
the administration of the department by the
engineer of maintenance, Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, United States
United States Navy, until October 1, 1915,
when he was succeeded
by Commander H. I. Cone, United States Navy.
m"* * * 1 � 1 1
1 * Wi
hae principal construction work carriea on during tme year was
done in connection with the terminals, and the erection of buildings for
purposes; the electrical, municipal, and
did a large amount of construction in connection with both the ter-
minals and the new buildings.
DIVISION OF TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION.
The division of terminal construction, under Rear Admiral H. H.
United States Navy,
construction of dry docks, shops, coal and fuel oil plants, floating
1� I 1 -1 * - - . , a ** ** .7 *. A� -1
THE PANAMA CANAL,
Dry docks.-The construction of the dry docks was undertaken,
with the authority of Congress, when it became apparent that, because
of the lower unit costs secured during the construction of the canal
than were used in the preparation of the estimates, there would be
sufficient money for the purpose.
Following the views advanced by
the Navy Department, two dry docks were contemplated, located on
the Pacific side-Dry Dock No. 1 was designed and built of sufficient
size to admit any vessel that can use the locks (the dimensions are
given in detail in the annual report for 1915)--and Dry Dock No. 2,
350 feet long and 59 feet wide, for smaller craft.
As the construc-
tion was authorized in view of the possible savings, when it became
evident that both dry docks could not be built and the canal com-
pleted construction on No. 2 was stopped, but it was left in such
that it can
at any time should it be
Early in the fiscal year the excavation and cleaning of the rock in
preparing foundations for Dry Dock No. 1 were completed.
the mass concrete had been placed by the end of the last fiscal year;
that remaining to
be done was at the entrance on either side, the
pump well, and the opening in the wall which was left to accommo-
date the mixing plant.
The reinforced concrete still to be placed
numerous small lots around the metal parts and the
The permanent mixing plant used in
the construction of the dry
dock remained in service until the latter part of August, 1915, when
it was removed and the mixers mounted on cars fitted with towers
and chutes for delivering the concrete into forms.
The trestle lead-
ing into the dry dock was dismantled in December, 1915.
was finished in January, 1916, with the exception of the traverse slots
for the keel and bilge blocks,
which were subsequently cut in the
There were placed 12,897
cubic yards of mass concrete
cubic yards of reinforced concrete, in which 1,043,366
pounds of reinforcing steel and 1,122,236 pounds of fixed steel were
The average cost of the mass concrete was $5.5882 per
cubic yard and of the reinforced concrete $7.7338 per cubic yard.
The low cost compared with concrete placed in the locks is due to the
use of sand and gravel secured from the Chagres River, not accessible
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
The miter gates to the dry dock are of the same design as those
used in the locks
various members and plating were fur-
by the same contractors,
The erection and riveting were done by hired labor.
south leaf was erected, riveted, and placed on its pintle by Novem-
, 1915, and the north leaf by December 14, 1915.
The cost of
erecting the gate leaves, exclusive of the greenheart, was $98.9205 per
The miter posts and the quoin posts are of greenheart timber
obtained from British Guiana.
The gates will finally receive a coat
of bitumastic solution and one of enamel.
The machinery for the pumping plant for unwatering the dock was
. Worthington under contract.
It was com-
pleted by the close of the fiscal year and tested out subsequent thereto;
the results were very satisfactory as its efficiency was in excess of
that specified by the contract.
The cost, including the bonus earned
for increased efficiency
sluicing valves are complete, and the dry dock is in condition for use.
basin during the year, except some hand work in connection
placing a concrete apron in front of the entrance of Dry Dock No. 1,
and leveling the bottom of this basin so that it would all be below
elevation minus 45.
at a cost of $1.3009.
The amount excavated was 1,300 cubic yards,
All tracks and other material were removed
prior to April 1.
Cofferdam.-The cofferdam, which kept out the water from the area
occupied by the dry dock, unloader wharf, entrance pier, and basin,
during construction, was drilled for blasting during February
Sufficient drilling was done by April 1 to permit an open-
ing to be blasted through the cofferdam approximately 180 feet wide.
In blasting, care was exercised so as to protect
the completed work
No dredges were available until toward the close of the
fiscal year, wheh an opening was made sufficiently large for the dock-
ing of the Corozal, one of the units of the dredging fleet,
on June 27
9.-The gravity wall,
form the south wall of proposed Dry Dock No. 2,
was completed last
Of the linOrth authorized themr vet, remnined th hean.-
THE PANAMA CANAL.
Balboa coaling plant.-This plant, a description of which is given
in previous reports, occupies an area of 9.4 acres, of which 350 by 300
feet is constructed for the subaqueous storage of coal, with a bottom
elevation of 18 feet below mean sea level; the balance of the inclosed
space has an elevation of 10 feet above mean sea level, and is available
for leasing to private interests.
The work performed during the year
on the coaling plant consisted of a continuation of the construction of
machinery under contract.
The Panama Railroad tracks were removed
from the site of the east coal pocket, the excavation in the pocket com-
pleted, the floor leveled and riprap retaining walls built in.
were excavated 1,760 cubic yards of rock, at $0.3936 per cubic yard,
and 1,636 cubic yards of concrete laid, at a cost of $10.1749 per cubic
Prior to flooding the subaqueous storage pocket, cross-sections
the capacity of the pocket could later be
Unloader wharf, Dock
7.-At the close of the previous fiscal
the unloader wharf was completed up
to the point where it
intersects the cofferdam, or about four-fifths of its length.
is constructed on piers resting on solid rock with decking of steel
incased in concrete. To carry the wharf construction through the
without admitting water, interlocking sheet steel piling
was driven and the area occupied by each pier thereby inclosed. To
get the piers to proper grade, it was necessary in some cases to resort
to caissons. All foundations were completed in March and the floor
system in April. There were placed during the year 4,835 cubic yards
of mass and 2,483 cubic yards of reinforced concrete, at a cost of
$5.2984 and $8.3116 per cubic yard, respectively.
Reloader wharf, Dock
No. 6.-At the close of the last fiscal year
most of the cylindrical piers were finished; those remaining were near
of the unloader and reloader wharves, and the 8-foot
reached stiff clay the frictional resistance became so great as to pre-
vent further driving of
at about 50 feet
ground level the pressure on the shell was great enough in several
c ifi ul tri es
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
of the dock this anchorage is a continuous concrete wall 6 feet wide
by 9 feet high, supported on two rows of wood piling.
the thrust still further, the back fill is sloped 1i feet horizontally to
1 foot vertically from a line 25 feet back of the wharf, the slope being
riprapped down to low water.
There were driven during the year
1,693 linear feet of 6-foot and 184 linear feet of 8-foot caissons and
61 linear feet of 4-foot caissons.
Concrete filler in the substructure
consists of 6,182 cubic yards, and in the superstructure of 4,757 cubic
yards, all of which was reinforced, and was placed at an average cost
per cubic yard of $7.4154 and $9.1686, respectively.
Coalwhandling plant.-The unloader towers, as a part of the coal-
handling plant, were completed in their essential parts.
towers, and the conveyor system, were completed but the machinery
was not all installed.
The rehandling plant consists of
cranes used for laying concrete during the construction of the Pacific
They have been reerected and are ready for operation.
Repair wharves and commercial pier.-The two remaining caissons
of Dock No. 13, quay walls C-D-E,
poured early in the year. Later an
were finished and the floor slab
extension was authorized neces-
sitting the placing of 21 more 6-foot caissons, and also caisson sup-
ports for the crane tracks from the dry dock to Dock No. 13, requiring
seven 6-foot and five 4-foot caissons.
finished by the end of December, 1915
delayed the completion of the wharf.
All of these foundations were
. Delay in receipt of steel has
The average cost of excavation
in caissons was $2.6519 per cubic yard, and the average cost of con-
crete filler, including reinforcement, was $6.1334 per cubic yard.
Fill was placed behind Dock No. 14,
quay wall E-F, consisting of
Sosa Hill rock plowed off Lidgerwood cars from a track near its rear
The anchorages were all put in place, the ground leveled
piping installed, and the permanent tracks brought to their final level.
Pier No. 18 is for commercial use; it is the first of a series shown
on Plate No. 93, accompanying the annual report for
development of Balboa Harbor, should additional facilities be required
on the Pacific side.
The back fill in the central portion, between the
inner rows of cylinders, resting on the soft underlying mud
slight spread at different points along the pier.
This was overcome
by taking out the ton of tfhe fill an nlno aCin n two additional 2-inch
4 . . ' ' T .
Sliding doors furnished
complete the inclosure of the pier.
The cost of the pier, exclusive of
Reinforced concrete pontoons.-It was decided to construct the four
landings in slips Nos. 17
and 19, Balboa, on the floor of the dry dock,
this being the most convenient location for the purpose.
sions of the
120 feet 6 inches long by 28 feet 2 inches
feet 10 inches deep, and
they were designed to float with
a 3-foot freeboard.
The entire bottom, sides, interior bulkheads, and
frames up to a height of 6 feet,
or 2 feet from
were cast in
proofed by the
with all accessories,
After the forms were stripped the sides were water-
" Sylvester process."
Cristobal coaling plant.-The Cristobal coaling plant is constructed
at the north end of
the island formed by the French Canal and The
Panama Canal as now constructed.
It occupies an area of 19 acres.
Of this an area 307 feet by 500 feet is for the subaqueous storage of
being at 28 feet
below mean sea level.
been filled in
2 feet above mean sea level with material
)ff at elevation
by the dredges
as part of
This area is provided
for leasing to private coal dealers, as
policy adopted does not contemplate the United
regulator of prices.
on three sides
reserved for subaqueous
storage are constructed
by 6-foot diameter steel
hard rock, excavated and filled with concrete reinforced with vertical
The caissons for the end wharf were completed in Decem-
experienced with two of the caissons under the wharf bunker,
collapsed in August, due to heavy pressure on the north side.
the design was changed by substituting 6-foot cylinders
driven one on each side of the two 8-foot cylinders, and connecting
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
A system of floating fenders was installed to breast vessels
about 5 feet away from the concrete docks.
along each side of the plant across the end
An oil pipe was laid
and across the
French Canal connecting with the oil supply at Mount Hope.
oil line was provided with suitable outlets, so that fuel oil can be sup-
plied to vessels lying alongside.
supplying water to vessels. For 1
tie encasement of floor girders ]
Similar arrangements were made for
the reinforced concrete floor slab and
17,211 cubic yards of concrete were
laid, at a cost of $4.6351 per cubic yard.
During the year the dredging division completed the excavation to
a slip 250 feet wide along the
basin and berthing space along the wharf,
mately 80 per
the slip 300
Under the wharves coral rock and sand were pumped so as
to form a retaining wall between the cylinders to
2 feet above mean
sea level, to afford a
tlhe coal in subaqueous storage
against wave action.
The plant to operate in connection with this coaling station con-
sists of four unloading towers, two stocking and reclaiming bridges,
steel viaduct and reloader towers, together with a conveyor system
for the wharf bunker.
The coal-handling machinery and accessories
are being supplied under contracts with Augustus Smith and the Hunt
Construction Co., the latter company furnishing the unloading towers.
Arrangements were made looking to the completion of the unloading
towers ready for operation by September 1, 1915, and the desirability
of using -these for handling coal to ships before the rest of the plant
was completed resulted in a modification of the contract providing
for the addition of two loading-out chutes to each unloader tower, at
an aggregate cost of $5,140.
The expectation as to the completion
of the unloading part of the plant was not realized
completed until February, 1916.
were commenced February 28, 191(
for it was not
The tests of the unloader towers
i. Owing to the fact that a num-
ber of adjustments and modifications were considered necessary to
correct defects and deficiencies in order to secure compliance with the
specifications, the towers were not accepted
accepted by The Panama Canal. The bala
tically completed but not accented.
, nor have they yet been
nce of the plant is prac-
will assist in
back, forming an ell 235 feet long.
The rock used in its construction was taken from Sosa Hill, on the
Pacific side, from which was also procured such armor rock as could
blocks manufactured especially for the purpose.
dumped from either side of
between the two mounds thus formed which was filled by coral rotk
the beginning of the year the trestle used in constructing
by two northers, and the salvaging of trestle material
A large amount of material
on the new trestle was corn-
on October 7
. A single track trestle, 444 feet long, was
for the ell
, and 1,644 linear feet of double track were driven, equal to
of 1,866 linear feet of
linear feet of piling were used.
in order to
rock were excavated,
armor rock as
an average cost of
armor rock were shipped
The amount of wet fill handled by the dredging division and placed
which 155,036 cubic yards were placed during the year.
134,502 cubic yards were pumped along the
the shore to give it lateral stiffness. As it w
the base of the breakwater sufficiently broad by
trestle connecting with
ras not possible to make
dumping rock from
, when the core-rock fill was completed the toe of the slope
on the harbor side was extended by dumping hard dredged material
from scows and
coral rock and sand from a
near the shore at Coco Solo.
The scow material was obtained from
1 _ _~ _ I _ _1 L _ _
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
nation of the relative costs led to the conclusion that it would be
cheaper to substitute for this rock concrete blocks.
A contract was
entered into for the manufacture of 10,000 of such blocks, measuring
7 feet on the side, containing 12.3 cubic yards, and weighing about
50,000 pounds, at a cost of $0.385 per cubic yard.
Under this con-
tract there were delivered and placed in the east breakwater 6,182
blocks, and 590 blocks were used in repairing the west breakwater,
which was damaged by the norther during the previous year.
material used was
run-of-bank Chagres gravel,
with cement in the
proportion of about 6 to 1.
to 4} to
This mixture was subsequently changed
Progress under the contract for blocks was not satis-
factory, and in order to
increase the supply of blocks over those
secured under contract the manufacture of blocks by hired labor was
undertaken at Coco Solo and at the coaling station by the terminal
The blocks manufactured at the coaling station for the
breakwater were 5 feet 3 inches on the cube, containing 5.3 cubic
The mixture was run-of-bank gravel and
Those manufactured at Coco Solo measured 6 feet 3 inches on the
side, containing 9 cubic yards each of the same mixture.
number of blocks manufactured at Coco Solo was 3,644,
at a cost of
$3.6810 per cubic yard, and at the coaling station 4,121, at a cost of
$3.9934 per cubic yard.
The terminal division had supervision over the construction of Pier
No. 7 for the Panama Railroad Company.
tion of the shed,
The dock, with the excep-
was practically complete at the close of the year;
complete the pier for operation,
the erection of the shed,
now in progress.
For further details concerning the work of terminal construction
attention is invited to Appendix C.
The building division continued in charge of Mr. George M.
resident engineer, and was subdivided for administrative purposes
into five districts, as outlined in the previous annual report,
September 1, when, due to the advanced stage of the work, the Fort
A/�, ,v,,,, " j^-k f f^ * *4*j J f--^ � j ^ ^ �- ^I-^1 - ^ L, ^-1 .___ _| -f -. L 1-- L1 ,4h^. i 1�- &-&* " A ^I- --�r^Ev^
the annual report for
was continued, and the results obtained
different gangs from building to building.
With a foreman in charge
of each building, responsibility is fixed and a healthy rivalry created
with resulting economy of construction.
In 1908, after the building division as it then existed was disbanded,
a number of the foremen remained on the Isthmus and were without
contract, and it was found that frame buildings could be constructed
more cheaply by this method than by hired labor.
As the building
program for the year was
a large one,
whether the contract method would be the cheaper under
conditions existing at present.
Consequently, contracts were let for
These were located on
the same types erected
the same streets as houses
canal forces, and
the conditions were
The results show a material saving in both types of con-
struction by doing the work by the hired-labor method.
to the completion of the contracts all buildings were constructed by
hired labor exclusively
while the costs, if
The first concrete buildings erected were of hollow concrete blocks,
investigation showing this method
be cheaper than hollow tiles,
and it was beli
that solid concrete walls would be too damp for
Plaster and stucco made the concrete block construc-
tion more expensive than poured reinforced concrete.
Walls of con-
more substantial and resistant
construction has been displaced by poured reinforced
To avoid the expense of white plaster,
the interior of all con-
create buildings are now finished in cement, the surface being treated
mechanically and painted in suitable colors.
1 , - * J I - . I - K 1 �* . .*I
-: *I *t * -�
_ _ - - � - - - _ _ - - _
permanent character, intended to remain for the full life of the frame,
15 years at least, corrugated iron is
not so satisfactory in that
is a source
asphalt shingle as
the most satisfactory for our purpose,
maintenance, and durability being considered.
and 68 additional buildings were commenced for the canal and
For the Army 43 buildings were under construc-
Of the Panama Canal buildings the hospital groups were the largest.
The hospital buildings, at the beginning of the operating period,
unsafe for further
all were in a dilapidated
the greater number
at Ancon and those at Colon having been taken over from the French,
and therefore in use for a number of years.
Estimates were prepared
to Congress for rebuilding
period of five years,
the first appropriation
was made available
for beginning the work at Ancon and for the construction of
pital at Colon.
The money for the Ancon
unit was applied
with porches entirely surrounding them.
A service see-
tion, 32 feet by 92 feet,
on each floor..
inches were made of
reinforced concrete, and
the others were
built up of cement blocks with a hard smooth cement-plaster finish.
The floor slabs were constructed
concrete and most of
interior walls and ceilings were treated with enamel washable paint,
The roof of yellow pine, covered with red vitreous tile,
S1 . .*. . 1 .. . *. jI 1 � 1 * "3 . � I4
into four distinct units with
nicating passageways. In the central unit are located the operating
suite and administrative offices. It is 45 feet wide by 53 feet 6 inche
an extension in front
by 20 'feet 4
forms a covered entrance way and makes provision for an operating
on the second floor with exposure on
on either side of
central unit, are divided into various wards and provide rooms with
a total capacity of 50 patients.
The general-service building, 41 feet
by 83 feet, comprising the kitchen, dining rooms, and helpers'
a central location
the rear of the adminis-
All exterior porch and intermediate walls 6 inches and
over were constructed of reinforced concrete and interior walls hav-
is similar in
the Ancon building.
The cost of the hospital was $172,169.70.
A new building, covering an area of 147 feet 8 inches by 42 feet 8
the piers and
during the year at Balboa, in close proxim-
docks of the Pacific terminal
terminal building at a cost of $70,594.76.
of the receiving and forwarding agent of
of the canal as a
It is for the general offices
the Panama Railroad, the
is three stories
by the captain
the second story is
which are rented individually or en suite as offices for various
steamship companies using the canal.
constructed for the
at Balboa and a new laundry
Both are of rein-
forced concrete and cost $130,683.79 and $73,000, respectively.
the floor and
other parts of the building.
It is now in good
tion, reinforced concrete being used wherever practicable.
ovation cost $27,960.85.
It is utilized in part by the District Court
the Canal Zone
offices for the court officials,
by the special
a . - - 1 a . - *
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
quarters were determined by a board of
officers consisting of Col.
Blauvelt, Lieut. Col. Charles F
basis for the appropriation.
In addition to completing all those esti-
mated, from the same appropriation quarters were provided for the
Commanding General and his staff and such other buildings as were
authorized by the Secretary of War.
For further details concerning the operations of the building divi-
sion, together with costs of various buildings, attention is invited to
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
The engineer of maintenance, Lieut.
Col. Chester Harding, United
States Army, was in charge of the maintenance and operation of the
locks and had supervision over the electrical and municipal divisions,
meteorology and hydrography, general surveys, and the office engi-
On November 1, 1915, the fortification construction work was
transferred to the engineer of maintenance, and on June 1, 1916, the
work remaining uncompleted under the terminal construction divi-
sion was transferred to his charge.
'When the change in organization provided
by the Panama Canal
act was under consideration, I made the recommendation, under date
of November 14, 1913, that the engineer of maintenance succeed to
the vacancy in the office of Governor of The Panama Canal, thereby
assuring a succession which would result in a stable organization. I
recommended the assignment of Lieut.
Col. Harding for duty with
the canal as engineer of maintenance with this idea in view.
the main work completed and the reorganization effected, I requested
relief from office effective November 1, and as this was authorized, I
requested the assignment of Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow, United States
Army, for duty with the canal,
the prospect of his becoming
engineer of maintenance should the plan originally proposed be car-
He was assigned to duty as assistant to the engineer of
maintenance on August 19, 1915.
I submitted my resignation effec-
1, and when enroute
to the canal
to wind up my
affairs I learned of the conditions that had been produced by reason
time the looks were watered
the gates had
interiors of tl
coated with bitumastic enamel under a five-year guarantee, and the
exteriors covered with various kinds of submarine paints.
stalled at the lower east lock at Miraflores and the chamber pumped
, permitting an examination of the gates,
valves, and fixed irons.
At that time they were found to be in good condition, although there
west chamber at
The paint on
the gates was
gates it was decided that something must be adopted that would give
than anything in
had been experiP
the paint line that had
spillway gates at Gatun
and because of the condition of the interior
of the gates on which bitumastic enamel had been used it was decided
to test out the use of this material on one of the spillway gates. It
to give adequate protection
and as the contractor guaran-
entered into for coating all of the lock gates with bitumastic enamel.
The gates at Gatun
were coated and
the woik finished.
Due to the
condition of the pumps in the caisson, the impeller blades of cast iron
action on the cylindrical valves has been severe.
west flight of Gatun Locks was drained, and all
drical valves were examined. Marked corrosion
In July, 1915, the
the accessible cylin-
was taking place on
was made of
or steel, no
n the lower
It was also found
bolts holding the stops in
were in such
be replaced in every
valve in the lower level.
All valves were put in good condition and
n- * 1
* i -
aL L - :. f - . L - n rJ N Un t: a auh n a a . t.. % a* n j. j W h nf*w wt a n "mn V
* * 1
valves at Gatun and th
been violently attacked.
comes in contact with 1
upper and lower valves
The bottom seal casting of the valve which
A number of
Pacific locks were in such condition
bottom seal had
machined off to make the valve tight.
In order to protect the valve
from any further electrolytic action
cast-steel seal and
replaced with a seal of greenheart lumber.
Some of the bronze side
Otherwise the seals were in good condition and required only
a small amount of
draw filing to make
the contact surfaces perfect.
The top gate valve seal is of cast steel and is held in place by bronze
In practically every instance the corrosion has been excessive
the heads of
in some cases allowing the bolts to loosen and fall out.
on the upper valves at Miraflores.
all valves were installed
with fixed side seal
which all gave evidence
sufficient to cause any leaks.
At Miraflores removable side seal strips
such a point that all side seals had to be replaced.
Inasmuch as the
corrosion had apparently been aided by the proximity of the bronze
replace all ma-
chinery steel with lignum-vitte wood
in this way tending to place an
create around the fixed irons was removed and replaced with cement,
and wherever babbitt metal had been used to fill the recessed holes for
bolt heads at the Pacific locks
the metal was removed and replaced
roller trains has occurred
the rollers of which are made of tool steel.
locks a number
riveted over to prevent further losses.
Similar conditions were found
of +.ta Paa innirci on A n1 cl +^ r nk a 1 r4 l I 4-n
,Y . 4- � 4-
4%^ -,1f I i ^n
bronze side seals were lined up and strips of zinc bolted to the valve
each side of the seals at the bottom of the valve; (2) where necessary,
valve seal was machined
off to give solid metal contact
all removable side seal
with lignum-vit e
strips were taken
strips were not installed
wooden side seals;
the fixed irons were milled down to take the
all babbitt metal used in the assembly of the
valve for imbedding and protecting boltheads from corrosion and for
babbitt metal used in the bottom seal was removed and replaced with
valve was coated
(7) all fixed irons were coated with bitumastic enamel
nel-iron supports for the rollers were coated with bitu
; (8) the chan-
and arrangements made to lubricate the roller trains and tracks with
during operation and while
valves are submerged;
all submerged portions of the valve stems were coated with bitumastio
all bronze bolts are being replaced with steel as fast as
On October 1'
at Gatun gave way and dropped into its pit,
demolishing all weights.
This machine had
operated for several
being operated at the time of the accident.
found that all four manganese bronze coun
On investigation it was
Iterweight bolts had given
weighing 750 pounds each, resting on a cast-iron base plate and sup-
or a stress
bolts running into
square inch of metal.
cal division for test,
Sections of the bolts were sent to the mechani-
which gave an ultimate tensile strength of 61,400
63,900 pounds per square inch, respectively, for the two
All guard-valve counterweight bolts were examined and instructions
* � l 1 P " " t 1 1 Pl
- . .
out appreciably stopping its headway broke the chain.
the machine had been
The fact that
blocked made it impossible for the fender to
the apparent ease with
went through the chain called attention to the desirability of a work-
ing test to determine the effectiveness of the fenders, and a committee
was appointed to make a series of experiments upon one of the chain-
the results of the tests indicated
that the chain-fender machines will
operate satisfactorily when
would be encountered in stopping any vessel approaching the locks
at a speed under two miles per hour.
Some minor modifications were
made in the apparatus.
Owing to the fact that the slides in Gaillard Cut interfered with the
operation of the canal between September 18, 1915, and April 15,
the number of lockages made during the year does not compare favor-
Gatun was 2,254
, of which 1,779 were commercial
at Pedro Miguel 2,317 lockages, of which 1,825 were commer-
cial lockages for 1,925 vessels
commercial vessels exceeds the
to the fact that whenever possible tandem lockages
were made, i. e.,
vessels were locked
the fact that there is no record given of the number of
This division continued in charge of Capt.
The duties of the division comprised the operation of
all steam and hydroelectric power plant
the Balboa air compressor;
street lighting systems;
the telephone, telegraph, and automatic rail-
way signal system of the Panama Railroad
the design and construe-
tion of all extensions and additions to such systems
-f -u - a - I .
and repair of electrical apparatus of
___1 _ _
by about 40
, and other auxiliaries for taking care of this
output have also
as well as
44,000 volt transformers for the Gatun substation.
necessity for arranging for
increased power, and the appropriations for the coming year provide
the hydroelectric station
by the construction
new penstocks and
k.w. generator unit.
the hydroelectric station
the number and cost of
the Gatun sub-
The average production cost of current of the hydroelectric station
during the fiscal year was $0.0006
hour, including all opera-
tion, maintenance, repair, and division overhead charges,
but not in-
3 per cent
ital cost of the entire power system for depreciation, the cost of gen-
erating power at the hydroelectric station was $0.0027 per k.w. hour;
as distributed from substations, including all
the cost of the
current for power purposes
for lighting service, including the maintenance of house lighting sys-
teams and lamp
the Gatun spillway were in such condition as
rotted away and while thoroughly repaired
the action since has been
were in service.
last six months of the year there was an average of 15,165 telephone
calls per day.
A large amount of construction was done by this division on under-
as well as in street and
yard lighting systems.
were installed at Mount Hope Dry Dock.
-1 J? 2_. i - A1 I --
-__ 1_ T _1: .. . _.... yei _-1 ... .
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.
The organization of the municipal engineering division remained
unchanged and continued in charge of Mr. D.
Wright, as municipal
The municipal division has charge of all water-supply
teams on the Canal Zone, including the operation of the water-purifi-
The water supply for the Isthmus,
with the exception of that for
the three military posts on the west side of the canal, is furnished by
The water for points north of Gatun,
with the ex-
ception of Toro Point, is furnished by the Mount Hope plant,
includes the pumping station and the water-purification plant located
at Mount Hope.
The water is taken from the Brazos Brook Reser-
voir, supplemented by water obtained from Gatun Lake, at elevation
plus 75, through a 20-inch pipe laid in a tunnel 6 feet by 6 feet.
average amount of water handled at this station during the year was
131,232,000 gallons per month.
The water for Gatun and 'Gatun Locks is furnished by the plant
located at Agua Clara, and is obtained from the Agua Clara Reser-
voir, purified in
plant located near the reservoir and
forced by pumps at this station through the distribution system, sup-
plying Gatun and the locks, and
reservoir located 14 miles east of G
also to a 300,000-gallon concrete
ratun, which acts as a surge tank.
The average amount of water handled at this station during the year
was 22,580,000 gallons per month.
The water for Paraiso and all points south, including Panama City,
station at Gamboa, Miraflores, and Balboa, and the purification plant
at Miraflores, together with the distribution systems and reservoirs.
The water is obtained from
the Chagres River at Gamboa, and is
pumped from there to Miraflores, from which point, after purification,
it is supplied to all points south of Paraiso and east of the canal.
The total quantity of water handled by this system during the year
amounted to an average of 248,963,000 gallons per month.
The municipal division also
has charge of the
teams for the troops on the west side of the canal, the water at these
points being obtained from the Rio Grande and Comacho Reservoirs,
A large amount of ro
the year, particularly in
work was carried
the Southern District in and around Balboa
was commenced in March
, and was in progress during the rest of the
Balboa lying between
of new quarters to be
of water and sewer lines in
the existing town and Ancon Hill,
built during the current year. A]
that part of
to take care
11 of the road
was of Telford base with concrete asphalt surface.
Several important items of
the municipal division for other divisions of The Panama Canal,
and a part of the work was still in
sewer systems, roads and
principal items consisted
pavements for the Army posts
Amador and Fort Randolph
ments and grading around
the Balboa shops and
Bunker is employed as physiologist, in charge of the purifi-
the laboratories connected
municipal engineer, in Appendix A.
This division continued in charge of Mr. F
Willson, chief hydrog-
under the Panama Railroad steel pier to
over the Caribbean
a. m. are
- a - * -" - .. .. a - A
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
The average temperature for the year
on the Pacific coast, and approximately
the normal on the Atlantic.
1915 was near the normal
1 degree Fahrenheit above
At Balboa Heights the maximum tem-
perature was 93� F., on April 11, and the minimum, on January 31,
At Colon the maximum was, on September 27
o F., and
the minimum on February 10, 72� F.
The wind movement over the Canal Zone for the year
slightly over the average. Northerly winds prevailed.
No fogs were observed during the year 1915 at the Atlantic coast,
but a total of three fogs was observed at the Balboa Heights station
near the Pacific coast.
Numerous fogs were observed at the interior
lifted or were dissipated by 8.30 a. m.
Fifty-nine seismic tremors were recorded at the Balboa Heights
seismological station during the fiscal year.
Six of these disturbances
were of sufficient intensity to throw the pens from the instruments,
and quite a number were strong enough to be generally felt in the
Most of the tremors were of comparatively local ori-
gin, less than 600 miles distant.
There was an apparent revival of
activity in the Los Santos Province that reached the maxima during
the latter part of November, 1915, and during the first part of Feb-
the scene of
northwest, culminating in
April 26, during
which considerable damage was done to the wharf and merchandise
stocks of the United Fruit Co. at Bocas del Toro.
The intensities of
the various shocks varied from I to V on the Rossi-Forel scale of I to X.
of the Gatun Lake
the dry season
months of 1916, January to April, inclusive, was normal, or an actual
yield of 2,200 second-feet against an estimated yield of 2,160 second-
It was necessary to waste during January over 2,000,000,000
cubic feet of water, but during February, March, and April the inflow
by water usage for municipal purposes and
From January 1 to May 1 the lake was lowered 0.42 of a foot,
representing a loss of 1.95 billion cubic feet of storage.
000,000 cubic feet of water which were spilled after all the regular
demands for water Ld been met would have bee]
S 1 A .5 . - - - - - . w -
n sufficient to pro-
S - '..T
way, or a sufficient quantity of water to make 1,773 through lockages
Based on 30-day operation
mean 59 look-
The monumenting of
the Canal Zone
the cities of Panama
proclamation of February
A regulation con-
create monument was set on the Corundu River near bridge No.
the old Panama Railroad;
the Corozal road and
brass plug was set in
the concrete curb at the
junction of the Corral
, and an iron spike
was driven in
Tivoli road at an angle point on the boundary line.
tions at Colon 16 monuments were set on line, an(
the center of the
For the delimita-
several brass plug
reference points were set on
the offset line in Folks River.
were set in the sea walls at both ends of the line.
of Colon Harbor was staked
The azimuth line
the Cristobal fire
All regular concrete monuments were properly stenciled.
100-foot contour survey was finished,
Monuments set on
with a total of 843 mon-
the 5-mile line were numbered con-
5-mile line t
a number of
ype of monument
! fractions 1/2,
was also used.
to other miscellaneous work.
The office continued in
charge of Mr.
Embree as office engi-
.- A �* r * *. v --- - - - - -- .-- -
maximum number of
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
together with the supervision of the port captains, the board of local
inspectors, the pilots, the operation of lights and beacons, and the
inspection and admeasuring of vessels.
As already noted, Capt.
United States Navy,
detached and succeeded by Commander
Navy, on October 1, 1915.
After trial it was decided
for the best interest of the canal as well
as for shipping using it, to have pilots detailed as lock pilots, and two
were accordingly sent to each set of locks, acting under the direction
of the lock superintendents.
Slides in Gaillard Cut interrupted traffic from August 7 to August
from September 4 to September 9, 1915, and from Septem-
ber 18, 1915, to April 15, 1916.
Punta Mala lighthouse
was erected and put into commission on
Bona Island lighthouse
was placed in
August 2, 1915; on November 25, 1915, it was struck by lightning,
but was relighted the following day.
The lighthouse on Taboguilla
Island was placed in commission August 10, 1915.
proved satisfactory and economical.
All three lights
Some slight changes were made
in aids to navigation and in the characteristics of lights, as experi-
ence and local conditions seemed to dictate, in order to facilitate the
transit of shipping, both by day and night.
A new signal station
was erected at Sosa Hill.
It commands a
splendid view of Balboa Harbor and enables the captain of the port
to communicate with ships much more expeditiously than was possi-
The mooring stations at
throughout the year.
The former is permanent; its mooring buoys
were renewed and heavier moorings laid.
It was found desirable to
will probably be maintained until the channel through the slides is
in such shape that vessels can safely transit it without delay.
During the part of the fiscal year that the canal was open to traffic
a total of 411 vessels passed from the Atlantic to the Pacific,
pared with 530 for the previous fiscal year, and 376 passed from the
Pacific to the Atlantic, as compared with 558 during the previous
'r l 0 lb +1 � .eIl . 4 . . 1 Sn I jl 1 1
for the fiscal year 1915.
The total cargo tonnage passing through the
as compared with 951,044 tons for the previous fiscal year.
While it is
that the canal was closed for seven
The lines which formerly used
canal in the coastwise trade took advantage of the scarcity of bottoms
profitable than continuing in the coastwise trade.
United States net registered tonnage be considered in the assessment
of the United States rules for measurement has resulted in exempting
which, in turn, has resulted in discrimination against most
United S bates vessels utilizing the waterway,
United States vessels are so constructed
certain cabin space above the upper deck that is not a deck attached
were recognized as a
factor in the levying of tolls.
time goes on
with a resulting increase in
using the canal,
adopting some one rule
experience has shown
s becomes more evident,
that the fairest rules for
a vessel on a
just basis are the Panama
Canal rules of measurement; in short,
on the earning capacity of the
It is again recommended that legislation be secured authoriz-
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
has been made to have the offices of the captains of the port centers
of information on all matters relating to shipping.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix B.
The dredging division continued in charge of Mr.
resident engineer, assisted by Mr. James Macfarlane,
W. G. Comber,
The division is divided into two districts, the first em-
bracing all dredging operations in
the Pacific entrance, Miraflores
Lake, and Gaillard Cut; the second district, all dredging operations
in the Atlantic entrance and Gatun Lake to Gamboa Bridge.
As stated in the annual report for 1915, all dredging done in any
part of the canal necessary to complete the channel to its full width
and depth was charged against construction funds, and all dredging
done in portions of the canal where the full width and depth had
been secured at the time the canal was opened to the use of com-
merce became a proper charge against and was paid for from main-
Consequently, part of the dredging operations con-
stituted construction work and
The dredging equipment in
paid for from such funds.
use during the year consisted of
going suction dredge Oulebra; pipe-line dredges Nos. 8, 8, 88, 84 85,
and 86; the 15-yard dipper dredges Gamboa and Paraiso; the 5-yard
dipper dredges Cardenas, to September 30, 1915, Chlagres, to October
31, 1915, and Mindi, to
November 3, 1915; seagoing ladder dredge
Corozal and the French ladder dredges Nos. 1
the Gopher was in service until August 15, 1915; drill barge
This dredge is an improved model of the dredges Gamboa
and Paraiso, certain changes in design having been suggested by the
officials of the dredging division
to overcome some of the defects
that had developed in the other two dredges of this type, which had
been in operation for some time before the Cascadas was ordered.
To assist in washing down slides and to arrange drainage through
both of which
commission in December, 1915.
Nine additional dump scows were added
the equipment em-
of 80.2734 per cubic yard; Cucaracha slide, 264,850 cbic yards, at a
(~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ , -_- - ^^ 1 i JKi ^ B11T
earth and 39,160
cubio yards of
a cost per cubiO yard of
being due to
drilling and blasting rock areas to be removed later, the latter being
broken up by the rock breaker
Vulcan and by the drill barge; and in
the Atlantic entrance 20,746 cubic yards of earth
at a cost of $0.1323
per cubic yard.
The spoil from Gaillard
Cut was disposed of
on the dumps located
in Gatun Lake from mile 30 to San Pablo
, mile 24; in the Rio Grande
in swamps around Paraiso 501,615 cubic yards; and in
canal was from
on the south
from the prism.
A large part of the work done by the dredging division
a total of
amount removed 10,872,509 cubic yards were rock and
1,822,550 cubic yards,
Surveys of the canal in the vicinity of the active slides were made
daily; the channel
was dragged and marked
period of my
REPORT OF THE GOVEBNOtR.
cubic yards of No. 1 gravel, and 50,852 cubic yards of No.
All gravel was delivered to the Gamboa handling plant.
passed through a three-eighths-inch screen, No. 1 gravel through a
2-inch screen, and No. 2 gravel through a 2-inch screen.
The old slide at Buena Vista showed signs of new life in December,
1915, and on January
1, 1916, a crack had developed, starting at
station 1559 and running over the top of a small hill 300 feet west
of the prism line at station
joining the canal again at
The material was stiff clay and soft rock.
the hydraulic grader began operations, starting at a
point about 50 feet back of the crack and cutting a uniform slope
from the point of beginning to the base of the slide at the water's
the movement and
remained quiescent during the rest of the year.
The three rock dikes built on the south shore of Limon Bay in
1,100, and 1,600 feet west of the canal prism,
the erosion of the beach at this point, have proved entirely success-
This beach receded between 1905-1911
525 feet, or about
July, 1911, to June, 1912, the beach receded 75 feet;
since the dikes were completed,
there has been no change.
a few thousand yards of silt were deposited in the canal opposite
this point during the year,
the hundreds of thousands.
where in past years the silting ran into
* removed from
the canal prism
together with all
by the Americans in
with a total cost per yard of $0.2667; also a statement of the work
done by steam shovels during the same
, together with
For further particulars of the operations of the dredging division
attention is invited to Appendix E.
THE PANAMA CANAL.
theories that have
For some unaccountable reason there seems to be a general belief
that the entire length of the Cut is affected.
A report emanating
recently from English sources states that the bottom of the canal
through this section is found to be a bog, which is being constantly
pushed up, and through which the dredges have difficulty in main-
training a channel; further,
that it is acknowledged on the part of
those in charge that the canal is a failure, and that American engi-
neers are seeking information in England relative to the Nicaragua
Such reports are false, and there is no foundation for them;
yet they seem to have gained credence probably because a pending
securing from the latter all rights for building a canal on its territory.
was at one
the one most generally
favored by the United States, investigations by commissions, boards,
and commercial bodies, covering a series of years, have been made
of the route, and
data of all kinds collected; consequently every-
thing that is known about that route can be found at home,
out the necessity of seeking information in England.
It makes a
good news item,
however; makes converts
entire 8.75 miles of the Cut is unstable, liable to collapse or upheaval,
completely closing the canal for all time, is useful in assisting ship-
ping companies to take advantage of present conditions to charter
ships at excessive rates instead of complying with their obligations,
and permits an increase in insurance rates.
Gaillard Cut extends from Pedro Miguel to Gamboa, a distance of
The canal prism through this section averages 300 feet
bottom width, and has a de
ing channel was excavated
Spth of 45 feet.
through rock, all
Every foot of the exist-
various kinds and densities, had to be drilled and blasted in order
to remove it.
of the material,
It is possible that the water may have softened some
yet it is known
by contact with water.
been stable with the e
the softer varieties of rock
The bog theory is a myth.
xeeptions of the portions in
The Cut has
the vicinity of
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
strata' which, under changed conditions, could not bear the weight
of the superimposed mass, and caused a vertical settlement or drop
Final rest will be secured when all the material that is in
motion has been removed.
As is shown
by experience with smaller
breaks that have occurred from the same cause,
reached the final surface will be concave, or bowl shaped.
When water was turned into
the Cut on October
channel was completed to full width and depth except at Cucaracha,
where the steam shovels were making but little headway against
the slide; three benches which had been left (one at La Pita Point,
one on the east side near Empire, and one on the west side oppo-
the inclines, one at either end of the Cut;
remains of two small slides,
the east side, of the "break"
variety, and the other on the west side, a typical slide of clay which
occurred prior to the removal of the steam shovels, both of which,
between Empire and Culebra,
were cleaned up by the dredges and
have remained quiescent since.
Cucaracha slide is on the east side of the canal south of Gold Hill.
It began to
trouble as early as 1884, during the operations of
the French Canal Co.
, but all the indications pointed
to a surface
The French built an elaborate system of drainage
to overcome the difficulty, and,
excavation was suspended, fourth<
ity resulted in renewed activity
while successful so long
as work of
er deepening of the Cut in the vicin-
, with complete destruction
away by the slide in 1907.
The slide gave trouble in 1906,
excavation proceeded through this section.
The difficulties increased
as the depth increased and in the autumn of 1907 became most for-
From this time until 1910 the difficulties became less, and
it was believed that they had been overcome and that the clay re-
mining would be supported by
a rock dike which was uncovered
and which apparently possessed ample strength to retain
above and back of it.
On January 20, 1913, the rock dike broke at
or below the bottom level
the canal and
cut, as well as the cost, is conclusive that this method was the most
efficient and economical way of handling the material.
troubles in Mexico interfered with
the handling of
clamoring for relief.
The dredges had secured a channel through the
a line of barges through
width had not
through the slide,
the channel was sufficient for the passage of ship-
and consequently the canal was opened to commerce in August,
a movement occur
and moved huge
boulders across the center line of
the channel, so constricting it as
to force a suspension
on August 30,
est mass of rock occupied a length of 65 feet.
The bowlers required
drilling and blasting operations in
in a flintlike
order to remove them.
sufficiently for the
although two small ships were passed
through in the interval.
Hill is of basalt,
in a molten state
on either side of the stem, giving to
the vertical section the
general shape of
being left unsupported
portions projecting beyond
the rock thus detached
the material moved from
the rest of
material at Cucaracha.
on the opposite
east Culebra slide
the east side of the Cut.
movement which flattens the slop4
This was a typical slide, a surface
e. and slides of this character had
this locality during the French occupancy.
REPORT OF THE GOVERN T OR.
panied by an upward movement of a portion of the bottom of the
excavated area a little distance from
the foot of the slope.
was followed later by a settlement of the mass between the crack
and the Cut,
which ultimately slid into the prism.
affected but a few hundred feet,
but as the depth
The first break
quantities of material involved;
both in length
:curred on both
east and west banks,
the upward movement along the bottom
extended for a
length of 2,000 feet north of Gold Hill.
The borings of record failed
to disclose any weak underlying strata.
The cause undoubtedly was the unequal distribution of the pres-
sure exerted by the adjacent banks.
Such being the case, it fol-
lowed that if the height of these banks were reduced the movement
would be lessened, and if reduced sufficiently would cease entirely.
Subsequent events proved this to be correct.
The banks were light-
ened by taking material from the top, and there resulted final slopes
through this portion of the Cut of 1 on 1� to 1 on 6i for the east side
and from 1 on 2.46 to
1 on 4.35 for the west side;
the slopes con-
a series of steps.
entirely, as already noted, and
the canal prism was carried
depth and width throughout the entire 2,000 feet.
Toward the close of the dry season, in April,
1913, a crack ap-
peared on the east side opposite Culebra, about 1,300 feet from the
prism, in an old French dump.
It was parallel to
the canal, did
not join the banks, there was no breaking up of the banks between
it and the Cut, nor any subsidence-in short, there were none of the
indications that accompanied
lived that it was due to the deformation of the underlying strata
and advocated lightening the banks by sluicing and steam shovels,
which was done.
While this work was in progress the crack gradu-
ally closed, and though the surface between the crack and the Cut
was in places noticeably below the level of the surface to the east
of the crack, the closure was construed to mean that a condition of
equilibrium had been reached.
The canal through this section was
the water was
. a . .. S .1 .
THE PANAMA CANAL.
similar slide occurred
on the west side after the prism filled with
In both instances the movements were typical of the ordinary
slides-an adjustment of the slopes.
The material was easily han-
died by the dredges and the channel freed of all obstructions before
the canal was opened to navigation.
October 14, 1914, when,
This condition continued until
without any warning, a section of the east
measured 2,000 feet along the prism face, and extended back about
1,000 feet from the axis of the canal, generally along an irregular
curved line, but did not extend back to include the crack that had
developed in 1913.
The top of the bank was from 300 to 350 feet
portion that broke away remained practically parallel to its original
position, and the existing benches of the upper part of the slide had
not changed their relative positions, though they were badly broken
up, but the lower strata were squeezed out across the canal, reducing
of water from 45 feet to 9 inches at one point within an
Subsequently the broken mass moved into the Cut,
was the case with other breaks.
Navigation was suspended for a
week, but after this and until August, 1915, the dredges were able for
the most part to keep up with the material as it came down, and
would have been able to maintain such condition had not a movement
the west bank, necessitating work on this side to
detriment of the east side.
A crack was found on the slope of Zion Hill in June, 1914, higher
up than the crack already mentioned,
but observations made upon
doubted. Subsequent to the break on the east
general breaking up of the west bank followed.
side, a gradual but
The crack on the
slope increased in size and new ones developed farther up the hill,
until finally one extended to elevation 480 above sea level, the limit
of the present break. The movement into the Cut from the west
bank occurred early in August, 1915, when a section of Zion Hill
broke away and settled down. The edge of the break on this side is
also a curve.
The movements from the two sides were toward the central portion
REPORT OF THIE GOVERNOR.
gradually settle down vertically,
with very little lateral movement,
pushing out the material along the prism face.
When the break occurred on the east side it was realized that it
would extend eventually back to the limiting cracks, and that all the
material lying above some surface, concave in shape, unless removed,
would eventually enter the prism.
It was impossible to handle any
of it by hydraulics away from the Cut, and the only other method
number of shovels that could be worked would be limited, and con-
siderable excavation would be required before
could be attacked.
the sliding material
The dredges were capable of and were removing
over 1,000,000 cubic yards per month without any of the. difficulties
attending steam-shovel operations, and what could be accomplished
by the latter would be relatively so small and the cost so high that
the idea of introducing steam shovels was abandoned and the decision
reached that the material must be removed from the canal side by the
From experience with
it was known that the move-
material is pushed into the prism; the movement is at first heavy and
rapid, gradually diminishes, and finally ceases.
This condition of rest
is disturbed either by the rains or by the operations of the dredges
cutting into the banks.
As all the material
liable to move must be
dredges from the Cut, there would come a time
when the machines would be idle,
additional material for them to ha
waiting for a movement to give
ndle. The judicious application
quently pumps for sluicing operations were installed on two barges.
These have been used for cutting and maintaining surface drainage
and for washing down material to the dredges,
when the conditions
The finished section from Gold Hill north left an enormous mass of
hard rock on the east side and at the northwest corner of Gold Hill.
When the break occurred in 1914 this mass of rock was moved slowly
rest and seemed
Sa : a . _- - -
Cucaracha, and the direction of the movement was due, no doubt, to
the retaining effect of "Gibraltar,
this took up slow move-
ments at times when the heavier masses back of it were disturbed by
fixed for the project-300 feet bottom width-every movement that
occurred on either the east or west bank would contract the channel,
would probably result in closing.the canal to navigation.
of restoring the channel
maintenance of navigation
permit the passage of ships and
training a ch
which was increased to 500 feet,
100 feet on either side
of the original prism lines.
isthmus 250 feet long in the direction of the axis of the canal, the top
confined to the north of this isthmus, working toward the south,
with arrangements made for washing down the material in case it was
the sliding area,
and with the project modified so as to give a completed width north
of Gold Hill of 500 feet.
the President nof the
United States was advised
organized by an act of Congress to give expert advice to the President
and Congress on scientific matters-who stated that one of its mem-
bers had made an extensive study of earth slides in tropical countries,
and was convinced
that there were relatively simple ways by which
engineers and geologists of the academy be appointed to consider his
-- - - K-
the report. of the committee would
the methods adopted
as those connected
the difficulties for
good and all, given the time and money, and that the waterway would
be all that had been
Benjamin Le Roy
Miller, Ph. D.,
who occupies the chair of geology
On returning to New
he stayed here a couple of
days awaiting a steamer.
He was given
every facility to examine the slides at Culebra,
arrival in the United States that he had made a
statement appearing in quotation marks in
the press item:
At the Culebra Cut
* * cracks have formed over
1,300 feet back from the
canal, and all of the ground intervening is moving toward the Cut.
There is no doubt
that much rock, now apparently stable, also will move, as its support is withdrawn by
the removal of loose earth and rock. Before the canal can be said to be completed
and permanently opened to traffic, the amount of material that must be taken out
will not fall far short of the amount already taken from the Culebra Cut.
Transportation companies planning to use the canal should realize that they must
not expect uninterrupted service for several years.
may be opened,
During the dry season the canal
but it is certain to be closed during the rainy season when the earth
is soaked with water and its movement toward the canal facilitated.
In view of the extent of the material that has now started toward the Cut, it seems
that steam shovels should again be employed.
of Zion Hill must be removed
Practically all of Gold Hill and much
and to wait until the earth breaks loose and enters the
Cut where the dredges can attack it seems unwise, and unquestionably longer delays
the completion of the project.
If dredges alone are employed, as at present, the canal
may be kept clear during the months when rainfall is lightened,
to come the rainy season is almost certain to cause such slides i
for weeks or even months.
The "thorough examination"
but for many years
s to close the canal
occupied fully three or four hours of
that he occupied in
the leading uni-
versities of the United States gave credence to his statements,
were copied broadcast, and commented upon editorially to the detri-
meant of the canal.
His dire predictions were naturally unsettling to
. -. - d-I -m
THE PANAMA CANAL.
that time they expected that their final report would be completed
in April, but up to date it has not been received.
report will be found in Appendix N.
It will be noted that the state-
ment made by Prof. Miller, that practically all Gold Hill and much of
Zion Hill must be removed, is not concurred in; and in this connection
it should be remembered that a committee of this character expresses
its opinions guardedly, for whatever happens they must be found on
the right side.
They advocated, as a matter of scientific interest,
the making of an accurate triangulation of the hills in question-
and Zion-which has been
checks made at frequent intervals the slightest movement on
Part of any of the four hills would be disclosed at once.
of any kind has taken place.
The committee expressed the belief that every available and prac-
ticable device for controlling the water, both on the surface and under-
ground should be employed, and to this end advocated covering the
slopes with vegetation
to prevent surface wash, closing peripheral
, draining undisturbed and threatened areas, and draining by
For several years the expedient of covering the slopes with vegeta-
tion has been carried on, starting under the direction of Dr. Pittier,
of the Smithsonian Institution.
Where the surface of the ground is
in mo ion, as in the case of active slides, the roots are disturbed, and
the steady growth of vegetation is impracticable.
Trees and vege-
station of all kinds growing on the surface of the ground which broke
deterring effect whatsoever.
On sliding ground there is not sufficient
time to plant anything and no good would be accomplished.
the banks consist of the red clay of the country, it is only after con-
siderable difficulty that grass of any kind can be grown on them.
Vegetation stops erosion; on this account the work was undertaken
and is being carried on.
When peripheral cracks occur in rock with sufficient earth covering
they may be effectually closed by the use of a hydraulic grader, as
was done in an incipient slide on the west bank of the canal near
The sluicing down of the earth into a uniform slope
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
to close them permanently without expense that is disproportionate
to the results obtained.
In compliance with the expressed wishes of the committee while
on the Isthmus, subsurface tile drains have been installed within an
area on Culebra Hill as an experiment.
Also, as suggested by the
committee, the fault fissure under the hard Obispo tuff on the north
side of Contractors Hill has been sealed and a concrete-lined drain
constructed, draining the surface water into the canal,
with a view
to the protection of the Cucaracha rock beds adjacent to this portion
of Contractors Hill.
It is admitted
earth movements would cease
, but unfortunately this is impossible.
With the heavy tropical downpours the best that can be done is by
drainage, to carry away what falls as rapidly
water can not be eliminated.
So far as concerns ground water, the
construction of the canal has created entirely new conditions.
old tributaries of the Chagres River and
those of the Rio Grande,
which formerly were natural drains, are now well above the water
surface of the canal, and the canal has become the drainage channel
for the country for miles on either side.
Even assuming that were it
possible to devise a system for getting rid of ground water, it must still
exist below the surface of the water in the canal itself.
in question affect the banks for a considerable distance down, prob-
ably below the bottom of the canal, and if ground water be primarily
the cause, then it can not be removed from the strata at which the
The aj acent country on either side of the canal
through the east and
as drains, discharging their accumulated waters into the Chagres.
In relieving the pressure, force pumps on barges have enabled
washing down of part of the material,
hydraulic grader which was constructed in July
commission in August, 1914,
, 1914, and put in
was built especially for opening chan-
nels to expedite surface drainage at various points along the line of
the canal, and to maintain them, and this work has been carried on,
by tunnels has
considered in connection
as the result of
by the chairman
Mr. Donald F
MacDonald in making tests of the rock formation in
which the east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides have occurred.
, the geologist,
which states the result of
the experiments, as follows:
samples of the
Cucaracha or sliding formation
from below the water level of the canal.
These samples, completely saturated,
trained 12.20 per cent of water by weight, or 27.8 per cent by volume.
The 16 average
samples taken from well above the level of ground water, where the rocks were much
jointed and fractured and, therefore, perfectly drained,
water by weight.
contained 10.60 per cent of
As shown above, 12.2 per cent of water by weight fills all of the pore
spaces of the rock; therefore, 10.6 per cent by weight fills only 87 per cent of them,
leaving 13 per cent of the total pore space as having been emptied by drainage and by
Now, 13 per cent of 27.8 per cent is 3.6 per cent of the total volume of the
This shows that natural drainage of the most perfect kind would not remove
more than 13 per cent of the water by weight, equivalent to 3.6 per cent of the volume
of the rock.
However, most of the samples from the drained rock were taken very
close to the surface, so that very likely they lost some of their water through drying
out by the heat of the sun, for the dry season was more than a month old at the time
they were collected.
These facts show that while the sliding rocks have a high percentage of pore space,
the pores are mostly of capillary
and are filled with water which obeys the laws of
which can not,
be drained off.
These experiments defi-
nitely established that all cures by drainage which had
the canal authorities were absolutely futile, and the m
been offered to and urged on
Loney which might have been
wasted in worthless tunnels,
wells, and acres of asphalt covering,
was saved for the
only remedy that could bring permanent cure under the circumstances-dredging.
trolling or preventing the slides other than those already mentioned,
canal forces in
During the excavation
the Cut 22 slides and
The steps taken to protect exposed slope
It was thought that in case of clay slides heavy riprap dumped on
the surface would find its way through the loosened material to firm
ground and check the movement,
less as the piling.
but this method was found as use-
Most of the riprap rock was taken out at the foot
the slope as the excavation
effect of the air on some of the softer rocks; this was done by use of a
the side of
None of these methods was satisfactory or durable.
of the French drains
, which proved inadequate,
were dug out at
the bottom of the prism.
The conclusion was reached
that the only
cure was the removal of all loosened material as it came into the Cut,
and in case of breaks to
relieve the weight,
upper parts of the banks by steam shovels or sluicing operations.
enormous amount of
in which it
trouble are from 300 feet to approximately 550 feet above sea level,
and extend back 1,300 to
1,800 feet from the faces of the prism, and
the movement is
by fits and starts, sudden at
occurred at the east Culebra slide and consisted of a settlement from
20 to 25 feet vertically down at the rear portion of the area affected,
1,300 feet from
by which a
Because of the width of the new channel
, as well as the depth, navi-
was not interrupted,
their construction must
tying the piles ta anchors driven in
done, nor would it secure the result ant i
the firm ground can n bhe
cipated by the' ropoce-s of
construction of retaining walls would require
need for th4
There is no form of
construction that could
that would hold
back the superimposed mass-while the
of inverts to hold down the bottom of the prism is impracticable and
would not prevent the movement,
but would seriously interfere with
pipes could not
' the earth and rock, as it now comes into tl
to firm ground below and
he Cut, can be much more
It was suggested that the slopes and the surface of the ground adja-
posed by a member of the committee from the National Academy of
not include it among its recom-
mendations seems conclusive that in its opinion it was not practicable,
and no further comment seems necessary.
A number of
the cause of the
exists a huge reservoir of water
the earth and the pressure therefrom produces the slides.
break the ground
release the water and allow its escape.
All the water that is drained
from the slide areas is accounted for by the rainfall and by the escape
The mutual attraction
of the large masses on
either side of the Cut is assigned as the cause for bringing down the
I _ _
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
eruptive material, sometimes for a long distance, to the place of the
with such large
experience, it undoubtedly carried conviction to the minds of many
who read it.
Since Senator Kearns's
examination was more thorough
than that made by Prof. Benjamin Le Roy Miller, Ph. D., it is com-
forting to note from his judgment also that Gold and Contractors
Hills are not likely to fall into the Cut.
Senator Kearns is in error when he states, " Since it (the canal) was
first opened to navigation on August 14, 1914, it has been closed and
out of commission virtually two-thirds of the time." The canal was
opened to traffic August 15, 1914, and up to June 18, the date of the
article, the canal was closed 232 days out of 656 days, or approx-
imately one-third of the time, instead of two-thirds, as stated.
Another error is that there was an upheaval in the bottom of the
Cut at some other point than the Culebra section.
At no portion of
the canal has there been any upheaving except in the 2,000 feet north
of Gold Hill.
This upward movement first occurred when the excava-
tion had reached elevation 175 feet above sea level, or 135 feet above
the finished bottom of the canal.
The upheaval, as the result of the
present slides, reached an elevation of 65 feet above the water surface,
or 110 feet above the bottom of the canal.
In no case was there a
movement at the bottom that was not preceded by a movement in
the adjacent bank.
The movement in the bottom ceased entirely in
1913, when the side slopes were made sufficiently flat to reduce the
pressure exerted by them to less than that required to accomplish
this upward movement.
again subsequent to the
masses of the banks crowded toward the axis of the canal and dis-
turbed the condition of pressure that existed prior to the occurrence
of the slides.
Part of the shoaling in the canal is undoubtedly due
to the resistance to the motion of the mass at some part of the bottom,
which throws part of the slide itself upward with the effect shown.
According to Senator Kearns's
theory, gases forming somewhere in
the interior of the earth in escaping carry with them eruptive material
to the place of least resistance, or in this instance through the bottom
of the canal.
which produced fissures several hundred
the banks we are able to reach bottom grade and keep it.
subterranean gases have nothing whatever to do with the movements
that have occurred.
proposed for securing
committee of the National Academy of Sciences, including the sluicing
operations proposed on
the west side,
which modified the plan in any waz
by a number of people seeking to
but no suggestions were made
The various propositions made
help us in our troubles were care-
fully considered, as were also the theories advanced setting forth the
these were filed.
None of the suggestions or theories tended in any
way to change the plans adopted.
The dredges did their work so well that a channel was cut through
the Isthmus connecting the
of sufficient size
to pass the
small ships still
tied up and awaiting transit.
sufficiently stable channel had
to warrant opening the
Except at "Gibraltar" the waterway is 500 feet wide with 40-
over the greater part,
this depending on
that occur in the banks.
So far as the Culebra slides are concerned,
the quantities of
the only danger being at
" but it is hoped that the excavation continued along the
without interfering in
any way with
The reopening of the canal was at the beginning of the
rainy season, and thus far the rainfall has been above the normal.
The recent movement at Cucaracha was, as usual,
coming as it did from the high ground in
the northeast corner of the
The difficulty attending this was not a question of amount
of material, for the dredges could cope easily with the movement on
the hard flinty rock was difficult to break up,
irritating and aggravating delays.
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
shops; the Cristobal roundhouse, and car shop; and the car inspec-
tion forces at Balboa and Mount Hope.
The amount of work on the dredging equipment and vessels using
the canal was sufficient to permit organizing the forces at Paraiso
and the dry-dock shops at Cristobal on a marine basis.
work at Balboa increased materially.
It was anticipated that the
Paraiso shops would not be operated during the past fiscal year, but
due to the slides in Gaillard Cut it developed that these shops per-
formed more work than at any time since their establishment.
At the end of the year the capstans and the traveling crane for
Dry Dock No. 1 had not been delivered, and the official test of the
dock pumps had not
June 28, to dock the seagoing ladder dredge Corozal and to remove
the water from the dock with the main pumps.
Delay in the completion of building No. 29 for covering the air-
compressor plant and dock pumps prevented starting the new electric-
driven air-compressor plant until April and kept the old Balboa plant
in service under
air-compressor units were purchased for installation in building No.
29, but in view of the delay in their installation and the bad condition
of the air compressors at Cristobal dry-dock shops, it seemed desirable
to divert one of them to Cristobal.
As purchased, there were two
units of 2,500 feet capacity and one of 5,000 feet capacity.
the former was installed at Cristobal.
It is now found that the three
machines intended for use at Balboa will probably be insufficient to
supply all demands, and it is intended to add another 5,000-foot unit,
thus making the total capacity 12,500 cubic feet per minute instead
of 10,000 cubic feet, as originally designed.
Provision for car-shop work at Balboa proved inadequate during
the rush of railroad transportation incident to the closing of the canal
in September, 1915, necessitating the opening of the old car shops at
Cristobal for work on box cars and Roger ballast cars.
were closed on July 29, 1916, and the work transferred back to Balboa,
where conditions had improved so as to
permit its being handled
The purchase of
THE PANAMA CANAL.
proved inadequate to supply compressed air, and one of the Babcock
& Wilcox boilers formerly in use at the Gold Hill sluicing plant was
erected and connected to a 2,500-foot air compressor from the old
Empire air-compressor plant; the pumps for water service under the
municipal engineering division were supplied with steam from the
same boiler, thus permitting one force to handle both the air conm-
pressor and the pumps.
At the dry-dock shops, Cristobal,
very little work incident to im-
provement of the plant was done, with the exception of installing the
new electric-driven air-compressor and electric motors for operating
the dry-dock pumps.
All heavy repairs to locomotives were made at the Balboa shops
and covered general overhauling of 14 engines, besides those being
repaired and packed for shipment to the Alaskan Engineering Corn-
mission; 4 were completed for the latter purpose, and
under repairs with the expectation
4 are now
that they will be shipped so as
to arrive in Alaska before the close of the season for navigation.
De Lesseps, launch No. 26, and the tugs Reliance and Bolivar.
The floating cranes Ajax and Hercules were transferred from the
mechanical division to the dredging division in October, 1915.
division until September 1, 1915,
when they were turned over to the
Two additional 55,000-barrel fuel-oil tanks were
purchased and at the close of the fiscal year one at Balboa was ready
while the foundations had been prepared for the one at
Mount Hope and the work of its erection had begun.
barrel gasoline tanks-one at Balboa and one at Mount Hope-were
erected and connected.
A 500-barrel tank was also erected at Balboa
with connection to a standpipe for filling tank cars on the tracks of
the Panama Electric Co. for transporting fuel oil to their plant in
The necessity for using air drills on the banks abreast the slides
required considerable compressed air immediately adjacent to the
work. This was obtained by installing two 2,500-foot air compressors,
from the old
on board the seagoing
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
the Panama Railroad, 5 for the Army,
8 for the Navy,
4 for indi-
for the east
and 2 for the
repairs to the boilers of the steamships
Whitgift and St. Louis, to the
rudder of the Curacc and to the stern of the Elm Branch.
manufacturing orders of considerable magnitude were accomplished
for the Ferrocarril de Arica a La Paz,
consisting of six
frames for geared mountain
rail chairs, and 16 steel gears for use on locomotives.
For further details
, and a statement of the amount of work done
during the year by the
various shops, attention is invited
The supply department has charge of the storage and distribution
of materials and supplies for use of The Panama Canal and its em-
ployees; for other departments of the United States on the Isthmus
and their employees;
for vessels of the United States, and for other
has charge of the maintenance of buildings and
It recruits and
tributes unskilled labor and is in charge of all animal transportation.
The department continued in
charge of Maj
The labor force remained practically intact during the greater part
of the year, because of the terminal construction and the dredging in
In May, due to the near completion of the dry dock and
coaling stations, the force was reduced
the force report showing a
total of 23,462 employed on June 30, 1916, as compared with 26,897
employed on June 30, 1915, or a net reduction of 3,435.
surplus of labor throughout the year in all grades. TI
There was a
of those for whom it was impossible to find work was continued, and
1,661 took advantage of it, at a cost to the canal of $33,919.65. No
contract laborers were recruited.
Quarters.-The village of Corozal was abandoned effective Decem-
1 -" -�l-i i, i I -� * 11 � 1 1 ,1
THE PANAMA CANAL.
Additional quarters were completed and occupied as follows:
Fifteen 4-family, seven 2-family,
2-family, ten 4-family
twelve 1-family, all frame; two
concrete; one special bachelor apartment,
concrete; one special bachelor apartment, frame.
Corrals.-There was no decrease in the demand for wagon trans-
portation, all animals being worked to their full capacity.
improved road conditions, particularly on the Pacific terminal, motor
trucks were substituted for animal-drawn wagons, both for delivery
service and trucking.
Animals dying or destroyed during the year
corrals at the close of the fiscal year totaled 519-horses 118, mules
390, and ponies 11.
Material and supplies.-A total of 1,776 requisitions were prepared
and forwarded to the general purchasing officer, as compared with
1,428 during the previous year.
The total value of material received
was $9,945,390.32, as compared with $8,018,418.03 for the previous
year, the increase being largely due to the increased prices of mate-
rial. The local purchases amounted to $1,569,812.15, as compared
with $1,360,469.71 for the previous fiscal year.
There was a general increase in the price of many of the staple
articles of material, especially iron and steel; the average price of
steel and iron on hand June 30, 1915, was
pared with $2.17 per cwt. on June 30, 1916.
$1.63 per cwt., as com-
All storehouse operations were placed under the supervision of a
general storekeeper, comprising the storehouses at Balboa, Paraiso,
the obsolete stores at Mount Hope and at the dry dock, Cristobal.
On June 30, 1916, the value of material in stock was $4,198,392.34,
as against $2,925,332.91 on June 30, 1915, not including the stock
Mount Hope store.
The increase in the value of the stock material
was due, in large measure, to an increase in the purchase price of a
large number of items.
Scrap.-The policy of concentrating at the obsolete storehouse at
Mount Hope all surplus, obsolete, and scrap material and equipment
The sales of this material continued to be made,
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
rail to the David Kaufman & Sons Co., Elizabethport, N. J., for
Under a later circular,
tons of miscellaneous
890 net tons of miscellaneous scrap to the David Kaufman & Sons
Co. for $4,147.20; and 810 net tons to N. Samuels & Sons Co., of
York, for $3,936.50.
All of the material sold
under the first
circular was paid for in full by the purchasers,
it remains on the Isthmus.
but a large part of
About 890 tons of material under the
second circular has been paid for, but not removed from the Isthmus.
The contractors are paying storage on all the material sold but not
Material to the value of $220,116.40 was sold from the storehouses
United States Army organization stationed on the Isthmus.
The principal items consisted of forage, lumber,
and general hardware.
There was an increase in value of supplies
sold to steamships in transit through the canal and those touching
at the two
The value of supplies sold was $70,918.22,
representing miscellaneous ship supplies for 860 steamers.
credit and cash sales of obsolete material and equipment amounted
to $205,473.94, and obsolete material to the value of $292,994.89 was
issued and transferred from the obsolete store to divisions of the canal.
There was on hand on June 30, 1916, surplus and obsolete material
with an appraised value of $665,396.40.
Fuel-oil plants and storage.-The supply department took over the
construction of the Balboa and Mount Hope fuel-oil plants on Sep-
member 1, 1915.
The Panama Canal received during the year 676,497
barrels, of which 579,389 were stored in its tanks at Balboa and the
barrels were drawn from Balboa and
the amount stored,
108,746 from Mount
Hope for use by The Panama Canal.
To outside parties 48,427 bar-
rels were sold from Balboa, and
barrels from Mount Hope.
Oil handled for individuals and companies through the oil pumping
plants aggregated 893,165 barrels,
and the total amount of fuel oil
handled through the Balboa and Mount Hope oil plants was 2.256.119
THE PANAMA CANAL.
the tank above the surface of the gasoline.
with a capacity
Storage tank No. 27 at
December 15, 1915.
Up to the end of the year it had not been con-
sidered necessary to order a supply of gasoline for the Atlantic side.
The total amount sold to outside parties was 199,280 gallons, and
used by The Panama Canal 362,371 gallons.
Subsistence.-The supply department continued the operation of
the Washington, Tivoli, and Aspinwall Hotels, also the line restaurants
Panama Railroad Company and the remainder by The Panama Canal.
The revenues of the Tivoli and Washington showed an increase over
the previous year of $33,310.26.
The Tivoli Hotel showed a net profit of $24,929.85, compared with
a loss of $1,974.16 for last year.
Had a charge been made for build-
ing repairs a net profit of $17,007.51 would have been shown.
some of this increase may be due to the tourist traffic,
the larger part
is due to the interest of American business men in Panama and South
America. It is believed that this element of the business will increase
and that there will be a demand on the hotel facilities in the future
The existing structure (frame) is badly ant-eaten and rotted, so
that extensive repairs will have to be made or a new building con-
structed, and I am including in the estimates for the next fiscal year
the sum necessary for building a new structure of reinforced concrete.
The experiment with the Hotel Aspinwall at Taboga was continued,
but employees availed themselves of the opportunity so little that
on July 1, 1916, the hotel was closed, the loss amounting to $4,554.09.
The hotel at Corozal was closed when the village was vacated and
turned over to the Army.
The net revenue for the year from restaurants
and messes was
$661,017.90, while the total cost of operations was $648,565.39, result-
ing in a profit of $12,452.51.
Had the charges for building repairs,
there would have
been a net loss of
No charge for equipment has been made, but is absorbed
T atin + li- nman -r Q M n .; c3
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
To the equipment were added five Chandler & Price
platen presses with motors for operating,
items, at a total cost of $1,960.30. The v
and various other small
ralue of the equipment on
hand is $37,897.57.
The commissaries of the Panama Railroad were operated by the
On account of the high cost of beef purchased
purchase of local
cattle was continued,
ranges provided for fattening, and an abattoir constructed.
the year the abattoir was enlarged and a fattening house constructed,
which is being operated in connection with it.
A total of 7,762 cattle
were killed and 3,843,377
value of which amounted to $446,682.69.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix G.
Mr. H. A. A. Smith, as auditor, continued at the head of the
department, and immediately in charge of the division of auditing
and accounting, Mr. John H. McLean, as paymaster, and Mr.
Clear, as collector.
The office of the department in the Washington
office was under Judge B.
F. Harrah, as assistant auditor,
Virgil C. Miller, as disbursing clerk.
The paymaster disbursed $26,933,528.35,
mainly on account of
books and meal
tickets, amounted to $2,709,743.60.
Of this amount $2,556,093.08
were disbursed directly
by the paymaster, and
ferred to the collector'
Washington, D. C., es
The Commercial National Bank of
tablished a branch on the Isthmus,
made a Government depository as well as a fiscal agent.
The sum of $2,756,764.83 was collected and deposited
as miscellaneous receipts.
Under the provisions of section 3 of the
sundry civil act of March 3, 1915, the Comptroller of the Treasury
Department. and the other from the office of the Comntroller of the
THE PANAMA CANAL.
made July 1, 1916.
Of this amount $19,224,873.30 were for fortifi-
cations; $1,000,000 to cover the four annual payments of $250,000
each to the Republic of Panama, and $6,000 for the expense of pre-
senting the steam launch Louise to the French Government.
edition, $7,050,000 were appropriated for operation and maintenance,
sanitation, and civil government for the fiscal year 1917, and $6,440,-
000 for the fiscal year 1916, while $4,289,159 were charged against the
operation and maintenance of the canal for the year ending June 30,
Of the stock of material and supplies on hand $2,225,000 will
be used and charged against the operation and maintenance of the
priated for colliers, $800,000 for Dock No. 6, Cristobal, and $600,000 for
new boilers in the steamships Ancon and Cristobal, which, deducted
from the total sum appropriated, leaves $370,950,116.72, or a balance
available for appropriation within the limit of cost
of the canal and the authorized bond issue.
Up to June 30,
the miscellaneous receipts covered into the
Treasury, exclusive of tolls and Canal Zone revenues, amounted to
$6,832,144.14, so that the cost of the canal to date, so far as con-
struction is concerned, amounts to $364,117,972.58.
account of receipts from future sales of
This takes no
construction material and
equipment, payments to be made by the Republic of Panama for the
sums expended on account of waterworks, sewers, and pavements in
the terminal cities, and
the equipment transferred
to the Alaskan
Engineering Commission and the State Department. The estimated
value of the items so transferred aggregated $7,155,978.80. In addi-
tion to the construction of the canal, covered by the estimates on
which the bond issue was authorized, a dry dock, two coaling stations,
terminal piers, and wharves have been built,
as well as a new hospital
at Colon and new building for the Ancon Hospital, none of which was
contemplated. Furthermore, injury claims amounting to more than
$1,000,000 were paid, and not provided for in the estimates of 1908.
Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, which requires
the reimbursement to the United States for expenditures for water-
works, sewers, and pavements in the terminal cities, the expenditures
to June 30. 1916. totaled $3.853.576.15.
The United States has been
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
terminal $1,551,747.62 were expended for the Cristobal coaling plant
and $42,771.88 for the fuel-oil plant.
At the Pacific terminal $3,062,
379.61 were expended for the dry dock and $953,332.82 for dredging
the inner harbor; for the coaling station
$920,226.68; Balboa shops,
$278,011.34, and for permanent buildings, $1,019,089.82; at Mount
Hope for sanitary fill
$22,089.62, and for the construction of roads,
not including townsites, $76,877.03.
For maintenance and
operation $6,999,750.15 were expended,
$3,513,350.06 for dredging 12,430,209 cubic yards of material due to
$1,633,030.06 for the removal of
from the same causes.
4,710,566 cubic yards of
The tolls collected amounted to $2,399,830.42,
383.69 last year.
Accompanying the detailed report of the auditor
is a statement showing the tolls collected from
each ship and
amounts that would have been collected under the Panama Canal
The business operations show a profit of $11,898.44,
the loss of $56,400.78 last year.
Under claims for injuries and deaths, 2,349 accidental injuries and
39 accidental deaths of Panama Canal employees occurred in connec-
tion with their work.
Of the injuries reported, claims in 741
were approved and 35 disapproved.
proved and 6 were disapproved, w.
Fourteen death claims were ap-
hile 19 cases were pending at the
On account of injuries
were allowed, and on account of deaths $33,321.07
of the Panama Railroad
on account of
paid by The Panama Canal as compensation on account of injuries
and deaths of employees since August 1, 1908, the effective date of
the act of May 30, 1908, was $1,338,653.69.
Coupon books to the value of $3,250,132.50 were issued during the
year to employees on
coupon books to the value of $1,615,903.80 were sold for cash.
tickets to the value of $126,397.87 were issued to silver employees.
THE PANAMA CANAL.
The department embraces the various civil functions pertaining to
the government of
special attorney an
the Canal Zone,
the district attorney, and
the offices of
the Canal Record.
It is in charge of Mr. C. A. McIlvaine, executive secretary, acting under
the Governor. The organization of the executive department and of
the executive office was continued along the lines set forth in the an-
nual report for 1915.
DIVISION OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.
The work of the customs, posts, local licensing, administration of
estates of deceased employees, shipping commissioner, and publica-
tion of the weekly bulletin, the Canal Record, was carried on by this
practically the same powers as are exercised by American consuls in
foreign ports. As this power was questioned Congress was requested
to enact legislation making it definite, and provision was made in the
act approved August 21, 1916, accomplishing the purpose.
which became a law on July 1
included The Panama Canal Zone in
the countries to which relief and protection of American seamen would
Customs.-On September 15 the Government of Panama was noti-
fied that the existing Chinese exclusion laws would not be held to
apply to Chinese crews of vessels. Customs officers were directed to
continue checking the Chinese crews, but to make no further effort to
prevent them from coming ashore in the Canal Zone.
The act of August 21, 1916, confers upon the President authority
to make rules and regulations touching the right of persons to enter
the Canal Zone, and besides other things, to require a ship bringing
an undesirable to the Canal Zone to return him to the place of origin.
During the year 395 prohibited aliens arrived at Balboa and 158 at
Cristobal, in transit to the Republic of Panama and other countries.
Bv authority of the Panaman officials 343 were allowed to disembark,
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
fine of $5,000
a minimum fine of $50
and imprisonment not
or both such fine and imprisonment.
were 38 arrests of persons and
were acquitted. In the majority of cases found guilty the minimum
fine only was assessed. The largest fine assessed any individual was
$100 and the heaviest fine against a ship was $190.
It is difficult to
cope with the problem when such penalties are inflicted.
The total number of vessels entered at the canal ports was 2,130,
and the total number of vessels cleared was 2,123.
seamen shipped on American vessels and 2,475 seamen discharged.
Licenses and taxes.-Licenses and permits were issued to the number
for motor vehicles.
license fees in the Canal Zone have been considered excessive, and
by the act of August 21, 1916, the President is given power, among
other things, to make rules for regulating licenses and taxing the use
or operation of all self-propelled vehicles using public highways in
the Canal Zone.
Under this law the license fees may be reduced.
Postal service.-Postal receipts for 1916 were $1,060.90 more than
was $44,527.14, as compared with $55,327.23 in 1915.
tion with this deficit it must be remembered that the postal service
is still burdened with a subsidy to the Panaman Government equiva-
lent to 40 per cent of its total stamp sales, amounting to $27,207.86
the service has not
accounts for interest earned by money-order and postal-savings funds
deposited in banks, amounting in 1916 to about $39,000.
handicap, however, is removed by the act of August 21, 1916.
Deposit money orders issued had a total value of $1,101,190 and
payments of deposit money orders during the same period aggregated
$1,103,340, leaving a balance on deposit, June 30, 1916, of $350,650.
These deposit money orders form the postal savings system on the
Canal Zone and draw no interest.
Under the act of August 21, 1916,
however, interest will be allowed at the rate of
2 per cent.
Mail addressed to ships transiting the canal is sent to the office of
the captain of the port at which the ship is due to arrive first, and is
delivered to the ship by the boarding officer of the tomn serviicn,
54 THE PANAMA CANAL.
In June, 1915, the limit of weight of mail matter of the third and
fourth classes was raised from 11 to 20 pounds, to conform with the
parcel post weights in effect in the United States.
Canal Record.-The Canal Record is devoted to the publication of
shipping news, statistics of traffic,
ments, notices, and circulars. T
Executive orders, official adver tise-
he cost of publication was reduced
from $13,585.15 in 1915 to $10,806.28
count of subscriptions and the sale of extra copies and bound volumes
amounted to $561.50.
Contrary to expectation, police work did not diminish during the
year 1916 and the appropriations were therefore inadequate.
which resulted in
the discharge of 23 second-class,
the reduction in
American, policemen, and 13 second-class.
For military reasons the
force of policemen on the locks was increased by 41 first-class officers
on April 20, and these men were recruited from the military force
on the Isthmus.
A patrol launch was operated at the Pacific entrance
of the canal to prevent smuggling and irregular trading, one at the
entrance of Gaillard Cut
, at Gamboa, and one at Gatun, making the
the Canal Zone.
trips and assisting in
the work of
Continuous guard duty was performed by police-
Locks, and three plain-
clothes officers were stationed at Gatun Locks, which were guarded
by the military forces.
During the year 4,480 persons were arrested, of whom 274 were
Of the 4,167 tried, 3,389 were convicted, 767 were discharged
and 11 were awaiting trial at the close of the year.
Of the remaining
313 arrested and held in custody, 4 were sent to the asylum for the
64 were turned over to the military authorities,
extradited, 8 forfeited
43 to the
27 to the Panaman Government, 3 were
their bail by failure to appear for trial, 97
were deported, and
66 were returned
to merchant vessels.
were 5 homicides committed.
One offender, a woman, was acquitted,
1 ixrna aonfatn,,rl +r 1 Irar a nt r m nrin.l ;n +thna rnnf.jtanfth*xr 1 f.tn 9l
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
tion of a new road roughly paralleling the canal on the east side, an
extension of the highway from Panama to Gamboa, and 5X miles
at $10,256.60, at
the rate of
10 cents p
the value of
amounted to $148.10.
The cost of subsisting and guarding the con-
victs amounted to $18,525.32,. of which $4,935.21 were expended for
subsistence for convicts, $1,356.32 for subsistence of guards, $7,173.32
for salaries of officers and guards of the penitentiary
for salaries of officers and guards on road work.
The fire force remained the same as at the close of the last fiscal
The only important fire occurring in the Canal Zone was on
the S. S. Antonio Lopez at Cristobal,
a loss of $20,000.
which was extinguished after
Schools for white children were conducted at Empire,
for the first
grades; Colon Beach, first four grades; Cristobal, eight grades and
two years in high school; Ancon and Gatun, eight grades; Balboa,
eight grades and four years in high school.
Children living in villages
where the schools did not offer the work for which they were fitted
were furnished transportation to the nearest school furnishing proper
The school at Corozal was closed November 19, 1915, and
the children of officers and enlisted men of the Army quartered there
were furnished transportation to attend school at Balboa.
Physical examinations of pupils in the grade schools were made
Physical training was continued under the direction of
the physical directors of the various clubhouses.
A four-year commercial course was added to the high-school work
at the beginning of the school year, and 45 pupils were enrolled.
raphy, commercial history, spelling, writing, commercial correspond-
vacation course of woodwork and shop
drawing at the Balboa workshop was offered to boys who would be
in the seventh and i rhth war d nf th a hrih roh nnl nA t ftlp nnn;n a
THE PANAMA CANAL.
noons of each week at the Balboa high school, and their progress was
more satisfactory than heretofore.
The schools for white children had an
enrollment of 1,366.
employees of the canal and the Panama Railroad residing outside
the Canal Zone had, prior to this school year, been allowed tuition
to the schools free of charge.
This privilege was withdrawn at the
beginning of the year, and consequently four rooms in the Cristobal
school for colored children and the entire Ancon school were closed
and the force of teachers reduced by seven.
The eight grades were
taught at La Boca and Paraiso, and the first six at Empire, Gatun,
schools was 783.
used for school
children and 5 for colored children.
At Cristobal, on account of the
noise caused by the construction of a new building, it was necessary
to abandon the schoolhouse occupied by white children and to move
the white school
by the colored school.
The colored school was removed to the Lodge Hall.
for white schools
were selected at
Balboa, Ancon, Pedro
was appropriated for expenditure during the current year for this
purpose, and it is expected that the new buildings will be ready for
occupancy by the time the schools open in October, 1917.
OF CLUBS AND
Clubs and playgrounds were conducted, as in previous years,
of secretaries furnished
by the international com-
mittee of the
employees were operated
Corozal, Ancon, and Balboa and for silver employees at Gatun and
The clubhouse at Ancon,
of the old district
quartermaster's office and an extensive addition,
was erected at a
cost of $21,863, derived from clubhouse funds collected since 1907,
and was opened on April 8.
The clubhouse at Corozal was closed
by the Army
the Lodge Hall was used one evening a week for moving'
ing on June 30, 1916.
Of the cases decided 91 were civil
581 marriage licenses issued by the clerk of the court, and 136 deeds
The sum of $4,761.80 was collected in fines, costs,
court for the
4 cases were
and 2.136 cases were settled
,I t;e year
, leaving 1(
cases pending at the close
of the year.
Of the cases docketed, 96 were civil and
the district court
1.606 convictions and
Collections on account of fines and fees amounted to $5,995.50.
In the magistrate'
court for the Cristobal subdivision 5 cases were
pending at the
during the year
125 were civil and 2.278 criminal
committed to th<
60 dismissals, and
was collected in fines and fees.
The district attorney, in his annual report,
Appendix J, again corn-
that jury trial
capital cases only
The results of jury trials continue to be unsatisfactory, particularly with reference
to white American defendants.
Since the Executive order of July 4, 1913, authoriz-
ing jury trials in all felony cases, no white American has been found guilty when
tried by a jury.
This failure to convict is not due to lack of evidence or conflict of
The evidence in many of the
has been convincing, but the jurors
are unwilling to convict and do not seem inclined to accept any responsibility for
the enforcement of the laws of the Canal Zone.
I renew the several recommendations heretofore made that the Executive order
be so amended as to permit jury trials only in capital cases.
subjects in addition to routine matters:
The exemption of
contract laborers of The Pan am a Canal and
bt THE PANAMA CANAL.
intoxicating liquors to the San Blas Indians; free railroad transporta-
Panaman Government officials and employees; regulation
of traffic over the Gatun Lake; payment of duty to the Republic
of Panama on sales of supplies to vessels which pass through the canal
and which do not belong to the United States; opium traffic in the
Canal Zone and
the cities of Panama and
Colon; demolition, for
sanitary reasons, of stables located in
unimproved sections of the
city of Panama; matter of imposing a penalty for wireless installations
in Panama; objection to the establishment of saloons in Colon near
of customs duty
of playing cards and
Tomas Hospital and the urgent necessity for providing additional
accommodations for the sick; taking over by the United States of
a certain tract of land in the vicinity of the mouth of the Chagres
River; location of the statue of Christopher Columbus at the Atlantic
entrance of the canal; reduction of
the stock of Panaman pesos in
circulation by 1,000,000 for the benefit of the Panaman Government,
common incinerator for disposing of garbage from Balboa, Ancon,
and the City of Panama; supervision of the Panama elections; pro-
hibition of gambling in the cities of Panama and Colon; and the de-
portation of undesirable Americans.
Attention is called again to the necessity of an agreement between
the two Governments of the United States and Panama for modifying
both Governments, and should
be substituted by an agreement
made in accordance with our present mutual needs and with our rights
under the treaty.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix I.
During the year Judge Frank Feuille continued as special attorney,
for the purpose of codifying the laws of the Canal Zone and defending
the interests of the United States before the Joint Land Commission
in the acquisition of lands under private ownership, which are being
taken over in accordance with the Executive order of December 5,
Tjnle , ,-^ 4 aA nt ^v A tint' 4^ *n1 n. dlirrrrnnn n an A i -ba 't
Cjrn ro ivy fii i ^11
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
rating to quarantine; and
the laws relating to taxation.
these subjects were incorporated in a bill presented to Congress by
C. Adamson, chairman
the House Committee on
tion of canal matters.
During the last fiscal year the land office settled by private agree-
Sent and paid 586 claims, aggregating the sum of $335,740.50.
amount includes the large claim of Cov. Reuben S. Arcia, of Colon,
for his Rio Indio and Mindi lands and improvements thereon, for
the sum of $95,000.
The total number of claims settled and paid
by the land office since the work of clearing the Canal Zone was cornm-
$851,566.64, exclusive of any award made by the Joint Land Commis-
A total of 5,244 claims, aggregating a sum of $1,100,469.94, has
been settled and
paid through the law department since August
1908, when that department was authorized
handle such matters.
by Executive order to
The Joint Land Commission appointed under Articles
VI and XV
of the Panama Canal treaty made 18 awards during the year.
awards involved 27 claims, some of the claimants having more than
sum of $10,675.
The Commission dismissed 854 claims because pay-
ment had been made by the land office, and 16 were dismissed on
account of insufficiency of the evidence.
One claim was dismissed
located within the Canal Zone, and one was dismissed for want of
The total number of dismissals by the Commission was
6 of which
disagreement covering 9 docket numbers were perfected
and submitted to the umpire during the fiscal year.
It is of interest to note that the work done by the Commission
of which $44,664.65
were for salaries and
pending on June 30, 1916, was 1,020, and the claims filed for these
Five of the awards made
by the Corn-
THE PANAMA CANAL
On June 30, 1916, there were 32 licenses in effect, which were issued
by the land agent for The Panama Canal within the Canal Zone.
These licenses included lots occupied by various oil companies for oil-
tank sites, church
2 acres of ground at
This is a considerable increase over the previous year, because of the
fact that since January
1916, all rentals from the Mount Hope
Panama Railroad Company.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix K.
The health department is charged with the care of the sick and in-
jured of the Canal Zone, the prevention of disease in the Canal Zone
and the cities of Panama and Colon, street cleaning and garbage
removal in the latter cities, and all matters relating to quarantine.
The department was in charge of Lieut. Col. Charles F. Mason, United
until June 7
when he was relieved at his own
request on account of ill health from long service in the Tropics.
was succeeded by Lieut. Col. D. C. Howard,
United States Army,
Who was assigned to duty as chief health officer on June 22, 1916.
No cases of yellow fever, smallpox
Isthmus during the year.
or plague originated on the
Four cases of yellow fever were received
at Balboa quarantine, all from Buenaventura,
ondary cases developed.
employees continued good.
rate to hospitals and quarters was 301.09, compared with 337.21 for
Rates are based on the annual rate per 1,000 employees.
total admission rate to hospitals only for the year was 164.78, com-
pared with 204.18 for 1915; and for disease alone, 125.88 as compared
with 156.81 for
The total death rate for
1916 was 6.65, as
compared with 5.78 for 1915, and the death rate from disease 4.98
as against 3.61 for 1915. Conditions with regard to malaria are im-
proving steadily each year. The total admission rate for malaria to
hospitals and quarters was 34, as compared with 66.60 for 1915, a
reduction of 48 per cent from
the rate of the previous year.
- - - a* a .
REPORT OF T ri GOVERNOR.
DIVISION OF HOSPITALS.
The average number of patients constantly present in Ancon Hos-
pital was- 748 as compared
average number of employees constantly sick in hospital was 267 as
compared with 331 for the previous year.
Wards 3 and 4 were vacated in August,
1915, demolished, and the
first ulit of the permanent hospital erected on their site was com-
pleted and turned over for occupancy in June.
The building con-
vacated and turned over to the building division in August,
for use as a local field office.
Wards 1 and 2 were vacated in June,
1916, demolished, and on their site construction was begun on the
vacated in June, 1916, demolished, and construction started on the
new Board of Health Laboratory.
The permanent concrete crema-
tory building was completed, cremating apparatus set up, and opera-
tions resumed in January,
added to the hospital farm at Corozal; one a modern, concrete, fly-
proof compost pit containing four compartments,
the other a
A steam plant consisting of boiler, pipe line,
sterilizer was constructed to provide for the proper sterilization of all
milk containers, as well as the disinfection of beds and bedding.
There were 253 patients in the asylum on July 1, 1915; 146 males
and 107 females.
At the close of the fiscal year the number of pa-
tients remaining was 291, of whom 173 were males.
The farm was reorganized and the position of assistant farm man-
At the close of the year there were 9 white and 44 black
cripples assigned to the farm.
Considerable trouble was experienced with the milk from the dairy
early in January, and a thorough investigation and examination of the
probable causes were made by Physiologist G. C. Bunker, as the result
of which improvements were introduced and more care given to the
milk, with satisfactory results.
Golon Hospital.---A new hospital and dispensary building was com-
pleted and turned over for occupancy on May 16, 1916.
Work is in
4i3~~ rir " a
The rapid growth of the city eastward toward the Sabanas, away
from the Canal Zone, has necessitated extending anti-mosquito work
extensive additions to the ditching.
Up to the present time the cost
of this work has been borne by the Government of Panama and the
Panama Land & Development Co. *
The Panama Railroad Company completed its public stables on B
Street, which were constructed so as to limit fly breeding and rat in-
most important sanitary
ments during the year,
and made possible the elimination of a large
ill-kept stables in
An average of 5,000 loads of garbage of all kinds was collected per
a modem incinerating
plant for the destruction of garbage and refuse is an urgent necessity.
a view to
available for fertilizer
and at the
same time obviating the possibility of fly breeding.
a great improvement resulting from
The total number of cases reported for the last six months
of the present fiscal year was 52, as compared with 99 for the last six
the complete elimination
breeding on Manza-
, in Colon and Cristobal proper, by a combination of ditch-
as well as by increasing the number of weekly inspections of
each area, and oiling when necessary.
The work of tnis division continued along the usual lines, covering
.a -. i-: . -nh 1 --n t 1
<- - ,, 1
21 nn*-� atv nn n
fIn annn+1 nfl
m fI J I ** C I It .I .. tWtfl * SI****IUBtt * I ~ L� I t I I. *r. U j Ijl U*I fl * a -I * I I.II
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
The increased number of ships at the terminal ports increases the
opportunities for contamination of the Canal Zone by plague-infected
Men are employed to kill rats by all means possible, especially
- J L
along the water fronts.
i The number of sanitary districts remained the same as last year
inspection and upkeep of one-third of the district was assumed by
the troops, and the remaining two-thirds added to Ancon, the inspec-
tor for which was allowed an assistant.
For further particulars, attention is invited to Appendix L.
The scope of the work handled by the Washington office was aoout
the same as reported for the previous year.
It continued in charge
. C. Boggs, United States Army,
as general purchasing offi-
cer and chief of the
Washington office of The Panama Canal until
March 10, 1916, when he was succeeded by Maj.
Earl I. Brown, United
The recruiting of skilled mechanics in the United States was more
latter part of
activities at shipyards and other manufacturing establishments and
the rising scale of wages paid at such plants.
This is evidenced by
failed to accept.
During the year 1,176 persons within the United
States were tendered employment for duty on the Isthmus in grades
above that of
persons accepted and were appointed,
covering 73 different positions.
total value of
$8,495,099.59, as compared with
of purchases since
,307,689.34 in 1914-1
$11 8,159 ,23
1 refrigerating plant, $47,850; 1 engine lathe, $36,960; sectional steel
doors and accessories for piers Nos. 7 and 18, $121,837.80
and bilge blocks for Dry Dock No. 1 at Balboa, $50,390.70; 4 wooden
dump scows, $120,000;
2 steel dump scows, $160,000;
tanks, $25,200; one 50-ton locomotive crane for Dry Dock No. 1 at
- i i- . .t. . -- --I /. .f E . . * j 9- . __ _ _ .- - -
64 THE PANAMA CANAL.
Work was continued during the year on the gun and mortar bat-
teries, on the range-finding and fire-control systems, on the mount-
ing of ordnance, on the installation of searchlights, on maintenance
of all completed work, and of clearings and trails connected with the
The work was in charge of Lieut. Creswell Garlington, United States
Army, until November
when the fortification division was
added as a section
of the engineer of
maintenance under Lieut.
neer of maintenance, with
Col. Jay J. Morrow, assistant to the engi-
I Lieut. Garlington as assistant engineer.
During the fiscal year a part of the work of maintenance of clear-
ings and trails was transferred to the Commanding General,
States troops, Panama Canal Zone,
and at the close of the fiscal year
all fortification work was transferred
Clarence O. Sherrill,
Corps of Engineers, Canal Zone district engineer officer, reporting to
the Chief of Engineers, United States Army.
The following appendices are inclosed herewith:
Increase in salaries and personnel, submitted in compliance with
the act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, Appendix P.
Laws recently enacted affecting the canal, and Executive orders
issued during the year, Appendix Q.
Chart showing the organization effective July 1, 1916, Appendix R.
Governor, The Panama Canal.
f War, Washington, D. C.
REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.
OFFICE OF THE
Srm: I have the honor to s
done under the jurisdiction of t
June 30, 1916:
THE PANAMA CANAL,
ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE,
Heights, Canal Zone, July 31, 1916.
Submit the following report of work
his office during the fiscal year ending
The duties of the engineer of maintenance remained as outlined in
the last annual report, except that on November 1, 1915, the fortifica-
tion construction work was transferred to the jurisdiction of the
engineer of maintenance, and on June 1, 1916, the work remaining
uncompleted under the terminal construction division was transferred
to his charge.
The undersigned has been assisted in these duties since August 19,
1915, by Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow, Corps of Engineers, United States
Army, who was on that date appointed assistant to the engineer of
maintenance, and who for a period of about five months has had full
charge of the work during the absence of the undersigned on leave
and when the undersigned was Acting Governor during your absence
from the Isthmus.
The various divisions have been in charge of the following men:
Electrical division.-Capt. William H. Rose, United States Army,
electrical engineer, and Mr. Hartley Rowe, electrical superintendent.
Fortification division.-Lieut. Creswell Garlington, United States
Army, assistant engineer.
Locks division.-The Atlantic locks have continued under the
direct charge of Capt. T. H. Dillon, United States Army, as superin-
tendent, with Capt. Earl J. Atkisson, United States Army, as assistant
superintendent. The Pacific locks were under the charge of Mr.
F. C. Clark until March 2, 1916, upon which date he resigned, and
Mr. R. H. Whitehead was appointed superintendent, effective the
same date. Mr. W. R. Holloway was appointed assistant superin-
Municipal division.-Mr. D. E. Wright, municipal engineer.
Section of meteorology and hydrography.--Mr. F. . Willson, chief
Section of office engineer.-Mr. C. J. Embree, office engineer.
Section of surveys.-Mr. 0. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer.
There are se
Several plates accompanying this report
which are in-
tended to give a graphical illustration of certain items of interest in the
operation and maintenance of the locks and canal.
Referring to plate No. 62, the upper diagram gives the number of
inches of rainfall for each month throughout the year, the figures
given being the record for Gatun Lake area and not for the whole
Isthmus. The next diagram gives the average Gatun Lake level,
while the third shows the number of lockages (commercial and non-
commercial) which were made during each month of the year. The
next diagram indicates the number of million cubic feet of water
added to and taken from storage. That is, whenever Gatun Lake
level is raised, the storage capacity is increased and the amount of
water so accumulated is indicated by the areas above the neutral axis,
while water drawn from storage is shown by the areas below the line.
The lower diagram on this plate illustrates the quantity of water
available throughout the year and the relative amounts actually used.
The following table gives the average quantity of water available and
a statement of how it was used:
loss by evaporate
loss by wastage
loss by leakage,
loss by transfer
loss by leakage,
amount used for
amount used for
amount used for
tion, Gatun Lakem...... .
over Gatun spillway.
to Miraflores Lake.....
Gatun and Pedro Migu
r ockages.......... ..
r hydroelectric station..
amount added to storage. ..............
feet of water.
............... 1, 926. 61
- ft -* f * p< �.
S- --. * - * - * 2,
* . :a :* *i e ir:r* a a a - a n a" 2
Total average net yield per month .-........... .
It is interesting to note that an average of 7.21 million cubic feet
of water has been used for each through lockage from ocean to ocean.
The above figures show that an average of 12,787.47 million cubic
feet of water was wasted over Gatun spillway, or sufficient water to
make 1,773 through lockages each month. Based on 30-day opera-
since the canal channel is at elei
would necessitate keeping the la
water in storage has een taken
all times above that elevation.
water used equals 5,127.93 mill
storage equals 28,050 million c
equals 12,787.47 million cubic ft
able amount for each month of
Plate No. 64
The number of
The number of
are made, e. g.,
Plate No. 65
The canal wa
dams are referr(
n plus 40 feet, a
wel above plus 8(
;he amount which
summation of th
cubic feet per m
feet per month
), therefore the
I is available at
e three areas-
onth; water in
; water wasted
the total avail-
" Water used"
e, lockages, hydroelectric, pumping, and evaporation
illustrates the number of lockages made each month
noncommercial lockages coincides with the number
ial vessels, the reason for this being that no effort hai
keep a record of the number of canal barges, tugs
which have been locked through from time to time
commercial vessels exceeds the number of commercial
to the fact that whenever possible " tandem lockages'
two vessels locked through at the same time.
illustrates the force employed by the locks division
traffic from September
in the operation or maintenance of
to in the following paragraphs.
Last year reference was made to the fact that 15-foot arrow signals
had been mounted near the end of each approach wall, with the idea
of using them for signaling to pilots. The signals were equipped with
Stamps and are visible both night and day. This year local manual
operation of the signals has been abandoned and motor drives have
been installed, which are controlled by switches mounted on the con-
trol boards. The remote control of the arrow signals was completed
Pacific locks, July, 1915.
Atlantic locks, August, 1915.
In November, 1915, it was necessary to
culvert valve at Miraflores Locks (cast wall
the bonnet of the old valve cracked. The
signed and tested for extra heavy service.
ann or wfl inezzt linA nvn raln-a 'R_-? .�+ Porl rnt
install a new auxiliary
) owing to the fact that
new valve has been de-
A better compression
WanimiAl n Rhi�� 1�11.;
THE. PANAMA CANAL.
On October 10, 1915, the engineer at Gatun hydroelectric station
advised that the counterweight of spillway gate No. 13 had given
way and had dropped into its pit, demolishing all weights. This
machine had not been operated for several days and was not being
operated at the time of the accident. Upon investigation it was
found that all four manganese bronze counterweight bolts had given
way just under the head.
Each spillway counterweight consists of 56 cast-iron blocks weighing
750 pounds each, resting on a cast-iron base plate and supported by
four 1 -inch manganese bronze bolts running into a cast steel yoke
at the top. The total weight of the counterweight is 45,700 pounds,
and assuming that the load is equally distributed, each bolt supports
11,425 pounds, or a stress of 4,750 pounds per square inch of metal.
Sections of the bolts were sent to the mechanical division for test,
and gave an ultimate tensile strength of 61,400 pounds, and 63,900
pounds per square inch, respectively, for the two bolts tested. This
would indicate a factor of safety of about 13.
Immediate instructions were issued to the lock superintendents
requesting them to
to replace all bronz
On October 21,
counterweight of gi
at the time of the
of the nuts on the bh
examine the guard
e with steel if any
1915, the naval
lard valve No. 226
its well. The guar
break and had n<
two fractures wern
olt, and the (
st break. The fi
'ance, with what
to the length of
long showing on
total dead weigh
s, which under
eg of the U bolt
d to b
valve counterweight bolts and
defective ones were found.
,ronze U-bolt supporting the
at Gatun failed, dropping the
I valve was not being operated
t been closed for some time.
found, one at the top of one
the shoulder of the U opposite
)ve the nut was crystalline in
e a fibrous formation at right
fracture at the shoulder was
s and two-thirds crystalline, a vertical crack
one side of the bolt marked the plane between
it of the guard valve counterweight is 28,580
normal conditions would make the load on
.12,300 pounds (with the counterweight im-
.e worst condition, that of throwing the entire
pounds) on one leg
ds per square inch.
two legs, the stress
or an indicated facto
;e of December 29. 19"
that an examination of
of the U bolt, the stress would be
If the load were equally divided
would be about 6,950 pounds per
r of safety of nearly 9.
15, the Pacific locks superintendent
Miraflores spillway counterweight
REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.
At Gatim the middle level, west bulkhead was not removed, but
the other five bulkheads were taken out and coated with enamel at
the time the gates were protected. At the Miraflores Locks the bulk-
heads on the east side of the center wall were removed and coated
with enamel, the work at the Atlantic and Pacific locks being com-
pleted on the following dates:
Miraflores, center culvert, east lower level, June 15, 1916.
Miraflores, center culvert, east upper level, chamber side, March
Miraflores, center culvert, east upper level, culvert side, March 24,
Gatun, center culvert, east and west bulkheads, July 15, 1915,
and October 15, 1915.
CABLE CROSSOVER TUNNEL AND PUMPS.
The last two cable crossover sump pumps at lower Miraflores were
installed during August, 1915, making the final dates of completion
of the installations as follows:
Gatun................. . ... ...................................... ..... .......
Pedro M iguel ..................................................................
Apr. 10, 1915
Aug. 26, 1915
The installation of these pumps has kept the tunnels comparatively
dry, all linings having been cleaned and oiled during the year.
The spillway caisson for (
water in September, 1915.
Miraflores spillway caisson
in the water when the west
the next fiscal year.
has been enameled and will be placed
chamber at Miraflores is flooded during
CAISSON, LOCK FLOATING.
The floating caiss
1914, and was prac
1 . 1 1l.. Trnnr wrhir
on was received upon the
tically out of service, exe
,h A aitn arrn n yamorfn on 1- r
Isthmus on October 29,
cept for tests, until July
a "rn aar irn rnnvr if- tn th A
of the cast iron impellers of the machines had been eaten away through
electrolitic or corrosive action, practically putting the pumps out of
commission so far as effective work was concerned. Additional
impellers have been ordered, and as soon as received the caisson will
be entirely overhauled and put in first-class condition. (See Plates
10 and 11.)
On September 4, 1915, the S. S. Lux Blanca approached the lower
end of Miraflores Locks while the chain fender was up and the sema-
phore in the danger position. The vessel struck the fender and
without appreciably stopping its headway broke the chain and went
through into the lock chamber. The fact that the machine had been
blocked made it impossible for the fender to operate, but nevertheless
and a committee
make a series of tests upon one of the chain fender machines at Gatun.
The report of the committee is quoted as follows:
In accordance with your instructions of October 21, 1915, a board composed of
ain T. H. Dillon (Chairman), Captain E. J. Atkisson, Mr. F. C. Clark, Mr. . H.
head, and Mr. C. J. Embree, arranged to make tests of chain fender machines
under service conditions.
at Gatun Locks with the S. S
November 5th and with the S.
These tests were carried out on chain fenders Nos, 810-811
with six locomotives on
Cristobal on November 16, 1915.
Report of tests
PREPARATORY WORK ON MACHINES.
needle valves were
cleaned of grease so the hawse pipe friction would correspond to previous tests. Tanks
were washed out and machines were placed in what was considered a normal condition
The proper instruments were installed to secure data desired.
the first test (S. S. Allianca) the valves were set to open at 360 lbs. at 12 notches opening
of needle valves.
3. A rope mat 25 feet long and 2 feet in diameter was woven through and around the
chain and a rope mat 2 feet thick hung over stem of the ship. A timber fender was used
on the first run with the S. S. Allianca in' addition to the rope mat, but was removed
on later runs as serving no useful purpose. Rope fenders were hung from lock walls
and men stood-by to drop fenders between ship and walls if necessary. No damage
to ships occurred as result of test. There was no appreciable tendency of ship to sheer
off on striking chain. Six locomotives were attached to ships to assist them m getting
up speed and for braking if necessary. No braking was done by locomotives except
on one test where valves were blocked open intentionally to determine pressure due
to friction of water in pipes with open valves.
i. Simultaneous time interval signals were installed for second and third tests.
j. Travel time diagrams were taken for movements of one Ross valve on
5. Similar runs were made differing by only one variable so that the effect of change
inm this variable could be determined; for example, changing between runs only the
number of valves in operation, or speed of ship, etc.
Twelve runs were made with the S.
S. Alliance (total displacement, 4,221 tons)
at speeds varying from 1.23 miles per hour to 3.38 miles per hour. The distances
traveled after striking chain varied from 14.5 feet to 52 feet. The setting of auxiliary
valve was changed from 360 Ibs. to 250 lbs. for the 8th run, also various openings of the
needle valve from 6 to 15 notches.
7. The result of these tests was satisfactory as showing a sufficient strength of chain
and the opening of the Ross valves under pressure. They were unsatisfactory in that
the Ross valves did not always function properly in maintaining a uniform resistance
pressure. Except on the 5th and 8th runs, the valves either remained open or closed
only after an interval of time during which interval the valves offered no appreciable
resistance to outflow of water and paying out of chain. The only resistance of any
moment tending to stop the ship with one or more valves fully open is the weight of
the cylinders and friction of moving parts. Consequently, except on the 5th and 8th
runs, the distances traveled by the Allianca after striking the chain exceeded the
theoretical although the ship was stopped before it would have reached the gates.
Had the ship been of greater displacement under same conditions of valve operation
the resistance above mentioned would not in every case have prevented traveling the
distance between chain and gates.
8. After Allianca tests were completed the machines and valves were thoroughly
overhauled and placed in perfect operating condition.
9. After overhauling the valves 6 locomotives (3 on each wall) were used to draw
out the chain in much the same manner as would a ship, their cables being fastened
to the center of the chain. The operation of the valves was more satisfactory than
was the case in Allianca test, but there was still considerable fluctuation as evidenced
by the pressure curve. This fluctuation was decreased by the use of springs installed
to increase tendency of valves to close and maintain a more nearly constant pressure.
It was to be expected also that the strain exerted by the locomotive would not be so
nearly constant as that exerted by a ship.
S. S. "CRISTOBAL"
10. Everything was again placed in perfect operating condition for the test with the
Cristobal (displacement 18,000 tons) and record indicator was placed on one Ross valve.
Ten trial runs were made, all except two being at approximately two miles speed.
The first run was made at 1.64 and the eighth at 2.45 miles per hour, the latter speed
being the maximum that could be obtained in distance available. The operation of
the valves in every way was satisfactory and the distance travelled after striking,
corresponded closely with the theoretical. With auxiliary valves set at 360 lbs. and
the needle valves at 12 notches and at 2.45 miles per hour speed the maximum pres-
sure developed in the cylinders was approximately 550 lbs. per sq. in., the Ross valves
opened and floated at approximately .7 inch rise and ship was stopped in 57.5 ft.
which is almost exactly with the theoretical.
13. The proper functioning of the chain fender machines when chain is struck by
a ship depends upon the successful. operation of two resistance valves which may be
connected in parallel at each chain fender machine. At practically all chains includ-
ing the chain under test these valves are of the Ross type the theory of which is as
14. The water pressure in the main or upper chain fender cylinder caused by ship
striking the chain is transmitted thru small pipes to an auxiliary valve of safety,
spring, diaphragm type which opens at a certain pressure for which it may be set and
permits water to flow from head of cylinder to the chamber in bottom of Ross valve.
Connected to this same chamber in bottom of Ross valve is a small needle valve which
permits the escape of a certain portion of water coming through the auxiliary valve
depending on opening of the needle valve. The working part of the Ross valve
consists of a movable stem having two pistons. The openings and parts are arranged
to form a balanced system except for pressures from chain fender cylinder acting on
top of 2" stem tending to close the Ross valve and the pressure transmitted through
the auxiliary valve acting on bottom 6" piston tending to open the Ross valve.
15. When chain is struck the action of check valves closes the system and the
pressure increases until auxiliary valve opens. This transmits the pressure to bottom
of 6/ piston of Ross valve, thus overcoming the effect of corresponding pressure on the
top of 2" stem and causes stem to rise and opens the valve. The stem of the valve con-
tinues to rise and increases the opening until pressure in chain fender cylinder drops
sufficiently to permit closing of the auxiliary valve whereupon the now unbalanced
pressure acting on top of the 2" stem causes Ross valve to close, the water in bottom
chamber escaping through the needle valve, which is set at small opening to permit a
cushioning effect in the seating of the valve. This opening and closing of the Ross
valve continues until a balance in pressure between the 2" and 6" pistons is obtained.
This balance is struck when the pressure required on the 6" piston in order to hold the
valve is the same as that required for discharging thru the needle valve the quantity of
water entering through the auxiliary valve. Theoretically this should cause a fairly
uniform resistance pressure slightly in excess of setting of the auxiliary valve.
16. The functioning of the Ross valves and the resistance to paying out of the chain
are thus seen to depend upon the differential action of the auxiliary valve and the
needle valve and the potential unbalanced pressure on top of the 2" stem which tends
to close the valve. Increasing the setting of the auxiliary valve increases the pres-
sure required to open the Eoss valve. Increasing the opening of the needle valve de-
creases speed of opening and increases speed of closing of Ross valve, causing higher
pressures. Decreasing opening of needle valve increases speed of opening of Rom
valve and decreases speed of closing, causing lower pressures.
17. The pressure curves show that the initial pressures run considerably higher than
the setting of the auxiliary valves. These high pressures cause wider opening of
Ross valves than that which is merely sufficient to cause the desired resistance. The
excess opening causes a rapid drop in cylinder pressure after reaching a maximum.
The drop in pressure is further accelerated because the stem of Ross valve continues to
rise and increases the opening until the cylinder pressure falls to point about equal to
setting of the auxiliary valve. In other words, the valve is opemng while pressure is
rising, reaching a maximum and dropping to a point equal to setting of auxiliary
18. The force tending to close the Loss valve is the cylinder pressure which sets on
the top of the 2" stem. It is fully effective only when this pressure is less than setting
of auxiliary valves, or when auxiliary valves are closed. The closing effort is greatest
at instant of closing of the auxiliary valves, and rapidly decreases as the cylinder
as it was desired to make same under normal condition of maintenance.
were merely taken apart and examined and tanks were washed out to prevent possi-
bility of silt interfering with operations of the auxiliary valves. No attempt was
made to have valves close of their weight after being operated by hand as no necessity
j . - - - > * - - " - - *
for this was foreseen.
After the Allianc tests were completed the Boss valves were
thoroughly overhauled, a new leather placed in one valve and the other leathers soft-
ened up. One valve stem which was sufficiently bent to cause valve to operate with
difficulty when moved by hand was straightened in the lathe. Glands were loosened
upso that valves closed by their own weight.
22. It is understood that the itoss valves are designed to reduce high pressure to
lower pressure in same pipe system. In such a system there is always some pressure
on the exit side, and consequently no opportunity for the pressure on the entrance
side to drop to a point below which the unbalanced closing pressure could not over-
come some considerable friction. On the chain fender machines, however, there is no
appreciable resistance to flow beyond the valves as piping is short to air. A sluggish
valve might work satisfactorily in a reducing system, but might fail under a chain
fender test. Test No. 12, run with Allianca with Ross valve blocked open, indicates
no appreciable pressure in cylinders. With open valves, therefore, or at slow speeds
with partly open valves, the closing pressure is either not sufficient or drops too
quickly, and their own weight is the only force tending to close the valves. With
conditions as in chain fender machines, therefore, the adjustments of Ross valves
and accessories must be carefully made and maintained
. It is noted also that the
sag of the chain was considerably greater in the Allianca test than in the Cristobal
test, being 8 to 9 and 3 feet, respectively. Increase in sag serves to increase initial
speed of cylinder travel, causing higher pressures and wider opening of Ross valves.
High initial pressures offer more opportunity for failure of valves to close.
23. The result of the complete overhauling and installation of springs to assist
closing of the valves was evident in the locomotive test, and to a smaller degree in
the Cistobal test. The effect of the springs is neglible in opening. On the Cristobal
test everything was operating so smoothly that minor changes such as variation in
setting of auxiliary valves, needle valves, springs, use of one or both valves on each
machine, change of speed, etc., while making appreciable difference, were not suf-
ficient of themselves to cause valves to fail.
CARE OF VALVES.
24. Based upon result of these tests and also upon the fact that if any one of the four
valves at each chain fender fails all would fail, the Board recommends the following,
covering care and maintenance of the valves:
1. Valves should be thoroughly overhauled every 6 months, leathers soft-
ened up or new leathers placed and friction of moving parts eliminated so that
valves close by their own weight.
2. One valve at each machine should be set with auxiliary valve to open at
300 Ibs. and 6 to 12 notches (one to two complete turns) opening needle valve.
The second valve at each machine should be set with auxiliary valve to open
at 400 lbs. and needle valve set at 6 to 12 notches (one to two complete turns).
Both valves should be connected in service and ready for emergency operations.
3. Install spiral springs on valve stems below valve to assist valve in closing.
Strength of springs should be such that they will be only under slight compres-
sion when valves are fully closed and 100 lbs. compression when Ross valves
are open one inch.
4. Reduce settings and operate valves with operating pumps, then reset as
prescribed in paragraph No. 2 above, every three months.
E WXTQt nut +..a + n Iroa7- /vnnnn " +nrhnn tnlnio onA maIra miro taitf thonr iQ nh Oflf. ru nr
74 THE PANAMA CANAL.
over all regulating and needle valves to prevent unauthorized persons
gaining access to or tampering with the adjustment of the mechan-
isms. Arrangements were also made to put ventholes in the top of
all water tanks of chain fender machines in order to allow the escape
of air at the time the machines operate. Ratchet-driven pawls have
been installed on the lower chains at Miraflores, so that either the
high or low tide chain can be easily thrown in. See Plates Nos.
66 and 67
All conductor slots and rails have been overhauled, cleaned, and
painted, putting both the towing and return tracks in condition for
Arrangements were made to replace. practically all deck lights at
the Pacific and Atlantic locks. It has Leen found that it is a very
difficult matter to prevent the deck lights chipping and breaking out
of the concrete as a result of being heated excessively by the sunlight
and then suddenly quenched by tropical showers. The most effective
means of preventing the breaking of the deck lights has been to
paint the circumference of the light with a plastic compound, which
allows for the expansion of the glass after being embedded in the
As a part of the operating work at each of the locks two drill
operations of the emergency dams are made each month, the usual
crew being nine men. In order to accustom the men to operating
under any condition, at least one of these operations is made at night
under artificial light.
If the dams had to be operated in an emergency, the noise of the
passing water would make it impossible to give verbal directions;
therefore, all operations are carried out in silence, arrow signals being
installed near the gates on each girder so that the silver operators
can signal when the hooks are clear or in place on the gates. Ad-
ditional lighting has been installed and an indicator has been placed
on the gate machines for aligning the clutches so that the machines
can be changed from one gate to the gate next without resetting.
All clutch operating solenoids on the girder hoist machines have been
removed during the year and will be operated by hand in the future.
The Atlantic locks have installed lamps in each girder, gate, and
wedge motor in order to keen the insulation dry and ready for service.