<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the Governor of the Panama...
 Appendix A: Report of the engineer...
 Appendix B: Report of the engineer...
 Appendix C: Report of the resident...
 Appendix D: Report of the superintendent,...
 Appendix E: Report of the marine...
 Appendix F: Report of the chief...
 Appendix G: Report of the resident...
 Appendix H: Report of the...
 Appendix I: Report of the chief...
 Appendix J: Report of the executive...
 Appendix K: Report of the special...
 Appendix L: Report of the district...
 Appendix M: Report of general purchasing...
 Appendix N: Tables
 Appendix O: Acts of Congress affecting...
 Appendix P: Charts showing organization...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


PCANAL DLOC



Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00036
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Running title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication: Washington, D. C.
Creation Date: 1915
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
System ID: UF00097365:00036
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    List of Illustrations
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
    Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 62
    Appendix A: Report of the engineer of maintenance
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
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    Appendix B: Report of the engineer of terminal construction
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
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        Page 176-33
        Page 176-34
        Page 177
    Appendix C: Report of the resident engineer, dredging division
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
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        Page 190
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    Appendix D: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
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        Page 210
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        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Appendix E: Report of the marine superintendent
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
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        Page 224
        Page 225
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        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Appendix F: Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
    Appendix G: Report of the resident engineer, building division
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 266-1
        Page 266-2
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        Page 266-9
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        Page 266-14
    Appendix H: Report of the auditor
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
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        Page 377
        Page 378
    Appendix I: Report of the chief health officer
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
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        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
    Appendix J: Report of the executive secretary
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
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        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
    Appendix K: Report of the special attorney
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
    Appendix L: Report of the district attorney
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
    Appendix M: Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
    Appendix N: Tables
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
    Appendix O: Acts of Congress affecting the Panama Canal and Executive orders relating to the Canal Zone
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
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        Page 534
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        Page 536
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        Page 538
        Page 539
        Page 540
        Page 541
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        Page 543
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        Page 549
        Page 550
        Page 551
        Page 552
        Page 553
        Page 554
        Page 555
        Page 556
    Appendix P: Charts showing organization of the Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company, July 1, 1915
        Page 557
        Page 558
    Back Matter
        Page 559
        Page 560
    Back Cover
        Page 561
        Page 562
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TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Page.


Report of the Governor of The Panama Cai
Ozgaiization. .......a.a...a...aa
Construction...................
Lo~cks... . . . . . . . . . . .
114342k8~h~j - a * aw a4 a a � a a a ai - t a a **aa - - a a
Electrical division.. .a .-.. .....l.
Municipal engineering. . ........
. Meteorology and hydrography ....
Surveys - .... . .....- ....- ..........
Office engineer ...... - - .. - - ..........
Lighthouses- a.. a -.--.....a.aa

Division of terminal construction - .....-
r docks .................... -- - .. -
Balboa coaling station .-.........
Oristobal coaling station..........
Balboa shoop a....aaaa....aaaa...
East breakwater a a -a-a.aa.....a
Fuel oil handling plants ..........
Floating cranes .a aa. ..... a a


. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . ..
a* a aa a* - * - - aaaa -� , a -, - - - a a* a-** a a -



. . . . . �-a..- - . a.-- a a a. a a . . -

.- . a . a - a - - - a a.. . a - . . - a .


. ... . . . .. . . ... . . .. . .
- - a a a a - -- -. - -. a . . .. . . - - - a a - a . a . a - a

a .. . a - a a. -. - - -- a ai a a - a - - a - a - a - - - - a a a. a


- a - - a


. - a - a -- a -I


- ---------------------------


- a a aa a - -- -

- -as w a a a -


Colliers. ........
T ugs..a .a.a.a.a.a a

Commercial and
Quarantine boat
Dredging division.. -

Mechanical division.


repair wharves.- - - - -
rep air wharves.a


landing..
I- a - a* a* a* a* - -
a a a a. a a a - -


a a


Building divsion- -..... . . . ... . .
Operation and maintenance..... - .
Supply department..............
Qu t ers - - a... - - .. .... .. .
.oral-... .. .. ...
Material and supplies... ....
.Scrap -... e -. ..**...a .. .- -a - a

Subsistence ..... .... .. . . . ...
Mount Hope printing plant -..
Accounting departme -nt...- .......
A"M , *W *


a - *- a a a - - - - - -


a - - - a------------------------ - - -
a - - a aa.aa.a a a .


a a a -. - a - - a
a a - - - a a - -


- a - a- ------------------------ -- -- --a a - a a a a - ----- --- -- --- .-. a a a - a a
a - - aa a a -a -a - - a - - aa a a -a - - aa a a






IV TA]


Report of the Governor of The P
Executive department--Con

Division of civil affairs..
Customs bureau....
Adnistration of a
Licenses and taxes.
Postal service .....
Canal Record --....
Police and fire division-
Division of schools.....- .
Bureau of clubs and pla
'The courts.. ...........---
Relations with Panama.
Law......e... -...- -a .

Washington office.. ......
Sanitation............ --...
Vital statistics..........
Division of hospitals . -.
Sanitary division- ......
SPanama. . ..-..-
Colon... ...-....-...
QuaMantine. . . . --. . .. --.

Fortifications.. .-.- . .-. .-- ...-...


BLE OF CONTENTS.


anania Cantal----on~i~

itinued. � ..




* � *, . �>* � � * �, ,~~~~~~, , , ,,,,H � � � c * ^ , ^ .,. , a ^ .. . . . *
a e a a t te -* a - *** * tf -M f f ,I k *i ** a * a l ate ac te c *I *:B:*�*ki - aiir a . i:**
asro un-w - - : * - - -. ea a aa ata. 0







. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . .





.......... ...................... ..... ..... 6
* - - - - - a aA - - - tee. a a a am a -, - -, a ,i , aW e > a - - a -t at- .


i� - -� a - a - a a a - - - a * a a a a> �,t a a . -. a a i -B a a a a aB a a a- a a a t^� a l 51M l^*'. : '::
Ca - a a a a - W a a h lw - t. a a, a a a - - a a a a a| a a * a al at aE all - *: ". "|al
ygounds. - a a a a - - a a a a - a a a , - - a * t * *
- a a a a a . - aa a .a ..a. *.. -.. a a a a - * . a .- a a 54
a .. a a - - - a - - a a .. a. a a a. . - . a a a. - a a - - a. -a..-a * a 6 a0|
- - - - * * - a a* - - - * - -* a a a a a a a* a *ar -* aM a* a* a - a a a > *-* a a a :- �* ** ~ *'::"
a a a: - *- - - * < - - -* - - a a a at at a* a* a* a* a* a *1 a ak at ai - a* a: ai a* a e af tt ai a t al l a: 5 I

- t -< - - -t - at am *- at - - a a a a a a a a a a a a af a* t t ft ft ft at a* a: aB af :f *- a a :� at afi~l -: li

*t a 5 - -* - t ft a t a t - **Mf F*W- -t -* a** a* a** a> a* at a* at -* ft a* at a: 5* :* tat af a* af - :ft e tc af: 81r "
- -ft - - ft at *- a at at a a a t - *a - -* * - af af a a a* a a a* - a - af af at t at at at * a* 61* BH P ': .'
a a-m -- a- -a am am am a aa ea aa aa aa a aee a a a , a 0


a a- fa m m * * f :ftaa sat at a a att a e a a a : a a c *- a ta -. a 62


. . . . l. . . �. . _. . ._ .H f .* ft . t .* .* . .* . . . .t .* .f *. f ft .* .* .i ft .k �. .* . :* .*V


APPENDIX A.


Report of the engineer of maintenance....
Organization.... -...--.................-
Lock operation and maintenance - a --

Organization. - -...................-
Concrete laid inm all locks .......--
Lock machinery. ...... .. .. ...
Chain fender sump pumps........


Chain fender machines..-......
Chains for fender machines. -
Lock transformer rooms.... ..
Telephone systems......... a. .
Towing locomotives .. .... ....
Arrow signals. . a.... . -......
Lower guard gates-Gatun - ..
Regulating valves.............
Lock repair shops. .n.a......
Painting of lock gates.. .......
Emergency dams. . ... ......
Locklages.. a ....... .......
TVe * ..f J � *


- a a C a a.. - a afaaa- a a a a a * aa. at t � * C - a - a a
:a a - a a * . ar a . a - a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a* * a a t a
Sa a a a a f - at a: a* a a a. t t a at a a a f a a t a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a t 5 a - a : a
a fa a a a fa a a a a . a a. aaa a a. r i a a a


* a a a a a a a . a a .. a. a a .... sac a.a .a.a cc . cc a
t at a - at -* a- af af at at at at < a a a a: a a* aK a at - a- a at ai a* a* at a a a e a



* .f .f t ft f ft ft . . .i . iii . .i ik . . t - .i . . -. *r : :r .f ft . ft . . . .r -:.*
a a a a a a a a a a a a a . .a a a a a : a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a -


a a a a a - a a a . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . at Ca a a a ak a a a. C


- a a - a - a a a a a a a a a a S a a a - a a a a a a a a a a a C C C *
at a al at -* a a: at at at at a at aH at a* at aI aI a* a f a� a* a* al a* a aI a* a aN a* af ak a
a at a* a a a a a: a af a a a a* a a* at a a a* a* a af : af a* a af a- ak a a at a f a


. .I . . . . . . . . . A . . . . .


a a. a a a a a a a a a


iA-J







TA*


- a a . a
* . a a a


CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of maintenance--Continued.


Electric al division........ .. .. .. . . ...
Division office and designing work
Operation of power plante..........
Hydroelectric station. ...... ...
Miraflores steam station........
Empire steam station.... .... .
Balboa steam station....---.
Power output . - -. -....--.....-
POWer output.... ............


Operation of
Operation of
Operation of
Operation of
Operation of
Operation of
Northern and
Armature wi


a' a a
a a a a a a a


* a - - - a a a a a a a a - a a a a .. - a .a .a a * a a a
* a* - a a * a - a a a: a a - a a a a a . . . . . . . . . a . a a
* - a a a a1 - a a aP a a - a a a a a a * (* (* - - a a* a i ai a a a a
-.a..a. a - ...a a..a. a..a..a..a. a. - - a
* a - - a a a. a . a a.. a a a a. a a. a . a . a. a a - a
a - a a 4. - a a. a a a. a - - a a - - a - a. a a a a - a a a


air-compressor plants..................a
substations and transmission lines.....
Balboa cargo-handling cranes..- ......
telephone and telegraph system- -.......--
telegraph and electric clock systems...
railway signal system and accessories..


I southern
ending and


districts...... -.........-
electrical repair shop ..


a a a
a a -


General electrical construction work..aa...a- ...
I
Substations and transmission lines............
Balboa shops...... . - ..- .. . -... -..- .-. ...........
Electrification of Mount Hope dry-dock shops.


Installation of rotary converters. .
New Panama waterworks system -


Relay pumps and pumping
Balboa dock lighting .- -.....
Radio station ....---....a
Berm cranes ---...... .-..--......
Street lighting systems ....


barge


a a a a


* a - - a a a a a a a a a - a a


- a a -a - a a . -. - . -
a a - -a - ..- -- .- a a


a - -- a a -- .a - a a a
- a a a. * a a - - a .- a. a a * -
a -.aa a a aa a a -- a . a
- - a a a a.a -. - - - a a a a a
S- - - a - - - .-.aa -.S
a - a -a a - - -a - a . -


a - a a- a a aa - a -a - a aa a a
- a. - a - a a a .-.-.. a. a a. a a a - a a


* - aa a a a - aa.a. . a.a .a.-- .a a a ..-.- -.a


a.- . - a a- a- -- a a a .


Underground conduit and distribution systems -


Details of construction work. ... -
Details of construction costs ---
Electrical installation work in building


Municipal division......a.... .....
Northern district... ........
Canal work. ...--.----.......-
Concrete reservoir at
Work at oil-handling
City of Colon ...........
Armny work. -...........


Toro Point water supply.
Margarita Island. ........
Southern district... .. . .. .. . . ..-...
Canal work. . .-.- . -..-.......


a a a a a
a a a a .


a a a a-a. -a- a.a


;8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .

a a a - a- a a - a . . .a a .a - - - a a a a - a
a. -a aa -... -. -.-.- .a.a ..-.-


Gatun - -. --..........-
plant and oil-tank farm,


Mount Hope.


a.-. a aa . - aa a- .a - a - a . a
a - . a. a.aa .-- - a .a -a -- - . a


a a a a a a a a - a a - - - a - a - a a - a a - a - - a a a a a
- a a a - - a a a a a a - a - - - a a a - a a - a a a a a a a a
- a - a - a a a a a a a a - a a a a a a - a a a a a - a a a a


Page.
72
75
76
76
78
79
79
79
79
80
81
81
82
82
83
83
83
83
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
85
85
85
86
86
87
88
88
88
88
88
88
88
88
90


"9






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Municipal division-Continued.


Southern
Cam


Pan


Ann




Operation
Tabt


Meteorology
Meteorol
Fret
Ten
Win
Atm
Reh
Clot
Eva
Fog
Sea
Tidc
Seis
Tab


Hydrogr
afnn


Sdistrict-Continued.
al work-Continued. .Pag"
Electrical division .- a - , C i t * ***A. . * * a 3
lortifica.ti I d.ivision... - a - *- - - - . a a - - 4
Locks, operation department...-.-..-.*.-. .
M iscellaneous a.........------. *..... .. . aa.. a aa.. ,..-.a 94<
aa City..- -.
- ^i" af~ it a~fs it Sf~ - a ~ r - a - - a -f"1 a - a*i.. a*" a '- a 'a-* ** aa� ^

Concreting B Street a a aa a ..-- a..a,..a .a-.a-. aa. aa a. a4
Curb and gutter at bull ring....... . ... . . .. - . -. . ... ........... 4:
Lork .^ B . .a . a a a . .- 1 * - a a a a a - * *: . B - a a a a - a - a - a - a - a - a a a a.
Fort Amador..f.... I a a a * a ::aaaaaaa*. -

Staff headquartersa. .a. aa..aaa..a-..aa.a.. .a.. ., a a 05
Geni eral ... . - a a a a - - - - - - a . a a -. a a - a a * -:. . . 5
n of water-purification plants .$ ...a a a a - - - a - - - - .,95

Monthly operation data of rapid sand-filter plants.a........... 6
Monthly physical and chemical data............. 9
and hydrography..1.i... a..aa.-.a..aaa...a- ..aaa. a-... a8
ogy a... -a... ---..-aa...-a- ...a a ...aaa ...aaa..aaa ..--... 98
.ipitat0on . ..a a. -.s. .a..-a.aaa. .aaa - a a aaaa cc *a.a . 99
tperature....-a. WI
L~nra oiir aJJ y * -� f 1^ *h-f a-� f� a r - - w ~~ -^ tw ^ at�#cr .*../'''Sf







8. . . . . . .. ..ds. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .100
ospheric pressure- - a jt a a I1
ative hum idity a ..... -t a - -- -aaa aa a aa a a a a' aaa a a a a . 1 0
Idiness.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . 0
v^ULT-U- asaaU aaM~ at -ll Jla --5- -aa a a aaa a a ac a ^a *.�aaa et.^* as].O









portionn. a a .. - -rii - - - - - a 101
.101
5 aAa a a-asa -a a t a at, ,, ,aa.aa:a
tempX eratuire - a a .- a a - a- - a a a a * - a a 4 ... * a a . a a: 101
al conditions a..a...a a 101
mology.a.-.a.aa.a.a.ae..a...aaa..a.a...a.a,.a.., ta aaaaaa 10)2
les---
Monthly rainfall on the Isthmus of Panama, 1914-15..... .... 102
Maximum rainfall in Canal Zbne, Oct. 1, 1905, to June 30,
1915.......................... .. .. ... .. ..10
J.I J. . a1n a^f at a ai rri- a'l a a::*M a ss a . t a a -a *aa













Monthly meteorological data, year 1914, Balboa Heights.a - a. 1G4
Monthly meteorological data, year 1914, Culebra.....aaa-aa.. 105
Monthly meteorological data, year 1914, Colon.....a. a at. 106
Monthly evaporations, Canal Zone, years 1914 and 1915.. ... 107
Tidal conditions, 1914, Balboa and Golon.......... .. .. . . . ... 107
Seismograph records, Balboa Heights........ I....... 08

aph~y. W.a a a. ata ac .. ,, as a...aaaa.a. .ew.as.a..a.-... C108
aaaaaaaaaaa a- a a a a -.- 108
Ud:a p n yv CrL - i!f t-v 3LQ *- i *i *: *- - w� * * * i : * - w< *- r :.:*:** � - �:n � it -:*' :| yif : *' ^ :^!!!^
flf K K K^KKKKXX K








OF CONTENTS.


Iteport of the engineer of maintenance--Continued.
Meteorology and hydrography-Continued.
Hydrography--Continued.
Lekages-locks and spillways.........
Miscellaneous. ........ . ..... .. .... ...


Page.
112


Tables-


Hydrology of Gatun Lake watershed, 1914... ...-
Hydrology of Gatun Lake watershed, dry season,


* - 1915
1915


* a - *O a -


Hydrology of Miraflores Lake wtershed,


1914 .. . .


Hydrology of Miraflores Lake watershed, dry season, 1915.


Hydrology of Chagres,


1914. ........ ....


Hydrology of Chagres, dry season


1915.


* a a a. .. . - - a
* -..a.aa.a-.- -


* a a a a - - - a
* a ..aa - - * *


Monthly discharge Chagres River, 1914- -.......--. -.....
Principal freshets, 1914 and dry season, 1915 ..... ..


Monthly maximum, minimum,


Lake


and mean elevations,


, Miraflores Lake, and Chagres River,


Gatun


1914.


Su rveys..........- - -
Office engineer....


APPENDIX


Report of the engineer of terminal construction -..
Organization ......... ......-.........-........--
Design and office engineering...--..............
Coaling plants, dry docks, floating cranes,
Coaling plants..........a..-..a...-


- - - -a - - a a- - a a.a-.a - .
..- . - . a .-- -- - - a.-a.aa a a . -


and radio stations..


a - a* - - -


Item 4-Stocking and reclaiming bridges.
Item 9-Reloaders..........a a---...-aa..


Item 12a-Conveying systems and power


substations.


- a - a a


Dry Dock No. 1..
Dry Dock No. 2..
Radio stations...
Floating cranes..


ar a - -*
a a - - -.

a - . ft -


a - a - a - - a - a a - - a - - a . - a - - - a a - - a . a a a a a a a - -
- a - a - - - a a a a a. - - a - a a a a - - - a a a a a - - - a a - - - a.-
a a a a a - a- *a - a -. a a... . .. .. a a --...
- - - - a a . - - a a a . - a - - a a - - - - a a a. a .. a. a -.. a -.


Balboa docks and pier - - ..-.......-.....-..-...- ..-........-..........
Shop buildings ...................................... ........
Colliers...... ............ ............ ......... .. ..............


Boiler roomT.............. ................... ...............


Engine room..-..
Manifold.- a.a.-


- a - a- a a a.aa - - - aa a. a a -a -. - a a a aa -a


Oil docks and pipe lines.
Tank farms. ... .......


Construction work, field engineering, and inspection... -


'Dnn4i4 n +n.rnt nn 1 ~.


'PAtiLE







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of terminal const
"Construction work, field engineering
Pacific terminals-Continued.
Dock No. 9-Entrance pier.
Commercial and repair wha
Dock No. 13 a...... - ....
D)ock No. 14...... . . . .
Docks Nos. 15 and 16..
Docks Nos. 17 and, 9..
Pier No. 18.... .... .
Dock No. 2-Fuel-oil c:
Dock No. 1-Quarantin


Balboa shops-...... -........
Roofing ..... ..........----
Planing mill exhaust sN
Steel rolling doors . . .
Movable metal louvers.
Shop yards ....-..... . ..
Operation of Sosa Hill quar
Ancon quarry. ...........----
Sand service. . . ---..........
Reclamation of land. ......
Naos Island breakwater.. .
Steel erection. ...........
General. ......-..........--
Tables-
Material excavated...
Filling and embankme
Summary of concrete w
Distribution of concrete'
Tracks laid and remove
Drilling... -....---... .-...
Explosives used .... .
Piles driven...... ......
Steam shovel excavation
Performance of steam s
Reinforcing and fixed s
Fixed steel used. .....
Reinforcing steel used.
Structural steel used. .
Caisson operations. - ...a
Trestle built.. . .... ..
Work done at Ancon qi


ttM . * .Ls1 .1 ai. fl,,r, IT*-..n , 1


ruction-
;, and ins


* . -a a -* a


-Continued.
pection-Continued.


. .. . .. .a .. . . * a. a .m


*mtt jjs m * jjj. ******j*ijjjj


rves-. -..... . -. -. ......... . ....-.. . . . .--.--- . 150
r..e.................... ..... . ..... . 150
a - - - - a a - - - - a - W a . f . - *. - . . . . . . . . . .-150


- - - .ft - - - . - . - ft: . i. ... .. . . .l . . 151


. .... ..... .-. .-.. .- - . .. . . .a a - a - - . a - . . . . . . . 15a1
rib ' "".. -- . - .. - - a -. * . . - .. 3 151
e boat landing. ...- -- ......-- - . .-. :152




* a - ii - IU *'> *� - - at a.f - a� a af a i a"^i a -" a a- - -� -' a ai al - af~~bl a:^: a l:pi5|3^:l
ry fr.estbeak..wae..- ........s,,. 153



B - -f -t at - a a a a - - -* -! *W f - -* -*' -* - a'1 al atW 4 < * a a* a* a* a all a * * *' 154tflhd .*'':"^^:'*::''
. ...- - - - - . . . - - - - - - - . a . - -- a S . - - * . .1K53
S * - - - - - a * * * * ' .a - * - .- - - - - * . . ? . . 156
nt vrorlc - a - S * * * - . .- . . . . * . . . - . . . . . 153
rore r e bre--w ate - - a a.*.s a....... 153
.. . .... . . .. . . .. . . ..... 154 ~c ^K K K KKK KKKK
.. . . . .. . ..tr. . . .. . . . 154Q 1 v �l*'XQ^JVT.l^- ...il!i




Splaced a - . - . . .. - * . a :. . . . . 155
a aa- .. ....-..... * -... - a a - - -. 162


- a a a a - a a a a - . - . . . *- *- a - - , - a . 182
k a a a a a la a a t- - 5'r a *� a ** -* - a - - * - a - a -> - * a� a ,t a� a� 102~K.


e a a * a a * a ced - . a a a a - - - - a - a * adfc.al. 102



d1. .. .,.,.... .. as a a a a - a - .4* 54 a -. .a. 142
1 i e . .- . - . . a - - a - a a a a a a a ( . . a a . 183|
St e . . se - * * 5 * - * . .* -. . . * . * - - - - - - . * - 5 1.63
aa.a.t sass nasa a - - - '* - aaa at** 164




an a. . s.. . .- a sat a ta a - a - a news .... a a *, . 165
a.. a . . a -. a a * a a . . .- - - a - a * - * * * a , , a * 105
....placed-.............,-- ....,^.... 180







a. . . . a - . . . - . < . . - .- a - - - - - - - - . - n a n|nnj
1 U11T3 a. . . . W . 1 * - - a a . .a --�- - -r |tt - aa a . sta 108
. m n - . . . I S. - A - - A . . . - - - - - - - - - - A -- s0
uarmry�c ...... . . ... . A-.-. .-..
AjJVv A �w r ~ * - : .**�#- � < -< �>* >� ^yHN :|y
* * * * : * * :
^ i.frfi '^'*^'
SyBGA~~~~~~~~~~~ NUel.*.* ** .�- . ,. * � , � �-0 il:
KK KK K










nt w or 15 � .,��^���***h��w**- *^"- ~I * :: :*:|
*or don 1 -' "" " 1-' *^ "1-^Aiw^|^
plc d160. ^**". .
11 � �x ,,f ,, �*'**
16wL " * '' * "*--**"' " "*1 1*' '1" ^w r * : Kr
^Jp K KK^
*'--':. ' : :
^*/��l�nyn"<'�^SSS ! * 2J'







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the engineer of terminal construction-Continued.
Construction work, field engineering, and inspection--Continued.
Atlantic termnials-Continued.
Cristobal coaling plant-Continued.
Miscellaneous. ...... .. . ... ... . . . .. ... ...-.. ...... .-. -.....
Tables-
Concrete used . . . - - . . . . - ..-.- - . .... . .- . . .. ... . . .. ..
Tracks laid..... . .. . . .a .a.... ..... . . - . . .. .. .. .. ... . . .....
ies & driven. .... . ... . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. .. . .

Reinforcing iron used ........-.. -..a. ... . . .-... . ... . .... ..
Fixed iron used. ..... .- .- .- . . .... .... .. .... .... ..........
Back fill placed .. .........---........................ ......


Progress of cylinders.......
Excavation. -.-......-.......


a-


Summary of erection of wharfi
East breakwater.............. . . .
Salvaging material...........
Pile drivers... ..............
Cost of "Northers"...........
Equipment lost in norther...
Dry fill..... .....-.....-......-
Wet fill. ..aaa....--....--.
Sawmills a .............a-
Miscellaneous- -................------
Pier No. 7-Cristobal ........


Sdecking steel


- - - a a a a a a - . a a a a a a a - - - a *
- - -* i -- Sr a a a a a ah a a ai a- -* a a a a a* * a, a
a a - -* - -k a - *I - -R at al -l a a a a a a a a a - .a
*- - - a a a*1 a** a a - - a - a a a a 1 a a - a*k - - -a


If
a
. a


- - - --.- - aa a a a a- a ..a.aa .a. a

-.- . - ..-a a ..aa a a .a.aa aa -- a . - ..5


Page.


AtO*
169


169
170
170
170
171
171
171
172
172
172
174
174
174
174
174
175
175
175
176


APPENDIX


Report of the resident engineer, dredging
Division organization . .............
Dredging.......... ... . . -.. - .. -.-. .-..
Tables-
Output of all dredges with toi


Yardage removed, first district,.
Yardage removed, first district (4
to Gamboa Dike..-- ......- .....--
Yardage removed, second district
Dredges retired for repairs and r4
Subaqueous rock excavation ...... ..
First district, Gamboa Dike to P
Rock removed by dredges..
Second district...........-..- ...
Dredging operations.... .- . - . .. .-...


division -
a a . a - a - - -


** -* a a aM a J - af a: - a a a B a aB - a* a
- a a..a..a.aa.aa aa a a. a
- - - - - a a a a s a a a a S S * a a


tal and unit costs.


Pedro Miguel Locks to sea.- -......
Gaillard Cut), Pedro Miguel Locks


* * a a - a -
t . *. a a. a
renewals


a aaI a
a.aa . -
*ft -- a


'anama Bay....


. - - a< -


. . a a a
a a.a a
. a a a a


a - a aa.a..a.aa a -.
- - - -a.55a a. a.-a a.
* a. a..a a a aa a. a..a.
- - -. -..a. a a..a..a
a.a..a..a. - a a a a
* a. - a a a a a a a- a ..-
-.a..a..a.aa.aa.a. a. a
a - - a a - a a a a a a a a a a a


First district.......-. a. - -*..... . . . . . .... .. a... . ...... .....


. . . . . . .






TAiLE


Report of the resident enginee
ailry reports on slidet...
M.idi dikes.. .-.... ....
Water hyacinths..........
Survey~s..... ............
O i e. . * .. - - .. -.
Of ic./.Ili . - aa3 a 1 B-*1Wt a a �- - . fa * a-


Report of the superintendent,
Organization............ .-
Balboa shops............
Cristobal dry-dock shops.�
Paraiso shop s.. .---. --... . . .-.
Cristobal roundhouse.....
Hosting -. * - a.......-a-
Car-inspection service.... - - -
Floating derricks..... .-. . .
Fuel-oil handling plants..
General ea-aa..-.....--.
Tables-


*


r


, dredging dvMsion-Continued.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... . .
a* - ** -'*"-* -"*** a* -** **-* - a a - a -: . ,- - - - "- . a: :




APPENDIX ID.
mechanical dvio -...,a. . . - a a,,,a|i|a 19
* a, .- - - - - a f a* ..... a aa --. ...a ,,,. J. 191
. - - - - I.. r n as nn .... . .. ... 192
U..... .. . . ... . ULL 3 U.U . *t.~~t w ��w ww w- w w .J iid| .. . .I.... . ..pi:|... * 3


- - . - - - - - - - - - - - f - * f . . - - . B . - - . -. - - . - - . - . . . - - . . 19 6

.... .-- --. .... -.. ... ... .... ... --- -..197
- - - . . . . . . .a. - -- - - . - - - .a. a a a a a a a . . . .- a - a a a a a a a � . 198
- a - <- - - - > - - - -a - <- a a- a � - * a a a i a a - -. - at - *ri i tefH - .A - i - aJfi . a: - a 19


a. . .. . . a - . . - - a a . - a... .. a. a a - -a *- - -- -S 199
S- - - a * a * a * * a a M- - a a - a - -I - - - a : 199


of mechanical division


of charges and overtime work performed......----
Abstract of expenditures of mechanical division
distribution of charges and overtime work perf
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division,
showing distribution of charges and overtime v
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division
shops only, showing distribution of charges
performed..aaa- . aaaaaa..-a.aa a a.a.aa-a a
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division, f
showing distribution of charges and overtime
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division,
house only, showing distribution of charges
performed............. .....................
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division


showing distribution

shops only, showing
ormed.... ...... ....
Balboa shops only,
ork performed......
, Cristobal dry-dock
and overtime work

)r Paraiso shops only,
work performed......
for Cristobal round-
and overtime work
, for fuel-oil plants,
, for fuel-oil plants,


Balboa and Mount Hope, showing cost of operation, quantities of
oil handled, and unit cost.i... .a-- .-.--..a-aa--a. a -.aa- a....
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division, for operation of
foundry, Balboa shops. . . . .... .. . . . . ... .. .... . . -. . . ...-. -
Number of repairs to locomotives during fiscal year ...........
Repairs made during fiscal year to equipment other than locomotives
and ars... aa. . ..,. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .
Number of shop and field repairs made to different classes of cars during


208


209




210
212

212


r


Abstract of expenditures


CONTENTS.








TABtL


Report ot the maine stiperintendent-Continued,.
jCet o of force .

Dissemnination of information of use to shipping..........................
Navrigatiori of the ccanal--S1i~des. .aaaaaaa - -----
Na �v agclonUU of L~ theA~l~ ......... ..........� �. .�............* �.. _... .


iag6:


Pontoon bridge......-....- .........
Aids to navigation.................
Signal stations and communications


Mooning stations............
R AlO. - - ...... .. ...... .....
Floating equipment......
Measurement of vessels and
Adjustment of claims ....
Agencies....-....-..........
Trade routes-revenues - ...
Number of vessels and t


** - a a <
* a ak a at a
* S a- a


* . . S a a -a- - a a a a


application of

a.a. -.aa aa a a


** a* a* -* a* a a a a a -r a* a - - - ' a ar a* a* i *- a - a< a* a



* - - ' - a* a a - - - a* a* a* a af - -- - a ak a ai - a' a - -r -

.- .. a a - S - - * * * - a - S - . - . * . a - - - - a a


toll-s - a. aa . a A .. a. a a. - a a | a a a� - - a


- - a - a a a a a - a - S M - a a . a a a a a a a a . .


rend of traffic through canal - - ................. -
rend of traffic through canal- -�.......


Appendix 1-Report of board of admeasurers . . .. -


a a a


a a


Appendix 2-Report of chairman, board of local inspectors...


Appendix 3-Analysis of
Summary of number
cargo handled - ...
Traffic routes .......
Barge traffic......
Commodities ......
Nationality of vessel,
Summary of traffic t


'17 11 a/LL a a** - a* a- s - a- a a- a a a * a a- a-*i - a - - a a a a a an a a -
Compared with railway traffic. ...........
Distribution of traffic through the canal...


a a - a a - - a a a . a
a a aa - a.aa a


trade routes ....... .................. ....- ......
of vessels passing through the canal and tons of
a S . a a a a a a a a a - - a a a a - a - a - S - a a a - a a a a a . a . . a a -.a aa
a a. a a - a a - a a. a. -. a - a a a a. a - a a a a a a a a - a a a. a . a a - .


to commerce...

a a - - a a a a a a a a a a


a a a a a a a a a - -


APPENDIX F.


Report of the chief quartermaster,


supply department.


Orgaaization.... ..... ...... ..... ...... .......... .... ... ... ...... ..
P ersonnelaa ea aaa..aa.a aa..a aa.a..aaa.a..aa..- ...
L labor a..a .a.a.a...a.a.a...a.a..... - a a a - aa. a. . . -.... a.aaa.a aa.aa a a.....-aaa aa a

QUarters .................................................... ..........
Zone sa tation.. - - --.....-..... ...-.....................---.... . ......... ......
4 Jorra s a. . . . ....a - ....a. .- a...- - a a a. a a * - aaaa.. - - ... a a a a a a . a a a a . - a a a - a a a


Material and supplies
Operation of stores ...
Scrap -..............
uSales a . a. .. . . . - . . . .
Subsistence.. a.a...--


a a
* a
a.


Mount Hope printing plant


a a- a* a* a a* a a * - a - a a a a- a a aH af - a - S a - a a ah a- -- a a a a a a a a a a* - a* S- S

* S a a a* a a - a a* a- a a a a� a al af a a. a - aB a - S a a a a at - a - a a a a* a a* a a a *a a
a a-aa aa-a aaaa n s e o m m s oa a *a aa aa aa a- a a 5 a a -


* a a a a a a a


a 5 5 a
a a S S a


-*i a - - 5 a a an a* a af ak a - a a * a a a a a a* a a a a


.4-' jt $1 If


s passing through the canal. -.....
trough the canal since its opening


00r 'T'E^I'S






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


r


Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department-Continued
Tables--Continued.


Value of
tions.-
Freight s
Important
1904 to
Value of
for the
Houses, s
quarter
Typewrit
mach in
Operation
Summary
Summary


material received during the fiscal year 1914-15 on requisi-
. . . ... . . . . . . .. .. . . ... . . .. ....'....... *" ^ * ***
statement fiscal year 1914-15 2
.t items of material purchased from inception of canal work
June 30, 1915 . . . , 24
stock on hand at storehouses June 30, 1915, and total iswu
year for all storehouses.: - a - C * * - . . - . *. 25
Apartments, and occupants, by districts, of gold and silver
s, June 30, 191Sif . ..Saaaa..haaaa -.. . a * . a a - , - 2


eas... .fra. a ClC, sto*-ahoie.a-.-.-..a...-......a...a.-aa. * as 4 258
eraturned m to mnvufacturers n part payment of new l


of Hotel Tivoli 256
- of oyrations of line hotels C 2
-of operations, laborers' messes.... . 5 Ca. CCC 257

APPENDIX G.
ent engineer, building division.................. ...... 8 2;


Orgainization.......................-.......... ........... ......
Buildings authorized...... .................. .... ........... ....
First appropriation. ...........-...... ...... ...... ..........
Fort Amador, Coast Artillery.... .........-.. .............
Mobile Army, Las Cascadas, Empire, and OCulebra-.... ..
atun................. .......................... .......
Second approp riation. .---a..-.-. aaS.......-... ..........
Coast Artillery, Fort Amador ..... .....a* a .... .... .*
Naos Island. ....... * .. ... ..... . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toro Point, Fort Sherman ---.. . ---- a.-...--a-a....
arganita Island.. -................... -...... .-......-.....
Corozal, Mobile Army. a.a. a . a .- .-....*aa.... -..
General building operations................ - . ---............ . ......
Comparative data on costs for various types of buildings... -...-
Estimate and cost of diversified pieces of construction work..
Size, number, and unit cost of hollow concrete blocks manufa


Permanent hospital bu ildin ... .
Principal canal structures completed and
year...... C . C....C . .... a a C .... a - C .. a .
Force. . *. ... . .. .. . ... .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .


r C * a S - C C
aft a ft ftf t* C

Wa. CSCCt f j ClC


-----a- ,
af a S . a
a. a * a aa - C
hctured..


e* - r aaast rc t - * C C C - a d a a ai. fi
under construction during fiscal


a
.


*: a ar - - *- i- ia - S* CI: * C �( C


259
259S

268
260
261
261

261
281

261
261
261

281

262
208

284
265
26


APPENDIX H.


Report of the auditor ..-....a.....a...aa.....C
rganization..... .... .................... ......
LjjJ - . fl


.CC,. ..� * ft*ft �:� t


Report of the resi


2t8






TABEI


CONTENTS.


IIfl


APPENDIX I


Report of the chief health
Letter of stranmisal.
General remarks.aa
Vital statistics.......


Health
Health
Health
Health
Division of
Anonn


of employees.
of residents of
of residents of
of residents of

hospitals......
knonitai


oiUcer . . . . - - .i. t t a . . - - - . * * * * . .. . . . . ..�. a ..
* a a . a a a a a-a . - a - i- . a a a a - - a a a a a a a - a a aa - a a a - a a -
*> a> a a a a a a a - -* a, a� * a , a a a a, a - a a a a - a
�* a � a a a a * a a a, -., �� � a * a a ' a - - a a a - - - - a �-- - a aa a a


the Canal Zone... ....
the City of Panama...
the City of Colon..... -
a. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a * a a a a


a a,.*J *a1fhjJS vtfl* aAV I^ U- a* ** -* : �** * a. - �
Board of health laboratory...
Insane department.........
Chronic ward ..- a ..-aa... a...
Colon hospital.. . ...... .... .....
Palo Seco-leper asylum. ........


Santo Tomas hospit
District dispensarie:
Medical storehouse.
Sanitation ...... ......
Canal Zone...
Panama.----- .---
Colon.. .. .--....
Quarantine division. ..
Panama and Colon.
Statistical tables (for ind


a a r a a a a .a a - a a - a a - a a a - a a


a a a a a a a - - - a a a


* - - a a a - - - - a a a - a a.... .. a
- a a a a a a - - a a a - - a a a . .a * a
* a a a a a a a - a a a a a a aa a a


* - a - a a a-* - - a * a a a * -* - - - a a a a a a a , a. a - -a

- a - a . . . . * - a - - C C - - a a - a a a a . - . a - .a
-- - aa- - -- - a a a -- - a a-- - - a a - a
a a - a a a - a - a - a - a a a - a a - a a a - - - a a a - a a


Sa a a a- -- a- a--- a- - - a a - -


4.a a a a a - - a - - - - - a - a a


- a - a a - - a - - a - a a .a a a a - - a a a


- - - a a a a a - a a - a a a a - a a - - - - - a a a a a


- -. - a a a a - - - . a a - a a a - a - a


lex see p. 396).


- a a - a a a a a - a a a a a - a - a a a a a a


a a a a a a - a - a a a a a a a - a a - a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a


Page.
379
379
379

380
380
381
381
382
382
382
382
384
384
384
385
385
385
385
385
385
386
392
395
395
396


APPENDIX J.


Report of the executive secretary


a a .a a a - --a


Organization......................
Executive office... ...... .- . .-.-. ... . . .........
Correspondence bureau... .. ..- - ........
Personnel bureau. a.-.......a--.........
Record bureau. -.. - -. a --....... a ......
Time-keeping bureau --....- .................
Property and requisition bureau.........
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds...........
General bureau - a--..... -. a ........a.
Division of civil affairs....- ... . . ...- ....... . . . .
Changes of organization... .. .. -.. --...... ..
Customs bureau... -. a. aa. .a. i .......a
Licenses and taxes... .... . ...............
Administration of estates a.a-a- .....a..
Postal service..... aa-aaa................ a


* -- aa aa aa a aaaaaaaa


a aa * * a a a * *- aa * a a - C a -S W
a - a- a .a aa a a aa a a a aa a


a a a - - a - a a a a a a a a a tt a a ai a a a
-** a- a a - a - --- a k a a a f a a a a jf -- a a a_ a -


a a a aa a- aa maa e a a a a a







TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


APPENDIX


Page.


Report of the special attorney
Organzation-a
Revision of the laws......
Land matters. a-..-.-.a..


* *- -- e * - a ** - i �: �a - - - - at**: * AMw atr -- -H :*.


Civil cases affecting the Panama Canal and the Panama


... ...."--" 455


Railroad Com-


pany...... .. ..... . ...+... .... ..x .
Panama Railroad Company cases settled during the fiscal year..


APPENDIX L.


Report of the district attorney.
Tables---


Criminal prosecutions.


-.av


.m. .


. . . a - a - - - - - a - * - . - - - a a *. -- a a a.


- , -


Disposition of criminal cases..
Appealed cases from magistrates'


a - a- - *- - a-* - ** a - - -* -: -* w - , *> - - -: ,* , * ,* *
** a* -* - -* - - . a a a a - a* a* -* k� * ai .1a - ah .1 -* a1 �**


courts..


V
*..... 6
.. .. 7




.....< 4469

* 4 7 - f , �Jfwj |
a i -*t i- r * * '* 'l^l ::: :::' "-:""::: Ill"
* t� a> a* , 14:*'6i9^' : :'.**:.
a, 9 - 4t0w ^~irS. *.^' :::


APPENDIX M.


Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office.
Organization. . - - - . . . . . . . - - . . . . - - - * - - - - - *


..4T
4Th


Appointments and general correspondence .. .-.........
Claim statement - --.....-- ...... --.---......- ....a.
Financial statement of receipts and disbursements- ----.......
Purchasing department . -.............................

General statements. - . .-. ..-... .-........ .......-. ...
Detailed statement of methods.. .................


-* :-- - - -.. - a a - a a a - at-
- ft a * a f a t * :
:- ai a- a- a. ak - ah ,* - ui a. ** *- -


472
472
472
. 472


Summary of purchases through the Washington office..., --....-.......
Summary of orders placed through the Washington office...........


APPENDIX N.


Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel..
Department of operation and maintenance...


Health department........- .. ..
Accounting department. ....
Supply department...........
Executive department.... . . .
Washington office. .... ....-.


- - W - - * - * *- -> -: -> -: a ft , ft :f a* a :* a . * t - ^ * :* :l-*.- : - *
.. . .a . a - .a S* - - - - ft fa - a * a - aa- a


- a a a a - - - - - a a. ... ... - -a aaa aaa aaa aaC V.
* . a. a ft a ft a- w *> - a N i * a - a* aI a1 aR a* S* -i *-- a: a -aa* - a- - � a a * * * -i- - f

- a a a a a a a a a - S C at at - �* a S* * *�1- *. -*t: * :a * S. :S *t :* S


APPENDIX


Acts of Congress affecting The Panama Canal and Executivre orders relating to
.-the Canal Zone (for index, see p. 491). .. .- . .. - - ---........................


484

487 ... .

481
489





491


APPENDIX PI


Summary of criminal prosecutions for the fiscal years 1918-1915.


^ ' -s''-
/3.. /:|^
. ^
'^
I
*<**
'/3
" /< :.

*' r1]
*< . :ii
'^/M'l
*i^'











LIST


OF


ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDI


(Report of engineer of maintenance.]


Plast.


Gatun Locks.


Control house


, third floor,


showing


control


board.


March


1915.


Gatun Locks
Gatun Locki
watered.
Gatun Locks


Lock entrance caisson at lower west chamber.


3: Looking north from control house, showing west chambers un-
July, 1915.


3.


Ohio in middle east chamber, looking north, showing


lower locks and Atlantic entrance.


July 15, 1915.


Gatun Locks.


1915.


Gatun Locks.


Ohio in upper east chamber, looking south.


s. s.


July


Wisconsin in upper east chamber, being raised to lake


level.


July 15, 1915.


Gatun Locks.
Gatun Lake.


Wisconsin


July 15,


leaving upper east chamber and


entering


1915.


8. Pedro Miguel Locks.


General view from Cerro Luisa, looking southwest.


March


1915.


9, Pedro Miguel Locks.


Bird's-eye view of north approach wall,


awaiting passage through the Cut.


March 9


showing vessels


1915.


10. Pedro Miguel Locks.


Vessel in east chamber going north and one in west chainm-


ber going south.


Pedro Miguel Locks.


View from control house.


Chain fender machine


June, 1915.
, upper sheaves and chains.


North


east side.


March 5


1915.


12. Miraflores Locks.


Argentine naval training ship Presidente Sarmiento in upper


east chamber, looking north from control house.


13. Miraflores Locks.


chambers.


July 16,


14. Miraflores upper


locks.


S. s.
1915.


Lock


Missouri (left) and U


entrance caisson in


Ohio (right) in upper


place at north


of east


chamber


. Downstream or low-water side.


April 12,


1915.


15. Miraflores upper


locks.


Lock


entrance caisson in


place at north


chamber.


Upstream or high-water side;


also showing chain fender in place.


April 12, 1915.
16. Mfiralores upper locks.


chamber.
12, 1915.


Lock


entrance caisson in


place at north


End view, showing water of Miraflores Lake held in check.


of east
April


Naos Island Breakwater.


Looking south from Sosa Hill.


June 7


1915.


18. Hvdrnoelectric station


Glntin


View frnm woat snde shnwino' oa.tfhnisp arnd entf.


1.





LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Plate.


Balboa Heights.


View from top of administration building showing asphaltic


concrete roads and parking.


June


1915.


26. Night view of Balboa Prado and administration building, Balboa H
1915.


Balboa Heights.


Asphaltic concrete upper highway


Miraflores water-purification
building and pump station.


plant.


General view


, looking north.
looking south


June, 1915.


toward


filter


April 12, 1915.


29. Miraflores


73. Average number of vessels per day.
74. Tons of cargo.
75. Diagram showing quantity of water used for lockages and hydroelectric s


water-purification


mentation basin


plant,


and head house.


30. Miraflores water-purification plant.


house.


May 17


showing
May 17,


filter
1915.


building,


Sedimentation basin


laboratiaB


,looking tows


1915.


Miraflores water-purification plant.


tory office.


May 17


Main operating floor, looking towar


1915.


ry, ei

ard hald
dU labora







station ;
"L N"T �i*S !
'm,, K,, , *
JM K KKKKKKK
*~~~~ ~ J.�::: :: N:*
lf*J'. W :CW~f: *^- :::*:*:::* :
Nf~M -;i^
,, KK KKKK KKKKK


76. HIlydrograph at Pedro Miguel Out, March 16 to 17


1915.


77. Diagram showing comparison between rainfall, Gatun Lake level, lockages,
Sand wasted water.
78. General map of Ancon-Balboa district, showing roads constructed during
year.
79. Wind roses, calendar year 1914.
80. Wind roses, year 1915, dry season only.


Gatun Lake watershed.


Yields, storage and loses mass curves.


Calendar


7S1


1914 and dry season 1915.
Ohagres River drainage basin, Alhajuela average monthly discharges.


Gatun Lake watershed.
1915.


Total yield for Gatun Lake, year 1914 and dry..e


84. Miraflores


Locks.


Current observations


taken at west


lower


operating ga


May 31


1915.


85. Study of Gatun Lake heights, dry season 1915, January.
86. Study of Gatun Lake heights, dry season 1915, February
features.


showing contribittg


Study


of Gatun Lake


heights,


dry season 1915,


March,


showing contribatg


features.


88. Study


of Gatun Lake


heights,


season


1915,


April,


showing contributing


features.


(hagres River drainage basin.


Ratio curves.


Alhajuela mass curves of discharge.


Rise at Gamboa as percentage of rise at Vigia.


Chagree River drainage basin.


Curves of discharge duration.


Tweuty-*he ywa


unrind 1T09-1914. inclusive. Alhainela.


Following plates, 73 to 9S,


in portfolio.


useful







LIST OF


Ctrist.bal coaling station.
34t Oristobal coaling station.,


ILLUSTRATIONS.


XVII


Caisson setting for reloader wharf, showing


derrick


barge in use for assembling and setting shells.


Cristobal coaling station.


August 6, 1914.


View looking north or east side of coal storage, showing


bridges, first unloader towers and condition of viaduct.


OriAto iM coaling station.


March 11, 1915.


Looking south from the north end of reloader wharf.


June 12, 1915.
37. Balboa terminals.
12, 1915.
38. Balboa terminals.


Dry dock No.


Miter gate anchorages, north wall.


May


General view from coal cranes, looking north and west, show-


ing entrance to dry dock No. 1.


39. Balboa


terminals.


Dry dock


June 5, 1915.
1. Looking west from


Hill,


showing


entrance basin and cofferdam.


June 10, 1915.


40. Balboa


terminals.


Dry dock No. 1.


Construction


of north gate,


placing top


girder.


June 23


1915.


Balboa terminals.


Dry dock No. 1.


Looking toward entrance gates.


June 30,


1915.


42. Balboa terminals.
coaling station.
43. Balboa terminals.


Berm


crane supports, viaduct posts, and retaining wall at


June 5, 1915.
General view from Sosa Hill, looking north.


Dredging in


slip No. 2.


June


1915.


Pinning jib on crane Ajax in middle chamber of Gatun Locks.


October 9, 1914.


45. Floating crane Ajax removing smaller portion of wrecked drill barge Teredo at


cable crossing, Gaillard Cut.


46. Wrecked jib of crane Ajax.
47. Floating crane Hercules.


November 17


1914.


. December 8, 1914.
Trial of 300-ton load on deck


,250 tons suspended at


rated reach.


Floating
side.


crane


March 19, 1915.
Hercules transferring equipment across Gatun Locks from east


Steam shovel suspended in air.


April 10,


1915.


Pacific terminals.


Following plates,
General plan.


93 to 116


, in portfolio.


94. Naos Island Breakwater.


General plan and typical cross section.


Pacific terminals.


Dry Dock No. 1, Balboa.


General plan and sections.


96. Pacific


terminals.


Dock


1, Balboa.


Pumping


plant and


operating


valves.


General arrangement.


97. Pacific terminals.
98. Pacific terminals.


Dry Dock No.
Dry Dock No.


1, Balboa.
1. Balboa.


Stresses in side walls.


Mitering dock gate.


General plan


of one leaf 56 feet high.


Pacific terminals.


Dock No.


1, Balboa.


Plan and sections showing con-


create mixing and handling plant.


100. Pacific terminals.
plant.


Dry Dock No.


Balboa.


Entrance pier,


concrete-mixing


-. n. -n I - 1. n- -. nT-T -1 I.i **. a


*


-9 f\ -9 -�-�







XVIII


LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Plate. -


Pacific teninals.


108. Pacific terminals.
109. Pacific terminals.
110. Pacific terminals.
111. Oristobal terminal
112. Pier No. 7. Cristo


Oil-fuel storage.


Typical sections of docks and piers.
Typical sections of docks and piers,
Typical sections of docks and piers.


Pier No.


docks, piers and mole.


bal.


Sheet No. 1.
Shaet No. 2.


Sheet No. 3.
Geuemal layout.


General plan.


Typical section.


Typical plan and e


At

V
A
aon
~


levat


of oil-handling plants.


Oil-fuel storage.
Oil-fuel storage.
Oil-fuel storage.


Pacific terminals.
Atlantic terminals.
Pacific terminals.


Location plan of tank lots.
General plan.
General plan.


ion

N0


APPENDIX


[Report of resident engineer, dredging division.]


June


1915.


50. Rock dikes.


Limon Bay, Dikes Nos. 1,2, and 3, and wooden groins, at high tide.


June, 1915.
Obispo diversion ditches.
Gaillard Cut at Bas Obispo.


Outlet of ditch


" A."


opposite Empire.


J


Iune, 1915.
june 14,


1915.


Gaillard Ci
center.
Gaillard Ci
Looking


Looking north from Contractors Hill


Oulebra slide east, right


June, 1915.
it. Sailing ship in tow passing slide on east bank north of Gold Hi.L
north. January 24, 1915.


U.S.


S. Ohio passing Cucaracha slide.


S. S. Ohio passing Gucaracha slide.


Looking east.
July 16, 1915.


July 16, 1915.


Water hyacinths in full bloom, 8 weeks old.


58. Water hyacinths.
June, 1915.
59. Water hyacinths.
60. Water hyacinths.
61. Water hyacinths.
62. Water hyacinth.


A single plant 8 weeks after it appeared above the water.


Removing young plants from the Obispo River.
Plants eight weeks old near the mouth of the Obiapo Riv
Plants four weeks old near the mouth of the Obispo River.


63. Gamboa gravel dock.
64. Chagree River gravel


Unloading cranes and storage bins.
beds. Pipe line dredge in opera


Junq, 1915.
tion four miles above


Gamboa.


June, 1915.


Chagres River gravel beds.


Washing and screening plant in operation.


From


left to right, barges being loaded with sand, No. 1 gravel, and No. 2 grav
June, 1915.
Following plates, 117 and 118, in portfolio.


__ n-_ . . wr *r w fl l *n 1 .fl t~l


18 and pier shed, Balboa.


Atlantic and Pacific terminals.


Plate.


Rock dikes.


Limon Bay, Dike No. 1.


Looking south from east bank of canal.




U'" I


LIST OF


ILLUSTRATIONS.


Plate.


66. Administration
from Sosa Hill


APPENDIX G.
[Report of resident engineer, building division.]

building, Balboa Heights, under erection.


March 14, 1914.


Looking northwest


Prado,


Balboa,


and administration


northwest from Sosa Hill.


June, 1915.


68. Administration building, Balboa Heights.


69, Administration building,
1915.


Balboa Heights.


building,. B

Rear view.


alboa Heights.


Looking


June, 1915.


Terrace and concrete flagpole.


May,


Balboa fire station.


71. Panama Railroad Station


at Balboa.


June, 1915.


The commissary (left) and dispensary (right) at'Balboa.


June, 1915.


Plate 119 in portfolio.


New Ancon Hospital.


General layout.


APPENDIX P.
(Charts showing organization of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company, July 1, 1915.]


Plate. .
120. General organization.


All plates in portfolio.


121. Department of operation and maintenance.
122. Electrical division.
123. Division of municipal engineering.
124. Division of terminal construction.


125. Dredging division.
126. Meclianical division.


127. Marine division.
128. Supply department.
129. Building division.
130. Accounting department.
131. Health department.
132. Executive department.
133. Panama Railroad Company.
134. Washington office.


. *




#" -- -- -- -- ---ex -x ---- -- --- - -- E 0x - ------ ------x - x ---x-j -- -r---- -- x'--.- "-- - -'- - -xx -- e


4








I


















0- .. "x
ex x : x










ANNUAL


REPORT


OF THE

GOVERNOR
OF


THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


THE
OFFICE


PANAMA
OF THE


CANAL,
GOVERNOR,


Canal Zone, August


I have


honor


submit


annual report covering


construction,
The Panama


operation,


maintenance,


Canal for the fiscal


sanitation,


and


year ended June 30,


protection


1915.


ORGANIZATION.


A timber of
the close of


changes were made min


previous fiscal


the organization


year


principal


as it existed


ones resulting


from


the occupation


mitted


consolidation of


the new administration


departments


building,


and


which


divisions


per-
The


Panama Canal and of


the Panama Railroad Company under one roof.


The


plan


outlined


fiscal year of


1914 was


he report o:
carried out.


executive


secretary for


Practically all the clerical work


previously


handled separately


by the different departments and


visions


was


assigned


executive


office


and


files,


records,


personnel
solidated.


records


, timekeeping


and


property


accounting


were


con-


With the transfer of the offices of


Panama


Railroad Company


from Colon on October


1914


, all auditing, collecting, and disburs-


ing were combined with similar functions under officers of The


Pan-


ama Canal,


and


separate organizations


these


purposes were


discontinued.


1KlOlA 1+1aA 'A;,;co;,nn,


Balboa Heights,


,1915


f f





THm


PANAMA OA)


October


, 1914,


a building


divisi


with the construction of all buildings belor
the Panama Railroad Company, and the


SThe


force


organized


from


the
the


operation a
construction


nd


maln


forces


placed in charge of the maintenance and

CONSTRUCTION


on was organized, charged
going to The Panama ..........
Arnty. T
tenance of the cana
as far as practicable and
operation of the loob.


r.


The department of operation and maintenance continued in charg


the Governor,


apartment
tendent.


Hodges,


who


was


engineer


compliance


States


United


assisted in the
of maintenance


with


Army,


orders,


was


Col.


relieved


administration


and


(now


from


the d�


marine upeins


Brig.
duty


Gen.)


as engineer


of maintenance on January


United


States


Army,


was


1, 1915,
assigned


"Superintendent of transportation"


and Lieut.


this


Col.


duty.


was changed


Chester Har ding,


The


designation


"Marine super-


intendent"


as more suitably


designating the duties of the position,


and


Capt.


Hugh


Rodman


United


States


Navy,


continued


on this


duty.
The


en ineer of maintenance


locks,


electrical


and


was in


municipal


charge of
divisions,


the completion


meteorology


and


hydrography, general surveys,
and maintenance of locks.


the office engineer, and the operation


Locks. -The


lock-operating


machinery


was


practically


completed


during


pre ending


fiscal


year;


principal


exception


was


installation of the chain fender machines,


which was still in progress,


and these machines were completed, so far as concerns the mechanical


installation


at Gatun


on November


1914,


and


Pedro


Migued


and Miraflores on September 4, 1914.


The electrical installation was


completed


, 1914,


and


these
June


three


localities on


1915,


November


respectively


Delay


1914,


was


October


occasioned


a change


were


raised


in plans


, thereby


by which
increasing


the motors above


considerably


the smnp
capacity


pumps


sumps and requiring the pumps to operate less frequently.


livery of the chains was completed on January 6,
all installed.


The de-


1915, and they are


*- a-


-


rI ~ l 5 .1 . *S I * s S ..* . I ..........U * il..*.


i


_


att tt*





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


suggested by Mr. R.


Whitehead.


This reduced


the speed to


mile an hour and was so successful that material has been ordered
to permit changing all the locomotives which will then have speeds of
1 and 2 miles per hour, the change from one to the other being ac-


complished by throwing a switch in the cab,


within easy reach of


the operator.
The back fill of all the locks was placed prior to the beginning of


the fiscal year, but as it was left in very irregular shape the


back


fill of all


the locks was graded


and sloped,


with


view to


proving the general


At Gatun


conditions and


the work was placed


appearance around


under Mr. John J.


locks.


Walsh, general


foreman, who was in charge of the work of leveling off,


sodding the slopes of Gatun Dam.


grading, and


On the Pacific side the work was


under the superintendent of the locks.


Due to


the advent of the


rainy season, the work at Miraflores was not completed.


The amounts


expended were $32,742.32 at Gatun, $20,631.20 at Pedro Miguel, and
$19,207.87 at Miraflores.


The


temporary wooden


structures


various


locks,


which


housed machinery for
sightly and dilapidated.


local repairs during construction,


were un-


As such machinery is necessary at the lock


sites for minor repairs in connection with the maintenance of the lock


operating machinery,


permanent repair shops were erected to take


their places, one each at Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and Miraflores.


They


are reinforced concrete buildings, 110 feet long and 38 feet 6 inches
wide, and contain dry rooms, open and closed storage spaces, black-


smith shop, general shop,


and latrines for white and


colored em-


ployees.
The floating caisson was completed and arrived at the canal on
October 29, 1914, was tested at Miraflores locks, accepted, and used
during the year to permit the painting of the gates of the Pacific locks.
-s -. � -. - * a -v *. a a . - S U a^


division


continued


in charge


Capt.


William H. Rose,


United States Army.


The hydroelectric station


at Gatun, having been tested out, was put in service on July 13, 1914,


and since then has been in continuous operation.


The average pro-


duction cost of current during the last six months of the fiscal year


was


cents per


kilowatt


hour, and the average cost


delivered


firknni oil Qllhe!"tQ+.irnn2 nra~a �t^ non+. nnQi' lilnnxra-tf. h-mT


'PbQQ~ non gina


Electrical division.-This





4THE PANAMA CANAL.

air-compressor plant continued to operate during the
air to the Balboa shops and the terminal construction


year supplying
work.


The construction of the Gatun substation was so far advanced that


part of the equipment was placed in service in October, 1914.


Gatun


and


December


COristobal


1914


stations


and


were


Balboa


placed
and


in complete


4iraflores


ser


substat!


Both
vice on
s"on


December 3, 11
Construction


914.


work in


connection


with


transm


mission line '


vas


completed


during


year,


and


sections


Cristobal, and between Miraflores and Balboa,
tion on-December 3. The section between Gal
placed in service on January 2, 1915, by whi


telephone and


telegraph


wires of


between Gat
were placed in opera-


tun and Miraflores was


ich


time


the Panama Railroa


the overhead
d system 1&d


been installed in the new duct lines.
When the transmission line was put in service the Miraflores tam
station was operated as a reserve plant, several of the boilers bng
kept under pressure at all times, so as to provide prompt resumption
of service in case of failure on the part of the transmission line.


substation


was


constructed


Gamboa


new


pumping


plant of the municipal division,


the sand and gravel handling plant


Panama


Railroad


Company,


and


for local lighting.


It was


placed in service during February, 1915, and contains two transform-
ers of 666 KVA capacity each, with the necessary oil switches, light-
ning arresters, etc. A substation was also constructed and placed in
operation in Maeh, 1915, for the Darien High Power Naval Radio
Station. It contains two 266 KVA transformers and auxiliaries.


This work was paid for by the Navy Department.


A large amount of


construction work was done in connection with


the installation of underground


electric


light


and


power,


and


conduit systems for the distribution


telephone,


telegraph,


and fre-


alarm service in


the permanent towns, for the supply of the coaling


plants, dry docks, pumping station, and for the Army posts.


Street


lighting is being installed in the permanent towns of Ancon, Balboa,
Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal, and was carried to about 90 pet


cent of completion during the fiscal year.


gas-filled,


tungsten


filament


type,


The lights are of the new


amperes,


candlepower


I I .^ t1 *. -44^ - . VI- ._ _ 1 - _. ^3 _ -.. &.IE . . .^^^^^n� JLaJ j .a.-w


: *4





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


2,500-cubic-foot


motor-driven


compressor


installed.


Two


550-


kilowatt rotary converters were installed,


one each


at Gamboa and


Balboa dock.
were made for


Three installations of large motor-driven relay pumps


dredging


division,


and


floating pump


barge


was equipped for service at the locks.


Work was done for the Navy


Department in


the electrical instal-


lation


three radio stations.


the construction


quarters


and


other buildings for The Panama Canal and for the Army


and Navy


Departments considerable work devolved upon the electrical division.


The


decision


concernmg size


and


number


generating units


provide power for the canal was determined in May,


1911, and


was


based


on studies


made


prior


that


date


probable


power


demands that would


be required.


The result of


the studies showed


a probable


day


load


about


4,000


kilowatts,


assuming


that


Panama Railroad was not electrified


, but if this were done the prob-


able day load was computed at approximately


5,000 kilowatts,


with


one hour's


peak of 5,700 kilowatts.


This assumption was also based


on the fact that electric current would be generally used for domestic


purposes.


Under these circumstances the generating


equipment inm-


stalled,


furnishing


6,000


kilowatts


allowed for


a reserve for future


growth of about 1,000 kilowatts.


In August,


1912, Congress author-


ized


construction


coaling


stations,


dry


docks,


and


machine


shops, and,


though estimates for the probable amount of power that


would


be required for these


purposes were prepared and considered


determining the power plant,


the completed designs show power


requirements


greater


than


estimunates.


Additional


demands


made upon


the power by reason of


United States


Navy subma-


rines stationed in


the Canal Zone;


the light and


power


loads at


Forts Randolph,


Sherman,


and


Grant;


and


the new waterworks


for the south


end


canal,


designed


and


undertaken


since


original studies.


The result is that the time is not far distant when


additional power will be required,


and


provision should be made for


increasing the capacity of the existing plant and installing a reserve


unit.


Estimates


submitted


latter


will


include


duplication of
additional unit.


-


present


power


house


and


installation


one


Anticipating that an extension might become neces-


- E I- I N J t * * -u V IV * . *I


m





6 UE PANAMA DARAL.
of h anl on 'north of Darien, including th"ct ofCoo
adheouhrdiritebcigthe Canal Zone lyingth souhy


��MUlIaV


VfJL t hl = J- I^ A Ma. B- P--


- - L^M a -V<�^ - ^riii^*-- '-* "


*.1 -C


Darien, including the city of Panama.
The work on the Panama waterworks,


ing the previous fiscal year,


was complete


which was undertaken dn
d. As previously rep


the original
Miraflores,


had


plan c
utilizing


to be abandoned,


flores Lake.


ontemplated


waters


location


lake


a pump


as the supply;


due to the heavy rise in chlorine in


This pump station


which


station at


but thj


the Mira-


was nearly completed when


the source of supply had to be changed, was remodeled and transferred


the fortification


division for use as a storehouse.


A station
sEtathn/y


then built at Gamboa, and the pipe line, extending from


Gamnboa


Miraflores


was installed


during the year.


It required


the laying of


59.762 linear feet of


cast-iron pipe,


varying in size from 24 inches to


36 inches in


total


cost of


diameter.
$22,000,


The


and


trench


total


was excavated


cost of


by contract at a


pipe line,


including


the cost of pipe, fittings, excavation, and backfill,


was $356,951.10.


The construction of the Miraflores purification plant was about 45


per cent completed on June 30,


put in operation on March


tank,


aeration


basin,


I


16,
}he


]


1914
1915
head


The plant was completed and
It consists of the wash-water


house


the sedimentation


basin,


the filter building and pipe gallery,


clear-water basin, and


the laboratory and


the injection chamber.


quarters,


The total cost of the


plant was $558,168.41, of which $203,625.12 was for work done


year.


Walks


and


a roadway


were


constructed


around


dut-
the


plant and the latter connected with the Canal Zone road to Panama.


The delivery of water from


the purification plant at Miraflrst
flore to


pump


21.000


feet


station


in length


Balboa


is through


the diameters


three


parallel


lines,
lea,


being 30 inches, 20 inches,


each
and


16 inches, respectively;


this work was also completed during the fiscal


year.


As part of the new waterworks, an extension was made to the exist-


ing high-service reservoir on Ancon Hill, at elevation 300, by construct-


an addition having


was practically


a capacity


1,500,000 gallons.


TI


completed at the close of the last fiscal year.


Three pump stations,
n+. f01h+0 iutra� ncvnf.arnii


one at Gamboa


, one at Miraflores,


is work
and one


.nrcnnthar with tha nenmarvry OTw.dinn and


I w


q M,, V wJm m v -- w


was


*�


w





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


July


to November


and


under the municipal division for the


balance of the year.


A total of 29,200 linear feet of asphaltic con-


create streets was constructed at an average cost of


square yard.


about $1.90 per


For the permanent road work in the southern end of


The Panama Canal, a standard type of road was adopted, consisting
of concrete curb and gutter, and a finished surface of 2- inches of


asphaltic concrete on a Telford base.


is 20 feet.


The ruling width of the roads


There were laid also 7,600 linear feet of gravel paths with


concrete block edging, having an average width of 6 feet,


and


2,977


square


yards of


concrete


pavement, having


average


depth


6 inches.


Considerable work was done in the vicinity of the administration
building in the way of walks, stairways, grading, sloping, and sodding.
For the construction of part of the pavement around the building it


was necessary to


build curtain


walls on.


which


to support a large


portion of this pavement on account of the natural conditions of


the hill


which


building is erected.


In grading


about


building 2,100 cubic yards of excavation were necessary, at a total
cost of $63,000.


townsite,


vicinity oc
there was


the administration


graded


building


and


the Balboa


total area of 235,000 square yards,


and a total area of 185,000 square yards sodded and planted in grass.


constructing the sewer system


the Balboa


townsite


11,791


feet of pipe, ranging from 6 to 15 inches in diameter, were laid, and
in the water system, 4,190 feet of pipe, varying from 6 to 10 inches
in diameter, were laid.
The sewer outfall from the Ancon district was diverted from the


Panama system and


run into


the Curundu River.


This required


the installation of 746 feet of 8-inch


feet of 12-inch pipe.


,2,619 feet of 10-inch, and 1,646


In the silver town of La Boca two additional


blocks were constructed, the municipal division building the roads,


pavements, gutters,


curbs, sewers, and laying the necessary water


connections.


The


municipal


division


constructed


pipinmg


system


Balboa oil-handling plant, inclu
and the installation of the pump,


ding the erection


manifold


and the laying of a 10-inch crude-


-f1 1 _- - , -t__ _ _ T' . 1 EI 1, 1 . 1 , . .4





THE


diameter.


PANAMA


CANAL.


A partial piping system was installed in


Dry Dock No oo


and


work was


about


cent completed


end


fiscal year.


In con
Cnulebra I
necessary
necessary


section
Island


grading,


water


with


Balboa
built th


and


sewer


removal
dumps,
LO roads,


of th
the
curbs,


systems.


quarantine


municipal


and


Similar


for the health department, so far as roads,


are concerned,
insane wards.


in connection


northern


constructed
previously in


district


Gatun


and


, to
which


with


station


division


gutters


work


of the
nH fr
i
i ..
Li th^
LIa.m


and laid the
s done ado


water, and sewer s


Corozal


a 300,000-gallon


place
was


io longer


poor farm


concrete


r(


430,000-gallon


a


eservo
stee


safe.
a~t~


* ' M ^ * '' ^ "* .. .... .. .....

ir .w.......
l t an k � "


comple-�


tion of the concrete reservoir,


together with
Mount Hope.


material in


the steel tank WE


tower,


was


s dismantled, wnich,
turned into stock t


This


plant


division
t Mount


constructing
pipe lines.


also


Hope,


work


grading


manifold


and


in connection


the site,
necessary


The pipe line installed from


with


laying the
drainage,


the


oil-handlig


concrete floor,
l/U~m t3Wfloor~s,*


and


laying


the pumping station to the


docks consisted of 5,700 feet of 10-inch and 5,700 feet of 12-inch pipe.


water-distribution system


was


installed


the oil-tank site,


and


consisted


of 2,800 feet of


4-inch second-hand pipe and 3,000 feet of


6-inch second-hand pipe,


with the necessary valves and other fittings.


new


construction


work


was


undertaken


in the


city


Colon


with


the exception


the erection


a temporary wooden


building


for the sump pumping station and for the office of the cashier of the


water service in Colon, to
by the fire of April 30, 191


replace the building which was destroyed
5. The cost of this building was charged


to the remaining balance of the $800,000 appropriation for sanitation


cities


Colon


and


Panama.


Additional


installations


Colon, made necessary by the fire of April 30,


and the cost of which


was charged


the maintenance account,


consisted


4,000 feet of


4-inch galvanized-iron pipe, 11 range closets, and 33 shower baths.
A.large amount of work was.done in connection with the expendi-


ture


an appropriation


barracks


and


quarters


Army


wi


lit


V � � "





ERPOItT


THE


GOVERNOR.


water systems, and a considerable portion of the work was completed
before the end of the fiscal year.


At Balboa Heights, in


the vicinity


of the Ancon


quarry


the con-


struction of the necessary roads, sewer and water systems was under-


taken,


for quarters for


the commanding


general


and


the staff,


and


the work was 89 per cent completed at the end of the year. In the
latter part of June work was begun on the necessary grading, and the


construction


of roads and


the installation of water and sewer mains


for the mobile troops to be stationed at Corozal.
Meteorology and hydrography.--This division of the work continued


in charge of Mr. F. D.
were made during the
The rainfall records ai


1914, and


Willson, chief hydrographer.


year in the
Porto Bello


Several changes


meteorological stations operated.
were discontinued September 1,


the first-class station at Culebra and


the evaporation sta-


tion


on the


Rio


Grande


Reservoir were closed


September


1914.


On October 1, 1914, the Ancon station was closed and the equipment,


including the seismographs,
ing, Balboa Heights.


transferred


the administration


build-


Tidal records were continued at Balboa and


Colon.


Considerable


tidal data were furnished to


the division


of fortifications


and


Coast Artillery Corps.


Fourteen


seismic


disturbances


were


recorded


during


year.


Four were of


comparative local


origin,


three of which


cient intensity to be generally felt over the Canal Zone.


were of suffi-
No damage


resulted from any of these shocks.
The average air temperature for the calendar year 1914 was slightly


above
highest


normal.


mean


Pacific coast


temperature


and


October


March


was


month


month


of lowest


mean


temperature,
highest mean
temperature.


while


on the


Atlantic


coast


July


was


month


temperature and September the month of lowest mean


The


rainfall


during


year


1914


was


deficient


stations


except Juan Mina,


Vigia,


and


Colon.


The annual


totals ranged


from 132.70 inches at Colon to 64.48 inches at Balboa Heights.
The wind movement across the Isthmus was generally above nor-


mal.


North and northwest winds prevailed.


March was the month


... . . r - -_ -


-





1


r.w *


i1


or - s� s-nfl aTI r flrT-T r'' " f*i n- *^ti aV -r alink nn�- n^ J- n��r^ * * Jnkw aV .-� a~"- .n .-t. 4% ^HV w ^ n.. -^ ni^ f-� i n


AIn y





TUE


The wind attained a maximum


PA'K" NA & CANA


velocity


miles per hour
h 0.A A A. ./ ^. f A ^ AAAAA ^ .AAA ./A/A. A AAAAA
-^*^ KK iro-1K K KK K*K ^ ^n KKK KKK


the north. The rainfall for 24 hours was 5.42 inches. The previous
maximum velocity of wind recorded at Colon was 40 miles per Eour,
from the south, on July 16, -1908.
The wind movement during the progress of the storm of February
9-11 was from a point a little east of north for a considerable per
11 wasf


of time,


whereas during the storm


of April 3-5 it blew for a port *
o .. __: - rh a a


the time from a point a little west of north.


The


most


consumption


power,


and


important hyc
of water from


municipal


Irographic


feature


Gatun Lake for


purm poses.


During


year


lockages,


dry


was


th


hydroelectric


season


1915,


about two and one-fourth


times as much


water was used for hydre-


electric power as for lockages, but this ratio is steadily decreasing da


account of the increase in


the number of lockages.


The elevation of Gatun Lake on January


1, 1914, was 84.32, which


represented a storage of 180.09 billion cubic feet of water.


yield
cubic
was


million
wasted


Gatun


feet.
23,970


The
million


Lake


watershed


year


was


185,686


'he total
million


evaporation of the lake surface for the same period


In


cubic feet.


cubic


feet


which


Of this amount,


spillway, 5,182


million


gave


139,285


cubic


a net
million


field


161,716


cubit feet were


feet were used for lock-


ages andc
million
suction


tests


3.604


million


cubic feet for munici


dredges,


and


829 mil


cubic feet for hy
pal purposes, 265
lion cubic feet f


droelectric power, 397
million cubic feet for


or leakage.


On Janu-


, 1915,


lake


was


elevation


which


represented


increase in storage of 12,154 million cubic feet during the year, or a


total of


192.24


billion cubic feet at


beginning of the dry season


191
at


.5.


During the year 508


lockages were made at Gatun, and 502


Pedro Miguel.


The total yield for Gatun Lake watershed for the dry season 1915


was 43,924 million cubic


feet.


The evaporation


on the lake surface


for the same period was 9,427.5 million cubic feet,


yield of 34,496.5 million cubic feet.


which gave a net


Of this amount 23,263.5 million


cubic


feet


were


wasted


the spillway,


8,311.8


million


cubic


feet


were used


for


hydroelectric


power,


3,724.6


million


cubic


feet were


used for lockages and tests, 182.2 million cubic feet for municipal
^^^^^_ ^a',- -tiBlr^^ /^-k:- /� j-f^r tan cii.- wnM- /4nn AarnTaa 0r'�jr~^AsC t in r '7A.A.. rnfll(lnnir





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


lake from 87 to 89.95.


The direct rainfall on the surface of the lake


practically equaled


the loss


by evaporation during the dry season.


No large freshet occurred during the year;


there was, however, an


unusually well sustained run-off, well distributed as to time.
The total yield from Gatun Lake watershed for 1914, was 102 per


cent of the capacity of the lake at elevation 85.


The lake elevation


has been maintained between elevations 84.75 and 87 by the operation


of the spillway gates.


In September, 1914, it was raised to 86, and


in November, 1914, it was raised to 86.70.


From December, 1914,


to April, 1915, it was maintained at elevation about 87.
it has varied between elevation 87 and 85.50.


Since then


During the fiscal


year there was


an average constant spillway


discharge of 5,300 cubic feet per second.
It has been determined that the Gatun spillway discharge per gate


is higher than expected.


At elevation 85, the wet season elevation,


one gate discharged 10,460 cubic feet per second, an increase of about


20 per cent over what was anticipated.


Investigations with velocity


current meters show that there are no currents during freshets that
will interfere with the handling of ships.
Surveys.-The surveys were handled under parties operating under


the direction of Mr


Malsbury, assistant engineer.


The loca-


tion of Canal Zone boundary monuments, triangulation points, and


bench marks,


were maintained, checked, and recorded.


All survey


work in connection with the permanent location of buildings, sewer
and water lines, as well as checking up the alignment of permanent


construction tracks on locks and dams,


was done by this division.


Various


routine surveys,


maps,


plots,


topographical layouts,


etc.,


for other divisions, were prepared during the year.


Office engineer.-On September 21,


1914,


the section


under the


office engineer was reorganized, centralizing the drafting forces of


lock operation


and


maintenance, electrical, municipal engineering,


terminal construction, and building divisions. The office was placed
in charge of Mr. C. J. Embree as office engineer.


Lighthouses.-A special


appropriation


$40,000


was


made


Congress for the establishment of lights on the Pacific side at Cape


Mala and Bona Island.


These lights are nearing completion.


additional light will be established at Tahor1milla. Tsland nl ndl wh.n





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


DIVISION OPr TZrUXh O NsNU1 L


The division of terminal construction,


Rousseau,


United


States


Navy,


Was


under


charged


Rear
with


A
ti


section and construction of dry docks, shops coal
plants, floating cranes, docks, and other terminal facil
construction of the east breakwater at the Atlantic te


Dry


docks.


-The


general


dimensions


Dry


Dock


follows:


Width of entrance


Width in body of floor .............-...... .. ..... .-......- ...
Width in body at coping--.....-..........-...........--- .....-.- .
Length on center line from point of miter sill to head........
Length on center line from outside of masonry at entrance,
e daada aaaa aaa - a a a aS SS aa.a.aaa a -


arr' � - .-
4 . - a.
* a aa -


hdre rnl
hem

and
Cities,> an&

No. I are as


do3 ,. 113.
do....4
.. KKKKK KKKK � �


.. - .. .do.


to inside of


**Ido.


Elevation


blocking


4 feet


inches


high


referred


mean


sea level... ..aa......aa ......- a a a


Elevation of miter and caisson sills referred to mean sea level...
Elevation of coping referred to mean sea level.......... -. . - a-


Volume of water contained with


tide at mean sea level, elevation 0.0,


- .O
-Fit:^ S


cubic feet . .--... .. .-.-...... ... . . . . -
The dock is founded on rock,


w h i * h f a - a a a a a - e m o par a a - - a a a 5, 26hard,
which for the most part is hard, but


which contains
6Occurred. The


spots,
body o


relatively
ff the dock


small


where


consists essentially


decomposition


hgs


of two para
of two a M


gravity walls, connected by a semicircular head; the floor of the dook
is merely a smooth skin, laid over the rock exposed by the excavation,
the minimum thickness of which is 1 foot, increasing to 5 feet where
some of the softpockets occur. The floor is level longitudinally and
for the middle 66 feet of its width, but between this level middle art


and


the side


walls,


a distance of


23.5


feet,


floor


has


a fall


of 0


inches, making the elevation of the top of the gutter, which is forced


at the


base of


each side wall,


-40.


The side walls are reinforced at


their backs with


portion
within
width,


70-pound rails,


walls,


and


8-foot


spaced
center


13.5 feet of the coping level.


and


feet


thick for the


4-foot centers for the lower


s


upper


portion


The walls average 29.5 feet i


upper 20 feet


of their


he ht.


The working faces are formed into four altars,


each 3 feet wide,


height of the altars beginning at the coping, elevation 16.5, being 20


aB - - -f S -. S* .. . - -. -f I.. * -^ .ak &- "usa


. ~l~. ^l0 :


*


s


t





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


and bollards parallels each side wall at a distance of 40 feet from the


coping.
The normal


closure of the entrance


is by


a pair of steel mitering


gate leaves,


identical


with


lock


gates,


except


that


bearing


surfaces at the miter and


quoin ends are


hart, instead of nickel steel as in


the lock gal


be of Demerara Green-
bes. The miter sill and


hollow


quoins


are of


granite.


Outside


miter gate sill is


a seat


for the floating caisson


purchased


primarily for service at the locks.


This


seat


quoins,


is faced


and


with


is reinforced


granite


similar


structural steel


e gate si
brackets


and


hollow


embedded


e masonry.
The dock will be flooded


each side


wall.


through culverts formed


These culverts


communicate


with


one in the


the sea,


base
each


by twin openings 8-feet wide by


12-feet high,


at elevation -24.5.


the south side


flooding water passes


through


pump suction


chamber, and on the north side the flooding culvert descends to the


lower


level after passing the


gate


recess.


The


floor


chamber and of the lowest portion of the side wall culvert


Suction
is at ele-


ovation


-52,


descent


being


made


on 45


0 slopes.


The


suction


chamber is


feet clear width,


It is expected to flood the dock,
more than 30 minutes. The flu


12 feet high, and about 80 feet long.
with tide at mean high water, in not
oding intakes are closed by "wagon-


body


valves


square inch
ing plant.


, operated


furnished


by water


a pressure


by an accumulator provided


300


with


pounds per
the pump-


The plant for pumping out Dry


Docks Nos. 1 and


2 is located at a


distance of about


100 feet from


the entrance wall, and


consists of


main


pumps,


2 drainage


pumps,


and


bilge


pump,


all located in a


rectangular pump pit about


ately
plant,


adjacent to t
which consist


100 feet long by 35 feet wide.


pumping


of one


plant


is the


permanent


Immedi-


compressor


2.250-cubic-foot and one 5.500-cubic-foot


motor-driven


compressors.


These


primarily for


shops,


but


they will
docks.


also supply


air for the various


operations around


the dry


Award was made and a contract entered into for


11.500 cubic feet


of dressed granite and


750 cubic feet of rough stone,


the former at a


A S


-(ni .t. I c.h n- ei Si^- no n�n ant *Ia a 4-t 1a--,� ,i.4w OiT Anv~ /�~ 4' t/-^




1e
14 TBB PANAMA OAKAL.

128.195 cubic yards of mass concrete were plcddrigtebalance ..


ts
of the fiscal year, and 24,675 cubic yards of reinforced concre


cost


$6.0304


the
per


former
cubic


was
yard.


$3.9744
There


cubic


remain


yard,
be p


and


laced


the le ttr


25,000


eubip


yards
The


4 ^:..


concrete.


total


amount


fixed iron


placed


was


312,729


pounds,


and


2,251,304 pounds of reinforcing rods and rails were embedded in the
masonry. The placing of granite began in May in the miter sill, and
this, together with about three-quarters of the hollow quoins were in


position at the close of the year.


begun on June


The erection of the steelwork was


12, 1915, and all of the girders of the two leaves were


placed in


position


on June


1915.


the end


of the fiscal


year


565.68 tons of steel had been erected at a cost of $6,391.19, or $11.2982
per ton, including the driving of 1,919 rivets. Backfill to the amount
of 33,787 cubic yards was put behind the walls, at a cost of $15,430.36,
or an average cost of $0.4567 per cubic yard, and work started on the
foundations of the air compressor and pumping plant.


It was decided


during the


year not


and the adjacent repair piers, Docks 10,


one


such


dimensions


becomes


to complete
11, and 12,1


apparent.


Dry


Dock No.


until the necessity


This


dock will


rectangular in plan,


with side walls and head walls of gravity section,


but only the


head


wall


and


south side


wall


dock are


being


built;
being


the latter wall supports one side of the entrance pier, the other


supported


concrete


columns


and


steel


framing.


trance pier as now building is 59 feet wide by 350 feet long.


The


It will


have a reinforced concrete deck slab and will support a 22-foot gauge
crane track and two standard gauge tracks. At its west or sea end
there is now to be furnished an electric capstan similar to those around


Dry
Th
basil


Dock No.
ie entrance


1.


1 for use in handling ships entering Dry


pier


-I


Nearly all


is situated


on the


north side


Dock No. 1.


entrance


the excavation for the pier was completed in the


previous year, and but 5,313 cubic yards were excavated during the
present fiscal year in preparing foundations, at a cost of $3.4839 per


cubic yard.


There were


11,232 cubic yards of plain concrete placed


at an average cost of $4.2455


per cubic


yard and 602 cubic yards of


reinforced


concrete


"'P t1 . - . ... - -.. ... a. 4J


an average
Ie -- .^ ,-- S. - ^ - ~


cost


$8.5610


per cubic yard.


"IA 100 ~tO\/**l- -vrra..An nylnnl-f nT'nA/ 000





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DI


for the entrance basin, under and outside the cofferdam,


will be done


in the wet after the completion of the dry-dock gates and the installa-


tion


valves,


when


water


can


The amount of material excavated


put


during the


behind


year in


e cofferdam.
the entrance


basin


by steam shovel was 8,771


cubic yards at an average cost of


$1.0704 per cubic yard.
Balboa coaling station.---The concrete work in connection with the
crane tracks and the docks for the station was continued throughout


year.


most


The


part of


supports


steel girders


berm


arranged in


crane
pairs,


tracks


consist


supported


on concrete


piers spaced 25-foot centers.


The piers supporting one of the tracks


also


support


the conveying system viaduct which parallels the berm


crane travel
main pier.


by means of


piers of buttress form extending above the


These buttress piers also support reinforced concrete cur-


tain walls which confine the coal in the subaqueous storage, a length


about 300 feet


and


also


a distance of


about


200 feet


west of the subaqueous storage where deep


foundations were neces-


sary


For


balance


unloader


travel


total


length


which is about 800 feet


, the rails are supported


on continuous con-


create walls founded on rock or rock fill.


The unloader wharf


59.5 feet in width.


(Dock No.


The


will be


type adopted in Au1


1,052 feet in length by
gust, 1914, consisted of


concrete piers, spaced 25-foot centers, anchored to the rock, extend-
ing the full width of the floor of the dock and having a width of 8 feet


at the bottom,


which is offset to give a width of 6 feet for the upper


portion


each


pier.


These


piers


carry


longitudinal


steel


girders


which support the tracks,


the reinforced-concrete deck slab, and


necessary superstructure of


coaling plant.


The unloader wharf


supports two coal unloading towers, having a travel of 790 feet. At
the end of the fiscal year the wharf had been completed to the coffer-


dam.


Eighteen


thousand three hundred and thirty-one cubic yards


concrete were


placed in


the unloader wharf,


at a cost of $5.4746


per cubic yard.
A general layout for the reloader wharf (Dock No. 6) to be 745 feet


in length by 64.2


feet min width was approved


in August,


1914.


For


the substructure 6-foot cylinders with steel forms sunk to rock were


n\ A~ a-tnd. n A al YWr nan wl -*-l AJ akh 4- S. a ,w,.La a nt - i-*- I - --





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


ment stopped, the work of caisson sinking proceeded.


fiscal


year


but 3 of


caissons were


At the end of
... .. *,


min position,


reached rock, and 46 were in the process of sinking.
feet of caissons were sunk during the year.


There were excavated 17
of earth in the coal pockets.


around


underwater storage


dry storage areas.


total


cubic yards of rock and 4,685 cubS
Riprap retaining walls were cons


area


and


around a


part of


I


At a cost of $5.5669 per cubic yard, 5,33


of 4 24f

Lcyat4ds
iLcructed

i3 cubic


yards


concrete


and


2,799


cubic


yards


rubble


masonry


were


placed in the masonry walls and crane supports
ing the runways for the berm cranes were erect


* The piers supp
ted, and the floor


the coal pockets were leveled off, with the exception of the south h
of the east area.


The four


berm cranes,


originally used


by the Pacific division, for


handling concrete, were dismantled and brought to the site andercted


on the runways provided.


They were remodeled to fit the work for


which


they


be used.


By the close of the fiscal year


1,097.8


tons of steel had been erected in these cranes, the structural ironwork


was


complete,


and


about


half


machinery


installed.


The


unloader towers,


which were furnished by the contractor, arrived on


the Isthmus in May, 1915, and at the end of the year one tower was in


place and bolted up
towers and conveyo
by the contractor.


but not riveted.


r system had


No deliveries of the reloading


been made at the end of the year


CGristobal
completed


coalig station
the excavation


.-During


year


the subaqueous coal


dredging


division


pockets to eleva-


tion


-28.


The


total


material


dredged


coaling


station was


188,667


cubic yards, at a cost of $0.5836 per cubic yard.


Caisson foundations for the south


500 feet of


the unloader wharf


were completed on January


1, 1915, for the entire unloader wharf on


June 4, and for the entire reloader wharf on June 15.


Work on caissons


for the end wharf commenced on June 5, 1915, and at the end of the


fiscal


year


8 out


caissons


were


completed.


These


Ce alsO i


6-foot


cylinders


one-half


inch


or three-eighths


inch


steel


plate,


and riveted in lengths of from 10 to 50 feet, depending on the


depth of the water.


Caisson driving started in July, 1914, and ea-


- -- -._ a.w�J .. J


- Ns U -. U .~ w mm * : j j - -* a :-. .r ...





REPORT


OF TEE


GOVERNOR.


gravel was used with a mixture of 1:5 for the cylinders and 1:4 for the


floor.


In addition 6,577


cubic yards of


concrete were


placed in


wharf floors, 3,873 cubic yards in the bridge track retaining walls, and


316 cubic yards in miscellaneous


foundations


during the fiscal year,


at an average cost of $4.5043 per cubic yard.
The steel deck was erected by contract, and at the end of the year
that for the unloader wharf was erected and riveted, and that for the


reloader


wharf


was


cent


completed.


deck


steel


was


erected for the end wharf.
create floor of both unload


The south 520 feet of the reinforced con-
er and reloader wharves was completed at


end


year;


thus


1,040


linear feet


wharf


structure


was


entirely completed, except for the installation of the wooden fender


system and


south


bridges,
tracks.
viaduct


cast-iron


the
were
The


trestle


snubbing posts.


coaling pier,
completed,
foundations


which
except


carry
for


r


The


concrete retaining walls


the stocking


concreting


transformer


and
the


house


south of the wharves were completed.


reclaiming
permanent


and


About 90 per


cent of all permanent railroad tracks south of the wharves are in their


permanent


position


and require


only


a small


amount


of ballasting.


The east shore of the coaling station was riprapped
from Sosa Hill.


with hard rock


The erection


which


span


two


coal-storage


tractor, in November,


1914


315-foot stocking


area,
and


was


and reclaiming


commenced


the end


fiscal


bridges
subcon-


year


both


bridges were completed,


except for the installation of the propelling


machinery


viaduct


trestle


south


wharves


and


500 feet


trestle


except


on the


south


end


installation


reloader


crossties


and


wharf
rails.


were
The


completed,
transformer


house was about 75 per cent completed.


Foundations for the track


scales were completed by the Panama Canal forces.
The erection of the structural steel for the four unloader towers at
the south end of the unloader wharf was begun by the contractor on


March 3,1915,


and progressed satisfactorily


were completely erected and riveted,


The


and in tower


two
No.


north


towers


, 85 per cent


machinery was


installed


while


tower


2 about 40 per


cent
No.


machinery


3 was completely


was


erected


installed.


and


two


per cent


riveted


south


while


towers,


tower


,




J8 THE PANAMA CANAL. A

of work remaining to be done being the closing in of the sides of the
buildings. Changes, added requirements, and necessary delays in


construction, extended the period of completion until June 15,


the shops were formally turned over to


when


the mechanical division and


storehouse


lath


plaster,


closures,


was


which


e supply
required


completed


department.
the placing


February,


1915.


location of machines in buildings Nos. 1


The


6,077
Some


, and 8,


plaster


square


on metal-


yards


changes in the
were also made,


and the last machine foundation was poured in January,


1915.


The


total amount of


concrete poured for machine foundations from July,


1914,


January,


1915,


was


374


cubic


yards.


January


columns of building No.


8 were lined up, and corrugated iron siding


was placed in lieu of plaster and in lieu of the 42-inch concrete wall


around


building.


Construction work for the installation of the


exhaust system in building No. 8 was begun in February.


In March


potash


building was erected


and


the concrete


floor poured.


The maintenance of the cement tile roofing was expensive on account
of the large amount of work done in connection with the closures of
the buildings, and the consequent travel over the tile roofs by work-


men,


and


also


blasting in
Steel rolling


on account c
neighboring


doors were


breakage


dry


placed


dock


and


as closures in


tiles


Sosa


rocks


Hill


the ends


from


excavation.
and sides of


main


buildings,


while


the main


buildings have sides and


a per-


tion of the ends closed with movable metal louvers.
East breakwater.-As noted in the last annual report, it was decided


build a detached


breakwater on


the east side of


Colon Harbor to


protect


inner


harbor


from


waves


caused


trade


winds,


general direction extending on a line from Coco Solo to a point 2,000


feet


east


outer


extremity


west


breakwater.


therein noted, it was decided


to obtain


the rock from


the Sosa Hill


quarry and transport it across the Isthmus.


There


was
east


much


discussion


breakwater


for several


account


years


about


disastrous


necessity
effects of


northerss"


fiscal


year


on the channel


two


severe


through


northerss"


Limon


were


Bay


During


experienced,


the first


past
one


on February 9,


when the direction of the wind was north and slightly


east,


and


the other on April 3-5,


of


three d


ays' duration


when




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


From July 1, 1914, to February 8, 1915,


the double-track trestle


was advanced 6,048 linear feet, and also about 400 feet of single-
track trestle were driven, thus making the entire trestle double track
for a total length of 9,498 linear feet.


The filling of the trestle was started on September


1914


which purpose excavation in Sosa Hill was begun on the same date,
and a total of 363,658 cubic yards were excavated for use at the east


breakwater, at a cost of $0.5750 per cubic yard.


Of this amount


321,146 cubic yards were actually placed in the east breakwater, at


a total cost of $1.0170 per cubic yard


the remainder having been


diverted


other


purposes.


This


was


distributed


between


stations 0 and 35 plus 75.


For the greater part of this distance the


fill was carried up to or a little above sea level on the sea side of the
trestle, and to within 10 feet of the surface on the harbor side.
There is a large quantity of good coral sand in the vicinity of Coco
Solo, and use was made of this for the interior fill between the rock


piles dumped


on either side of


the trestle;


the sand was excavated


and deposited by means of a suction dredge and formed part of the


core of the breakwater.


In connection with this fill a relay station


was constructed on the trestle, and 19,556 cubic yards of Sosa Hill


rock were deposited at the station to protect it from storms.


work was continued until February 9, 1915,


The


when the northerr


that date suspended all operations.
The fill by the suction dredge was commenced on September 22,
1914, and there were placed 252,319 cubic yards, at a cost of $0.6073


per cubic yard.


In addition, material was dumped from scows ob-


trained from


excavation


progress


in Cristobal


Bay


and


by the


dredge Caribbean, aggregating 1,498,152 cubic yards of material, of


which 253,566 cubic yards were hard material.


Of the above quan-


tities, 81,142 cubic yards of hydraulic fill, and 357,874 cubic yards of
dredged material, of which 127,243 cubic yards were hard material,
have been placed on the axis of the trestle since February 9.


The northerr"


carried away the trestle from station 17


plus 97


to station 59 plus 26, measured from the shore, and on the fill from
station 21 to station 38 plus 05, a total distance of 5,834 linear feet.


The


relay


station


was


partially wrecked.


lost with the trestle in the northerr"


Two


pile drivers


were


of February 9, and one was





THE


another severe "nor
to that part of the


February 9.


PANAMA


CANAL.


rther" visited TLimon Bay, doir
trestle which remained stiandin


Practically all of the trestle that ha


g furtherdam
g after v th
d been driven


destroyed by the two storms.


The effect of


the northerss"


on the fill that had been placed was


to level it off very uniformly to a depth of from 10 to


14 feet below


sea level, and to make a broad platform, in some cases 120 feet wid


with flat slopes on


which


to dump


armor rock.


The difference


between


volumes


calculated


from


cross


sections


taken


before


and
cent,


after


northerss"


which represents


was


62,221


cubic


yards,


amount of material


or about


carried away or lost


by the action of the storms.


The net effect of the


two


northerss"


will


increase


the cost


of the east breakwater about $370,000.


the west
Work


breakwater,


and $100,000 will


on the reconstruction of


The storm of April damaged
be required for its repair.


the trestle was


begun on April 12,


1915


since


which


time 4,558


linear feet of


single-track trestle,


and


linear


feet


double-track


trestle,


were


driven;


22,760


linear


feet of creosoted piling (second hand);


piling (second hand);


18,642 linear feet of untreated


and 57,130 linear feet of untreated piling (new)


were


driven.


Four


thousand


eight


hundred


and


seventy-six linear


feet of track, and 3,092 linear feet of 3-inch water pipe were laid, but


no rock was excavated for the breakwater subsequent to


Fuel-oi
the canal


7l


handling


plants.-These


plants,


one


each


February.
terminal of


, are designed to handle oil from the tanks located at Mount


Hope and Balboa


three


ships


simultaneously at each locality at


the rate of 1,200 barrels per hour per vessel;


and also deliver oil by


pipe


lines


rate of


400


barrels


per hour from Mount Hope to


Gatun and from Balboa


Paraiso.


Construction


work was commenced


on the


Pacific


terminal


plant


in July,


1914


and


was completed sufficiently to


turned


over for


operation on January
tion work commence


1915.


I in August,


At the Atlantic terminal, construe-


1914,


and


plant was placed in


commission on February 28, 1915.


Atlantic


handling plant


side
one


Dock


10-inch


No.
and


was


one


connected


12-inch


with


pipe line,


and


pro-


rincnr, madrl0 Sfr .hA inlrfltmnn


. . .


as third lin shn1ld futn1r demanls





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


At the Pacific terminal a berth for oil vessels 75 feet wide by a
about 2,000 feet long, immediately adjoining the canal channel south
of the old French pier, was dredged to -45, and the necessary dol-


phins placed.
consisting of


on mne


6-foc


The plans call for three oil cribs, one of which,


a steel and
)t cylinders


concrete dock 62 feet square, supported


driven


bedrock,


was


completed


and


placed in service.
Lots for the erection of tanks by individuals and companies are


being leased under revocable licenses.


All material, labor, or work


of any nature required in connection with the installation of tanks
by private parties are supplied by and at the expense of the licensees.
At the end of the fiscal year 13 licenses were issued to five companies
on the Atlantic side and 12 licenses to four companies on the Pacific


side.


Fourteen


tanks


now


course


construction


licensees, seven on the Atlantic side, with a total capacity of 385,000
barrels, and seven on the Pacific side with a total capacity of 285,000
barrels.


Since


beginning of


operations,


the oil-handling plants have


met satisfactorily not only all requirements outlined in the original
proposals, but have demonstrated their ability to handle oils, either
way, between vessels and storage tanks, at the rate of from 1,800 to
2,000 barrels per hour.


Floating cranes.-The contract with


Deutschmachinenfabrik


of Germany,


for the


two


250-ton floating cranes Ajax and


Hercules is still in force.


At the beginning of the year all material


for the construction of these cranes had been manufactured at the
works of the contractor, and shipped to the Isthmus; the Ajax left
Emden on April 26, 1914, and the Hercules followed on May 30, 1914,


arriving at the Isthmus on July 8 and 13, respectively.


On leaving,


these cranes were complete as regards pontoons and crane towers,


but no part of the jibs were erected.


The


jibs and the rest of the


material, including spare parts, left Antwerp about the same time.


The


contract


permitted


use


a canal lock for


erecting


jibs. and the east center lock at Gatun was assigned for the purpose.


The Ajax was placed in the lock chamber on October


on November 4 the Hercules followed


1914, and


, and the erection of the jibs


commenced


Whe A


hndA


hbeen


af bricated


the wall of


. .. . ....




THE PA

the spindle


iI~~


November


an as


LNAM


A CANAL. ..... ....
iA a a--L- a a a -i � . L �...... - -1"


barrage


counterweight were


*<419


on the Ajax and it was ready for service.


Gaillard
manned
portions


and


Cut,


under


crew


a sunken


direction


contractor's


drill


barge


after successfully removing


some other minor work,


the cran


which
these c
te was


The Ajax was taken to


mechanical
employees,


was


blocking


)bstructions


returned


and


division, and,


removed


two


ie channel,
performing


the contractor,


Dock


Cristobal


, on November 25,


1914.


The contractor offered the crane Ajax for test on December 1, 1914,
and the main hoist test was assembled so that the actual tests could


begin


on December 3.


The test with


long-ton normal load


was completed successfully, and the speed of the hoisting, luffing, and


slewing operations met contract requirements.


test load


On December 7


was increased 20 per cent, as specified by the contract, for


the overload tests. The 120-ton load was hoisted clear of the wharf
and luffed slowly out to the 100-ton reach of 81.6 feet from the face


of the fender.


No sign of distress was noticed in any member.


The


auxiliary hoist trolley was at the inner limit of travel, when it should


have been at the tip of the jib.


The instant that the controller was


placed in


luffing position and


brake solenoids were heard as


they released the brakes on the drums, two movements were observed:
First the collapse of the back of the jib and fall of the load, which was
only a short distance above the ground; a pause, and then the fall of


the jib and the recoil of the pontoon.


The jib pivot remained intact,


and
with


jib in its fall


the sheaves


turned about this pivot.


which support


main


The head


load swung


of the jib


clear of


test load and buried itself about 6 feet in the ground.


The extension


of the jib beyond the point which serves as an attachment for the crab


trolley


sheaves


struck


test


load


and


was


completely


wrecked.


The
and


portal


which


supports


the upper chord


main


hoist


remained


together at


in place.


its second


The


point


connecting


links from the jib to crosshead were badly twisted.


The back spindle


carriage track was sprung outward, and with it the two spindles.


The


spindles, however,


were found to have suffered no injury


The upper


chord
blocks
latter,


was
and
but


sprung


and


equalizer


lower


bar


chord


received


block sheaves were


twisted.


injury,


intact.


The


more


main


hoist


especially


One main-block triangle


i




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Investigation of the accident led to the conclusion that the heel
strut was the first to fail and that the failure was due probably, not
to insufficient sectional area to resist the maximum direct compres-
sion, but to the distribution of metal in this member, to the insuffi-
cient strength of latticing and tie-plates, and to the rivets connecting


these details


the main members,


as well as failure


provide


adequately for flexure as well as direct compression.


The contractor


did not concur in the above-stated causes of failure, and while stating
he did not know the exact cause of the accident, expressed such con-
fidence in his design that on December 10 he offered the Hercules for


contract tests.


The Panama Canal was unwilling to permit this to


be done without the reinforcement of


certain members of the


This work on the Hercules was begun on January 11, and three mem-
bers of each truss of the jib were strengthened, and on January 27 the


Hercules was again offered for test.


The tests of the Hercules were


completed satisfactorily


on March 27,


1915,


and


on March 30 the


crane was accepted by The Panama Canal with a few minor excep-
tions, and turned over to the mechanical division for operation. A
new jib for the Ajax was completed at the works of the contractor on
April 15, and on June 10, 1915, the structural steel for the jib arrived
on the Isthmus; the erection was started, and about 25 per cent erected
at the end of the year.
Colliers.-Work continued on the two Panama Canal colliers Achilles
and Ulysses, for which contract was awarded to the Maryland Steel Co.


on April 9, 1914.


They were constructed under the supervision of


the Bureau of Construction and Repair of the Navy


they were


completed, met


the contract


requirement


Department;
as to speed,


and the


Ulysses arrived at the Isthmus on its first trip with 12,000


tons of coal on April 27, 1915, and the Achilles arrived on June 17


1915.


Until the permanent coaling plant is completed, the colliers


will be unloaded by the Brown hoist at the dry-dock entrance slip.
The colliers are operated by the Panama Railroad Company.
Tugs.-The two tugs, built under contract with the Staten Island
Shipbuilding Co., dated May 8, 1914, and named, respectively, the
Gorgona and Tavernilla, were completed. On their trial trips in New


York the Tavernilla developed a speed of 12 knots and


13 knots.


the Gorgona


The Tavernilla arrived at the Isthmus on March 21 and





24 4 " ! @"
-r ^ r tr -. I ""< kvj I .. - '" I ': I'^ ' *: ^l:!. "i'


I-J-M-2N, and Pier No. i nave Dben renumDered, respectively. as
follows: Docks Nos. 13 and 14, 15 and 16, 17 and 1, and Pier lS
These wharves were described in the last annual report, and th fol


lowing work was done on same during the fiscal year:


Dock


cylinders,


Great


due


difficulty


numerous


was


tracks


encountered


leading


m sinking


across


steel


the site.


end


the year 37


out of 39


caissons were sunk to


rock,


and


twoh


thirds of


the steelwork was erected;


the steel was furnished


by the


United States Steel Products Co.


and erected by the terminal division.


Dock


sunk


to rock,


b the end
in which


the last fiscal year 23


there


had


been


placed


caissons had been


1,487


cubic


yards of


concrete.


During the current year 2,917 linear feet of


caissons were


sunk


and


filled


with


concrete,


completing


substructure.


The


steelwork for


the superstructure was furnished


by the


United States


Steel Products Co.


and erected


by the


terminal division.


The dock


was completed at the end of the year, including snubbing posts and


brick pavement.


Filling


behind


the dock was completed for about


two-thirds


its length.


Reinforced-concrete anchors were embedded


behind the dock and connected directly with


the girders of the dock


floor


means


3j-inch


diameter


steel


rods


tightened


turn-


buckles while the rods were heated.


Docks


and


These


docks


were


practically


completed


last


year.


The only remaining work done consisted of a small amount of


brick paving,


driving a few fender piles, and completing the back fill


to bring the surface up level with that of the shop yards.


Docks


and


The


substructure


and


superstructure


these


docks were


completed last


year.


The


brick floor and


anchors wore


placed


during this


year.


At each


wharf


there


will


be a small


boat


landing,


consisting of


a reinforced


concrete


pontoon


and steel land-


ing bridges.
Pier 18.


Nearly


reinforced


concrete


superstructure


this


1,000-foot


pier was completed last


year,


and little


remained


be done other than


placing the


brick pavement,


the 2.5-inch anchor


tie-rods


pier.
face of


, and


When


making the
excavation


the pier in Slip No.


pier on


which runs


elevation


through


-45


began


the middle of


along


, the pressure of the fill in


the very soft underlying mud


caused an


south


the center of


outward move-





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


damage was caused.


It is proposed


to support


the floor in


the cen-


ter of the pier on coral rock fill.
Excavation along Docks Nos.


and Pier


18 was done


by the dredging division.


Slip


No.


was


open for


commercial


the greater part of the year, and Slip No.
thirds of its length.


2 was excavated about two-


antine


station


boat landing.-The


was


designed


boat


this


landing for the


division.


This


Balboa


landing


quar-
is 568


feet long and


10 feet wide and consists of a reinforced


concrete walk


over
pipe


I-beams


piles.


incased


March


in concrete,


, 1915,


supported
a contract


on reinforced


was


entered


concrete


into


with


Mr. Alex.


Crary for


construction


this landing,


and


end


were


fiscal


in place


and


year
work


was


e pipe
started


piles


and


on the


shore


bracing system


buttresses


and


the forms for the superstructure.


This


division


also


had


supervision


construction


Pier


which is being built


by the Panama Railroad


Company


Cristobal.


For further particulars, see Appendix B.
DREDGING.


The dredging division


continued


in charge


Comber,


resident


engineer,


and


was


divided


into


two


districts,


first


ex-


tending from


deep


water in


Pacific


Gamboa


and


second


from Gamboa to deep water in the Atlantic.
The following are the principal items of floating equipment engaged
in dredging operations during the year:


Seagoing dredges


Oulebra and


Caribbean; pipe-line dredges


Nos. 4,


, 84, 85,


and 86;


15-yard


dipper dredges Gamboa and Paraiso;


5-yard dipper dredges Cardenas,


Chagres, and


Mindi; seagoing ladder


dredge


Corozal


French ladder dredges


Nos.


and


, Badger


Gopher,


and Marmot


drill barge


Teredo until July 20,


1914, and from Novem-


Teredo


rock


crusher


Vulcan;


and


from August


hydraulic grader.
9f f"


Tugs
Reliance,


)e Lesseps,
Bolivar, and


Gatun,


Cole


and


Empire,


Boca,


Mariner until May 22


Miraflores,


and


respectively,
and Goraona


when


these


two


also the tenders


tugs


were


replaced


Chame and Sanidad.


Quarantine


Bohio,


Tavernilla


.*




U,,


THE


PAXh


tL fIfi i: : t d
^K '- * - ^ ^ ^ �L ^. ^B^" *::::* *:* *::*:* *.* *:*::::a . KKKKK *::*:* *.*::::*::*
!* J JJ fm X J f - jk X :::* :*:*:*::: :*.:* :* :* :* :*:*:*::: :::* :*:*::*::*::::*:*:*: .. xxxxx^xxxxx^ xxx


Cardenas,


shares,


and


Mindi


oIU


U LUceJLU


aLt.


such


service,


was


deemed


advisable


purchase


high-power dredge, and as the Gamboa and Paraiso were givingsuch
satisfactory results, a dredge of the same type, modified as experience


indicated necessary and


January


purchase of


desirable,


was contracted for under date of


, 1915, at a cost price of $376,180.


three additional


1,000-yard


barges,


This necessitated the
for the construction


of which advertisement was issued; a contract was entered into under


date
each.


February


, 1915,


their purchase


a cost of


$62,600


dredging that was done in any part of


the canal necessary to


complete the channel to its full width and depth was charged against


construction funds


where
canal


full


was


width


opened


and


and


dredging


depth


had


done
been


in portions
secured at


commerce, became


canal


time


a proper charge


against, and was paid for from maintenance funds.


the first district,


between


deep


water in Panama Bay and


Pacific entrance,


there were excavated a total of 542,012 cubic yards,


of which 498,400 cubic yards were charged to construction work and


43,612 cubic yards were charged to maintenance.


In Miraflores Lake


49,492 cubic yards were removed,


of which


40,830 cubic yards were


charged to construction and 8,662 cubic yards were charged to main-


tenance.
lard Cut


total


6,671,183


, of which 1,960,617


cubic yards was removed from


Gail-


cubic yards were charged to construction


and


4,710,566


591,504


cubic


cubic
yards


yards w
removed


ere


charged


from


227,529 cubic yards were rock and


6,671,183


cubic


yards


removed


from


Pedro


maintenance.


Miguel


balance of


Gaillard


locks
earth,


Of
the


and


Cut, 5,559,387


the
sea,


of the
cubic


yards were rock and the balance of earth.


. The cost of removing the


material from


Cucaracha slide and


other parts of


the Cut, necessary


to secure


the full


width and


depth


the channel,


were charged


construction.


The


drill


barge


Teredo,


while


operating


Cucaracha


slide,


was


blown up and sunk in


the channel on July 20,


1914.


The drills and


machines


removed from


wreck were remounted on a remodeled


sand barge at the Paraiso shops and a new drilling outfit constructed,


named


Teredo 2.


This drill barge went into commission on Novenm-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


material which could be handled


by the dredges without mining.


During the year 294,106 pounds of dynamite were used in the first
district by this division.
The operations in the vicinity of Cucaracha slide warranted the


opening of the canal to commerce on August 15, 1914.


Work at the


slide had progressed so as to secure nearly the full width of the prism,


when on the night of October


Culebra which completely closed the channel.


for a distance of about


1914, a break occurred at East


The entire east bank


100 feet, extending back for a distance of


about 1,000 feet from the center line of the canal, settled vertically,
and the lower strata squeezed into the Cut so that at some points
there were only 9 inches of water where prior to the movement there


were 45 feet.


The canal was closed from October 14 to October 20,


when a channel was dredged to sufficient capacity for the passage of


shipping;


but


movement continued,


and


canal


was


again


closed from Octol
March 10, 1915.


er 31


to November 4, 1914, and from March 4 to


The work was delayed because of the daily necessity


of clearing up a channel to pass shipping.


As noted in the annual report for


1914, dry excavation was con-


tinued on the upper banks on both the east and west side of the Cut
in the vicinity of Culebra, as cracks had developed on some of the


benches during the preceding dry season.


The shovels were with-


drawn after the last vestige of cracks on the benches had been removed,
and it was anticipated that no further difficulty would be experienced.
An examination of the west bank made subsequent to the break of


October


14, 1914, developed the existence of cracks on both banks,


and the question of resuming steam-shovel operations on both banks
was considered seriously, but abandoned because the amount of work
that could be accomplished by the shovels would be relatively small


and the cost excessive.


The breaking up of the banks has proceeded


so rapidly that this conclusion has been fully justified.
Cucaracha slide was very active from July to October, 1914, quiet
during the dry season, and active again with the beginning of the


rainy season in April.


On the west side at Culebra the slide showed


little activity through the greater part of the year, but in June, 1915,


the general movement of the bank from stations


1771


1796 was


noticeable, and it was estimated that 5,000,000 cubic yards of mate-





28 THE PANAMA OAIALS
NA
such shoals retired dredging before the following ships could pro-
ceed .
In the second district the dredges were engaged in deepening ai
maintaining the canal channel at the Atlantic entrance. A total of


1,245,815


were


cubic


yards


construction


were


and


removed,
1,233,301


cubic


yards


12,514


were


cubic


yards


for mamut-


nance.
Island
A la
year.
93,686


The material excavated in this district was dumped at Mindi


Cristobal Mole


trge


amount


, the east breakwater, and at sea.


miscellaneous


dredging


was


For the Pacific terminals 2,718,406 cubic


cubic


yards


rock


were


removed


from


done


yards of


during


earth and


Balboa


inner


harbor by pipe-line and


ladder dredges.


The material


removed by


-a f


pipe-line dredges was used for reclaiming swamp areas
Balboa and in the San Miguel section of Panama City; that


by ladder dredges '
terminal 709,240 c
rock were removed


was to
ubic
from


wed
rards


to sea and


earth


dumped.


and


50,006


the Cristobal approach


north


removed


the Atlantic


cubic


yards


pier channel,


considerable


dredging


done


in the


vicinity


of Piers


and


Cristobal Harbor,


as well as at the turning basin at the entrance of


the old coal slip in order to make a channel for the new colliers.


the Cristobal coaling station 132,867


removed from


cubic yards of


area of the submerged storage


coral rock were
usin, 2,129 cubic


yards of


coral rock from


the east berth, 35,711


cubic yards of


coral


rock from the west berth, and 132,167


cubic yards of coral rock from


the berth and t
The dredges al
Point and Marj
the former 477
yards. As alre
core of the east


iurnmg


so


gari
,89


furnished
ita Island,


cubic


aEdy noted,


breakwater at Coco Solo


fills on fort
aggregating


and


and


coaling station.


reserve:
cubic


yard&


407,724


Toro
s; for
cubic


excavated 252,319 cubic yards of material for this purpose.


The


dredging


division


also


had


charge


production


of sand


and
pit


gravel
and th


operated


which
fhramn


sand


7 075


or construction
Chagres River


Chame


was
enhi


san<


supplies
vards


purposes


gravel
d pit
I from
were s


beds.


rom J
the C.
secured


River b
delivered


Chame sand


adder


dredge
0, after
From
storage


eds.
to


which


and


basin north


the Cristobal


ification
885,622


yards,


latter


coral sand and fingers were placed in the


the dredging division
thejf W^slo


taken f


rom the
French 1


October


ily 1
hagres
and


t





BBPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


An hydraulic grader, similar to those in use by the Mississippi River


Commission,


was constructed and placed in commission on August


24, 1914, and was engaged in grading down the canal banks at various
localities in Gaillard Cut, Cucaracha slide, Culebra slide, and Gold


Hill.


It was also used in sluicing mud from beneath Pier 18 of the


coal reloader wharf at Balboa.
The Obispo diversion carried all the drainage water east of the
canal and between the Continental Divide and the Chagres River.


It was located near and parallel to
opposite Culebra to opposite Buena


the canal from a point about


Vista.


During the excavation


through the Cut in the dry, this diversion channel was necessary in


order to keep the excavated area from being flooded.


Its location


and elevation was such that the east bank of the canal was in danger,
and there is no question that the diversion was responsible in some


measure for some of the slides.


water was admitted


To do away with this menace after


to the canal it was decided to drain the channel


and


the lakes formed in


valleys which


the diversion channel


crossed, by excavating a series of six ditches, one to each lake.


The


material was removed by hand,


crane with clamshell bucket


, and by


sluicing with


the hydraulic grader.


A total of 21,700 cubic yards


were excavated.
SAs noted in


previous annual report,


temporary


dykes were


constructed on the south shore of Limon Bay, to protect the channel
against silting from the scour that was taking place along the shores


of the
decided
dykes.


bay.


Such satisfactory


replace


Work


was


results


temporary dykes


started


October,


were


obtained


that


was


by three permanent rock


1914,


and


completed


March, 1915.


The rock was obtained from Gaillard Cut and 7,242


cubic yards were used


on the


work.


The


northerr


of February


caused some settlement of the dykes and they had to be recrowned,
but no settlement was noticeable after the storm in April.


The outfit used and


the methods employed


as described in the


annual report of 1914, for the destruction of water hyacinths,


continued throughout the year.
plant and some valuable data obta


was


Experiments were made with the
ined, which, together with further


details concerning dredging operations, will be found in the report of


the resident engineer, hereto attached


marked


J


"C."







Hope;


fuel


nlmTn-i


THE PARAMA OAhfAL.

ni lants a Balboa and Mount Hope and a


prb p g p


: - s. Vk-Kj w^ �* MJL^


AT-A-.' IM-L.J.


small hostling establishment at Gamboa.
The general character of the work is in a state of transition from


the construction


conditions,


under which


majority


the work


was


on railroad


and


excavating


equipment,


conditions


operation, under which the amount of railroad work will be relatively


small,


and repairs on floating equipment of


such as may


come to the shops


all kinds


, together with


by vessels using the canal,


will con-


stitute the majority of the work.


In September,


1914


conditions in


Gailard


Cut


justified


the belief


that


there


would


no difficulty in


maintaining


a channel


ample


for the


which


maximum


was


traffic


that


anticipated


would


that


a large


canal,


amount


inm consequence
of the railroad


equipment would be retired.


The break which occurred in October,


however, and the unsettled freight transportation conditions hinging


thereon, made it necessary to


keep


in service


more equipment than


was anticipated, and retarded a change in


the character of the force


employed.


On the other hand


, the large amount of work to be done


dredging


shops,


and


these


division
shops,


made


as well


necessary


as the


Cristob


retain
l dry


the Paraiso
dock shops,


were employed almost exclusively on marine work.


The


new


office


building


Balboa shops


was


completed


and


occupied
clerical,
efficiency.


and


November
drafting,


1914


md


and


supervisory


permitted
forces, t


The building is a three-story


consolidation


hus


securing


greater


steel and concrete structure,


was designed not only for the mechanical division,


the captain of the port,


the pilots,


but also for


and other officials connected with


the work of entering and clearing ships.


The


Balboa


shops


were


formally


turned


over


mechanical


division on June


15, 1915.


The equipment was increased by the installation of a lathe capable


of turning large crank shaft


and


turbine rotors and long tail shafts


for vessels,
necessary


and also
punches,


by the erection of


shears,


and


plate


a pair of heavy rolls and


planers


working


plates


seven-eighths inch in thickness and heavier.
Throughout the year air for use of these shops was supplied from


nant


Balboa.


U- -- J


and


in anticipation


discontinuing


this


ft&�aM�-r; ^f-


w




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


The Cristobal


dry-dock shops continued in operation during the


year.


The


amount


work


performed


dredging


division


subsequent to the slide in October gradually increased to a maximum


at the end of the year.


As already noted, a 2,500-foot electrically


driven air compressor was installed for use of these shops, and electric


drive substituted for the machines in these shops.


The dry dock was


used to keep the floating equipment of the canal in good condition,
but in addition the submarines of the first division submarine flo-


tilla, Atlantic


Fleet,


United States Navy,


were docked in October


and November, 1914, and three of the vessels were docked again in


June of this year.


The


United States Navy survey ship Leonidas


was docked in May, 1915. T
(later renamed the San Blas)


ruary


he Panaman national steamship Chitre
, was docked on January 21 and Feb-


1, 1915, and the dock was used for five vessels belonging to


private individuals and companies.
A year ago it was anticipated


that the Paraiso shops would be


closed down not later than January


1, 1915,


but the occurrence of


new Culebra slide


and


the subsequent


additional


movements


have necessitated keeping them in service.


The equipment of the


shop was intended to cover only repairs to dredging equipment which
could not be performed efficiently at the dry-dock shops at Cristobal


or Balboa.


This equipment was increased by the addition of a set


of plate rolls and a wood planer,


together with a small number of


other tools of minor importance.
For further details, as well as a statement showing the amount of
work done during the year by the various shops, attention is invited
to Appendix D.
BUILDING DIVISION.


From July


to October


1914,


the building division was con-


tinued under Mr. Frank Holmes, resident engineer, as part of the
organization of the supply department, but effective on the latter date
the division was separated from the supply department and placed


in charge of Capt.


Wood, United States Army, as constructing


quartermaster, reporting to the Governor, following which the resi-


dent engineer resigned on November 18, 1914.


Capt.


Wood resigned


on May 10, 1915, and the work of the division was turned over to Mr.


j'nnt 1If





THE


PANAMA


CANAL,


tral


district includes similar work in


and Frijoles;


territory


betwn


the southern district embraces all work south


including Ancon, Balboa, and vicinity;


and the Fort Amac


of Corozal
or distx1ot


covers


the construction


post


buildings for the Coast ArtilleryAt


Fort Amador and Naos Island.


At the beginning of the year there were under construction, in


degrees of completion, the administration


building, the hydroelectric
"T^^ W^'-^^''^*^^^^^--^'^BBfc^� T~r^^^* ^H^ S^^flt F" ^Hl-lll! �1^ ^iCMlH"^lP *?^hy d r o e le c^^ "1^


station,


four


substations,


commissary


warehouse,


radio-stationg


buildings,


twenty-seven 4-family and nine 2-family permanent quer-


ters,


mechanical shops


office


building,


fire station,


two commissary


buildings, and a schoolhouse.


and occupied within


the first h


All of these buildings were completed
alf of the year, with the exception of


the Balboa commissary,


which


was finished in May,


1915.


The


new


canal


structures


that


were


authorized


and


commenced


during the year were eleven 4-family and two 2-family concrete per-


manent quarters,


Balboa dispensary


medical storehouse, oil storage


building,
storage


two


fuel-oil


building,


pumping


public


reconst tion
reconstruction


stations,


bathhouse


Ancon


Insane


two


public


, slaughterhouse,


Asylum


Corozal,


garages, forage-


removal


dairy


and
and


farm buildings at Corozal,


10 type 17


7 type 4, and 15 type 14 frame


quarters at Balboa and Ancon,


type 17


and 1


type 10 frame quar-


ters at Corozal, and 1


type


14 frame quarters at Mount Hope, and a


number of smaller buildings and utilities.


large


from


number


Culebra,


Balboa-Ancon


Empire,
district,


frame


Gatun,


quarters


and


and reerected


different


other places,


types


were


taken


transported


in either their original


design


or under modified plans.


The total number of buildings of all types


and classes taken down and reerected amounted to 55.
The first appropriation for barracks and quarters for the Army was
$700,000, and the second appropriation available during the current


fiscal year was $1,290,000.


The first appropriation was expended in


concrete


barracks,


quarters,


and


headquarters


building;


a wagon


shed and stable of wood


, all at Fort Amador; a residence for the cornm-


manding general and modifications of buildings transferred from the


canal


the Army at Las Cascadas, Empire,


The second appropriation


will be expended in


lebra, and Gatun.
the construction of


concrete barracks and quarters for the Coast Artillerv at Fort Amador.


%





BEPOBT


THE


GOVERNOR.


work by the various trades and each trade was carried under a general
foreman as a separate unit, passing from house to house as the build-


ings


under


completion.


construction


Many


or a]


progressed
lI buildings


through


necessity


different
were in


stages
course


construction at


the same


time,


and


aside from


the general head


the work no individual foreman or other person was held responsible


for the ultimate cost of. the building.


Such an arrangement seemed


in the light of experience to be open to question, so that after Novem-


ber it was decided to undertake the construction


of future buildings


on what might be termed a single unit organization for each building.
Each was put in charge of a foreman who had a general and diversi-


fled


experience,


and


while


special


trades


were


retained


they


worked


under


this


foreman


and


were


responsible


him


amount of work accomplished


while in his


building.


The result


shown


by the costs


under the second method


compared


with


those


under the first method, indicate that the conditions of service peculiar


to the Isthmus required


a change in system


of some kind.


Part of


the apparent saving and reduction in cost is undoubtedly due to


experience gained


and


natural improvement


as men


became


more experienced in this class of work.


Comparison
and reinforced


block


of unit costs


concrete,


construction is


the concrete


leads


cheapest,


blocks,


conclusion


providing the


poured


that


concrete


the concrete-


plastering


can


accomplished at a moderate cost.


On the Isthmus where the skilled


labor cost for this


work is


very


high


poured


concrete construction,


with the walls rubbed, finished,
Two hospital buildings are to


and painted, is the cheaper.


be undertaken


, one at Colon,


which


was begun in June,


1915, and the other at Ancon.


For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix G.


OPERATION


AND


MAINTENANCE.


close


previous


fiscal


year Cucaracha slide


was


only obstacle to the passage of ships.


During July,


1914


a channel


had been dredged through the obstruction 150 feet wide and of suffi-


cient


draft


pass


vessels


drawing


not


m excess


feet.


dredges were excavating material faster than it was falling in,


tlhipan aonmarl wno lflrallinonA


The
and


th.t ann firtthr rnnxrnmfn.c nt. tha alila






canal to commerce on August 15. 1914. Durlig the balance of the


year vessels passed daily


November


periods


canal


914,
was


except from October"


and


from March 4


closed


by reason


4


p


10,
the


to 20 Octobe P
1915 during which......
*'*L H ' ^ -.^-.. - ..-N
-^�- * * * s ** *


break


the


which occurred at East Oulebra on October


Settlement occurred of Gatun Dam, particularly that portion ws


of the spillway over the diversion channel.


As this had settled below


grade, it was decided in February to raise same to full height,


allowance for future settlement,


with


thereby giving employment to some


of the employees whose services would be dispensed with on account


suspension


work


on the


east


breakwater.


total


67,581


cubic yards of material, rock on the outside,


clay in the center,


were


placed


rock was procured from the borrow pit west of the dam, and


clay from a borrow pit north of the dam.


The


Mindi


Levee,


constructed


keep


discharge


from


spillway having access to the canal below the Gatun Locks,


was the


source of trouble, due to the current of the discharge, and to the poor


material on
During the


which


the levee is founded and used in its construction


year 86,199 cubic yards were dumped on


the levee,


material


being


obtained


from


west


borrow


pit.


The maintenance work


on the locks


was


performed for the most


part by the lock operating forces while not engaged in making lock-


ages,


and the maintenance of the channels by the dredging division,


as already


noted.


After accepting the floating caisson, it was used for unwatering the
locks at Miraflores for the purpose of cleaning and painting the miter


gates and the rising stem valves.


The inspection


that was made of


machinery


revealed


fact


that


galvanic


action


was


taking


place in


the salt water between metals of different kinds.


Tests are


being made with


preservative coatings having insulating properties,


and it is hoped that this action can be eliminated.


The rising stem


valves


were


coated


with


bitumastic


enamel.


The gate valves and fixed irons of the Pacific Locks were painted.


Experiments have
most satisfactory


been made with va
coating thus far has


rious kinds of paints,


but the


been bitumastic enamel,


and


a contract was entered into with


the American Bitumastic Enariels


to paint all the submerged parts of the lock gates structures, and


xxx xx xxxx x





EBBPORT


THE


GOVERNOR.


readiness for the approaching vessel


locomotives


are attached,


generally four in


battleship


number


or ships


on ships


exceptional


less


than 300 feet and


size.


The


ships


eight on
handled


through the locks by a lock pilot,


who works


in cooperation with the


towing locomotive operators, and directs their movements by signals


from the ship.


During the lockages the ships'


engines are used only


assist


locomotives


min starting


and


stopping


ship.


The


various operations are under the control of the operators in the con-
trol houses, and the course of the lockages is followed by tunnel oper-


ators,
early.


who stand by to see that all parts of the machinery work prop-


Tandem lockages,


two ships in the same chamber at the same


time, are made, but have been limited in number by the towing loco-


motives available.
to avoid undue dela


The


lighting


Parallel blockages are made only in emergencies,


ys


system


vessels.


on the


lock


walls


is satisfactory


and


with


trained lock


pilots


no special


operations and no appreciable


Several instances have occurred
in tying up to the approach piers.


difficulty is experienced
time lost.


where vessels have had


during night


difficulty


At the upper entrance this diffi-


culty has come generally from high winds, especially with ships that


not handle easily


lower


entrances


difficulty


is due


principally to the discharge or on account of


currents caused by the


meeting


fresh


and


salt


water


when


gates


opened.


facilitate arrival of ships at the lower entrance the gates are left open
as long as possible, so that the currents may die out before the arrival
of the ship.
The number of lockages made at Gatun during the year was 1,216,


of which


1,066


were for commercial


vessels


at Pedro


Miguel,


1.260


lockages were performed


of which 1,085 were for commercial vessels;


and at


Miraflores


there


were


1,236 operations,


of which


1,085


were


commercial


vessels.


For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix A.


Capt.


Hugh


Rodman


United


States


Navy


as marine


supennrm-


tendent, was charged with the entry, conduct of vessels through The


Panama


Canal


and


clearing


them


after


transit,


together


with


supervision of the port captains, bo
the operation of lights and beacons,


ard of local inspectors,


and


the pilots,


the inspection and admeas-





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


addition,


the captains


ports


have


enideavore


their offices the centers of information on all matters relati
ping and in their offices at each end of the canal branch hy
offices were established.


few


principal


nmmn(
one


changes


were


made


being the rearrangement of


aids


navigation,


bea cons in


the
DDii- ' i.r''sa.Iop
I- II i i- iii-
LUO!


theout 4


pairs, one opposite the other, at all turns and in the middle of the
reaches. The characteristics of some of the lights were also chai


Signal stations were estabi
interior control of canal traffic


ished


at Gamboa and La Pita for he


, and at the terminal ports for reporting


and recording arrivals and departures.


Mooring


stations


were


established


Gamboa


and


Empire


Sthe
the*


former is


were


permanent,


made necessary


but


latter


on account of


is temporary.
the slides, altI


These


Lough


station


the former


will be used when necessary for mooring temporarily southbound yes-


sels


avoid


passing


others


northbound


the Cut.


The dolphin


berth at Balboa was extended and strengthened.


During the


period


the canal was in


operation,


530 vessels, repr-


sending a net Panama Canal tonnage of 1,884,728 and cargo tonnage


2,125,735,


vessels,


were


representing


passed


through


from


a net Panama Canal


north


south;


tonnage of


and


1,958,307


558
and


cargo tonnage of 2,844,057, from south to north.


The


tugs


and


motor


boats


general


service


were


consolidated


under the captains of the ports of the two terminals.
The Panama Canal act defines and sets forth the basis upon which


tolls


may


November 21


levied,
, 1913,


and


under


Panama


President's


Proclamation


Canal rules of measurement were


set forth,
November


and rates
13, 1912.


were


fixed


by the


presidential


proclamation


The


Panama


Canal rules


were


clear


and


were


based


on the


principle o
prepared b4
the purpose
legislative


taxing the
Dr. Emory


earning


capacity


Johnson,


He was also expected


committees,


acting


ship.


They


were


who was specially employed for
to keep in close touch with the


in an advisory


capacity


them


the question of ships'


measurements


, so that, upon the passage of the


Panama Canal act it was assumed that he was fully conversant with


the intent of Congress. and h


D reared


the substance of


the nri-


>r


**: .





BEBORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


we learned that Dr. Johnson was aware of the discrepancy, notwith-
standing which, he presented his rules of measurement and rates of


tolls for promulgation
fusion has been the or


the shipping interests of


'der of the day in


consequence.


world.


Con-


The amounts


collected in excess of that authorized by law will have to be refunded,


and while this will reduce


the revenues received


this matter is still


small


comparison


with


difficulty


arriving


a clear-cut


system of measurement applicable to all cases that arise on the canal,
when the net registered tonnage is dependent not only upon law but


upon rulings and decisions of the Commissioner of Navigation,


whose


dictum in any particular case is final.


These rules


, findings,


and laws


are made with a view to reduce the discrepancies in harbor dues, etc.,


United


Canal


when


States.


They are


they should not


made
Their


applicable
application


The


on the


Panama
Isthmus


has resulted in discrimination as


between ships,


causing friction and


bitterness,


and instances have arisen


where


the application discrimi-


nates


matter
hereto


in favor


is discussed


attached,


foreign


ships


greater


marked


against


length
and tl


American


Capt.


matter


ships.


Rodman's


will


This


report,


made


subject of


a separate report,


with


hope


that legislation may


secured which will bring about laws and regulations governing meas-


urements for the canal


which


will


eliminate


the discrimination


that


now exists.


The annual report


board


admeasurers


and


that for the


board


of local


inspectors


is appended


hereto


marked


"E-1"


and


respectively.


For further particulars concerning the operation and maintenance


of the canal, attention is invited


to Appendices A and E.


SUPPLY DEPARTMENT.

The supply department has charge of the storage and distribution


material


employees;


and
and


supplies fc
for other


use of


The


departments


Panama Canal


United


and


States


the Isthmus and


their employees;


for vessels of


United States,


and for


other vessels


when


desired


them.


It operates commis-


series, hotels, and messes;


I


* *


has charge of the maintenance of buildings


J


1


1


- 1


t/* '-.f j~ :^' a^ a, jn.rrW r r4 - rt -.,jfl t-, 4- a^ f . jy a - C�-it- a^ nwj~ af b-k r.J n^ a- :~. ja /-C -* j-nfl t% i * W -r* j^ " * *- *�*tj A-b *fl*t� - *W- tt^


"E,"


"E-2,"


w it





88 . THE PANAMA OANAL.

The medical storehouse was transferred to the health de art-
ment on July 1 1914 together with its personnel as it develop d
ht at it could be operated at less expense by the latter department


S-k ~ w - e - ,4� r^ *^ - ' - - - -- -^ - - ---r1 - .- - x - - -- - -v -- ^^r -


With t
privately


chase,


he depopulation


owned
lasit


lands, 4
seemed


the Canal Zone and


certain pl
desirable


antations


were


continue


the acquisitions


secured


tp


cultivation


ur-
of


these farms for the production of


cocoa, bananas, oranges, and pine-


apples, a horticulturist was employed and
supply department in December, 1914.


this work assigned


to the


Due


of the canal and


continuance


construction


work


on the


dredging operations in Gaillard Out,


tenninals
there was


only


a slight


decrease


in the


force


work


on June


1915,


compared with


the previous year,


the exact figures


being 26,897


this fiscal year as compared with 29,673 for the previous year.


for
The


largest force working at any time was in July,
was 32,437.


1914,


when


the total


The


labor


conditions


were


favorable


throughout


year,


and


common labor was particularly in excess of the demand.


An effort


was made


to repatriate the unemployed,


but without much success;


the total number furnished transportation for this purpose was 6,773.


Quarters.-The


settlements


west


side


canal


were


abandoned


, so far


as their use


canal


employees


was


concerned,


at the end of the calendar year


1914.


The offices, together with the


personnel,


at Empire and Culebra


were removed


new admin-


istration


building,


Balboa


Heights,


September


1914.


The


town


Empire


November 25,


was


1914


abandoned


and


and


taken


over


buildings at Culebra


by the Army on
were made avail-


able


for use


concentration


tion


acute,


and


the Army
offices at
on June S


and


occupied


on March


Balboa Heights made


, 1915,


there


were


, 1915.


The


the quarters ques-
4 applications for


family


quarters.


The


total


number


men,


occupying Panama Canal quarters at the end


15,074.


The


abandonment of


women,
of the fi


the Corozal settlement


and


children


seal year was
to make way


for the Army is causing a hardship on canal employees, and although


additional


apartments


were


authorized


An con-Balboa


district,


this


will


not


sufficient


supply


gold


force
fre
0n~~


with


married


quarters.


It was


anticipated


that


with


quarters


an


I





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Railroad Company and is to be located at Balboa.


The amount of


coal and fuel oil handled far exceeds expectations, as does the handling


of transferred freight and


cargo.


Thus


the force


required


two


terminals will be probably in


excess of the decrease that will


result by the termination of the construction work.
There is still a congestion in silver family quarters in La Boca,


where


there are over


applications on file,


and


this


condition


obtains in


other districts of


the Canal Zone.


were authorized for silver employees


at Pedro


Eighty
Miguel,


apartments


and


when


these are completed it will partially relieve conditions at Paraiso and
Pedro Miguel.
Under authority of Executive Order No. 2120, dated January 15,
1915, a rental was charged for all quarters, fuel, and electric current,


effective March 1, 1915.


A schedule of rents was adopted with the


expectation of realizing a sufficient amount to pay for the necessary


repairs


the existing


quarters.


Executive order of May 25,


1915, the order of January 15, 1915, was suspended until July 1,1916.


Corrals.-The


demand


teams


and


wagon


transportation


throughout the year was great, with the result that all animals were


worked to their full capacity.


As nearly all of the animals have been


on the work for a number of years, quite a large proportion became


unserviceable and unfit for further use.
during the year 6 horses and 40 mules.


There died or were destroyed
It is proposed to substitute


motor trucks and wagons for animal transportation.


Material


and


supplies.-The


policy


limiting


stock


so far


possible was continued, and


the value of material received


during


the fiscal year was $8,018,418.03, as compared with $11,116,395.10


for the preceding year.


Local purchases amounted to $1,360,469.71,


as compared with $2,293,144.66 for the fiscal year 1914.


Local pur-


chases of


coal dropped from $929,176.57


to $543,055.36, and local


purchases of oil dropped from $863,206.66 to $609,760.37.


The main storehouse at Balboa, building No. 5,


September,


was completed in


1914, and while a considerable amount of material had


already been moved into the building prior to completion, the con-
centration of the stock of supplies was not completed until after the


building was finished.


All of the active stock was transferred from


Mount Hope to Balboa, and the value of material moved was approxi-





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


cent


Trojan


powder,


total


va


The building was valued at $7,788.70,


a aI


S
V ><\tO ~


lue of which was 51,987.53.
and was totally wrecked o


cause for


explosion


is known.


Scrap.-Due to the poor condition of the scrap market during the


year no sale of


iron


or steel


scrap car wheels were sent to


was made,


New


though


York in orde


three shipment "
r to furnish ballas
r ' . ;f-; :


Panama


Railroad


steamers.


There


approximately


24,60


gross tons of


classified American scrap


iron and steel and 6,000 tons


of scrap rail now min storage.
The contract with the Chicago House Wrecking Co., dated Septe-


ber 26, 1911, for all French scrap on the Isthmus,


subj ect of controversy for several years,


which has been the


was finally closed in Decen-


ber,


1914


, by The Panama Canal agreeing to


turn over to


that coin-


pany four hundred 12
copper and brass, and


-yard


dump cars and


700,000 pounds of scrap


Wrecking Co. relinquished


all claim to the French scrap they had collected and stored at Mount
Hope.
The sales of surplus and retired equipment and material were made


under the same authority
year. The principal item
locomotives. Decauville 1


as was in effect during the previous fiscal
s consisted of steam shovels, narrow-gauge


ocomotives


, dump


cars,


star


drills,


relay


rail and narrow gauge dump cars.
gated $2,000,149.10.


The total amount received aggre-


Some locomotives,


steam shovels,


pile drivers,


shop


and


machines


cars,


and sm


together
all tools,


were turned over to the Al
Subsistence.-The supply


askan Railway Commission.


department continued


operation


Washington,


Tivoli,


line restaurants, and of the laborers'


and
aesses


is owned by the Panama Railroad Company


Aspinwall Hotels,


The Hotel Washington
the remainder are sup-


ported
resulted


by The Panama Canal.


L


in a decrease


The falling off


m revenues


Tivoli


the tourist traffic


and


Washington


Hotels from 1914


of $72,158.69.


During the year there was a net loss


of $1,974.16 in the operation


profit


$21,271.25


during


the Hotel


previous


Tivoli, as


year.


comp
The


ared with
Aspinwall


Hotel was operated at a loss of


$1,409.89,


but in the period between


Jaminrll r


1 anrn .Tnon qfl


1Q1P l) not. nrTnfit. Sf StRl fMA wca mnas


40


the Chicago House


with


a miscellaneous assortment of


in charge of


0SI


.*ii

KKKK
0

. " .IL " **


-r


*





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


difficulties the cafeteria plan


on Septetiber


1914.


after being in operation for a


was established
is impossible to
while it seemed


at the Cristobal


satisfy


everyone,


Hotel


but


the needs more


satisfactorily than the old table d'h6te system, so that it was extended


the Balboa Hotel on July


of this year.


Cafeteria lunch rooms


were opened,
September U


one in


the basement of


the administration building on


, 1914, and another at the Balboa shops on January 8,


1915.


The


Ancon


Hotel


was


restaurant on December


opened


1914,


and


as a quick
the Pedro


order


a la


Miguel Hotel


carte


was


turned into a quick lunch continuous service restaurant on June


1915.


Complaint


was


made


that


new


system


necessitated


higher cost to


the patrons, and


to secure data on


this point a record


was kept for a limited period in April,


1915.


From


this data it was


learned


that the average breakfast at Cristobal cost


4 cents,


average lunch 29.71


cents


, and the average dinner 31.42 cents,


or an


average per meal per patron of 27.9 cents.


At the Ancon Hotel


average breakfast cost


19.5 cents,


the average lunch 33


cents,


and


the average dinner 39.4 cents, or an average per meal per patron


30.7


cents.


The net revenue


for the


year for the line


hotels


and


messes


was


$748,239.05,


a decrease of $283,950.46 from


the last year,


while


total


cost


operation


was


$726,774.07


a decrease


$295,082


or a profit of $21,464.98


but charges for


building repairs,


fuel, and


lights were not included for the entire year, and no charge was made
for the equipment.


Mount


Hope


$3,301.10 was


printing


purchased


plant.-New
and installed,


equipment


value


principal items of which


were a ruling machine and a pony


Whitlock press.


equipment on hand as of June 30, 1915,


was $36,529.31


The value of the


the value of


the stock on hand at the close of the year was $45,198.38;


the value


material


issued


during


year,


$83,111.94


and


value


material used in manufacture, $37,053.09.


were invited on


In several instances bids


various printing jobs, both from commercial firms in


the United
ton, and in


States and


the Government Printing Office,


Washing-


each case the cost of doing the work on the Isthmus was


under the lowest bid received.


nnhQ a .nih ;aTfr fiQnn


n _- t


a^ *-^ a''h- - 4- Ct T-


D ~ .-' V a'T *-Wa- a


J-' a"L


'* *E* � f * j_ -ll MnEtE|** E I * . r f iJ * * * - E *ru* * * l* | .* tA EU Z*"*u**-




'hma~aa ale: na t allIes eineua'a auaa


TH


plan for
offices of


the
the


permanent
auditor,


0O


�ay


EPANAMA CANAL.

ganization adopted April 1, 1
master, and collector were moved from


y
Empire to Balboa Heights the latter part of August, 1914.


missary
Culebra


accounting


and


office


offices of


at
th


Cristobal,


3


local


cost-keeping


auditor


and


local


The wa-n
office at


treasurer of


Panama


Railroad Company at Colon were consolidated with the


accounting department in October, and the positions of local auditor


and


local


treasurer


Panama


Railroad


Company


abolished,


Subsequently


counting


coupons


commissaries was trans-


ferred to the department.
The auditor's office is now organized as follows:
The accounting bureau keeps the general books of the canal, does
the cost keeping for The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad, except


for the shops,


and


accounting for the commissaries and for the


general
audits


stores


collections


supply


, Canal Zone,


department.


clubhouse,


The
and


auditing


coupon


bureau


accounts


and has charge of


the force of


time inspectors.


The claims


bureau


examines all


pay rolls and


vouchers and handles freight claims and


claims


arising


under


injury


compensation


act.


The


railroad,


accounting bureau is organized


take carq of the bookkeeping and


auditing of


railroad


which


could


consolidated


with any


similar work performed for The Panama Canal.


The general inspec-


tion bureau examines the records kept by all employees receiving or


having


custody


money


or coupon


books


and


supervises


transfer of accounts whenever changes are made.
The accounting for collections is governed by section 5 of the sun-


dry


civil act of August


, 1914, section


3 of the sundry


civil act of


March 3


1915


and


the regulations promulgated by the President in


accordance


therewith.


The


order


provides


that


detailed


collection


vouchers need not


be furnished for all collections;


that instead


two


employees,


ment


and


one
one


from
from


the office of


office


Auditor for the


Comptroller


War
the


Depart-
reasury,


shall be detailed semiannually to make such examination of the rec-


ords


and


accounts of


collections of


The


Panama


Canal for


the six


months just prior to


the examination as may be necessary to enable


them to prove the correctness of the collections not supported by col-


election


vouchers in


detail for the period


examined.


The first detae


p





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


tolls amounting to $80,872.79 were levied on


vessels of the United


States- colliers,


transports, etc.-which


passed


through


the canal,


but under a recent decision of the Attorney General these will not be
paid.
The excess of tolls collected over the current charges for the year


was $214,833.21,


and for the entire


period


to June 30,


1915


excess was $68,843.37.


This, however, does not represent the actual


financial condition, for the Attorney General decided that the maxi-
mum tolls collectible on any vessel is the amount derived from the


net registered


tonnage under


United States measurement rules


$1.25 per net ton, so that large refunds will have to be made, as the


difference


between


the amount collected


under the Panama Canal


rules and the amount properly


collectible under the law has


been


found to exceed $1,000 in the case of several vessels, and it is roughly
estimated that the total refunds may aggregate $400,000, which will


show an excess of operating expenses over collections.


Refunds can


not be made, however, until Congress makes an appropriation there-
for, as the amounts collected as tolls were covered into the Treasury
as miscellaneous receipts.
All claims for damages to vessels passing through the locks were


adjusted by mutual agreement, as authorized


by section 5 of the


Panama Canal act; $1,878.45 were paid on this account.
Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama which requires
the reimbursement to the United States for expenditures connected


with the construction,


operation, and maintenance of waterworks,


sewers, and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon, the ex-


penditures to June 30, 1915,


in Panama,


were $1,879,282.75, and in


Colon


$1,744,318.87,


total


$3,623,601.62,


including


accrued


interest to date, at the rate of 2 per cent per annum on the capital


cost


balance and


on the


proportionate cost of waterworks


in the


Canal Zone used for supplying water to the two cities, based upon


the quantity


of water


consumed.


For


work in


Panama


this


interest has amounted to $217,310.37


260.76.


and for work in Colon $172


There have been reimbursed to the United States $1,480,


597.36, leaving a balance of $2,143,004.26 still due.
Hotel books to the number of 9,722 and 589,297 commissary coupon


books were issued for pay-roll deduction,


for which $136,298.43 for





44m./


THE


hotel books in November,


PANAMA


1914.


CANAL.


Commissary coupons


f o $3 948 102.59 were honored at the comnussanes.


The periodical examination of the accounts of the 200 officers and
employees having the collection, custody, and disbursement of
ne d the iasue and custfodlv of coupon books and other ites


moL.JAJA)J y L t&


^JUnt, an. c^^-l '-r *waf^'


*- -w -A-


having a money value,


was continued throughout the year.


The total disbursements on the Isthmus on account of salary


wages of
items, an
disbursed


employees of The Panama Canal, and


mounted


$20,835,301.92;


paymaster


in addition,


on account


on account of


$6, 003 ,824.0


Panama


otheot
Were
ilroad.


Disbursements in


United States amounted


ti


a total of $33,333,802.34 for The Panama Canal.


o $12,498,500.142, or
The collector also


disbursed $3,972,922.56 on account of the Canal Zone, money orders,


postal savings, and


clubhouse funds.


The total regular collections during the year amounted to $10,637,-


666.40
998.37


of which $5,977,431.97 were repaid to appropriations, $4,357,-


were


collected


as tolls


and


$302,236.06


were


collected


other miscellaneous receipts.
derived from the sale of cons


The


reduction


outside


Of this last amount $223,896.86 were
truction.material and equipment.


business


enterprises


within


Canal


Zone continued during the year, thereby depleting the Zone revenues,
and Congress made provision for the payment of all expenses of the


schools, post offices, ma
direct appropriation for


gistrates courts,


civil


revenues derived from rentals


etc.


government,


taxation


, of the Canal Zone,


with


result


that


, court fees and fines,


postal


receipts,


and interest on bank balances which have been used to meet


these expenses,


cellaneous


will hereafter


receipts.


$168,078.64 in 1914


$110,732.23
provements


service


to
and


$93,560.


The


be .covered into


miscellaneous


to $90,532.69 in


$96,151.
I schools
54. The


The


audited


amounted


number


1915;


revenues


Treasury as mis-
decreased from


the postal revenues from


expenditures
$195,327.06;


money


orders


issued


public im-
the postal


deoreased


from


198.009 in


1914


170.558 in


1915, including the orders issued


without fees in lieu of postal savings certificates issued


years.


The


total


money-order


and


postal-savings


during prior


business


for the


year amounted to $5,657,282.84.


nana l


Anhhmana


runnival


total


revenue


5018 400 48


* *I *- r .ns. * -n-s * .* . S * *Sf * jk *Us c-s in U * y� 1 1 3 *ji &J azr *Js. a._* 'J *. tJU as .ir a a s a


1


,o the vale


**^*l;'


*


-w v .. .....


V VV J v--if M*^ w j -





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


who sustained short-term injuries are fairly well compensated and the


inducement


account


malingery


injuries


was


removed.


$41,871.91,


The


and


amount
account


allowed


deaths


$43,017.71, total of $84,889.62.


To June 30, 1915, there has been


paid to employees of The Panama Canal on account of injury corn-


sensation, including 838,718.37


allowed under special acts of Con-


gress, a total of $1,269,458.69.
The inspection of time books and work of timekeepers in the field
was continued with a reduced force.
Congress has appropriated for the canal a total of $394,399,149.02


to June 30, 1915.


Of this amount $14,689,873.30 were for fortifica-


tions, $750,000 cover three annual payments of $250,000 each to the
Republic of Panama, $6,000 is for the expense of presenting the


steam launch Louise to


the French


Government,


$6,440,000


were


appropriated for the operation, maintenance, and civil government


the canal and


the Canal Zone


for the fiscal


year


1916,


while


$4,289,159 were used for operating and maintaining the canal to the
end of the fiscal year 1915, and $2,225,000 is the amount of stock on
hand paid from construction funds that will be required for the main-
tenance of the canal and properly chargeable against operation and


maintenance.


This leaves an amount of $365,999,116.72 which has


been appropriated for the construction of the canal and its adjuncts.


This


amount,


less


$2,000,000


appropriated


colliers,


$363,999,116.72, is the amount
ized bond issue of $375,200,900.


chargeable against the total author-
Up to June 30, 1915, $6,563,067.88


were returned to the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts other than col-
lections on account of tolls. This amount deducted from the avail-


able


appropriations


construction,


namely,


$363,999,116.72,


leaves $357,436,048.84 as the amount expended for the canal, includ-


ing the amount available for work still in progress.


This total cost


of the canal and its adjuncts will be reduced by receipts from the sale
of construction material and equipment, payments by the Republic


of Panama for the amount expended in the cities of Panama


and


Colon on account of waterworks, sewers, and pavements, and by the
value of buildings and other public works, and equipment and plant
transferred to the Army and the Alaskan Railway Commission with-


out any actual navment therefore.


Tn addition


therA will hn1 A n-n.





THU PANAMA


CANALS


shown in detail in accounting department Table No. 6.


expenses,


including the expenses of


civil government


anda


A0 overhead
*


sanita-


tion,
The


have
units


exception
*xn


been


distributed


construction


dredging


breakwater at Colon,


comprismin


excavation


were


an


practically


vaxiou
gthe
d the


units
canTl


. " h !


cons truetion


proper,


construction


completed


prior to


with


the


Stheeas
thisfiscal


year, the charges made during the year being principally for shing


and for belated charges.


n Gaillard Cut 1,960,617


cubic yards were


removed at an average division cost of $0.4226 per cubic yard;


Atlantic entrance


12,514 cubic


at the


yards at an average division cost of


$0.3169 per cubic yard;


average division


cost of


in Miraflores Lake 40,810 cubic yards at an


$0.2595


per cubic


yard,


and at


the Pacieo


entrance 498,400 cubic yards at an average division cost of 80.4820


per cubic yard.


In addition,


channel at the Atlantic entrar


division
cubic ya:
in Mirafl


cost of $0.1017 per c
rds at an average div
ores Lake 8,662 cubic


there were removed in maintaining the
ice 1,233,301 cubic yards at an average
&Jd VJ


ubic
vision


yard; i
cost of


SGaillar(
$0.3467


i


Cut 4,710,566


per cubic yard;


yards at an average division


cost of


80.2601 per cubic yard, and at the Pacific entrance 43,612 cubic yards


at an average division cost of $0.1979 per cubic yard.


tion


dredging in


Gaillard


Cut cost an


average of


$0.4


The construe-
226 per cubic


yard, and the average division cost of excavation by steam shovels in
that section to June 30, 1914, was $0.7066 per cubic yard, a difference


$0.2840


cubic


yard


favor


excavation


in the


wet.


practically all the dredging this year was done at Cucaracha, the cost
of excavating in the dry at that point would have been much higher
than the average of all previous dry excavation in Gaillard Out, due


the large expense of maintaining tracks in the slide.


During the


fiscal year just ended the division expenses for the construction of the


east


breakwater


Colon


were


$1,185,348.51,


making


a total


$1,561,674.37


date.


During


fiscal


year


$48,458.19


were


expended in filling in low places in


were


charged


maintenance, and


the Gatun Dam


in surfacing


, which expenses
e backfill at the


locks at Gatun


and


$19,207.87


, Pedro Miguel, and Miraflores, $32,742.32,


respectively


these


latter


items


being


$20,631.20,
charged to


construction.
To the and of the fiscal year there had been expended for the con-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


main dry dock, $883,036.35 for the construction of the coaling plant,


$376,036.35 for the excavation


the entrance


basin


the dry


dock and


coaling plant,


$2,788,221.14 for the construction


shops, $165,135.17 for the construction of the shop office building,


$511,566.08 for the construction


the storehouses


, $1,605,466.65


for the construction of the quay walls and pier, and $241,636.83 for
the construction of the fuel-oil plant and for dredging a berth for
the oil ships.


In the preparation of


the permanent townsites,


there


have


been


expended to the end of the fiscal year $927,678.68 for the town of


Balboa-Ancon,


$116,672


Pedro


Miguel,


$151,986.63


Boca, $53,062.30 for Cristobal, and $13,694.07 for Gatun, a total of


$1,263,094.50.


Expenditures at Cristobal and Gatun were wholly for


underground duct lines


and


street-lighting systems,


while those


the other towns include roads, sewers, water mains, etc.
There have been expended to the end of the fiscal year $2,827,383.74


for permanent buildings,


distributed among


various classes of


buildings


follows: Administration


building,


Balboa


Heights,


$923,294.49; other office buildings, $671.76; storehouses, $57,206.07


dwellings for gold employees,


concrete,


$1,085,750.08, new wooden


buildings
dwellings
$10,194.91


$17,459.65;


silver


miscellaneous


reerected
employees,


buildings,


wooden


buildings,


$193,004.71; hotels


$229,541.02;


and


messes,


$107,171.69; health-department


buildings, $183,883.76; and $19,205.60 for designing and drafting.
The above amounts are the direct division costs and do not include
overhead expenses.
During the fiscal year the gravel plant at Gamboa produced 377,871


cubic yards of sand and gravel


an average cost of $0.7104 per


cubic yard.
Since January 2, 1915, when the electric power producing system


was permanently placed in operation,


there have been distributed


13,965,587 K.


W.H.


The average cost of production per K. W. H.


has been $0.0067 and the average distributed cost $0.0099.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix H.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.
The department embraces the various civil functions nertainin2





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


1914,


and September


1914,


the general


administrative


the canal were transferred from Culebra, Empire,
new administration building at Balboa Heights, E


1914, tl
likewise


e general
located i


offices


the new


Panama


building.


and Anm


md


Railroad


Incident to


on O


Comp
this ch


scope of the executive office broadened very materially and,


the original plan as outlined in


for th(
work


eB


fiscal year ended June 30,


the report of the executive


1914, practically all of t


(with the exception of the accounting department),


handled by the different departments and


divisions


offices o|il
on fB e "
ctober T1
atny wer
tan1ge,th
following
secretaryh
he clerical
previously
S ,* :!rB' *XH�* - "*"
l^ThKN:LF ^ ~ ^ ^j^ ^^*iH ^KKKKKK
^- ^ r " ~ r ^ ^ -'^ 'i *p Tlr B^ f-PNf: j K K K K K


, was assigned t


executive


office


force.


became


necessary,


therefore,


to su


stantially increase the force of the executive office in order to han e


the work properly


This consolidation of the clerical forces under the


executive office was accomplished by the transfer of


employees from


other departments and divisions
total force.


and


resulted


in a reduction


The


following


bureaus


were


established


on a permanent


basis,


under direction of the executive secretary,


assisted by the chief clerk


Correspondence


bureau.-This


bureau


furnishes stenographic


and


typewriting


service


Sfor


offices


administration


building;


prepares monthly and annual reports, estimates, and statistical


and does such other clerical work as it may be called upon


bureau


handles all matters


data;


to perform.


pertaining


the personnel of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Com-
pany.


Record
Panama


bureau.--This


Canal


and


bureau
Panama


tas charge
Railroad;


records


indexing


The


and


filing


of papers;


receiving and mailing all


correspondence, and transmittal


of all papers between offices; the consolidation of records; the indexing
and filing of maps and drawings; the Panama Canal library; the pub-


location


circulars;


and


supervision


executive


office


printing plant.
Timekeeping


bureau.-This


bureau


charged


with


keeping


time of all employees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad
Company, the issuance of coupon books, and the preparation of force


reports.
P9.w.. AA


flA a1


nomaindrt/1jm �/ ~v


ssA ums JPhim


hkrann 1


Whawarl


* *rES .. *.V.-.. NM 9S9.SS.S N. -Nr 9 'SSS rN 'S-z9~~ -9-�rS. S f'rzSa rWs 9Z9 -"" Sm * * * r^ * *s* -.y * Snu * a WSr . A * JtJ.a 3rn a~t w .5SI3:*


Personnel bureau.-This





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


DIVISION


OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.


Effective July 1, 1914, the division of posts was incorporated with


the division of civil affairs.


The Canal Record was transferred to


the division of civil affairs July 22, 1914.
Customs bureau.---Since the canal was opened to traffic there has


been a gradual increase in shipping at Balboa and Cristobal.


The


total number of vessels entered at the two ports was 2,135, the total


number of vessels cleared 2,125.
provide simple rules for the entry


Customs regulations intended to
and clearing of vessels and the


releasing of cargo, with due regard for the interests of the Republic
of Panama, but without impairing the complete administrative juris-
diction of the government of the Canal Zone over the terminal ports,


were published in July and August, 1914.
the direction of the greater simplicity in


They were amended in
the following November.


These regulations meet all present requirements and can be readily


amplified when occasion requires,


The President, in his Executive


order of January 27,


1914,


provided


that


the executive secretary


should in person, or through one of his assistants, perform the duties


of a shipping commissioner.


In conformity with this order, the chief


of the division of civil affairs was designated shipping commissioner
for the Canal Zone and the customs inspectors at Balboa and Cristobal


were designated deputy shipping commissioners. Th
seamen shipped on American vessels during the year
men discharged. Relief was afforded shipwrecked sean
was taken to discourage desertion and apprehend d


ere were 1,033


and


941 sea-


aen, and action


[eserters.


The


customs bureau has continued,


with the assistance of the police, to


administer


President


Executive


order


January


1908,


extending to the Canal Zone certain Chinese exclusion laws of the


Republic of Panama.


Customs inspectors have inspected and sealed


2,828 cases of household goods shipped by employees to the United


States and have certified


945 invoices covering other shipments to


the United States.
Administration of estates.-During the year 268 estates of deceased
and insane employees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad
Company were administered, and there were 14 estates in course of set-


tlement on June 30.1915.


Of the estates settled, 174 were delivered to





50 .aaraAc n
O0 THE PANAMA CANAL. s!

Licenses and taxes.-By the provisions of the Executive ordtrof
- e - - - -a -o A


the president,


dated


October


, 1914, license


and


laws o0 the


Canal Zone
reduced and
bian r6gim


were


revised


so that


many


the fees


and rates e


some taxes which had been inherited front the olo


were


abolished


complete statement


the license e


issued and taxes collected during the fiscal year will be found included


in statement of Canal Zone revenues


printed as an appendix to the


auditor's report.


Postal


service.-There


were


post


offices


in operation


the.


beginning and at the close of the fiscal year.


One new office, Balboa


Heights,


was


opened


July


1914,


and


one


office


, Frijoles,
*w% 9mI


was


closed September 30, 1914.


The total receipts of the post offices from


all sources were $95,794.36, as compared with $110,742.23 in the pre-


ceding year.


$151,121.59


The expenses were reduced from $175,263.42 in


1915.


There


were


170,558


money


orders


1914,
issued


during the year of


a total value of $3,948,762.86, on which fees were


collected


amounting


$13,169.55.


Compared


with


preceding


fiscal


year there


was


a decrease


28,270


in the


number of


orders


issued


and


a decrease of $80,601.97


decrease of $6,238.56 in fees collected.


in the aggregate amount and a
For the postal savings system


established min


the Canal Zone


by the President'


Executive order of


September


, 1911,


there


was


substituted


under


authority


Executive order dated September 5,


1914, a system of deposit money


orders


and


which greatly simplified


in the


interests <(
amounted


office


f depositors.
to $498,481.


auditor,
Postal s


clerical


without


avlmgs


work in


inm any way


deposits


The deposits on June 30,


a post offices
affecting the


on June


1914,


1915, represented


unpaid


postal


savings


certificates


and


deposit


money


orders


amounted
$33,781.70


to $477,551.


form


There was also on deposit on June 30, 1915,


ordinary


money


orders


issued


and


drawn


on Canal Zone


post offices


in favor


remitter.


registry
handled


pared


division


of the


a decrease


with


post offices,


14,955


the preceding fiscal


126,134


parcels and letters were


registered letters and parcels as corn-
year. Approximately 60 per cent of


the registered
rived from it.


matter


handled


was


official


and


no revenue was


r, J>


1" t


* 1


rn<


Ti�


a I- - -- * n../ k kj .a " ,n�n-q -w^P -- rI- nJtk re J- S* Ja^ - -. .1%. S __/ -**� a..^' tV *.N t Jkh - a/h.� ad'Jk*- --ILLt-t -f./. -- W- a





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


under
made


order.


expedite


Various


improvements


handling


service


mails,


increase


have


been


revenue,


and reduce the expenses of


operation.


Oanal Record.-The Canal Record


was continued after


January


1915, as a weekly paper for the publication of shipping news, statistics
of traffic, Executive orders, official documents, notices, and circulars.


Conreucting t
reduction of


the same
tribution


tions
The


pared


e scope (
the force


time,


cost of


with


paper


employed for


reasonable


Record
annum,


publication
$23,227.83 i


restrictions


and


provision


domestic,


and


fiscal


1914.


within


these


limits


its compilation


were
was


$1.


placed


made I
50 per


year was


Collections on


permitted


to one
on the


'or paid
annum,


$13,585.15,
account of


man;


free


dis-


subscrip-
foreign.
as cornm-
subscrip-


tions and
$498.97.


the sale of


extra


copies


and


bound


volumes amounted


POLICE


AND


FIRE


DIVISION.


A general reorganization of the police and fire division was effected


October


, 1914,


and resulted


min a total reduction


men m


police force and 2


men m


fire force.


There was also a reolassifi-


cation
tember


titles


, 1914,


and


two


reratinmg


police


salaries


both


districts-Balboa


and


forces.


Sep-


Cristobal-were


established,


coextensive


with


judicial subdivisions


the Canal


Zone.


The Empire district was abolished


The Ancon police station


was


used


as a central


station


until


November


1914


when


headquarters of the district were transferred to the new police station
at Balboa.


During the year 5,157 persons were arrested, an increase of


246 as


compared
convicted.


year.


with


the previous


There
cases


were


year.


8 homicides


supposed


this total number,


in the


perpetrators


Zone


Canal
were


4,107


were


during


brought


trial


3 were convicted and


4 were acquitted


or dismissed.


the eighth


case


evidence


was


procured


extradition was refused


against


a resident


Panama,


. There were 6 suicides during the year


whose
. The


police


records


1,103


persons


who


had


been


previously


arrested,


were compiled, sworn to,


and submitted to the courts for their infer-


nart


routine


wnrk


oivd * n


There was


aaa a Tr 'wrr i% , *-_ , 1 , r a * * *., 4 * b , .*


routine


nation as





THE


PASAMA


CANAL


labor of the convicts was employed continuously c


the road from
cents an hour,


guarding


and


the
on


pardoned,


Empire to Gamboa.
amounted to $12,4
m amounted to $2


The value


97.40.


The
.�


1,956.64


prisoner under sentence to


i the construction
cosf thir ois)tm
cost of subsisting


rine


convicts


were


the penitentiary fl


pardoned on account of poor physical condition and deported before


he began his sentence.
Continuous guard d


the looks.


On April


No convicts escaped during the year.


uty was
15, 1915


performed by police officers at mJ of
on account of the withdrawal of the


troops from Pedro


Miguel and Miraflores'Locks,


the police guard at


those two places was increased.


The Chagres River and Gatun Lake


were


patrolled


launch.


There


been


a similar patrol


the


harbors of Balboa and


Cristobal, although


the division did not have


the exclusive use of launches for this purpose.


A suitable launch for


police work at Balboa


was ordered toward the close of the year,


but


is not


in service.


Three


motorcycles


were


put


in use


October,


1914, for the control of


automobile traffic and for special emergency


service.


The


work


depopulating the Canal Zone


was continued,


and, in this connection,


1,136 privately owned houses were destroyed


by the
them.


police,


or removed


by the owners when notice


was served


One hundred and thirty-four persons were deported from the


Canal Zone by the police


of that number 73 were convicts who had


completed


terms


in the


penitentiary,


and


were


persons who


had


been


convicted


misdemeanors,


whose


presence


the Canal Zone


was deemed inadvisable.


cases of


death


Coroner's


which 36 were due


investigations
to accidental


were


held in


drowning and 35


to accidental traumatism.


Investigations were made in 294 cases of


accidents involving


personal


injury, and


detailed reports


the cir-


cumstances were submitted.


The


general


protection
about bv


buildings


conditions


on the


were much improved


construction


previously


used


, by


Canal


Zone


during the year.


concrete
better


houses in


streets


and


matter


This was brought


place c
roads,


Sthe frame
new pump


stations, hydrants, and by means of the general cleaning up of waste


material and rubbish on the Isthmus.


A new concrete fire station at


Balboa


was occupied on January


11, 1915.


The fire stations at Em-


-.. aJ UJ


-- -- - - * a I- * * 1 1* J


of
10
an


t1


e


w.


*


,-





REPORT


TUE


GOVERNOR.


vented


from


spreading


Cristobal.


The


damage


Canal property was estimated at $12,000 and the damage to


railroad


property at $10,000.


The


total loss resulting from


Panama
Panama
this fire


is estimated


$1,110,000.


March


, 1915,


a fire


unknown


origin occurred on the mining dock at Fort Grant and caused damage


estimated at $27,500.
the Pennsylvanian of


On May 4,


1915, a fire broke out in the hold of


the American-Hawaiian Line shortly


after the


vessel had left the port of Balboa.


was


Zone
Fort


extinguished


firemen
Grant.


were
The


after


a two


assisted


loss


hired


resulting


from


She returned to the dock and the


days'


fight,


laborers


this


in which


and


was


soldiers


Canal
from


estimated


$95,000.


DIVISION


OF SCHOOLS.


The schools for white children had a net enrollment of


schools for colored children a net enrollment of 1.430.


1.146


Fifteen


and


build-


mgs


were


m use


for school


purposes,


besides


two


rooms


in the


Washington Hotel at Colon Beach.


At Balboa, four type-5 bachelor


quarters


were remodeled


for use


as a school for white


children,


upper floor


being used for the main high school and


the lower floor


grammar


school.


school


colored


children


in the


Balboa


district


was


provided


by removing


Empire


and


Culebra


white school


buildings to


La Boca during the summer vacation, and


reerecting them as one


12-room schoolhouse.


The building formerly


occupied by the colored school at Mount Hope was removed to Gatun


in February


and reorected for the


use of


colored


pupils.


The


main


high school was transferred from Ancon to Balboa.


The branch high


school,


formerly


conducted


Gatun,


was


transferred


Cristobal.


account


small


attendance,


seventh


and


eighth


grades


Gatun


were


transferred


Cristobal


November


1914.


For


similar reason,


the colored school at


Mount


Hope


was


discontinued


December 31, 1914,


and the white schools at Culebra and Las Cascadas


were consolidated on February 15 at Empire.


condition in


Because of the crowded


the Cristobal white school, it became necessary to open


a school on Colon Beach November 9,


1914, for the first


four grades.


The


usual


medical


inspection


pupils


grammar


grades


W || mm ' , | E| . ny* C' t C l| 1|| 1||J m -||| l | .


I a S
n'^tfl, ,-'n t -n-V^^


*wwr\ /-<


* f * ^





54

Miguel,


and conti


tically
period


CO


THE PAAMA OAfAL

Lncon, Corozal, and Balboa at the beginning
nued throughout. A revised course of study has beer *prac
mpleted. It will be printed during the summer vaccatiou"
dN


and


adopted at the


beginnm


foundations were laid for a system


g of the next school term.
of industrial training, con


uTh,
luoted


as an integral
operation of
supervisor of


part
the


Canal


mechanical


industrial


div


ision and
competent


with


commissaries.


reorganize


this


00-
A
ex-


tension
school
school


school


and e
hours,


work,


was


boys


on Saturday,


appointed


have


and


September


been


during


given


vacation,


1914.


employment
as salesmen


High-


after
and


checkers in


the commissaries.


Courses of instruction have been con-


ducted for apprentices in


ing and


the shops, and classes in mechanical draw-


high


schools.


At Balboa,


Ancon, Corozal, and Pedro


Miguel eighth-grade pupils were given inm-


structions


woodwork


and


sewing.


Industrial


training


will


continued next year on broader lines and with more ample equipment.


BUREAU


OF CLUBS


AND


PLAYGROUNDS.


The bureau of clubs and playgrounds was conducted, as min previous


years,


under


supervision


national committee of the


secretaries


Young Men


furnished


's Christian Association.


inter-
The


clubhouse


Empire


was


closed


July


and


removed


where it was reerected and opened on Christmas Eve.


The


Balboa,
building


formerly used at Porto Bello was reerected at La Boca as a clubhouse


for silver
the same


employees.


The


as in previous


than heretofore
door features.


years,


baseball


except


grounds,


bureau


that
tennis


more


courts,


were


practically


money was spent


and


other out-


THE


COURTS.


In the district court 86 cases were pending at the beginning of the


year,


779 cases were filed and


decided, leaving 88 cases pending


on June 30,


and


1915.


criminal.


Court


was


held


both


75 were civil, 341
at Aneon, for th


probate,
SBalboa


division, and at Cristobal.


-. -- I� *


mni


Three-fourths of the cases heard arose in


1- J. L a . E


I


^TTE'"


.1- _ 3 - ** t._ -* 3 t____ a.- a a-- ~ . .^.- --:-.^*- * * .1- l-. ann.-W n -.~ nW Ja . -" * J ^ W -J a-KWWJl. S - W W.


Zone school system,


training,


ighth-grade


woodwork were organized in


activities


the cases decided


J I





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


district court,


and


there


were


2.203


convictions


and 333


acquittals.


Collections on account of fines and fees amounted to $7,674.14.
In the magistrates court for the Cristobal subdivision 3 cases were


pending on July


, 1914, 2,400 cases were docketed during the year,


and 2,398 cases were decided, leaving 5 pending at the close of busi-


ness on June 30,
were criminal.


1915.


Of the cases decided 164 were civil and 2,236


The criminal cases resulted in 1,709 convictions, 337


acquittals, 69 dismissals,


9 cases compromised under sections 359 and


360 of


the Code of Criminal Procedure, and


112 cases


committed


the district court.


A total of $5,898.38 was collected in fees and fines.


The district attorney in his annual report (Appendix L) makes


following statement with reference


jury trials


the Canal Zone


and I concur in his recommendation:
The present district attorney is familiar with the result of jury trials upon the Canal


Zone, both before and since the Executive order of July 4,


trials in all felony cases. B<
allowed only in capital cases.


1913,


fore the Executive order referred


authorizing


jury


to jury trials were


Since the Executive order of July 4, 1913,


defendants demanding a jury trial have been


white citizens of the


the only


United States.


Negroes and foreigners upon the Zone prefer trial by the court without a jury.


Since


the Executive order referred to 6 white defendants have demanded jury trials; 1 was


charged with violation of the white slave act, 1
and 3 with assault with a deadly weapon. All


with murder, 1


with manslaughter,


were acquitted by juries.


The 4 last


cases were for crimes committed against negroes, and juries refuse to convict white
defendants in these cases.


The results of jury trials since the Executive order of July 4,


1913, have been very


unsatisfactory, and I renew the recommendation made in the last annual report that
the law be amended so that there may be a return to the former practice of allowing
jury trials in capital cases only.


RELATIONS


WITH


PANAMA.


Negotiations


correspondence


or personal


conference


between


executive


secretary


and


secretary


foreign


affairs


Republic


of Panama


included, among others,


the following subjects


in addition to routine matters:


The issuance of transportation on the


Panama Railroad


to employees and


officials of the Panama Govern-


ment


and


the abuse of


the pass privilege; the granting of the corn-


missary privilege to nonemployees with the sanction of the Republic


of Panama; the decrease
by incompetent midwives


in infant


mortality


by preventing practice


fillin in low land at National ExDosition


*





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


struction


a telegraph


line


the Republic


of Panami


aE


between


Panama City and Empire and thence to the Canal Zone boundary i
the direction of the town of Paja; transmission of messages over te
Panama Canal telephone line to El Vigia; the contract and revocable


license respecting the rental
line of the Panama Railroad


two


wires in


the tr


between Panama and


nsisthmian duet
Colon; the strict


enforcement


laws


restricting


immigration


as to


prevent


landing of immigrants for whom there was little likelihood of employ-
ment, and who were likely to become public charges; the delay in the


promulgation


sanitary


through


ordinances


Republic


prepared


of Pana
Panama


ma


Official


Gazette


Canal health officials;


the health ordinances respecting the registration of births and deaths
in the cities of Panama and Colon; the increase of import duties on


goods
ment


entering


Republic


that The Panama


Canal


Panama


secure


and


a permit


be proposed require-
in each instance for


the clearance of


materials


and goods through the Panaman customs;


the regulation of private hospitals in


the cities of Panama


and


Colon


and


the reduction in rates at


Colon Hospital for


Panaman residents


of Colon; unauthorized entry upon Canal Zone territory and exercise
of police powers by Panaman police in pursuit of fugitives; the delivery


or orders


sequestration


or embargo


decreed


by Panaman courts


against


wages


Panama


Railroad


employees,


and


matter


maintaining a representative in


the city


of Colon


by the Panama


Railroad Company to receive such orders of garnishment; the segrega-


tion of stables in the city of Panama


the proposed sale of the American


wharf in the city of Panama to the Republic of Panama, and the lease


entered into between the Panama Railroad Company and Messrs.


Pinel


Bros.


for the


use of


the wharf in


the city


of Panama known as the


"English


Wharf


: the


changes


recommended


avoid


confusion


between lighthouses established by The Panama Canal and the Repub-
lic of Panama; the right of the Republic of Panama to refuse to honor
a request for the extradition of a citizen of Panama from the Republic


of Panama


to the Canal Zone; the


boundary convention


between


The


Panama Canal and the Republic of Panama, changing the boundaries
in the district known as Las Savanas and in the waters of Colon Bay;
the payment of 40 per cent of the face value of United States postage-
i.-Ut n i r- * rr� * *u .ir^^r A' 1%


*&*. B ...H.'' *'* S4 - ^^** :** . ' 'S ::..:.: :





REPORT


THE


GOVERNOR.


greater executive powers may have to


be exercised in


those cities to


accomplish the ends desired.
The Taft agreement has become in many respects disadvantageous


both


Governments


and


should


superseded


an agreement


more in accord


with


our present mutual needs


and


with


our rights


under the treaty.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix J.
LAW.
During the year Judge Frank Feuille continued as special attorney
for the purpose of codifying the laws of the Canal Zone and defend-
ing the interests of the United States before the Joint Land Commis-


sion in


the acquisition


of lands


under private ownership


which


being taken


over in accordance with


the Executive order of Decem-


1912.


also


acted


as adviser


Governor


and


various heads of departments in matters relating to the canal organ-


ization


and


administration


and


affairs


arising


between


Canal


Zone and


Ham
date


the Republic of Panama.


Jackson,


June


resigned


1915,


Mr.


office


Charles


The district attorney, Mr.


on June


Williams


1915,


was


and


Wil-


under


appointed


succeed him.
A number of Executive orders of legislative character were issued,


the more important of which
of the clerk of the district cc


were: The order relating to


urt and his assistant; requiring


the duties


ocean-


going vessels to
admeasurers to


be equipped


administer


with


oaths


wireless; authorizing the


witnesses


and


board


compel


their


attendance; setting aside certain area of lands inm


the Canal Zone for


the naval radio


stations;


prescribing the duties of


constables


reor-


ganizinmg
crimes i


board


Canal


health


Zone;


Canal


requiring


Zone;


litigants


relating


give


postal


security


costs in civil actions; prescribing rules for the government of motor-
men and persons in control of street cars at street, road, and railroad


crossings;


compensation


and


1915,


establish


to be


Panama


changed


a postal


paid


injured


Railroad.


name


savings


bank;


employees
Executive


Culebra


Cut


and
The


order,


Gaillard


relating
Panama


dated


Cut,


Canal


April 27,
in honor


of the services rendered by the late Lieut.


Col. D. D.


Gaillard,


United





58 THE PANAMA CANAL.

the commission, thus discontinuingm the old system, ad requio
him thereafter to complete, govern, and operate the canal and to


govern
enact


the
police


organization


Canal Zo
rules n
required


me,


carried


necessary


with
make


the enactment


implied


power


author to:


effective.


Executive orders of


The


a sub-


stantive
rendered


nature


as well


Attorney


as administrative,


General


but


brought


adverse opinion


whole


matter


halt.


The question


revising the laws in


order to adapt


them


the new conditions, and submitting them to Congress for enactment,


is not


a practical


one,


for the canal and its adjuncts present prob-


lems that are entirely new in administration.


Although


canal


is now


operated,


construction


period


still
the


and


the defensive


maintenance


a large


measures


body


provided for the canal require


troops, and


laws


must


drafted so as to harmonize the various elements, or friction and ineffi-


ciency will result.


The opening of the canal to traffic has brought it


into close contact with the world's commerce, and


there is not suffi-


cient scope in the old Executive orders to permit the President or his


representative on the


Isthmus


to meet


the questions which will con-


stantly arise
regulations


new


existing


under the new


sufficiently


conditions


laws


will


elastic
they


order of things.


can


come.


not


necessary


A system


drafted


Changes
until th


and


of laws and


once


meet


modifications


transition


period


entirely over and
Canal act should


the new organization firmly settled.


The Panama


be modified so as to permit the President to make


such modifications when the necessity therefore arises.


The land


office of The Panama Canal, which also has charge of the


lands of


the Panama


diction of the special attorney
settled by private agreement


sum


$351,306.64,


making


Railroad Company, continued


under the


jurie-


During the past year the land office


and
a


Said
total


1,462 claims, aggregating the


3.595


claims


settled


and


paid from January


1, 1913,


to June 30, 1915, aggregating the sum of


$507,825.14.
The Joint Land Commission


continues in session, and the progress


heretofore made gives little hope of its concluding its duties within a


reasonable time in


the future.


One of the American commissioners,


rTK 1__


_1 _


-� T-- a


ifki A


j i..a.


TX �. . "1


.. . . . w aw m n - ama . s





REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR.


settlements previously


office.


March


effected
1915, 1


between


the claimants


six months


period


and


within


e land
which


claims could be filed,


terminated, and on that date 3,593 claims had


been filed,


inolu ding


several


hundred


that


had


been


listed


commission in 1913 on its own motion, and for which no formal claims


had


been


filed.


Judge L. M.


Kagy,


one of


the American


commis-


sioners, left for the United States on June 24, 1915, in consequence of
which the commission is again inactive.


A number of licenses revocable at will,


which provide that no cornm-


sensation shall be paid to lessees for improvements in case the license


terminated,


were issued


steamship companies


at Cristobal for


lots on
agents;


which


build steamship offices and residences for company


for the erection of tanks for the storage of fuel oil at Cristobal


and


Balboa


Ancon


and


associations


Masonic


various


in the


Canal


Order


religious
Zone, f<


erection


denominations


purpose


and


their


a temple at
benevolent


respective


organizations.


All of these licensees are required to pay a reasonable


ground rent, except in the case of religious and benevolent organiza-
tions, in which cases a nominal rent is charged.


For further details attention is


invited


Appendix K.


WASHINGTON


OFFICE.


The


work


Washington


office


continued


charge


Maj.


C. Boggs,


United States Army, and


the organization remained as


previously reported.


The scope of the work handled was about the


same as previously reported.


Due to


the continued effort to reduce


the supply of material on the Isthmus to a minimum, the work of the


purchasing


fiscal


year.


department


The


was


result


even


greater


been a large


than


increase


during


in the


e previous
number of


orders, the average value of


each


order, however, being considerably


reduced below the average of former years.


During


year


899


persons


within


United


States


were


ten-


dered


employment for duty


on the Isthmus in grades above


that of


laborer, as compared with 2,248 for the previous year;


and
The


were


appointed,


total amount of


covering
purchase


different


orders


placed


classes


was


352 accepted
employment.


$7,307,689.34


, the





..^^^^.........^......^^ J^^^^L. ju. -^^k4^t- :H. :^^K- .&JJUL< u. JJ^JK u. ^juju^u^ vw :^^^T
'l^i*:I-^: HE *i31 & nJ A'-liJi & lia & *lir'al w * *
.* . **..a ... *ft .*^ j^... i"H .-jfm. .I�B....j1^.. HLJ'i^^.iAM ...f* *g'.a^..
WHf -^^^^^^^^*^^^^^^ /: t^^W ^^tt^^l^^^^ "T ^----^B^^T^fftff^^^^^^ ^m||T *^^-^HBfrBI^^F-lF :4MMIIIIIHI^^--^ff'^Bl-
K ^ "^


SAlITA tON.


The health department was charged with the care


of the sick l ad


injured


Canal


Zone,


prevention


disease


the


* it '*'**'^;
^ . it-s I


Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, street cleaning and gab
removal in the latter cities, and all matters relating to quarantine
The department continued in charge of Lieut. CoL. Charles F. Man,
United States Army.


Vital statistic.


-With the exception of one case of smallpox,


whiob


was brought in on the steamship Panama, and one practically recov-


ered case brought in


on the Pacific mail steamship


Newport, no cases
7V, �^n/W fli1oQ


of quarantinable diseases originated on or were brought to the Isthmus


during


year.


Health


conditions


were


very


good.


The


total


admission rate
compared with


with


299.62


employees


473.15 for
* 1914; for


hospitals


1914;
disease


and


quarters


was 337.21,


to hospitals alone 204.18, compared


alone


156.81,


compared


with


220.62 for


The
death


total
rate


1914.


death rate


disease


was
alone


5.72
3.61


as against 7.92 for
as compared with


1914
5.17


, an
for


1914.


This means that had the death rate for disease for 1915 remained the


same as for


1914,


we would have had


59 deaths of


employees more


than


we did have.


With regard to malaria,


which is our principal cause of


disability,


the hospital admission rate was reduced 20 per cent, and the death


rate more than 32 per cent since


1914.


The


admission rate for


typhoid fever was reduced more


than


cent


during


year;


admission rate for


dysentery


50 per


cent, and
In the


the death rate for pneumonia more than 39 per cent.


Canal Zone the


total


death rate from


disease was reduced


from


14.46 in


1914


11.77


in 1915;


in Panama City from 34.25 to


30.74, and in Colon from 24.12 to 21.25.


Division of hospitals.-Two of the


wards at Ancon Hospital were


condemned


during


year


as unsafe


and


their


use


discontinued.


The


average


daily
all


number


patients


hospital


proper


during


year was


highest


number min


any


one


day 678


and


the lowest number in any one day


During the month of Anril the transfer of the insane department at


se





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 61
There was a large increase in the number of patients at Palo Seco
Leper Asylum, and it was necessary to provide additional buildings
for their accommodation.
The number of district dispensaries was reduced from 10 at the
close of 1914 to 7 at the close of 1915, and 2 of these do not require
a physician.
The new concrete storehouse at Ancon was completed and occu-
pied in January last.
Sanitary division.-The number of sanitary inspection districts at
the close of the year was 6 as compared with 9 at the close of 1914.
Those abandoned were turned over to the military. A large number
of new sanitary ditches of a permanent nature were constructed
during the year.
The large hydraulic fills which are being made in the vicinity of
Balboa, Ancon, Panama, and Mount Hope, have given much trouble
and expense in the control of mosquito breeding along their borders,
but eventually will be of great assistance from a sanitary point of
view.
The building regulations of the Canal Zone were rendered so as to
require future construction to be rat proof.
Increased attention was given to the Canal Zone schools with a
view to preventing the spread of contagious diseases and to improve
the health and sanitary conditions of the pupils.
Panama.-The rapid growth in the area and population of the
city, about 33 per cent in the last two years, has greatly increased
the work of the health department. The suburbs have been extended
into very malarious districts, rendering necessary a vast amount of
new drainage, jungle clearing, etc. Nearly 12 miles of new ditches
were dug and 75 miles of old ditches cleaned and maintained.
The street-cleaning work has grown to such proportions that it has
been impossible to do it for the amount estimated by Col. Gorgas in
1912. However, it was kept at the lowest cost possible to accom-
plish fairly satisfactory results, and the Panama Government has been
notified that we wish to amend our present agreement so as to increase
the allowance made by it from $38,000 to $50,000 per annum.
Special effort was made to clean up and reduce the number of filthy
* V 9 .' *T- * a * - -� a Wa , aw -





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


The large fill which was made some years ago


quarantine station behind


in the rear of the old


the Panama Railroad stables has recently


become


an active


breeding


area


anopheles


mosquitoes,


this on


account of the rank growth of grass 'and the uneven settling, causing
large concealed pools which are difficult to drain This area will


have


maintained in


the future at considerable expense unless


further filling and grading is done.


Quarantine.-During


the year the


quarantine station at the Pacific


end


was


removed


from


Culebra


Island


Balboa


dump


and is


now in full operation on the new site.


A landing is being constructed


on the


French


canal


opposite


station


which


will


considerably


facilitate


quarantine


work.


At the Atlantic end a portion of the old Colon Hospital was fitted


up as a quarantine station and it is proposed


to construct a landing


opposite


this


point as soon as


the east


breakwater affords sufficient


protection.
While tl


not so


large


amounted


number


as m
583.


1914


passengers


inspected


during


year


was


increase in number of vessels inspected


order to


avoid


as much as


possible delays


to ships in


passage


through the canal, arrangements were made to pass ships from infected


ports
board,
shore,


"in


with


quarantine,"


certain


the quarantine


that


instructions
period may


placing
prevent


quarantine
intercourse


be completed in


guards
with


transit.


For further details attention is invited


to Appendix I.


FORTIFICATIONS.


Work was continued


during the year on


the gun and mortar bat-


teries, and by the close of the


year the concrete work and all of the


backfill


were


completed.


Work


fire-control systems and


The


work


was


in charge


was


m progress


mounting of
of Lieut. A.


on the


range


and


ordnance.


Acher,


United


States


Army


until May


1915


, when he was succeeded by


Lieut.


Creswall


Garlington,


United


States


Army.


The following appendices are inclosed herewith:


Increase


in salaries


and


personnel,


submitted


in compliance


with


A .�


iT n- Ih*w I?~it /-flf L' Iw |r


^














APPENDIX


REPORT


THE


ENGINEER


MAINTENANCE.


OFFICE


THE
OF THE ENGINE
Balboa Heights,


PANAMA CANAL,
ER OF MAINTENANCE,
Canal Zone, July 15, 1915.


Sm: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, under the supervision of the
engineer of maintenance:
Col. H. F. Hodges, now brigadier general, United States Army,
continued as engineer of maintenance until he was relieved from
duty with The Panama Canal on January 1, 1915, on which date he
was succeeded by the undersigned.
So far as matters within the jurisdiction of this office are con-
cerned, the past fiscal year has marked the completion of constuc-
tion work and the beginning of the period of operation and mainte-
nance.
The division of erection, which at the beginning of the year was
charged with the completion of the various machinery installations
in the locks and spillways, the construction of power plants and
allied matters, was abolished on July 15, 1914. The small amount of
remaining construction and installation work at the locks was turned
over to the lock superintendents, and the completion of the trans-
mission lines and the o operation of the power plants to the electrical
engineer. Thereafter the organization of the work under the engi-
neer of maintenance has been as follows:


Operation and maintenance
United States Army, superin
1915, when relieved by Capt.
F. C. Clark, superintendent
with Mr. R. H Whitehead a,
The electrical division.-Ca
electrical engineer, with Mr.
tendent.
ThA~p d'iq.msjin. f n-fqin.Qwnnfla o


e of locks.-Capt. Wmin. F. Endress,
tendent of Gatun Locks, until May 1,
T. H. Dillon, United States Army; Mr.
of Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks,
s assistant superintendent.
pt. W. H. Rose, United States Army,
Hartley Rowe as electrical superin-


)flq4n^qwflf -MtUr tnsn il/I I/VIHc r��acstlan t


]






THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


LOOK


(


The division of lock
two principal heads,
with their respective
the operation and m
There is attached here
this organization as it
The force required
and maintenance of t]
the following table:


operation and maintenance is subffivided is t
the "Atlantic looks" and the "Pacific lochks,"T >
gold and silver organizations to take care of
amntenance of all machinery and equipment.
to a chart (plate No. 121), giving an outline of
existed on June 30, 1915.
during the past fiscal year for the operation
ER locAI was a variable one, as is indicated by
.^ _ j ^ ^ ^ u ^ . __ .�i ...... � -^ K H-^ K ^ u **** .... K K K K K K K K K ^
*jF k^^^^ ^^^E . TL^r' ^^B'^ : FH'E^H'j^-L-^ ^^":*::::::^*KKKK^ K
*i~j -l^f Lj ^I^ L_ _H -^^^-KE^L *^ ^L BiP1._h^ f-KK KKK KKKK^KK^. K

thio "Atlantiic locis" and the� "Pacific Ao;oi^

aintenance of ~~all machinery, and eu mn. ;*!
to a chart (plate ~No. 121), giiganouleof '1
existed on hune 30, 1915.
dulingthe past ficlyear fo operation
he lockswas a variable one, as is" indicated by


Month.


July......
August....
September.
October...
November.
December.
January...
February..
March. .. .
april -......
Juay.......


Average


Gold.


133.9


Silver.


1,131
948
808
741
753
824
750
739
727
787
878
572


938.7


Total.


1,357
1,138
029
868
878
S040
868
861
841
907
996
688
1,072.0


CONCRETE


LAID


ALL


LOOKS.


Practically all of the plain and reinforced concrete required for the
construction of the locks was in place before the beginning of the last
fiscal year. A total of 1,509 cubic yards of concrete was laid for
construction and maintenance purposes up to the 30th of November
1914, this material being laced by the division of lock operation and
maintenance under the direction of the lock superintendents. All
concrete laid in the locks after November 30 was charged to main-
tenance.


LOCK


MACHINERY.


Practically all of the lock machinery had been placed complete by
the beginning of the past fiscal year. The principal exception is the
installation of the chain-fender machines, which were installed by the
lock forces at periods when they were not occupied with the lockage
of vessels. The last chain was installed on June 25, 1915.





UEPOET 07


TEE


ENGINEER


MAINTENANCE.


These installations were somewhat delayed by the fact that it was
found advisable to increase the height of the motors above the sump
pits, in this manner increasing the capacity of the sumps by a very
considerable amount, and allowing the pump motors to o rate less
frequently. The necessary machine work for making this change was
accom listed by the mechanioal division, the work of installation
being handled by the lock force.


CHAIN-FENDER


MACHINES.


The work on the chain-fender machines, including the installation
of the chains, was completed as follows:


Gatxun -- ... ... .-..
Pedro Miguel...
Mairasfores -.......-


-. - . . . . - t . . - . ,- - - . - . . - . , n * . . . . . * * . -. * *S * - * *. * * - . . a* a * -. * a a .
- -. a..S -S -S *- - - .S - S.S*.-*..*..- SS.* S S -..S .- -S - ..-* - ..S ..S * *
- S- S-.-S -* - S . --------------------- -S a - - a..*- a . -- SS -.... S .* -S - . S-


Electrical
work
completed.


Nov. 30, 1914
Oct. 28,1914
Aug. 22,1914


Mechanical
work
completed.


Nov. 20,1914
Dec. 12,1914
June 25,1915


The chain-fender machines were furnished by the United Engineer-
ing & Foundry Co.


CHAINS


FOR


FENDER


MACHINES.


Owing to the massiveness of the chains u,
considerable difficulty was encountered in
one case it was necessary to place a new
had spent over three months trying to pr
The following table gives a list of the
chains, or sections, it being understood
made up of three sections each, except th
which have four sections each:


sed on the fender machines,


placing
order af
oduce a
contract
that all
ie lower


the orders, and in
ter one contractor
satisfactory chain.
ors who furnished
fender chains are
Miraflores fenders,


United States navy yard, Boston, 8 complete chains and 2 sections.
Bradlee & Co., 9 complete chains and 3 sections.
Lebanon Chain Works, 2 complete chains and 2 sections.
Brown-Lenox & Co. (Ltd.), 3 complete chains.
J. B. Carr Co., 1 section.
Total, 24 complete chains and 2 spare sections.


The last section
Carr Co.


was delivered


on January


1915,


LOCK


TRANSFORMER


ROOMS.


The transformer rooms


at Gatun


and Miraflores have been


cornm-


NW,





THE


PANAMA


CAiAI


. . .. . .. if ^ . .. �� -
A contract was placed with the Western Eleotric Co. for furnish g
p~letalp locks,
a complete aparatus and equipment for each of the locks, the 3 -
rial being devered so that the installation was started m Octo
1914, an completed m February, 1915.
Arrangements were made with the Panama Railroad Compn
provide each of the switchboards min the lock-control houses wit
two trunk-line connections to the nearest telephone exchanges
the transisthmian tele hone system; and arrangements were so
made with the marine vision to have their private telephone liues
tapped in at each of the lock switchboards to provide direct commu-
nication between the lock-control houses and the offices of the port
captains.


TOWING


LOCOMOTIVES.


The delivery of the towing locomotives ordered of the General
Electric Co. in accordance with their alternative proposition providing
a single-truck type of machine was completed by November 14, 1914;
In general, the locomotives have operated in a very satisfactory man-
ner, the most essential change which has become necessary being the
provision of a low maximum speed for towing of vessels of heavy ton
nage. The machines were originally designed by the contractor in
accordance with our specifications and provided a maximum towing
speed of 2 miles per hour. As this speed was found to be too high
when handling vessels of heavy tonnage, arrangements were made to
connect the two main traction motors of each Locomotive in cascade,
in this manner providing a maximum towing speed of 1 mile per hour:
The necessary material has been purchased for changing alt locomo-
tives so as to provide for maximum towing speeds of 2 miles and 1
mile per hour, respectively, the change in speeds being accomplished
by throwing over a single switch located near the operator in their
locomotive cab.
Specifications have been issued and bids asked for 12 additional
towing locomotives, to be similar to those now in use, the principal
changes being the increased height of the cabs in order to allow the
operators to have a better view of the vessels being towed in the
upper chamber of all locks, and the rearrangement of the main traction
motor controllers, providing for the operation of the locomotives'
main traction motors in either cascade or multiple. Bids on the 12
new machines are advertised to be opened on August 16, 1915.


ARROW


SIGNALS.


In order that the lock superintendents may communicate with the
pilots of approaching vessels as to the readiness of the locks for
h�ndlin hinq..a lnran nsrrnw aQJon ft han v- hasn ifilaAl at tha art.ls


,





REPORT


OF THE ENGINEER


LOWER


GUARD


OF MAINTENANCE.


GATES-GATUN.


It was found that at extreme high tide wave action in spilling at
the lower end of the side and center wall culverts at Gatun caused the
flooding of the lower guard-gate bullwheel recesses. In order to cor-
rect this operating difficulty, arrangements were made to raise the
lower guard-gate struts 12 inches, and also to provide an increased
height to the bulkhead walls of the recesses. The mechanical work
required for making this change was done at the mechanical division
shops, and the work of instilling the machinery and concrete by the
lock force under the supervision of the lock superintendent.


REGULATING


VALVES.


Arrangements have been made to purchase
installation at the upper and lower ends of all
Both the inlet and outlet of the center wall cu
of "T's," and the regulating valves will be inst
taken in at the upper end may be obtained fr
west side of the center wall at will, or water di
end of the locks may flow into either the east
direction of flow being controlled by the oper
switchboard. This regulation has been found
prevent difficulties to vessels approaching or
currents produced by the intake or discharge
middle wall culvert.


regulating valves for
middle wall culverts.
iverts are in the form
called so that the water
om either the east or
discharged at the lower
or west chamber, the
ator from the control
desirable in order to
leaving a lock due to
of water through the


LOCK


REPAIR


SHOPS.


During the fiscal year the permanent lock repair shops were
installed to take the place of the temporary wooden structures in
which the shops and offices of the lock superintendents had been
located up to the end of the construction period. The reinforced
concrete buildings constructed are 110 feet long and 38 feet 6 inches
wide, and contain the necessary dry rooms, open and closed storage
spaces, blacksmith shop, general shop, and latrines for white and
colored employees.


PAINTING


OF LOCK


GATES.


Contract has been awarded to the American Bitumastic Enamels
Co. to paint all submerged parts of the lock-gate structures and main-
tain them in first-class condition under a five-year guaranty. The
contractor has commenced to assemble the necessary material and
equipment for carrying out the work under this contract.
- -n.. -S





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


LOOKAQE8.


N Nn


The annual r
operation of pas
locomotives. T
the skill of the
handling the v
advisable, and
and the safety t
observers.
Since the dat
August 15, 1914
In March, 1915,
pleasure craft o
ockages, andi
Nos. 73, 75, and
concerning the
mercial, the con


and


port for
sming vessel
he expert
operators
vessels. N
the precis
o both w


the fiscal year 1914 describes ii
ls through the locks by means of
ience of the year just closed ha
and pilots and consequently thi
o changes in methods have 1
sion and accuracy of the ship's
essel and locks, during lockages,


1
I.

e
b


detailF the
the towing
s increased.
fiac y or'-
)een found

impr all


e of opening of the canal to commercial vessels on
, the traffic has increased to considerable proportions.
there were 147 commercial lockages, including several
f light tonnage; in May there were 143 commercial
n June, 145. The accompanying diagrams platess
77) give in compact form the data month by moth
number of lockages, both commercial and noncom-
sumption of water from Gatun Lake due to lockage s,


' .' i "^ .
': ^. * :
* ^Tr- ./sl||
/M ..***:
:: **�
"** " *
*&"'***


all other causes, etc.


FIRST


SOUTHBOUND


LOCKAGE


FROM


ATLANTIC


TO PAOIFIO.


The steamship Ancon was


the
invi
into
and
at 1
left


opening, ca
ted guests.
Gatun Lak
the "Cut,"


The
12.25 j
being 1
p. m.
3.06 p.
out int


trying a larj
She entered
e at 9.15 a.
she arrived
n . _ ~I �-


. m. one enuerea
lower end at 3.23 p
steamship Arizoniai
. m., left the upper
Hour and 30 minut'
on the following da
m. She entered M


o the


; selected to pass through the canal upon
ge number of older canal employee aes
d Gatun Locks at 8.06 a. m. and passed
m. After passing through Gatun Lake
at Pedro Miguel at 12.51 p. m., leaving
upper Miraflores Locks at 1.55 p. m. and
. m., passing into the Pacific.
n entered the lower lock at Gatun at


en
es.
y,
ra


d at 2 p. m., the total time of lookage
She arrived at Pedro Miguel at 2.82
passing out into Miraflores Lake at
flores Locks at 4.05 p. m., and passed


Pacific at 5.40 p. m.


FIRST


COMMERCIAL


LOOKAGE


FROM


THE


PACIFIC


TO THE


ATLANTIC.


The first commercial lockage going north occurred on Aust 16,
1914, when the steamshi Pletades of the Luckenbach Steamship Co.
entered the lower chamber of Miraflores Locks at 7.15 a. m. She
passed through to Miraflores Lake at 8.10 a. m., and entered Pedro
Miguel Lock at 8.36 a. min., leaving for Gatun at 9 a. m. She arrived
at Gatun at 3.39 p. inm., leaving the Atlantic side of Gatun Locks at
4.47 p. m.
Further details of operation and maintenance of the locks are


e


[





REPORT


THE


ENGINEER


MAINTENANCE.


When everything is in readiness for a lockage the arrow signal at end of approach
wall is set to enter.
A sall boat with lock pilot aboard meets vessel some distance from end of approach
wall, unless ship ties up at approach wall before the lock pilot returns from the pre-
vious lockage. Small boats with linesmen aboard and linesmen on the approach wall
stand by to receive lines from ship and assist vessel to tie up along approach wall
if necesmry. In general the vessel comes in close alongside center approach wall and
moves toward lock chamber under own power. Light manila heaving lines are cast
from shore by which cables from locomotives are pulled aboard b ship's winches or
linesmen. As a general rule four locomotives are used on ships of less than 300 feet.
It is expected to use eight locomotives on battleships or ships of exceptional size.
As soon as cables from bow locomotives are aboard and made fast a strain is placed
on these lines at signal from the lock pilot and ship is drawn away from approach wall
and forward toward lock chamber, and at the same time cables from other locomotives
are taken aboard. The use of a small boat is necessary to get cables aboard from
locomotives on side walls. When time is available the water level is equalized before
arrival of ship and gates are opened, but fender chain is left up until ship is under
control of locomotives. Ship's engines are stopped before bow of vessel passes fender
chain.
The man in charge of lockage representing the lock force carries a portable phone
which can be connected with the control house at any lamp-post on lock walls. He
notifies control house when to lower fender chain and when to close the gates. The
proper time for opening gates is indicated to control-house operators by the indicators
on control board. All gates are under observation from the control house and cracking
of gates caused by overtravel of water may generally be observed. Attempt is made
to open gates just as soon as they crack so that reverse head assists the operation.
From time locomotive cables are aboard every movement of locomotives is made
in response to standardized signals from lock pilot. Locomotives have a towing speed
of 2 miles per hour. They slacken cables before ascending or descending inchlines.
"During the course of the lockages the ship's engines are used only to assist locomotives
in starting and stopping the ship. The breast locomotives assist-the bow locomotives
in starting the ship and then drop back during the tow and assist stern locomotives in
stopping the ship. On up lockages manila ship cables are attached to snubbing but-
tons on lock walls to assist locomotives to steady ship in lock chamber during filling.
When ready for the water the lock pilot signals the man in charge of lockage who
phones the control-house operator. On down lockages manila cables are held in
readiness but are not attached to snubbing posts because locomotives can easily hold
ship steady in lock chamber. After water in last chamber is equalized with sea level
or lake level, as the case may be, and gates are opened, the locomotives are used only
to steady ship in chamber until propeller is started, after which locomotive cables are
cast off and the ship leaves the locks under its own power. With strong beam winds
and ships well out of the water the locomotives are used to steady the ship until stern
clears the last gates.
On up lockages a pilot boat is used to pick up the lock pilot after the vessel leaves
the lock chamber. On down lockages a counterweighted gangplank running on
wheels is used and pilot comes ashore on center wall just before locomotives' lines are
cast off.
Tunnel operators with silver helpers follow the course of the lockage and stand by
during operation of each machine.
The fender chains for protection of gates are lowered as soon as gates are opened and
raised as soon as gates are closed, with the exception of first noted above.
Tandem lockages, that is, two ships in same chamber at same time are frequently
made where length of each ship is not more than 300- feet. To date the number of
tandem lockages has been limited by the number of locomotives available rather than
by length of lock chambers. A tandem lockage generally takes about 10 minutes more
.?- .. 1 0 0I





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


ness tomake fast to snubbing postson lock walls. Each bow locomotive ispreceded b
a track walker to see that trade is clear The receiving force const ot
charge; 1 boatswain with two small skit; 2 oarsmen each; 6 linesmen on center wall
and 2 lesmen on side walls. The monthly labor cost for this operating crew is:

52 silver men.... .. . * , - .. ... . .. *-.-*-* -, * * ** ** ** .1. . .. . -. . 1 885
TIota l. a a . .. - -aaaa.a-a4. a.....aa -.a 4, 26

The lock pilot is carried on the rolls of the marine division. A tandem .lockge
requires the services of 1 additional lock pilot and 2 additional locomotive operators
with their silver helpers. Parallel lockages require two complete o a shift.
With trained lock pilots, no special difficulty is experienced during niht opera-
tions and no appreciable time is lost. The lighting system on lock wasi very
satisfactory. For night work the lock pilots carry two electric flash lights for *yj
signals, No locomotive operators are used for night work except those fully qu~le
The intermediate chambers are seldom used as no time is saved at Gatan and to
date no economy in water consumption has been necessary.
Lockages have been made at less than regular lockage intervals, that is, with one
ship in first lock while another ship was still in third lock. In this manner ships may
follow each other through the locks at about one-half hour intervals. Small tags ai
launches that can pass under the locomotive cables can be locked down while two or
more ships are coming up, or vice versa; also tugs and barges of light draft may bq
locked through in two lifts by combining middle and lower locks, but no appreciable
time is saved thereby on account of arrangement of interlocking system.
The lock pilots must becapable and experienced men in handling ships and must al6
be familiar with the operation of towing locomotives. The official in charge of the
lockage from the lock force supervises the operation of his force and machinery from the
lock walls and sees that the signals of the lockpilot are promptly and correctly eb e0
Once in locks and under control of locomotives ships are handled easily and safey
As before stated, ships' engines are used in starting and stopping to relieve locomotives
of part of strain and to save time. A few cases of errors or slowness by ships engine
room force in obeying signals have occurred which have demonstrated the utility of
having the separate towing system by towing locomotives. In all cases the locomo-
tives have been able to stop the ship before it reached the fender chains or the gate
The value of being able to call on ship's power in starting and stopping and in case oi
broken cables has also been demonstrated.
Several instances have occurred where vessels have had difficulty in tying up to
approach walls. At upper entrance this trouble has general come rnm high winds
especially with ships that do not handle easily. No appreciable difficulty occur due
to opening of valves for filling upper chamber. Float observations in lake near end of
approach wall indicate that there is a slight current toward spillway when spillway
gates are open. .
At the lower entrance difficulty in entering or tying up is encountered principally on
account of spilling or on account of current caused by meeting of fresh and salt water
when gates are opened. Difficulty here also is principally observed ina ships that do
not handle easily either through lack of power or slow response to engme-room signals.
To facilitate arrival of ships at lower entrance the gates are left open afl nmght or one gate
is opened at 6 a. m., so that currents may die out before arrival of first ship. At other
times, providing time is available, spilling is completed and gates are opened before
vessel reaches one-half mile point or these operations are delayed until vessel is made
fast.
GENERAL MAINTENANCE.
- S -- 5 -� - - _-_ . J _ _ __


"" ,,,,, ,,, ,,,,, � ,,7 ,, ,,, � ,,,





REPORT


THE


ENGINEER


OF MAINTENANCE.


effort is being made to qualify all as locomotive operators, tunnel operators, and on
emergency dams. Extra men must also be broken in as control-house operators.
General foreman and general operators must be ready in emergencies to take charge
of lines or lockages. All locomotive operators are trained by one man so that the same
system is followed throughout.
The length of time required to qualify a locomotive operator who has had consider-
able experience electrically or mechanically varies from one to three weeks, depending
on circumstances.
PACIFIC LOCKS.


F. C. Clark, Superintendent.

OPERATION.
The operating crews have acquired a high degree of proficiency, and the time of
lockage has been materially reduced and is now at a minimum, averaging in the
neighborhood of 25 minutes at Pedro Miguel and about 45 minutes at Miraflores.
At about the time two-shift operation was started, use of the 600-foot chamber was
commenced for ships of 400 feet in length and under, principally for the purpose of
assisting the regulation of Miraflores Lake and for the saving of time.
Delays to traffic due to failures of lock equipment during the year have been of
negligible magnitude. But two cases have occurred due to failure of the machinery.
One was due to a motor burning out, the delay amounting to about one-half hour;
and the other due to the breakage of a locomotive line in one of the trial lockages.
Delays due to failures on the part of the operators have in all amounted to less than
an hour.
Studies of the surges and currents of the locks have been continued, and the results
so far as possible applied to facilitate regular operation. Surging due to the drawing
of water from Gaillard Out is apparent. The period of the surge is such that with
successive lockages the amplitude has reached a value of 2.42 feet. Owing to the
currents produced by these surges, the locks are operated so that after 11 a. m., while
the Out is being dragged, water is drawn at half speed. During the actual passage of
ships through the slide no water is drawn at all. The attached hydrograph (plate No.
76) made at the Pedro Miguel station on March 16 is of interest in this connection.
During the year 1,260 operations were made at Pedro Miguel, 1,085 of which were
for commercial vessels. At Miraflores there were 1,236 operations, 1,085 of which
were for commercial vessels. The increase in the average day's work by months is
shown on the accompanying charts (plates Nos. 73 and 74).
Utilizing the short chamber and the ability to cross fill, in addition to locking ships
down with the same chamber of water by which ships had been locked up, has resulted
in a material reduction in the quantity of water required per lockage. For comparison
the figures are:


September, 1914...........................................................
June, 1915...............................................................


Per lockage.


Pedro Miguel.


Cubi feet.
3,650,000
2,900,000


Miraflores.


Cubic feet.
3,370,000
3,270,000


The comparison of these two months shows a reduction of approximately 20 per
cent for Pedro Miguel and 5 per cent for Miraflores.






72

In addition to the
of labor expended in
and lubricating the
gates, greasing miter
out of the forebays,
lamp renewals, etc.
It was also necessa
account of settlement
has about ceased an
give a permanent cox


THE PANAMA CANAL,

work of the above nature, there has been a considerable amount
cleaning machinery', switchboards, floors, and copings, inspecting
machinery, sounding and inspecting the interior of the miter
and quoin post faces to preserve against corrosion, cleaning dr
adjusting and checking adjustments of the equipment, making

ry to level and line up the quadrants of the emer ency dam on A>
t of the foundation. The present indications are t settle
i that one more adjustment on each of the four quadrants ei
idition.I
BACK FILL.
^~-^^^^'*^"Ir^'W^W ^
AAjA'jLLJ : KK KKKK Ksi ^^^^xS
H-X^ Xv*T *** *
^It^ k tU |W 1 m|W ^ I :::: ::*::: *::: *'* K*
r% H H Il ~ -*S M-:!':'M..^:*<*: ...N
..*.~j: ..* * *f *T** * ^ * _. .... ... ... �-. . .. ...-
1^^ ^TI^^^ -^^^ ^' ^ ^ T^^� p K^ K.. .... ....


The work of grading the back fill at Pedro Miguel was commenced min October, 1914,
when the grass and high weeds were cut down. All scrap was then removed and the
water-pipe line on the east side lowered. By the latter part of March coerable
work had been done on both the east and west back fill and the spaces in the concrete
in all three walls had been graded and planted with grass. In order to complete tbi
work before the rainy season set in, the force was increased in the early part of Aprtil
All the grading work was practically completed by the latter part of at month an
was fini ed in May.
The work of grading the back fill at Miraflores was commenced in October, 1914,
also by cutting grass and weeds and removing rubbish. The work of grading was
started in November, and by the end of January ractically all the spaces in the lock
walls had been graded and planted in grass. Te force was increased considerably
in May, and the work was practically completed by the latter part of that'month.
The only part of the backfill remaimng to be graded is the lower level on the e
side and the slope between the upper and lower locks on the west side.
In the course of grading, the permanent tracks and sidewalks required have been
laid and the necessary switches installed. Construction tracks have been removed
and serviceable material returned to the' store.


OPERATION


OF FLOATING CAISSON.


Floatin caisson No. 1 arrived from San Francisco October 2, 1914, and was in-
stalled at Miraflores Locks for test purposes. It was given a complete test, and some
faulty electrical connections and defects were corrected.
The caisson was then used for unwatering the east chamber at Miraflores for th
purpose of cleaning and painting the miter gates and the rising stem valves. This
work on the east side was completed in March, and the caisson was then installed on
the west side, where the same work was done on the miter gates and rising stem valves
as on the east side.
At the time Miraflores Locks were unwatered a thorough inspection of the conditions
of fixed irons, valves, and equipment in the culverts was made. This inspection
revealed the fact that a galvanic action had taken place in the salt water between
metals of different kinds. Tests have been made on preservative coatings having
insulating properties, and it appears that this action can be eliminated.
The greatest action is apparent on the side seal strips of the rising stem valves.
These strips are of relatively small dimensions and are so constructed as to be easily
removed and replaced. At this time 10 of the rising stem valves were coated with
bitumastic enamel. The cylindrical valve leathers and seats were scraped and iuMsng
and broken bolts replaced and a large amount of debris removed from the chambers
and culverts. The caisson itself was painted in its entirety.


ELECTRICAL


DIVISION.


.. .:** /*. ..*. ..:**
.:' *ffS.S
1-- :^^ *l^

* ** **^*.*" *^: ****
/**I . :' ""
:. 1:. * * .
K^ *K
^a ** .:|
**' .\, :^
. ...........
* . - *******
/< *IK ^
* "" *w ^
: *M.




REPORT


OF TEN ENGINEER OF


MAINTENANCE.


system from the Panama Railroad on April 1, 1915,
of all work in connection with fire-alarm systems
and fire division on the same date.
The hydroelectric station at Gatun was placed
July 13, 1914, and has been operating continuously
or incident worthy of mention since tat date. Th
stations of the transmission system were placed in
early part of December, 1914, and the entire 44,000-'
line on January 2, 1915. The operation of the trar
as a whole has been generally satisfactory up to
Putting into service of the hydroelectric station,
atun steam station was discontinued, and when t]
the transmission line enabled the load at the south
to be transferred to Gatun, Miraflores steam plan


a stand-by status, and has be
January 2, 1915.
The rapid growth of the elect
with the construction of plain
power apparatus that were no
the plans for the hydroelectric
1911, has rendered it advisable
in the capacity of the hydroel
station is sufficient for present
will be made within the next


en operated as a res


and the transfer
from the police


in operation on
without mishap
a four main sub-
operation in the
volt transmission
mission system
date. With the
the operation of
hie completion of
end of the canal
t was placed on
erve plant since


rical demand on the Isthmus, together
nts of various kinds with electrical
t foreseen and considered at the time


station were adop
to take up the qu
ectric station at a
needs, but heavy
few months for di


compressors, coaling plants, cold storage pl
laneous purposes. These additional loads co
Miraflores steam station, but only at an incre
the power required of at least three-quarters
hour. While the aggregate increased cost
estimated on account of the uncertainties as
editions, it would unquestionably be of suffice
considerable expenditures in increasing the
electric station.
The electrical engineer is now investigating
that consultation with the manufacturers of
and turbines indicates a strong possibility of
increase of approximately 40 per cent over
the station by changing the turbine runners
ing changes in certain other elements of the g
rr U0 __ . S .


ant,
uld
ased
Sof
can
to t
ient
capf


ted in the spring of
Sstion of an increase
n early date. The
additional demands
ry-dock pumps, air
and other miscel-
be taken care of by
Cost for generating
a cent per kilowatt
not be accurately
he future load con-
amount to justify
city of the hydro-


the matter, and reports
the present generators
being able to secure an
the present capacity of
mnd making correspond-
enerating and transmis-
g I �


sion system. He estimates the cost o0 the necessary changes m the
hydroelectric station alone at $22,500 and of the other changes for
additional cables and transformers at $50,000. It appears at the
present time that this work can be done within the appropriation
allotments for the fiscal year 1916. From present indications it is
+-tnnniit+fk0 T+ +1,a~cin, nlvioy^^n rrrn, n~il hn aA'rr~can~kl b1ti�4 tk0A moffQrnHna11 bmN





THE


.44 cents and .99 cents
duction cost of current
six months of the fiscal
Marked erosion of the


PANAMA


CANAL.


per kilowatt hour,
at Miraflores stean
year was .97 cents p
baffle viers at Gatux


respectively. TE
1 station during the
er lkilowatt hour.
1 spillway has take


during the last rainy season aid extensive repairs are contemplated
during the coming ry season. .
Work is in progress at the close of the fiscal year on the removal
of the temporary portion of Miraflores steam station building and t
replacement by permanent concrete construction.
The Empire steam power plant was shut down permanently on
September 17, 1914, and the Balboa plant on May 23, 1915. The
operation of the Empire air-compressor plant was discontinued on
the same date as the power plant. The alboa air-compressor plant
has continued to operate throughout the year for'the supply of air
to Balboa shops and the terminal construction work in the Balboa
district.
Two small substations, one at Gamboa of 1,332 KVA transfomer
capacity for the supply of power to the pumping and gravel handling
plants at that place, and one at Darien of 532 KVA transformer
capacity for the naval radio station were constructed and placed aw
operation during the year.
The operation of the 13 electric cargo-handling cranes of the
Panama Railroad on Balboa pier was conducted throughout the
year by the electrical division. The construction, operation, and
maintenance of telephone, telegraph, and railway signal systems for
the Panama Railroad was conducted after April 1, 1915. The tele
phone and telegraph system on the Isthmus was entirely reconstructed
during the fiscal year. The shifting of the major portion of the teje-|
phone load from the Empire-Culebra district to Balboa necessitated
a rearrangement of central offices, and the completion of the trans-
isthmian 4-duct conduit line and installation therein of a 5-pair
duplex, loaded, lead-sheathed telephone and telegraph cable enabled
about 2,000 miles of overhead telephone, telegraph, and signal WBir
to be removed. The automatic block signal system of the Panama
Railroad which has been under construction for the past three years
was completed during the fiscal year.
The usual operation and maintenance work min connection with
electrical overhead and underground distribution systems, house
and street lighting systems, throughout the Canal Zone, and installa-
tion, maintenance, and repair of electrical apparatus for all depart-
ments and divisions was done by the electrical division. An electrical
repair shop was organized and equipped during the year, and over
300 repair jobs of various magnitudes completed.
A large amount of electrical construction work was done through-
-0- � . *. _�.� k. *- V


!


nrst


KK KKK K^KK



' ** II; ' '^
. /<
:!. t^:
*: /3.
:!* *
:!M:'
/ ":





REPORT


OF THE


ENGINEER


OF MAINTENANCE.


installations at the three radio stations.


on Balboa Dock and


berm
tion
New
towns


eranes
as part
series i


material


A new system was installed


the electrical equipment at the four


dismantled,
of the new
incandescent


Ancon-Balboa,
purchased and


Scompletio. nE
electric light and


service


were


towns of Pe


cables,
remains


but as a


d


thoroughly
Balboa c
street-light
Pedro Mig
hhe install


overhauled,


oaling-plant


systems
atun,
carried


[erground conduit systems
power and for telephone, t


constructed
ro Miguel,
transformers
to be done


whole


Gatun,


Ancon-Bal


and


, etc., insta
on the unc


an'
equ
we]
and


;elegraph, a
boa district


Cristobal-Colon,
lled. A small


Lerground


the work is over 90 per


ce:


building operations during the past year
and other buildings for The Panama Canal,
IY 'U S al I -


Department
� " * A


sion in
lation
the re]


of li
port


Involved
aration ol


systems,
electric


considerable


M


d its re


iraflores
installa-


ipment begun.
re designed for
SCristobal, the
90 per cent of
distribution of


id fire-alarm


and


and
the


Amount


distribution
distribution


nt complete.


on permanent
the Army, and


work for


neces-
work


systems,


The


active


quarters
the Navy
* i*


electrical


designs and specifications and
etc.. the details of which are


la


engineer,


which


follows:


divi-


the instal-
covered in


ELECTRICAL DIVISION.


Capt.


Rose, Electrical Engineer.


At the beginning of the fiscal year the duties of the electrical division comprised
the operation and maintenance of all power plants, air-compressor plants, electrical
transmission and distribution systems, and electric cargo-handling cranes; the design,
construction, operation, and maintenance of the permanent underground electrical
distribution systems for The Panama Canal and of all street and building lighting
systems; the installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of electrical apparatus
of all kinds for other departments and divisions of The Panama Canal.
During the fiscal year the duties of the electrical division have been increased by
the assignment to it of the following work:
On July 15, 1914, the division of erection was abolished and the remaining electrical
work on the permanent substations and the 44,000-volt transisthmian transmission
line was assigned to the electrical division.
On July 15,1914, the electrical work in connection with the installation of the new
pumping and filtration plants of the municipal divisioft was transferred from that
division to the electrical division.
On April 1, 1915, all construction, operation, and maintenance work in connection
with telephone and telegraph systems and railway signal systems was transferred
from the Panama Railroad to the electrical division, and on the same date the work
on the fire-alarm systems was transferred to this division from the police and fire
division.


DIVISION


OFFICE AND DESIGNING


WORK.


The usual office work was done throughout the year in connection with miscellaneous
correspondence, reports, power and compressed-air accounting, and other routine
papers. Plans were developed and specifications Drenared for underground cond nit


of


1


p


* '*I:


yr


** ,l


sar
stil


f


mm


1 �





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


OPERATION


OF POWER PLANTS.


Hydroelectric station.--The hydroelectric station at Gatun, which had been turned
over to this division in a partially completed condition on June 18, 1914 waspugiflj
tothsdiiso"i parial sice which date it has been in continuous oea
regular operation on July 13, 114, aine which it has been in contuiis opei*a-
tion. The Gatun steam plant was shut down on the same date and has not since thMen
been operated for the generation of power .
The first year's operation of this plant has been highly satisfactory so far as the
operating characteristics of all machines and apparatus are concerned. With the
exception of brief peak loads on a few occasions the hydroelectric stationhas
the entire electrical load of The Panama Canal without assistance from the ste
station at Miraflores since January 2, 1915, the date of putting into serve the sectTn
of the transmission line between Gatun and Miraflores. A duplicate iter b ad
duplicate Tirrell voltage regulator have been installed during the past fiscal year.
A fairly large proportion-about 30 per cent-of thepresent oad is due to motor-driven
relay pumps of the dredging division, operated in connection with their dredging nor
at Balboa terminals, Cucaracha slide, and the east breakwater at Colon Harbor. ThiM
portion of the load must be considered as only temporary, but from present indications
it does not appear that there will be any substantial reduction in its amount for atleat
a year,
It has become obvious from studies of present and prospective load conditions tat
notwithstanding the reduction in power demand that will eventually occur, due to
the shutdown of the relay pumps and to the discontinuance of other temporary loads
of lesser magnitude, the present generating equipment in the hydroelectric station
will be inadequate to meet the demand for power within a very few months, due
heavy increases in load that are in immediate prospect.
The principal increases that are to be expected are as follows:
(1) Balboa shops motor-drivenb air compressors, connected load approximately 1500
h~rse�b.eka a loa 1,0 hospoe, prob; .x .:



horsepower, peak load 1,500 horsepower, probable load factor 60 per cent
(2) Balboa cold-storage plant ammonia compressors, and misceHlaneous light d
power, connected load approximately 500 horsepower, peak load 460 horsepower,
probable load factor 80 .er cent.
(3) Balboa coal-handling plant, connected load approximately 1,300 horsepower,
pea load 1.000 horsepower, probable load factor impossible of prediction
(4) Crigtobal coal-handling plant, connected load approximately 4,100 ho sepoer,
peak load 3,000 horsepower, probable load factor impossible of prediction.
(5) Dry-dock pumps, cap stans, and miscellaneous light and power, connected
loadco approximately 5,000 horsepower, peak load 4,500 horsepower, probable loa
factor uncertain but very low.
(6) Charging sets for United States Navy submarines, connected load approxmsea ty
1,300 horsepower, peak load 1,000 horsepower, probable load factor uncertain ibut
very low.
(7) Miscellaneous light and power at Forts Randolph, Sherman and Grant, con-
nected load approximately 500 horsepower, peak load 150 horsepower, probable bad
factor 30 per cent.
In the above summary of future loads the load factor is based on the ratio of 24-
hour average load to connected load.
The present load on the hydroelectric station, exclusive of relay pumps and otht
ternorary demands, averages about 3,500 kilowatts on week days wit a 2-hour
eak of slightly over 4,000 kilowatts, 5-minute peaks of over 4 ,500 ilowattes and
oad factor of about 90 per cent based on ratio of average load to 24hour peak load. The
power factor at the station averages about 80 per cent. At this power factor the
aheage .vrg load tt conese poad. fato ?


three turbo-generator sets at the hydroelectric station have a combined rating of
6,000 kilowatts, and their output is limited to about 6,600 kilowatts by the a psity
of the water wheels.





REPORT


THE


ENGINEER


OF MAINTENANCE.


constantly increase. I think it is certain, considering all additional loads that are
still to come upon our power system, that the increased cost of steam generation
would certainly aggregate $50,000 per annum and might aggregate double that amount.
The decision as to the number and size of the generating units as at present installed
in the hydroelectric station was made in May, 1911, and was based on studies made
prior to that date of probable power demands so far as they could be foreseen at the
time, These studies were probably as accurate as could e made at a period over
four years ago, considering the undeveloped stage of the plans for shops, dry docks,
coaling plants, waterworks, military posts, etc.2 at that time. Since then condi-
tions have arisen that have called for the addition of very heavy power loads that
were not considered at all in these early studies. Among these may be mentioned
the new Panama waterworks system, the electrification of the Mount Hope Dry
Dock shops, the Balboa coaling plant, the Balboa cold-storage plant, and the storage-
battery charging sets for the United States Navy submarines.
The net result of these early studies was to show a probable day load of about 4,000
kilowatts, assuming that the Panama Railroad would not be electrified and that
electric current would not be generally used for domestic purposes, such as cooking,
assuming the railroad electrification, and the general domestic use of current, the
probable day load was computed as approximately 5,000 kilowatts'with a 1-hour
peak of 5,700 kilowatts. It will be seen that on these assumptions the installation
of generating equipment of 6,000 kilowatts capacity allowed a reserve for future
growth of about 1,000 kilowatts, since the 1-hour peak could be carried as an
overload and therefore disregarded so far as the capacities of the generators were
concerned.
Later developments have not led to the electrification of the Panama Railroad,
and there does not appear to be any immediate prospects of economic conditions
justifying such electrification. There is a very considerable demand for domestic
purposes-although no general installation of electric cooking appliances has been
made, such as was apparently contemplated in the studies. Unexpected increases,
however, in such loads as were contemplated, together with the addition of loads
that were never contemplated at all, some of which have been mentioned above,
make it apparent that the reserve allowed for was insufficient and that in the interest
of economy the capacity of the hydroelectric station should be increased.
That such increase was bound, in time, to be required, was taken into account in
the design and construction of the present station, and openings have been left min the
forebay wall for the installation of three additional penstocks with the necessary
headrgate apparatus, and the electrical apparatus in the station proper has been ar-
ranged on a unit system so that additional units can be installed with the minimum
of trouble and expense. Notwithstanding these arrangements, however, an increase
in capacity in this station effected by installing additional units will involve a heavy
expense. The total cost of the present station was approximately $650,000, of which
$340,000 was for building construction. Considering present conditions as to prices
of electrical equipment in the States and the labor situation on the Isthmus, it is
doubtful if the station could be duplicated at the present time for less than the amount
given above. It would be unwise to make any addition to the present building with-
out extending it so as to provide for three more units-a duplication of the present
plant. This extension would cost as much as the original building.
I believe that the necessity for this extensive construction work can be postponed
for several years at least by a comparatively inexpensive change in the present plant
that will increase its capacity by approximately 40 per cent. As stated previously,
the present generating units are limited to 2,200 kilowatts output at 80 per cent power
factor by the capacity of the water turbines, which are rated at 3,000 horsepower.
The generators, on the other hand, are very liberally rated and the manufacturers state
can be operated without injurious rise in temperature at 3,000 kilowatts at 80 per cent
power factor, or 3,600 kilowatts at 90 per cent power factor. The turbine manufac-
itnror flat'ata thatll mr r~hnn~rynnn +KQ*ith rnnnnra in^ lnirnr~i lir�-nn. T-W nvnircan fl^njtn nn1t�+nc 0+4





THE


PANAMA


CANAL.


former sad oil switch equipment would have to be installed in Gatun and Cristobal
substations at an estimated cost of $25,000 for material and labor. The additional i
cables and substation equipment would be required no matter what method were .
adopted for increasing the capacity of the hydroelectric station. None of this work
would be lost in case later developments on the Isthmus rendered necessary the e
tension of the hydroelectric station and the installation of additional -ie
work could be completed within a comparatively short time say six months from e
date of placing orders for the equipment, and can probably be done with funds avail-
able from appropriations for the fiscal year 1916. Investigations made to date appear
to indicate the advisability of making these changes, although the matter is still ud
consideration and will be made the subject of further report and recommendation
upon the completion of the investigations now in progress.
The production cost of current delivered from the switchboard of the hydroelectric
station during the period from July 13, 1914, the date the station was fret put tut
service, to June 30, 1915, was .17 cents per kilowatt hour. From July 13 1914, to
January 2, 1915, the station was operating on very light load on account of the trans
mission line not being in service and costs were unduly high. From January 1 t
June 30, 1915, during which period the station was operating under normal condt,
the cost was .09 cents per kilowatt hour. These costs include all operation, mainte-
nance and division overhead charges, but do not include a charge of 3 per cent per
annum of the capital cost of the entire power system that is being charged into our
monthly accounts against the cost of power to cover functional depreciationr For
convenience in accounting the depreciation of the entire system, including trans-
mission line, substations, and distribution systems is charged into the cost of power
at the generating station. If this depreciation charge is included, the cost of power
at the hydroelectric station for the fiscal year was .59 cents per kilowatt hour, and fto
the last six months of the fiscal year .44 cents per kilowatt hour.
The operation and maintenance of Gatun spillway was conducted during the
by the power station employees without incident worthy of special mention. Con-
siderable erosion of the baffle piers has taken place during the present rainy season
which will require extensive repairs during the next dry season. It is believed tha
future trouble can be eliminated by extending the area of the exposed surface that is
protected by heavy cast-iron plates to include the two short sides of the piers, and
protecting by steel angles the concrete floor in the angle formed by the vertical sides
of the pier with the floor.
Mirafiores steam station.-Miraflores steam station was operated on load from the
beginning of the fiscal year until January 2, 1915, when the transmission line was Put
into service. Since that date it has been operated as a reserve plant, several boilers
being kept under steam and up to pressure at all times so as to provide for a prompt
resumption of service in case of failure of the transmission line. It has also on a few
occasions assisted the hydroelectric station by carrying peak loads of 200 or 300 kilo-
50K VA beenerto
watts for brief periods. One or two of the 1,500- V. turbo generators have bee,
kept "floating" on the line at all times, so as to be in immediate readiness for service
in case of emergencies, and also for power factor correction by operation as a synchro-
nous condenser.
For the first six months of the fiscal year the production cost of current at the Mira-
flores station was .97 cents per kilowatt hour, of which .71 cents was for fuel. The
average net output for the same period was 158 kilowatt hours per barrel of oil.
At the time the Miraflores station was constructed in the early pan of the calendar
year 1909 it was thought that when the new power system for the canal would be con-
structed the Miraflores substation building could be combined with the steam-station
building for economy in construction and operation. The west end of the steam-sta-
tion building was therefore constructed in a temporary manner of wood and galvanized
iron instead of concrete, to permit the addition of a wing for the substation. The later
developments in the substation plans when their details came to be worked out tan-
_ L � - S S *S- *� w B.. �