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|Table of Contents|
|List of Illustrations|
|Report of the Governor of the Panama...|
|Appendix A: Report of the engineer...|
|Appendix B: Report of the engineer...|
|Appendix C: Report of the resident...|
|Appendix D: Report of the superintendent,...|
|Appendix E: Report of the marine...|
|Appendix F: Report of the chief...|
|Appendix G: Report of the resident...|
|Appendix H: Report of the...|
|Appendix I: Report of the chief...|
|Appendix J: Report of the executive...|
|Appendix K: Report of the special...|
|Appendix L: Report of the district...|
|Appendix M: Report of general purchasing...|
|Appendix N: Tables|
|Appendix O: Acts of Congress affecting...|
|Appendix P: Charts showing organization...|
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
|Table of Contents|
Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
Appendix A: Report of the engineer of maintenance
Appendix B: Report of the engineer of terminal construction
Appendix C: Report of the resident engineer, dredging division
Appendix D: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division
Appendix E: Report of the marine superintendent
Appendix F: Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department
Appendix G: Report of the resident engineer, building division
Appendix H: Report of the auditor
Appendix I: Report of the chief health officer
Appendix J: Report of the executive secretary
Appendix K: Report of the special attorney
Appendix L: Report of the district attorney
Appendix M: Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
Appendix N: Tables
Appendix O: Acts of Congress affecting the Panama Canal and Executive orders relating to the Canal Zone
Appendix P: Charts showing organization of the Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company, July 1, 1915
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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Governor of The Panama Cai
Lo~cks... . . . . . . . . . . .
114342k8~h~j - a * aw a4 a a � a a a ai - t a a **aa - - a a
Electrical division.. .a .-.. .....l.
Municipal engineering. . ........
. Meteorology and hydrography ....
Surveys - .... . .....- ....- ..........
Office engineer ...... - - .. - - ..........
Lighthouses- a.. a -.--.....a.aa
Division of terminal construction - .....-
r docks .................... -- - .. -
Balboa coaling station .-.........
Oristobal coaling station..........
Balboa shoop a....aaaa....aaaa...
East breakwater a a -a-a.aa.....a
Fuel oil handling plants ..........
Floating cranes .a aa. ..... a a
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . ..
a* a aa a* - * - - aaaa -� , a -, - - - a a* a-** a a -
. . . . . �-a..- - . a.-- a a a. a a . . -
.- . a . a - a - - - a a.. . a - . . - a .
. ... . . . .. . . ... . . .. . .
- - a a a a - -- -. - -. a . . .. . . - - - a a - a . a . a - a
a .. . a - a a. -. - - -- a ai a a - a - - a - a - a - - - - a a a. a
- a - - a
. - a - a -- a -I
- a a aa a - -- -
- -as w a a a -
T ugs..a .a.a.a.a.a a
Dredging division.. -
repair wharves.- - - - -
rep air wharves.a
I- a - a* a* a* a* - -
a a a a. a a a - -
Building divsion- -..... . . . ... . .
Operation and maintenance..... - .
Qu t ers - - a... - - .. .... .. .
.oral-... .. .. ...
Material and supplies... ....
.Scrap -... e -. ..**...a .. .- -a - a
Subsistence ..... .... .. . . . ...
Mount Hope printing plant -..
Accounting departme -nt...- .......
A"M , *W *
a - *- a a a - - - - - -
a - - - a------------------------ - - -
a - - a aa.aa.a a a .
a a a -. - a - - a
a a - - - a a - -
- a - a- ------------------------ -- -- --a a - a a a a - ----- --- -- --- .-. a a a - a a
a - - aa a a -a -a - - a - - aa a a -a - - aa a a
Report of the Governor of The P
Division of civil affairs..
Adnistration of a
Licenses and taxes.
Postal service .....
Canal Record --....
Police and fire division-
Division of schools.....- .
Bureau of clubs and pla
'The courts.. ...........---
Relations with Panama.
Law......e... -...- -a .
Washington office.. ......
Division of hospitals . -.
Sanitary division- ......
SPanama. . ..-..-
QuaMantine. . . . --. . .. --.
Fortifications.. .-.- . .-. .-- ...-...
BLE OF CONTENTS.
itinued. � ..
* � *, . �>* � � * �, ,~~~~~~, , , ,,,,H � � � c * ^ , ^ .,. , a ^ .. . . . *
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asro un-w - - : * - - -. ea a aa ata. 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . .
.......... ...................... ..... ..... 6
* - - - - - a aA - - - tee. a a a am a -, - -, a ,i , aW e > a - - a -t at- .
i� - -� a - a - a a a - - - a * a a a a> �,t a a . -. a a i -B a a a a aB a a a- a a a t^� a l 51M l^*'. : '::
Ca - a a a a - W a a h lw - t. a a, a a a - - a a a a a| a a * a al at aE all - *: ". "|al
ygounds. - a a a a - - a a a a - a a a , - - a * t * *
- a a a a a . - aa a .a ..a. *.. -.. a a a a - * . a .- a a 54
a .. a a - - - a - - a a .. a. a a a. . - . a a a. - a a - - a. -a..-a * a 6 a0|
- - - - * * - a a* - - - * - -* a a a a a a a* a *ar -* aM a* a* a - a a a > *-* a a a :- �* ** ~ *'::"
a a a: - *- - - * < - - -* - - a a a at at a* a* a* a* a* a *1 a ak at ai - a* a: ai a* a e af tt ai a t al l a: 5 I
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- -ft - - ft at *- a at at a a a t - *a - -* * - af af a a a* a a a* - a - af af at t at at at * a* 61* BH P ': .'
a a-m -- a- -a am am am a aa ea aa aa aa a aee a a a , a 0
a a- fa m m * * f :ftaa sat at a a att a e a a a : a a c *- a ta -. a 62
. . . . l. . . �. . _. . ._ .H f .* ft . t .* .* . .* . . . .t .* .f *. f ft .* .* .i ft .k �. .* . :* .*V
Report of the engineer of maintenance....
Lock operation and maintenance - a --
Organization. - -...................-
Concrete laid inm all locks .......--
Lock machinery. ...... .. .. ...
Chain fender sump pumps........
Chain fender machines..-......
Chains for fender machines. -
Lock transformer rooms.... ..
Telephone systems......... a. .
Towing locomotives .. .... ....
Arrow signals. . a.... . -......
Lower guard gates-Gatun - ..
Lock repair shops. .n.a......
Painting of lock gates.. .......
Emergency dams. . ... ......
Locklages.. a ....... .......
TVe * ..f J � *
- a a C a a.. - a afaaa- a a a a a * aa. at t � * C - a - a a
:a a - a a * . ar a . a - a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a* * a a t a
Sa a a a a f - at a: a* a a a. t t a at a a a f a a t a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a t 5 a - a : a
a fa a a a fa a a a a . a a. aaa a a. r i a a a
* a a a a a a a . a a .. a. a a .... sac a.a .a.a cc . cc a
t at a - at -* a- af af at at at at < a a a a: a a* aK a at - a- a at ai a* a* at a a a e a
* .f .f t ft f ft ft . . .i . iii . .i ik . . t - .i . . -. *r : :r .f ft . ft . . . .r -:.*
a a a a a a a a a a a a a . .a a a a a : a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a -
a a a a a - a a a . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . at Ca a a a ak a a a. C
- a a - a - a a a a a a a a a a S a a a - a a a a a a a a a a a C C C *
at a al at -* a a: at at at at a at aH at a* at aI aI a* a f a� a* a* al a* a aI a* a aN a* af ak a
a at a* a a a a a: a af a a a a* a a* at a a a* a* a af : af a* a af a- ak a a at a f a
. .I . . . . . . . . . A . . . . .
a a. a a a a a a a a a
- a a . a
* . a a a
Report of the engineer of maintenance--Continued.
Electric al division........ .. .. .. . . ...
Division office and designing work
Operation of power plante..........
Hydroelectric station. ...... ...
Miraflores steam station........
Empire steam station.... .... .
Balboa steam station....---.
Power output . - -. -....--.....-
POWer output.... ............
a' a a
a a a a a a a
* a - - - a a a a a a a a - a a a a .. - a .a .a a * a a a
* a* - a a * a - a a a: a a - a a a a a . . . . . . . . . a . a a
* - a a a a1 - a a aP a a - a a a a a a * (* (* - - a a* a i ai a a a a
-.a..a. a - ...a a..a. a..a..a..a. a. - - a
* a - - a a a. a . a a.. a a a a. a a. a . a . a. a a - a
a - a a 4. - a a. a a a. a - - a a - - a - a. a a a a - a a a
substations and transmission lines.....
Balboa cargo-handling cranes..- ......
telephone and telegraph system- -.......--
telegraph and electric clock systems...
railway signal system and accessories..
electrical repair shop ..
a a a
a a -
General electrical construction work..aa...a- ...
Substations and transmission lines............
Balboa shops...... . - ..- .. . -... -..- .-. ...........
Electrification of Mount Hope dry-dock shops.
Installation of rotary converters. .
New Panama waterworks system -
Relay pumps and pumping
Balboa dock lighting .- -.....
Radio station ....---....a
Berm cranes ---...... .-..--......
Street lighting systems ....
a a a a
* a - - a a a a a a a a a - a a
- a a -a - a a . -. - . -
a a - -a - ..- -- .- a a
a - -- a a -- .a - a a a
- a a a. * a a - - a .- a. a a * -
a -.aa a a aa a a -- a . a
- - a a a a.a -. - - - a a a a a
S- - - a - - - .-.aa -.S
a - a -a a - - -a - a . -
a - a a- a a aa - a -a - a aa a a
- a. - a - a a a .-.-.. a. a a. a a a - a a
* - aa a a a - aa.a. . a.a .a.-- .a a a ..-.- -.a
a.- . - a a- a- -- a a a .
Underground conduit and distribution systems -
Details of construction work. ... -
Details of construction costs ---
Electrical installation work in building
Municipal division......a.... .....
Northern district... ........
Canal work. ...--.----.......-
Concrete reservoir at
Work at oil-handling
City of Colon ...........
Armny work. -...........
Toro Point water supply.
Margarita Island. ........
Southern district... .. . .. .. . . ..-...
Canal work. . .-.- . -..-.......
a a a a a
a a a a .
a a a a-a. -a- a.a
;8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .
a a a - a- a a - a . . .a a .a - - - a a a a - a
a. -a aa -... -. -.-.- .a.a ..-.-
Gatun - -. --..........-
plant and oil-tank farm,
a.-. a aa . - aa a- .a - a - a . a
a - . a. a.aa .-- - a .a -a -- - . a
a a a a a a a a - a a - - - a - a - a a - a a - a - - a a a a a
- a a a - - a a a a a a - a - - - a a a - a a - a a a a a a a a
- a - a - a a a a a a a a - a a a a a a - a a a a a - a a a a
Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
al work-Continued. .Pag"
Electrical division .- a - , C i t * ***A. . * * a 3
lortifica.ti I d.ivision... - a - *- - - - . a a - - 4
Locks, operation department...-.-..-.*.-. .
M iscellaneous a.........------. *..... .. . aa.. a aa.. ,..-.a 94<
aa City..- -.
- ^i" af~ it a~fs it Sf~ - a ~ r - a - - a -f"1 a - a*i.. a*" a '- a 'a-* ** aa� ^
Concreting B Street a a aa a ..-- a..a,..a .a-.a-. aa. aa a. a4
Curb and gutter at bull ring....... . ... . . .. - . -. . ... ........... 4:
Lork .^ B . .a . a a a . .- 1 * - a a a a a - * *: . B - a a a a - a - a - a - a - a - a a a a.
Fort Amador..f.... I a a a * a ::aaaaaaa*. -
Staff headquartersa. .a. aa..aaa..a-..aa.a.. .a.. ., a a 05
Geni eral ... . - a a a a - - - - - - a . a a -. a a - a a * -:. . . 5
n of water-purification plants .$ ...a a a a - - - a - - - - .,95
Monthly operation data of rapid sand-filter plants.a........... 6
Monthly physical and chemical data............. 9
and hydrography..1.i... a..aa.-.a..aaa...a- ..aaa. a-... a8
ogy a... -a... ---..-aa...-a- ...a a ...aaa ...aaa..aaa ..--... 98
.ipitat0on . ..a a. -.s. .a..-a.aaa. .aaa - a a aaaa cc *a.a . 99
L~nra oiir aJJ y * -� f 1^ *h-f a-� f� a r - - w ~~ -^ tw ^ at�#cr .*../'''Sf
8. . . . . . .. ..ds. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .100
ospheric pressure- - a jt a a I1
ative hum idity a ..... -t a - -- -aaa aa a aa a a a a' aaa a a a a . 1 0
Idiness.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . 0
v^ULT-U- asaaU aaM~ at -ll Jla --5- -aa a a aaa a a ac a ^a *.�aaa et.^* as].O
portionn. a a .. - -rii - - - - - a 101
5 aAa a a-asa -a a t a at, ,, ,aa.aa:a
tempX eratuire - a a .- a a - a- - a a a a * - a a 4 ... * a a . a a: 101
al conditions a..a...a a 101
mology.a.-.a.aa.a.a.ae..a...aaa..a.a...a.a,.a.., ta aaaaaa 10)2
Monthly rainfall on the Isthmus of Panama, 1914-15..... .... 102
Maximum rainfall in Canal Zbne, Oct. 1, 1905, to June 30,
1915.......................... .. .. ... .. ..10
J.I J. . a1n a^f at a ai rri- a'l a a::*M a ss a . t a a -a *aa
Monthly meteorological data, year 1914, Balboa Heights.a - a. 1G4
Monthly meteorological data, year 1914, Culebra.....aaa-aa.. 105
Monthly meteorological data, year 1914, Colon.....a. a at. 106
Monthly evaporations, Canal Zone, years 1914 and 1915.. ... 107
Tidal conditions, 1914, Balboa and Golon.......... .. .. . . . ... 107
Seismograph records, Balboa Heights........ I....... 08
aph~y. W.a a a. ata ac .. ,, as a...aaaa.a. .ew.as.a..a.-... C108
aaaaaaaaaaa a- a a a a -.- 108
Ud:a p n yv CrL - i!f t-v 3LQ *- i *i *: *- - w� * * * i : * - w< *- r :.:*:** � - �:n � it -:*' :| yif : *' ^ :^!!!^
flf K K K^KKKKXX K
Iteport of the engineer of maintenance--Continued.
Meteorology and hydrography-Continued.
Lekages-locks and spillways.........
Miscellaneous. ........ . ..... .. .... ...
Hydrology of Gatun Lake watershed, 1914... ...-
Hydrology of Gatun Lake watershed, dry season,
* - 1915
* a - *O a -
Hydrology of Miraflores Lake wtershed,
1914 .. . .
Hydrology of Miraflores Lake watershed, dry season, 1915.
Hydrology of Chagres,
1914. ........ ....
Hydrology of Chagres, dry season
* a a a. .. . - - a
* -..a.aa.a-.- -
* a a a a - - - a
* a ..aa - - * *
Monthly discharge Chagres River, 1914- -.......--. -.....
Principal freshets, 1914 and dry season, 1915 ..... ..
Monthly maximum, minimum,
and mean elevations,
, Miraflores Lake, and Chagres River,
Su rveys..........- - -
Report of the engineer of terminal construction -..
Organization ......... ......-.........-........--
Design and office engineering...--..............
Coaling plants, dry docks, floating cranes,
- - - -a - - a a- - a a.a-.a - .
..- . - . a .-- -- - - a.-a.aa a a . -
and radio stations..
a - a* - - -
Item 4-Stocking and reclaiming bridges.
Item 9-Reloaders..........a a---...-aa..
Item 12a-Conveying systems and power
- a - a a
Dry Dock No. 1..
Dry Dock No. 2..
ar a - -*
a a - - -.
a - . ft -
a - a - a - - a - a a - - a - - a . - a - - - a a - - a . a a a a a a a - -
- a - a - - - a a a a a. - - a - a a a a - - - a a a a a - - - a a - - - a.-
a a a a a - a- *a - a -. a a... . .. .. a a --...
- - - - a a . - - a a a . - a - - a a - - - - a a a. a .. a. a -.. a -.
Balboa docks and pier - - ..-.......-.....-..-...- ..-........-..........
Shop buildings ...................................... ........
Colliers...... ............ ............ ......... .. ..............
Boiler roomT.............. ................... ...............
- a - a- a a a.aa - - - aa a. a a -a -. - a a a aa -a
Oil docks and pipe lines.
Tank farms. ... .......
Construction work, field engineering, and inspection... -
'Dnn4i4 n +n.rnt nn 1 ~.
Report of the engineer of terminal const
"Construction work, field engineering
Dock No. 9-Entrance pier.
Commercial and repair wha
Dock No. 13 a...... - ....
D)ock No. 14...... . . . .
Docks Nos. 15 and 16..
Docks Nos. 17 and, 9..
Pier No. 18.... .... .
Dock No. 2-Fuel-oil c:
Dock No. 1-Quarantin
Balboa shops-...... -........
Roofing ..... ..........----
Planing mill exhaust sN
Steel rolling doors . . .
Movable metal louvers.
Shop yards ....-..... . ..
Operation of Sosa Hill quar
Ancon quarry. ...........----
Sand service. . . ---..........
Reclamation of land. ......
Naos Island breakwater.. .
Steel erection. ...........
Filling and embankme
Summary of concrete w
Distribution of concrete'
Tracks laid and remove
Drilling... -....---... .-...
Explosives used .... .
Piles driven...... ......
Steam shovel excavation
Performance of steam s
Reinforcing and fixed s
Fixed steel used. .....
Reinforcing steel used.
Structural steel used. .
Caisson operations. - ...a
Trestle built.. . .... ..
Work done at Ancon qi
ttM . * .Ls1 .1 ai. fl,,r, IT*-..n , 1
;, and ins
* . -a a -* a
. .. . .. .a .. . . * a. a .m
*mtt jjs m * jjj. ******j*ijjjj
rves-. -..... . -. -. ......... . ....-.. . . . .--.--- . 150
r..e.................... ..... . ..... . 150
a - - - - a a - - - - a - W a . f . - *. - . . . . . . . . . .-150
- - - .ft - - - . - . - ft: . i. ... .. . . .l . . 151
. .... ..... .-. .-.. .- - . .. . . .a a - a - - . a - . . . . . . . 15a1
rib ' "".. -- . - .. - - a -. * . . - .. 3 151
e boat landing. ...- -- ......-- - . .-. :152
* a - ii - IU *'> *� - - at a.f - a� a af a i a"^i a -" a a- - -� -' a ai al - af~~bl a:^: a l:pi5|3^:l
ry fr.estbeak..wae..- ........s,,. 153
B - -f -t at - a a a a - - -* -! *W f - -* -*' -* - a'1 al atW 4 < * a a* a* a* a all a * * *' 154tflhd .*'':"^^:'*::''
. ...- - - - - . . . - - - - - - - . a . - -- a S . - - * . .1K53
S * - - - - - a * * * * ' .a - * - .- - - - - * . . ? . . 156
nt vrorlc - a - S * * * - . .- . . . . * . . . - . . . . . 153
rore r e bre--w ate - - a a.*.s a....... 153
.. . .... . . .. . . .. . . ..... 154 ~c ^K K K KKK KKKK
.. . . . .. . ..tr. . . .. . . . 154Q 1 v �l*'XQ^JVT.l^- ...il!i
Splaced a - . - . . .. - * . a :. . . . . 155
a aa- .. ....-..... * -... - a a - - -. 162
- a a a a - a a a a - . - . . . *- *- a - - , - a . 182
k a a a a a la a a t- - 5'r a *� a ** -* - a - - * - a - a -> - * a� a ,t a� a� 102~K.
e a a * a a * a ced - . a a a a - - - - a - a * adfc.al. 102
d1. .. .,.,.... .. as a a a a - a - .4* 54 a -. .a. 142
1 i e . .- . - . . a - - a - a a a a a a a ( . . a a . 183|
St e . . se - * * 5 * - * . .* -. . . * . * - - - - - - . * - 5 1.63
aa.a.t sass nasa a - - - '* - aaa at** 164
an a. . s.. . .- a sat a ta a - a - a news .... a a *, . 165
a.. a . . a -. a a * a a . . .- - - a - a * - * * * a , , a * 105
....placed-.............,-- ....,^.... 180
a. . . . a - . . . - . < . . - .- a - - - - - - - - . - n a n|nnj
1 U11T3 a. . . . W . 1 * - - a a . .a --�- - -r |tt - aa a . sta 108
. m n - . . . I S. - A - - A . . . - - - - - - - - - - A -- s0
uarmry�c ...... . . ... . A-.-. .-..
AjJVv A �w r ~ * - : .**�#- � < -< �>* >� ^yHN :|y
* * * * : * * :
^ i.frfi '^'*^'
SyBGA~~~~~~~~~~~ NUel.*.* ** .�- . ,. * � , � �-0 il:
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nt w or 15 � .,��^���***h��w**- *^"- ~I * :: :*:|
*or don 1 -' "" " 1-' *^ "1-^Aiw^|^
plc d160. ^**". .
11 � �x ,,f ,, �*'**
16wL " * '' * "*--**"' " "*1 1*' '1" ^w r * : Kr
^Jp K KK^
*'--':. ' : :
^*/��l�nyn"<'�^SSS ! * 2J'
Report of the engineer of terminal construction-Continued.
Construction work, field engineering, and inspection--Continued.
Cristobal coaling plant-Continued.
Miscellaneous. ...... .. . ... ... . . . .. ... ...-.. ...... .-. -.....
Concrete used . . . - - . . . . - ..-.- - . .... . .- . . .. ... . . .. ..
Tracks laid..... . .. . . .a .a.... ..... . . - . . .. .. .. .. ... . . .....
ies & driven. .... . ... . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. .. . .
Reinforcing iron used ........-.. -..a. ... . . .-... . ... . .... ..
Fixed iron used. ..... .- .- .- . . .... .... .. .... .... ..........
Back fill placed .. .........---........................ ......
Progress of cylinders.......
Summary of erection of wharfi
East breakwater.............. . . .
Pile drivers... ..............
Cost of "Northers"...........
Equipment lost in norther...
Dry fill..... .....-.....-......-
Wet fill. ..aaa....--....--.
Sawmills a .............a-
Pier No. 7-Cristobal ........
- - - a a a a a a - . a a a a a a a - - - a *
- - -* i -- Sr a a a a a ah a a ai a- -* a a a a a* * a, a
a a - -* - -k a - *I - -R at al -l a a a a a a a a a - .a
*- - - a a a*1 a** a a - - a - a a a a 1 a a - a*k - - -a
- - - --.- - aa a a a a- a ..a.aa .a. a
-.- . - ..-a a ..aa a a .a.aa aa -- a . - ..5
Report of the resident engineer, dredging
Division organization . .............
Dredging.......... ... . . -.. - .. -.-. .-..
Output of all dredges with toi
Yardage removed, first district,.
Yardage removed, first district (4
to Gamboa Dike..-- ......- .....--
Yardage removed, second district
Dredges retired for repairs and r4
Subaqueous rock excavation ...... ..
First district, Gamboa Dike to P
Rock removed by dredges..
Second district...........-..- ...
Dredging operations.... .- . - . .. .-...
a a . a - a - - -
** -* a a aM a J - af a: - a a a B a aB - a* a
- a a..a..a.aa.aa aa a a. a
- - - - - a a a a s a a a a S S * a a
tal and unit costs.
Pedro Miguel Locks to sea.- -......
Gaillard Cut), Pedro Miguel Locks
* * a a - a -
t . *. a a. a
a aaI a
a.aa . -
*ft -- a
. - - a< -
. . a a a
a a.a a
. a a a a
a - a aa.a..a.aa a -.
- - - -a.55a a. a.-a a.
* a. a..a a a aa a. a..a.
- - -. -..a. a a..a..a
a.a..a..a. - a a a a
* a. - a a a a a a a- a ..-
-.a..a..a.aa.aa.a. a. a
a - - a a - a a a a a a a a a a a
First district.......-. a. - -*..... . . . . . .... .. a... . ...... .....
. . . . . . .
Report of the resident enginee
ailry reports on slidet...
M.idi dikes.. .-.... ....
O i e. . * .. - - .. -.
Of ic./.Ili . - aa3 a 1 B-*1Wt a a �- - . fa * a-
Report of the superintendent,
Cristobal dry-dock shops.�
Paraiso shop s.. .---. --... . . .-.
Hosting -. * - a.......-a-
Car-inspection service.... - - -
Floating derricks..... .-. . .
Fuel-oil handling plants..
, dredging dvMsion-Continued.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... . .
a* - ** -'*"-* -"*** a* -** **-* - a a - a -: . ,- - - - "- . a: :
mechanical dvio -...,a. . . - a a,,,a|i|a 19
* a, .- - - - - a f a* ..... a aa --. ...a ,,,. J. 191
. - - - - I.. r n as nn .... . .. ... 192
U..... .. . . ... . ULL 3 U.U . *t.~~t w ��w ww w- w w .J iid| .. . .I.... . ..pi:|... * 3
- - . - - - - - - - - - - - f - * f . . - - . B . - - . -. - - . - - . - . . . - - . . 19 6
.... .-- --. .... -.. ... ... .... ... --- -..197
- - - . . . . . . .a. - -- - - . - - - .a. a a a a a a a . . . .- a - a a a a a a a � . 198
- a - <- - - - > - - - -a - <- a a- a � - * a a a i a a - -. - at - *ri i tefH - .A - i - aJfi . a: - a 19
a. . .. . . a - . . - - a a . - a... .. a. a a - -a *- - -- -S 199
S- - - a * a * a * * a a M- - a a - a - -I - - - a : 199
of mechanical division
of charges and overtime work performed......----
Abstract of expenditures of mechanical division
distribution of charges and overtime work perf
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division,
showing distribution of charges and overtime v
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division
shops only, showing distribution of charges
performed..aaa- . aaaaaa..-a.aa a a.a.aa-a a
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division, f
showing distribution of charges and overtime
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division,
house only, showing distribution of charges
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division
shops only, showing
ormed.... ...... ....
Balboa shops only,
, Cristobal dry-dock
and overtime work
)r Paraiso shops only,
for Cristobal round-
and overtime work
, for fuel-oil plants,
, for fuel-oil plants,
Balboa and Mount Hope, showing cost of operation, quantities of
oil handled, and unit cost.i... .a-- .-.--..a-aa--a. a -.aa- a....
Abstract of expenditures, mechanical division, for operation of
foundry, Balboa shops. . . . .... .. . . . . ... .. .... . . -. . . ...-. -
Number of repairs to locomotives during fiscal year ...........
Repairs made during fiscal year to equipment other than locomotives
and ars... aa. . ..,. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .
Number of shop and field repairs made to different classes of cars during
Abstract of expenditures
Report ot the maine stiperintendent-Continued,.
jCet o of force .
Dissemnination of information of use to shipping..........................
Navrigatiori of the ccanal--S1i~des. .aaaaaaa - -----
Na �v agclonUU of L~ theA~l~ ......... ..........� �. .�............* �.. _... .
Pontoon bridge......-....- .........
Aids to navigation.................
Signal stations and communications
R AlO. - - ...... .. ...... .....
Measurement of vessels and
Adjustment of claims ....
Trade routes-revenues - ...
Number of vessels and t
** - a a <
* a ak a at a
* S a- a
* . . S a a -a- - a a a a
a.a. -.aa aa a a
** a* a* -* a* a a a a a -r a* a - - - ' a ar a* a* i *- a - a< a* a
* - - ' - a* a a - - - a* a* a* a af - -- - a ak a ai - a' a - -r -
.- .. a a - S - - * * * - a - S - . - . * . a - - - - a a
toll-s - a. aa . a A .. a. a a. - a a | a a a� - - a
- - a - a a a a a - a - S M - a a . a a a a a a a a . .
rend of traffic through canal - - ................. -
rend of traffic through canal- -�.......
Appendix 1-Report of board of admeasurers . . .. -
a a a
Appendix 2-Report of chairman, board of local inspectors...
Appendix 3-Analysis of
Summary of number
cargo handled - ...
Traffic routes .......
Nationality of vessel,
Summary of traffic t
'17 11 a/LL a a** - a* a- s - a- a a- a a a * a a- a-*i - a - - a a a a a an a a -
Compared with railway traffic. ...........
Distribution of traffic through the canal...
a a - a a - - a a a . a
a a aa - a.aa a
trade routes ....... .................. ....- ......
of vessels passing through the canal and tons of
a S . a a a a a a a a a - - a a a a - a - a - S - a a a - a a a a a . a . . a a -.a aa
a a. a a - a a - a a. a. -. a - a a a a. a - a a a a a a a a - a a a. a . a a - .
a a - - a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a - -
Report of the chief quartermaster,
Orgaaization.... ..... ...... ..... ...... .......... .... ... ... ...... ..
P ersonnelaa ea aaa..aa.a aa..a aa.a..aaa.a..aa..- ...
L labor a..a .a.a.a...a.a.a...a.a..... - a a a - aa. a. . . -.... a.aaa.a aa.aa a a.....-aaa aa a
QUarters .................................................... ..........
Zone sa tation.. - - --.....-..... ...-.....................---.... . ......... ......
4 Jorra s a. . . . ....a - ....a. .- a...- - a a a. a a * - aaaa.. - - ... a a a a a a . a a a a . - a a a - a a a
Material and supplies
Operation of stores ...
uSales a . a. .. . . . - . . . .
Mount Hope printing plant
a a- a* a* a a* a a * - a - a a a a- a a aH af - a - S a - a a ah a- -- a a a a a a a a a a* - a* S- S
* S a a a* a a - a a* a- a a a a� a al af a a. a - aB a - S a a a a at - a - a a a a* a a* a a a *a a
a a-aa aa-a aaaa n s e o m m s oa a *a aa aa aa a- a a 5 a a -
* a a a a a a a
a 5 5 a
a a S S a
-*i a - - 5 a a an a* a af ak a - a a * a a a a a a* a a a a
.4-' jt $1 If
s passing through the canal. -.....
trough the canal since its opening
Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department-Continued
material received during the fiscal year 1914-15 on requisi-
. . . ... . . . . . . .. .. . . ... . . .. ....'....... *" ^ * ***
statement fiscal year 1914-15 2
.t items of material purchased from inception of canal work
June 30, 1915 . . . , 24
stock on hand at storehouses June 30, 1915, and total iswu
year for all storehouses.: - a - C * * - . . - . *. 25
Apartments, and occupants, by districts, of gold and silver
s, June 30, 191Sif . ..Saaaa..haaaa -.. . a * . a a - , - 2
eas... .fra. a ClC, sto*-ahoie.a-.-.-..a...-......a...a.-aa. * as 4 258
eraturned m to mnvufacturers n part payment of new l
of Hotel Tivoli 256
- of oyrations of line hotels C 2
-of operations, laborers' messes.... . 5 Ca. CCC 257
ent engineer, building division.................. ...... 8 2;
Orgainization.......................-.......... ........... ......
Buildings authorized...... .................. .... ........... ....
First appropriation. ...........-...... ...... ...... ..........
Fort Amador, Coast Artillery.... .........-.. .............
Mobile Army, Las Cascadas, Empire, and OCulebra-.... ..
atun................. .......................... .......
Second approp riation. .---a..-.-. aaS.......-... ..........
Coast Artillery, Fort Amador ..... .....a* a .... .... .*
Naos Island. ....... * .. ... ..... . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toro Point, Fort Sherman ---.. . ---- a.-...--a-a....
arganita Island.. -................... -...... .-......-.....
Corozal, Mobile Army. a.a. a . a .- .-....*aa.... -..
General building operations................ - . ---............ . ......
Comparative data on costs for various types of buildings... -...-
Estimate and cost of diversified pieces of construction work..
Size, number, and unit cost of hollow concrete blocks manufa
Permanent hospital bu ildin ... .
Principal canal structures completed and
year...... C . C....C . .... a a C .... a - C .. a .
Force. . *. ... . .. .. . ... .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .
r C * a S - C C
aft a ft ftf t* C
Wa. CSCCt f j ClC
af a S . a
a. a * a aa - C
e* - r aaast rc t - * C C C - a d a a ai. fi
under construction during fiscal
*: a ar - - *- i- ia - S* CI: * C �( C
Report of the auditor ..-....a.....a...aa.....C
rganization..... .... .................... ......
LjjJ - . fl
.CC,. ..� * ft*ft �:� t
Report of the resi
Report of the chief health
Letter of stranmisal.
of residents of
of residents of
of residents of
oiUcer . . . . - - .i. t t a . . - - - . * * * * . .. . . . . ..�. a ..
* a a . a a a a a-a . - a - i- . a a a a - - a a a a a a a - a a aa - a a a - a a -
*> a> a a a a a a a - -* a, a� * a , a a a a, a - a a a a - a
�* a � a a a a * a a a, -., �� � a * a a ' a - - a a a - - - - a �-- - a aa a a
the Canal Zone... ....
the City of Panama...
the City of Colon..... -
a. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a * a a a a
a a,.*J *a1fhjJS vtfl* aAV I^ U- a* ** -* : �** * a. - �
Board of health laboratory...
Chronic ward ..- a ..-aa... a...
Colon hospital.. . ...... .... .....
Palo Seco-leper asylum. ........
Santo Tomas hospit
Sanitation ...... ......
Colon.. .. .--....
Quarantine division. ..
Panama and Colon.
Statistical tables (for ind
a a r a a a a .a a - a a - a a - a a a - a a
a a a a a a a - - - a a a
* - - a a a - - - - a a a - a a.... .. a
- a a a a a a - - a a a - - a a a . .a * a
* a a a a a a a - a a a a a a aa a a
* - a - a a a-* - - a * a a a * -* - - - a a a a a a a , a. a - -a
- a - a . . . . * - a - - C C - - a a - a a a a . - . a - .a
-- - aa- - -- - a a a -- - a a-- - - a a - a
a a - a a a - a - a - a - a a a - a a - a a a - - - a a a - a a
Sa a a a- -- a- a--- a- - - a a - -
4.a a a a a - - a - - - - - a - a a
- a - a a - - a - - a - a a .a a a a - - a a a
- - - a a a a a - a a - a a a a - a a - - - - - a a a a a
- -. - a a a a - - - . a a - a a a - a - a
lex see p. 396).
- a a - a a a a a - a a a a a - a - a a a a a a
a a a a a a - a - a a a a a a a - a a - a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
Report of the executive secretary
a a .a a a - --a
Executive office... ...... .- . .-.-. ... . . .........
Correspondence bureau... .. ..- - ........
Personnel bureau. a.-.......a--.........
Record bureau. -.. - -. a --....... a ......
Time-keeping bureau --....- .................
Property and requisition bureau.........
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds...........
General bureau - a--..... -. a ........a.
Division of civil affairs....- ... . . ...- ....... . . . .
Changes of organization... .. .. -.. --...... ..
Customs bureau... -. a. aa. .a. i .......a
Licenses and taxes... .... . ...............
Administration of estates a.a-a- .....a..
Postal service..... aa-aaa................ a
* -- aa aa aa a aaaaaaaa
a aa * * a a a * *- aa * a a - C a -S W
a - a- a .a aa a a aa a a a aa a
a a a - - a - a a a a a a a a a tt a a ai a a a
-** a- a a - a - --- a k a a a f a a a a jf -- a a a_ a -
a a a aa a- aa maa e a a a a a
Report of the special attorney
Revision of the laws......
Land matters. a-..-.-.a..
* *- -- e * - a ** - i �: �a - - - - at**: * AMw atr -- -H :*.
Civil cases affecting the Panama Canal and the Panama
... ...."--" 455
pany...... .. ..... . ...+... .... ..x .
Panama Railroad Company cases settled during the fiscal year..
Report of the district attorney.
. . . a - a - - - - - a - * - . - - - a a *. -- a a a.
- , -
Disposition of criminal cases..
Appealed cases from magistrates'
a - a- - *- - a-* - ** a - - -* -: -* w - , *> - - -: ,* , * ,* *
** a* -* - -* - - . a a a a - a* a* -* k� * ai .1a - ah .1 -* a1 �**
.. .. 7
* 4 7 - f , �Jfwj |
a i -*t i- r * * '* 'l^l ::: :::' "-:""::: Ill"
* t� a> a* , 14:*'6i9^' : :'.**:.
a, 9 - 4t0w ^~irS. *.^' :::
Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office.
Organization. . - - - . . . . . . . - - . . . . - - - * - - - - - *
Appointments and general correspondence .. .-.........
Claim statement - --.....-- ...... --.---......- ....a.
Financial statement of receipts and disbursements- ----.......
Purchasing department . -.............................
General statements. - . .-. ..-... .-........ .......-. ...
Detailed statement of methods.. .................
-* :-- - - -.. - a a - a a a - at-
- ft a * a f a t * :
:- ai a- a- a. ak - ah ,* - ui a. ** *- -
Summary of purchases through the Washington office..., --....-.......
Summary of orders placed through the Washington office...........
Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel..
Department of operation and maintenance...
Health department........- .. ..
Accounting department. ....
Executive department.... . . .
Washington office. .... ....-.
- - W - - * - * *- -> -: -> -: a ft , ft :f a* a :* a . * t - ^ * :* :l-*.- : - *
.. . .a . a - .a S* - - - - ft fa - a * a - aa- a
- a a a a - - - - - a a. ... ... - -a aaa aaa aaa aaC V.
* . a. a ft a ft a- w *> - a N i * a - a* aI a1 aR a* S* -i *-- a: a -aa* - a- - � a a * * * -i- - f
- a a a a a a a a a - S C at at - �* a S* * *�1- *. -*t: * :a * S. :S *t :* S
Acts of Congress affecting The Panama Canal and Executivre orders relating to
.-the Canal Zone (for index, see p. 491). .. .- . .. - - ---........................
487 ... .
Summary of criminal prosecutions for the fiscal years 1918-1915.
^ ' -s''-
" /< :.
*< . :ii
(Report of engineer of maintenance.]
, third floor,
Lock entrance caisson at lower west chamber.
3: Looking north from control house, showing west chambers un-
Ohio in middle east chamber, looking north, showing
lower locks and Atlantic entrance.
July 15, 1915.
Ohio in upper east chamber, looking south.
Wisconsin in upper east chamber, being raised to lake
July 15, 1915.
leaving upper east chamber and
8. Pedro Miguel Locks.
General view from Cerro Luisa, looking southwest.
9, Pedro Miguel Locks.
Bird's-eye view of north approach wall,
awaiting passage through the Cut.
10. Pedro Miguel Locks.
Vessel in east chamber going north and one in west chainm-
ber going south.
Pedro Miguel Locks.
View from control house.
Chain fender machine
, upper sheaves and chains.
12. Miraflores Locks.
Argentine naval training ship Presidente Sarmiento in upper
east chamber, looking north from control house.
13. Miraflores Locks.
14. Miraflores upper
Missouri (left) and U
entrance caisson in
Ohio (right) in upper
place at north
. Downstream or low-water side.
15. Miraflores upper
entrance caisson in
place at north
Upstream or high-water side;
also showing chain fender in place.
April 12, 1915.
16. Mfiralores upper locks.
entrance caisson in
place at north
End view, showing water of Miraflores Lake held in check.
Naos Island Breakwater.
Looking south from Sosa Hill.
18. Hvdrnoelectric station
View frnm woat snde shnwino' oa.tfhnisp arnd entf.
View from top of administration building showing asphaltic
concrete roads and parking.
26. Night view of Balboa Prado and administration building, Balboa H
Asphaltic concrete upper highway
building and pump station.
, looking north.
April 12, 1915.
73. Average number of vessels per day.
74. Tons of cargo.
75. Diagram showing quantity of water used for lockages and hydroelectric s
and head house.
30. Miraflores water-purification plant.
Miraflores water-purification plant.
Main operating floor, looking towar
"L N"T �i*S !
'm,, K,, , *
JM K KKKKKKK
*~~~~ ~ J.�::: :: N:*
lf*J'. W :CW~f: *^- :::*:*:::* :
,, KK KKKK KKKKK
76. HIlydrograph at Pedro Miguel Out, March 16 to 17
77. Diagram showing comparison between rainfall, Gatun Lake level, lockages,
Sand wasted water.
78. General map of Ancon-Balboa district, showing roads constructed during
79. Wind roses, calendar year 1914.
80. Wind roses, year 1915, dry season only.
Gatun Lake watershed.
Yields, storage and loses mass curves.
1914 and dry season 1915.
Ohagres River drainage basin, Alhajuela average monthly discharges.
Gatun Lake watershed.
Total yield for Gatun Lake, year 1914 and dry..e
taken at west
85. Study of Gatun Lake heights, dry season 1915, January.
86. Study of Gatun Lake heights, dry season 1915, February
of Gatun Lake
dry season 1915,
of Gatun Lake
(hagres River drainage basin.
Alhajuela mass curves of discharge.
Rise at Gamboa as percentage of rise at Vigia.
Chagree River drainage basin.
Curves of discharge duration.
unrind 1T09-1914. inclusive. Alhainela.
Following plates, 73 to 9S,
Ctrist.bal coaling station.
34t Oristobal coaling station.,
Caisson setting for reloader wharf, showing
barge in use for assembling and setting shells.
Cristobal coaling station.
August 6, 1914.
View looking north or east side of coal storage, showing
bridges, first unloader towers and condition of viaduct.
OriAto iM coaling station.
March 11, 1915.
Looking south from the north end of reloader wharf.
June 12, 1915.
37. Balboa terminals.
38. Balboa terminals.
Dry dock No.
Miter gate anchorages, north wall.
General view from coal cranes, looking north and west, show-
ing entrance to dry dock No. 1.
June 5, 1915.
1. Looking west from
entrance basin and cofferdam.
June 10, 1915.
Dry dock No. 1.
of north gate,
Dry dock No. 1.
Looking toward entrance gates.
42. Balboa terminals.
43. Balboa terminals.
crane supports, viaduct posts, and retaining wall at
June 5, 1915.
General view from Sosa Hill, looking north.
slip No. 2.
Pinning jib on crane Ajax in middle chamber of Gatun Locks.
October 9, 1914.
45. Floating crane Ajax removing smaller portion of wrecked drill barge Teredo at
cable crossing, Gaillard Cut.
46. Wrecked jib of crane Ajax.
47. Floating crane Hercules.
. December 8, 1914.
Trial of 300-ton load on deck
,250 tons suspended at
March 19, 1915.
Hercules transferring equipment across Gatun Locks from east
Steam shovel suspended in air.
93 to 116
, in portfolio.
94. Naos Island Breakwater.
General plan and typical cross section.
Dry Dock No. 1, Balboa.
General plan and sections.
97. Pacific terminals.
98. Pacific terminals.
Dry Dock No.
Dry Dock No.
Stresses in side walls.
Mitering dock gate.
of one leaf 56 feet high.
Plan and sections showing con-
create mixing and handling plant.
100. Pacific terminals.
Dry Dock No.
-. n. -n I - 1. n- -. nT-T -1 I.i **. a
-9 f\ -9 -�-�
108. Pacific terminals.
109. Pacific terminals.
110. Pacific terminals.
111. Oristobal terminal
112. Pier No. 7. Cristo
Typical sections of docks and piers.
Typical sections of docks and piers,
Typical sections of docks and piers.
docks, piers and mole.
Sheet No. 1.
Shaet No. 2.
Sheet No. 3.
Typical plan and e
of oil-handling plants.
Location plan of tank lots.
[Report of resident engineer, dredging division.]
50. Rock dikes.
Limon Bay, Dikes Nos. 1,2, and 3, and wooden groins, at high tide.
Obispo diversion ditches.
Gaillard Cut at Bas Obispo.
Outlet of ditch
Looking north from Contractors Hill
Oulebra slide east, right
it. Sailing ship in tow passing slide on east bank north of Gold Hi.L
north. January 24, 1915.
S. Ohio passing Cucaracha slide.
S. S. Ohio passing Gucaracha slide.
July 16, 1915.
July 16, 1915.
Water hyacinths in full bloom, 8 weeks old.
58. Water hyacinths.
59. Water hyacinths.
60. Water hyacinths.
61. Water hyacinths.
62. Water hyacinth.
A single plant 8 weeks after it appeared above the water.
Removing young plants from the Obispo River.
Plants eight weeks old near the mouth of the Obiapo Riv
Plants four weeks old near the mouth of the Obispo River.
63. Gamboa gravel dock.
64. Chagree River gravel
Unloading cranes and storage bins.
beds. Pipe line dredge in opera
tion four miles above
Chagres River gravel beds.
Washing and screening plant in operation.
left to right, barges being loaded with sand, No. 1 gravel, and No. 2 grav
Following plates, 117 and 118, in portfolio.
__ n-_ . . wr *r w fl l *n 1 .fl t~l
18 and pier shed, Balboa.
Atlantic and Pacific terminals.
Limon Bay, Dike No. 1.
Looking south from east bank of canal.
from Sosa Hill
[Report of resident engineer, building division.]
building, Balboa Heights, under erection.
March 14, 1914.
northwest from Sosa Hill.
68. Administration building, Balboa Heights.
69, Administration building,
Terrace and concrete flagpole.
Balboa fire station.
71. Panama Railroad Station
The commissary (left) and dispensary (right) at'Balboa.
Plate 119 in portfolio.
New Ancon Hospital.
(Charts showing organization of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company, July 1, 1915.]
120. General organization.
All plates in portfolio.
121. Department of operation and maintenance.
122. Electrical division.
123. Division of municipal engineering.
124. Division of terminal construction.
125. Dredging division.
126. Meclianical division.
127. Marine division.
128. Supply department.
129. Building division.
130. Accounting department.
131. Health department.
132. Executive department.
133. Panama Railroad Company.
134. Washington office.
#" -- -- -- -- ---ex -x ---- -- --- - -- E 0x - ------ ------x - x ---x-j -- -r---- -- x'--.- "-- - -'- - -xx -- e
0- .. "x
ex x : x
Canal Zone, August
annual report covering
Canal for the fiscal
year ended June 30,
A timber of
the close of
changes were made min
as it existed
the new administration
Panama Canal and of
the Panama Railroad Company under one roof.
fiscal year of
he report o:
Practically all the clerical work
by the different departments and
With the transfer of the offices of
from Colon on October
, all auditing, collecting, and disburs-
ing were combined with similar functions under officers of The
1KlOlA 1+1aA 'A;,;co;,nn,
with the construction of all buildings belor
the Panama Railroad Company, and the
placed in charge of the maintenance and
on was organized, charged
going to The Panama ..........
tenance of the cana
as far as practicable and
operation of the loob.
The department of operation and maintenance continued in charg
assisted in the
of maintenance on January
"Superintendent of transportation"
Chester Har ding,
as more suitably
designating the duties of the position,
en ineer of maintenance
hydrography, general surveys,
and maintenance of locks.
the office engineer, and the operation
installation of the chain fender machines,
which was still in progress,
and these machines were completed, so far as concerns the mechanical
and Miraflores on September 4, 1914.
The electrical installation was
the motors above
sumps and requiring the pumps to operate less frequently.
livery of the chains was completed on January 6,
1915, and they are
rI ~ l 5 .1 . *S I * s S ..* . I ..........U * il..*.
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
suggested by Mr. R.
the speed to
mile an hour and was so successful that material has been ordered
to permit changing all the locomotives which will then have speeds of
1 and 2 miles per hour, the change from one to the other being ac-
complished by throwing a switch in the cab,
within easy reach of
The back fill of all the locks was placed prior to the beginning of
the fiscal year, but as it was left in very irregular shape the
fill of all
the locks was graded
proving the general
the work was placed
under Mr. John J.
foreman, who was in charge of the work of leveling off,
sodding the slopes of Gatun Dam.
On the Pacific side the work was
under the superintendent of the locks.
the advent of the
rainy season, the work at Miraflores was not completed.
expended were $32,742.32 at Gatun, $20,631.20 at Pedro Miguel, and
$19,207.87 at Miraflores.
housed machinery for
sightly and dilapidated.
local repairs during construction,
As such machinery is necessary at the lock
sites for minor repairs in connection with the maintenance of the lock
permanent repair shops were erected to take
their places, one each at Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and Miraflores.
are reinforced concrete buildings, 110 feet long and 38 feet 6 inches
wide, and contain dry rooms, open and closed storage spaces, black-
smith shop, general shop,
and latrines for white and
The floating caisson was completed and arrived at the canal on
October 29, 1914, was tested at Miraflores locks, accepted, and used
during the year to permit the painting of the gates of the Pacific locks.
-s -. � -. - * a -v *. a a . - S U a^
William H. Rose,
United States Army.
The hydroelectric station
at Gatun, having been tested out, was put in service on July 13, 1914,
and since then has been in continuous operation.
The average pro-
duction cost of current during the last six months of the fiscal year
hour, and the average cost
firknni oil Qllhe!"tQ+.irnn2 nra~a �t^ non+. nnQi' lilnnxra-tf. h-mT
'PbQQ~ non gina
4THE PANAMA CANAL.
air-compressor plant continued to operate during the
air to the Balboa shops and the terminal construction
The construction of the Gatun substation was so far advanced that
part of the equipment was placed in service in October, 1914.
December 3, 11
mission line '
Cristobal, and between Miraflores and Balboa,
tion on-December 3. The section between Gal
placed in service on January 2, 1915, by whi
were placed in opera-
tun and Miraflores was
the Panama Railroa
d system 1&d
been installed in the new duct lines.
When the transmission line was put in service the Miraflores tam
station was operated as a reserve plant, several of the boilers bng
kept under pressure at all times, so as to provide prompt resumption
of service in case of failure on the part of the transmission line.
plant of the municipal division,
the sand and gravel handling plant
for local lighting.
placed in service during February, 1915, and contains two transform-
ers of 666 KVA capacity each, with the necessary oil switches, light-
ning arresters, etc. A substation was also constructed and placed in
operation in Maeh, 1915, for the Darien High Power Naval Radio
Station. It contains two 266 KVA transformers and auxiliaries.
This work was paid for by the Navy Department.
A large amount of
construction work was done in connection with
the installation of underground
conduit systems for the distribution
alarm service in
the permanent towns, for the supply of the coaling
plants, dry docks, pumping station, and for the Army posts.
lighting is being installed in the permanent towns of Ancon, Balboa,
Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal, and was carried to about 90 pet
cent of completion during the fiscal year.
The lights are of the new
I I .^ t1 *. -44^ - . VI- ._ _ 1 - _. ^3 _ -.. &.IE . . .^^^^^n� JLaJ j .a.-w
kilowatt rotary converters were installed,
at Gamboa and
were made for
Three installations of large motor-driven relay pumps
was equipped for service at the locks.
Work was done for the Navy
the electrical instal-
three radio stations.
other buildings for The Panama Canal and for the Army
Departments considerable work devolved upon the electrical division.
provide power for the canal was determined in May,
demands that would
The result of
the studies showed
Panama Railroad was not electrified
, but if this were done the prob-
able day load was computed at approximately
peak of 5,700 kilowatts.
This assumption was also based
on the fact that electric current would be generally used for domestic
Under these circumstances the generating
a reserve for future
growth of about 1,000 kilowatts.
1912, Congress author-
though estimates for the probable amount of power that
be required for these
purposes were prepared and considered
determining the power plant,
the completed designs show power
the power by reason of
rines stationed in
the Canal Zone;
the light and
the new waterworks
for the south
The result is that the time is not far distant when
additional power will be required,
provision should be made for
increasing the capacity of the existing plant and installing a reserve
Anticipating that an extension might become neces-
- E I- I N J t * * -u V IV * . *I
6 UE PANAMA DARAL.
of h anl on 'north of Darien, including th"ct ofCoo
adheouhrdiritebcigthe Canal Zone lyingth souhy
VfJL t hl = J- I^ A Ma. B- P--
- - L^M a -V<�^ - ^riii^*-- '-* "
Darien, including the city of Panama.
The work on the Panama waterworks,
ing the previous fiscal year,
which was undertaken dn
d. As previously rep
to be abandoned,
as the supply;
due to the heavy rise in chlorine in
This pump station
was nearly completed when
the source of supply had to be changed, was remodeled and transferred
division for use as a storehouse.
then built at Gamboa, and the pipe line, extending from
during the year.
the laying of
59.762 linear feet of
varying in size from 24 inches to
36 inches in
by contract at a
the cost of pipe, fittings, excavation, and backfill,
The construction of the Miraflores purification plant was about 45
per cent completed on June 30,
put in operation on March
The plant was completed and
It consists of the wash-water
the filter building and pipe gallery,
clear-water basin, and
the laboratory and
the injection chamber.
The total cost of the
plant was $558,168.41, of which $203,625.12 was for work done
plant and the latter connected with the Canal Zone road to Panama.
The delivery of water from
the purification plant at Miraflrst
being 30 inches, 20 inches,
16 inches, respectively;
this work was also completed during the fiscal
As part of the new waterworks, an extension was made to the exist-
ing high-service reservoir on Ancon Hill, at elevation 300, by construct-
an addition having
completed at the close of the last fiscal year.
Three pump stations,
n+. f01h+0 iutra� ncvnf.arnii
one at Gamboa
, one at Miraflores,
.nrcnnthar with tha nenmarvry OTw.dinn and
q M,, V wJm m v -- w
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
under the municipal division for the
balance of the year.
A total of 29,200 linear feet of asphaltic con-
create streets was constructed at an average cost of
about $1.90 per
For the permanent road work in the southern end of
The Panama Canal, a standard type of road was adopted, consisting
of concrete curb and gutter, and a finished surface of 2- inches of
asphaltic concrete on a Telford base.
is 20 feet.
The ruling width of the roads
There were laid also 7,600 linear feet of gravel paths with
concrete block edging, having an average width of 6 feet,
Considerable work was done in the vicinity of the administration
building in the way of walks, stairways, grading, sloping, and sodding.
For the construction of part of the pavement around the building it
was necessary to
to support a large
portion of this pavement on account of the natural conditions of
building is erected.
building 2,100 cubic yards of excavation were necessary, at a total
cost of $63,000.
total area of 235,000 square yards,
and a total area of 185,000 square yards sodded and planted in grass.
constructing the sewer system
feet of pipe, ranging from 6 to 15 inches in diameter, were laid, and
in the water system, 4,190 feet of pipe, varying from 6 to 10 inches
in diameter, were laid.
The sewer outfall from the Ancon district was diverted from the
Panama system and
the Curundu River.
the installation of 746 feet of 8-inch
feet of 12-inch pipe.
,2,619 feet of 10-inch, and 1,646
In the silver town of La Boca two additional
blocks were constructed, the municipal division building the roads,
curbs, sewers, and laying the necessary water
Balboa oil-handling plant, inclu
and the installation of the pump,
ding the erection
and the laying of a 10-inch crude-
-f1 1 _- - , -t__ _ _ T' . 1 EI 1, 1 . 1 , . .4
A partial piping system was installed in
Dry Dock No oo
for the health department, so far as roads,
and laid the
s done ado
water, and sewer s
* ' M ^ * '' ^ "* .. .... .. .....
l t an k � "
tion of the concrete reservoir,
the steel tank WE
s dismantled, wnich,
turned into stock t
The pipe line installed from
the pumping station to the
docks consisted of 5,700 feet of 10-inch and 5,700 feet of 12-inch pipe.
the oil-tank site,
of 2,800 feet of
4-inch second-hand pipe and 3,000 feet of
6-inch second-hand pipe,
with the necessary valves and other fittings.
a temporary wooden
for the sump pumping station and for the office of the cashier of the
water service in Colon, to
by the fire of April 30, 191
replace the building which was destroyed
5. The cost of this building was charged
to the remaining balance of the $800,000 appropriation for sanitation
Colon, made necessary by the fire of April 30,
and the cost of which
the maintenance account,
4,000 feet of
4-inch galvanized-iron pipe, 11 range closets, and 33 shower baths.
A.large amount of work was.done in connection with the expendi-
V � � "
water systems, and a considerable portion of the work was completed
before the end of the fiscal year.
At Balboa Heights, in
of the Ancon
struction of the necessary roads, sewer and water systems was under-
for quarters for
the work was 89 per cent completed at the end of the year. In the
latter part of June work was begun on the necessary grading, and the
of roads and
the installation of water and sewer mains
for the mobile troops to be stationed at Corozal.
Meteorology and hydrography.--This division of the work continued
in charge of Mr. F. D.
were made during the
The rainfall records ai
Willson, chief hydrographer.
year in the
meteorological stations operated.
were discontinued September 1,
the first-class station at Culebra and
the evaporation sta-
Reservoir were closed
On October 1, 1914, the Ancon station was closed and the equipment,
including the seismographs,
ing, Balboa Heights.
Tidal records were continued at Balboa and
tidal data were furnished to
Coast Artillery Corps.
Four were of
three of which
cient intensity to be generally felt over the Canal Zone.
were of suffi-
resulted from any of these shocks.
The average air temperature for the calendar year 1914 was slightly
temperature and September the month of lowest mean
except Juan Mina,
from 132.70 inches at Colon to 64.48 inches at Balboa Heights.
The wind movement across the Isthmus was generally above nor-
North and northwest winds prevailed.
March was the month
... . . r - -_ -
or - s� s-nfl aTI r flrT-T r'' " f*i n- *^ti aV -r alink nn�- n^ J- n��r^ * * Jnkw aV .-� a~"- .n .-t. 4% ^HV w ^ n.. -^ ni^ f-� i n
The wind attained a maximum
PA'K" NA & CANA
miles per hour
h 0.A A A. ./ ^. f A ^ AAAAA ^ .AAA ./A/A. A AAAAA
-^*^ KK iro-1K K KK K*K ^ ^n KKK KKK
the north. The rainfall for 24 hours was 5.42 inches. The previous
maximum velocity of wind recorded at Colon was 40 miles per Eour,
from the south, on July 16, -1908.
The wind movement during the progress of the storm of February
9-11 was from a point a little east of north for a considerable per
whereas during the storm
of April 3-5 it blew for a port *
o .. __: - rh a a
the time from a point a little west of north.
of water from
Gatun Lake for
about two and one-fourth
times as much
water was used for hydre-
electric power as for lockages, but this ratio is steadily decreasing da
account of the increase in
the number of lockages.
The elevation of Gatun Lake on January
1, 1914, was 84.32, which
represented a storage of 180.09 billion cubic feet of water.
evaporation of the lake surface for the same period
Of this amount,
cubit feet were
feet were used for lock-
cubic feet for munici
cubic feet for hy
pal purposes, 265
lion cubic feet f
droelectric power, 397
million cubic feet for
increase in storage of 12,154 million cubic feet during the year, or a
billion cubic feet at
beginning of the dry season
During the year 508
lockages were made at Gatun, and 502
The total yield for Gatun Lake watershed for the dry season 1915
was 43,924 million cubic
on the lake surface
for the same period was 9,427.5 million cubic feet,
yield of 34,496.5 million cubic feet.
which gave a net
Of this amount 23,263.5 million
used for lockages and tests, 182.2 million cubic feet for municipal
^^^^^_ ^a',- -tiBlr^^ /^-k:- /� j-f^r tan cii.- wnM- /4nn AarnTaa 0r'�jr~^AsC t in r '7A.A.. rnfll(lnnir
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
lake from 87 to 89.95.
The direct rainfall on the surface of the lake
by evaporation during the dry season.
No large freshet occurred during the year;
there was, however, an
unusually well sustained run-off, well distributed as to time.
The total yield from Gatun Lake watershed for 1914, was 102 per
cent of the capacity of the lake at elevation 85.
The lake elevation
has been maintained between elevations 84.75 and 87 by the operation
of the spillway gates.
In September, 1914, it was raised to 86, and
in November, 1914, it was raised to 86.70.
From December, 1914,
to April, 1915, it was maintained at elevation about 87.
it has varied between elevation 87 and 85.50.
During the fiscal
year there was
an average constant spillway
discharge of 5,300 cubic feet per second.
It has been determined that the Gatun spillway discharge per gate
is higher than expected.
At elevation 85, the wet season elevation,
one gate discharged 10,460 cubic feet per second, an increase of about
20 per cent over what was anticipated.
Investigations with velocity
current meters show that there are no currents during freshets that
will interfere with the handling of ships.
Surveys.-The surveys were handled under parties operating under
the direction of Mr
Malsbury, assistant engineer.
tion of Canal Zone boundary monuments, triangulation points, and
were maintained, checked, and recorded.
work in connection with the permanent location of buildings, sewer
and water lines, as well as checking up the alignment of permanent
construction tracks on locks and dams,
was done by this division.
for other divisions, were prepared during the year.
Office engineer.-On September 21,
office engineer was reorganized, centralizing the drafting forces of
maintenance, electrical, municipal engineering,
terminal construction, and building divisions. The office was placed
in charge of Mr. C. J. Embree as office engineer.
Congress for the establishment of lights on the Pacific side at Cape
Mala and Bona Island.
These lights are nearing completion.
additional light will be established at Tahor1milla. Tsland nl ndl wh.n
DIVISION OPr TZrUXh O NsNU1 L
The division of terminal construction,
section and construction of dry docks, shops coal
plants, floating cranes, docks, and other terminal facil
construction of the east breakwater at the Atlantic te
Width of entrance
Width in body of floor .............-...... .. ..... .-......- ...
Width in body at coping--.....-..........-...........--- .....-.- .
Length on center line from point of miter sill to head........
Length on center line from outside of masonry at entrance,
e daada aaaa aaa - a a a aS SS aa.a.aaa a -
arr' � - .-
4 . - a.
* a aa -
No. I are as
do3 ,. 113.
.. KKKKK KKKK � �
.. - .. .do.
to inside of
sea level... ..aa......aa ......- a a a
Elevation of miter and caisson sills referred to mean sea level...
Elevation of coping referred to mean sea level.......... -. . - a-
Volume of water contained with
tide at mean sea level, elevation 0.0,
cubic feet . .--... .. .-.-...... ... . . . . -
The dock is founded on rock,
w h i * h f a - a a a a a - e m o par a a - - a a a 5, 26hard,
which for the most part is hard, but
ff the dock
of two para
of two a M
gravity walls, connected by a semicircular head; the floor of the dook
is merely a smooth skin, laid over the rock exposed by the excavation,
the minimum thickness of which is 1 foot, increasing to 5 feet where
some of the softpockets occur. The floor is level longitudinally and
for the middle 66 feet of its width, but between this level middle art
a distance of
inches, making the elevation of the top of the gutter, which is forced
each side wall,
The side walls are reinforced at
their backs with
13.5 feet of the coping level.
thick for the
4-foot centers for the lower
The walls average 29.5 feet i
upper 20 feet
The working faces are formed into four altars,
each 3 feet wide,
height of the altars beginning at the coping, elevation 16.5, being 20
aB - - -f S -. S* .. . - -. -f I.. * -^ .ak &- "usa
. ~l~. ^l0 :
and bollards parallels each side wall at a distance of 40 feet from the
closure of the entrance
a pair of steel mitering
surfaces at the miter and
quoin ends are
hart, instead of nickel steel as in
the lock gal
be of Demerara Green-
bes. The miter sill and
miter gate sill is
for the floating caisson
primarily for service at the locks.
e gate si
The dock will be flooded
through culverts formed
one in the
by twin openings 8-feet wide by
at elevation -24.5.
the south side
flooding water passes
chamber, and on the north side the flooding culvert descends to the
level after passing the
chamber and of the lowest portion of the side wall culvert
is at ele-
feet clear width,
It is expected to flood the dock,
more than 30 minutes. The flu
12 feet high, and about 80 feet long.
with tide at mean high water, in not
oding intakes are closed by "wagon-
by an accumulator provided
The plant for pumping out Dry
Docks Nos. 1 and
2 is located at a
distance of about
100 feet from
the entrance wall, and
all located in a
rectangular pump pit about
adjacent to t
100 feet long by 35 feet wide.
2.250-cubic-foot and one 5.500-cubic-foot
air for the various
Award was made and a contract entered into for
11.500 cubic feet
of dressed granite and
750 cubic feet of rough stone,
the former at a
-(ni .t. I c.h n- ei Si^- no n�n ant *Ia a 4-t 1a--,� ,i.4w OiT Anv~ /�~ 4' t/-^
14 TBB PANAMA OAKAL.
128.195 cubic yards of mass concrete were plcddrigtebalance ..
of the fiscal year, and 24,675 cubic yards of reinforced concre
the le ttr
2,251,304 pounds of reinforcing rods and rails were embedded in the
masonry. The placing of granite began in May in the miter sill, and
this, together with about three-quarters of the hollow quoins were in
position at the close of the year.
begun on June
The erection of the steelwork was
12, 1915, and all of the girders of the two leaves were
of the fiscal
565.68 tons of steel had been erected at a cost of $6,391.19, or $11.2982
per ton, including the driving of 1,919 rivets. Backfill to the amount
of 33,787 cubic yards was put behind the walls, at a cost of $15,430.36,
or an average cost of $0.4567 per cubic yard, and work started on the
foundations of the air compressor and pumping plant.
It was decided
and the adjacent repair piers, Docks 10,
11, and 12,1
until the necessity
rectangular in plan,
with side walls and head walls of gravity section,
but only the
the latter wall supports one side of the entrance pier, the other
trance pier as now building is 59 feet wide by 350 feet long.
have a reinforced concrete deck slab and will support a 22-foot gauge
crane track and two standard gauge tracks. At its west or sea end
there is now to be furnished an electric capstan similar to those around
1 for use in handling ships entering Dry
Dock No. 1.
the excavation for the pier was completed in the
previous year, and but 5,313 cubic yards were excavated during the
present fiscal year in preparing foundations, at a cost of $3.4839 per
11,232 cubic yards of plain concrete placed
at an average cost of $4.2455
yard and 602 cubic yards of
"'P t1 . - . ... - -.. ... a. 4J
Ie -- .^ ,-- S. - ^ - ~
per cubic yard.
"IA 100 ~tO\/**l- -vrra..An nylnnl-f nT'nA/ 000
for the entrance basin, under and outside the cofferdam,
will be done
in the wet after the completion of the dry-dock gates and the installa-
The amount of material excavated
by steam shovel was 8,771
cubic yards at an average cost of
$1.0704 per cubic yard.
Balboa coaling station.---The concrete work in connection with the
crane tracks and the docks for the station was continued throughout
piers spaced 25-foot centers.
The piers supporting one of the tracks
the conveying system viaduct which parallels the berm
by means of
piers of buttress form extending above the
These buttress piers also support reinforced concrete cur-
tain walls which confine the coal in the subaqueous storage, a length
about 300 feet
a distance of
west of the subaqueous storage where deep
foundations were neces-
which is about 800 feet
, the rails are supported
on continuous con-
create walls founded on rock or rock fill.
The unloader wharf
59.5 feet in width.
type adopted in Au1
1,052 feet in length by
gust, 1914, consisted of
concrete piers, spaced 25-foot centers, anchored to the rock, extend-
ing the full width of the floor of the dock and having a width of 8 feet
at the bottom,
which is offset to give a width of 6 feet for the upper
which support the tracks,
the reinforced-concrete deck slab, and
necessary superstructure of
The unloader wharf
supports two coal unloading towers, having a travel of 790 feet. At
the end of the fiscal year the wharf had been completed to the coffer-
thousand three hundred and thirty-one cubic yards
the unloader wharf,
at a cost of $5.4746
per cubic yard.
A general layout for the reloader wharf (Dock No. 6) to be 745 feet
in length by 64.2
feet min width was approved
the substructure 6-foot cylinders with steel forms sunk to rock were
n\ A~ a-tnd. n A al YWr nan wl -*-l AJ akh 4- S. a ,w,.La a nt - i-*- I - --
ment stopped, the work of caisson sinking proceeded.
but 3 of
At the end of
... .. *,
reached rock, and 46 were in the process of sinking.
feet of caissons were sunk during the year.
There were excavated 17
of earth in the coal pockets.
dry storage areas.
cubic yards of rock and 4,685 cubS
Riprap retaining walls were cons
At a cost of $5.5669 per cubic yard, 5,33
of 4 24f
placed in the masonry walls and crane supports
ing the runways for the berm cranes were erect
* The piers supp
ted, and the floor
the coal pockets were leveled off, with the exception of the south h
of the east area.
by the Pacific division, for
handling concrete, were dismantled and brought to the site andercted
on the runways provided.
They were remodeled to fit the work for
By the close of the fiscal year
tons of steel had been erected in these cranes, the structural ironwork
which were furnished by the contractor, arrived on
the Isthmus in May, 1915, and at the end of the year one tower was in
place and bolted up
towers and conveyo
by the contractor.
but not riveted.
r system had
No deliveries of the reloading
been made at the end of the year
the subaqueous coal
pockets to eleva-
cubic yards, at a cost of $0.5836 per cubic yard.
Caisson foundations for the south
500 feet of
the unloader wharf
were completed on January
1, 1915, for the entire unloader wharf on
June 4, and for the entire reloader wharf on June 15.
Work on caissons
for the end wharf commenced on June 5, 1915, and at the end of the
Ce alsO i
and riveted in lengths of from 10 to 50 feet, depending on the
depth of the water.
Caisson driving started in July, 1914, and ea-
- -- -._ a.w�J .. J
- Ns U -. U .~ w mm * : j j - -* a :-. .r ...
gravel was used with a mixture of 1:5 for the cylinders and 1:4 for the
In addition 6,577
cubic yards of
wharf floors, 3,873 cubic yards in the bridge track retaining walls, and
316 cubic yards in miscellaneous
during the fiscal year,
at an average cost of $4.5043 per cubic yard.
The steel deck was erected by contract, and at the end of the year
that for the unloader wharf was erected and riveted, and that for the
erected for the end wharf.
create floor of both unload
The south 520 feet of the reinforced con-
er and reloader wharves was completed at
entirely completed, except for the installation of the wooden fender
concrete retaining walls
south of the wharves were completed.
About 90 per
cent of all permanent railroad tracks south of the wharves are in their
The east shore of the coaling station was riprapped
from Sosa Hill.
with hard rock
tractor, in November,
bridges were completed,
except for the installation of the propelling
house was about 75 per cent completed.
Foundations for the track
scales were completed by the Panama Canal forces.
The erection of the structural steel for the four unloader towers at
the south end of the unloader wharf was begun by the contractor on
and progressed satisfactorily
were completely erected and riveted,
and in tower
, 85 per cent
2 about 40 per
3 was completely
J8 THE PANAMA CANAL. A
of work remaining to be done being the closing in of the sides of the
buildings. Changes, added requirements, and necessary delays in
construction, extended the period of completion until June 15,
the shops were formally turned over to
the mechanical division and
location of machines in buildings Nos. 1
, and 8,
changes in the
were also made,
and the last machine foundation was poured in January,
total amount of
concrete poured for machine foundations from July,
columns of building No.
8 were lined up, and corrugated iron siding
was placed in lieu of plaster and in lieu of the 42-inch concrete wall
Construction work for the installation of the
exhaust system in building No. 8 was begun in February.
building was erected
The maintenance of the cement tile roofing was expensive on account
of the large amount of work done in connection with the closures of
the buildings, and the consequent travel over the tile roofs by work-
on account c
as closures in
and sides of
buildings have sides and
tion of the ends closed with movable metal louvers.
East breakwater.-As noted in the last annual report, it was decided
build a detached
the east side of
Colon Harbor to
general direction extending on a line from Coco Solo to a point 2,000
therein noted, it was decided
the rock from
the Sosa Hill
quarry and transport it across the Isthmus.
on the channel
on February 9,
when the direction of the wind was north and slightly
the other on April 3-5,
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
From July 1, 1914, to February 8, 1915,
the double-track trestle
was advanced 6,048 linear feet, and also about 400 feet of single-
track trestle were driven, thus making the entire trestle double track
for a total length of 9,498 linear feet.
The filling of the trestle was started on September
which purpose excavation in Sosa Hill was begun on the same date,
and a total of 363,658 cubic yards were excavated for use at the east
breakwater, at a cost of $0.5750 per cubic yard.
Of this amount
321,146 cubic yards were actually placed in the east breakwater, at
a total cost of $1.0170 per cubic yard
the remainder having been
stations 0 and 35 plus 75.
For the greater part of this distance the
fill was carried up to or a little above sea level on the sea side of the
trestle, and to within 10 feet of the surface on the harbor side.
There is a large quantity of good coral sand in the vicinity of Coco
Solo, and use was made of this for the interior fill between the rock
on either side of
the sand was excavated
and deposited by means of a suction dredge and formed part of the
core of the breakwater.
In connection with this fill a relay station
was constructed on the trestle, and 19,556 cubic yards of Sosa Hill
rock were deposited at the station to protect it from storms.
work was continued until February 9, 1915,
when the northerr
that date suspended all operations.
The fill by the suction dredge was commenced on September 22,
1914, and there were placed 252,319 cubic yards, at a cost of $0.6073
per cubic yard.
In addition, material was dumped from scows ob-
dredge Caribbean, aggregating 1,498,152 cubic yards of material, of
which 253,566 cubic yards were hard material.
Of the above quan-
tities, 81,142 cubic yards of hydraulic fill, and 357,874 cubic yards of
dredged material, of which 127,243 cubic yards were hard material,
have been placed on the axis of the trestle since February 9.
carried away the trestle from station 17
to station 59 plus 26, measured from the shore, and on the fill from
station 21 to station 38 plus 05, a total distance of 5,834 linear feet.
lost with the trestle in the northerr"
of February 9, and one was
another severe "nor
to that part of the
rther" visited TLimon Bay, doir
trestle which remained stiandin
Practically all of the trestle that ha
g after v th
d been driven
destroyed by the two storms.
The effect of
on the fill that had been placed was
to level it off very uniformly to a depth of from 10 to
14 feet below
sea level, and to make a broad platform, in some cases 120 feet wid
with flat slopes on
amount of material
carried away or lost
by the action of the storms.
The net effect of the
of the east breakwater about $370,000.
and $100,000 will
on the reconstruction of
The storm of April damaged
be required for its repair.
the trestle was
begun on April 12,
linear feet of
feet of creosoted piling (second hand);
piling (second hand);
18,642 linear feet of untreated
and 57,130 linear feet of untreated piling (new)
feet of track, and 3,092 linear feet of 3-inch water pipe were laid, but
no rock was excavated for the breakwater subsequent to
, are designed to handle oil from the tanks located at Mount
Hope and Balboa
simultaneously at each locality at
the rate of 1,200 barrels per hour per vessel;
and also deliver oil by
per hour from Mount Hope to
Gatun and from Balboa
work was commenced
was completed sufficiently to
operation on January
tion work commence
I in August,
At the Atlantic terminal, construe-
plant was placed in
commission on February 28, 1915.
rincnr, madrl0 Sfr .hA inlrfltmnn
. . .
as third lin shn1ld futn1r demanls
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
At the Pacific terminal a berth for oil vessels 75 feet wide by a
about 2,000 feet long, immediately adjoining the canal channel south
of the old French pier, was dredged to -45, and the necessary dol-
The plans call for three oil cribs, one of which,
a steel and
concrete dock 62 feet square, supported
placed in service.
Lots for the erection of tanks by individuals and companies are
being leased under revocable licenses.
All material, labor, or work
of any nature required in connection with the installation of tanks
by private parties are supplied by and at the expense of the licensees.
At the end of the fiscal year 13 licenses were issued to five companies
on the Atlantic side and 12 licenses to four companies on the Pacific
licensees, seven on the Atlantic side, with a total capacity of 385,000
barrels, and seven on the Pacific side with a total capacity of 285,000
the oil-handling plants have
met satisfactorily not only all requirements outlined in the original
proposals, but have demonstrated their ability to handle oils, either
way, between vessels and storage tanks, at the rate of from 1,800 to
2,000 barrels per hour.
Floating cranes.-The contract with
250-ton floating cranes Ajax and
Hercules is still in force.
At the beginning of the year all material
for the construction of these cranes had been manufactured at the
works of the contractor, and shipped to the Isthmus; the Ajax left
Emden on April 26, 1914, and the Hercules followed on May 30, 1914,
arriving at the Isthmus on July 8 and 13, respectively.
these cranes were complete as regards pontoons and crane towers,
but no part of the jibs were erected.
jibs and the rest of the
material, including spare parts, left Antwerp about the same time.
a canal lock for
jibs. and the east center lock at Gatun was assigned for the purpose.
The Ajax was placed in the lock chamber on October
on November 4 the Hercules followed
, and the erection of the jibs
the wall of
. .. . ....
A CANAL. ..... ....
iA a a--L- a a a -i � . L �...... - -1"
on the Ajax and it was ready for service.
after successfully removing
some other minor work,
The Ajax was taken to
, on November 25,
The contractor offered the crane Ajax for test on December 1, 1914,
and the main hoist test was assembled so that the actual tests could
on December 3.
The test with
long-ton normal load
was completed successfully, and the speed of the hoisting, luffing, and
slewing operations met contract requirements.
On December 7
was increased 20 per cent, as specified by the contract, for
the overload tests. The 120-ton load was hoisted clear of the wharf
and luffed slowly out to the 100-ton reach of 81.6 feet from the face
of the fender.
No sign of distress was noticed in any member.
auxiliary hoist trolley was at the inner limit of travel, when it should
have been at the tip of the jib.
The instant that the controller was
luffing position and
brake solenoids were heard as
they released the brakes on the drums, two movements were observed:
First the collapse of the back of the jib and fall of the load, which was
only a short distance above the ground; a pause, and then the fall of
the jib and the recoil of the pontoon.
The jib pivot remained intact,
jib in its fall
turned about this pivot.
of the jib
test load and buried itself about 6 feet in the ground.
of the jib beyond the point which serves as an attachment for the crab
the upper chord
links from the jib to crosshead were badly twisted.
The back spindle
carriage track was sprung outward, and with it the two spindles.
were found to have suffered no injury
block sheaves were
One main-block triangle
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
Investigation of the accident led to the conclusion that the heel
strut was the first to fail and that the failure was due probably, not
to insufficient sectional area to resist the maximum direct compres-
sion, but to the distribution of metal in this member, to the insuffi-
cient strength of latticing and tie-plates, and to the rivets connecting
the main members,
as well as failure
adequately for flexure as well as direct compression.
did not concur in the above-stated causes of failure, and while stating
he did not know the exact cause of the accident, expressed such con-
fidence in his design that on December 10 he offered the Hercules for
The Panama Canal was unwilling to permit this to
be done without the reinforcement of
certain members of the
This work on the Hercules was begun on January 11, and three mem-
bers of each truss of the jib were strengthened, and on January 27 the
Hercules was again offered for test.
The tests of the Hercules were
on March 27,
on March 30 the
crane was accepted by The Panama Canal with a few minor excep-
tions, and turned over to the mechanical division for operation. A
new jib for the Ajax was completed at the works of the contractor on
April 15, and on June 10, 1915, the structural steel for the jib arrived
on the Isthmus; the erection was started, and about 25 per cent erected
at the end of the year.
Colliers.-Work continued on the two Panama Canal colliers Achilles
and Ulysses, for which contract was awarded to the Maryland Steel Co.
on April 9, 1914.
They were constructed under the supervision of
the Bureau of Construction and Repair of the Navy
as to speed,
Ulysses arrived at the Isthmus on its first trip with 12,000
tons of coal on April 27, 1915, and the Achilles arrived on June 17
Until the permanent coaling plant is completed, the colliers
will be unloaded by the Brown hoist at the dry-dock entrance slip.
The colliers are operated by the Panama Railroad Company.
Tugs.-The two tugs, built under contract with the Staten Island
Shipbuilding Co., dated May 8, 1914, and named, respectively, the
Gorgona and Tavernilla, were completed. On their trial trips in New
York the Tavernilla developed a speed of 12 knots and
The Tavernilla arrived at the Isthmus on March 21 and
24 4 " ! @"
-r ^ r tr -. I ""< kvj I .. - '" I ': I'^ ' *: ^l:!. "i'
I-J-M-2N, and Pier No. i nave Dben renumDered, respectively. as
follows: Docks Nos. 13 and 14, 15 and 16, 17 and 1, and Pier lS
These wharves were described in the last annual report, and th fol
lowing work was done on same during the fiscal year:
the year 37
out of 39
caissons were sunk to
the steelwork was erected;
the steel was furnished
United States Steel Products Co.
and erected by the terminal division.
b the end
the last fiscal year 23
caissons had been
During the current year 2,917 linear feet of
the superstructure was furnished
Steel Products Co.
was completed at the end of the year, including snubbing posts and
the dock was completed for about
Reinforced-concrete anchors were embedded
behind the dock and connected directly with
the girders of the dock
buckles while the rods were heated.
The only remaining work done consisted of a small amount of
driving a few fender piles, and completing the back fill
to bring the surface up level with that of the shop yards.
brick floor and
be a small
and steel land-
pier was completed last
be done other than
the 2.5-inch anchor
the pier in Slip No.
the middle of
, the pressure of the fill in
the very soft underlying mud
the center of
damage was caused.
It is proposed
the floor in
ter of the pier on coral rock fill.
Excavation along Docks Nos.
18 was done
by the dredging division.
the greater part of the year, and Slip No.
thirds of its length.
2 was excavated about two-
landing for the
feet long and
10 feet wide and consists of a reinforced
the forms for the superstructure.
which is being built
by the Panama Railroad
For further particulars, see Appendix B.
The dredging division
from Gamboa to deep water in the Atlantic.
The following are the principal items of floating equipment engaged
in dredging operations during the year:
Caribbean; pipe-line dredges
, 84, 85,
dipper dredges Gamboa and Paraiso;
5-yard dipper dredges Cardenas,
Mindi; seagoing ladder
French ladder dredges
Teredo until July 20,
1914, and from Novem-
Mariner until May 22
also the tenders
Chame and Sanidad.
tL fIfi i: : t d
^K '- * - ^ ^ ^ �L ^. ^B^" *::::* *:* *::*:* *.* *:*::::a . KKKKK *::*:* *.*::::*::*
!* J JJ fm X J f - jk X :::* :*:*:*::: :*.:* :* :* :* :*:*:*::: :::* :*:*::*::*::::*:*:*: .. xxxxx^xxxxx^ xxx
high-power dredge, and as the Gamboa and Paraiso were givingsuch
satisfactory results, a dredge of the same type, modified as experience
indicated necessary and
was contracted for under date of
, 1915, at a cost price of $376,180.
This necessitated the
for the construction
of which advertisement was issued; a contract was entered into under
a cost of
dredging that was done in any part of
the canal necessary to
complete the channel to its full width and depth was charged against
a proper charge
against, and was paid for from maintenance funds.
the first district,
water in Panama Bay and
there were excavated a total of 542,012 cubic yards,
of which 498,400 cubic yards were charged to construction work and
43,612 cubic yards were charged to maintenance.
In Miraflores Lake
49,492 cubic yards were removed,
40,830 cubic yards were
charged to construction and 8,662 cubic yards were charged to main-
, of which 1,960,617
cubic yards was removed from
cubic yards were charged to construction
227,529 cubic yards were rock and
yards were rock and the balance of earth.
. The cost of removing the
Cucaracha slide and
other parts of
the Cut, necessary
blown up and sunk in
the channel on July 20,
The drills and
wreck were remounted on a remodeled
sand barge at the Paraiso shops and a new drilling outfit constructed,
This drill barge went into commission on Novenm-
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
material which could be handled
by the dredges without mining.
During the year 294,106 pounds of dynamite were used in the first
district by this division.
The operations in the vicinity of Cucaracha slide warranted the
opening of the canal to commerce on August 15, 1914.
Work at the
slide had progressed so as to secure nearly the full width of the prism,
when on the night of October
Culebra which completely closed the channel.
for a distance of about
1914, a break occurred at East
The entire east bank
100 feet, extending back for a distance of
about 1,000 feet from the center line of the canal, settled vertically,
and the lower strata squeezed into the Cut so that at some points
there were only 9 inches of water where prior to the movement there
were 45 feet.
The canal was closed from October 14 to October 20,
when a channel was dredged to sufficient capacity for the passage of
closed from Octol
March 10, 1915.
to November 4, 1914, and from March 4 to
The work was delayed because of the daily necessity
of clearing up a channel to pass shipping.
As noted in the annual report for
1914, dry excavation was con-
tinued on the upper banks on both the east and west side of the Cut
in the vicinity of Culebra, as cracks had developed on some of the
benches during the preceding dry season.
The shovels were with-
drawn after the last vestige of cracks on the benches had been removed,
and it was anticipated that no further difficulty would be experienced.
An examination of the west bank made subsequent to the break of
14, 1914, developed the existence of cracks on both banks,
and the question of resuming steam-shovel operations on both banks
was considered seriously, but abandoned because the amount of work
that could be accomplished by the shovels would be relatively small
and the cost excessive.
The breaking up of the banks has proceeded
so rapidly that this conclusion has been fully justified.
Cucaracha slide was very active from July to October, 1914, quiet
during the dry season, and active again with the beginning of the
rainy season in April.
On the west side at Culebra the slide showed
little activity through the greater part of the year, but in June, 1915,
the general movement of the bank from stations
noticeable, and it was estimated that 5,000,000 cubic yards of mate-
28 THE PANAMA OAIALS
such shoals retired dredging before the following ships could pro-
In the second district the dredges were engaged in deepening ai
maintaining the canal channel at the Atlantic entrance. A total of
The material excavated in this district was dumped at Mindi
, the east breakwater, and at sea.
For the Pacific terminals 2,718,406 cubic
harbor by pipe-line and
pipe-line dredges was used for reclaiming swamp areas
Balboa and in the San Miguel section of Panama City; that
by ladder dredges '
terminal 709,240 c
rock were removed
to sea and
the Cristobal approach
as well as at the turning basin at the entrance of
the old coal slip in order to make a channel for the new colliers.
the Cristobal coaling station 132,867
cubic yards of
area of the submerged storage
coral rock were
usin, 2,129 cubic
coral rock from
the east berth, 35,711
cubic yards of
rock from the west berth, and 132,167
cubic yards of coral rock from
the berth and t
The dredges al
Point and Marj
the former 477
yards. As alre
core of the east
breakwater at Coco Solo
fills on fort
excavated 252,319 cubic yards of material for this purpose.
coral sand and fingers were placed in the
the dredging division
BBPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
An hydraulic grader, similar to those in use by the Mississippi River
was constructed and placed in commission on August
24, 1914, and was engaged in grading down the canal banks at various
localities in Gaillard Cut, Cucaracha slide, Culebra slide, and Gold
It was also used in sluicing mud from beneath Pier 18 of the
coal reloader wharf at Balboa.
The Obispo diversion carried all the drainage water east of the
canal and between the Continental Divide and the Chagres River.
It was located near and parallel to
opposite Culebra to opposite Buena
the canal from a point about
During the excavation
through the Cut in the dry, this diversion channel was necessary in
order to keep the excavated area from being flooded.
and elevation was such that the east bank of the canal was in danger,
and there is no question that the diversion was responsible in some
measure for some of the slides.
water was admitted
To do away with this menace after
to the canal it was decided to drain the channel
the lakes formed in
the diversion channel
crossed, by excavating a series of six ditches, one to each lake.
material was removed by hand,
crane with clamshell bucket
, and by
the hydraulic grader.
A total of 21,700 cubic yards
SAs noted in
previous annual report,
constructed on the south shore of Limon Bay, to protect the channel
against silting from the scour that was taking place along the shores
by three permanent rock
The rock was obtained from Gaillard Cut and 7,242
cubic yards were used
caused some settlement of the dykes and they had to be recrowned,
but no settlement was noticeable after the storm in April.
The outfit used and
the methods employed
as described in the
annual report of 1914, for the destruction of water hyacinths,
continued throughout the year.
plant and some valuable data obta
Experiments were made with the
ined, which, together with further
details concerning dredging operations, will be found in the report of
the resident engineer, hereto attached
THE PARAMA OAhfAL.
ni lants a Balboa and Mount Hope and a
prb p g p
: - s. Vk-Kj w^ �* MJL^
small hostling establishment at Gamboa.
The general character of the work is in a state of transition from
operation, under which the amount of railroad work will be relatively
and repairs on floating equipment of
such as may
come to the shops
, together with
by vessels using the canal,
stitute the majority of the work.
no difficulty in
of the railroad
equipment would be retired.
The break which occurred in October,
however, and the unsettled freight transportation conditions hinging
thereon, made it necessary to
more equipment than
was anticipated, and retarded a change in
the character of the force
On the other hand
, the large amount of work to be done
were employed almost exclusively on marine work.
The building is a three-story
steel and concrete structure,
was designed not only for the mechanical division,
the captain of the port,
but also for
and other officials connected with
the work of entering and clearing ships.
division on June
The equipment was increased by the installation of a lathe capable
of turning large crank shaft
turbine rotors and long tail shafts
by the erection of
a pair of heavy rolls and
seven-eighths inch in thickness and heavier.
Throughout the year air for use of these shops was supplied from
U- -- J
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
dry-dock shops continued in operation during the
subsequent to the slide in October gradually increased to a maximum
at the end of the year.
As already noted, a 2,500-foot electrically
driven air compressor was installed for use of these shops, and electric
drive substituted for the machines in these shops.
The dry dock was
used to keep the floating equipment of the canal in good condition,
but in addition the submarines of the first division submarine flo-
United States Navy,
were docked in October
and November, 1914, and three of the vessels were docked again in
June of this year.
United States Navy survey ship Leonidas
was docked in May, 1915. T
(later renamed the San Blas)
he Panaman national steamship Chitre
, was docked on January 21 and Feb-
1, 1915, and the dock was used for five vessels belonging to
private individuals and companies.
A year ago it was anticipated
that the Paraiso shops would be
closed down not later than January
but the occurrence of
new Culebra slide
have necessitated keeping them in service.
The equipment of the
shop was intended to cover only repairs to dredging equipment which
could not be performed efficiently at the dry-dock shops at Cristobal
This equipment was increased by the addition of a set
of plate rolls and a wood planer,
together with a small number of
other tools of minor importance.
For further details, as well as a statement showing the amount of
work done during the year by the various shops, attention is invited
to Appendix D.
the building division was con-
tinued under Mr. Frank Holmes, resident engineer, as part of the
organization of the supply department, but effective on the latter date
the division was separated from the supply department and placed
in charge of Capt.
Wood, United States Army, as constructing
quartermaster, reporting to the Governor, following which the resi-
dent engineer resigned on November 18, 1914.
on May 10, 1915, and the work of the division was turned over to Mr.
district includes similar work in
the southern district embraces all work south
including Ancon, Balboa, and vicinity;
and the Fort Amac
buildings for the Coast ArtilleryAt
Fort Amador and Naos Island.
At the beginning of the year there were under construction, in
degrees of completion, the administration
building, the hydroelectric
"T^^ W^'-^^''^*^^^^^--^'^BBfc^� T~r^^^* ^H^ S^^flt F" ^Hl-lll! �1^ ^iCMlH"^lP *?^hy d r o e le c^^ "1^
twenty-seven 4-family and nine 2-family permanent quer-
buildings, and a schoolhouse.
and occupied within
the first h
All of these buildings were completed
alf of the year, with the exception of
the Balboa commissary,
was finished in May,
during the year were eleven 4-family and two 2-family concrete per-
medical storehouse, oil storage
farm buildings at Corozal,
10 type 17
7 type 4, and 15 type 14 frame
quarters at Balboa and Ancon,
type 10 frame quar-
ters at Corozal, and 1
14 frame quarters at Mount Hope, and a
number of smaller buildings and utilities.
in either their original
or under modified plans.
The total number of buildings of all types
and classes taken down and reerected amounted to 55.
The first appropriation for barracks and quarters for the Army was
$700,000, and the second appropriation available during the current
fiscal year was $1,290,000.
The first appropriation was expended in
shed and stable of wood
, all at Fort Amador; a residence for the cornm-
manding general and modifications of buildings transferred from the
the Army at Las Cascadas, Empire,
The second appropriation
will be expended in
lebra, and Gatun.
the construction of
concrete barracks and quarters for the Coast Artillerv at Fort Amador.
work by the various trades and each trade was carried under a general
foreman as a separate unit, passing from house to house as the build-
the general head
the work no individual foreman or other person was held responsible
for the ultimate cost of. the building.
Such an arrangement seemed
in the light of experience to be open to question, so that after Novem-
ber it was decided to undertake the construction
of future buildings
on what might be termed a single unit organization for each building.
Each was put in charge of a foreman who had a general and diversi-
amount of work accomplished
while in his
by the costs
under the second method
under the first method, indicate that the conditions of service peculiar
to the Isthmus required
a change in system
of some kind.
the apparent saving and reduction in cost is undoubtedly due to
more experienced in this class of work.
of unit costs
accomplished at a moderate cost.
On the Isthmus where the skilled
labor cost for this
with the walls rubbed, finished,
Two hospital buildings are to
and painted, is the cheaper.
, one at Colon,
was begun in June,
1915, and the other at Ancon.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix G.
year Cucaracha slide
only obstacle to the passage of ships.
had been dredged through the obstruction 150 feet wide and of suffi-
dredges were excavating material faster than it was falling in,
tlhipan aonmarl wno lflrallinonA
th.t ann firtthr rnnxrnmfn.c nt. tha alila
canal to commerce on August 15. 1914. Durlig the balance of the
year vessels passed daily
except from October"
from March 4
to 20 Octobe P
1915 during which......
*'*L H ' ^ -.^-.. - ..-N
-^�- * * * s ** *
which occurred at East Oulebra on October
Settlement occurred of Gatun Dam, particularly that portion ws
of the spillway over the diversion channel.
As this had settled below
grade, it was decided in February to raise same to full height,
allowance for future settlement,
thereby giving employment to some
of the employees whose services would be dispensed with on account
cubic yards of material, rock on the outside,
clay in the center,
rock was procured from the borrow pit west of the dam, and
clay from a borrow pit north of the dam.
spillway having access to the canal below the Gatun Locks,
source of trouble, due to the current of the discharge, and to the poor
the levee is founded and used in its construction
year 86,199 cubic yards were dumped on
The maintenance work
on the locks
performed for the most
part by the lock operating forces while not engaged in making lock-
and the maintenance of the channels by the dredging division,
After accepting the floating caisson, it was used for unwatering the
locks at Miraflores for the purpose of cleaning and painting the miter
gates and the rising stem valves.
that was made of
the salt water between metals of different kinds.
being made with
preservative coatings having insulating properties,
and it is hoped that this action can be eliminated.
The rising stem
The gate valves and fixed irons of the Pacific Locks were painted.
been made with va
coating thus far has
rious kinds of paints,
been bitumastic enamel,
a contract was entered into with
the American Bitumastic Enariels
to paint all the submerged parts of the lock gates structures, and
xxx xx xxxx x
readiness for the approaching vessel
generally four in
than 300 feet and
through the locks by a lock pilot,
in cooperation with the
towing locomotive operators, and directs their movements by signals
from the ship.
During the lockages the ships'
engines are used only
various operations are under the control of the operators in the con-
trol houses, and the course of the lockages is followed by tunnel oper-
who stand by to see that all parts of the machinery work prop-
two ships in the same chamber at the same
time, are made, but have been limited in number by the towing loco-
to avoid undue dela
Parallel blockages are made only in emergencies,
operations and no appreciable
Several instances have occurred
in tying up to the approach piers.
difficulty is experienced
where vessels have had
At the upper entrance this diffi-
culty has come generally from high winds, especially with ships that
not handle easily
principally to the discharge or on account of
currents caused by the
facilitate arrival of ships at the lower entrance the gates are left open
as long as possible, so that the currents may die out before the arrival
of the ship.
The number of lockages made at Gatun during the year was 1,216,
were for commercial
lockages were performed
of which 1,085 were for commercial vessels;
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix A.
tendent, was charged with the entry, conduct of vessels through The
supervision of the port captains, bo
the operation of lights and beacons,
ard of local inspectors,
the inspection and admeas-
their offices the centers of information on all matters relati
ping and in their offices at each end of the canal branch hy
offices were established.
being the rearrangement of
bea cons in
DDii- ' i.r''sa.Iop
I- II i i- iii-
pairs, one opposite the other, at all turns and in the middle of the
reaches. The characteristics of some of the lights were also chai
Signal stations were estabi
interior control of canal traffic
at Gamboa and La Pita for he
, and at the terminal ports for reporting
and recording arrivals and departures.
on account of
the slides, altI
will be used when necessary for mooring temporarily southbound yes-
berth at Balboa was extended and strengthened.
the canal was in
530 vessels, repr-
sending a net Panama Canal tonnage of 1,884,728 and cargo tonnage
a net Panama Canal
cargo tonnage of 2,844,057, from south to north.
under the captains of the ports of the two terminals.
The Panama Canal act defines and sets forth the basis upon which
Canal rules of measurement were
He was also expected
who was specially employed for
to keep in close touch with the
in an advisory
the question of ships'
, so that, upon the passage of the
Panama Canal act it was assumed that he was fully conversant with
the intent of Congress. and h
the substance of
we learned that Dr. Johnson was aware of the discrepancy, notwith-
standing which, he presented his rules of measurement and rates of
tolls for promulgation
fusion has been the or
the shipping interests of
'der of the day in
collected in excess of that authorized by law will have to be refunded,
and while this will reduce
the revenues received
this matter is still
system of measurement applicable to all cases that arise on the canal,
when the net registered tonnage is dependent not only upon law but
upon rulings and decisions of the Commissioner of Navigation,
dictum in any particular case is final.
are made with a view to reduce the discrepancies in harbor dues, etc.,
they should not
has resulted in discrimination as
causing friction and
and instances have arisen
the application discrimi-
a separate report,
that legislation may
secured which will bring about laws and regulations governing meas-
urements for the canal
The annual report
that for the
For further particulars concerning the operation and maintenance
of the canal, attention is invited
to Appendices A and E.
The supply department has charge of the storage and distribution
the Isthmus and
for vessels of
It operates commis-
series, hotels, and messes;
has charge of the maintenance of buildings
t/* '-.f j~ :^' a^ a, jn.rrW r r4 - rt -.,jfl t-, 4- a^ f . jy a - C�-it- a^ nwj~ af b-k r.J n^ a- :~. ja /-C -* j-nfl t% i * W -r* j^ " * *- *�*tj A-b *fl*t� - *W- tt^
88 . THE PANAMA OANAL.
The medical storehouse was transferred to the health de art-
ment on July 1 1914 together with its personnel as it develop d
ht at it could be operated at less expense by the latter department
S-k ~ w - e - ,4� r^ *^ - ' - - - -- -^ - - ---r1 - .- - x - - -- - -v -- ^^r -
the Canal Zone and
these farms for the production of
cocoa, bananas, oranges, and pine-
apples, a horticulturist was employed and
supply department in December, 1914.
this work assigned
of the canal and
dredging operations in Gaillard Out,
the previous year,
the exact figures
this fiscal year as compared with 29,673 for the previous year.
largest force working at any time was in July,
common labor was particularly in excess of the demand.
to repatriate the unemployed,
but without much success;
the total number furnished transportation for this purpose was 6,773.
, so far
as their use
at the end of the calendar year
The offices, together with the
at Empire and Culebra
buildings at Culebra
by the Army on
were made avail-
on June S
Balboa Heights made
the quarters ques-
4 applications for
occupying Panama Canal quarters at the end
of the fi
the Corozal settlement
seal year was
to make way
for the Army is causing a hardship on canal employees, and although
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
Railroad Company and is to be located at Balboa.
The amount of
coal and fuel oil handled far exceeds expectations, as does the handling
of transferred freight and
terminals will be probably in
excess of the decrease that will
result by the termination of the construction work.
There is still a congestion in silver family quarters in La Boca,
there are over
applications on file,
other districts of
the Canal Zone.
were authorized for silver employees
these are completed it will partially relieve conditions at Paraiso and
Under authority of Executive Order No. 2120, dated January 15,
1915, a rental was charged for all quarters, fuel, and electric current,
effective March 1, 1915.
A schedule of rents was adopted with the
expectation of realizing a sufficient amount to pay for the necessary
Executive order of May 25,
1915, the order of January 15, 1915, was suspended until July 1,1916.
throughout the year was great, with the result that all animals were
worked to their full capacity.
As nearly all of the animals have been
on the work for a number of years, quite a large proportion became
unserviceable and unfit for further use.
during the year 6 horses and 40 mules.
There died or were destroyed
It is proposed to substitute
motor trucks and wagons for animal transportation.
possible was continued, and
the value of material received
the fiscal year was $8,018,418.03, as compared with $11,116,395.10
for the preceding year.
Local purchases amounted to $1,360,469.71,
as compared with $2,293,144.66 for the fiscal year 1914.
coal dropped from $929,176.57
to $543,055.36, and local
purchases of oil dropped from $863,206.66 to $609,760.37.
The main storehouse at Balboa, building No. 5,
was completed in
1914, and while a considerable amount of material had
already been moved into the building prior to completion, the con-
centration of the stock of supplies was not completed until after the
building was finished.
All of the active stock was transferred from
Mount Hope to Balboa, and the value of material moved was approxi-
The building was valued at $7,788.70,
V ><\tO ~
lue of which was 51,987.53.
and was totally wrecked o
Scrap.-Due to the poor condition of the scrap market during the
year no sale of
scrap car wheels were sent to
York in orde
three shipment "
r to furnish ballas
r ' . ;f-; :
gross tons of
classified American scrap
iron and steel and 6,000 tons
of scrap rail now min storage.
The contract with the Chicago House Wrecking Co., dated Septe-
ber 26, 1911, for all French scrap on the Isthmus,
subj ect of controversy for several years,
which has been the
was finally closed in Decen-
, by The Panama Canal agreeing to
turn over to
pany four hundred 12
copper and brass, and
dump cars and
700,000 pounds of scrap
Wrecking Co. relinquished
all claim to the French scrap they had collected and stored at Mount
The sales of surplus and retired equipment and material were made
under the same authority
year. The principal item
locomotives. Decauville 1
as was in effect during the previous fiscal
s consisted of steam shovels, narrow-gauge
rail and narrow gauge dump cars.
The total amount received aggre-
were turned over to the Al
askan Railway Commission.
line restaurants, and of the laborers'
is owned by the Panama Railroad Company
The Hotel Washington
the remainder are sup-
by The Panama Canal.
in a decrease
The falling off
the tourist traffic
Hotels from 1914
During the year there was a net loss
of $1,974.16 in the operation
Hotel was operated at a loss of
but in the period between
1 anrn .Tnon qfl
1Q1P l) not. nrTnfit. Sf StRl fMA wca mnas
the Chicago House
a miscellaneous assortment of
in charge of
. " .IL " **
difficulties the cafeteria plan
after being in operation for a
is impossible to
while it seemed
at the Cristobal
the needs more
satisfactorily than the old table d'h6te system, so that it was extended
the Balboa Hotel on July
of this year.
Cafeteria lunch rooms
the basement of
the administration building on
, 1914, and another at the Balboa shops on January 8,
restaurant on December
as a quick
turned into a quick lunch continuous service restaurant on June
higher cost to
the patrons, and
to secure data on
this point a record
was kept for a limited period in April,
this data it was
that the average breakfast at Cristobal cost
average lunch 29.71
, and the average dinner 31.42 cents,
average per meal per patron of 27.9 cents.
At the Ancon Hotel
average breakfast cost
the average lunch 33
the average dinner 39.4 cents, or an average per meal per patron
The net revenue
year for the line
a decrease of $283,950.46 from
the last year,
or a profit of $21,464.98
but charges for
lights were not included for the entire year, and no charge was made
for the equipment.
principal items of which
were a ruling machine and a pony
equipment on hand as of June 30, 1915,
The value of the
the value of
the stock on hand at the close of the year was $45,198.38;
material used in manufacture, $37,053.09.
were invited on
In several instances bids
various printing jobs, both from commercial firms in
ton, and in
the Government Printing Office,
each case the cost of doing the work on the Isthmus was
under the lowest bid received.
nnhQ a .nih ;aTfr fiQnn
n _- t
a^ *-^ a''h- - 4- Ct T-
D ~ .-' V a'T *-Wa- a
'* *E* � f * j_ -ll MnEtE|** E I * . r f iJ * * * - E *ru* * * l* | .* tA EU Z*"*u**-
'hma~aa ale: na t allIes eineua'a auaa
ganization adopted April 1, 1
master, and collector were moved from
Empire to Balboa Heights the latter part of August, 1914.
Railroad Company at Colon were consolidated with the
accounting department in October, and the positions of local auditor
commissaries was trans-
ferred to the department.
The auditor's office is now organized as follows:
The accounting bureau keeps the general books of the canal, does
the cost keeping for The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad, except
for the shops,
accounting for the commissaries and for the
, Canal Zone,
and has charge of
the force of
pay rolls and
vouchers and handles freight claims and
accounting bureau is organized
take carq of the bookkeeping and
similar work performed for The Panama Canal.
The general inspec-
tion bureau examines the records kept by all employees receiving or
transfer of accounts whenever changes are made.
The accounting for collections is governed by section 5 of the sun-
civil act of August
, 1914, section
3 of the sundry
civil act of
the regulations promulgated by the President in
vouchers need not
be furnished for all collections;
the office of
Auditor for the
shall be detailed semiannually to make such examination of the rec-
months just prior to
the examination as may be necessary to enable
them to prove the correctness of the collections not supported by col-
detail for the period
The first detae
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
tolls amounting to $80,872.79 were levied on
vessels of the United
but under a recent decision of the Attorney General these will not be
The excess of tolls collected over the current charges for the year
and for the entire
to June 30,
excess was $68,843.37.
This, however, does not represent the actual
financial condition, for the Attorney General decided that the maxi-
mum tolls collectible on any vessel is the amount derived from the
United States measurement rules
$1.25 per net ton, so that large refunds will have to be made, as the
the amount collected
under the Panama Canal
rules and the amount properly
collectible under the law has
found to exceed $1,000 in the case of several vessels, and it is roughly
estimated that the total refunds may aggregate $400,000, which will
show an excess of operating expenses over collections.
not be made, however, until Congress makes an appropriation there-
for, as the amounts collected as tolls were covered into the Treasury
as miscellaneous receipts.
All claims for damages to vessels passing through the locks were
adjusted by mutual agreement, as authorized
by section 5 of the
Panama Canal act; $1,878.45 were paid on this account.
Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama which requires
the reimbursement to the United States for expenditures connected
with the construction,
operation, and maintenance of waterworks,
sewers, and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon, the ex-
penditures to June 30, 1915,
were $1,879,282.75, and in
interest to date, at the rate of 2 per cent per annum on the capital
proportionate cost of waterworks
Canal Zone used for supplying water to the two cities, based upon
interest has amounted to $217,310.37
and for work in Colon $172
There have been reimbursed to the United States $1,480,
597.36, leaving a balance of $2,143,004.26 still due.
Hotel books to the number of 9,722 and 589,297 commissary coupon
books were issued for pay-roll deduction,
for which $136,298.43 for
hotel books in November,
f o $3 948 102.59 were honored at the comnussanes.
The periodical examination of the accounts of the 200 officers and
employees having the collection, custody, and disbursement of
ne d the iasue and custfodlv of coupon books and other ites
moL.JAJA)J y L t&
^JUnt, an. c^^-l '-r *waf^'
*- -w -A-
having a money value,
was continued throughout the year.
The total disbursements on the Isthmus on account of salary
employees of The Panama Canal, and
on account of
$6, 003 ,824.0
United States amounted
a total of $33,333,802.34 for The Panama Canal.
o $12,498,500.142, or
The collector also
disbursed $3,972,922.56 on account of the Canal Zone, money orders,
postal savings, and
The total regular collections during the year amounted to $10,637,-
of which $5,977,431.97 were repaid to appropriations, $4,357,-
other miscellaneous receipts.
derived from the sale of cons
Of this last amount $223,896.86 were
truction.material and equipment.
Zone continued during the year, thereby depleting the Zone revenues,
and Congress made provision for the payment of all expenses of the
schools, post offices, ma
direct appropriation for
revenues derived from rentals
, of the Canal Zone,
, court fees and fines,
and interest on bank balances which have been used to meet
$168,078.64 in 1914
be .covered into
to $90,532.69 in
Treasury as mis-
the postal revenues from
1915, including the orders issued
without fees in lieu of postal savings certificates issued
year amounted to $5,657,282.84.
5018 400 48
* *I *- r .ns. * -n-s * .* . S * *Sf * jk *Us c-s in U * y� 1 1 3 *ji &J azr *Js. a._* 'J *. tJU as .ir a a s a
,o the vale
-w v .. .....
V VV J v--if M*^ w j -
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
who sustained short-term injuries are fairly well compensated and the
$43,017.71, total of $84,889.62.
To June 30, 1915, there has been
paid to employees of The Panama Canal on account of injury corn-
sensation, including 838,718.37
allowed under special acts of Con-
gress, a total of $1,269,458.69.
The inspection of time books and work of timekeepers in the field
was continued with a reduced force.
Congress has appropriated for the canal a total of $394,399,149.02
to June 30, 1915.
Of this amount $14,689,873.30 were for fortifica-
tions, $750,000 cover three annual payments of $250,000 each to the
Republic of Panama, $6,000 is for the expense of presenting the
steam launch Louise to
appropriated for the operation, maintenance, and civil government
the canal and
the Canal Zone
for the fiscal
$4,289,159 were used for operating and maintaining the canal to the
end of the fiscal year 1915, and $2,225,000 is the amount of stock on
hand paid from construction funds that will be required for the main-
tenance of the canal and properly chargeable against operation and
This leaves an amount of $365,999,116.72 which has
been appropriated for the construction of the canal and its adjuncts.
$363,999,116.72, is the amount
ized bond issue of $375,200,900.
chargeable against the total author-
Up to June 30, 1915, $6,563,067.88
were returned to the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts other than col-
lections on account of tolls. This amount deducted from the avail-
leaves $357,436,048.84 as the amount expended for the canal, includ-
ing the amount available for work still in progress.
This total cost
of the canal and its adjuncts will be reduced by receipts from the sale
of construction material and equipment, payments by the Republic
of Panama for the amount expended in the cities of Panama
Colon on account of waterworks, sewers, and pavements, and by the
value of buildings and other public works, and equipment and plant
transferred to the Army and the Alaskan Railway Commission with-
out any actual navment therefore.
therA will hn1 A n-n.
shown in detail in accounting department Table No. 6.
including the expenses of
breakwater at Colon,
. " h !
year, the charges made during the year being principally for shing
and for belated charges.
n Gaillard Cut 1,960,617
cubic yards were
removed at an average division cost of $0.4226 per cubic yard;
yards at an average division cost of
$0.3169 per cubic yard;
in Miraflores Lake 40,810 cubic yards at an
entrance 498,400 cubic yards at an average division cost of 80.4820
per cubic yard.
channel at the Atlantic entrar
cost of $0.1017 per c
rds at an average div
ores Lake 8,662 cubic
there were removed in maintaining the
ice 1,233,301 cubic yards at an average
per cubic yard;
yards at an average division
80.2601 per cubic yard, and at the Pacific entrance 43,612 cubic yards
at an average division cost of $0.1979 per cubic yard.
Cut cost an
226 per cubic
yard, and the average division cost of excavation by steam shovels in
that section to June 30, 1914, was $0.7066 per cubic yard, a difference
practically all the dredging this year was done at Cucaracha, the cost
of excavating in the dry at that point would have been much higher
than the average of all previous dry excavation in Gaillard Out, due
the large expense of maintaining tracks in the slide.
fiscal year just ended the division expenses for the construction of the
expended in filling in low places in
the Gatun Dam
, which expenses
e backfill at the
locks at Gatun
, Pedro Miguel, and Miraflores, $32,742.32,
To the and of the fiscal year there had been expended for the con-
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
main dry dock, $883,036.35 for the construction of the coaling plant,
$376,036.35 for the excavation
$2,788,221.14 for the construction
shops, $165,135.17 for the construction of the shop office building,
$511,566.08 for the construction
for the construction of the quay walls and pier, and $241,636.83 for
the construction of the fuel-oil plant and for dredging a berth for
the oil ships.
In the preparation of
the permanent townsites,
expended to the end of the fiscal year $927,678.68 for the town of
Boca, $53,062.30 for Cristobal, and $13,694.07 for Gatun, a total of
Expenditures at Cristobal and Gatun were wholly for
underground duct lines
the other towns include roads, sewers, water mains, etc.
There have been expended to the end of the fiscal year $2,827,383.74
for permanent buildings,
various classes of
$923,294.49; other office buildings, $671.76; storehouses, $57,206.07
dwellings for gold employees,
$1,085,750.08, new wooden
buildings, $183,883.76; and $19,205.60 for designing and drafting.
The above amounts are the direct division costs and do not include
During the fiscal year the gravel plant at Gamboa produced 377,871
cubic yards of sand and gravel
an average cost of $0.7104 per
Since January 2, 1915, when the electric power producing system
was permanently placed in operation,
there have been distributed
The average cost of production per K. W. H.
has been $0.0067 and the average distributed cost $0.0099.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix H.
The department embraces the various civil functions nertainin2
the canal were transferred from Culebra, Empire,
new administration building at Balboa Heights, E
scope of the executive office broadened very materially and,
the original plan as outlined in
fiscal year ended June 30,
the report of the executive
1914, practically all of t
(with the exception of the accounting department),
handled by the different departments and
on fB e "
S ,* :!rB' *XH�* - "*"
l^ThKN:LF ^ ~ ^ ^j^ ^^*iH ^KKKKKK
^- ^ r " ~ r ^ ^ -'^ 'i *p Tlr B^ f-PNf: j K K K K K
, was assigned t
stantially increase the force of the executive office in order to han e
the work properly
This consolidation of the clerical forces under the
executive office was accomplished by the transfer of
other departments and divisions
in a reduction
on a permanent
under direction of the executive secretary,
assisted by the chief clerk
prepares monthly and annual reports, estimates, and statistical
and does such other clerical work as it may be called upon
handles all matters
the personnel of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Com-
receiving and mailing all
correspondence, and transmittal
of all papers between offices; the consolidation of records; the indexing
and filing of maps and drawings; the Panama Canal library; the pub-
time of all employees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad
Company, the issuance of coupon books, and the preparation of force
nomaindrt/1jm �/ ~v
ssA ums JPhim
* *rES .. *.V.-.. NM 9S9.SS.S N. -Nr 9 'SSS rN 'S-z9~~ -9-�rS. S f'rzSa rWs 9Z9 -"" Sm * * * r^ * *s* -.y * Snu * a WSr . A * JtJ.a 3rn a~t w .5SI3:*
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.
OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.
Effective July 1, 1914, the division of posts was incorporated with
the division of civil affairs.
The Canal Record was transferred to
the division of civil affairs July 22, 1914.
Customs bureau.---Since the canal was opened to traffic there has
been a gradual increase in shipping at Balboa and Cristobal.
total number of vessels entered at the two ports was 2,135, the total
number of vessels cleared 2,125.
provide simple rules for the entry
Customs regulations intended to
and clearing of vessels and the
releasing of cargo, with due regard for the interests of the Republic
of Panama, but without impairing the complete administrative juris-
diction of the government of the Canal Zone over the terminal ports,
were published in July and August, 1914.
the direction of the greater simplicity in
They were amended in
the following November.
These regulations meet all present requirements and can be readily
amplified when occasion requires,
The President, in his Executive
order of January 27,
the executive secretary
should in person, or through one of his assistants, perform the duties
of a shipping commissioner.
In conformity with this order, the chief
of the division of civil affairs was designated shipping commissioner
for the Canal Zone and the customs inspectors at Balboa and Cristobal
were designated deputy shipping commissioners. Th
seamen shipped on American vessels during the year
men discharged. Relief was afforded shipwrecked sean
was taken to discourage desertion and apprehend d
ere were 1,033
aen, and action
customs bureau has continued,
with the assistance of the police, to
extending to the Canal Zone certain Chinese exclusion laws of the
Republic of Panama.
Customs inspectors have inspected and sealed
2,828 cases of household goods shipped by employees to the United
States and have certified
945 invoices covering other shipments to
the United States.
Administration of estates.-During the year 268 estates of deceased
and insane employees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad
Company were administered, and there were 14 estates in course of set-
tlement on June 30.1915.
Of the estates settled, 174 were delivered to
50 .aaraAc n
O0 THE PANAMA CANAL. s!
Licenses and taxes.-By the provisions of the Executive ordtrof
- e - - - -a -o A
, 1914, license
laws o0 the
and rates e
some taxes which had been inherited front the olo
the license e
issued and taxes collected during the fiscal year will be found included
in statement of Canal Zone revenues
printed as an appendix to the
beginning and at the close of the fiscal year.
One new office, Balboa
closed September 30, 1914.
The total receipts of the post offices from
all sources were $95,794.36, as compared with $110,742.23 in the pre-
The expenses were reduced from $175,263.42 in
during the year of
a total value of $3,948,762.86, on which fees were
a decrease of $80,601.97
decrease of $6,238.56 in fees collected.
in the aggregate amount and a
For the postal savings system
the Canal Zone
by the President'
Executive order of
Executive order dated September 5,
1914, a system of deposit money
which greatly simplified
inm any way
The deposits on June 30,
a post offices
There was also on deposit on June 30, 1915,
on Canal Zone
the preceding fiscal
parcels and letters were
registered letters and parcels as corn-
year. Approximately 60 per cent of
rived from it.
no revenue was
a I- - -- * n../ k kj .a " ,n�n-q -w^P -- rI- nJtk re J- S* Ja^ - -. .1%. S __/ -**� a..^' tV *.N t Jkh - a/h.� ad'Jk*- --ILLt-t -f./. -- W- a
and reduce the expenses of
Oanal Record.-The Canal Record
was continued after
1915, as a weekly paper for the publication of shipping news, statistics
of traffic, Executive orders, official documents, notices, and circulars.
e scope (
the sale of
A general reorganization of the police and fire division was effected
min a total reduction
police force and 2
There was also a reolassifi-
The Empire district was abolished
The Ancon police station
as a central
headquarters of the district were transferred to the new police station
During the year 5,157 persons were arrested, an increase of
this total number,
3 were convicted and
4 were acquitted
extradition was refused
. There were 6 suicides during the year
were compiled, sworn to,
and submitted to the courts for their infer-
oivd * n
aaa a Tr 'wrr i% , *-_ , 1 , r a * * *., 4 * b , .*
labor of the convicts was employed continuously c
the road from
cents an hour,
Empire to Gamboa.
amounted to $12,4
m amounted to $2
prisoner under sentence to
i the construction
cosf thir ois)tm
cost of subsisting
the penitentiary fl
pardoned on account of poor physical condition and deported before
he began his sentence.
Continuous guard d
No convicts escaped during the year.
performed by police officers at mJ of
on account of the withdrawal of the
troops from Pedro
Miguel and Miraflores'Locks,
the police guard at
those two places was increased.
The Chagres River and Gatun Lake
a similar patrol
harbors of Balboa and
the division did not have
the exclusive use of launches for this purpose.
A suitable launch for
police work at Balboa
was ordered toward the close of the year,
1914, for the control of
automobile traffic and for special emergency
depopulating the Canal Zone
and, in this connection,
1,136 privately owned houses were destroyed
by the owners when notice
One hundred and thirty-four persons were deported from the
Canal Zone by the police
of that number 73 were convicts who had
the Canal Zone
was deemed inadvisable.
which 36 were due
drowning and 35
to accidental traumatism.
Investigations were made in 294 cases of
cumstances were submitted.
were much improved
during the year.
This was brought
stations, hydrants, and by means of the general cleaning up of waste
material and rubbish on the Isthmus.
A new concrete fire station at
was occupied on January
The fire stations at Em-
-.. aJ UJ
-- -- - - * a I- * * 1 1* J
Canal property was estimated at $12,000 and the damage to
property at $10,000.
total loss resulting from
origin occurred on the mining dock at Fort Grant and caused damage
estimated at $27,500.
the Pennsylvanian of
On May 4,
1915, a fire broke out in the hold of
the American-Hawaiian Line shortly
vessel had left the port of Balboa.
She returned to the dock and the
The schools for white children had a net enrollment of
schools for colored children a net enrollment of 1.430.
Washington Hotel at Colon Beach.
At Balboa, four type-5 bachelor
as a school for white
being used for the main high school and
the lower floor
La Boca during the summer vacation, and
reerecting them as one
The building formerly
occupied by the colored school at Mount Hope was removed to Gatun
and reorected for the
high school was transferred from Ancon to Balboa.
The branch high
the colored school at
December 31, 1914,
and the white schools at Culebra and Las Cascadas
were consolidated on February 15 at Empire.
Because of the crowded
the Cristobal white school, it became necessary to open
a school on Colon Beach November 9,
1914, for the first
W || mm ' , | E| . ny* C' t C l| 1|| 1||J m -||| l | .
I a S
n'^tfl, ,-'n t -n-V^^
* f * ^
THE PAAMA OAfAL
Lncon, Corozal, and Balboa at the beginning
nued throughout. A revised course of study has beer *prac
mpleted. It will be printed during the summer vaccatiou"
adopted at the
foundations were laid for a system
g of the next school term.
of industrial training, con
as an integral
Courses of instruction have been con-
ducted for apprentices in
the shops, and classes in mechanical draw-
Ancon, Corozal, and Pedro
Miguel eighth-grade pupils were given inm-
continued next year on broader lines and with more ample equipment.
The bureau of clubs and playgrounds was conducted, as min previous
national committee of the
's Christian Association.
where it was reerected and opened on Christmas Eve.
formerly used at Porto Bello was reerected at La Boca as a clubhouse
as in previous
money was spent
In the district court 86 cases were pending at the beginning of the
779 cases were filed and
decided, leaving 88 cases pending
on June 30,
75 were civil, 341
at Aneon, for th
division, and at Cristobal.
-. -- I� *
Three-fourths of the cases heard arose in
1- J. L a . E
.1- _ 3 - ** t._ -* 3 t____ a.- a a-- ~ . .^.- --:-.^*- * * .1- l-. ann.-W n -.~ nW Ja . -" * J ^ W -J a-KWWJl. S - W W.
Zone school system,
woodwork were organized in
the cases decided
Collections on account of fines and fees amounted to $7,674.14.
In the magistrates court for the Cristobal subdivision 3 cases were
pending on July
, 1914, 2,400 cases were docketed during the year,
and 2,398 cases were decided, leaving 5 pending at the close of busi-
ness on June 30,
Of the cases decided 164 were civil and 2,236
The criminal cases resulted in 1,709 convictions, 337
acquittals, 69 dismissals,
9 cases compromised under sections 359 and
the Code of Criminal Procedure, and
the district court.
A total of $5,898.38 was collected in fees and fines.
The district attorney in his annual report (Appendix L) makes
following statement with reference
the Canal Zone
and I concur in his recommendation:
The present district attorney is familiar with the result of jury trials upon the Canal
Zone, both before and since the Executive order of July 4,
trials in all felony cases. B<
allowed only in capital cases.
fore the Executive order referred
to jury trials were
Since the Executive order of July 4, 1913,
defendants demanding a jury trial have been
white citizens of the
Negroes and foreigners upon the Zone prefer trial by the court without a jury.
the Executive order referred to 6 white defendants have demanded jury trials; 1 was
charged with violation of the white slave act, 1
and 3 with assault with a deadly weapon. All
with murder, 1
were acquitted by juries.
The 4 last
cases were for crimes committed against negroes, and juries refuse to convict white
defendants in these cases.
The results of jury trials since the Executive order of July 4,
1913, have been very
unsatisfactory, and I renew the recommendation made in the last annual report that
the law be amended so that there may be a return to the former practice of allowing
jury trials in capital cases only.
included, among others,
the following subjects
in addition to routine matters:
The issuance of transportation on the
to employees and
officials of the Panama Govern-
the abuse of
the pass privilege; the granting of the corn-
missary privilege to nonemployees with the sanction of the Republic
of Panama; the decrease
by incompetent midwives
by preventing practice
fillin in low land at National ExDosition
Panama City and Empire and thence to the Canal Zone boundary i
the direction of the town of Paja; transmission of messages over te
Panama Canal telephone line to El Vigia; the contract and revocable
license respecting the rental
line of the Panama Railroad
between Panama and
Colon; the strict
landing of immigrants for whom there was little likelihood of employ-
ment, and who were likely to become public charges; the delay in the
Canal health officials;
the health ordinances respecting the registration of births and deaths
in the cities of Panama and Colon; the increase of import duties on
that The Panama
be proposed require-
in each instance for
the clearance of
and goods through the Panaman customs;
the regulation of private hospitals in
the cities of Panama
the reduction in rates at
Colon Hospital for
of Colon; unauthorized entry upon Canal Zone territory and exercise
of police powers by Panaman police in pursuit of fugitives; the delivery
by Panaman courts
maintaining a representative in
by the Panama
Railroad Company to receive such orders of garnishment; the segrega-
tion of stables in the city of Panama
the proposed sale of the American
wharf in the city of Panama to the Republic of Panama, and the lease
entered into between the Panama Railroad Company and Messrs.
the wharf in
of Panama known as the
between lighthouses established by The Panama Canal and the Repub-
lic of Panama; the right of the Republic of Panama to refuse to honor
a request for the extradition of a citizen of Panama from the Republic
to the Canal Zone; the
Panama Canal and the Republic of Panama, changing the boundaries
in the district known as Las Savanas and in the waters of Colon Bay;
the payment of 40 per cent of the face value of United States postage-
i.-Ut n i r- * rr� * *u .ir^^r A' 1%
*&*. B ...H.'' *'* S4 - ^^** :** . ' 'S ::..:.: :
greater executive powers may have to
be exercised in
those cities to
accomplish the ends desired.
The Taft agreement has become in many respects disadvantageous
more in accord
our present mutual needs
under the treaty.
For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix J.
During the year Judge Frank Feuille continued as special attorney
for the purpose of codifying the laws of the Canal Zone and defend-
ing the interests of the United States before the Joint Land Commis-
under private ownership
over in accordance with
the Executive order of Decem-
various heads of departments in matters relating to the canal organ-
the Republic of Panama.
The district attorney, Mr.
A number of Executive orders of legislative character were issued,
the more important of which
of the clerk of the district cc
were: The order relating to
urt and his assistant; requiring
going vessels to
wireless; authorizing the
attendance; setting aside certain area of lands inm
the Canal Zone for
the naval radio
prescribing the duties of
costs in civil actions; prescribing rules for the government of motor-
men and persons in control of street cars at street, road, and railroad
of the services rendered by the late Lieut.
Col. D. D.
58 THE PANAMA CANAL.
the commission, thus discontinuingm the old system, ad requio
him thereafter to complete, govern, and operate the canal and to
Executive orders of
revising the laws in
order to adapt
the new conditions, and submitting them to Congress for enactment,
for the canal and its adjuncts present prob-
lems that are entirely new in administration.
provided for the canal require
drafted so as to harmonize the various elements, or friction and ineffi-
ciency will result.
The opening of the canal to traffic has brought it
into close contact with the world's commerce, and
there is not suffi-
cient scope in the old Executive orders to permit the President or his
representative on the
the questions which will con-
under the new
order of things.
of laws and
entirely over and
Canal act should
the new organization firmly settled.
be modified so as to permit the President to make
such modifications when the necessity therefore arises.
office of The Panama Canal, which also has charge of the
diction of the special attorney
settled by private agreement
Railroad Company, continued
During the past year the land office
1,462 claims, aggregating the
paid from January
to June 30, 1915, aggregating the sum of
The Joint Land Commission
continues in session, and the progress
heretofore made gives little hope of its concluding its duties within a
reasonable time in
One of the American commissioners,
-� T-- a
TX �. . "1
.. . . . w aw m n - ama . s
claims could be filed,
terminated, and on that date 3,593 claims had
commission in 1913 on its own motion, and for which no formal claims
Judge L. M.
sioners, left for the United States on June 24, 1915, in consequence of
which the commission is again inactive.
A number of licenses revocable at will,
which provide that no cornm-
sensation shall be paid to lessees for improvements in case the license
at Cristobal for
build steamship offices and residences for company
for the erection of tanks for the storage of fuel oil at Cristobal
a temple at
All of these licensees are required to pay a reasonable
ground rent, except in the case of religious and benevolent organiza-
tions, in which cases a nominal rent is charged.
For further details attention is
United States Army, and
the organization remained as
The scope of the work handled was about the
same as previously reported.
the continued effort to reduce
the supply of material on the Isthmus to a minimum, the work of the
been a large
orders, the average value of
order, however, being considerably
reduced below the average of former years.
employment for duty
on the Isthmus in grades above
laborer, as compared with 2,248 for the previous year;
total amount of
..^^^^.........^......^^ J^^^^L. ju. -^^k4^t- :H. :^^K- .&JJUL< u. JJ^JK u. ^juju^u^ vw :^^^T
'l^i*:I-^: HE *i31 & nJ A'-liJi & lia & *lir'al w * *
.* . **..a ... *ft .*^ j^... i"H .-jfm. .I�B....j1^.. HLJ'i^^.iAM ...f* *g'.a^..
WHf -^^^^^^^^*^^^^^^ /: t^^W ^^tt^^l^^^^ "T ^----^B^^T^fftff^^^^^^ ^m||T *^^-^HBfrBI^^F-lF :4MMIIIIIHI^^--^ff'^Bl-
K ^ "^
The health department was charged with the care
of the sick l ad
* it '*'**'^;
^ . it-s I
Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, street cleaning and gab
removal in the latter cities, and all matters relating to quarantine
The department continued in charge of Lieut. CoL. Charles F. Man,
United States Army.
-With the exception of one case of smallpox,
was brought in on the steamship Panama, and one practically recov-
ered case brought in
on the Pacific mail steamship
Newport, no cases
7V, �^n/W fli1oQ
of quarantinable diseases originated on or were brought to the Isthmus
* 1914; for
to hospitals alone 204.18, compared
as against 7.92 for
as compared with
This means that had the death rate for disease for 1915 remained the
same as for
we would have had
59 deaths of
we did have.
With regard to malaria,
which is our principal cause of
the hospital admission rate was reduced 20 per cent, and the death
rate more than 32 per cent since
admission rate for
typhoid fever was reduced more
admission rate for
the death rate for pneumonia more than 39 per cent.
Canal Zone the
death rate from
disease was reduced
in Panama City from 34.25 to
30.74, and in Colon from 24.12 to 21.25.
Division of hospitals.-Two of the
wards at Ancon Hospital were
the lowest number in any one day
During the month of Anril the transfer of the insane department at
REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 61
There was a large increase in the number of patients at Palo Seco
Leper Asylum, and it was necessary to provide additional buildings
for their accommodation.
The number of district dispensaries was reduced from 10 at the
close of 1914 to 7 at the close of 1915, and 2 of these do not require
The new concrete storehouse at Ancon was completed and occu-
pied in January last.
Sanitary division.-The number of sanitary inspection districts at
the close of the year was 6 as compared with 9 at the close of 1914.
Those abandoned were turned over to the military. A large number
of new sanitary ditches of a permanent nature were constructed
during the year.
The large hydraulic fills which are being made in the vicinity of
Balboa, Ancon, Panama, and Mount Hope, have given much trouble
and expense in the control of mosquito breeding along their borders,
but eventually will be of great assistance from a sanitary point of
The building regulations of the Canal Zone were rendered so as to
require future construction to be rat proof.
Increased attention was given to the Canal Zone schools with a
view to preventing the spread of contagious diseases and to improve
the health and sanitary conditions of the pupils.
Panama.-The rapid growth in the area and population of the
city, about 33 per cent in the last two years, has greatly increased
the work of the health department. The suburbs have been extended
into very malarious districts, rendering necessary a vast amount of
new drainage, jungle clearing, etc. Nearly 12 miles of new ditches
were dug and 75 miles of old ditches cleaned and maintained.
The street-cleaning work has grown to such proportions that it has
been impossible to do it for the amount estimated by Col. Gorgas in
1912. However, it was kept at the lowest cost possible to accom-
plish fairly satisfactory results, and the Panama Government has been
notified that we wish to amend our present agreement so as to increase
the allowance made by it from $38,000 to $50,000 per annum.
Special effort was made to clean up and reduce the number of filthy
* V 9 .' *T- * a * - -� a Wa , aw -
The large fill which was made some years ago
quarantine station behind
in the rear of the old
the Panama Railroad stables has recently
account of the rank growth of grass 'and the uneven settling, causing
large concealed pools which are difficult to drain This area will
the future at considerable expense unless
further filling and grading is done.
the year the
quarantine station at the Pacific
now in full operation on the new site.
A landing is being constructed
At the Atlantic end a portion of the old Colon Hospital was fitted
up as a quarantine station and it is proposed
to construct a landing
point as soon as
breakwater affords sufficient
increase in number of vessels inspected
as much as
to ships in
through the canal, arrangements were made to pass ships from infected
be completed in
For further details attention is invited
to Appendix I.
Work was continued
during the year on
the gun and mortar bat-
teries, and by the close of the
year the concrete work and all of the
fire-control systems and
of Lieut. A.
, when he was succeeded by
The following appendices are inclosed herewith:
iT n- Ih*w I?~it /-flf L' Iw |r
OF THE ENGINE
ER OF MAINTENANCE,
Canal Zone, July 15, 1915.
Sm: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, under the supervision of the
engineer of maintenance:
Col. H. F. Hodges, now brigadier general, United States Army,
continued as engineer of maintenance until he was relieved from
duty with The Panama Canal on January 1, 1915, on which date he
was succeeded by the undersigned.
So far as matters within the jurisdiction of this office are con-
cerned, the past fiscal year has marked the completion of constuc-
tion work and the beginning of the period of operation and mainte-
The division of erection, which at the beginning of the year was
charged with the completion of the various machinery installations
in the locks and spillways, the construction of power plants and
allied matters, was abolished on July 15, 1914. The small amount of
remaining construction and installation work at the locks was turned
over to the lock superintendents, and the completion of the trans-
mission lines and the o operation of the power plants to the electrical
engineer. Thereafter the organization of the work under the engi-
neer of maintenance has been as follows:
Operation and maintenance
United States Army, superin
1915, when relieved by Capt.
F. C. Clark, superintendent
with Mr. R. H Whitehead a,
The electrical division.-Ca
electrical engineer, with Mr.
ThA~p d'iq.msjin. f n-fqin.Qwnnfla o
e of locks.-Capt. Wmin. F. Endress,
tendent of Gatun Locks, until May 1,
T. H. Dillon, United States Army; Mr.
of Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks,
s assistant superintendent.
pt. W. H. Rose, United States Army,
Hartley Rowe as electrical superin-
)flq4n^qwflf -MtUr tnsn il/I I/VIHc r��acstlan t
The division of lock
two principal heads,
with their respective
the operation and m
There is attached here
this organization as it
The force required
and maintenance of t]
the following table:
operation and maintenance is subffivided is t
the "Atlantic looks" and the "Pacific lochks,"T >
gold and silver organizations to take care of
amntenance of all machinery and equipment.
to a chart (plate No. 121), giving an outline of
existed on June 30, 1915.
during the past fiscal year for the operation
ER locAI was a variable one, as is indicated by
.^ _ j ^ ^ ^ u ^ . __ .�i ...... � -^ K H-^ K ^ u **** .... K K K K K K K K K ^
*jF k^^^^ ^^^E . TL^r' ^^B'^ : FH'E^H'j^-L-^ ^^":*::::::^*KKKK^ K
*i~j -l^f Lj ^I^ L_ _H -^^^-KE^L *^ ^L BiP1._h^ f-KK KKK KKKK^KK^. K
thio "Atlantiic locis" and the� "Pacific Ao;oi^
aintenance of ~~all machinery, and eu mn. ;*!
to a chart (plate ~No. 121), giiganouleof '1
existed on hune 30, 1915.
dulingthe past ficlyear fo operation
he lockswas a variable one, as is" indicated by
March. .. .
Practically all of the plain and reinforced concrete required for the
construction of the locks was in place before the beginning of the last
fiscal year. A total of 1,509 cubic yards of concrete was laid for
construction and maintenance purposes up to the 30th of November
1914, this material being laced by the division of lock operation and
maintenance under the direction of the lock superintendents. All
concrete laid in the locks after November 30 was charged to main-
Practically all of the lock machinery had been placed complete by
the beginning of the past fiscal year. The principal exception is the
installation of the chain-fender machines, which were installed by the
lock forces at periods when they were not occupied with the lockage
of vessels. The last chain was installed on June 25, 1915.
These installations were somewhat delayed by the fact that it was
found advisable to increase the height of the motors above the sump
pits, in this manner increasing the capacity of the sumps by a very
considerable amount, and allowing the pump motors to o rate less
frequently. The necessary machine work for making this change was
accom listed by the mechanioal division, the work of installation
being handled by the lock force.
The work on the chain-fender machines, including the installation
of the chains, was completed as follows:
Gatxun -- ... ... .-..
-. - . . . . - t . . - . ,- - - . - . . - . , n * . . . . . * * . -. * *S * - * *. * * - . . a* a * -. * a a .
- -. a..S -S -S *- - - .S - S.S*.-*..*..- SS.* S S -..S .- -S - ..-* - ..S ..S * *
- S- S-.-S -* - S . --------------------- -S a - - a..*- a . -- SS -.... S .* -S - . S-
Nov. 30, 1914
The chain-fender machines were furnished by the United Engineer-
ing & Foundry Co.
Owing to the massiveness of the chains u,
considerable difficulty was encountered in
one case it was necessary to place a new
had spent over three months trying to pr
The following table gives a list of the
chains, or sections, it being understood
made up of three sections each, except th
which have four sections each:
sed on the fender machines,
the orders, and in
ter one contractor
ors who furnished
fender chains are
United States navy yard, Boston, 8 complete chains and 2 sections.
Bradlee & Co., 9 complete chains and 3 sections.
Lebanon Chain Works, 2 complete chains and 2 sections.
Brown-Lenox & Co. (Ltd.), 3 complete chains.
J. B. Carr Co., 1 section.
Total, 24 complete chains and 2 spare sections.
The last section
The transformer rooms
and Miraflores have been
. . .. . .. if ^ . .. �� -
A contract was placed with the Western Eleotric Co. for furnish g
a complete aparatus and equipment for each of the locks, the 3 -
rial being devered so that the installation was started m Octo
1914, an completed m February, 1915.
Arrangements were made with the Panama Railroad Compn
provide each of the switchboards min the lock-control houses wit
two trunk-line connections to the nearest telephone exchanges
the transisthmian tele hone system; and arrangements were so
made with the marine vision to have their private telephone liues
tapped in at each of the lock switchboards to provide direct commu-
nication between the lock-control houses and the offices of the port
The delivery of the towing locomotives ordered of the General
Electric Co. in accordance with their alternative proposition providing
a single-truck type of machine was completed by November 14, 1914;
In general, the locomotives have operated in a very satisfactory man-
ner, the most essential change which has become necessary being the
provision of a low maximum speed for towing of vessels of heavy ton
nage. The machines were originally designed by the contractor in
accordance with our specifications and provided a maximum towing
speed of 2 miles per hour. As this speed was found to be too high
when handling vessels of heavy tonnage, arrangements were made to
connect the two main traction motors of each Locomotive in cascade,
in this manner providing a maximum towing speed of 1 mile per hour:
The necessary material has been purchased for changing alt locomo-
tives so as to provide for maximum towing speeds of 2 miles and 1
mile per hour, respectively, the change in speeds being accomplished
by throwing over a single switch located near the operator in their
Specifications have been issued and bids asked for 12 additional
towing locomotives, to be similar to those now in use, the principal
changes being the increased height of the cabs in order to allow the
operators to have a better view of the vessels being towed in the
upper chamber of all locks, and the rearrangement of the main traction
motor controllers, providing for the operation of the locomotives'
main traction motors in either cascade or multiple. Bids on the 12
new machines are advertised to be opened on August 16, 1915.
In order that the lock superintendents may communicate with the
pilots of approaching vessels as to the readiness of the locks for
h�ndlin hinq..a lnran nsrrnw aQJon ft han v- hasn ifilaAl at tha art.ls
OF THE ENGINEER
It was found that at extreme high tide wave action in spilling at
the lower end of the side and center wall culverts at Gatun caused the
flooding of the lower guard-gate bullwheel recesses. In order to cor-
rect this operating difficulty, arrangements were made to raise the
lower guard-gate struts 12 inches, and also to provide an increased
height to the bulkhead walls of the recesses. The mechanical work
required for making this change was done at the mechanical division
shops, and the work of instilling the machinery and concrete by the
lock force under the supervision of the lock superintendent.
Arrangements have been made to purchase
installation at the upper and lower ends of all
Both the inlet and outlet of the center wall cu
of "T's," and the regulating valves will be inst
taken in at the upper end may be obtained fr
west side of the center wall at will, or water di
end of the locks may flow into either the east
direction of flow being controlled by the oper
switchboard. This regulation has been found
prevent difficulties to vessels approaching or
currents produced by the intake or discharge
middle wall culvert.
regulating valves for
middle wall culverts.
iverts are in the form
called so that the water
om either the east or
discharged at the lower
or west chamber, the
ator from the control
desirable in order to
leaving a lock due to
of water through the
During the fiscal year the permanent lock repair shops were
installed to take the place of the temporary wooden structures in
which the shops and offices of the lock superintendents had been
located up to the end of the construction period. The reinforced
concrete buildings constructed are 110 feet long and 38 feet 6 inches
wide, and contain the necessary dry rooms, open and closed storage
spaces, blacksmith shop, general shop, and latrines for white and
Contract has been awarded to the American Bitumastic Enamels
Co. to paint all submerged parts of the lock-gate structures and main-
tain them in first-class condition under a five-year guaranty. The
contractor has commenced to assemble the necessary material and
equipment for carrying out the work under this contract.
- -n.. -S
The annual r
operation of pas
the skill of the
handling the v
and the safety t
Since the dat
August 15, 1914
In March, 1915,
pleasure craft o
Nos. 73, 75, and
mercial, the con
o both w
the fiscal year 1914 describes ii
ls through the locks by means of
ience of the year just closed ha
and pilots and consequently thi
o changes in methods have 1
sion and accuracy of the ship's
essel and locks, during lockages,
fiac y or'-
e of opening of the canal to commercial vessels on
, the traffic has increased to considerable proportions.
there were 147 commercial lockages, including several
f light tonnage; in May there were 143 commercial
n June, 145. The accompanying diagrams platess
77) give in compact form the data month by moth
number of lockages, both commercial and noncom-
sumption of water from Gatun Lake due to lockage s,
' .' i "^ .
': ^. * :
* ^Tr- ./sl||
"** " *
all other causes, etc.
The steamship Ancon was
trying a larj
e at 9.15 a.
n . _ ~I �-
. m. one enuerea
lower end at 3.23 p
. m., left the upper
Hour and 30 minut'
on the following da
m. She entered M
; selected to pass through the canal upon
ge number of older canal employee aes
d Gatun Locks at 8.06 a. m. and passed
m. After passing through Gatun Lake
at Pedro Miguel at 12.51 p. m., leaving
upper Miraflores Locks at 1.55 p. m. and
. m., passing into the Pacific.
n entered the lower lock at Gatun at
d at 2 p. m., the total time of lookage
She arrived at Pedro Miguel at 2.82
passing out into Miraflores Lake at
flores Locks at 4.05 p. m., and passed
Pacific at 5.40 p. m.
The first commercial lockage going north occurred on Aust 16,
1914, when the steamshi Pletades of the Luckenbach Steamship Co.
entered the lower chamber of Miraflores Locks at 7.15 a. m. She
passed through to Miraflores Lake at 8.10 a. m., and entered Pedro
Miguel Lock at 8.36 a. min., leaving for Gatun at 9 a. m. She arrived
at Gatun at 3.39 p. inm., leaving the Atlantic side of Gatun Locks at
4.47 p. m.
Further details of operation and maintenance of the locks are
When everything is in readiness for a lockage the arrow signal at end of approach
wall is set to enter.
A sall boat with lock pilot aboard meets vessel some distance from end of approach
wall, unless ship ties up at approach wall before the lock pilot returns from the pre-
vious lockage. Small boats with linesmen aboard and linesmen on the approach wall
stand by to receive lines from ship and assist vessel to tie up along approach wall
if necesmry. In general the vessel comes in close alongside center approach wall and
moves toward lock chamber under own power. Light manila heaving lines are cast
from shore by which cables from locomotives are pulled aboard b ship's winches or
linesmen. As a general rule four locomotives are used on ships of less than 300 feet.
It is expected to use eight locomotives on battleships or ships of exceptional size.
As soon as cables from bow locomotives are aboard and made fast a strain is placed
on these lines at signal from the lock pilot and ship is drawn away from approach wall
and forward toward lock chamber, and at the same time cables from other locomotives
are taken aboard. The use of a small boat is necessary to get cables aboard from
locomotives on side walls. When time is available the water level is equalized before
arrival of ship and gates are opened, but fender chain is left up until ship is under
control of locomotives. Ship's engines are stopped before bow of vessel passes fender
The man in charge of lockage representing the lock force carries a portable phone
which can be connected with the control house at any lamp-post on lock walls. He
notifies control house when to lower fender chain and when to close the gates. The
proper time for opening gates is indicated to control-house operators by the indicators
on control board. All gates are under observation from the control house and cracking
of gates caused by overtravel of water may generally be observed. Attempt is made
to open gates just as soon as they crack so that reverse head assists the operation.
From time locomotive cables are aboard every movement of locomotives is made
in response to standardized signals from lock pilot. Locomotives have a towing speed
of 2 miles per hour. They slacken cables before ascending or descending inchlines.
"During the course of the lockages the ship's engines are used only to assist locomotives
in starting and stopping the ship. The breast locomotives assist-the bow locomotives
in starting the ship and then drop back during the tow and assist stern locomotives in
stopping the ship. On up lockages manila ship cables are attached to snubbing but-
tons on lock walls to assist locomotives to steady ship in lock chamber during filling.
When ready for the water the lock pilot signals the man in charge of lockage who
phones the control-house operator. On down lockages manila cables are held in
readiness but are not attached to snubbing posts because locomotives can easily hold
ship steady in lock chamber. After water in last chamber is equalized with sea level
or lake level, as the case may be, and gates are opened, the locomotives are used only
to steady ship in chamber until propeller is started, after which locomotive cables are
cast off and the ship leaves the locks under its own power. With strong beam winds
and ships well out of the water the locomotives are used to steady the ship until stern
clears the last gates.
On up lockages a pilot boat is used to pick up the lock pilot after the vessel leaves
the lock chamber. On down lockages a counterweighted gangplank running on
wheels is used and pilot comes ashore on center wall just before locomotives' lines are
Tunnel operators with silver helpers follow the course of the lockage and stand by
during operation of each machine.
The fender chains for protection of gates are lowered as soon as gates are opened and
raised as soon as gates are closed, with the exception of first noted above.
Tandem lockages, that is, two ships in same chamber at same time are frequently
made where length of each ship is not more than 300- feet. To date the number of
tandem lockages has been limited by the number of locomotives available rather than
by length of lock chambers. A tandem lockage generally takes about 10 minutes more
.?- .. 1 0 0I
ness tomake fast to snubbing postson lock walls. Each bow locomotive ispreceded b
a track walker to see that trade is clear The receiving force const ot
charge; 1 boatswain with two small skit; 2 oarsmen each; 6 linesmen on center wall
and 2 lesmen on side walls. The monthly labor cost for this operating crew is:
52 silver men.... .. . * , - .. ... . .. *-.-*-* -, * * ** ** ** .1. . .. . -. . 1 885
TIota l. a a . .. - -aaaa.a-a4. a.....aa -.a 4, 26
The lock pilot is carried on the rolls of the marine division. A tandem .lockge
requires the services of 1 additional lock pilot and 2 additional locomotive operators
with their silver helpers. Parallel lockages require two complete o a shift.
With trained lock pilots, no special difficulty is experienced during niht opera-
tions and no appreciable time is lost. The lighting system on lock wasi very
satisfactory. For night work the lock pilots carry two electric flash lights for *yj
signals, No locomotive operators are used for night work except those fully qu~le
The intermediate chambers are seldom used as no time is saved at Gatan and to
date no economy in water consumption has been necessary.
Lockages have been made at less than regular lockage intervals, that is, with one
ship in first lock while another ship was still in third lock. In this manner ships may
follow each other through the locks at about one-half hour intervals. Small tags ai
launches that can pass under the locomotive cables can be locked down while two or
more ships are coming up, or vice versa; also tugs and barges of light draft may bq
locked through in two lifts by combining middle and lower locks, but no appreciable
time is saved thereby on account of arrangement of interlocking system.
The lock pilots must becapable and experienced men in handling ships and must al6
be familiar with the operation of towing locomotives. The official in charge of the
lockage from the lock force supervises the operation of his force and machinery from the
lock walls and sees that the signals of the lockpilot are promptly and correctly eb e0
Once in locks and under control of locomotives ships are handled easily and safey
As before stated, ships' engines are used in starting and stopping to relieve locomotives
of part of strain and to save time. A few cases of errors or slowness by ships engine
room force in obeying signals have occurred which have demonstrated the utility of
having the separate towing system by towing locomotives. In all cases the locomo-
tives have been able to stop the ship before it reached the fender chains or the gate
The value of being able to call on ship's power in starting and stopping and in case oi
broken cables has also been demonstrated.
Several instances have occurred where vessels have had difficulty in tying up to
approach walls. At upper entrance this trouble has general come rnm high winds
especially with ships that do not handle easily. No appreciable difficulty occur due
to opening of valves for filling upper chamber. Float observations in lake near end of
approach wall indicate that there is a slight current toward spillway when spillway
gates are open. .
At the lower entrance difficulty in entering or tying up is encountered principally on
account of spilling or on account of current caused by meeting of fresh and salt water
when gates are opened. Difficulty here also is principally observed ina ships that do
not handle easily either through lack of power or slow response to engme-room signals.
To facilitate arrival of ships at lower entrance the gates are left open afl nmght or one gate
is opened at 6 a. m., so that currents may die out before arrival of first ship. At other
times, providing time is available, spilling is completed and gates are opened before
vessel reaches one-half mile point or these operations are delayed until vessel is made
- S -- 5 -� - - _-_ . J _ _ __
"" ,,,,, ,,, ,,,,, � ,,7 ,, ,,, � ,,,
effort is being made to qualify all as locomotive operators, tunnel operators, and on
emergency dams. Extra men must also be broken in as control-house operators.
General foreman and general operators must be ready in emergencies to take charge
of lines or lockages. All locomotive operators are trained by one man so that the same
system is followed throughout.
The length of time required to qualify a locomotive operator who has had consider-
able experience electrically or mechanically varies from one to three weeks, depending
F. C. Clark, Superintendent.
The operating crews have acquired a high degree of proficiency, and the time of
lockage has been materially reduced and is now at a minimum, averaging in the
neighborhood of 25 minutes at Pedro Miguel and about 45 minutes at Miraflores.
At about the time two-shift operation was started, use of the 600-foot chamber was
commenced for ships of 400 feet in length and under, principally for the purpose of
assisting the regulation of Miraflores Lake and for the saving of time.
Delays to traffic due to failures of lock equipment during the year have been of
negligible magnitude. But two cases have occurred due to failure of the machinery.
One was due to a motor burning out, the delay amounting to about one-half hour;
and the other due to the breakage of a locomotive line in one of the trial lockages.
Delays due to failures on the part of the operators have in all amounted to less than
Studies of the surges and currents of the locks have been continued, and the results
so far as possible applied to facilitate regular operation. Surging due to the drawing
of water from Gaillard Out is apparent. The period of the surge is such that with
successive lockages the amplitude has reached a value of 2.42 feet. Owing to the
currents produced by these surges, the locks are operated so that after 11 a. m., while
the Out is being dragged, water is drawn at half speed. During the actual passage of
ships through the slide no water is drawn at all. The attached hydrograph (plate No.
76) made at the Pedro Miguel station on March 16 is of interest in this connection.
During the year 1,260 operations were made at Pedro Miguel, 1,085 of which were
for commercial vessels. At Miraflores there were 1,236 operations, 1,085 of which
were for commercial vessels. The increase in the average day's work by months is
shown on the accompanying charts (plates Nos. 73 and 74).
Utilizing the short chamber and the ability to cross fill, in addition to locking ships
down with the same chamber of water by which ships had been locked up, has resulted
in a material reduction in the quantity of water required per lockage. For comparison
the figures are:
The comparison of these two months shows a reduction of approximately 20 per
cent for Pedro Miguel and 5 per cent for Miraflores.
In addition to the
of labor expended in
and lubricating the
gates, greasing miter
out of the forebays,
lamp renewals, etc.
It was also necessa
account of settlement
has about ceased an
give a permanent cox
THE PANAMA CANAL,
work of the above nature, there has been a considerable amount
cleaning machinery', switchboards, floors, and copings, inspecting
machinery, sounding and inspecting the interior of the miter
and quoin post faces to preserve against corrosion, cleaning dr
adjusting and checking adjustments of the equipment, making
ry to level and line up the quadrants of the emer ency dam on A>
t of the foundation. The present indications are t settle
i that one more adjustment on each of the four quadrants ei
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r% H H Il ~ -*S M-:!':'M..^:*<*: ...N
..*.~j: ..* * *f *T** * ^ * _. .... ... ... �-. . .. ...-
1^^ ^TI^^^ -^^^ ^' ^ ^ T^^� p K^ K.. .... ....
The work of grading the back fill at Pedro Miguel was commenced min October, 1914,
when the grass and high weeds were cut down. All scrap was then removed and the
water-pipe line on the east side lowered. By the latter part of March coerable
work had been done on both the east and west back fill and the spaces in the concrete
in all three walls had been graded and planted with grass. In order to complete tbi
work before the rainy season set in, the force was increased in the early part of Aprtil
All the grading work was practically completed by the latter part of at month an
was fini ed in May.
The work of grading the back fill at Miraflores was commenced in October, 1914,
also by cutting grass and weeds and removing rubbish. The work of grading was
started in November, and by the end of January ractically all the spaces in the lock
walls had been graded and planted in grass. Te force was increased considerably
in May, and the work was practically completed by the latter part of that'month.
The only part of the backfill remaimng to be graded is the lower level on the e
side and the slope between the upper and lower locks on the west side.
In the course of grading, the permanent tracks and sidewalks required have been
laid and the necessary switches installed. Construction tracks have been removed
and serviceable material returned to the' store.
OF FLOATING CAISSON.
Floatin caisson No. 1 arrived from San Francisco October 2, 1914, and was in-
stalled at Miraflores Locks for test purposes. It was given a complete test, and some
faulty electrical connections and defects were corrected.
The caisson was then used for unwatering the east chamber at Miraflores for th
purpose of cleaning and painting the miter gates and the rising stem valves. This
work on the east side was completed in March, and the caisson was then installed on
the west side, where the same work was done on the miter gates and rising stem valves
as on the east side.
At the time Miraflores Locks were unwatered a thorough inspection of the conditions
of fixed irons, valves, and equipment in the culverts was made. This inspection
revealed the fact that a galvanic action had taken place in the salt water between
metals of different kinds. Tests have been made on preservative coatings having
insulating properties, and it appears that this action can be eliminated.
The greatest action is apparent on the side seal strips of the rising stem valves.
These strips are of relatively small dimensions and are so constructed as to be easily
removed and replaced. At this time 10 of the rising stem valves were coated with
bitumastic enamel. The cylindrical valve leathers and seats were scraped and iuMsng
and broken bolts replaced and a large amount of debris removed from the chambers
and culverts. The caisson itself was painted in its entirety.
.. .:** /*. ..*. ..:**
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OF TEN ENGINEER OF
system from the Panama Railroad on April 1, 1915,
of all work in connection with fire-alarm systems
and fire division on the same date.
The hydroelectric station at Gatun was placed
July 13, 1914, and has been operating continuously
or incident worthy of mention since tat date. Th
stations of the transmission system were placed in
early part of December, 1914, and the entire 44,000-'
line on January 2, 1915. The operation of the trar
as a whole has been generally satisfactory up to
Putting into service of the hydroelectric station,
atun steam station was discontinued, and when t]
the transmission line enabled the load at the south
to be transferred to Gatun, Miraflores steam plan
a stand-by status, and has be
January 2, 1915.
The rapid growth of the elect
with the construction of plain
power apparatus that were no
the plans for the hydroelectric
1911, has rendered it advisable
in the capacity of the hydroel
station is sufficient for present
will be made within the next
en operated as a res
and the transfer
from the police
in operation on
a four main sub-
operation in the
date. With the
the operation of
hie completion of
end of the canal
t was placed on
erve plant since
rical demand on the Isthmus, together
nts of various kinds with electrical
t foreseen and considered at the time
station were adop
to take up the qu
ectric station at a
needs, but heavy
few months for di
compressors, coaling plants, cold storage pl
laneous purposes. These additional loads co
Miraflores steam station, but only at an incre
the power required of at least three-quarters
hour. While the aggregate increased cost
estimated on account of the uncertainties as
editions, it would unquestionably be of suffice
considerable expenditures in increasing the
The electrical engineer is now investigating
that consultation with the manufacturers of
and turbines indicates a strong possibility of
increase of approximately 40 per cent over
the station by changing the turbine runners
ing changes in certain other elements of the g
rr U0 __ . S .
ted in the spring of
Sstion of an increase
n early date. The
ry-dock pumps, air
and other miscel-
be taken care of by
Cost for generating
a cent per kilowatt
not be accurately
he future load con-
amount to justify
city of the hydro-
the matter, and reports
the present generators
being able to secure an
the present capacity of
mnd making correspond-
enerating and transmis-
g I �
sion system. He estimates the cost o0 the necessary changes m the
hydroelectric station alone at $22,500 and of the other changes for
additional cables and transformers at $50,000. It appears at the
present time that this work can be done within the appropriation
allotments for the fiscal year 1916. From present indications it is
+-tnnniit+fk0 T+ +1,a~cin, nlvioy^^n rrrn, n~il hn aA'rr~can~kl b1ti�4 tk0A moffQrnHna11 bmN
.44 cents and .99 cents
duction cost of current
six months of the fiscal
Marked erosion of the
per kilowatt hour,
at Miraflores stean
year was .97 cents p
baffle viers at Gatux
1 station during the
er lkilowatt hour.
1 spillway has take
during the last rainy season aid extensive repairs are contemplated
during the coming ry season. .
Work is in progress at the close of the fiscal year on the removal
of the temporary portion of Miraflores steam station building and t
replacement by permanent concrete construction.
The Empire steam power plant was shut down permanently on
September 17, 1914, and the Balboa plant on May 23, 1915. The
operation of the Empire air-compressor plant was discontinued on
the same date as the power plant. The alboa air-compressor plant
has continued to operate throughout the year for'the supply of air
to Balboa shops and the terminal construction work in the Balboa
Two small substations, one at Gamboa of 1,332 KVA transfomer
capacity for the supply of power to the pumping and gravel handling
plants at that place, and one at Darien of 532 KVA transformer
capacity for the naval radio station were constructed and placed aw
operation during the year.
The operation of the 13 electric cargo-handling cranes of the
Panama Railroad on Balboa pier was conducted throughout the
year by the electrical division. The construction, operation, and
maintenance of telephone, telegraph, and railway signal systems for
the Panama Railroad was conducted after April 1, 1915. The tele
phone and telegraph system on the Isthmus was entirely reconstructed
during the fiscal year. The shifting of the major portion of the teje-|
phone load from the Empire-Culebra district to Balboa necessitated
a rearrangement of central offices, and the completion of the trans-
isthmian 4-duct conduit line and installation therein of a 5-pair
duplex, loaded, lead-sheathed telephone and telegraph cable enabled
about 2,000 miles of overhead telephone, telegraph, and signal WBir
to be removed. The automatic block signal system of the Panama
Railroad which has been under construction for the past three years
was completed during the fiscal year.
The usual operation and maintenance work min connection with
electrical overhead and underground distribution systems, house
and street lighting systems, throughout the Canal Zone, and installa-
tion, maintenance, and repair of electrical apparatus for all depart-
ments and divisions was done by the electrical division. An electrical
repair shop was organized and equipped during the year, and over
300 repair jobs of various magnitudes completed.
A large amount of electrical construction work was done through-
-0- � . *. _�.� k. *- V
KK KKK K^KK
' ** II; ' '^
installations at the three radio stations.
on Balboa Dock and
A new system was installed
the electrical equipment at the four
of the new
electric light and
towns of Pe
but as a
[erground conduit systems
power and for telephone, t
to be done
, etc., insta
on the unc
lled. A small
the work is over 90 per
building operations during the past year
and other buildings for The Panama Canal,
IY 'U S al I -
� " * A
d its re
re designed for
90 per cent of
the Army, and
designs and specifications and
etc.. the details of which are
Rose, Electrical Engineer.
At the beginning of the fiscal year the duties of the electrical division comprised
the operation and maintenance of all power plants, air-compressor plants, electrical
transmission and distribution systems, and electric cargo-handling cranes; the design,
construction, operation, and maintenance of the permanent underground electrical
distribution systems for The Panama Canal and of all street and building lighting
systems; the installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of electrical apparatus
of all kinds for other departments and divisions of The Panama Canal.
During the fiscal year the duties of the electrical division have been increased by
the assignment to it of the following work:
On July 15, 1914, the division of erection was abolished and the remaining electrical
work on the permanent substations and the 44,000-volt transisthmian transmission
line was assigned to the electrical division.
On July 15,1914, the electrical work in connection with the installation of the new
pumping and filtration plants of the municipal divisioft was transferred from that
division to the electrical division.
On April 1, 1915, all construction, operation, and maintenance work in connection
with telephone and telegraph systems and railway signal systems was transferred
from the Panama Railroad to the electrical division, and on the same date the work
on the fire-alarm systems was transferred to this division from the police and fire
OFFICE AND DESIGNING
The usual office work was done throughout the year in connection with miscellaneous
correspondence, reports, power and compressed-air accounting, and other routine
papers. Plans were developed and specifications Drenared for underground cond nit
OF POWER PLANTS.
Hydroelectric station.--The hydroelectric station at Gatun, which had been turned
over to this division in a partially completed condition on June 18, 1914 waspugiflj
tothsdiiso"i parial sice which date it has been in continuous oea
regular operation on July 13, 114, aine which it has been in contuiis opei*a-
tion. The Gatun steam plant was shut down on the same date and has not since thMen
been operated for the generation of power .
The first year's operation of this plant has been highly satisfactory so far as the
operating characteristics of all machines and apparatus are concerned. With the
exception of brief peak loads on a few occasions the hydroelectric stationhas
the entire electrical load of The Panama Canal without assistance from the ste
station at Miraflores since January 2, 1915, the date of putting into serve the sectTn
of the transmission line between Gatun and Miraflores. A duplicate iter b ad
duplicate Tirrell voltage regulator have been installed during the past fiscal year.
A fairly large proportion-about 30 per cent-of thepresent oad is due to motor-driven
relay pumps of the dredging division, operated in connection with their dredging nor
at Balboa terminals, Cucaracha slide, and the east breakwater at Colon Harbor. ThiM
portion of the load must be considered as only temporary, but from present indications
it does not appear that there will be any substantial reduction in its amount for atleat
It has become obvious from studies of present and prospective load conditions tat
notwithstanding the reduction in power demand that will eventually occur, due to
the shutdown of the relay pumps and to the discontinuance of other temporary loads
of lesser magnitude, the present generating equipment in the hydroelectric station
will be inadequate to meet the demand for power within a very few months, due
heavy increases in load that are in immediate prospect.
The principal increases that are to be expected are as follows:
(1) Balboa shops motor-drivenb air compressors, connected load approximately 1500
h~rse�b.eka a loa 1,0 hospoe, prob; .x .:
horsepower, peak load 1,500 horsepower, probable load factor 60 per cent
(2) Balboa cold-storage plant ammonia compressors, and misceHlaneous light d
power, connected load approximately 500 horsepower, peak load 460 horsepower,
probable load factor 80 .er cent.
(3) Balboa coal-handling plant, connected load approximately 1,300 horsepower,
pea load 1.000 horsepower, probable load factor impossible of prediction
(4) Crigtobal coal-handling plant, connected load approximately 4,100 ho sepoer,
peak load 3,000 horsepower, probable load factor impossible of prediction.
(5) Dry-dock pumps, cap stans, and miscellaneous light and power, connected
loadco approximately 5,000 horsepower, peak load 4,500 horsepower, probable loa
factor uncertain but very low.
(6) Charging sets for United States Navy submarines, connected load approxmsea ty
1,300 horsepower, peak load 1,000 horsepower, probable load factor uncertain ibut
(7) Miscellaneous light and power at Forts Randolph, Sherman and Grant, con-
nected load approximately 500 horsepower, peak load 150 horsepower, probable bad
factor 30 per cent.
In the above summary of future loads the load factor is based on the ratio of 24-
hour average load to connected load.
The present load on the hydroelectric station, exclusive of relay pumps and otht
ternorary demands, averages about 3,500 kilowatts on week days wit a 2-hour
eak of slightly over 4,000 kilowatts, 5-minute peaks of over 4 ,500 ilowattes and
oad factor of about 90 per cent based on ratio of average load to 24hour peak load. The
power factor at the station averages about 80 per cent. At this power factor the
aheage .vrg load tt conese poad. fato ?
three turbo-generator sets at the hydroelectric station have a combined rating of
6,000 kilowatts, and their output is limited to about 6,600 kilowatts by the a psity
of the water wheels.
constantly increase. I think it is certain, considering all additional loads that are
still to come upon our power system, that the increased cost of steam generation
would certainly aggregate $50,000 per annum and might aggregate double that amount.
The decision as to the number and size of the generating units as at present installed
in the hydroelectric station was made in May, 1911, and was based on studies made
prior to that date of probable power demands so far as they could be foreseen at the
time, These studies were probably as accurate as could e made at a period over
four years ago, considering the undeveloped stage of the plans for shops, dry docks,
coaling plants, waterworks, military posts, etc.2 at that time. Since then condi-
tions have arisen that have called for the addition of very heavy power loads that
were not considered at all in these early studies. Among these may be mentioned
the new Panama waterworks system, the electrification of the Mount Hope Dry
Dock shops, the Balboa coaling plant, the Balboa cold-storage plant, and the storage-
battery charging sets for the United States Navy submarines.
The net result of these early studies was to show a probable day load of about 4,000
kilowatts, assuming that the Panama Railroad would not be electrified and that
electric current would not be generally used for domestic purposes, such as cooking,
assuming the railroad electrification, and the general domestic use of current, the
probable day load was computed as approximately 5,000 kilowatts'with a 1-hour
peak of 5,700 kilowatts. It will be seen that on these assumptions the installation
of generating equipment of 6,000 kilowatts capacity allowed a reserve for future
growth of about 1,000 kilowatts, since the 1-hour peak could be carried as an
overload and therefore disregarded so far as the capacities of the generators were
Later developments have not led to the electrification of the Panama Railroad,
and there does not appear to be any immediate prospects of economic conditions
justifying such electrification. There is a very considerable demand for domestic
purposes-although no general installation of electric cooking appliances has been
made, such as was apparently contemplated in the studies. Unexpected increases,
however, in such loads as were contemplated, together with the addition of loads
that were never contemplated at all, some of which have been mentioned above,
make it apparent that the reserve allowed for was insufficient and that in the interest
of economy the capacity of the hydroelectric station should be increased.
That such increase was bound, in time, to be required, was taken into account in
the design and construction of the present station, and openings have been left min the
forebay wall for the installation of three additional penstocks with the necessary
headrgate apparatus, and the electrical apparatus in the station proper has been ar-
ranged on a unit system so that additional units can be installed with the minimum
of trouble and expense. Notwithstanding these arrangements, however, an increase
in capacity in this station effected by installing additional units will involve a heavy
expense. The total cost of the present station was approximately $650,000, of which
$340,000 was for building construction. Considering present conditions as to prices
of electrical equipment in the States and the labor situation on the Isthmus, it is
doubtful if the station could be duplicated at the present time for less than the amount
given above. It would be unwise to make any addition to the present building with-
out extending it so as to provide for three more units-a duplication of the present
plant. This extension would cost as much as the original building.
I believe that the necessity for this extensive construction work can be postponed
for several years at least by a comparatively inexpensive change in the present plant
that will increase its capacity by approximately 40 per cent. As stated previously,
the present generating units are limited to 2,200 kilowatts output at 80 per cent power
factor by the capacity of the water turbines, which are rated at 3,000 horsepower.
The generators, on the other hand, are very liberally rated and the manufacturers state
can be operated without injurious rise in temperature at 3,000 kilowatts at 80 per cent
power factor, or 3,600 kilowatts at 90 per cent power factor. The turbine manufac-
itnror flat'ata thatll mr r~hnn~rynnn +KQ*ith rnnnnra in^ lnirnr~i lir�-nn. T-W nvnircan fl^njtn nn1t�+nc 0+4
former sad oil switch equipment would have to be installed in Gatun and Cristobal
substations at an estimated cost of $25,000 for material and labor. The additional i
cables and substation equipment would be required no matter what method were .
adopted for increasing the capacity of the hydroelectric station. None of this work
would be lost in case later developments on the Isthmus rendered necessary the e
tension of the hydroelectric station and the installation of additional -ie
work could be completed within a comparatively short time say six months from e
date of placing orders for the equipment, and can probably be done with funds avail-
able from appropriations for the fiscal year 1916. Investigations made to date appear
to indicate the advisability of making these changes, although the matter is still ud
consideration and will be made the subject of further report and recommendation
upon the completion of the investigations now in progress.
The production cost of current delivered from the switchboard of the hydroelectric
station during the period from July 13, 1914, the date the station was fret put tut
service, to June 30, 1915, was .17 cents per kilowatt hour. From July 13 1914, to
January 2, 1915, the station was operating on very light load on account of the trans
mission line not being in service and costs were unduly high. From January 1 t
June 30, 1915, during which period the station was operating under normal condt,
the cost was .09 cents per kilowatt hour. These costs include all operation, mainte-
nance and division overhead charges, but do not include a charge of 3 per cent per
annum of the capital cost of the entire power system that is being charged into our
monthly accounts against the cost of power to cover functional depreciationr For
convenience in accounting the depreciation of the entire system, including trans-
mission line, substations, and distribution systems is charged into the cost of power
at the generating station. If this depreciation charge is included, the cost of power
at the hydroelectric station for the fiscal year was .59 cents per kilowatt hour, and fto
the last six months of the fiscal year .44 cents per kilowatt hour.
The operation and maintenance of Gatun spillway was conducted during the
by the power station employees without incident worthy of special mention. Con-
siderable erosion of the baffle piers has taken place during the present rainy season
which will require extensive repairs during the next dry season. It is believed tha
future trouble can be eliminated by extending the area of the exposed surface that is
protected by heavy cast-iron plates to include the two short sides of the piers, and
protecting by steel angles the concrete floor in the angle formed by the vertical sides
of the pier with the floor.
Mirafiores steam station.-Miraflores steam station was operated on load from the
beginning of the fiscal year until January 2, 1915, when the transmission line was Put
into service. Since that date it has been operated as a reserve plant, several boilers
being kept under steam and up to pressure at all times so as to provide for a prompt
resumption of service in case of failure of the transmission line. It has also on a few
occasions assisted the hydroelectric station by carrying peak loads of 200 or 300 kilo-
50K VA beenerto
watts for brief periods. One or two of the 1,500- V. turbo generators have bee,
kept "floating" on the line at all times, so as to be in immediate readiness for service
in case of emergencies, and also for power factor correction by operation as a synchro-
For the first six months of the fiscal year the production cost of current at the Mira-
flores station was .97 cents per kilowatt hour, of which .71 cents was for fuel. The
average net output for the same period was 158 kilowatt hours per barrel of oil.
At the time the Miraflores station was constructed in the early pan of the calendar
year 1909 it was thought that when the new power system for the canal would be con-
structed the Miraflores substation building could be combined with the steam-station
building for economy in construction and operation. The west end of the steam-sta-
tion building was therefore constructed in a temporary manner of wood and galvanized
iron instead of concrete, to permit the addition of a wing for the substation. The later
developments in the substation plans when their details came to be worked out tan-
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