• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Section I: Canal Operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Administration
 Section IV: Government
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1948
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Front Matter
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Section I: Canal Operation and trade via the Panama Canal
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Section III: Administration
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Section IV: Government
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
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        Page 106
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        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
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    Back Cover
        Page 151
        Page 152
Full Text


















UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


__







ANNUAL REPORT OF THE


Governor


of


The


Panama Canal

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1948


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.
Price 35 cents















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


BALBOA HEIGHTS, C. Z.,
December 6, 1948.

The Honorable, The SECRETARY OF THE ARMY,
Washington, D. C.
MY DEAR MR. SECRETARY: I have the honor to submit the report
of the Governor of The Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June
30, 1948.
Effective May 20, 1948, the undersigned, having been appointed
Governor of The Panama Canal by the President, of the United
States and having duly qualified on that date, assumed his new duties,
vice Gen. J. C. Mehaffey, United States Army, the former Governor,
whose tour of duty with The Panama Canal terminated May 14, 1948.
Very respectfully,

F. K. NEWCOMER, Governor.









OFFICIALS OF THE PANAMA CANAL AND PANAMA
RAILROAD COMPANY



The following is a list of the major officials of The Panama Canal
and the Panama Railroad Company as of June 30, 1948:


The Panama Canal

Brig. Gen. F. K. Newcomer, U. S. A., Governor.
Col. Charles G. Holle, U. S. A., Engineer of Maintenance.1
A. C. Medinger, Siuperintendent (acting), Dredging Division.
Col. James H. Stratton, U. S. A., Supervising Engineer, Special Engineering
Division.
Capt. P. G. Nichols, U. S. N., Marine Superintendent, Marine Division.
F. H. Wang, Executive Secretary, Executive Department.
Col. Richardson Selee, U. S. A., Assistant Engineer of Maintenance.
Capt. Joseph L. Bird, U. S. N., Superintendent, Mechanical Division.
L. W. Lewis, Chief Quartermaster, Supply Department.
Arnold Bruckner, Comptroller, Accounting Department.
Col. Samuel D. Avery, U. S. A., Chief Health Officer, Health Department.
B. F. Burdick, Chief of Washington Office and General Purchasing Officer.


Panama Railroad Company

Brig. Gen. F. K. Newcomer, U. S. A., President.
Col. Charles G. Holle, U. S. A., Second Vice President.
A. L. Prather, General Manager.

(NEW YORK OFFICE)
T. H. Rossbottom, Vice President.
W. R. Pfizer, Third Vice President and Secretary.
W. L. Hall, Treasurer.
I The office of Engineer of Maintenance was vacant on June 30, 1948, the appointment of Colonel Holle
having been made effective July 14, 194&8








REPORTS OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND
DIVISIONS

Appendixes Not Printed

The material in the annual report of the Governor of The Panama Canal, pub-
lished in this volume, is to a large extent a summary of the data presented in the
annual reports from the heads of departments and divisions in the Canal organiza-
tion; the latter, regarded as appendixes to the report of the Governor, are not
printed. The annual reports of the Panama Railroad Company and the Health
Department are published separately; the latter is compiled for calendar years
only. The reports of the heads of departments and divisions, as listed below, are
on file at the Washington Office of The Panama Canal and at the office of the
Governor at Balboa Heights, C. Z.:
Engineer of maintenance, report of.
Dredging division, report of acting superintendent.
Plans section, report of chief.
Safety section, report of safety engineer.
Special engineering division, report of supervising engineer.
Assistant engineer of maintenance, report of.
Elect rical division, report of electrical engineer.
Locks division, report of superintendent.
Meteorology and hydrography, section of, report of chief hydrographer.
Municipal engineering division, report of municipal engineer.
Office engineering division, report of office engineer.
Accounting department, report of comptroller.
Marine division, report of marine superintendent.
Mechancal division, report of superintendent.
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Executive department:
Civil affairs, division of, report of chief.
Clubhouses, Panama Canal, report of director.
General counsel, report of.
License bureau, report of acting chief.
Pay-roll bureau, report of chief.
Personnel supervision and management, division of, report of director
of personnel.
Police and fire division, report of chief.
Schools, division of, report of superintendent.
Surveying officer, report of.
Aeronautics section, report of chief.
Collector, report of.
Magistrates' courts:
Magistrate:
Cristobal, report of.
Balboa, report of.
Pardon board, report of chairman.
Paymaster, report of.
Public defender, report of.
Washington Office, report of Chief of Office and General Purchasing Officer.













































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from Lyrasis and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofgo1948cana








TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction----------------- ----------------------- 1
Operation and maintenance of the Canal-----------------_------- 2
Operation of auxiliary enterprises-business operations- --------_ 3
Government-administration ______--------------------------------- 3
Services rendered to shipping by the Panama Canal---------------- 3
Net revenues---------------------------------------------- 4
Replacements --_------------------------------ -------------. 4

SECTION I-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL

Statistics on Canal traffic ----------------------------------------- 6
Trends in movement of cargo----------------------------------- 7
Tolls receipts----------------------------------------- -----10
Canal traffic by fiscal years, 1915 to 1948-------------------------10
Traffic by months-fiscal years 1948 and 1947-------------------- 11
Nationality of vessels transiting Canal- -------- ------- 11
Cargo carried by vessels of leading maritime nations --------------- 12
Vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage---------------------- 13
Classification of vessels---------------------------- ----------- 13
Laden and ballast traffic by nationality- --------------------- 16
Average tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per cargo-carrying vessel--- 16
Steam, motor and other vessels-- ------------------------ 17
Frequency of transits of vessels through the Panama Canal --------- 17
Gross tonnage of vessels--------------_--------------------- 19
Principal commodities------------------------------ --------- 21
Origin and destination of cargo segregated by countries in principal
trade areas----------------------------------------------- 23
Cargo shipments segregated by trade routes- ---------------------- 29
Total cargo shipments-Atlantic to Pacific------------_-------- 29
Total cargo shipments-Pacific to Atlantic-------------------- 30
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes-
Atlantic to Pacific----------------- ----------- ---------- 31
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes-
Pacific to Atlantic------------------------------------- 36
Ocean passenger traffic--------------------------------------- 41
Transient passengers------------------------------------- 41
Small tolls-paying vessels transiting Canal ------------------------ 42
Vessels entitled to free transit--------------------------------- 42
Revision of rates of toll-------------------------------------- 43
Canal operation and maintenance ---------------------------------- 44
Hours of operation------------------------------------------ 44
Lockages and lock maintenance-------------------------------- 44
Operating schedule of locks ------------------------------- 44
Lockages--------------------------------------------- 45
Delays to shipping-------------------- -----_-- --_ ----------- 46
Maintenance --------------------------_____ ---- .-----_ 46
Pacific locks overhaul----------------------- ------------ 47
Power for Canal operation -----------------.-------------------. 48
IX





X TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION I-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL-Continued

Canal operation and maintenance-Continued Page
Water supply and general weather conditions --------------------- 49
Water supply--------------------------------------------- 49
Air temperatures------------------------------------------ 50
Winds and humidity--------------------------------------- 51
Tides--------------------------------------------------- 51
Seismology --------------------------------------------------- 52
Marine activities-------------------------------------------- 52
Harbor activities---------------------------------------- 52
Aids to navigation-------------- ------------------------- 52
Accidents to shipping ------------------------------------ 52
Inspections ----------------------------------------------- 53
Admeasurement----------------------------------------- 53
Salvage and towing---------_---------------------------_ 53
Operation of tugs---------------------------------------- 54
Maintenance of channel-other dredging activities ---------------- 54
Ordinary channel maintenance-Canal prism dredging- -------- 55
Auxiliary dredging-other projects-----_--------------------- 57
Isthmian canal studies (Public Law No. 280) ------------------ 57
Slides--------------------------------------------------- 57
Subsidiary Dredging Division activities----------------------- 58
Equipment---_------------------------------------------- 59
Ferry service-------------------------------------------------- 59
Investigation of means of increasing the capacity and security of the
Panama Canal--------------------------------- ---------- 60

SECTION II-BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Panama Canal business operations---- ----------------------------- 61
Mechanical and marine work-__--------------------------------62
Gross revenues-class and source---------------------------- 62
Marine repair work- -------- ----- --------- ------- 63
Drydocks and marine railways -------------- -------------- 64
Shop work----------------- --------------------------- 65
Plant improvement-------------- --------------------- 65
Electrical work------------------------- -------------------- 65
Purchases in the United States------------- ----------- --------- 66
Storehouses and ship chandlery-------------------------------- 66
Obsolete and unserviceable property and equipment _------------ 67
Bulk petroleum products-------------------------------------- 67
Building construction and maintenance -------------------------- 68
Quarters -- ---------------------------------------------- 69
Motor transportation -------------------------------------- 69
Panama Canal press---------------------------------------- 70
Revenues derived from the rental of lands in the Canal Zone -------- 70
Business operations under the Panama Railroad Company ------------- 71
Trans-Isthmian railroad ---------------------------------------- 72
Receiving and forwarding agency-------------------------------- 72
Coaling plants ------------------------------------------------ 73
Telephone system ------------------------------------------- 73





TABLE OF CONTENTS XI

SECTION II-BUSINESS OPERATION-Contin ued
Business operations under the Panama Railroad Company-Continued Page
Commissary division------------------------------------------- 73
Sales---------------------------------------------------- 73
Purchases------------------------------------------------ 74
Hotels------------------------------------------------------ 74
Panama Line----------------------------------------------- 75

SECTION III-ADMINIsTRATION

Departments-------------------------------------------------- 76
Operation and maintenance------------------------------------- 76
Supply--------------------------------------------------- 76
Accounting ---------------------------------------------- 77
Executive------------------------------------------------ 77
Health-------------------------------------------------- 77
Panama Railroad Company-.. ------------------------_--- ---- 77
Changes in administrative personnel------------------------------- 77
Changes in administrative organization------------------------------ 78
Force employed and rates of pay----------------------------------- 78
Employees paid at "gold" rates------------------------------------ 79
Recruiting and turn-over in force------------------------------ 81
Adjustment in wages and hours of work------------------------- 82
Employees paid at "silver" rates------------------------------- 82
Local or "silver" wage rates ------------------------------ -----__ 84
Sick and rest leave---- ------------------------------------- 84
Cash relief for disabled employees paid at "silver" rates ------------ 85
Repatriations---------------------------------------------_ 86
Central labor office------------------------------------- 86
Pay rolls---------------------------------------------------- 87
Safety program-----------------------------------------------87
Experiment gardens--------------------------------------------- 88
Clubhouses--------------------------------------------------- 89
Legislation---- ------------------------------------------------ 89
Capital allotments, fiscal year 1949--------------------------------__ 91

SECTION IV-GOVERNMENT

Area of the Canal Zone----------------------------------------__________ 94
Population---------------------------------------------------- 95
Public Health ---------------------------------------------------- 95
Vital statistics---------------------------------------------_ 96
Malaria --------------------------------------------------- __ 98
Hospitals----------------------------------------------------- 99
Quarantine and immigration----------------------------------- 99
Municipal engineering-----------------------------__--------------- 100
Water system--------------------------------------------- 101
Sewersystem---------------------------------------------- 101
Roads, streets, and sidewalks---------------------------------- 101
Other heavy construction activities-------------- ---------------- 102
Cities of Panama and Colon---------------_-------------_------_ 102
Miscellaneous activities.,,-- ,,,,,,,... -.-----, ---,- 102






XII TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION IV-GOVERNMENT-Continued
Page
Public order----------------------------------------------------- 103
Traffic accidents.--------------------------------------------- 104
Magistrates' courts ------------------------------------------------ 105
Pardons and reprieves------------------------------------------ 105
Fire protection ---------------------------------------------------- 105
Public school system ----------------------------------------------- 106
Postal system------------------------------------------------- 108
Immigration visas------------ ---------------------------------- 108
Relations with Panama -------------------------------------------- 109
Customs ------------------------- -- ----------- 109
Shipping commissioner----------------------- ------------------- 109
Administration of estates ------------------------------------------ 110
Foreign corporations__------------------------------------------- 110
Insurance ---------------------------------------------------------- 110
Licenses--------------------------------------------------------- 111
Commercial aviation------------------------------------- ---------- 111

SECTION V-FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS

Accounting system --------- ------------------------------------- 113
Operation of Panama Railroad Company ---------------------------- 114
Panama Canal operations------------------------------------------- 114
Index to tables -------------------------------------------------- 115
Financial tables------------------------------------------------ 116-150







ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE

PANAMA CANAL




INTRODUCTION


The Panama Canal is a lock-type canal that connects the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans through the Isthmus of Panama, traversing a dis-
tance of approximately 51 miles from deep water to deep water. In
the dredged channel, the Canal has a minimum width of 300 feet and
a minimum depth of 42 feet. The greater part of the Canal channel
is at the level of Gatun Lake, the surface of which is 85 feet above sea
level. In transiting the Canal a ship is raised in three steps or lock-
ages to the level of Gatun Lake and subsequently lowered in three
steps to sea level at the other side of the Isthmus. Each of the twin
chambers in each flight of locks has a usable length of 1,000 feet and
width of 110 feet, and is about 70 feet deep. The flights are in dupli-
cate, enabling ships to be passed in opposite directions simultaneously.
Generally speaking, the Canal Zone comprises a strip of land ex-
tending 5 miles on either side of the center line of the Canal channel
and 3 marine miles beyond low-water mark in the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans. The Canal Zone includes also such areas outside of the 5-
mile limits as are covered by the waters of Gatun and Madden Lakes
and the lands immediately adjacent to these lakes which are below the
100-foot and 260-foot contour lines, respectively, referred to mean sea
level. The use, occupation, and control of the Canal Zone have been
granted to the United States Government by the Republic of Panama,
under treaty agreement ts, for the construction, maintenance, operation,
sanitation, and protection of the Canal enterprise, and the Republic
has further granted to the United States all rights, power, and authority
within the Canal Zone which the United States would possess and exer-
cise if it were sovereign of the territory.
The organization for the operation and maintenance of the Canal
and the government of the Canal Zone was established by the Presi-





2 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

dent in conformity with the Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912.
Authority is vested in a Governor as head of the organization known as
The Panama Canal. The Governor is also president of the Panama Rail-
road Company, an adjunct of the Canal enterprise organized as a
United States Government corporation. The Panama Canal organi-
zation is an independent establishment in the Government service,
directly under the President, but as a matter of executive arrange-
ment, the Secretary of the Army represents the President in the ad-
ministration of Canal affairs.
Administration of the affairs of The Panama Canal enterprise
involves three main elements: (a) Operation and maintenance of the
Canal itself; (b) operation of the auxiliary enterprises, including the
Panama Railroad, necessary to provide adequately for the needs of
shipping and of the Canal operating forces; and (c) government of the
Canal Zone, populated largely by employees and personnel of the
armed forces, together with the families of these groups. The immedi-
ate supervision of the administration of these various activities rests.
with the heads of the nine major departments and divisions of The
Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company.
In addition to the foregoing, a coordinated organization is main-
tained in the Canal Zone by the United States Army, the United
States Navy, and the United States Air Force, under the over-all
command of the Commander in Chief, Caribbean. The United
States Department of Justice also maintains a district court in the
Canal Zone, with a district judge, a district attorney, and various
judicial and other officials independent of The Panama Canal organi-
zation.
By Executive order of September 5, 1939, the provisions of section
13 of the Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912, were invoked
as an emergency measure, and since that date the commanding
general for this area has exercised final authority over the operation
of the Panama Canal and all its adjuncts, appendants, and appur-
tenances, including control and government of the Canal Zone; and
the Governor of The Panama Canal has been subject to that authority
and the orders issued under it.

Operation and Maintenance of the Canal
The primary function of The Panama Canal is to provide and main-
tain a waterway by means of which vessels may make the transit
from one ocean to the other, and to handle such traffic as presents
itself for transit with a maximum of safety and a minimum of delay.
Essentially this involves the maintenance of the waterway, the opera-
tion of the locks, and the control of traffic through the Canal. Throughout
the year the Canal force maintained its high standard for expeditious





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


service not only in the actual transiting of ships but in providing
emergency repairs, fuel, supplies, and the various supplementary
services incidental to shipping. There were no interruptions of ship
traffic during the year.

Operation of Auxiliary Enterprises-Business Operations

Second only to the operation of the Canal is the function of supplying
necessary services to shipping and the Canal operating force. These
services are provided under coordinated and centralized control by
the various business units of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad
Company and include oil and coal bunkering plants; storehouses for
food, ship chandlery, and other essential supplies; marine repair shops;
harbor terminal facilities for passengers and for handling and trans-
shipping cargo; a railroad line across the Isthmus; a steamship line
between New York and the Canal Zone; water and electric power
systems; and living quarters and retail commissary stores for the
operating force.

Government-Administration

The usual functions of government, such as schools, police and fire
protection, quarantine, public health, immigration service, posts,
customs, aids to navigation, steamboat inspection, hydrographic and
meteorological work, water supply, sewers, construction and main-
tenance of streets, and similar activities, which, in the United States
are directed by various officers of the National, State, and municipal
governments, are entrusted in the Canal Zone to the Governor, and
are executed under his authority and responsibility. This centraliza-
tion of all governmental activities under one head is essential to
economical and efficient administration.

Services Rendered to Shipping by The Panama Canal

The principal services rendered to shipping by the Canal and its
adjuncts are shown in the following table, which presents a comparison
of the activities during the fiscal year 1948 with those of the preceding
fiscal year and of the fiscal year 1939 which may be regarded as the last
normal year preceding the outbreak of the recent war:







4 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL -


Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

TRAFFIC THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL
Number or vessels transiting the Canal:
Ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels.------------------------- 4,678 4,260 5,903
Small tolls-paying vessels (see p. 42)----------------------- 1,242 847 914
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls (see p. 42------------ 1,079 1,265 664


Total transits ---.-- -------------------- ----------.---
Tolls levied-ocean-going vessels------------------------. ----
Tolls levied-small vessels-----------------------------------
Total tolls ------- ------- -------..---
Cargo passed through Canal, carried by:
Ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels.------------------------.-
Small tolls-paying vessels-- ----------------
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls ---------------------


6, 999 6. 372 7, 481
$19, 956, 593 $17, 5'96. 6 2 $23, 661, 021
60,846 37,759 38,409
$20,017, 439 $17, 634,361 $23, 699,430
Tons Tons Tons
24, 117,788 21,670, 518 27, 96,. 627
25,690 16,299 31,251
1, 520,727 1,001, 608 95, 265


Total cargo---------.--------------------------- 25, 664,205 22,688,425 27,993,143
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement) of ocean-going,
tolls-paying vessels----- ------------------------------ 22,902,064 20,233,043 27,170,007
Cargo per Panama Canal net vessel ton (laden ocean-going,
tolls-paying vessels only)- -------...-----.. 1.263 1.305 1.238
Average tolls per ton of cargo (laden ocean-going tolls-paying
vessels only)------------------------------------------- $0.713 $0.689 $0.727
OTHER SERVICES
Calls at Canal Zone ports by ships not transiting the Canal..- 1,176 826 831
Cargo handled and transferred at ports (tons)----------------- 1,297,963 1,492, 931 1,580,859
Coal sales to ships (tons)---------------- ------ 18,560 28,989 67,865
Coal-number of vessels bunkered ---------------------------- 53 102 276
Fuel oil-total barrels pumped (both incoming and outgoing),
excluding Panama Canal use------------------------------ 11,697,918 9,995,865 8,599,522
Fuel oil-number of vessels handled --- ---------------------- 2,037 2,089 2,063
Repairs to ships other than Panama Canal equipment:
Number of vessels repaired --------.--------------------- 1,467 1,587 587
Nuniher of vessels drydocked ----------------------------- 130 205 119
Sales to ships (except U. S. Army and Navy):
Provisions (commissary sales) ---..--- ------------------- $1, 244, 759 $1, 221, 529 .$307,342
Chandlery (storehouse sales) ----------------------------- 306, 241 168,485 45,786



Net Revenues

During the fiscal year 1948 the revenues from tolls charged to ship-
ping using the Canal were $20,004,310.38, and miscellaneous receipts
amounted to $293,950.32, a total of $20,298,260.70. The net appro-
priation expenses were $19,235,066.66, resulting in a net revenue in
Canal operations proper of $1,063,194.04. The business operations
under The Panama Canal produced a net revenue of $1,559,478.71.
Thus the combined net revenues accruing from the Canal and its
business units totaled $2,622,672.75, as compared with $820,389.83
in the fiscal year 1947. The improved showing in net revenues
resulted largely from an increase of over 2 million dollars in tolls
collection.

Replacements

The past fiscal year marked the close of 34 years of successful
operation of The Panama Canal. A very important factor contribut-
ing to this creditable record is the care that has been taken to maintain





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


all parts of the Canal structures and equipment in good operating
condition. 0
Of the total capital value of The Panama Canal, approximately
$122,000,000 is the value of property of the transit divisions (which is
subject to deterioration). Some of this property, including locks,
dams, and other concrete structures, is still in excellent condition and
requires but little expenditure for upkeep. However, other types of
property, subject to more rapid deterioration, require systematic and
orderly replacement as their economic life is exhausted, and appropria-
tions must be made by Congress for this purpose, as well as for the
construction of new facilities as the need therefore develops.


818633-49--2









Section I .


CANAL OPERATION AND


TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL





STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC


The number of ocean-going tolls-paying vessels 1 making passage
of the Panama Canal in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1948, totaled
4,678, an increase of 418, or 9..8 percent, in comparison with the pre-
vious fiscal year, but a decrease of 1,225, or 20.8 percent, in compari-
son with the fiscal year 1939.2
The following is a tabulation of four of the principal features of this
traffic for the fiscal year 1948, together with those of the fiscal years
1947 and 1939:

Fiscal year

1948 1917 1939

Number of transits ------.- ------------------------------- 4,678 4,260 5,903
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement)-..---------------- 22,902,064 20,233.043 27, 170,007
Cargo (tons of 2,240 pounds) -- --------------------- ------ 24,117,788 21,670,518 27, 866,627
Tolls ------------------------------------------------ $19,956, 593 $17,596,602 $23, 661.021


Although the number of transits increased but 9.8 percent in com-
parison with the preceding year, the employment of larger vessels in
trade via the Panama Canal in 1948 resulted in greater increases in
the other features enumerated above, as follows: Net tonnage (Pana-
ma Canal measurement), 13.2 percent; cargo carried, 11.3 percent;
and tolls assessed, 13.4 percent. Similarly, whereas the number of
transits in 1948 was 20.8 percent lower than the number passing
through the Canal in the fiscal year immediately preceding the out-

I Vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels rated on net tonnage, or 500
tons displacement and over for vessels rated on displacement tonnage.
2 Since the fiscal year 1946 was partially a war year and traffic transiting during that period was not repre-
sentative of normal peace-time commerce, comparison of 1948 1 ralTic is made with the preceding year and
1939, the latter being the last fiscal year Dreceding the outbreak of World War II.




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


break of the war in Europe (1939), decreases in other features of traffic
were substantially less, as follows: Net tonnage (Panama Canal
measurement), 15.7 percent; cargo carried, 13.5 percent; and tolls
assessed, 15.7 percent. Thus, since net tonnage, rather than the
number of vessels, represents a better index of traffic volume, traffic
may be considered to be approximately 84 percent of the level attained
in 1939.
In addition to the 4,678 ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels passing
through the Canal in the fiscal year 1948, there were 1,242 tolls-paying
vessels under 300 tons, Panama Canal measurement, (consisting
principally of small banana boats operating in local waters), and
1,079 transits of vessels exempt from the payment of tolls, a total of
6,999 transits for 1948, in comparison with a total of 6,372 in the
previous year, and 7,481 in the fiscal year 1939. The Panama Canal
does not compile detailed statistics on small tolls-paying vessels nor
on vessels which transit the Canal without payment of tolls; hence,
except for the sections appearing under the captions "Small Tolls-
Paying Vessels Transiting Canal" and "Vessels Entitled to Free
Transit" on pages 42 and 43, the following discussion of traffic through
the Canal pertains only to ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic.

Trends in Movement of Cargo

The combined movement of cargo in both directions in the fiscal
year 1948 totaled 24,117,788 long tons, a gain of 2,447,270 tons, or
11.3 percent, in comparison with the tonnage passing through in the
preceding fiscal year, but a decrease of 13.5 percent, from the tonnage
recorded in the fiscal year 1939. Of particular significance in post
war traffic to date has been the low level in comparison with 1939
of cargo shipments in the important United States intercoastal trade.
Although the combined movement in both directions in 1948 was
about 31 percent higher than that shipped in 1947, it was 44 percent
below the tonnage shipped in 1939. While this was due, in part, to
the diminished shipments of mineral oils, the decrease has developed
principally from the fact that fewer general cargo vessels are employed
in the trade. These curtailed operations are reported to result from
the difficulties encountered by intercoastal steamship owners in main-
taining their services without loss because of prevailing high operating
expenses.
The Atlantic-to-Pacific movement in 1948, totaling 8,679,140 tons,
-was 4.6 percent greater than the tonnage routed in this direction in
the preceding year, and was only 3.7 percent under the Pacific-bound
tonnage in the fiscal year 1939. In the opposite direction, a total of
15,438,522 tons passed through in 1948, an increase of 15.4 percent




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


over the preceding year's total, but a decrease of 18.1 percent in
comparison with the fiscal year 1939. It will be noted, therefore,
that the recovery in comparison with 1939 has been more pronounced
in cargo moving from the Atlantic to the Pacific than that moving in
the opposite direction. An important factor influencing this con-
dition concerns mineral oil tonnage. Prior to the outbreak of the
last war, shipments of mineral oils from the Pacific to the Atlantic
usually ranked first in the amount of tonnage shipped in this direc-
tion, and tanker traffic, thus, represented an important element in
Canal traffic. These shipments, for the most part, originated in
California although substantial tonnage came from the west coast of
South America. Since the end of the war, petroleum shipments
from the Pacific to the Atlantic have been at a much lower level
because the major industrial centers (eastern United States and
western Europe) have been drawing the major portion of their mineral
oil requirements from the large producing centers bordering the
Atlantic seaboard- of the United States and South America, thus
eliminating the necessity of shipment via the Canal. The decrease
in west coast shipments has been partially offset by a gain in petro-
leum shipments from the Atlantic to the Pacific; however, the com-
bined shipments in both directions of mineral oil shipped in tankers in
1948 amounted to only about 60 percent of similar shipments in
1939. Important new fields are under development in the Middle
East and the Netherland East Indies, but in view of the geographical
location of these centers in relation to potential markets, it is be-
lieved the Canal will not gain any tanker traffic from these areas.
The following paragraphs discuss briefly the comparative develop-
ments in movement of cargo over the principal routes of trade:
Atlantic to Pacific.-A break-down of the. tonnage moving in this
direction indicates that the important United States intercoastal
trade, accounting for 1,719,005 tons, increased 17.2 percent over the
1947 shipments; the east coast United States to Asia trade, with
1,769,767 tons, increased 1.2 percent; shipments from the east coast
United States to the west coast of South America, with 886,235 tons,
increased 14.4 percent; and the Europe to Australasia trade, with
413,637 tons, increased 72.5 percent. Shipments from the West
Indies to the west coast of South America, which have reached sub-
stantial figures since the end of the war because of relatively heavy
mineral oil consignments, dropped from 858,168 tons in 1947 to 829,-
496 tons in 1948, a decrease of 3.3 percent. Tonnage routed from
the east coast United States to Australasia, with 594,477 tons, and
from the east coast United States to the Philippine Islands, with
442,743 tons, also were under 1947 shipments: 13.7 and 2.4 percent,
respectively.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


While the over-all tonnage moving from the Atlantic to the Pacific
fell but little short of equaling that of the fiscal year 1939, a number
of significant changes were noted in the various routings of cargo.
Two important gains were recorded: The 886,235 tons routed from
the east. coast. of the United States to the west coast of South America
represented a more than fourfold increase over 1939 shipments, while
the shipment of 829,496 tons from the West Indies to the west coast
of South America amounted to 4.7 times the 1939 tonnage. In other
trades contributing important tonnage to Canal traffic, the following
gains also were recorded: East coast Unit.ed States to Australasia,
58.7 percent; east, coast. United States to Philippine Islands, 59.6 per-
cent; and east coast United States to Hawaiian Islands, 67.0 percent.
Offsetting these gains were the sharply diminished volume moving in
two trades which rank high in Canal traffic, viz, east coast United
States to west. coast United States which declined from 2,391,523
tons in 1939 to 1,719,005 tons in 1948, a loss of 28.1 percent, and east
coast United States to Asia which dropped from 2,593,818 tons in
1939 to 1,769,767 tons in 1948, a loss of 31.8 percent. With refer-
ence to the latter, it may be stated that the 1939 tonnage included
over a million tons of scrap metal against practically nothing in 1948.
Total cargo from Europe in 1948, totaling 908,360 tons, and destined
principally to Australasia, west coast United States and west coast
South America, was about 60 percent of the 1939 volume.
Pacific to Atlantic.-In cargo routed in this direction, shipments
from the west coast United States to east coast United States, amount-
ing to 2,118,799 tons, increased 44.8 percent over 1947. In other
trade routes contributing heavy shipments, the following gains over
1947 were recorded: West coast United States to Europe, with
1,953,195 tons, 6.1 percent; west coast South America to east coast
United States, with 3,416,518 tons, 26.5 percent; and Australasia to
Europe, with 1,044,295 tons, 15.0 percent. Shipments from the west
coast of South America to Europe were at practically the same level
as in the pervious year (1,095,466 tons in 1948 as against 1,097,688
tons in 1947). The volume of shipments routed from Canada to
Europe, totaling 2,482,088 tons, decreased 5.9 percent from the
preceding year.
In comparing Pacific-to-Atlantic tonnage in 1948 with that of 1939,
the most significant change occurred in the United States intercoastal
trade which decreased from 4,493,203 tons in 1939 to 2,118,799 tons
in 1948, a decline of 52.9 percent. Compared with the 1939 traffic,
decreases occurred in shipments over three other trades contributing
an important volume of tonnage to Canal traffic, as follows: West
coast Canada to Europe, with 2,482,088 tons, 2.2 percent; west coast
United States to Europe, totaling 1,953,195 tons, 16.9 percent; and






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


from west coast South America to Europe, with 1,095,466 tons, 55.9
percent. Increases were recorded in comparison with 1939, in the
following leading trade routes: West coast South America to east. coast
United States, with 3,416,518 tons, and from Australasia to Europe,
with 1,044,295 tons, gains of 39.6 and 37.5 percent, respectively.
Cargo statistics.-In tables appearing on pages 29 to 40 will *be
found a comparison of cargo tonnage shipped over the various trade
routes, together with summaries of the principal commodities com-
prising these shipments.


Tolls Receipts

The receipts from tolls reported to the United States Treasury for
the fiscal year 1948 were $20,004,310.38. This figures includes tolls
amounting to $60,846.12 on local tolls-paying vessels which are not
included in Canal statistics covering ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic.
The receipts reported to the United States Treasury, moreover, reflect
refunds of $13,129.02 on vessels transiting in the previous year. These
two items account for the difference of $47,717.10 between the tolls
receipts reported to the Treasury, and the tolls of $19,956,593.28 shown
in the following studies of traffic, which are based on tolls levied at
the time of transit.


Canal Traffic by Fiscal Years 1915 to 1948

Comparative traffic statistics covering ocean-going vessels for each
fiscal year since the Canal was opened to navigation are shown in the
following table:


Fiscal year ended June 30- Ntn of Pn na Tolls Tonof
transits net tonnge 3 cargo


1915 1-------------------
19162 - -- ---- ----- ------
1917 ------------ ------------------
1918. .. ..._ .......-- ---------- .----
1919-------------------------------
1920 --- -------.-------------------
1921 ------.----- -----------------.--.
1922 ----.------.----------------------
1923 ------------.-------
1924 ......--- ........-----------------
1925 --------------------
1926 ---------- -.----------------------
1927 ----- --- -- -------------------
1928 --- ----.-----------------------
1929 M --,--- --- --------------------
1930 ----------- ---------------------
1931 ----.- -----------__--------------------
1932 --- ---.-.. ----------------
1933.......... ....--...----------------
1934........ ----------.......................
1935 ----- .---------------- ----- -
1936. -----------------_---------------
1937-- --------------------------
1938.------ ------------------------- ---
1939--------- ---------------------- ---
1940. ----------------------------------
1941.-- .....-------------------....-


1,058
724
1,738
1,989
1,948
2, 393
2,791
2,665
3,908
5,158
4, 592
5,087
5,293
6,253
6,289
6,027
5,370
4,362
4, 162
5,234
5,180
5,382
5,387
5, 524
5,903
5,370
4, 727


3,507,000
2,212,000
5,357,000
6,072,000
5,658,000
7,898,000
10,550,000
10,556,000
17,206,000
24,181,000
21,134,000
22,906,000
24, 245,000
27,229,000
27, 585, 000
27, 716, 000
25,690,000
21,842,000
21,094,000
26,410,000
25,720,000
25,923,000
25, 430, 000
25, 950, 3S3
27, 170, 007
24, 144,366
20,642,736


$4,366,747.13
2,403,089.40
5,620,799.83
6,428,780.26
6,164,290.79
8, 507, 938.68
11,268,681.46
11,191,828.56
17,504,027.19
24,284,659.92
21,393,718.01
22,919,931.89
24, 212,250.61
26,922,200.75
27,111,125.47
2;,059, 998.94
24,624,599.76
20,694,704.61
19,601,077.17
24,047,183.44
23,307,062.93
23,479,114.21
23,102,137.12
23,169,888.70
23,661,021.08
21, 144,675.36
18,157,739.68


4, 888,400
3,093,335
7,054,720
7,525,768
6,910,097
9,372, 374
11,595,971
10,882.607
19,566,429
26,993, 167
23,956,549
26,030,016
27,733,555
29,615,651
30,647,768
30, 018, 429
25,065,283
19,798,986
18,161,165
24,704,009
25,309, 527
26, 505,943
28,108,375
27,385,924
27, 866,627
27,2991,016
24, 951). 791






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fiscal year ended June 30- Number of Panama Canal Tolls Tons of
transit net tonnage cargo

1942----------------------------------- 2,688 11,010,004 $9,752.207.38 13,607,444
1943-----......--.....-...-....---------..--.....-----------...-- 1,822 8.233.999 7,3.56,684 94 10.599.966
1944----------------------------------- -- 1,562 6, 073, 457 5,456,163.32 7,003.487
1945.....................................- .. 1,939 8,380.959 7,243.601.58 8.603,607
1946.----------------- ------------------ *3,747 17,516.517 14,773,692.98 14.977,940
1947------------------........--..........-...------..---...---- 4,260 20.233.043 17,596,602.46 21.670,518
1948.---------------------------------- 4,678 22, 902.164 19,956,593.28 24, 117,788
Total ...............................--. 135,210 608,378,535 574,484,818.89 651,621,232

I Canal opened to traffic Aug. 15, 1914.
Canal closed to traffic approximately 7 months of fiscal year by slides.
I Panama Canal net tonnages prior to 1939 are estimated figures based on revised measurement rules which
became effective Mar. i, 193.18.

Traffic by Months-Fiscal Years 1948 and 1947

The ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic during each month of the fiscal
year 1948 is summarized in the following table, in which are inserted
for comparison the corresponding figures for the preceding year:

Number of Panama Canal Tonsofcargo Tolls
transits net tonnage Tons of cargo polls

1947-48 1946-47 1947-48 1946-47 1947-48 1946-47 1947-48 1946-47

July--------------- 417 371 2,000,374 1,792,165 2,090,051 1, 831, 052 $1, 742, 545. 26 $1, 546, 535.34
August............ 371 356 1,797,965 1,701,420 1.928.067 1,648,605 1,574,479.08 1,461,967. 56
September.......... 366 302 1,727,996 1,415,091 1.812.901 1,382,973 ]1,.llt.1 S j34 1.203,611.22
October ........... 369 303 1,788.477 1,386,564 1.884.360 1,388,278 3,559, 157.3.s 1,197,539.10
November--------- 367 288 1,776,254 1,353,860 1, m85,804 1,364,428 1,548, 179. 06 1,178,924.90
December--------- 416 348 2. 073,866 1,630,054 2 161,904 1,843,317 1,803, 09.46 1,427,374.72
January.----------- 359 351 1,793.742 1,663,267 1.935,275 1.857.865 1.555.916.04 1, 458. 06 72
February----------. 393 364 1, 9r9, 735 1,730,859 2, 97. 856 1,912.730 1,707, 162.64 1,504,426.22
Mlarch............. 399 400 1,971.311 1,909,916 2.143,113 2,061,410 1,716,5ti4. 10 1,670,311.12
April............ 407 385 2,006,341 1,873,931 2,064,046 2,155,571 1,750,179.76 1,642.021.14
May............... 398 400 1.957.852 1,885,038 1.989,687 2,070, 22 1,703,338.20 1,643,109.68
June-------------.. 416 392 2,03A, L5 1 1,890,878 2, 124,720 2,153,773 1,783,289.96 1,662,712.74
Total........ 4,678 4,260 22,902,064 20.233,043 24. 117.788 21,670, 51. 19,956,593. 28 17, 596, 602. 46
Average per
month..----------- 390 355 1,908.505 1,686,087 2,009,816 1,805,877 1,663, 049. 44 1, 466,383.54


Nationality of Vessels Transiting Canal

Segregation of ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic through the Canal
during the fiscal year 1948, by nationality, is presented in the follow-
ing table which shows the number of transits, measurement tonnage,
tolls, and tons of cargo:

I Measured tonnage


Nationality


Number
of
transits


Panama
Canal net


11I _I I Gross


Argentine-------------...---
Belgian.....................
Brazilian................
British.... -----..-...... ...
Chilean.......... ..... ...
Chinese......... .......
Colombian....................
Costa Rican..............
Cuban........
D anish ......................


16
3
5
1,041
9
80
3
1
119


54.327
16,R697
9,471
5,822.495
342.119
12,806
94,709
2,049
2,584
545,502


Registered


42,445
12,754
6,909
4,747. 143
313,1hl2
11,460
83.838
1,860
2,123
353,521


70,003
21,423
13,663
7,772.138
503,929
19,786
145,471
3.204
3,805
601,316


Tolls


$46,502. 64
15.027 30
8,256.96
5,086.061.44
306.331. 20
10,920.96
84.852.90
1,721.16
2.325. 60
488,.490.48


Tons of
cargo


18,588
25.600
11,150
5,790,434
274,575
15,770
91.609
2. 1l5
3,230
477,723


- 1 --------






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Measured tonnage
Number Tons of
Nationality of Registered Tolls Tons of
transits Panama cargo
Canal net
Gross Net

Ecuadorean----------.-------- 32 62,546 89,107 49,123 $56,830.60 50,453
Finnish----------------------- 4 10,624 15,152 10,606 9,312.12 13,093
French --------------- -----. 99 496,401 681,958 411,630 439,679.34 515.547
Greek ------------------------- 32 173,349 225,817 137,137 146,032.02 183,744
Honduran-------------------- 178 297,133 488,874 272,749 250,169.94 179,699
Icelandic------------------..-- 1 2,575 3,805 2,123 2,317.50 5,000
Italian------------------------ 29 173.131 236,713 141,826 150,607.08 188,447
Mexican ------------------- 7 20,327 26. 570 17, 850 17,841.42 28,082
Netherland ------------------ 141 344,655 402,715 235.264 308,395.62 287,173
Nicaraguan ------------------- 6 12,810 16,788 12,;64 10,376.10 2.283
Norwegian-.-------------- --- 324 1,682,508 2.025, 121 1,215.667 1,425.748.86 1,510,005
Palestinian--------------- 2 8,716 10,f636 G.S50 7,S44.40 8,398
Panamanian -------------- -- 180 565,321 796,938 472,757 464,913.72 491,792
Peruvian..................... 16 45,159 65,998 40,53h 40,103.14 49,626
Philippine............ ..... 27 129,146 147,37 88,267 115,366.50 112,758
Polish----------- ------------- 1 5,395 7,612 4,555 4.855 0 7,921
Portuguese-------------------- 15 67,778 76,911 48,045 54,879.30 50,892
Soviet --------------- -- 10 29,964 42,477 24,881 26,840. 70 31,284
Spanish --------------------- 26 103, 849 130,265 82,452 83,469.42 93,553
Swedish --------------- ----- 147 668,352 1,001,256 609,078 587,360.70 719,598
Swiss ------------------- ---. 2 9,386 10,310 6,690 7,784.64 135
United States---------------- 2,035 11,063,125 15,334,187 9,070,385 9,672,081.30 12,860,904
Venezuelan ------------------- 18 27,055 43,449 25,487 23,292.72 16,537
Totals:
1948 --------------- 4,678 22,902,064 31,034,776 18,562,689 19,956,593.28 24,117,788
1947----------------- 4,260 20,233,043 27,538,548 16,455,773 17,596,602.46 21,670,518
1939 ------------------ 5,903 27,170,007 34,583,085 20,745,286 23,661,021.08 27,866,627



Cargo Carried by Vessels of Leading Maritime Nations

Segregating the traffic through the Canal by nationality of vessels,
the following table shows the aggregate cargo carried by ships of the
principal maritime nations during the past two fiscal years and for
the fiscal year 1939; the percentage of total cargo carried by ships of
each nationality also is shown:


1948 1947 1939

Tons of Percent- Tons of Percent- Tons of Percent-
cargo age cargo age cargo age

United States -- --.--------------- 12,860,904 53.3 11,712,664 54.1 9,909,380 35.6
British ------------ ------------- 5,790,434 24.0 5,435,332 25.1 6,801,556 24.4
Norweigian------------------------- 1,510,005 6.3 1,145,745 5.3 3,408,078 12.2
Swedish -------------------- ----- 719,598 3.0 484,912 2.2 1,008,245 3.6
French--. ------------------------ 515,547 2.1 377,346 1.7 501,752 1.8
Panamanian -------------- ------ -- 491,792 2.0 657,449 3.0 371,721 1.3
Danish---------------------- ---- 477,723 2.0 375,260 1.7 727,552 2.6
Netherland------------------------ 287, 173 1.2 359, 108 1. 7 675,105 2.4
Chilean.------------- ------------- 274,575 1.1 258,765 1.2 62.904 .2
Greek----- ------- -------------- 183,744 .8 199,415 .9 666.471 2.4
YugoSlavian---------------------------------------- 12,358 .1 2A6,,913 1.0
Japanese--------.---- ----------------------------- ----- -- --------- 1,701,303 6.2
German-------------------------- ------- ------------ ---------- 1, 468,996 5.3
All other -----.------- ------------ 1,006,293 4.2 652,164 3.0 287,651 1.0
Total------------ -----------24,117,788 100.0 21,670,518 100.0 27,886,627 100.0





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Vessels Paying Tolls on Displacement Tonnage

In Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as transports,
supply ships, tankers, etc., with a measurement of 300 net tons
(Panama Canal measurement,) or more, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons or more, are classified as ocean-
going, tolls-paying vessels. Statistics on these vessels, except such
as pertain to displacement tonnage, have been included in the traffic
summaries shown on the preceding pages. Since displacement ton-
nage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table
presents statistics on the 14 vessels which transited the Canal during
the fiscal year 1948 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.

Number Displace-
Nationality Type of vessel of transit ment Tolls
tonnage
British .......................... Naval--------------------------- 10 53,996 $26,998.00
Ecuadorean. ---.-------...----- ------ do ------- ----------- 3 2,972 1,486.00
Peruvian----------.-------------do--------------------------- 1 1,430 715.00
Total------------------ ---------------------------------- 14 58,398 29,199.00


Classification of Vessels

The following table summarizes the ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic
through the Canal during the fiscal year 1948 showing laden ships
and those in ballast, and further segregated as to tankers, ore ships,
passenger-carrying ships, general cargo ships, and miscellaneous ves-
sels not engaged in normal commerce, such as naval vessels, cable
ships, yachts, etc. The traffic also is segregated by direction of
transit and as to vessels of United States registry and those of all
other nationalities:








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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Hit REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Laden and Ballast Traffic by Nationality

In the table below the ships of each nationality have been segregated
to show separate statistics on vessels which were carrying cargo and/or
passengers at the time of transiting the Canal and those which trans-
ited in ballast:

Laden Ballast

Nationality Number Panama Number Panama
of Canal net Tolls of Canal net Tolls
transits tonnage transits tonnage

Argentine------------------- 12 41,040 $36,936.00 4 13,287 $9, 566.64
Belgian -- ------- ------------ 3 16,697 15,027.30 --. -- -- ...-- .---.
Brazilian--- --------------- 3 7,988 7,189.20 2 1,483 1,067.76
British....----.------------------ 829 4,815,928 4,334,336. 20 202 1,006,567 724,728. 24
Chilean-------------------- 65 333,364 300,027.60 4 8,755 6,303.60
Chinese--------------------- 6 9,448 R, 503.20 3 3,358 2,417.76
Colombian---------- -------- 77 92,569 83,312.10 3 2,140 1,540.80
Costa Rican---------------- 2 1,366 1,229.40 1 683 491.76
Cuban---------------------- 1 2,584 2,325.60 ..-------- ------
Danish --------------------- 115 531,828 478,645.20 4 13,674 9,845.28
Ecuadorean-.---------------- 25 57. 28 51,557.40 4 5,260 3,787.20.
Finnish---------------------. 3 9,238 8,314.20 1 1,386 997.92
French----------------- 91 457,059 411,353.10 8 39,342 28,326.24
Greek ---------------. 22 117,893 106,103.70 10 55,456 39,928.32
Honduran ----------------- 126 201,301 181,170.90 52 95,832 68,999.04
Icelandic-------------------- 1 2,575 2,317.50 ---- -----------
Italian --------------------- 25 144,182 129,763.80 4 2I .949 20,843.28
Mexican ---------- ---------- 5 17.811 16,029.90 2 2 516 1,811.52
Netherland ---------------- 136 334,689 301,220.10 5 9.966 7,175.52
Nicaraguan----------------- 3 6,405 5,764.50 3 6,405 4,611.60
Norwegian-------- ---------- 234 1,190,795 1,.071,715.50 90 491,713 354,033.36
Palestinian ------------ ----- 2 8,716 7,844.40 --------------------- -------
Panamanian------- --------- 105 321, 570 289,413.00 75 243,751 175,500.72
Peruvian------------------- 10 38,187 34,368.30 5 6,972 5,019.84
Philippine-------------------- 26 124.341 111,906.90 1 4,805 3,459.60
Polish ----------- ---------- 1 5,395 4,855.50 ---------------- 4-------
Portuguese ---:---.---__ 8 33,773 30,395.70 7 34,005 24,483.60
Soviet ---------------------- 9 29,259 26,333.10 1 705 507.60
Spanish--------------------- 12 48,323 43,490. 70 14 55,526 39,978. 72
Swedish -------------------- 129 589,707 530,736. 30 18 78,645 56, 624. 40
Swiss ----------------------- 1 5,704 5,133.60 1 3,682 2,651.04
United States--------------- 1,719 9,481,285 8,533, 156. 50 316 1,581,840 1,138,924. 80
Venezuelan-------- --------- 12 21,184 19, 065.60 6 5,871 4,227.12
Totals:
1948.---------------- 3,818 19,099,490 17, 189, 541.00 846 3,802, 574 2,737,853.28
1947 .---------------- 3,442 16,600,450 14,940,405.00 804 3,632,593 2,615,466.96
1939 ----------------I 4,875 22,507,503 20.256,752.70 1,005 4,662,504 3,357,002.88

Average Tonnage, Tolls, and Tons of Cargo per Cargo-Carrying
Vessel

The average measurement tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per
cargo-carrying vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal
measurement, transiting the Panama Canal during the past two fiscal
years and in the fiscal year 1939, are shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

Measured tonnage:
Panama Canal net----------------------------------------- 4,930 4,799 4,633
Registered gross.... ---- --- ----------------------------------------- 6,679 6,531 5,896
Registered net-------.---------------- -------------------- 3,994 3,902 3,537
Tolls.--.. ----------------..----- -------------------------- $4,296 $4,165 $4,027
Tons of cargo (including vessels in ballast)------------------------- 5,197 5, 148 4,754
Tons of cargo (laden vessels only)__------------------------------- 6,330 6,318 6,719





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Steam, Motor, and Other Vessels

The following table shows ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels transiting
the Canal during the two past fiscal years and in the fiscal year 1939,
segregated according to method of propulsion:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

Steamers:
Oil burning---- -----.--- --------------------.. -------------- 3,155 2,926 2,444
Coal burning.------------------------------- --------------- 136 256 1,019
Motor ships--- -------------------.------------------.- -... .---.--- 1,350 1,027 2,398
Not classified I.-..----.----------- ---------------- ----------------. 37 51 42
Total------------------------------------------------ 4,678 4,260 5,903

i Naval vessels, yachts, etc.

Frequency of Transits of Vessels Through the Panama Canal

During the fiscal year 1948, 1,663 individual ocean-going, tolls-
paying vessels, representing 33 nationalities, passed through the
Panama Canal. In the aggregate these vessels made a total of 4,678
transits. The number of transits made by individual ships varied
from 1 to 32, and averaged 2.81. The greatest number of transits,
32, was made by 2 vessels of Honduran registry, the Cortes and
Guayaquil, engaged in the trade between Gulf ports of the United
States and South America.
Vessels of United States registry led in the number of individual
vessels transiting the Canal during the year with 648, as well as in
the number of transits, 2,035; those of British registry were second
in number of both individual vessels and of transits, with 495 and
1,041, respectively.
The following table shows the number of individual ships, the
frequency of transits per ship, the total number of transits for the
year, and the average number of transits per individual ship, segre-
gated by nationality:








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 19

The following tabulation compiled from the preceding table shows
the number of vessels making a given number of transits through the
Panama Canal (1 to 32), their aggregate number of transits, and
their percent of the total ocean-going tolls-paying transits:

Total Percent of Total Precent of
Number of Numhbr number total Canal Number of Number number total Canal
transits of vessels of transits transits of vessels of transits
transits (4,678) transits (4,67x.i

1..----------------- 704 704 15.0 14---------------- 2 28 .6
2----------------- 429 858 18.3 16----------------... 6 96 2. 0
3----------------- 162 486 10.4 17---------------. 4 68 1.5
4----------------- 118 472 10.1 18---.------------- 5 00 1.9
5-.------.- ---... 60 300 6.4 19---------------. 3 57 1.2
.. ..-.--- .- ---- 56 336 7.2 22--.. -------- 1 22 .5
7 .-----------. 25 175 3.7 23 --------------- 3 69 1.5
8.------------------ 29 232 5.0 24.---------------. 2 48 1.0
0.----...-------- 16 144 3.1 26---------------- 2 52 1.1
10..-------------- 13 130 2.8 32 ---------------. 2 64 1.4
11-.--..--..---.. 9 99 2.1 -- ----------
12 ------.-------- 8 96 2.0 Total------ 1,663 4,678 100.0
13 ------- -- 4 52 1.1


Gross Tonnage of Vessels

The 4,678 ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels which transited the
Canal in the fiscal year 1948 included 4,664 vessels rated on net ton-
nage and 14 vessels rated on displacement tonnage.
Of the 4,664 vessels rated on net tonnage, 2,314, or 49.6 percent,
were vessels ranging between 6,000 to 8,000 registered gross tons.
This group was made up to a large extent of Liberty and Victory
type vessels used extensively in World War II. The average regis-
tered gross tonnage of all vessels was 6,654 as compared with 6,486
in the previous fiscal year.
The following tabulation shows the ocean-going, tolls-paying ves-
sels, excluding those rated on displacement tonnage, in groups accord-
ing to registered gross tonnage, segregated by nationality, with aver-
age tonnages for 1948 and 1947 and group percentages for the fiscal
year 1948:







REPORT OF THE GO% ERNOR OF THE PANAMIA CANAL

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 21


Principal Commodities

Statistics of commodities passing through the Canal are not Iprvise
wbea use at the time of transit it is not required that complete manifests
of ca rgo carried by vessels be submit t ed to the Canal authorities. In
lieu of a manifest the master of each vessel is required to submit a
cargo declaration, which is a briefly itenmizEd stataeienit, listing the
principal itfiems of cargo carried and showing tlih ir ports or country of
origin and (ldetilnation. These cargo declarations form the basis of
the commodity statistics. There is a natural tendency not to list
small miiscellaineous shipments but to include them under, the headl
of general cargo. Hence, except in the case of commodities comn-
monly shipped in bulk, such as mineral oils carried in tank ships,
wheat, lumber, nitrate, etc., aggregate shipments of the various com-
modities are likely to be in excess of the tonnage reported d(luriing the
yeiir and shown in the annual sul lnnary. Subject to inee;ucraies
ari-ing from this source, the tonnage of the principal commodities
slliipped through the Canal during the fiscal years 1948, 1947, and
1939 is shown in the follow ing table:
[All figures in long tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year
Commodity
1948 1947 1939

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
Mineral oils ..--- -- ----------.-- 1,762,691 2,200,916 1,032,671
Manufactures of iron and steel.. ----------------------------- 1, 22'. 707 1,082,272 1,495,497
Ammonium compounds ---------------- ------------------ 507,720 81,364 51,062
Paper and paper products ------------------------------------ 421),023 359,050 402,264
Sulphur _----------------------------------------------- 2., 267 309,586 234,879
Flour-------------------------------------------------------- 229, 904 200,305 23,445
Machinery ---.. ------------------------------------------ 229,223 170,155 l..--
Cotton, raw ----- ---------------.------------.. ----------- 196,252 273,721 250,752
Coal and coke--------------------------------------------- 194,638 91,503 147, 2 -
Tinplate------------------------------------------------- 171.636 163,820 194,186
Automobiles---------------------.------------------------- 137,749 135,530 152,131
Chemicals, unclassified -------------------------------------- 123, 526 99,833 127,858
Salt-----.- --------------------------------------------- 117,711 58,212 54,751
Cement---..---------------------------------------------- 113,031 201,460 160,271
Canned food products----------------------------------- 105,723 121,988 132,228
Metals, various---------------------------------------------- 102,058 80,969 400,285
Coffee.----------------------------------------------- 93,585 74,174 73,314
Woodpulp------------------------------------------------ 7. .4' 4'.. 24 59,834
.A-r'h-lt ........... . ------------------------------ 81,672 68,301 71,931
Alulnt1'laIs pjir:T ain.] umessories .--------------------- 78,158 72,952 80,693
Wheat------.------------------------------------------- 75,831 80,831 2,604
Sugar-------------------------------------------------------- 70,750 7-'.793 36,832
Textiles ._--------. _--------------------- 63,486 58,230 98,325
Rice.---.------------------------------------------------ i.11.053 133,905 14,887
Electrical apparatus--------- ------------------------------ 56,524 38,954 39,207
Nitrate--------------------------------------------------- 54,829 113,035 54,181
Creosote--------..----------------------------------------- 54,361 33,381 26,399
Tobacco ..---... ..-- ------.------------------------.---- 52.982 64,894 64.441
'alj and sodium compounds ..... ..------------- ...-...- 52,785 31,809 304, 694
Ores, various ------ --------------------..---------------- 48,693 62,442 45,620
Lumber and mill products..--------------------------------- 47,480 30, 533 5t. 157
Agricultural implements----------------------------------- 45,102 34,939 4 276
Phuslltes .... ...... ........ .--.---. ..-.---- -------. 42.311 156,212 202,981
Liquors and wines...---.------------------------------------ 41. 37,336 74,093
FrJiil iz r'. unclassified--------------------.-- ---------------- 37,578 26,697 20.633
0cl4*-.-d c ke and meal---_..-----.------------- ---- ---------- 36,929 5,483 2".504
Floor tmrii.% ................ --..--------...------- 36,428 26,506 27,237
Olass and glassware.... ---. ... -----------...-.. 36,023 19,537 60,005
I'alnla and varnishes--.-----.---------------------------...-.. Ji.754 28,660 36,057
818633-49---3






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fiscal year
Commodity
1948 1947 1939


ATLANTIC TO PACIFIc-continued

Groceries, miscellaneous--------.------ ----------------
Rosin .-------------------------------------------------------
Drugs and medicines-------.------- ------------------
Asbestos -----------------------------------------------------
Sand------------- --------------- ----------------
Oils, vegetable------------------------------------------------
Railroad material ------ --------. --.----------- ------
Oilseeds ------------------------------ ------ ----------
Slag -------------------------------------------------
Potash ----------------------------- -----------------
Soaps and products------------------------ -------------------
Scrap metal---------------------------------------------------
All others.---------------------------------------------------

Total --- --- --------------------------

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

Lumber and mill products ----- ---- ------------
Ores, various ---------------------- -----------------
Nitrate----------------------------------------------------
Wheat_------..-------------------------------------
Mineral oils--------- --- --------------------------
Canned food products .............----------------------------------------
Metals, various --------------- ---------------------
Food products in refrigeration I -- _----- ---- -------_
Coal and coke. ----------------------------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures --.----- ----------------
Bananas ---------------------------------------------------
Coffee--__ .--- -----------------------
Wool ----------.-- -------------------------------
Copra.-----------------------------------------------------
Sugar ----------------- ------------------------
Rice---- -------------------------------------------------
Wood pulp ---- --------- --..-- ------------
Beans, edible-----------------------------------------------
Fruit, dried-----------------------------------------------
Flour-.____--------------------------------------
Oils, vegetable --------------------------------------------
Fruit, fresh (excluding bananas) ---- ---------------------
Grains, miscellaneous and unclassified -----------------------.
Barley....----------------------------------------------------
Rubber, crude------------------------------------------------
Cotton, raw------------------------------------------------
Molasses --- ----.-------- --------------.----------
Borax..------------------------- -------------------
Machinery-------------------------------------------------
Skins and hides _.------------------------------
Paper and paper products ---------------- ---------
Chemicals, unclassified .-----------------------------------
Ammonium compounds---------- --------------
Hemp, unmanufactured------------------------------------
Peas, dry--------- --------------------------------
Asphalt. ..- -. -------
Soda and sodium compounds ------- ----- ----------- -
Fertilizers, unclassified -.---.---------------------------
Coconuts--------------------- ---------------
Tallow..--........--------------------------------------------
Oats --------------------------------------------------
Groceries, miscellaneous -----------------------
Sand---- ------------------------------
Oilseed cake and meal ......----- ----- -------.
Wines ------------------------------------------------------
Potash-------- ------------------------
Porcelainware--------------------------------------------
Textiles.....--------------...----------------------------------
Phosphates ---------- ---- ------------------
Fish oil.-- .--------------------------------
Fish meal. -------.....----------------------------------
Soybeans .------------------------------------------
Guano ---. ----------------------- --------------
All other .................-------------------.....

Total ------------- --------------


29,147
19,387
17,118
16,037
12,374
11,272
10,192
8,461
7,300
5, 276
5,030
1,347
1,304,151


35,580
20,299
21,097
12,694
5,331
10,914
32,247
5,319
12,328
8, 595
7,878
989
1,167,012


24,794
41,303
29,114
35,395
25,788
32,002
82,235
45,676
26,769
27,859
28,630
1,200,368
1,135,041


8,679,140 8,294,820 9,011,267


3,279, 892
2,781,277
1,491,940
1,112,359
773,817
649,059
613,130
570,812
337,880
291,847
262,601
243,662
235,445
224,523
168,277
146,759
127,867
121. 406
112,468
105,692
95,543
77,734
71,527
68,096
65,151
61,959
59,009
54,478
51,948
47, 404
47,395
40,419
36,361
35, 555
34,605
34,324
34,139
32,205
32,080
23,012
20,258
17,392
15,751
12,260
7,474
5,618
4,060
3,396
3,161
1,611
900
15
- --- -- --- -- --
692, 969

15,438, 522


2,340,696
2,184,650
1,294,226
1,489,622
236,895
713,040
630,047
514,026
413, 480
323,476
331.266
218,924
284,633
301,187
142,728
144,723
60,027
49,083
116,625
111,060
63,366
81,861
31,380
16,256
39,054
77,673
57,690
34,153
39,952
51,596
34,647
24,956
26,686
41,328
26,042
35, 509
3,141
41,933
15,277
22,786
89,202
33, 301
26,168
4,996
13,390
5, 542
681
1,924
8,062
804
90


525, 838

13,375,698


3,191,093
1,991,690
1,444,148
1,539,474
2, 777,201
1,232,636
674,314
335,874
413
8,466
45,557
185,341
138,622
156,657
1,329,276
31,127
235,768
165,185
337,769
153,642
174,944
419,109
2, 503
259,612
24,934
106,211
101,750
74,239
10,065
58, 760
120,723
18, 542
3,473
24,293
16.585
61,861
10,419
7,601
27,064
30,864
102, 650
13, 640
1,350
62,925
29,879
48,287
25,324
30,986
87,715
34,433
32,473
236,099
27, 830
593,964

18, 855,360


I Does not include fresh fruit.






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 23

Origin and Destination of Cargo Segregated by Countries in
Principal Trade Areas
The following tables show the origin and destination, by countries
in the principal trade areas, of cargoes carried by vessels passing
through the Canal during the past year; one table covers the move-
ment of cargo from the Atlantic to the Pacific and the other from the
Pacific to the Atlantic:









REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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Cargo Shipments Segregated by Trade Routes


The following tables present, by direction of movement, cargo ton-

nage passing through the Canal over various trade rouits, together
with the principal commodities making up these shipments, for the

past two fiscal yo-ars and for the fiscal year 1939:


Total Cargo Shipments-Atlantic to Pacific
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939


East Coast United States to-
West coast United States-----.---------------------------------
West coast Canada. ----------_. --_. -.. ------------------------
West coast Central America/Mexico ----------------------------
West coast South America----..------------------------------
Hawaiian Islands. ...__-----_ -....-----------------
Australasia -----..----------------------------------------
Philip[iir. Islands....--------------------------------
A zi.1i ,%'i l.iliing Philippine Islands) -----.-----.--.--------.----
Ralls1.., C. Z... ......-..-.-..-.......-.......-- ..-----...-...

Total from east coast United States--.-...------.--------------

East coast Canada to-
West coast United States- .- ..--.--_--- ..-.-- -------------
West coast Canada .---------------------------------------------
Australasia. ------------------------------------------------
Asia (excluding Philippine Islands). -------........-----------...
Other territories ---....---._--.-.-.-_ .....-_-- ..-...-..-.....-
Total from east coast Canada ------------------------------

East coast Central America/Mexico to-
W.-t. coast Central America/Mexico----------------------------
Asia (I W-luLilujL .Hlitlpinp c Islands)---. -- ..----------.-.------
Other territories.............----------.........-----...........
Total from east coast Central A riiric.i, MI .ico. ........ .

East coast South America to-
W' YI coast United States.....--.--.. --.----.........---...
West coast Canada--.. --------.. --_..-.-.-..----...-.._-...-...
West coast South America---.........--.......--.--.. .-......
Asia rw-hli-iii PIhNlllji-iiite Islands).---.--.......- ..---_---.--.--
Other r-i ,iti rn ..- ...- .....-.......-................- ....

Total from east coast South America--.-----------------------.

Cristobal, C. Z to-
West coast Central Am il ri. lc'.Ic ............... .
West coast South America---..- --.. -------......--...------
Other territories....------.................. ...... .- .......


West


B
A
A
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1, 719,005
37, 639
54,752
886, 235
236, 797
594, 477
442,743
1, 7.*. 767
22, 574

5,763,989

33,774
167,436
41, 914
997

244, 121

31, 892
20,089
712

52,693

138,845
38, 873
47, 622
36
30

225, 406


1, 466,373
36, 843
36,977
774, 499
269, 953
1.b, 724
453,432
1, 748, 608
81, 657

5, 557, 066

54,445

234, 423
25, 003
3,027
316, 898

27, 800
641

28,441

106,571
27.307
3'i.. 1.17i

9, 279

173, 230


2,391,523
22, 292
31,710
192,732
141,804
374, 544
277,399
2, 1. 808
8,514

6,034,326

26,287
41'. 893
222, 720
50,943
1, 567

348,410

74, 857
43, 695

118,552

110, 521
6,202
S'-1. 649
124,724
12, 943

407,039


88,446 90,562 50,907
17,255 22,851 135,986
6,792 5,017 26,854


Total from Cristobal.---------------.. --------------------- 112,493 118,430 213,747
Inh 1-1 to-
Vest coast United . .... ...................... .. 9,104 31,378 10,064
Vest coast Central Ain l Mexicu.-----...--------------------- 105,047 120,559 15.342
Vest coast South America----.---..-----.. --------.----------- 829, 496 858, 168 177,714
alboa, C. Z--------------------------------------------------. 190,700 242,938 ,1. 307
.ustralasia.. -... ----------------................................. 4 591 72,188 21,942
sia (excluding I'lii|.i|iiir' Islands)....-.---.--...- ...........-. 74,098 32,589 19,892
awaiian Islands ... . . 4 719 -........
tcst coast Canada. ....... ... . .. 37.4 24.052 8,666
theirr territories...-----------------------.........................---------.... 10, 141 14,840 7

Total from West Indies..------------.-----------------...... ... in17 1. 4 1i. -1i 31S. 934







30 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Total Cargo Shipments-Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939


Europe to-
West coast United States ---------------------------------- 213,429 81,080 337,401
West coast Canada------------------------------------ ------ 47,681 47,568 78,789
West coast Central America/Mexico-------------------------- 17,720 23,014 91, 873
West coast South America---------.---- -------------------- 195,980 216,210 415,697
Australasia --.----------- -------- --------- 413,637 239,835 542,770
Balboa, C. Z --------------------------------------------- 4,563 26,372 12,487
Other territories ---------------- ---------------------------- 15,350 16,821 46,781

Total from Europe-----.---------------------- ------------ 908,360 650,900 1,525,798

Asia and Africa to-
Other territories.-----.....- ----.------.. ------- -------- 31,471 9,424 44,461

Total cargo-Atlantic to Pacific--------------------------8, 679, 140 8,294, 820 9,011,267



Total Cargo Shipments-Pacific to Atlantic
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939


West coast United States to:
East coast United States----------------------------------
East coast South America ---------_-__ ------------------
Cristobal, C. Z------------------------------------------
West Indies ---------------------------
Europe------- ---- ----------------------------------------
Asia -- --------------------------------------------
Africa ---------------------------------------------------
Other territories.. -- - ------------

Total from west coast United States--------------------

West coast Canada to:
East coast United States --------------
East coast Canada----------------------------------
West Indies---------------------------------
East coast South America ---- ---- -------
Europe----------------------------------------------------
Asia------------------------------ -------------
Africa -----------------------------------------------------------
Other territories -----------------------------------

Total from west coast Canada- --------------

West coast Central America/Mexico to:
East coast United States --------------- ---------
Cristobal, C. Z------------------
Europe_--------. .-----. ------------- -------
West Indies----------- ---------- ---------
Other territories. -- ----- -------

Total from west coast Central America/Mexico --------------

West coast South America to:
East coast United States ------------ ------
East coast Canada --------------------.----------
East coast South America -- ---------------
Cristobal, C. Z --------_ ----------------------
West Indies --------------------------
Europe --------------------------------
Africa -------------------------
Other territories---------------------------------------


Total from west coast South America-..-


Balboa, C. Z., to:
Other territories..--- - .-- ___---------------


2, 118, 799
216,724
48,112
334, 964
1,953, 195
21, 766
188,831
14,182

4,896, 573

83,397
------------
10,171
19. 2f8
2, -(2, 1-i
40,853
187, 788
271

2, 824,394

234,947
55, 229
42, 427
24,683
3,620

360, 906

3, 416,518

34,075
35,140
90,191
1,095,466
336, 779
3,369


1,463,429
150,700
4,864
171,886
1,841,143
7,811
100, 554
18,620

3, 759, 007

25, 025
------------ _
25, 673
39,015
2,638, 086
28,659
224,029
861

2,981,348

308,494
71,737
28,063
14,759
5,745

428,798


2,700,861
8,423
43,483
42,659
86, 456
1, 097, 688
263, 406
20,793


4,493,203
45,222
55,073
487, 189
2,349,888
2,480
44,859
43,671

7, 521, 585

201,619
56,398
31, 571
13, 237
2, 539, 436
385
26,910
3,896

2,873,452

30,649
43,472
48, 116
1,326
27

123,590

2, 447, 257
132, 364
12, 464
143,186
111i.. 903
2, 4" 1, 541
24,180
220


5,011, 538 4, 263, 769 5,345,115

17,560 8,916 -----


-----------------








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 31


Total Cargo Shipments-Pacific to Atlantic-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

Hawaiian Islands to:
East coast United States---------------------------------------- 228,177 201,603 361,857
E.,t coast Canada ---------------------------------------- 12,550 20,158 ..........
Europe. -------.-----------------------------------------------.------------ 11,236 79,174
Other territories --------------------------------------------- 111 5,248 .-..-.-...

Total from Hawaiian Islands --------------------------_.---- 240,838 238,245 441,031

Australasia to:
East coast United States --------------------------------- 190, 278 196,632 86,999
East coast Canada--------------------------------------- 36,406 65,732 87,546
Europe. -------. ---------- ----------------------------------- 1,044,295 907,664 759,794
Other territories ---- ------------------------------------ 10,272 3,683 12,001

Total from Australasia -------------------------------------- 1,281,251 1,173,711 946,340

Philippine Iblinds to:
E,-ir ci.t.r United States---------------------------------- 472,671 356,195 918,937
Other territories------------------------------------------ 11,942 5,535 2,525

Total from Philippine Islands ------------------------------ 484,613 361,730 921,462

Asia to:
East coast United States----------------------------------. 319,059 156,166 280,593
Europe-...... ------------------------------ ---------- 2,922 363,048
Other territories ------ ------------------------------------- 1,790 1,086 39,144
Total from Asia---------------------------------------------- 320,849 160,174 682,785

Total cargo-Pacific to Atlantic.------------------------------ 15,438,522 13,375,698 18,855,360



Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-


Atlantic to Pacific


[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


East coast United States to west coast United States:
Canned food products------------ --------------------
Chemicals, unclassified -----.-.--- -----------. -----
Eleeirriral apparatus-..--------- --------------------------------
Floor co% erins . ... .------------------ .-
Iron and ste I ni:inufaicures ---------------------------
Lumber. -.----------------------------------------------------
Machinery. ------------------- --- -------------------------
Mineral oils:
Lubricating oils and greases --------------. ... ---------..-.
Other- ------------- ---- ---------- --------
Paints-----------------------------------
l'apcr and paper products.------------.-- ..-----------------
Phosphates-------------------------------.........................................
Sulfur.----..-------------------. . -----------------.
Tinplate.. ------------------------------------------
1 'oijd pulp -------------------.... -- --.. -..-..- -----------....
All other and unclassified. ... ... .......--.-------


Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939


46, 441
18,053
17, 727
26,117
761,844
16,791
13,886

122,921
6,975
11,217
104,855
7,320
106,641
11,951
37,588
408, 678


Total.----------.-------------------------------- 1,719,005


East coast United States to west coast Canada:
Sulfur. .. -...------- ...-- .- ..-------------......... ...-- ---
All other and unclassified .--.--------...... -...--...- ----
T total ...... ....... . ..


25,400
12,239
37,639


27,866
16,811
13,585
20,691
633,785
9,115
19,895
95,097
99, 819
13, 781
61, 406
17, 701
66,607
9,846
7,396
352,972
1,466,373

30,005
6,838
36,843


94,119
48,743
22,028
24,112
784,485
26,777
28,958
137,841
848
13,768
129,607
6,733
133,017
67,839
9,985
862,663
2,391,523

4,000
18,292
22,292







32 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

East coast United States to west coast Central America/Mexico:
Chemicals, unclassified ---------------------------------------- 16,203 8,216 80
Iron and steel manufactures ---------------------------.--- 11,061 8,799 2,740
All other and unclassified-------------------------------------- 27,488 19,962 28,890

Total--- ----------------------------------- ---------------- 54,752 36,977 31,710
East coast United States to west coast South America:
Agricultural implements--------------------------------------- 11,320 13,088 4,609
Automobiles and parts ----.------------ ------------------- 45,298 65,359 13,223
Bricks and tile ------------------------------------------------_ 13, 498 3,294 548
Canned food products--- ------------------------ 10, 808 20,153 2,404
Cement.. _-- ------------------------------------------------ 13,843 48,441 2,544
Chemicals, unclasssified ----------------------------------- 21,933 15,774 3, 607
Coal ------------------------------------------------------------ 144,674 52,198 2,023
Flour------------------------------------------------------ 19,028 32,379 264
Iron and steel manufactures -----------------..--------------- 150, 763 168, 541 63, 719
Mineral oils:
Lubricating oils and greases----------------------------- 25,304 25,350 13, 975
Other---------------------------------------------- 16,825 1,960 ---
Machinery --.----- ..-------------------------------------- 74,387 60,763 16,473
Paper and paper products ------- --------------------------- 18,723 21,008 905
Railroad and material --------------------------------------- 1,934 11,589 12,238
Tinplate------------------------------------------- 14,460 8,394 4,814
Wheat -.--------------------------------------------------- 46,216 13,506 70
All other and unclassified..-----.----------------.------------ 257,221 212,702 51,316

Total-------------------------------------------------------- 886,235 774,499 192,732
East coast United States to Hawaiian Islands:
Automobiles and parts ------------ ------------------------- 13,387 8,046 5,697
Iron and steel manufactures. ----- --------------- 20, 006 12,808 21,015
Mineral oils ---------------------------------------------------- 87, 109 131, 496 60
Tinplate. ------ ------------------------ 35,054 41,718 37,916
All other and unclassified------------------------------------ 81,241 75, 885 77, 116
Total.----. --------------- ------------------------- 236,797 269,953 141,804

East coast United States to Australasia:
Agricultural implements----------------------------------- 20, 845 13, 368 18, 426
Automobiles and parts--- ---------------------- 37,716 45,649 51,839
Chemicals unclassified------- --------------------- 10,204 7,059 6,914
Iron and steel manufactures------------------------------- 11,467 6,314 15, 805
Machinery ---.--.-...... -------..-.---------- -- 20, 870 7,542 9,856
Mineral oils:
Lubricating oils/and grease----------------------------- 103, 960 92, 710 63,013
Other-..---------------------------------------------- 20,032 58,863 4,831
Paper and paper products ---------------------------------- 17, 774 4,782 5,193
Phosphates-------------------------------------------------- 106 62,587 -----
Rosin.--------------------------------.--- --- --- ----- ------- -- 6,979 10,863 4,938
Sulphur ------------------------------------------- 141,802 193,496 95,637
Tinplate----------------------------------------------- 60,565 74,540 383
Tobacco and manufactures----------------- -------------- 16,188 9,103 14, 546
All other and unclassified---------------------------------- 125,969 101,848 83, 163
Total----. ----------------------........ .--..---------------- 594, 477 688, 724 374, 544


East coast United States to Philippine Islands:
Automobiles and parts.----- -------------------------
Canned food products.------- ------ -------- ---.---
Cement ----- -------------- -. .... . .
Flour- ------ ------- -- ----- --. ..........
Iron and steel manufactures- ------------- -----------
M achinery-...---...- ..._- ---_ -.-... ... ..--__-_-_- _....-
Mineral oils:
Lubricating oils and greases ----- -------------------------
Other ------------------ ----. -- -. ------. -
Paper and paper products... ------ --- ..----------------------
Rice-- ---------------- ---------........
Textiles----. ------------...- .-------------------- -- .--.. ..---.
Tobacco and manufactures. -.. ----------.-----------
All other and unclassified_ --_-_----.. ----------....-
Total-..--... - -.. .- -- .---- .------.-.-. .--... - -. ---


19,848 17,758 14,959
13,103 19,732 3,720
28,825 9,774 11,553
10, 201 36, 734 2, 179
59,971 36,400 96,497
19,011 8,051 8,917
16,661 18,017 8,801
24, 206 18, 285 232
13,359 9,374 7,022
----.-- 104,107 362
13, 517 10, 645 10, 001
11,614 8,851 9,226
212,427 155,704 103,930

442, 743 453, 432 277, 399







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 33


Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

FikL. year

1948 1947 1939


East coast United States to Asia (excluding Philippine Islands):
Ammonium compounds----------------------------------------- 500, 972 74,658 3,266
Automobiles and parts ------------------------------------- 14,990 18, 034 42,865
Canned food products-------------------------------------- 14,431 38, 667 705
Cement--------------- ------------------- 15,900 2,659 78
Chemicals, unclassified .---------.----------- ------. 19, 809 23, 419 9,518
Coal --------------------------- ------------------- -- 9,506 27,290 ....- ---
Coippt.r (metal)----.--------------------- --- 1,257 2,606 40,615
Cot ion, raw ----- -- ---------------------- ------- 186,501 261,551 175,934
Flour ----. ---- ----..----------- 192,042 122,471 2,917
Iron (metal pigs)--- -------------------------------- 3,557 5, 680 197,872
Iron and steel manufactures --------------------------------- 98,318 139, 482 208, 562
Machinery-- ---. ----------------------------- 44,987 42,889 38,520
Mineral oils:
Lubricating oils and greases---------------------------- 40,372 55, 040 72, 476
Other ------------------------------- --- ---- 66,128 201,314 225,813
Nitrate------------------------------------------------------- 45,946 105,632 4,718
Oil seed cake and meal---------------------------------------- 33, 713 4,785 35
I'il;.rr -*i.l pupr r i u C-------------- ------------------------ 17, 414 34, 497 3,335
Itn-ril..... ...... ---- ------ --- 5,036 49,889 139,197
R.ailr..i material.------------------------------------------ 5,535 13,074 10,343
Rice .----------- 57,212 29,025 100
Scrap metal ----------------------------------------------- 138 ------------ 1,152,844
Soybeans--------------------------------------------------- 15,991 194 -- ----
Sulfur --------------------------------- 19,808 19,266 ------------
Tinplate ----------------------------------------- 15,401 12,142 33,027
Tobacco and manufactures ------------------------------ 18, 573 42, 241 32, 265
Wheat --------------------------- 27.714 67,211 2,267
All other and unclassified ----------------------------------- 298, 516 354, 892 196,536
Total ------------------------------------ ---------------- 1,769,767 1, 748, 608 2,593,808
East coast United States to Balboa, C. Z.:
Cement ------------------------------------------------- 2,740 36, 136
Mineral oils--------------.-------------------------------- 13, 529 42, 317 3,051
All other and unclassified ------------------------------------ 6,305 3,204 5,463
Total--. __-------- ------------------------------------ 22,574 81, 657 8,514
East coast Canada to west coast United States:
Copper and lead concentrates---------------------------------- 24, 387 54, 149 15,809
All other and unclassified---------------------------------- 9,387 296 10,478
Total--..- ------------ --------------. ------------------ 33,774 54,445 26,287
East coast Canada to west coast Canada:
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)
East coast Canada to Australasia:
Automobiles and parts------------------ --- ------------------. 13, 695 20,755 26,070
Paper and paper products. _------ ---------------- 102, 875 160, 697 139, 836
All other and unclassified--------------- --------------- 50,866 52,971 56,814
Total.------... ---.--..--. ----. -- ----------------- 167, 436 234, 423 222, 720
East coast Canada to Asia:
Iron and steel manufactures------------------------------------ 21,426 ------- 8,000
Paper and paper products ------ ---...------------------------- 10,222 6,302 ------------
All other and unclassified--------------------------------- 10, 266 18,701 42,943
Total... --------- ---. -------------------------------------. 41,914 25,003 50,943
East coast Central .%America, hMeoic to west coast Central America/
Mexico:
Mineral oils ---------..---------------------------------- 30, 755 27, 789 287
All other and unclassified---.............. ...... .. . 1, 137 11 11,570
Total-..--.------.----.---------.-------------.-----------. 31,892 27,800 74, 857
East coast Central .Am srica. Mexico to Asia (excluding Philippiii.
Islands):
Mineral oils. --.---.------....----.--.------.---------------------- 13,869 ..-- ---. ....--
All other and unclassified.---------..........------------------------- 6, 220 ------ -- -------
Total------------.----------------------------------- 20,089 .--------. ---------







34 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-

Atlantic to Pacific-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Fiscal year


1948 1947 1939


East coast South America to west coast United States:
Coffee.--------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified- .---- -------------- ----------

Total-------------------------------------------

East coast South America to west coast Canada:
Mineral oils. ------ ------------------------------
All other and unclassified ------------- ----------------

Total--------------- -- -------- -------------------------

East coast South America to west coast South America:
Mineral oils -------- -------------------------------------
All other and unclassified----------. --------------------

Total ------------ ---.----- ------ ------------------

East coast South America to Asia:
Cotton.------------------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified -- ---- --------------------

Total--.---------------------- ------------------

Cristobal to west coast Central America/Mexico:
Iron and steel manufactures---- --------- --------------
All other and unclassified ----------------------------

Total-------------.--- ----------- --------------------

Cristobal to west coast South America:
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)
West Indies to west coast United States:
Mineral oils ---------------------- ------------------
All other and unclassified--- --------------------------

Total --------- -------------------- --------------

West Indies to west coast Central America/Mexico:
Mineral oils---.--------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified. ------ ------ --------------------

Total ___ ------------------ ------------------------------

West Indies to west coast South America:
Mineral oils------------- ------ ---------------------
Suar--------------------------------------------------- --
All other and unclassified ---------- ---------------- ---

Total ------------ -------------------------------

West Indies to Balboa, C. Z.:
Mineral oils_ ------------------------------------
All other and unclassified.--------- -------------------

Total.............---------------------------------------- ------

West Indies to Australasia:
Asphalt-----------------------------------
Mineral oils------------------- -------------------------
All other and unclassified-. -------------- -------------

Total.-----------------------. --------------------------

West Indies to Asia (excluding Philippine Islands):
Mineral oils ----. -- -------------------------
Salt..------- -------------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified ----.-----. ---------------------

Total. --. ---------------- -- ---- --------


76,582
62,263

138,845

30,980
7, 893

38. 873

18,717
28,905

47, 622


70,592
35,979

106, 571

20,391
6,916

27,307

219
29, 854

30,073


45, 113
65,408

110, 521

-----6,-202

6,202


131,008
21,641

152,649


------------ ------------ 71,545
36 ------------ 53,179

36 --------- --- 124,724

10,120 2,798 1,564
78,326 87,764 49,343

88,446 90,562 50,907


------------
9, 104
9,104

98,086
6,961

105, 047

799,850
26,472
3,174

829,496

182, 626
8,074

190,700

49,090
29,046
6,455

84,591

-64------
69,804
4, 294

74,098


30,909
469

31,378

112,440
8,119

120,559

792,818
54,614
10,736

858,168

234, 205
8,733

242,938

26,912
43,432
1,844

72,188

25, 586
7,003

32, 589


10, 064

10,064

15,269
73

15,342

165, 573
11,423
718

177,714

65,307

65,307

3,453

18,489

21,942

------------

19,892

19,892








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Important Corn modity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-

Atlan tic to Pacific-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Fiscal year


West Indies to Hawaiian Islands:
M ineral oils- . - --------------------------------------------. .
All other and unclassified.------------------------------------

Total _------------- ------------------------

West Indies to west coast Canada:
Salt ...-------------.------------------
Sugar----- ---------- ---------------------------------------
All other and unclassified _--------------------

Total------------------------------------------------------

Europe to west coast United States:
Creosote--- ----------------------------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures.---- ---------------------
Paper and paper products ----------------- -----------
Sand -- -- --------------- ------ ---------
Wood pulp .-... -- ----------- ---
All other and unclassified --_---------------- -------

Total.. .- . -------.__ ----------__


Europe to west coast Canada:
Cement .- .. -------------------
Creosote -----------------------------
Salt. -------------------------------------
All other and unclassified. ----------------


Total.---. .__ ...--- .---.------- ---- ----

Europe to west coast Central America/Mexico:
Cement ..------. ----------------------
All other and unclassified ----------- ---_--.

Total--------.--.-..... -- .-.. --...


Europe to west coast South America:
Cement.-- - ----------------
Iron and steel manufactures. ---
Machinery -------.----------. .
Paper and paper products ------.
Woodpulp..------ - --------
All other and unclassified. ----.--


Total.---- --......- --------------------

Europe to Australasia:
Automobiles and parts------------------------- ------------
Chemicals, unclassified. -------- ---. ---- --- --- ..--
Coal --. ---- ... --. ---- ...............
Iron and steel manufactures-------------- -----------
Machinery--.. -. --------------- --.-....---
Paper and paper products ---------------------------....--. -
Salt.---- ----. -------.--------.. ------ -- --. ..-.. -. .. .---
Slag --.---- ----- --- ---- ...... - -- ---...-. ---.---
T i 1 ... ... . .. . ... ..... ...-- - - -- .... -
Tinpl it ------------.. .-.- -.- -----.-.--------- -- - --
All other and unclassified. --..--- .-.-.. -----------...-

Total -----------... -- --.-.------- ------------- -- -----.- ---

Europe to Balboa, C. Z.:
Cement.------.. -----------.... -------------.----------
All other and uncl -sitied ..- -----.... .- --------..

Total.------------- --.-- . .-.. -.. -. -- -...--- ..- ..- ....-


1948




------------

------------


10,000
27, 406
24

37,430


37, 992
2,353
89,344
11,776
10, 801
61,163

213,429


1947 1939


43,719
- - ----

43,719


2,399
20,986
667

24,052


23,764
935
16, 657
5, 032
3, 323
31,369

81,080


------------
------------




1,044
6,197
1, 425

8,666


21,094
44,164
44,558
19,415
24, 829
183,341

337, 401


2,821 10,232 859
16,313 9,526 33
52 11,200 633
28,495 16,610 77,264

47,681 47.568 78,789


13,197 21,015 48,691
4,523 1,999 43,182

17,720 23,014 91,873


15,493 31,230 54,377
29,160 35,720 72,989
11,763 8,056 16.657
21,119 33,402 3,773
22,229 28,719 1'..249
96,216 79,083 252,612

195,980 216,210 415,697


50,534 17, 845 34,282
12,277 7,085 11,897
17,721 ----------- 18,077
37,198 28,890 101,345
33,131 13,313 26,060
22,906 5,036 21,403
23,790 25,321 31,149
7,300 12,120 26,495
21,418 22,147 22,227
24,026 9.368 18,145
163,336 1,710 231,690

413,637 239,835 542,770


4,335 24,076 10,714
228 2,296 1,773


----------------------


- - - - - - - - -
I . - - - - - - -
. - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - -


4,563


26,372


12,487







;3 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-

Pacific to Atlantic
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939


West coast United States to east coast United States:
Asphalt ------------------ ----------------------------- 3 ---------- 64,113
Beans -- ------------------------- 2,359 1,801 68,922
Canned food products------------------------------------------ 303,687 226,313 735,122
Coconut oil --------------- ----------------------------- 21,261 8,982 4,820
Flour, wheat ----------------------------------------------- 4,118 20,030 115,597
Fruit, dried -------------------------------------------------- 19,059 10,046 157,016
Iron and steel manufactures ------------------------------- 55, 472 58,031 6, 218
Lumber-------------------------------------------------------- 983,464 661,170 1,521,200
Metal:
Copper --- ------------------------------- -- 2,943 168 45,948
Lead ------------------------ 4,872 12,567 17.912
Mineral oils --------------------------------- 350,359 148,980 810,051
Molasses -- ----------------------------------------------- 42,122 27,708 195
Ore, magnesite------------------------------------------- 56,493 39,077 8,683
Paper and paper products ---------------------------------- 24,797 16,600 81,382
Rice ---------------------- 8,380 10, 537 4,886
Sugar ----- ---------- 13,048 140,044
Wheat ------------ ---------------------------------- 607 17,150 1,117
Wood pulp -------- ----------------- 48,972 22,454 188,777
Wool ----------------------------------------------------- 16,585 8,189 39,548
All other and unclassified -------------------------------------- 173,246 160,578 481,652


Total ------ ------------------------------- ---- --------

West coast United States to east coast South America:
Canned food ---------------------------------------------
Coal ---------------------------------------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures -----
Lumber ------------------------------------------ ------
Machinery-- ---------------------------------
All other and unclassified

Total. . -- -----------

West coast United States to Cristobal, C. Z.:
Mineral oils ----------------------------- ----------------
All other and unclassified --------------- -----------

Total ----------------------------

West coast United States to West Indies:
Beans--------------------------------------------------------
Canned food products ---------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures ------------------------------
Mineral oils----------------------------------
Rice --------------------
All other and unclassified --------------------- ------

Total ---- --------------------------------------------------

West coast United States to Europe:
Asphalt --.---------------.---------
Barley ----- ------- --------------
Beans---.----------------------
Borax .. -- ---------- -----------------------------
Canned food products----------------- -------------
Chemicals, unclassified ---------
Coal --------------------------------------------------------
Coconut oil_---- --------------------------
Coke--.-.-------------------
Cotton, raw..-..-.------.-.---- ---------------
Flour, wheat. ---------- -------------
Fruit, dried---------------------------------------------------
Fruit, fresh-------- -- -------- ----------
Grains, other than classified ------ ------------------
Groceries ------ -------------------------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures --------------------------
Lumber------------- -------------- ---- ----
Machinery-------------------------
Metals:
Copper ------------------------ ---------
Other and unclassified ------------------
Mineral oils ------------------
Peas, dry ---_....-----.----------------------


2,118, 799 1,463, 429 4, 493, 203

11,757 2,901 585
28,439- -----------
35, 517 60, 207 55
28,124 15,351 21,623
17,892 6,492 520
94,995 65,749 22,439

216,724 150,700 45,222

30, 777 7 32,955
17,335 4,857 22,118

48,112 4,864 55,073

13.522 6,621 9,143
37,674 38.818 13,045
7,999 11,883 83
141, 273 162 401,358
78, 831 71,759 17,308
55, 665 42,643 46,252

334,964 171,886 487,189

27; 732 32,170 1,282
14,373 7,134 136,713
34,077 581 1,254
49,932 30,552 66,598
72,777 201,144 225,723
12, 502 8,087 4, 470
215,273 333.397 149
8,592 17,114 --------
68, 637 77, 203 38
17,662 17,047 17,647
4,950 24,222 8,314
81,118 93,638 161,102
44,981 45,523 319,176
11,905 2,544 1,650
5,785 21,852 183
142,969 173,968 1f
661,388 315.357 159,535
8,930 11,535 609

21,137 18,100 19,014
82,910 78,054 3,932
101, 060 986 605,776
10,667 13,078 3








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 37



Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Pacific to Atlantic-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


West coast United States to Europe-Continued
Sugar---..------------------------------------------------------
Wheat--... -------------------------.---.---------
Wo'Id pulp -.------------ ---- .-------------------
All other and unclassified ----------------------------------

Total...-. ----------------.------------- --

We'st. coast l'nitedl States to Asia:
Lumber.--------------------------------------------------- ... -
All other.----------------------------------

Total. ---------------------------------

West coast United States to Africa:
Lumber ---------------------------------------------------.--.
All other and unclassified_------------.---------------_.....--..

Total.---- -.-.------------------------

West coast Canada to east coast United States:
Iron ore ---------------------------------...
Lumber.--------- ----------- ..-----------------.--------
All other and unclassified ---.-.------ ....-- ..-----...-........-

Total. ---------------------------------

West coast Canada to east coast Canada:
Lumber--------------------------------------- ------------ -
All other and unclassified -------------------------------------

Total-------------------------------------

West coast Canada to West Indies:
Lumber --------------------------------- ..--
All other and unclassified---------------------- ------------

Total----------.----. -------------------. -------------...

W-ct coast Canada to east coast South America:
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)
West coast Canada to Europe:
Ammonium compounds ------------ -- ----------------
Canned food products -----------------------------------
Coal------------------------- ---------- -------
Fertilizers, unclassified.------------ ------- -----
Flour, '.0hw.ir .- _------- - - - ------- - --.-.--- ---.---- -
Froii. fresh...-.- -------------------- ---
SIrain4, other than oats and wheat ------------_.. .------_--
Lumber - ---------------------------
11 i,.1 i :
L ead .---.-.--.-.---.-.-- -- -- _ . .
LZ ad ---------------------------------.-..-..----...-.....- -
Zinc--------------------------------------
Oats...
W heat --..- .--------.------.------------ -..--...... -. --...
S'----1 pulp -... ----- --------- ---- ------ --
All other and unclassified. ------------------ .--------


Total.----------------- ----------- -.-...

West coast Canada to Asia:
Lumber - ...-- ...- -.....
All other and unclassified ---- ----------. ------.

Total-----.. -- ..... ----..----.. .-.-.-.----

West coast Canada to Africa:
Ammonium compounds.. ---------..---------..

Lumber -------- ----- ...... ....
Wheat- ...-- ----------
All other and uiil ...l . .

T otal8 ------ -- -------- --- --- --- --- --- --

818633-49---4


Fiscal year


1948 1947


54
63,690
45, 854
144, 240

1, 953, 195


13,847
7, 919

21, 766


122,381
66,450

188,831


27, 725
55,516
156

83,397


5,776
4,395

10,171



11, 645
35,433
17,993
14,111
79,713
2,730
56,030
1, 174, 789

11,237
5,802
10,633
1,001,264
26,676
34,032


18,326
172,477
22, 716
104,338

1,841, 143


4,773
3,038

7,811


70,198
30,356

100,554


24, 994

31

25,025


21,479
4,194

25, 673



24,857
51,806
------------
32, 615
57,021
23,992
21, 398
978, 113

7,676
41,376
75, 468
1,281,104
9,938
32,722


1939


------------
528,464
22, 478
65, 675

2,349, 888


------480
2, 480

2, 480

33,762
11,097

44, 859

----------

167,856
33, 763

201,619


48,724
7,674

56,398


23,969
7, 602

31, 571




26, 269


7, 722
32,350
59,657
1,136,276

117,875
67,827
49,888
:7-2. 584
5, 825
63,163


-- 2,482,088 2,638,086 2,539,436


---.---.-....- .(-.429 26,159
----.-..- 3,424 2,500 385

-------------- 40,853 28,659 385


.-..---.------- 19,387 7,967 ...- ......
12,447 4,264
121.395 201,424 ., 2.3
----------- 18,877 --- ---------
15,682 10,.74 5,627

---- ---- --- IS7 7 i 224. II 2 '6 )


------------------------
- - - - - I. - - - - - -







38 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-
Pacific to Atlantic-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

West coast Central America/M.e\i.'u to east coast United States:
Bananas ------------------------------------------------------ 184,765 268,891 25,801
Ore, manganese--------------------------------------------- 37, 032 25, 543 ---
All other and unclassified ----------------------------------- 13,150 14,060 4,848
Total__ ----- ------------------------------------------- 234,947 308,494 30,649
West Coast Central America/Mexico to Cristobal, C. Z.:
Coffee ------------------------------------------------------- 35,762 45,746 31,999
Lumber ------------------------------------------------------- 6,346 13,209 4,336
All other and unclassified----------------------------------- 13,121 12, 782 7,137
Total-- ----------------------------------------------- 55,229 71,737 43,472
West coast Central America/Mexico to Europe:
Bananas ------------------------ --- 22,476 25,661 50
Coffee -------------------------------------------------- 2,975 1, 860 24,777
All other and unclassified--- -------------------------------- 16,976 542 23,289
Total ------- --------------------------------------- 42,427 28,063 48,116
West coast Central America/Mexico to West Indies:
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)
West coast South America to east coast United States:
Bananas.-- -----------------------.------------------- 55,071 31,021 18,806
Beans------------------- ------------------------------ 17, 295 2, 603 3,395
Cocoa..-------------- --------------------------------- 14,648 11,692 5,181
Coffee-. ----- --------------------------------------------. 178,851 136,830 24,242
Cotton, raw-- ----------------------------------------- 8,926 10,228 6,060
Iron and steel manufactures ------------------------------------ 22, 313 48 59
Metal:
Copper-..----- ------.--------------- --------------- -- 228,975 138,368 82,959
Lead -------- -------.-.---------------. 10,416 6,551 2,139
Tin. ------------------------------------------------- 15,864 7,168 ----------
All other and unclassified -------------------------------- 9,397 14, 268 4,103
Molasses ----------------------------------------------------- 14,650 14,908 7,396
Nitrate of soda ------------------------------------------. 596,520 379,164 546,352
Ore:
Copper-..--------- .----------------------------. --------- 76,978 53,494 15, 169
Iron---------------------- ----------------------- 1,907,951 1,585,131 1,612,801
Manganese---- -------------------------------------- 33,487 113,584 191
Tin. -----. ... --. ..-..- .... ..--- .....-...--- --. 48,870 35,218 380
Zinc -------------....-..... ...-_ ------- 47,716 79,641 18,089
Other and unclassified. ---------------------------------- 8,563 5,010 25,347
Sugar --------- ------- ---- -- --- ------- -- 50,240 25,221 42,117
Whale oil --.------------------ 15,446 ----------- -----------
All other and unclassified----------------------------------- 54,341 50,713 32,471
Total------ ----------------------------------- 3,416,518 2, 700, 861 2,447,257
West coast South America to east coast Canada:
Mineral oils ..- ------ ------------- -- ....-- 8,423 126, 461
All other and unclassified ------------------ --.- .. ----------- 5,903
Total------- ------------------------------------------. -------- 8,423 132,364
West coast South America to east coast South America:
Rice-----------------.. --------------------------------- 16,466 12,618 199
Sugar --------..... -...- ..--..--.. ...... .-.-._ ..- __..--- 4,839 10,880 166
All other and unclassified..-------------------------- 12, 770 19,985 12,099
Total.- ------------------- ------------ -. 34,075 43,483 12.464
West coast South America to Cristobal, C. Z.:
Coffee ---------.. -----. ...- ....-.. .-------........-_-----_ 13, 553 18,641 01., 785
All other and unclassified. -------------------------------- 21,587 24,018 4:.. 401
Total.---- --------------------------------------------.. 35,140 42,659 143,186








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Important Commodity Shipments Over Principal Trade Routes-

Pacific to Atlantic-Continued

(Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Fiscal year


1948 1947 1939


Wt-r coast South America to West Indies:
Beans ..------------------------------------------------------
Nliri'rtI oils ....-..-... .---------------------------------.
Nitrate of soda ------------------------------------------------.
Rice ---------------------------------------------------------.
All other and unclassified ------.------------------------------

Total ---------------------- -----------------------


West coast South America to Europe:
Barley ----------------------------------
Ba.-iin. dried --------------------------
Cotton, raw -----------------------------
Lumber. -------. ------- -------- ------.
Metal:
Col-l,*,r----------------------- --- ----
Lead .----------------------------
Mineral oils...----------- -----
Nitrate of soda .. -----.-- ----- ..-----
Oilseeds------- .-----------------. -
Ore:
Copper -------- ------------------
Lead .--------------------------------
Tin. -----------------.-----
Zinc ----------------------------------
Other and unclassified --- ------
1 ic1 .... ... ------------- -------
Soda and sodium compounds -----------
.;uc.l__----__-.-- ------.. ------ ..----
All other and unclassified. -------_ --

Total -----------------------------------

West coast South Amrerica to Africa:
Nitrate of soda. .-------------
All other and unclassified --------------

Total----------.-----.--_-----------

Hawaiian Islands to east coast United States:
Canned fruit .. .--------------------
M\ eT(al, scrap. -- ---- -- --- ----
Molasses--... ..-------------------------..
'-uir ......------------------------
All other and unclassified ....-----------

Total --------------------------------

Hawaiian Islands to east coast Canada:
Metal, scrap ... --------- -----
All other and uin. L-.i'ifol

Total ..-----...---.-.-------------

Hawaiian Islands to Europe:

All other and unclassified.- ---- - .---

Total--------------------------- ------- .

Australasia to east coast United States:
Metal:
Iron -..--.. ------.. ....-----
:-cralp .


Ore:
Chrome-- --------------.----- ----------
Manganese ------- ---------------

Skins and hides ---- ----
W ool -. .- .- -.-. -- ---. .- .-. -----.-..
All other and unclassified. -----.. -------- ..------

Total.------------ ---------- ----. .....


13,412
11,019
33,382
22, 506
9,872

90,191


42,611
23,571
31, 534
10,484

101,938
13,658
125,107
514,726
3,025

7,681
2,578
27, 553
39,649
19,327
1.193
17,955
36,882
75,994

1,095,466


336,705
74

336,779


137, 560
38,033


52, 584

228,177


12, 550


13,068

34. 764
25,710
12, 914

86,456


1,067
12,683
37,566
9,275

174,970
16,672
68.010
597, 518
856

3,849
1,290
18,312
15,376
11,534
11,878
394
40,925
75, 513

1,097,688


260,765
2,641

263,406


125, 787
1,178
15,057
16,070
43,511

201,603


20,158


12, 550 20, 158


10,518
21,433

31,294
891
15,751
10,969
53,039
46,383


11,236


8, 923
79, 249
447

15, 284

103, 903


55,329
52, 663
65,115
18,681

235,363
28, 726
679,000
864,384
65,013

21,813
43, 823
12.492
2., 073
29, 899
821
3,570
132, 563
114,213

2,481, 541


24,180


24,180


129, 683
929
14,616
208,208
8,421

361,857


79,174


11,236 79,174


1,500
353

8,050

26,168i
23, 109
11"' 774
'1, 678


4

8,744
24, 518
1,076
16, 540
13,375
22.742


190,278 196,632 86,999


----------------------
- - - - - - - - - - -
---------------------
- - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - -
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - --.. .






40 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Important Commodity Shipments Over Principle Trade Routes-

Pacific to Atlantic-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

Australasia to east coast Canada:
Fruit, dried------------------------------------ -------- 4,139 10,480 11,485
Metal, scrap -------------------------------------------------- 3,652 21,564
Sugar---- -------- --------------------------------- ------------ ------------ 63,816
Wool.. --------------------------------------------------------- 10,835 19,197 5,074
All other and unclassified--------------------------------------- 17,780 14,491 7,171

Total ..--------------- ------------------- ------------------ 36,406 65,732 87,546
Australasia to Europe:
Canned food products ------------------------------------------ 24,563 30,142 4,681
Copra -- ----------------------------------------------------- 92,851 58,975 82,147
Dairy products, refrigerated ..---------------------- 200, 623 183,937 145, 913
Fruit, fresh.------------ --------------------------------- 19,826 1,180 10,338
Meat, refrigerated ----------- ---------------------------- 335,567 306,446 168,720
Metal:
Lead------------------------------------------------------ 13,845 17,844 13,078
Zinc ----------------------------------------------- 10,535 1,985 750
Ore:Other and unclassified----------------------------------- 5,885 11, 122 1,393
Ore:
Chrome ------------------------------------------ -- 18,634 10,064 5,500
Zinc ----------------------------------------------------- 25,606 29,937 16,526
Other and unclassified-------------------------------------- 6 12,694 16,525
Peas, dried-------------------- ---------------------------- 12,439 3,814 1,100
Phosphates----------- ------------------------------------ ------------ 35 87,160
Skins and hides------------------------------------------ 20,338 13,782 7,321
Sugar------------------------ ------------------------------ 9,542 17,457 83,079
Tallow. ------- ------------------------------------------------- 20,906 21,578 16,157
Wheat------------------------------------------------------- 26,884 ----------- 5,326
Wool ------------------------------------------- ------- 148,355 130,132 68,886
All other and unclassified --- --------------------------------- 57,890 56, 540 25,194

Total ------------.. --------------------- ------------- 1,044,295 907,664 759,794

Philippine Islands to east coast United States:
Coconut oil---------------------------------------------- 13,446 3,574 106,680
Coconuts----------------------------------------------------- 26,453 8,552 11,724
Copra---------------------------------.--------------------- 125,251 223,323 65,531
Hemp, unmanufactured-------------------------------------- 29,118 33,739 15,588
Metal, scrap-------------------------- ------------------------ 22, 281------------ -
Ore:
Chrome--------------------------------------------------- 141,686 64,258 18,650
Manganese------------------------------------------------- 15,600 7,960 -----------
Other and unclassified--------------- ------------------ 11,363 4,000 8,000
Sugar---------- ------------------- .......------------- 66,078 ----------- 579,691
All other and unclassified--------------------------------------- 21,395 10,789 113,073
Total----------------------------------------------- 472,671 356,195 918,937
Asia (excluding Philippine Islands) to east coast United States:
Fish meal-------..-...----------- -----.. ....... ...--- --... .---. ------- 22,856
Metal:
Lead------------------------------------------------------ ------------ 16,056 105
Zinc ----- --- -- --_--------- -.- --------- 1,014 11,735 46
Oils, vegetable----------------------------------------------- 33,528 25,202 27,306
Ores:
Bauxite .. ------------------------------------------------ 120, 809 7,363 ---.---
Other and unclassified .-------------- 35,782 8,317 6,198
Rubber, crude------------------------------------------------- 62,956 33,471 20,615
Silk, raw.. ---------------.- -.---.----.- 1,098 1,428 20,131
All other and unclassified-------------------------------------- 63,872 52,594 183,336

Total- ..------ ------------...----------------------------- 319,059 156,166 280,593
Asia (excluding Philippine Islands) to Europe:
Canned fish..-- --------------------------------- ------------------------ 50,364
Soya beans----- ------------------------------- -- ------------ ------------ 224,621
All other and unclassified --------------__-.. -------------------- ------------ 2,922 88,063
Total............................----------------------------------------------- ------------ 2,922 363,048







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Ocean Passenger Traffic

The following tabulation shows by month the number of ocean
passengers, exclusive of transients, disemnbarking and embarking at
Canal Zone ports during the fiscal year 1948, segregated between
first class and all others, with comparative totals for the fiscal years
1947 and 1939:

Passengers disembarking P:i--inriiri embarking

First class Others Total Firstclass Others Total

July --.. -- ------------ .----- 1,151 33 1,184 1,291 35 1,326
Anguet 1,445 72 1,517 1,458 152 1,610
- -.-I- --il, l-.-..t- --- ---- 1,411 33 1,444 1,157 135 1,292
October ------- ---------------------- 1,120 16 1,136 698 35 733
November ------------------------------- 1,263 11 1,274 769 101 870
December ----- ---------------- -------- 981 67 1,048 571 40 611
January 996 52 1,048 607 69 676
February ----- ------ 894 18 912 526 121 647
March ------------ --------- 694 17 711 800 49 849
April .. 520 189 709 1,347 48 1,395
May ------------ 836 38 874 1,442 531 1,973
June ---------------------- ------------ 991 32 1,023 1,715 86 1,801
Tril. 1948 .--------------- 12,302 578 12,880 12,381 1,402 13,783
Total, 1947 9,147 859 10,006 9,066 3,504 12,570
Total, 1939 -------------------- 19,073 16,368 35,441 18,833 16,609 35,442


The following table shows the passenger traffic through the ports
of Cristobal and Balboa during the fiscal years 1948, 1947, and 1939:

Port of Cristobal Port of Balboa

1948 1947 1939 1948 1947 1939

Passengers disembarking._ _- -- _-- 12,001 9,295 26,799 879 711 8,642
Passengers embarking ------------------ 11,390 8, 799 26,448 2,393 3, 771 8, 994


A further segregation of the passenger movement for 1948 shows that
11,452 incoming and 12,069 outgoing passengers came from or were
destined to ports of the Atlantic, and 1,428 incoming and 1,714 out-
going passengers were brought from or were destined to ports on the
Pacific.

Transient Passengers

In addition to the figures shown above of passengers disemnbarking
and embarking, there were 40,552 transient passengers brought to the
Isthmus by vessels calling at Canal ports during the fiscal year 1948.
For the fiscal year 1947 there were 29,685, and in the prewar year of
1939 the number was 114,053. The 1948 figure is an increase of
10,867 (36.6 percent) over the number recorded in 1947, but is less
than one-third of the number passing through in 1939.






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The origin and destination of these transient passengers are indicated
in the following tabulation:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1939

Remaining on board vessels transiting Canal:
Atlantic to Pacific ----------------- -- -------- 21,099 15,694 48.058
Pacific to Atlantic ------------------------------ 11,273 13,019 30, 750
Remaining on board vessels entering port but not transiting Canal:
Atlantic to Atlantic --------------------- -------------------- 7,875 868 33,996
Pacific to Pacific-------------------------------- ------------ --- 305 104 1,249
Total---------------------------------------------------------- 40,552 29,685 114,053


The depressed level of the passenger movement in comparison with
1939 may be attributed to the fact that the lines operating- large
passrngor vessels before the war either have not found it desirable to
reestatblish such services or are operating on a curtailed basis. A sig-
nificant factor in this development is believed to be the use of air
transportation, which has undoubtedly cut deeply into the demand
for ocean rnuIsportation.

Small Tolls-Paying Vessels Transiting Canal

Transits of small, cargo-carrying vessels and other small miscella-
neous craft of less than 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) or
500 displacement tons (for vessels rated on displacement tonnage) are
excluded from statistics on ocean going, tolls-paying traffic, although
the vessels are not exempt from the payment of tolls. Transit of
these small vessels during 1948, 1947, and 1939, together with the
tonnage, tolls, and the amount of cargo carried, are summarized in
the following table:

Fiscal year 1948 Total, fiscal year

Atlantic to Pacific to Total 1947 1939
Pacific Atlantic

Number of transits:
Rated on net tonnage ..--------------- 592 650 1,242 847 913
Rated on displacement tonnage..------ ------------ -- ------------ ------- 1
Total transits -------------------- 592 650 1,242 847 914
Panama Canal net tonnage..----------------. 37, 160 39,098 76, 258 47,580 45, 557
Displacement tonnage-------------------- ---------- --------- ----------- 180
Tolls --------------------------- $27,639.72 $33,206.40 $60,846.12 $37,758.78 $38,409.94
Cargo (tons) ----..----------------------- 3, 134 22, 556 25, 690 16, 299 31, 251


Vessels Transiting Canal Without Payment of Tolls

Vessels operated in the Govetrnment service of the United States
and the Republic of Panama, war vessels of the Republic of Colombia,





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


and vessels transitiing solely for the purpose of having repairs made at
the Canal shops, are exempt from the payment of tolls, ard such
vessels are not included in the general (ransit statistics pertaining to
Canal traffic.
Prior to the outbreak of World War II, the number of vessels
making Canal transit free of tolls comprised but a relatively small
part of Canal traffic (less than 9 percent in 1939). At the beginning
of hostilities there was a rapid expansion of such traffle and in 1946
a total of 5,554 tolls-free vessels, or about 58 percent of the total
Canal transits, made Canal passage. In the past 2 years traffic in
this category has greatly diminished, the fiscal year 1948 accounting
for but 1,079 tolls-free transits, or 15.4 percent of the total traffic
through the Panama Canal.
The following tabulation shows for the past 2 years and for the
fiscal yea:r 1939 the number of tolls-free vessels passing through the
Canal, their tonnage, the approximate amount of tolls to which they
would have been subject at the prescribed rates if tolls had been
charged against them, and the tons of cargo carried by such vessels:

Fiscal year 1948 Total fiscal year

Atlantic Pacific to Total 1947 1939
to Pacific Atlantic

Number of transits:
On net tonnage basis -------------------- 410 453 863 870 246
On displacement tonnage basis --..----- 102 114 216 395 418
Total transits..------------------------- 512 567 1,079 1,265 664
Tonnage:
Panama Canal net- -------------------- .925,916 718, 649 1,644, 565 1, 63 1. 665 583, 237
Displacement _------------------------- 424,182 431, 151 855,333 1, ', 311 1, 670,646
Approximate value of tolls.------------------- $1,036,946 $787,375 $1,824,321 $2,305,787 $1,334,420
Cargo (tons) .------------.. --.------------- 1,255,267 265,460 1,520,727 1,001,608 95,265


In the traffic indicated for the fiscal year 1948, 97 percent of transits
were made by vessels of the United States Government, accounting
for 98 percent of the approximate value of tolls.

Revision of Rates of Toll

Tlhe President, of the United States, by Proclamation No. 2775,
signed March 26, 1948, prescribed for the Panama Canal a revised
schedule of rltes of toll, effective October 1, 1948. The revised
schedule is as follows:
On merchant. vessels, yachts, Army and Navy transports, colliers,
hospital ships, and supply ships, when carrying pa;sscng rs or cargo,
$1 per net vessel-ton of 100 cubic feet of earning capacity.
On vessels in ballast without passengers or cargo, 80 cents per net
vessel-ton.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


On other floating craft, including warships other than transports,
colliers, hospital ships, and supply ships, 55 cents per ton of dis-
placement.
The pr-eseiit rates are 90 cents per net vessel-ton on laden vessels,
72 cents per net vessel-ton on vessels in ballast, and 50 cen t s per ton of
displacement for other floating craft. The current rates were estab-
lished by Presidential Proclamation, effective March 1, 1938, on
recommendation of a special tolls committee appointed under author-
ity of an act of Congress approved April 13, 1936, and were set at a
level designed to produce, in conjunction with other revenues, a sum
which would meet operating expenses and an interest charge of 3
percent on the net capital investment. In the past 10 years operat-
ing expenses have increased more than 90 percent and it is apparent
that an increase in the rates of toll as provided by Proclamation No.
2775 will be necessary to secure sufficient revenues to meet operating
expenses and a 3 percent interest charge on the net capital investment.


CANAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

Hours of Operation

Dispatching of ships through the Canal is conducted on schedules.
Vessels awaiting transit begin moving through the Canal from the
terminal ports at 6 a. m. and dispatches are made thereafter from
each terminus at intervals of from Y to 1 hour. The following is a
summary of normal arrangements in effect at the end of the fiscal year.
From Cristobal harbor, first ship at 6 a. m., last at about 3 p. m.;
from Balboa anchorage, first ship at 6 a. m., last at 3:30 p. nm.
Tankers and vessels carrying hazardous cargoes are dispatched at
the discretion of the port captain and normally are not permitted to
proceed unless they can clear Gaillard Cut before dark.

Lockages and Lock Maintenance

Operating Schedule of Locks
Three operating crews were maintained at all locks until Sep-
tember 7, 1947, when one crew was eliminated at the Pedro Miguel
Locks. Additional crews were assigned during the year as were
re-quired( to expedite the transit of ships. The following operating
schedules were in effect at the Locks on June 30, 1948.
Gatun:
Shift No. 1: 7 a. m. to 3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Shift No. IX: 10 a. m. to 6 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Shift No. 2: 3 to 11 p. m.-8 locomotives.







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Pedro Migrnrl:
Shift No. 1: 8 a. in. to 4 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Shoft No. 2: 1:30 to 9:30 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Miira flores:
Shift No. 1: 7 a. m. to 3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Shift No. 2: !1.30 a. m. to 5:30 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Sliift No. 3: 3 to 11 p. m.-8 locomotives.

Lockages
The number of lockages and vessels handled (including Panama
Canir l equipment) is shown in the follow-ing table, by months, for
the fiscal year 1948, with corresponding totals for the previous 5 years:

Gatun Pedro Miguel Miraflores
Month --------------
Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels

1947
July-------------------------------- 475 652 474 626 474 632
August .. ------- .------------- --- 429 572 449 606 444 612
September -------------------------- 399 573 420 587 418 594
October----------------------------- 423 574 442 593 443 607
November-------------------------- 411 553 427 569 432 571
December ..-----.--..------ ------ 441 579 460 642 464 655
1948
January------------------- ------- 391 537 407 580 401 574
Ft.,lrur%.---...-- .--------------- -- 427 558 436 606 427 599
March.----------.-------------------. 448 630 479 727 449 699
il. ----------------- 442 593 472 684 467 674
May .-------.---------------------- 445 592 460 640 458 639
June-------------------------------- 466 680 496 718 490 718
Total------------------------- 5,197 7,093 5,422 7,578 5,367 7,574
Fiscal year:
1943 -----------------. -------- 2,796 5,236 3,661 6,672 3,395 5,934
1944.-----------.-----------.--- 3,267 1..lu 4.036 7,632 3,656 6,424
1945 .--. ---------- ------ --- 5,261 9,201 6,268 12,334 5,635 10.097
1946------------ ---------- 6,823 9,901 7,139 10,654 7.076 10, 561
1947-------------------- -------- 4,858 6,674 5,155 7,281 5,084 7,221

At Gatun locks the west chamber was out of service on October 28,
1947, and November 25, 1947, for the purpose of conducting special
(m.1Irgciiecy dam flood-control tests. On November 19, 1947, the east
chamber was out of service for the purpose of inspection of cathodic
protection and p;iinit samples applied during the 1947 o\i'rhl;il.
On June 10, 1948, the east chamber was out of service in order to
conduct test operation of an e(nirgEilcy gate.
Both chambers were available for service at Pedro Miguel during the
yeari except for the period of the Pacific locks overhaul. From March
31, 191IS, to April 29, 1948, the west chamber was out of service and
all tn rifc was routed through the east chamber, while from April 29,
1948, to May 29, 1948, the east chiuniber was out of service and all
traffic was routed through the west chamber.
At Miraflores locks the east chamber was out of service on De-
cemiiber 15 and 16, 1947, for the purpose of testing Caisson No. 2.
On January 2, 1948, the west chamber was take n out of service for
overhaul and all traffic was routed through the east chamber. On





46 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

February 24, 1948, the west, chamber was returned to service and the
east chamber was taken out of service. Overhaul of the east chamber
was completed on April 1, 1948, and thereafter both chambers were
available for service.
Total lockages for the three locks were 5.8 percent above the
number handled during the previous year.
The average number of lockages made daily and the average number
of vessels handled per lockage during each of the past five fiscal years
are shown in the following tabulation:
Average number of lockages per Average number of vessels per
day lockage
Fiscal year
Gatun Pedro Miraflores Gatun Pedro Miraflores
Miguel Miguel

1944----------------------- -- 8.9 11.1 10.0 1.79 1.89 1.76
1945---------------------------14.4 17.1 15.4 1.74 1.96 1.79
1946 -- -------- 18.7 19.5 19.4 1.45 1.49 1.49
1947--------------------------- 13.3 14.1 13.9 1.37 1.41 1.42
1948 -------------------------_ 14.2 14.8 14.6 1.36 1.40 1.41

Delays to Shipping
The lock operating machinery functioned smoothly throughout the
year except for a few incidents due to faulty operation or minor fail-
ures of equipment. The following summary includes all delays to
vessels while transiting the locks due to the incidents mentioned.

Number of Aggregate de-
lockages de- lay caused
played all vessels

Hr. Min.
Gatun------------------------------------------ --------------------- 16 2 32
Pedro Miguel --------------_-. -.-. -------.. ----- 14 2 15
Miraflores---------- ---------------------- 30 6 19
Total-----.----------------------------------------------------- 60 11 6

Maintenance
Regular inspection and maintenance were continued for all locks'
machinery and equipment. Routine tests and inspections were regu-
larly carIied out with a view to detecting weak points and potential
failures before break-downs occurred. Where inspection and tests in-
(dicted that a mechanical or electrical part or device was in need of
replacement or repair, appropriate action was taken by the op( ration
and maintenance forces of the locks.
The study for the modernization of the electri(cnl power and distri-
bution system for all locks, begun during fiscal year 1946, was con-
tiinred. Plans also were continued for the six new towing locomotives
for the Pacific locks. A new traction clutch intended for use on the
new locomotives was manufactured by the mechanical division and
was installed late in the year for test on one of the old tow-ing loco-






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


motives at Miraflores locks. The mechanical division is proceeding
with the manufacture of the castings and other parts while the elec-
trical equipment will be made in the United States.
Pacific Locks Overhaul
The first major overhaul of the Pacific locks since 1937, including
rebearing of miter gates, was completed during the past fiscal year.
The work on the Miraflores locks was begun on January 2, 1948, and
was completed on March 31, 1948; the work on the Pedro Miguel
locks was begun on March 31, 1948, and was completed May 29, 1948.
The work was performed on a two-shift basis, except for the rebearing
work on miter gates which was done on a three-shift basis. Work
was on a 40-hour, 6-day-a-week basis, with the exception of overtime
authorized on the miter gates and special protective works in order
to coordinate this work with the general overhaul.
An extra force of 818 employees was required in connection with
the lock overhaul; of this number 29 were brought down from the
United States, while the remainder were employed locally or trans-
ferred from other units of the Canal-Railroad organization. The
imaxinmum extra force was not employed during the full period of the
overhaul, as the number of employees was reduced following comple-
tion of the work at Miraflores.
During the overhaul period the Miraflores locks were opera t ed on a
24-hour basis to accommodate shipping and prevent undue delay to
transiting vessels. A brief resume of the work performed is given
below.
Eight miter-gate leaves were removed at Miraflores locks for replace-
ment of all bearing plates, pintles, pintle bushings, yoke pins, and
bushings.
All of the 60 rising stem valves were removed and repaired. Some
spare valves which had been assembled were used as replacements.
The two nonoperat ing valves at Miraflores were removed and replaced
after minor repairs were made and the valves repainted. The two
nonoperating valves at Pedro Miguel were inspected but not removed
from the pits. The six guard valves at Pedro Miguel locks were
removed, repaired in minor respects, cleaned, painted, and then
replaced. New rubber seals were installed on the 60 cylindrical
valves. Many of the cast steel segments were replaced, as were
many of the top sections of the valve stems containing the screw\ nuts.
All intake screens were removed, cleaned, repaired as necessary,
painted, and replaced.
The center wall culvert bulkheads at both locks were removed,
cleaned, repaired, painted, and replaced.
Horizontal seals, four strainers on the 12-inch risers, and four new
trombone connections were installed on the east emergency gate to





48 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

complete the work omitted during construction. Both emergency
gates were placed on support beans for inspection, painting, and
miscellaneous work.
Bitumastic solution and enanel were used in painting the lock
gates, valves, bullheads, screens, and miscellaneous steel parts.
An intensive safety program was carried on during the ov-erha Iul.
There was marked improvement, as reflected in the lower frequency
rate of fccfidents compared with that of the previous year (luring the
Atlantic locks overhaul. This year's overhaul was the first in which
no fatal accident occurred.

Power for Canal Operation
The table belo-wh summarizes and gives pertinent data relative to
the electric power generated by the power system of The Panama
Canal for the past three fiscal years:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

Gross power generated:
Gatun hydro station---------------------------------- 103,912,400 88,577,400 87,516,900
Madden hydro station----.---------------------------- 143,874,700 151,581,000 159,120,700
Diesel stations----------------------------------------- 17,771,300 10,611,600 13,500,500
Total generated-------------------------------------- 265,558,400 250,770,000 260,138,100
Consumed in station service----------------------------- 2,647,448 2,478,571 2,645,088
Net generator output ----------------------------------- 262,910.952 248,291,429 257,493,012
Distributed to consumers--------------------------------- 235, 682,203 222,126, 106 226, 810,535
Transmission loss (kilowatt-hour) --.---------------------- 16, 432,960 26, 165,323 30,682,477
Transmission loss (percent)-------------------------------- 6.2 10.54 11.92
Peak load (kilowatts) ------------------------------------ 47,800 46, 500 50,400
Date- -------------------------------------------- Mar. 8,1948 Feb. 14,1947 Oct. 3,1945

The No. 2 genieratiing unit at the Gatun hydroelectric station was
overhnaulled during the year and repairs were made to the Nos. 1 and
3 units.
Moderate improvement in the operation of the Diesel engine of No.
3 unit in the Miraflores Diesel electric station was effected during
the year, particularly in improving the combustion and in lessening
the cylinder liner wear. Operation of this engine is not yet completely
satisfactory, hoxw-ever, and study is continuing with the view of
making further improvements.
The triennial overhaul and paint ing of the drum gates at Madden
Dam was performed during the year.
During the year service was temporarily interrupted at various
substations on five occasions. There were 31 transmission line
failures during the year, of which 3 were caused by lightning flashover,
2 by a line wire break, 1 by the nmecianical failure of an insulator
string, 1 by an insulator flashover, 7 by animal contact, and 17 by
unknown causes.








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 49


Water Supply and General Weather Conditions

Water Supply

The water requirements of The Panama Canal for hydroelectric
power, lockages, and municipal use airesupplied by Madden and
Gatun Laukes which together drain an area of 1,285 square miles. All
outflow from Madden Lake, w thther spilled at Madden Dam or
drawn for use of the Madden hydroelectric station, flows into Gatun
Lake and, together with the direct inflow from the area downstream
from Madden Dam, is available for Gatun Lake uses. The total
flow into Madden and Gatuiin Lakes during the year ended June 30,
1948, amounted to 173,804 million cubic feet, which is 20 percent
blow the average inflow for the 34 years since the formation of
Gatun Lake. Evaporation losses from Madden and G;tiuin Lakes
totaled 22,974 million cubic feet, leaving 150,830 million cubic feet
available for use. The source and expenditure of this water, together
with comparable data for the preceding year, are itemized in the
followiing tabulation:


MADDEN AND GATT'N LAKE WATER SUPPLY
Total flow into Madden Lake ------.------.------------
E' iplor n ii. i from Madden Lake -----------------------
Net annual run-off available, Madden Lake.-----
'Trail flow into Gatun Lake----------------------------
Subtotal ------------ -- ------------------
1-\.j]ip.I. ijn from Gatun Lake.. -----------------------
Net annual run-off avu-l 11 I.6, Gatun Lake -------
MADDEN LAKE WATER EXPENDITURES
Madden hydroelectric power. --------------.-----------
Madden 'pill i. discharge----------------------------
Total Madden Lake *\p.r-n-'litur' .
Net annual run-off .VJil.Ahic. ,k1l1.Il'n Liake
Net storage gain or loss, M1l.-i Lake .---------
GATrN LAKE WATER EXPENDITURES
Gatun hydroelectric power.. --.. ....-------------..
Gatun and Pedro M11'!it I lockages..------------ ---.
Mtulnicip.il uand other uses---.---...----... --------.-..
OaItun q-ill'%.i1 discharge.-----------------------------
Total Gatun Lake expenditures......------....---
Net annual run-off aI.illiali li. Gatun Lake- ---....----.
Net storage gain or loss, Madden and Gatun
Lakes-..--------------------...................--..------..


Million cubic feet, year
ended June 30

1948 1947


67,925 78, 787
2,344 2,395


Percent of water con-
sumption, year ended
June 30

1948 1947


1, 571 ,


78,986 65, 648 49.1 46.4
..' .2m 36,817 24.1 26.0
:. 131) 3,108 1.9 2.2
40,068 3. 967 24.9 25.4
l1i.] 1| > MI. .. 11 I|H| 1
1 } i. s.il 1 4."., I"* .


- II Ils-, +.3., F1.i9


STORMS AND FLOODS.-No storms occuiTed during the year with
wind velocities high enough to cause any material dinmirage to Canal





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


structures. There were no rainstorms of sufficient duration or extent
to produce a general flood on Madden or Gatun Lakes. On October
6, 1947, Madden Dam drum gates were lowered to elevation 237 feet,
with a maximum discharge of the year down the Chagres River chan-
nel at Alhajuela of 29,610 cubic feet per second. The maximum dis-
charge at Gatun spillway during the year was 57,150 cubic feet per
second on December 8, 1947.
DRY SEASON-1948.--The 1948 dry season was the longest dry
season water supply period on record. The period during which the
flow into Madden and Gatun Lakes was not sufficient to provide
water for evaporation losses from lake surfaces and for Panama Canal
uses extended from December 18, 1947, to June 25, 1948, a total of
191 days. The total inflow into Madden and Gatun Lakes during
this period was 32,909 million cubic feet. Water expenditures for the
same period amounted to 69,622 million cubic feet, consisting of 14,225
million cubic feet evaporation loss from lake surfaces, and Gatun Lake
water use of 55,397 million cubic feet. The dry season draft on lake
storage amounted to 36,713 million cubic feet, of which 16,403 million
cubic feet was drawn from Madden Lake and 20,310 million cubic
feet from Gatun Lake.
LAKE ELEVATIONS.-During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1948,
Madden Lake varied in elevation between a maximum of 252.51 feet
on December 8, 1947, to a minimum of 210.24 feet on June 9, 1948,
a total range of 42.27 feet. Gatun Lake varied in elevation between
a maximum of 86.70 feet on December 8, 1947, to a minimum of 81.94
feet on June 24, 1948, a total range of 4.76 feet. Elevations on June
30, 1948, were 215.62 feet for Madden Lake and 82.04 feet for Gatun
Lake.
RAINFALL.-During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1948, the rainfall
in the Canal Zone was considerably below normal along the Atlantic
and Pacific coasts and slightly below normal in the interior. Along
the line of the Canal channel, annual totals ranged from a minimum
of 56.86 inches at Balboa Heights near the Pacific terminal to a
maximum of 107.18 inches at Cristobal near the Atlantic terminal.
The month of maximum rainfall was October 1947. The maximum
monthly amount recorded during the year was 17.71 inches at Cristo-
bal in October 1947. The month of least rainfall was February 1948
with monthly totals ranging from a trace at several stations to 0.3
inch at Gatun.

Air Temperatures
Air temperatures in the Canal Zone during the fiscal year averaged
slightly above normal. There was little variation in temperature
throughout the year, no monthly mean at any station departing more






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 51

than 2.60F. from the annual mean. Annual means and extremsll at
Canal Zone stations for the fiscal year are givcri in the following
tabulation:

1948 maximum 1948 minimum 1948 Depar-
mean ture
Station
a F. Date F. Date (0 F.) (0 F.)

Balboa Heights....-----.------------------ 97 Apr. 27,1948 67 Feb. 22,1948 80.4 +0.1
Madden Dam -----.------------.-------- 94 Apr. 22,1948 64 Jan. 24,1948 80.3 +1. 4
Cristobal.--.------.----------.---------- 90 Sept. 22,1947 70 Aug. 8, 1947 80.2 -.6


Annual extremes and means on record at the above stations are as
follows:

Absolute maximum Absolute minimum Annual
mean
Station _
0 F. Date 0 F. Date F.

Balboa Heights -.. ..---------- ---------------- 97 Apr. 27, 1948 63 Jan. 27,1910 80. 3
Madden Dam----.-----.------------------------- 98 Apr. 13,1920 59 Feb. 4,1924 78. 9
Cristobal------------------------------------- 95 Oct. 18,1924 66 Dec. 3,1909 80.8

Winds and Humidity
Wind velocities for the fiscal year averaged 6 miles per hour at
Balboa Heights on the Pacific coast and 9 miles per hour at Cristobal
on the Atlantic coast. Monthly mean velocities at Balboa Heights
ranged from 4.2 miles per hour in November to 9.8 miles per hour in
March. Monthly mean velocities at Cristobal ranged from 5.7 miles
per hour in November to 15.2 miles per hour in March. The most
frequent directions were northwest along the Pacific coast and north-
east along the Atlantic coast. Maximum velocities for 5-minute
periods were 29 miles per hour from the north on March 14, 1948, at
Balboa Heights and 27 miles per hour from the northeast on February
15, 1948, at Cristobal.
The relative humidity averaged 84 percent at both Balboa Heiglits
and Cristobal. Monthly means at Balboa Heights ranged from 74
percent in April to 90 percent in October, and at Cristobal, from 76
percent in February to 88 percent in July.

Tides
During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1948, absolute tidal ranges
at Canal terminals were 20.5 feet on the Pacific coast and 2.2 feet on the
Atlantic coast. At Balboa, the Pacific terminal of the Canal, the fol-
lowing extremes occurred: highest high water 9.4 feet above mean sea
level, lowest low water 11.1 feet below mean sea level, with the greatest
range between consecutive tides 20.5 feet. At Cristobal, the Atlantic





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


terminal of the Canal, the following extremes occurred: Highest high
wviter 1.40 feet above mean sea level, lowest low water 0.85 feet below
mean sea level, with the greatest range between consecutive tides 1.96
feet.
Seismology

Only one earthquake shock was felt by Canal Zone residents during
the fiscal y-car ended June 30, 1948. The shock occurred on November
9, 1947, at 5:08 a. m., 75th meridain time. It was rated at intensity
III on the modified Mercalli scale. No damage of any kind was
reported.
Marine Activities

Traffic through the Canal increased steadily during the past fiscal
year. At the iul]d of the fiscal year traffic had increased 9.8 percent
over that of the preceding year. This is more fully discussed earlier
in this report under "Statistics on Canal Traffic."
Harbor Activities
The table following shows the number of vessels handled at docks
of the terminal ports of Cristobal and Balboa for the fiscal year 1948
as compiired with the two previous years:

Cristobal, fiscal year Balboa, fiscal year
1948 1947 i 1946 1948 1947 1946
Number of vessels docked:
TI illin ie ssengers and/or cargo --- 1,147 1,090 1,149 358 516 513
F.ir .ll dila r purposes ---------------- 1,073 1,244 3,172 621 651 2,058
Total ------------------------------ 2,220 2,334 4,321 979 1,167 2,571

Aids to Navigation
On June 30, 1948, there were 751 aids to navigation in service in the
Panama Canal and its approaches, maintained by the Aids to Naviga-
tion Subdivision and classified as follows: Acetylene gas-opner t ed,
109; electrically operated, 344; unlighted, 298. Included in the above
are two automatic acetylene gas-operated lighthouses, located at
Morro Puercos and at Jicarita Island on the coast of Pranama in the
Pacific appronich. Two visits were made to these lighthouses during
the yr-ir for the purpose of inspecting and servicing the equipment.
Accidents to Shipping
The board of local inspectors investigated and reported on 20
1cridents to shipping in Canal Zone waters during the fiscal year 1948,






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAM,\ CANAL


a summary of which follows togitrl.r with a comparison of accidents
in the 2 previous ye;Irls:

Fiscal year
Cause of accident
1948 1917 194(i

Collision .. ------- ...-- .. ...-..-.. i 4 11
Ship struck lock wall -------...--- -----------.-------- _.... .. ._- 4 6i 7
Ship struck dock -..-.....-- .. ...- ... .. .... ... '_.-__ .. 2 1 4
Ship n und .... --- -.-..- -----... 21'i l r- -~.... -. .. . .. .. 3
Ship -1 1111 I I' tug--...- -. -.. ... ..--------------- . - 2 1
Ship .iriII k 1 i'.n J1 bank........ 2....... - - - .. _.-- 2 1 2
Other causes-..--------------------------------- ---------_ -.-.- .- 4 3 7
Total...------------------------- ------------------ -- ---.-- - -- -- 20 16 34

Inspections
Complete inspections were made of the hulls, power plants, and
equipment of 30 Amiiiricniit and 18 foreign vessels and certificiltes of
inIsptection issued. Seventy hulls of coninierri-il, Panama Canal and
Panama Railroad vessels were inspected in 'drydock. Forty steam
boilers were inspected and certificates issued. One hundred and
twenty-four air tanks and 32 carbon-dioxide fire extiLnguishinrlg sys-
tems were inspected. Annual inspections were made and certificates
of seaworthiness issued to 319 motor boats.

A dmeasurem en t
The work lond of the admeasurement force was heavy during the
past fiscal year, as was also the case during fiscal years 1946 and 1947,
due to the arrival of many newly constructed and reconstructed
vessels. Board of admeasurement meetings were resumed and the
interpretations decided upon therein were published under date of
May 14, 1948, as Supplement No. 2, Appendix to the Rules for Ad-
measurement of Vessels for the Panama Canal. The publication of
the supplement was considered necessary because of the improve-
ments in ship design, construction, and propulsion during the last
d v (- 1 1 e.

Salvage and Towing
During the fiscal year 194S the following off-shore work was per-
formed by marine dtivisiin tugs for pr i vte interests:
On July 1-3, 1947, the tug (iorqJgona assisted to thle port of Balboa
the disabled S. S. AMarico; on July 11-12, 1947, the 61i1 llie{ assisted
to Balboa the S. Coc;ibJ'lca which had become di ;i 1 led at ii.
On July 3-6, 1947, the tug Falorite, together with the tug TIrn nl;l1n.
and other Navy and dredging di\ i i4 on craft, refloated the S. S. (;rvI
CGr ';iuian, which had ru1n ag round in Limon Bay. On Febriniary 26-
March 7, 1948, the Tabgya wa\s dispatched to the GClaplgos Islands
818083-49-5 -5





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


to bring to the Canal Zone a disabled tuna fisher, the Intrepid. On
March 16-24, 1948, the Taboga returned to the Gallapagos to bring
in another tuna fisher, the Santa Margarita. On May 7-9, 1948, the
Taboga assisted to Balboa the Rajo, which had become disabled at sea.
On August 1, 1947, the tug Tavernilla left Cristobal with two barges
in tow destined for La Guayra, Venezuela. Rough weather was
encountered and on August 4 the Favorite was dispatched to Puerto
Colombia to complete the tow. The Tavernilla returned to Cristobal
on August 7 and the Favorite returned on August 23. The tug Favorite
towed the derrick barge Toro from Jacksonville, Fla., to Cristobal,
August 31-October 7, 1947.
The tug Favorite transported 48 repatriated employees and their
household effects to Kingston, Jamaica, July 10-17, 1947.
Operation of Tugs
The Diesel tugs, the Limon and the Taboga, which were acquired
during fiscal year 1947, were placed in service in January 1948. The
crane barge Toro and the tug Gorgona II, acquired from the United
States Navy, were placed in service early in 1948. The Gorgona II
replaces the tug Gorgona, and the Toro was secured to assist the
Taboga in handling buoys and other navigation aids in Canal Zone
waters.
The following statistics summarize the service of tugs used in
marine activities (as distinct from dredging) during the past three
fiscal years:

Operating hours, fiscal year- Jobs handled, fiscal year-
1948 1947 1946 1948 1947 1946
Cristobal -----------------------------............ 5,811 5,708 10,665 4,632 4,788 3,836
Balboa.............. ------------------------------- 3,526 4, 213 15,649 3,096 2,486 6,720
Total-----------------------------. 9,337 9,921 26,314 7,728 7,274 10,556

The above table does not include statistics for tugs which were
occasionally borrowed from dredging service to assist vessels during
emergencies.

Maintenance of Channel-Other Dredging Activities

Dredges were operated throughout the year on the maintenance
of the Canal channel, terminal harbors, and on various special projects.
In 1948 the total material excavated amounted to 7,114,700 cubic
yards, which was 27 percent less than the amount removed in the
previous fiscal year.







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 55


Excavation during the year is summarized in the following table:


Location


Canal prism driedine:
Gatun Lake, maintenance--------------------------------------
(liillaril cut, maintenance, including slides---------------------
Gaillard cut, project No. 13. -----.-.---..---.....----....---...
Pacific entrance, maintenance. --.-----------------------.---...
Total, Canal prism...---..---. ..-- ------..--..--.-------.....
Auxiliary Ilrrelcing:
Crisrtobill:i arbor:
Outer harbor, west anchorage.----------------------------..
Harbor approach channel.----------------------------------
Limon Bay, reflnaline grounded ship ---------------------------
Chagres River gravel service....------------------------.-----.
Balboa Harbor, project No. 1, extension No. 4... ----... ...-...-
Total auxiliary. --.. ....-- ...------..-.--.-------------..----
Grand total:
Fiscal year 1948.-----------------------------------------------
Fiscal year 1947----------------------------------------------.-


Earthl


Cubic yards
2, 422, 000
329,100
70, 600
185,000
3,006, 700


732, 600
2,078,300
------------
243,300
253, 200
3, 307, 400


Rock


Cubic yards
------------
89, 200
325, 600
91,000
505, 800



204, 600
2, 800
------------
87, 400
294,800


6,314, 100 1 800,600
7,853,400 1 1,831,400


Total


r 'jI.i ilar.1i
2, 1'., v1 i
418, 300
396,200
276, 000
3,512,500


732, 600
2, 282, 900
2, 800
243, 300
340,600
3,602, 200

7, 114. 700
9, tj. 800


1 In addition, 43,695 cubic yards of Chame sand were produced in fiscal year 1948 and 34,520 cubic yards
in 1947.

Dredging operations are divided into three major districts, the
Atlantic district, extending from contour 42 feet below mean sea level
in the Atlantic Ocean to Gatun locks, the central district extending
from Gatun locks to Pedro Miguel locks, and the Pacific district
extending from Pedro Miguel locks to contour 50 feet below mean
sea level in the Pacific Ocean. The total excavation in these three
areas is summarized as follows:
[Cubic yards]

District
Total
Atlantic Central Pacific

Canal prism:
Earth......------------------------------------ ------------ 2,821,700 185,000 3,006,700
Rock.--------------- -------------------------------- ............ 414,800 91,000 505,800
Total--------------------------.-----..--..------------... .. 3,236,500 276,000 3,512,500
Auxiliary:
Earth............................................-------------------------------------- 2,810,900 ------..------ 253,200 3, : '4.100
Rock.--.--------------------------------------- 207,400 ------------ 7,400 294,800
Total-------------------------------.------------ 3,018,300 ------------ 340,600 3,358,900
Total:
Earth-----..---------------------------------........................................ 2,810,900 2,821, 700 438,200 6,070,800
Rock.....------------....................................----------------------------. 207,400 414,800 178,400 800,600
Grand total:
Fiscal year 1948--............................------------------------ 3,018,300 3,236,500 616,600 16,871,400
Fiscal year 1947---.-----------.....---------------- 8, 274, 500 1,064,300 244,700 19,583,500

2 Does not include Chagres Ri % er gravel or C ha me sand service.


Ordinary Channel Maintenance-Canal Prism Dredging


ATLANTIC DISTRICT.-No dredging was performed on the Canal
channel in the Atlantic district during the past fiscal year.


I~II~I~






5b REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


CENTRAL DISTRICT.-GUf/in Lakle.-A total of 2,422,000 cubic yards
of material was removed in maintaining the Gatun Lake section of
the Canal channel. This dredging was performed by pipe-line suction
dredges as follows:


Las Cruces -------------------------------------------
Mindi. -------------------------------------------------
Total--------------------------------------------



CGa7ilaird cut.-A total of 275,900
moved in maintaining Gaillard cut.
dipper dredges. as follows:


Days
worked
Earth

93 1,715,000
42% 707,000
1353i 2,422,000


Yardage dredged


Rock Total

------------ 1,715,000
------------ 707,000
2,422,000


cubic yards of material was re-
This dredging was performed by


Equipment


Cascadas -----------------
Paraiso ---------------
Total--------------

1 Unmined.


Days
worked


4614
39,14
8541


Yardage dredged


Earth

145, 400
121, 700
267,100


Rock

S3, 900
14, 900
8, 800


Total

149,300
126, 600
275, 900


Project No. 13.-This project, which consists of widening Culebra
Reach by 200 feet to the westward, was started in January 1935 and
has been continued on a low-priority basis since that time. A total
of 163,100 cubic yardIs of rock were broken by shore mining; and
356,600 cubic yards of material, consisting of 262,300 cubic yards of
mined rock, 47,800 cubic yards of unmined rock and 46,500 cubic
yards of earth, were sluiced into the Canal prism to be removed by
regular dredging oprn- Iions. During 1948 dipper dredges excavated
a total of 396,200 cubic yards from this project, as follows:


Equipment


Cascadas ---------.
Paraiso -.-.----
Total --------


Days
worked
Earth

*J'.Ii 47, 8
33'% 22, 8
129 70,6(


Yardage dredged

Rock Total

0 1 227,600 275,400
0 2 98, 000 120, 800
10 325,600 396,200


1 All mined.
2 75,000 cubic yards mined; 23,000 cubic yards unmined.


PACIFIC DISTRICT.--PIc fic entrance, m&aini ainci.-Dredging in the
Pacific -ntl ranee cliannel of the Canal was in progress 22 days during


0
0
3





REPORT OF THE GoVERNOIt OF THE PANAMA. CANAL
1


the year by the pipe-line suction dredge Las ruces, which excavated
276,000 cubic yards of ma teriail of which 91,000 cubic yards were
iunmined broken rock and 185,000 cubic yards of earth.
Auxiliary Dredging-Other Projects
ATLANTIC DI.-'it ICT.-CriStobal Outer Ilarbor.-The pipe-line suc-
tion drIdgr 'Mind; worked 30 days during fiscal year 1948 and .ex\a-
vated( 732,600 cubic yards of earth.
Cri.'tlobel Approach Channel.-Dred going of tihe Cristobal Approach
Channel, Cristobal Inner Harbor, was in prognr-s 114 days during the
year by the pipe-line suction drt(dg M'ri/ll,. A total of 2,282,900
cubic yards of material was removed, of which 204,600 cubic y;rds
were unmined coral rock and 2,078,300 cubic yards were firngor coral,
sand and cl(y.
Rflftltiniag S. S. "(ape Gi rly';Vi," .1linn Buay.-The dipper dredge
Ci..cnadia.v worked 2 dayss in attempting to refloat the S. S. 'ape OG ,/y;a
in Limon Bay. A total of 2,800 cubic yards of unmined rock were
riimoved.
PACIFIC DISTHICT.-Balba HaI Ihr, pj i nec No. 1, ( ili uon No. 4.-
The drillboat Vulcan was employed 163 days, brv;(kiiig 46,600 cubic
yards of rock. The dipper dredge ('.s-Wcali7. worked 100 (lays on this
project, removing 340,600 cubic yards of material of which 30,400
cubic yards were mined rock, 57,000 cubic yairls unmined rock, and
253,200 cubic yards earth.
Isthmian Canal Studies (Public Law- No. 280)
Core samples were taken in widely scattered areas along the present
Canal. A total of 74 holes, with a combined depth of 8,178 feet,
were drilled.
Slides
A total of 142,400 cubic yards of slide material, consisting of 62,000
cubic yards of earth, 13,600 cubic yards of mined rock, and 66,800
ciibic yards of unlined rock, was excavated from Ciulbi-ra slide
(west) in Gaillard cut duliring the fit'al year 1948. The dredging was
performed by the dipper dredge Ci.Icadv(I/s which was employedd 36%
days on this work.
Slide activity throughout tlie cut \\>as generally much less thanuu in
previous years. Culebria slide (west) continued to be the most
active of all the slides, with a char-rteristic slow and steady move-
ment throughout the year except for one period of aI 'clrated move-
ment which occurred in October. Shore min ing[ \\%ia- in progress for
49 days and 3,400 cubic yards of rock were broken. The drillboat
Vulcan was also employed 103 (lays, brea;kiing 18,400 cubic yards
of rock.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL
f


Small movements were observed in four other slide areas during
the year. Numerous small bank breaks occurred which were limited
to movements of no consequence. There was no interference with
shipping on account of slides during the year.
Excavation from slides in Gaillard cut from June 30, 1913, to June
30, 1948, totaled 52,136,300 cubic yards.
Subsidiary Dredging Division Activities
SAND AND GRAVEL.-During the past fiscal year 36,309 cubic yards
of sand and gravel of all classes (both run-of-bank and washed) were
shipped from the gravel stock pile at Gamboa, as compared with 30,200
cubic yards shipped in the previous fiscal year. The pipe-line suction
dredge .Minl/i worked a total of 37% days pumping 243,300 cubic
yards of run-of-bank gravel into the stock pile at Gamboa.
The craneboat Atlas was in service 40% days excavating 43,695
cubic yards of sand at Chame Point, Republic of Panama. This
sand was pumped into barges and delivered at dock 7, Balboa, for
the supply department.
HYACINTH CONTROL AND OTHER ACTIVITIES.-The Canal and
adjacent waters through Gaillard Cut, Miraflores Lake, and Gatun
Lake (including all dump areas) were periodically patrolled through-
out the year for the purpose of keeping the growth of hyacinths under
control. Log booms at the mouths of the Chagres and Mandinga
Rivers were maintained to prevent hyacinths, logs, floating islands,
and other obstructions from entering the Canal channel during
freshets or spilling at Madden Dam. During the year, periodical
inspection trips weLreC made in the Chagres, Mandinga, Frijoles, and
Azules Rivers and along the shores of Barro Colorado Island, Pena
Blanca, and Gigante Bays, dumps Nos. 1 to 14, and Miraflores, Pedro
Miguel and Rvd Tank Lakes. Weekly inspection trips were also
made of the Canal channel between Gamboa and Gatun.
It is estinmite(d that 24,085,000 hyacinth plants were destroyed
during the past year, of which 11,955,000 were pulled and 12,130,000
were sprayed; of the plants pulled 3,079,000 were removed by the
debris cableway. Eighty-three cords of driftwood were removed by
the debris cableway during the past year and an additional 300 cords
of driftwood were picked up along the banks of the Chagres, Mandinga,
and Cocoli Rivers, Gaillard Cut and Gatun, Miraflores, Pedro Miguel,
and Red Tank Lukirs.







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Equipment

The more important items of dredging equipment, or plant were

operated( during the past year as shown in the following tabulation:


Unit and name


Dredges:
Cascadas ...-- .------.-.----...-
Gamboa. ---------__ ..---..--. -
Paraiso.-......................- -
Las Cruces.---.---.-------------
Mindi. --------------------_..-.
Craneboat: Atlas------------------
Derrick barge: No. 157 -------------
Grader barge: No. 4_--------....--.
Relay barges:
No. 3-...---------------....... -
No. 24.- ----....------- ....-.-- -
Drillboats:
Vulcan.-.....................--
Thor.......... ..............-.
Air compressor: No. 29------.....- .
Floating cranes:
Ajax--.... ---------........
Hercules...... ....-----.-.---..
Ferry boats:
President Amador........ .-..
President Roosevelt... ......-...
President Porras-..............


Type


15-yard dipper -----------
-----do- --------- --... .. ---.
-----do --------...........------....
24-inch suction- -- ..--..-.-.-- .
------ do---........-..-.....--.
75-ton --- -------------.....
40-ton--- ----- -- -.----- --. .
14-inch pumps.. ------.---



Air ---- ------------
--- do -- -----------
2,500 CFM-------. --

250-ton ___--- --------- --.
---- do -- __-------------...-


In service



Months
9. 2
2.4
3.8
7.3
11.0
.8
11.4

5.9

8.7

1.5

6.8
5. 2

7.9
10.0
6.3


Out of service


Repairs Reserve or
stand-by


Months
2. 2
2.6
.4
4.7
1.0
.1
.1

------------

1.4



.8

2.0
1.0
.8


Months
0.6
12.0
7. 0
7.8

11. 1
.5

6.1
12.0

1.9
12.0
10.5

5.2
6.0

2.1
1.0
4.9


In addition to the above, large and small tugs and an attendant
fleet of dump scows, sand barges, and service lighters, launches, quarter

boats, and related drilling and excavating equipment were also

operated as part of the dredging plant.


Ferry Service


Thatcher Ferry service was continuous throughout the past year

with the except ion of a few hours during the period of light traffic on 11

nights, when it was necessary to suspend service in order to repair the
ferry ramps and slips. This ferry crosses the Canal at the Pacific
terminal and connects Balboa on the east, bank with Thatcher High-

way on the west bank. Service was maintained by rotating the three

ferry boats, Prri:Idcnt Amador, Pr4(fid.t Roousefrlt, and Prsidentle
Porras, keeping two of these ferries in continuous service.

Since the opening of the bridge across the Canal at Aliraf lores in
May 1942, the ferry traffic has become fairly well stabilized. In the





60 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

following table are shown the more important statistics relative to
operat ions of the Thatcher Ferry for the past three fiscal years:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

Sicihr trips made---.---.--------------.-------. -----_ .....- 55,736 55,601 51,263
Vehicles carried:
Panama Canal vehicles_ _-------------_-- --- ----_._--- 10,884 15, 597 15, 347
United States military vehicles --------------------__ ..-- 44, 932 82, 231 101, 628
Commercial trucks. -- ----. -- --- --_-_-_ --_-_- 117,856 113,640 93, 764
Commercial passenger cars ---------- ---- -- ____ 152,048 140,246 92,766
Private cars. -- - ------------_.- --- ..-__.- 245, 771 232, 801 202, 474
Total vehicles carried -- ------- .. .- ----_.....-------- 571, 491 584, 515 505,979
Total passengers carried --------------- 3, 036,065 2,923,599 2,401,329


Investigation of Means of Increasing the Capacity and Security
of the Panama Canal

Public Law 280, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, approved
December 28, 1945, authorized an investigation of means for increasing
the capacity and security of the Panama Canal to meet the future
needs of interoceanic commerce and national security, including a
restudy of the third locks project. This act also authorized the
making of such studies as might be dt-einwd necessary to determine
whethliir a canal or canals at other locations, or any new means of
transporting ships across land, may be more useful than the present,
Canal with improvements for the purposes stated.
The final report on the authorized invest igation was submitted on
November 26, 1947, by the Governor, through the Secretary of the
Army to the President of the United States. The President transmit-
ted the report to the Congress on December 1, 1947.
The report recommends that the Panama Canal be converted to
a sea-level canal to meet the future needs of interoceanic commerce
and national defense, substantially in accordance with the plan
submitted in the report at an estimated cost of $2,483,000,000.
The Panama sea-level canal would follow generally the alinement
of the existing P.ui nna Canal in the regions of deepest cut. Elsewhere
the alinement takes advantage of the most suitable terrain in meeting
the required standards of curvature developed in the investigations.
The channel would have a depth of 60 feet with a minimum width
of 600 feet at a depth of 40 feet.
The organization which had been carrying on the studies and
invest ig'a t ions wias substantially reduced by the end of the fiscal year
and the continuing record and planning work that remains to be done
will be carried on by a small group after June 30, 1948.









Section II


BUSINESS OPERATIONS




The business enterprises operated by The Panama Canal and by the
Paniama Railroad Company embrace a number of activities which in
the United States would normally be carried on by private enterprise.
These activities have been developed to meet the needs of shipping
passing through the Canal and of the Canal-Railroad, Army and
Navy organizations, and their employees. During the war years
these activities were expanded and adjusted to meet the requirements
of the war effort and served very important needs of the Army and
Navy. The business ent erprises include the supply of fuel, provisions,
ship chandlery, and repairs to vessels; the provision of public utility
services; the iniiiteriainnceo of living quarters, and the sale of food,
clothing, and other essentials to Canal and Railroad employees; the
handling of cargo and allied operations; the operation and manage-
ment of a railroad line; and a ;tieamship line between New York and
the Isthmus.
The Canal and the Railroad are separate organizations, but the
administ rat ion of both organizations is vested in the Governor of
The Panama Canal, who is also president of the Panama Railroad
Comlpa ny.



PANAMA CANAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Business operations of the Panama Canal are conducted sepanra itly
from operatingg activities pertaining directly to the transiting of v esse ls
and the government and sanitation of the Canal Zone. The annviil
appropriate ion acts for The Panama Canal authorizes the expenditure
and reinvestment of all moneys rciiived from the conduct of auxiliary
business activities, with the proviso that any net profit derived from
such businii-ess activities shall be covered annually into the Tresuniiry
of the Unit ed States.
It is the aim to operate the business activities as a whole on a
self-supportinig basis and, in general, to include as a charge again-st
61





62 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

their operations a fixed capital charge of 3 percent as interest on the
net investment. The amount representing charges for interest on
investment is a part of the net profits covered into the Treasury and
is in effect a reimbursement to the United States. The net investment
in business activities totaled $36,377,940.71 on July 1, 1947, and the
capital charge for the fiscal year 1948 was $1,091,338.20 (table No.
23, sec. V). The net revenue of $1,559,478.71 exceeded the capital
charge by $468,140.51.

Mechanical and Marine Work

On the basis of revenues received for work accomplished there was
an over-all increase of 9.5 percent in the volume of business performed
by the mechanical division in comparison with the fiscal year 1947.
The increase in work required by outside interests caused revenues
from this source to rise from $1,777,000, or 29.7 percent of the total
revenues in 1947, to $2,749,000, or 41.9 percent of the total, in 1948.
Since the War Shipping Administration ceased activities early in the
fiscal year 1947, work received from the Army and Navy provided
practically all of the work performed for United States departments
other than that received from subdivisions of The Panama Canal and
Panama Railroad. Revenues from work performed for governmental
agencies decreased 30.9 percent. Revenues from work performed for
The Panama Canal increased 11.5 percent over those of the preceding
year, while those for the Panama Railroad Company decreased slightly.
The work load increased substantially during the first half of the
fiscal year, due to an increase in commercial work.
The following table shows the class and source of work performed
for the past two fiscal years:

Gross Revenues-Class and Source

Fiscal year 1948 Fiscal year 1947

Rvens Percent Revens Percent
Revenues Revenues
of total of total

Class:
Marine----------.---.-----------------------. $4,390,724 66.9 $3,630,509 60.6
Railroad.--------------.. .__ .......----------- 794,426 12.1 815,853 13.6
Fabricated stock..-----------------...... .. 319,854 4.9 373,823 6.2
Sundries--------------------.. -----------------... 1,053,918 16.1 1,169,418 19.6
Total--.----.---------.----------------.. -----.-- 6,558,922 100.0 5,989,603 100.0
Origin:
The Panama Canal--------------......-------------- 1,961,262 29.9 1,759,200 29.4
Panama Railroad Company- ------.---------------_ 849,006 12.9 893,351 14.9
Other United States departments. -------- --------- 999,193 15.3 11,559,843 26.0
Commercial--.-------------------------------- 2,749,461 41.9 11,777,209 29.7
Total---..........---------------------------------- 6,558,922 100.0 5,989,603 100.0

I Adjusted figure.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Marine Repair Work
A number of important repair jobs were successfully completed
during the year, the most important being the rehnlbilitation of the
tanker S. S. Royal Oak which had received major hull dalmlages when
it hit a reef off the coast of Ecuador and subsequently caught fire in
the engine room. Repairs were started in May 1947, but the major
portion of the work was accomplished in the fiscal year 1948. Both
auxiliary generator units were completely rebuilt, the elect rical control
panels repaired, and damaged structural and other miscellaneous steel
items renewed or renovated. The ship was priced in dry dock on
June 25, 1947 and was undocked September 29, 1947. During this
time extensive hull repairs were effected on the port side of the ve-ssel
and four "crack stoppers" were installed. Miscellaneous repairs were
performed simultaneously with the damage repair work, and the
total cost for the job totaled slightly over $450,000. The accomplish-
ment, of a job of this scope and magnitude serves again to demonst rate
the capability of the mechanical division to handle marine repairs of
practically any size.
Another job deserving particular mention was the saving and later
reconditioning of the S. S. Cortes. The crew was attempting to make
repairs to the vessel's main circulating pump at the outer anchorage of
the Canal when the main injection valve suddenly failed, flooding the
engine and fire rooms. The vessel started to sink but the timely
arrival of the Canal tugs Arraijan and Gorgqona with their salvage
pumps kept the vessel afloat until it could be towed to a mechanical
division dock, where divers put a patch on the sea chest and stopped
the further inflow of water. The vessel's machinery had to be washed
down and freed from the effects of immersion and, in dry docking, a
defective tail shaft was discovered which was given temporary repairs.
During the fiscal year there has been a considerable increase in the
utilization of The Panama Canal's repair facilities by vessels of the
tuna fishing fleet calling at Balboa.
Important items of work for the United States Navy during the
fiscal year 1948 included major overhautls to the U. S. S. Ricoriery,
the U. S. S. Kitiwtake, and the U. S. S. Hazel, which provided approxi-
mately 8 weeks' work on each vessel, and interim dry docking to the
submarines U. S. S. Cutlass, U. S. S. Conger, U. S. S. Diablo, U. S. S.
Sea Robin, and U. S. S. Sea Poacher.
The amount of repairs and services required by various Canal divi-
sions provided a steady flow of work which was slightly higher than
the previous fiscal year. Work performed on floating equipment
operated by the dredging division provided one of the principal sources
of Panama Canal work in all shops, although important jobs were






64 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

received from other divisions. The drillboat Vulcan and dredges
Midif;' and CO('camla. were given complete overhauls, and general re-
pairs were made to the floating crane Hercules. Routine dry dockings
w\re given the crane boat Atlas and derrick barge US-157. Caissons
Nos. 1 and 2 w-ere dry docked for the locks division and wood seals in
the latter were reinew- d. Work on the conversion of the tug Taboga
into a salvage boat, and alterations to the tug Toro, were completed
for the Aids to Navigation Subdivision. Work performed for the
marine division included overhaul and alterations to the tug Limon,
alterations to the tug Gorgona II, main engine repairs to the tug
Cardenas, and dry (locking and repairs to the tug Arraijan.
The following statement shows the number of vessels and the total
"ship days," for each category of vessels repaired at Balboa and
Cristobal for the fiscal year 1948:

Balboa Cristobal Total
Category
Number Ship Number Ship Number Ship
of ships days I of ships days I of ships days

Commercial ------------------------------- 426 1,826 860 2,038 1,286 3,864
U. S. Army --- ------------------------------- 50 509 81 519 131 1,028
U. S. Navy ------------------------------------ 31 1, 208 19 182 50 1,390
The Panama Canal----------------------------- 33 787 67 433 100 1,220
Total, 1948-------------------------------- 540 4, 330 1, 027 3, 172 1, 567 7, 502
Total, 1947------------------------------- 571 3,812 1,146 3,714 1,717 7,526

I Total days consumed in repairing number of ships indicated.

Dry Docks and Marine Railways
The following table summarizes dry dock and marine railway opera-
tions during the fiscal year 1948, with comparative figures for the two
preceding years:
[Number of vessels dry docked]
Fiscal year 1948 FI. iI year

Category Balboa Cristobal dry
dry docks and Total 1947 total 1946 total
doks marine
docks railways

U. S. Army .--.---------------.. ---------------- 22 17 39 69 93
IT. S. Navy --- .-------------------------------- 13 6 19 48 65
Other United States departments- .----- -------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- 25
Commercial------------------------------------- 33 38 71 87 42
Total outside interests .-------------------- 68 61 129 204 225
The Panama Canal. .-------------------------- 18 5 23 25 37
Panama Railroad Company --------------------- --------- 1 1 1 3
Grand total --.. ------------------------ 86 67 153 230 265

During the fiscal year 1948, there were 99 instances in which one
drydock was unoccupied for one workday at Balboa, and 271 instances
in which one drydock or marine railway was unoccupied for one
workday at Cristobal.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Shop Work
With a pronotiiunced trend toward normal pnecetime requirements
by the various customers of the ineelnicail division, there was ailo
an accompanying trend toward a more routine type of work to be
performed by the shops, exclusive of some of the work performed
for the rimarine activities. The largest single shop job performed
was that of machining the iimnumeroius items for use on the locks over-
haul. The usual Ini ufiacl irimng work for the storehouses was carried
on, plus the fabrication of those items ordinarily required by the
dredging division, such as shore pipe, pontoons, ball joints, etc.
Work was continued on the fabrication of six towing locomotives
for the locks division, started in the fiscal year 1947.
Plant Improvement
During the fiscal year 1948 work was continued on the plant im-
pro-Ivementt program authorized and begun during the fiseial year
1945, namely, the installation of machine tools and eqiuipinment. fur-
nislied by the Army and Navy, changes in the electrical power sys-
tem, and the illurimirnitioni of the shops.
Work was in progress during the year on the construction of the
east and west extensions to building No. 12. The west extension
will provide additional pattern storage facilities and furnish space
for a metallurgist's laboratory and a combined foundry and pattern
shop office. The east extension will provide new storage spain and
handling facilities for the flasks formerly stored at the west end of
the foundry.
Electrical Work
The principal activities of the electrical division are the operation
and maintenance of the electric light and power system, the con-
struction and maintenance of electrical facilities ni- required by
The Panama Canal and other Government agencies and services
performed for vessels undergoing repairs at the Canal terminals.
The electrical division also supervises the opera t ion( and main-
tenance of the telephone, telegrJph, electric clock, printing
telegraph and railway signal systems owned by the Panama Railroad.
Following is a comparison of the two principal classes of expendi-
tures of the electrical division for the plast 3 fiscal years:

i .II year
1948 1947 1946
F -l r '..l construction and maintenance n 'r k I. 4 A17. i 1. 7 'n.. 12
Maintenance and operation of electric power system ---------- 1, ;-7.370 1, 22.1. 204 1,061,305





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Among the principal projects of electrical work carried on during
the year were the wiring of newly constructed quarters for employees,
the electrical overhaul of Panama Canal tugs Limon and Gorgona II,
improvements and extensions to street lighting facilities, installation
of electrical facilities at the dredging division dock and air compressor
building at Diablo Heights, the continuation of work on the improve-
ment of 60-cycle facilities within the mechanical division areas at
Mouut Hope and Balboa, installation of facilities for increasing the
capacity of the Mount Hope pumping plant, the construction of a
new duct line between Balboa and Diablo Heights and the installa-
tion of facilities for providing electrical service to the newly constructed
quarters and the United States Army cold storage plant at Diablo
Heights.
Information concerning the principal construction projects under-
taken and the operation of the power system are given on page 48
of this report, under the general heading of Canal operation. The
expenditures shown in the above table include interdepartmental
transactions. As an example, maintenance and repairs on the power
system are performed by the electric work unit and the cost of this
work is therefore included in the expenses of both the power system
and the electric work unit.

Purchases in the United States

The principal purchases of supplies for The Panama Canal were
made, as heretofore, through the Washington office of The Panama
Canal; the volume of the purchases is indicated by the following table:

Fiscal year
1948 1947 1946
Number of purchase orders placed.-------------.. -----------_ 7,857 7,957 8,206
Value of orders placed.._--_--_-------------. -----.---------- $7,341,563 $7,591,828 $6,355,766
Number of disbursement vouchers prepared ------------------ 16, 112 15, 045 17, 514
Value of above vouchers ------------------------------------- $8, 572, 247 $9, 358, 079 $9, 935, 612
Number of collection vouchers prepared -- ------------------- 770 557 476
Value of above vouchers ------- -----. ------------------- $2,245,799 $625,130 $1,333,763
Cash discounts taken ----.-----.------------.--------------- $33, 505 $34,204 $36, 152


Storehouses and Ship Chandlery

In addition to the main functions of requisitioning, storing, and
issuing general supplies for the Canal and Railroad (exclusive of the
merchandising operations of the commissary division), the Panama
Canal storehouses sell ship chandlery and other supplies to commercial
shipping, as well as to units of the United States Navy and Army.






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 67


The following figures indicate the volume of material and supplies
cleared through the stores accounts during the past 3 yerills:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

GENERAL STOREHOUSES
Gross revenues, sales and Issues--..-.------------------.--- $10, 149, 528 $9, 585, 596 $9, s7s. 899
Cost of materials, plus operating expense.--..---------------- 9,600, 099 9, 486, 152 9, S,-, 899
Net revenues------- -------------------------------- 549,429 99,444 0
Inventory as of June 30 2 -.------------... ----------........ .. $10,841,644 $11,909,611 $9, 523, 446

I Of this amount, $348,266 pertains to sale of surplus materials and scrap.
2 This includes all material and supplies of The Panama Canal, by far the greater part of which is in the
general storehouses.
3 Adjusted figure.

Obsolete and Unserviceable Property and Equipment
During the year, disposition was made by sale, or by destruction
where the items had no money value, of obsolete or unserviceable
property and equipment which had an original value of $1,284,127.
Replacements were made as necessary.

Bulk Petroleum Products

All deliveries of fuel oil, Diesel oil, gasoline, and kerosene to and
from storage tanks, for private companies and for The Panama Canal,
are made through pipe lines and pumping plants of The Panama Canal.
The following table summarizes the operation of the oil handling
plants for the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

Fuel and Diesel oil: (Barrels) (Barrels) (Barrels)
Received by The Panama Canal-.------------------ ---- 189, 701 306,382 331,016
Used by The Panama Canal--------------------------- 227,490 242,020 317,846
Sold by The Panama Canal----------------------------- 111,579 18,885 19,506
Miscellaneous transfers on tank farms -------------------- 12,486 3, 907 16,693
Pumped for outside interests ------------------------- 11,697,918 9,995,865 30, 081, 448
Total barrels handled.----------------..................-------------- 12,239, 174 10, 567,059 30, 766, 509
Handled at Mount Hope (Atlantic side) --------------------- 7,937,923 8,052,849 19, 286,943
Handled at Balboa and Gamboa (Pacific side) ---------------- 4,301, 251 2,514,210 11,479,566
Total barrels handled -------------- ---------------- 12,239, 174 10, '.'7, 059 30, 766, 509
Number of ships discharging or receiving fuel and Diesel oil:
Panama Canal craft..-------------------------------------- 158 196 250
All others-- ----------------------------------------- 2,037 2,089 3,655
Total.---------------------------------------------- 2,195 2,285 3,905
Gasoline and kerosene received:
By The Panama Canal: (Gallons) (Gallons) (Gallons)
Bulk gasoline ------- ---------------------------- 9,910,216 11,676,512 11,665,836
Bulk kerosene --.---------.-----------. ------------ 2,129,832 2,962,649 2,950,773
By outsiders:
Bulk gasoline-- .---------------------------------- 28,662,372 25,900.761 29,399,902
Bulk kerosene ..---------------------------------- 3,534,388 2, !25. 436 6,212-'856
Financial results of operations*
Total revenues ......... $3, 033, 810 $2, 140, 793 $2, 101, 440
Total expenditures (including cost of sales i........... ... 2, 853,194 2, i.u'. 244 2,042,160
Net revenues--------.. ....-------------.------------I l-, 1. 77, 59 5. 2N4)





68 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Building Construction and Maintenance

The principal projects of building construction for The Panama
Canal completed by the building division in the fiscal year 1948 are
shown in the following paragraphs. Unless other\\-ise specified, the
projects listed are new buildings.
A t rn-Biilbea.-One type-113 family quarters; alterations to Balboa
clubhouse; pump room extension for oil handling plant; radio and
tower building for dredging division.
Curundu.-New incinerator for commissary.
Diablo lHeights.-Additional storage space for commissary.
Pedro Mig /l.-Toilet and locker facilities at Pedro Miguel Locks.
Gamboa.-Addition to elementary school; radio tower for dredging
division.
Margarita.-Seventeen type-112 and two type-102 family quarters;
addition to commissary.
Mount lHope.-Oil and parts storehouse for commissary.
Cris-foi,hl, -Alterations and additions to Cristobal clubhouse; radio
tower for dredging division.
Colon.-Alterations to Colon Hospital.
Camp Coiner.-Seven masonry-type and five frame-type family
quarters.
In addition to the principal projects listed above, which were com-
pleted during the year for The Panama Canal, work was performed
for the Panama Railroad Company, the Army and Navy, and for
employees.
The volume of operations as measured in financial terms totaled
$4,217,267, as compared with $4,560,073 in the fiscal year 1947. New
construction and maintenance work docrena-ed for both The Panama
Canal and the Panama Railroad Company, but increases were re-
corded in work performed for the Army, Navy, other agencies and
employees.
The total volume of work for the past 3 years is summarized as
follows:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

For Canal divisions. .-------------------------------------- $3, 125, 632 $3, 659, 112 $3, 331, 543
For Panama Railroad Company ---------------------------_ 266, 723 417, 543 263, 854
For other departments of the Government, employees and
others ------------------------------------------------------ 824,912 483,418 672,686
Total .------------------------------------------------- 4, 217, 267 4, 560, 073 4, 268, 083





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Quarters
For "gold" employees.-Rep(flaceiint, of quarters was continued, a
total of 23 apartments having been completed during the year. At
the close of the fiscal year 25 apartimiints were under co' tiit ruction.
The principal change in the operation of quarters for these em-
ployees was the estahlislhmentl of furniture rental effoe live January 1,
1948. The employee who did not desire to rent, the furniture was
given the option of purchasing articles of furnit ire outright, or of
returning any or all items to the district quartermaster. Thie ruIle
to be applied for the rental and sale of individual itemsii of furniture
were established after an extensive study which entailed Iaking an
inventory of furniture in all quarters.
On June 30, 1947, there were 28 applications for family quarters
from regular employees in all districts, and on June 30, 1948, 41 appli-
cations were on file, an increase of 13 from the previous year. Under
existing regulations employees are required to have an asignrment to
family quarters before permission is granted for their families to come
to the Canal Zone. In addition, there are on file 797 applications for
provisional or temporary assignment from employees of the armed
forces and other agencies on the isthmus who are entitled to occupy
available Canal quarters in accordance with assigainwmnit rules.
For "silver" employees.-The principal change in the operation of
quarters for these employees was an adjustment of rental rates which
became effective September 1, 1947, to offset increased costs of opera-
tion. The new rentals average ed approximately 25 percent higher
than the former rates.
Four barracks buildings at Balboa and one at Cristobal were con-
verted to dormitories. Two barracks buildings ac quiriied from the
Navy and located at Camp Bierd were converted to bachelor quarters.
Construction of experimental housing was continued during the
year, with 40 apartments having been comiiipletel at Camp Coiner.
The demand for quarters for employees paid at "silver" rates still
greatly exceeds the supply. As of June 30, 1948, there were 913 ap-
plications for family quarters and 761 applications for bachelor quar-
ters, a total of 1,674, as compared with 2,080 on file June 30, 1947-
Motor Transportation
The motor transportation divisionn is cliarged with the operation
and maintenance of motor transportation for the departments and
divisions of The Panama Canal and Pa naima Railroad Company.
The centralize ti on of transportation facilities in this division and the
requ irenwnt that it be opera ted on a self-sustaining bai i-; 1Ihave been
primarily for the purpose of supplyiiig needed Irallnsportation at
818633-49-6





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


minimum cost to The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company.
Repair work is also performed for employees and for conitrnictors en-
gaged in work for the Government of the Canal Zone.
The public transportation system of privately owned busses oper-
ating under the supervision and control of the motor transportation
division continued to carry employees and their families in and be-
tween the various towns of the Canal Zone; 122 busses were operat-
ing as of June 30, 1948.
Revenues of the division during the past year, including motor
repair shop activities, totaled $1,829,003, and the expenses, $1,769,374,
leaving a net revenue of $59,629 for the fiscal year 1948.
During the fiscal year, 63 cars and trucks were purchased and 213
cars and trucks were retired. At the close of the fiscal year 750 cars
and trucks, 35 tnrailurs and 7 motorcycles were on hand.

Panama Canal Press
The operations of the Panama Canal Press wnre continued under
the same policies as heretofore. The printing plant carries stocks of
materials, and prints such forms, stationery, etc., as are required on
the isthmus in connection with the operation of The Panama Canal
and the Panama Railroad Company.
The following is a summary of the financial operations of this plant
during the past 3 years:

Fiscal year
1948 1947 1946
Gross sales revenues---- ----------------------------------- $528,192 $481,833 $475,757
Total expenses (including cost of materials used in manufac-
turing and cost of stationery stores not processed) ----------- 510,076 459,393 465,375
Net revenues. -------------------------------- 18,116 22,440 10,382

Revenues Derived From'Rental of Lands in the Canal Zone
Rentals for building sites and oil-tank sites in the Canal Zone
totaled $55,931 for the year, as compared with $54,590 for the fiscal
year 1947. Rentals from agricultural land in the Canal Zone totaled
$6,624, as compared with $7,251 for the preceding year. At the
close of the fiscal year 626 licenses were in effect, covering 1,253%
hectares of agricultural land within the Canal Zone. This is a reduc-
tion of 25 in the number of licenses, as compared with the previous
fiscal year, and a reduction in the area held under licenses of 42Y
hectares. This reduction is largely the result of the policy adopted
as a health measure in May 1935, that no more licenses for agricul-
tural land would be issued and that holdings under licenses previously
granted may not be sold or transferred.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BUSINESS OPERATIONS UNDER THE PANAMA RAIL-
ROAD COMPANY

The Panama Railroad Company was incorporated in 1849 under
the laws of the State of New York for the purpose of constructing and
operating a railroad across the Isthmus of Paunama. When the
concession, rights, and property of the New French Canal Co. were
purchased in 1904, ownership of the stock of the Panama Railroad
Company was transferred to the United States Government. Since
the acquisition of the railroad by the United States, its corporate
status has been preserved and the railroad has continued to function as
a common carrier.
At the beginning of Canal construction work, by Executive order
of the President of the United States, the Pzamnama Railroad Company
was made an adjunct to The Panama Canal.
On June 30, 1948, the company was reincorporated pursuant to
section 304 (b) of the Government Corporation Control Act, by act
of the Congress in the Panama Railroad Company Act, comprising
sections 245 to 256 of title 2, Canal Zone Code. The Secretary of the
Army was designated by the President of the United States as stock-
holder of the new corporation. As in the case of the old New York
corporation the management of the new organization is vested in a
board of directors and the Governor of The Panama Canal is desig-
nated as President. As the operations of the railroad complement
those of the Canal, the designation of the Governor of The Panama
Canal as President, of the Panama Railroad Company has insured
complete coordination of the activities conducted by the t wo
organizations.
As the activities of the Railroad Company are covered in detail in
its annual report, only the major features of operation as they relate
to Canal administration are covered in this section.
In addition to the operations of the trans-Tsthmian railroad, the
buIsinetss enterprises conducted by the Pannmiia Railroad Company
include the following: A steamship line operating between New York
and the Canal Zone; the loaldiing, uinloadinig, storage, and transfer of
cargo for shipping interests at the terminllal ports; the operation of
wholesale warehouses, retail stores, and subsidy iary nmiinifactuiring
plants engaged in the supply of food, clothing, and other essenti al
conunod cities to governmental agencies and to Government, employees
and their families; and the operation of coaling points, hotels, a tele-
phonie system, a dairy, and a laundry.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Trans-Isthmian Railroad

The railroad line operates between Colon, the Atlantic terminus,
and Panama City, the Pacific termiru s. In addition, the railroad
serves all activities of The Panama Canal, the Panama Railroad
Company, and of the armed forces, wloited between the two terminal
cities. Gross revenues from the operations of the railroad proper
(not iiirlulidiig subsidiary business activities) during the fiscal year
1948 amounted to $2,496,067 in comparison with $2,708,167 for the
preceding year. Revenue freight totaled 386,733 tons, as compared
with 380,164 tons during 1947, an increase of 6,569.
Comparative statistics covering the significant features of railroad
operations during the past 3 years are presented in the following
table:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

Average miles operated, Colon to Panama -------------------- 50. 93 50. 93 50. 93
Gross i. 1r iii revenue -- ------------------------------------ $2,496,067 $2,708,167 $3, 177,256
Number of passengers carried:
First class- _--_--------------------------------- 182,043 234,409 336,610
Second class --------------------------------.------------ 319,062 381,840 444,899
Total.--------------------------------------------- 501,105 616, 249 781,509
Revenue per passenger-train-mile -----------------.--------- $3.34 $4.25 $5. 52
Revenue per freight-train-mile ------------------------------- 28.36 27. 15 23.69
Passenger-train mileage -------------------------------------- 148, 268 144, 802 150, 170
Irr-I. lltrr i. mileage................................-------------------------------------- 69, 248 66, 020 139,879
Work-train mileage------------------------------------------- 2,032 4,864 6,695
Total train mileage--.. -------------------------------- 219,548 215,686 296, 744
Switch locomotive miles ------------------------------------- 142,403 152, 106 168,225


Receiving and Forwarding Agency

This division handles the dock and harbor activities of the Panama
Railroad Company at the two terminals of the Canal. The following
statistics summarize the results of operations for the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

Total revenue---. -------------.- ---- --- .-- --------..-- $2, 573, 955 $2, 821, 982 $2, 195, 292
(Tons) (Tons) (Tons)
Total cargo handled and transferred across docks -------------- 1,297, 963 1,492. 931 1,237, 155
Cargo stevedored by Panama Railroad Company ----------- 520, 908 532, 354 404,103
Cargo ships handled -----.-----.---------------------------- 2,881 2, 823 2,363
Agency services furnished vessels. ---------------------------- 58 37 137





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 73

Coaling Plants

The volume of coaliing plant operations at Cristobal and Balboa
for the past 3 years is shown in the following table:

Fiscal year
198X i 1947 1946

Gross revenues. ....---------- ---------------- $4-(i, 8.- $$065, 230 $668, 375
(Tons) (Ton (T7ons)
Coal sold ----------- --------19 7 29. 8 :- 528
Coal purchased ----------------------- ------------------ 10,02 30,775 31, 122


Telephone System

Gross revenues received from the operation of telephone, electric
clocks, and electric printing telegraph machines totaled $371,873, ;s
compared with receipts of $370,579 for the Ircieding year.
During the year, 1,580 telephones were installed or reconnected and
1,248 were discontinued or removed, resulting in a net increase of 332
telephones for the year. At the end of the fiscal year 1948 there were
in service 5,926 telephones, as well as 56 electric clocks and 37 auto-
matic printing telegraph typewriters. Telephone calls handled
through the automatic exclihanges averagedl1 98,495 calls per day in
1948 and 103,249 per day in 1947 during the sample (lays tested.
This represents an average of 16.6 calls per telephone per (lay in 1948,
as compared with 18.4 in 1947.

Commissary Division

The primary function of the commissary division of the Panama
Railroad Company is to supply at reasonable prices food, clothing,
and household supplies to meet the needs of United States Government
personnel and the various United States Government departments
on the isthmus. In carrying out this function the division operates
wholesale wareho'iaes, cold storage plants, a laundry, and a dairy,
as well as retail stores in each of the Canal Zone towns. Sales are
restrictedl to agencies and personnel of the United States Govern-
ment, except that ice, food, and other essentials may be piircheI.i-'d by
commercial steamships pan-sing through the Canal or ca lliLng at its
terinii1al ports.
Sales
Net ,;ale-; for the fiscal yei!r' 1948 totaled >:i:',,140,8-46, compared with
$32,278,463 for the previous fiscal year. The value of nirlhandli e
on hand June 30, 1948, w as 87,070,127, (ollnpiirl with $5,941,2:!9






74 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


at the close of the fiscal year 1947. The ratio of sales to an average
monthly inventory of $6,676,897 indicates a theoretical stock turn-
over of once in 10.4 v'weeks. The distribution of sales for the past 3
fiscal years is shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1948 1947 1946

U. S. Government (Army and Navy)----------------------- $1, 685,068 $1, 775, 569 $2, 846,043
The Panama Canal----------------------------------------- 3,490,455 3,479, 546 3,929,709
Panama Railroad Company ..--------------------------------. 553,073 359, 517 435,360
Individuals and companies---------------------------------- 1, 199, 869 1, 137, 669 1, 164, 454
Commercial ships -------- --------------- 1,244,759 1,221, 529 5,766, 264
Employees------------------------------------------------- 25,820,816 25,251,773 24,263,250
Gross sales ------------------------------------------- 33,994,040 33,225,603 38,405,080
Less discounts, credits, etc ------------------------------- 853, 194 947, 140 1,278,377
Net sales. ------------------ -- ------ ----------------- 33, 140,846 32, 278, 463 37, 126, 703


Purchases

Purchases during the year aggregated $28,600,383, an increase of
$292,254 from the previous year. The following tabulation shows the
value of the various classes of merchandise purchased for the past
3 years:


Groceries .------------------------------------
Candies and tobacco_--.-------- -------------------
Housewares -. -----------------------
Dry goods ------------------------------------------------
Shoes -------------------------------------
Cold storage ---------------- -
Raw material. -.------- ------------------ --
Cattle -- -----------------------------------------------------
Milk and cream ---- -----------------------------------
Dairy products. ---- -------------------------
Dairy farm herd ------------------------ ------------
Total -----------------------------------


Fiscal year


$8, 241, 152
1, 225, 249
2,139,608
5, 412, 270
1, 088, 431
4,655,911
1,921,722
562,591
180,599
3,011,555
161,295
28, 600, 383


$8,428,747
1, 053, 100
1,799,954
5, 326, 586
1,483.260
5,116,441
1, 563,389
472,853
294,431
2,749, 131
20,237
28,308,129


1946

$8, 026, 090
1,078,020
1, 603,321
4, 872, 129
1, 764, 736
7,399,124
1, 917, 218
1,062,968
384,539
3,231,273

31,339,418


Hotels


The Hotels Tivoli and Washington were operated by the Panama
Railroad Company without change of policy during the year. These
hotels are an essential adjunct to the Canal, providing necessary
accommodations for employees, visiting Government officials, and
others.
The gross revenue from hotels was $891,689, as compared with
$947,203 in 1947, and the number of guest days was 95,077, compared
with 98,652 in 1947,





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Panama Line

The gross operating revenue of the Panama line for the fiscal year
1948 was $4,827,643, and the gross operating expenses totaled
$4,503,332, resulting in a net profit from operations of $324,311.
Freight carried during the year totaled 248,681 tons, and passengers
carried numbered 13,218. Freight for account of The Painniiia Canal
and other departments of the United States Governiiinit in the Canal
Zone was curried at tariff rates but passengersll were carried at reduc-
tions from tariff rates ranging from 25 to 71 percent.
The steamer Ancon followed a regular schedule during the year, but
the Cristobal and the Paunmia which had been only partially reconudi-
tioned in 1947 following their service as troop transports in World
War'II, were out of service during a part of 1948 to undergo final
items of refitting and reconveri1sion.








Section III


ADMINISTRATION




DEPARTMENTS


The organization of The Panama Canal on the isthmus embraces
five principal depart iimnt s, namely, operation and maintenance, sup-
ply, accounting, executiive and health. In addition, an office of The
Panama Canal is maintained in Washiington, D. C. The Panama
Railroad Company, a Government-owned corporation conducting
business enterprises on the isthmus, is a distinct unit, but it is closely
affiliated with and opera-ted as an adjunct to The Panama Canal.

Operation and Maintenance

The department of operation and maintenance includes the manage-
ment functions and those directly involved in the operation and main-
tenance of the Canal as a waterway, including the dredged channel,
locks, dams, aids to navigation, accessory activities such as shops and
drydocks, vessel inspection, electrical and water supply, sewer sys-
tems, riTInds and streets, hydrographic observations, surveys and
estimates, and miscellaneous construction other than the erection of
buildings. Construction of the Third Locks, now in a suspended
status, and investigation of means of increasing the capacity and
security of the Panama Canal, as provided by Public Law No. 280,
approved December 28, 1945, also are included in this department.

Supply
The supply depart ment is cha rged with the acquisition, storage,
and distribution of materials and supplies for The Panama Canal and
Railroad; the maintenance and construction of buildings; the assign-
ment of living quarters; care of grounds; the operate ion of storehouses,
oil handling plants, an experiment garden, and a printing plant; and
the supplying of motor transportation facilities for the various
departments and divisions of the Ciiiil and Railroad organizations.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PAN .\\ CANAL


Accounting

The accounting department is responsible for the correct rcrling
of finainiald transactions of the Canal and Railroad; the administrative
auditing of vouciiiIrs covering tihe receipt and disbursement of funds
prelimir na 'ry to the final audit by the General Account ing Office; cost
keeping of Canal and Railroad; the preparation of estimates for ap-
propriations; and the examination of claims.

Executive

The executive department embraces the civil government functions
including the administration of police and fire protection, postal serv-
icW, customs, shipping commissioner duties, estates, schools and, in
addition, the general correspondence and records of The Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad Company, personnel administration,
wage adjustments, giw'iiral information, relations with Painii., and
the opera tion of clubhouses, restaurants, and moving picture theaters.

Health

The health department has jurisdiction over all matters pertaining
to sanitation and public health within the Ganal Zone and the cities
of Panama and Colon, the opera tion of hospitals and dispensaries,
and the enforemniit of quarantine regulations.

Panama Railroad Company

The operations of the Panzamna Railroad Comjipany on the isthmus
are carried on as an adjunct to The Panama Canal. As the Governor
of The Panama Canal is also president of the Panama Railroad Com-
pany, the heads of all departments, both of the Canal and Railroad
organizations, report to him.

CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL

Mr. Wall Io R. Smith was appointed superintendent of storehouses
on July 27, 1947, vice Mr. Milton A. Smith, retired.
Col. Karl R. Lundebrrg, United States Army, was appointed as-
sistant chief health officer on August 27, 1947, vice Col. Cior r M.
Powell, United States Army, relieved from duty with The Panama
Canal.
CoInm;IIInder James 11. A.hli1Iy, Jr., United States Navy, \\was ap-
pointed assistant to tlie i i rine superintendent on October 3, 1047,
vice Conll, iiiiider Harold IH. Horne, United States Navy, relieved
from duty with The Panama Canal.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Mr. Frank H. Lerchen was appointed municipal engineer on Oc-
tober 26, 1947, vice Mr. George W. Green, deceased.
Lieut. Col. William P. Mullins, United States Air Force, was
appointed chief, aeronautics section, on February 16, 1948, vice Col.
Murray C. Woodbury, United States Air Force, relieved from duty
with The Panama Canal.
Mr. Harry A. Metzler was appointed constructing quartermaster
on April 6, 1948, vice Mr. Edward Spearman, retired.
Brig. Gen. Francis K. Newcomer, United States Army, was ap-
pointed Governor, The Panama Canal, on May 20, 1948, vice Maj.
Gen. Joseph C. Mehaffey, United States Army, relieved from duty
with The Panama Canal.
Mr. Bernhard I. Everson was appointed superintendent, motor
transportation division, on June 6, 1948, vice Mr. Weimer B. Heite,
retired.
Capt. Joseph L. Bird, United States Navy, was appointed superin-
tendent, mechanical division, on June 24, 1948, vice Capt. Walter F.
Christmas, United States Navy, relieved from duty with The Panama
Canal.
Mr. Frank M. Sawyer was appointed collector, The Panama Canal,
on May 1, 1948, vice Mr. Alfred H. Mohr, retired.


CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION

Subsistence Section
Effective July 31, 1947, the operation of laborers' messes by the
subsistence section was discontinued and the subsistence section
abolished. This section was set up May 1, 1941, to provide meals for
contract laborers brought to the Isthmus in connection with the large
construction program in progress at that time.


FORCE EMPLOYED AND RATES OF PAY

The force employed by The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad
Company is gradually receding from the peak reached during the
height of the war period. A total of 24,694 persons was employed by
these two agencies as of June 28, 1947, while the force report of June 26,
1948, indicated a total of 22,736, a reduction of 1,958 persons.
The highly diversified activities of the Canal-Railroad organization
include scores of different functions, and almost every conceivable
employment cntegory will be found in the organization. For many
years only citizens of the United States were eligible for employment
in executive, supervisory, professional, subprofessional, and clerical






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 79

positions and in the skilled t grades. For several years p1nst, however,
properly qualified citizens of the Republic of Paianaia have been
eligible for appointment to these positions in which special edli t iional,
training or other higher qualifications are a requisite. The rates of
pay for positions in these higher categories are based on equIivaliet or
closely similar rates prevailing in the United States. In a second
group are included such positions as those occupied by semiskilled
workers, helpers, laborers, mnessen geirs and other simiiilar p< t itions not
requiring the services of highly skilled workers or those requiring
special training or other qualifications. The rates of pay for IIem-
ployees within this group are based generally upon local prevailing
rates. The positions in this group are filled mostly by natives of the
areas adjacent to the Canal although a smattering of Intionzils of
many other countries will be found in these positions.
For purposes of convenience, the rates of pay of those persons within
the first group referred to in the preceding paragraph are referred to as
"gold" rates, while the rates of pay for the second group are designated
as "silver" rates. These terms, adopted many years ago to indicate
the different kinds of coin with which the employees of the two groups
were paid, have been continued in use notwithstanding the fact that
the terms have long since lost their original significance. In subsequent t
reports, it is intended that the two groups will be designated by terms
in keeping with the bases upon which their rates of pay are determined.
Personnel administration in The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Company on the Isthmus is exercised by the division of
personnel super-vision and management.


EMPLOYEES PAID AT "GOLD" RATES

The distribution of personnel paid at "gold" rates on June 26, 1948,
and on June 28, 1947, is shown in the following tabuila t ion:

As of-
Increase Decrease
June 26, 1948 June 28, 1947

THE PANAMA CANAL-TRANSIT UNITS
M1anasc.nn `i It
-1lli 4-
Governor --- .------------------------- 3 4 ------- 1
lirin-r -r r.lintnance...--------------.. 13 15 ---------- 2
(->Ir;I li I .. -..- .---------------- 6 7 -----1
Canal operation:
Assistant engineer of maintenance-.........---- 5 5
Locks division -.... ...---------- ----- 341 355 14
Marine division--------------------------- -- -- 237 2:8 1
Dr-,lvin li .i-i t-.. -- 174 208 .- --- 3
Ofirke nl.-l. rl L' .d i.ion... 83 11
M er orolu y .a J i lri r i .. . . .. 14 12






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


THE PANAMA CANAL-TRANSIT UNITS-continued
Uiilii'. and services:
Accounting department ------------------------
Paymaster _-----------------------------
Collector ---_ --___ _._------ -----------------
General counsel --------------------------------
General correspondence and records------------
Personnel supervision and management --------
Payroll bureau __----------------------------
Public buildings and grounds ------------------
Thatcher ferry ----------------------
Aeronautics section ----------------------------
Civil government:
Executive secretary ------ ---------------
Police section (including civil intelligence) ----
1I I- section
1 sect ion ------------------------------------
Civil affairs division ___---__----- --------
Magistrates' courts -----------------------------
License bureau --------------------------------
Schools division --------------------------------
Libraries..------------------------------------
Physical education and recreation ------------
Sanitation:
Chief health office -----------------------------
Hospitals -------------_---------------------
Dental clinics ----------------------------------
Venereal disease control -----------------------
Dispensaries---- ----------------------------
Quarantine and immigration -----------------
Sanitation-------------------------------
Canal studies, 1947:
lu..i- i Il engineering division --___--_- -____

Subtotal. transit -----------------------------
Net decrease. -------------------------- -

THE PANAMA CANAL-BUSINESS DIVISIONS, POSTS.
AND CLUBHOUSES
TWater system ------------------------------------
Electric power system -----. _------ ---------
Municipal work -----------------------------------
Electrical work
Mechanical division -------------------------------
B undiI:, 1 \i I.. -------------------------------
..r..r l i --------- ---------
Storehouses --------------------------------------
Oil handling plants -------------------------------
Gravel plant--------------------------------------
Sosa Hill quarry. ----------------------------------
Panama Canal Press-------------------------------
Gasoline stations---------------------------------
Canal Zone posts----- ------------_------------ -
C l -Ih..u-i ------------------- ------------------

Subtotal, business divisions, posts, and club-
houses ------------------------------ -----
Net decrease--------------------------------------

Total, Panal Canal ---------------------------
Net decrease -------- -------------------------

THE PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY
General manager's office ---------------------------
Railroad proper:
Transportation.---------------------. ----------
Roadmaster..----------------------------------
Signal section---------------------------------
Receiving and forwarding agency.. ---------------
Commissary division-------- ---------------
Hotel Tivoli -------- ----------------------------
Hotel Washington-------- -------------------
Telephone section-------------------------- -------

Total, Panama Railroad Company-----------
Net decrease -.------------------------------------

Total force.. ----------------------------------
Net decrease, total force ----------------------------


As of-


June 26, 1948 June 28, 1947


265
17
18
3
45
76
45
59
31
7

4
210
78
66
7
5
187
9
22

15
409
10
21
44
17
40

59

2, 645
- - - - - -


1,747


4,392


7

89
17
4
106
347
14
11
33

628


259
18
20
4
43
80
40
62
30
7

5
236
78
65
4
4
179
9
23

14
433
12
24
51
16
43

209

2, 906


1,859


4,765


5,020 5,418 56
6U P . .. .. -- -


Increase


6


----------
2

5

1




1

1
8


31


25











25


56


Decrease


24
2
3
7

3

150

292
261



3

23
28

18
20
8


1


30
6


25

454
398






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PAN \M.\. CANAL 81

As will be noted from the foregoing table there a\\s an over-all
decrease of 398, or 7.3 percent, from the force employed as of June
28, 1947. The largest niumnerical decline occur11red in the special 4ngi-
neering division which dropped from 209 last year to 59 on June 26,
1948; this Inrgi dere;i ae resulted from the completion of investigation
and studies of the means of incre;i-ing the c;ilp; Canal, including re(- iidy of the construction of the additional facilities
in accordance with Public Law No. 280, Seventy-ninth Congress. A
reorgamuizantiion of the Canal Zone Postal Service, brought about by a
reduction of mail handled for military units, resulted in a decrease of
30 employees from the previous year. Substantial decreases also were
recorded in 11 other units of the force outlined above, resulting from
a general decrease in their activities.

Recruiting and Turn-Over in Force
The following table shows additions to and -epairations from the
force of The Panama Canal and the P1i iiiua Railroad Company paid
at "gold" rates during the fiscal year 1948:

aaa Panama Total
Canal Railrotad

Additions ... ..-.---...----..-- - - ..-.. 777 63 840
Separations:
i.n ...-...--.-.-i- ----- --- 692 60 752
T "=* *lr, r ina [ lrl ;--.--- - ----r--.-.--. -. .--.--1 .. ----- 1
Reduction of force ..--... ... _. .-- _-- .-.----- --_-_-- _. 50 4 54
Termination of temporary employment or reassignment- 201 7 208
Removal for cause--------------------------------------- 7 1 8
Retirement:
Age ---------------------.---. .------.. --------. 42 4 4fi
Disability ----. -- ---- -----..-. ------- ---- 43 6 49
0 r .ri . . .-----. --- --- -- ---- 21 1 22
Di bl iIr'. riri qu iinhil 1--i retirement-------------------- 4 -------------- 4
Inefficiency _---------. ---.-..-...- _-----_-- ___---- ___- 1 -..-----.-.-- 1
Transfer to other departments _.-----------.. .-----_- 14 -------------- 14
Termination (administration policy of Panama Canal, 5
years' service, age 62) .-------------------.----- ------- 2 .------. --_ -- 2
Death ---- -..--...-_ .--------------_ -_ --------- --- 17 3 20
T-.-.il separations.. ----..- --------------------------- 1,095 8n 1, 181
N r- i n .1 .- II t
NOTE.-The above figures do not include 105 employees on a part-tim "-i ii Iii o basis, 3 United Slates
citizens paid at "silver" rates, or 4 employees from local areas Ipaid at +-:..11" I i -
As tle figures of net separations in the table above were taken from
the weekly personnel reports, which usually lag a 'week or 10 days
behind the ct uiiil termination dates, there is a difference of 57 in the
number of net separations and the net decrease in force as shown on
page 80.
B;sidi on an avir;i ge aggre;I te force of 5,300 and 1,181 t eruminat ions
for the year, exclusive of p;irt-time and irr.g ular eniployv'-O. the total
turn-over rate for 1948 of this igrriIup of employees was 22.3 percent,
as coiiimpared with a turn-over rate of 31 percent for tlhe fiscal year
.1947. Wheln 208 septiratlil(n by termination of teniporarv eimploy-
ment or rein--ignmen l"lIt are excluded. the turn-over rate is 1..4 per-
cent for the fin;l1 vear 104-1 as against 24.9 prvi.iint for the fiscal year





82 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

1947. When 54 separations due to reduction in force are also ex-
cluded, the turn-over rate is 17.4 percent, as compared with 20.5
percent for the fiscal year 1947.
cruitt-iifng.-Of the total additions to the force during the fiscal
year 1948, 194, or about 23 percent, were effected through United
States recruitment, and 646, or about 77 percent, were employed
through local recruitment.
On the basis of 840 full-time and part-time employment in this
group of employees, the recruitment in the fiscal year 1948 represents
an accession rate of approximately 16 percent, as compared with an
accession rate of approximately 21 percent for the previous fiscal year.
This decrease in recruitment may be accounted for by the general
decline in force and grentIer' utilization of in-service employees by
transfer or reassignment.
At the close of the year there were requisitions pending in the
Washington office for 105 employment. Of these, 55 positions were
for the schools division, 36 for the health department, and the re-
mainder for other departments and divisions.

Adjustment in Wages and Hours of Work

As a result of changes in United States rates of pay used as bases
for similar positions in the Canal Zone, two upward revisions were
made for floating equipment employees, two for operating and non-
operating railroad personnel-, one each for craft and craft-supervisory
groups, and one for Panama Canal Press employees. No changes in
the hours of work were made during the fiscal year 1948.

EMPLOYEES PAID AT "SILVER" RATES

The following table shows a comparison between the number of
employees paid at "silver" rates by The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Company on June 26, 1948, and June 28, 1947:

As of-
Increase Decrease
June 26, 1948 June 28, 1947
THE PANAMA CANAL-TRANSIT UNITS
Canal operation
Locks division...... ------------------------------------ 1,036 1,044 ----------- 8
Marine division----------------...------------------- 904 942 _-------- 38
Dr-leini dki.in.. -------------.-. -------------------- 934 1,101 ----------- 167
cOl -e nriinier rirjC division--- ---------------------- 76 54 22 ..----------....
Mit.'t.-inloy d111 hydrography------. --.-----------. 29 29 ------------ -- ------
Utilities and services
Accounting department ...---------------------------- 6 6 ------------ ---------
Paymaster--.--------- ---- ---------- ------------- 3 3 ------------ ------------
General c.irr-i nlri,]i u:,- and records------. ---. .--- 40 40 ..---------- ------------
Personnel supervision and management------------. 28 25 3 ------------
Pay-roll bureau --..-.-..-----.-- -----. ----- 18 13 5 ------------
Pilli.- buil'iinis and grounds. --------------------- 450 402 48 ------------
'I'll 1i. hor FIrr. -------------------------------------- 70 74 ------------ 4
Aeronautics section-----------------------.--------- 26 27 ------------







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANA.1MA CANAL


THE PANAMA CANAL-TRANSIT UNITS--continued

Civil government

Police section (nichldionr civil intelligence) ----.----
Civil :if.llir division --.----..... _.-.-_-. .-..
M lciirs iti-rt' courts.... .- - -- - ------
Li j*.. e- ltu' au --------------------------- ---- --..
Schools division............-------------
Libraries -----------. -----............
Plih -icjl education and recreation -----------------

Sanitation
Chief health office. ------------------_-------------
Hospitals --------------------------_------._------
D ental clinics.------- -- ----- ---- ---- ----_ --- ---
Venereal-disease control -------------------- -----
D)ispensaries --------------------------
Cemeteries- ------------------_-- - - --_ .. ------ -
Quarantine and immigration -----------------
Sanitation -----.....-----------.. --. ---

Canal studies 1947

Special engineering division -_--..------------- -

Subtotal-Transit_----...---....-....-
Net decrease--------------_-_--

THE PANAMA CANAL-BUSINESS DIVISIONS, POSTS,
AND CLUBIIOUSES

Water system-..-...._---.---_--____.----------
Electric power system.-----..--.... ..-.-----
Municipal work---.-----------------..---.--_---
Electrical work ___- ------ --- ------------- .- --
Mechanical division .------.-.---------....-- ..- -
Building division --.....-.- ---- --------..--
Motor transportation -- .---..----- --------------
Quarters-Janitors ---------------------------------
Storehouses_ ---.-..--------------------
Oil-handling plants_----------.-----------.----.---
Gravel plant--------------------------------------
Sosa Hill quarry ----...-..-----------------------
Panama Canal press-------------------------------
Gasoline stations----------------------------------
Canal Zone posts.----------------------------------
Clubhouses -------------------.-------------------

Subtotal-Business divisions, posts, and
clubhouses.--....-.........---------.--.-
Net decrease -.-.-.-.......---.......-..-....-..-..-

Total, Panama Canal--...-.---------.... .-----
Net decrease---------------------------------------

THE PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY


As of-


June 26, 1948 June 28, 1947


43

2
1
165
35
35


1
921
17
21
36
36f
29
533



66


5,529


81
103
832
231
1,081
1,182
457
166
377
123
10
78
124
26
60
1,088


6,019


11,548
--------------


51
3
2
1
204
3
34


1
956
19
17
52
30
34
547



97

5,811


85
102
1,181
252
1,040
1,215
504
177
427
114
10
79
123
27
61
1,175


6, 572


12,383
--------------


Increase


1



...........-

4

6






89





1


------------
41
------------
------------


9


1
-----------
------------


General manager's office--------- ..------------------ 3 3 --
Railroad proper:
Transportation.--------------------------------- 306 330 --
Roadmaster-.-------..-----.------------------ 177 181 -.
Signal section---------------------------------- 14 14
Receiving and foir\.irding agency ................. 2,221 2,732
Commissary di I\i-un................... ....... 3, u l4 3,272 ..
Hotel Tivoli-------------------------- ------------- 20.5 211
H otel \\'a hiin tori ... ........................... ; 1.7 n .S
Telephone section-------------..----------------- 21 21

Total, I'.iian'a I&iulr.iii.d Company..-..---..--- IIs ,' I
N et decrease . . . ................ . .. .. .......

T otal force ............ . ........... 17. 71 -
Net decrease, total forr.................. .. ........... .


Decrease


8
3


39




35
2

16

5
14



31

371
282




4
------------
349
21

33
47
11
50


1
------------
1
87


52 605
553

141 976
835




24
. ---. 4

511
178


I

I -i


s11 11,702
1,560


_ _





84 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

It will be noted from the foregoing table that there was a net
decrease of 1,560 (8.1 percent) in the force of "silver" rate employees.
Continuing the downward t rend of the past 3 years substantial reduc-
tion occurred in the majority of the units listed; the more important of
these decreases were in the dredging division, the municipal work unit,
the receiving and forwarding ag'ieny, the commissary division, and the
clubhouses unit.
In contrast to the general decrease prevailing throughout the list,
relatively significant increases were recorded in the office engineering
division and the public building and grounds unit. The increase of
22 in the office engineering division was the result of the employment
of additional men for cutting and clearing in connection with mapping
work for the special engineering division. In connection with the
additional 48 employees for the building and grounds unit, it might
be stated that the force employed as of June 28, 1947, was artificially
low because of laek of funds, whereas that indicated for June 26, 1948,
is more representative of the normal strength of this group.

Local or "Silver" Wage Rates

Wage rates applicable to positions other than those in the group
including executive, supervisory, professional, subprofessional, higher
grade clerical and skilled craftsmen, as the designation implies, are
based generally upon wages prevailing in the local area.
In the fiscal year 1948, all positions in this group were analyzed and
classified and new wage scales established. On February 29, 1948, a
minimum rate of 22 cents per hour and a maximum of $1.12 per hour
were placed in effect and, upon appropriation by Congress of addi-
tional funds, the base pay was raised generally by 4 cents per hour
effective June 27, 1948, resulting in a minimum hourly rate of 26 cents
and a maximum hourly rate of $1.16. The average hourly rate was
45 cents on June 30, 1948.

Sick and Rest Leave

Under the present t r-egulations employees paid at "silv-eri" rates earn
leave at the rate of 1 hour for each 10 hours of service in the basic
work week, not to exceed 16 hours in each of the 12 pay periods through-
out the fiscal year. The maxiiuuiini allowable accumulation is 480
hours. Two hundred and forty hours of this amount are the sick-
leave reserve and all hours in excess of 240 imay be granted as rest
leave or comnmuted to cash payment upon termination. The number
of hours leave paid during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1948, was
2,543,866.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 85

Cash Relief for Disabled Employees Paid at "Silver" Rates

New applications for relief under the act of Congress of July 8,
1937, averaged 32 per month during the fiscal year 1948, as compared
with 39 per month in the fiscal year 1947. The regulations establislvd
during the latter part of the fiscal year 1938 for adlministeiig this
relief were continued without material change.
The table below shows the disposition of all applications for relief
benefits from employees of both The Panama Canal and the Panama
Railroad Company during the fiscal year 1948:

Applications Panama Panama Total
Applications Canal Railroad

On hand July 1, 1947----------------------------------------- 49 3 52
Received during 1948...---------------------------------------- 226 106 332
Total----------------------------------------------- 275 109 384
Disposition:
Approved for payment ---------. ------.. .. -... ...... 226 91 317
Rejected or found ineligible ----- ..------------- 28 11 39
Pending------------------------------------------------ 21 7 28
Total----------------------------------- ------------- 275 109 384

NOTE.-Removal from the rolls on account of the death or subsequent reemployment of cash-relief recip-
ients: The Panama Canal, 68; the Panama Railroad Company. 27.

Total and average costs per month during the fiscal year 1948 were
as follows:

Monthly M1?onthly
Number of average average
cases payment payments
per case

Panama Canal rolls--------------..... --------- ------- 1,146 $21.60 $24,748
Panama Railroad rolls--------------------------------------- 369 19.48 7,187
Panama Railroad pensioners---------------------------------- 180 113.61 1,088
Total------ ------------------------------------------ 1,595 20.70 33,023

1 Superannuated employees granted cash relief prior to July 8, 1937.

Expenditures on behalf of The Panama Canal cash-relief program
are paid from annual appropriations for that purpose, while those of
the Panama Railroad Company constitute a continuation of the
former plan of granting cashl relief to the superannuated employees
of that company and are paid by the Panama Railroad Company.
Studies are being made on the anmendniillt of the Cash Relief Act
so as to liberalize its provisions, and it is expected that recommenda-
tion for legislation on this subject will be submitted soon after the
Eighty-first Congress convenes.


818633 -4-49- 7





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Repatriations

In 1934 an appropriation of $150,000 was provided for the repatria-
tion and rehabilitation of former "silver" employees (and their fami-
lies) who have rendered at least 3 years of service with the United
States Government or the Panama Railroad Company on the Isthmus.
During the fiscal year 1948, $8,673 was expended for the repatria-
tion and rehabilitation of 83 former members. To the end of the
fiscal year 1948 a total of $106,147 has been expended from this
appropriation.


CENTRAL LABOR OFFICE

The central labor office program of The Panama Canal provides
for eligibility control over applicants seeking employment with
Government agencies and private contractors operating on Govern-
ment work in the Canal Zone. A general decrease of employment
activities is indicated by the comparative figures presented belo\-,
showing the total numbers of employees paid at local "silver" rates
of pay carried on the rolls of the various organizations as of June
1948 and June 1947, the decrease in total force being 5.7 per-cent:

June-

1948 1947 1

Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company---------------------------- 17, 716 19, 276
U. S. Army------------------------------------------------ ---------- 7,472 7,246
U. S. Navy--- ------------------------------------------------------- 2,788 2,852
Government contractors and miscellaneous--------------------------------- 1,686 2,065
Total.----------------------- -------------------- ------------------ 29,662 31,439

1 Corrected figures.
NOTE.-The figures in this table are based on those that the various cooperating agencies report and on
which they are assessed to support the central labor office.

Because of the insufficient supply of qualified labor on the Isthmus
to handle the heavy construction program carried on during the war
emergency, The Panama Canal was forced to resort to the recruit-
ment of contract laborers from the Republic of Colombia, Jamaica,
Costa Rica, and El Salvador. With the diminishing need for outside
labor after the cessation of hostilities these workers have been re-
patriated to their native countries. From the inception of the
foreign recruiting program in 1940, 22,265 contract workers have
been brought to the Isthmus, of which 22,151 have been returned
to their native countries, leaving as of June 30, 1948, a total of 114
remaining on the Isthmus.




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