• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 Introduction
 Section I: Canal operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Administration
 Section IV: Government
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00031
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1947
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00031
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Front Matter
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Section I: Canal operation and trade via the Panama Canal
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 15
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        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Section III: Administration
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Section IV: Government
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
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        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
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        Page 130
        Page 131
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        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Back Cover
        Page 137
        Page 138
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ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL

FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR


ENDED JUNE 30

1947


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1948


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington 25, D. C,
Price 30 cents














TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction ---------------------------------------------------- 1
Operation and maintenance of the Canal ------------------------- 2
Operation of auxiliary enterprises-business operations ------------- 2
Government-administration ----------------------------------- 2
Services rendered to shipping by The Panama Canal_----_--_-_. 2
Net revenues---------------------------- ---- -------- ------ 3
Replacements---------------------------------- ------------- 3

SECTION I-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL
Statistics on Canal traffic------------------------_------------------- 5
Ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic --------------------------------- 6
Canal traffic by fiscal years, 1915 to 1947------------------------________ 9
Traffic by months-fiscal years 1947 and 1946---------------------________ 10
Nationality of vessels transiting Canal_ -------------------------- 10
Cargo carried by vessels of leading maritime nations ----_---------- 11
Vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage- --------------------- 11
Classification of vessels--------------------------__---------------________________ 11
Laden and ballast traffic by nationality---------------------- 14
Average tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per cargo-carrying vessel--- 15
Steam, motor and other vessels ---------------------------------- 15
Frequency of transit of vessels through the Panama Canal__----------_ 15
Gross tonnage of vessels_--__-___-------------------------------------_________________ 17
Principal commodities------------------------------------------ 19
Origin and destination of cargo segregated by countries in principal
trade areas-------------------------------------------------- 20
Cargo shipments segregated by trade routes------------------ 26
Total cargo shipments-Atlantic to Pacific ---------------- 26
Total cargo shipments-Pacific to Atlantic -------------------- 27
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes-
Atlantic to Pacific---------------------------------------___ 28
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes-
Pacific to Atlantic- -------------------------------------- 31
Ocean passenger traffic----------------------------------------- 36
Transient passengers ----------------------_____________ ----------------36
Small tolls-paying vessels transiting Canal ---------------__-____ 37
Vessels entitled to free transit ----------------------------------- 37
Canal operation and maintenance- --------------------------------_ 38
Hours of operation ------___---_---------------__ 38
Lockages and lock maintenance ---------------------------------- 38
Operating schedule of locks -----------___------ 38
Lockages-------------------------------- 39
Delays to shipping-----------------___________ __ __ 40
Maintenance ________--___-___________- 40
Atlantic locks overhaul ------------------------------------ 41
Power for Canal operation ------_-__-_______------------- 42
Water supply and general weather conditions --------------------- 42
Water supply ---------------- ---------------------------___ 42
Air temperatures---------------------------------------- 44
Winds and humidity --------------------------------------- 45
Tides---------------------------------------------------- 45
Seismology--------------------------------------------------- 45
Marine activities---------------------_------------------------- 46
Harbor activities ---------------------------------------- 46
Aids to navigation-------------------------------------- 46
Accidents to shipping-------------_----------------------- 47






I'r TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTiiV I -C\'VAr. OVI-kM'In AND TRADE VIA -THEr PANAMA (:..\ L -Con.
(tanal npt-ratlion aiil imaintvniance- -'Continuiel
Marine activifii-- (Cnniinud Page
Inspections.o -. - -...---.------- -..-.------- ..------. 47
itl rii- i ti .. _- -----. . .---_ .--.- --_ ----. ---_ -.-..- .- 47
Salvage and i .--------- ---- ------------------ -- ----...-... 47
Operation of ii .------.-.. --- .... .-----.. -------- ...- 48
Mlairnlrianllie of channel --'liirr drrlgaiiig anci\v it i-....__.__. 48
Ordinary crlLIhnnel lllunilireriance -('anal pri.ini drilRging aelivitices 50
.\niliArv dilre uine- iullh r pri)jecr -..- ._- ............._ 50
Thirdl lIu k, drvileging -- - ---------------- -- -.... ..... 2
Isthmian cannal stii.iie. Public Law No. 2sO-.._--.....-.-.-_-. 52
Slil-- .. ............................................. 52
Siiub-iliry nDrfigingii Division acrt ivities. ..- --- ..--------... 52
F4. 11ii11n11-lt --- -------------------------..- .---- _. 53
Ferry service -------------------------------------------------- 54
Inv iet ieiI inn Paii:inia ( nnal . --------- --.-.-- --------.--.-----. 54
Third locks project ---------------------------------------- ---- 56

SiE:crIoN II-BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Paiinama Canal business operations----------------------------------- 57
Michaiiiral and marine work ----------- ------------------------- 57
Gross revenues-class and source ---------------------------- 5S
Repairs to ships ------------------------------------------- 58
Dry docks and marine railway----------------.--------.------ 59
Plant improvement ----.------------------------ -------..- 59
EI:Icctrical work.------------------ -------------- --------- 59
Purchases in the I United States--------- -------------------------- tin
Storehrliiie- and ship chandlery- ...----------- 60
Oh-iili'vc and unserviceable property and i iiilniirif _.. 61
hTlk petroleum products. ..- -- fil1
I Bi ijliv I ii. construction and maintenance ...,.. 62
Q(iiart 'r- of riiployve'. 62
Motor Ir;ii|portatioin ---------------------- --------- 113
IP rna ('anal press------- 4
Siih ti-t(r'iico _-_ - ___--- --.... _----___-_ -_.-__ _.-- 6-4
Revenues derived from the rental of lands in the Canal zone ------- 64
Hiii-in-es operations under the Panama Railroad Co ------------------- 65
Tran --Isthmian railroad ---------------------------------------- 65
7eprciving and Forwardinpg Agency------------------------------- 66
C'oaling plants. -------------------------.- ------ ---- ----- 66
T'Ivephine ytni -------------------------------------------- i7
(mmiarv divi-ion -------------------------------------- 67
Sale------ -- --------------------------------------------- 67
Purchases ----.------------------------------------------- 6S
Hotels----------------------------------------------------- 68
11indi dairy..-.---------------------------------------------.. 68
Panama .ile .------------------------------------------- ------ 68

SECTION III-ADMINISTRATION
Departments---------------------------------------------------- 70
Operation and maintenance -------------------------------------- 70
Supply-. -----------------------------------------.---------- 70
AccountinR.. ---------------------- -- -_----._ ---.-. ------ 70
Executive --- _----------------_ -------------_--------- -------- 71
Health ------------------------------------------------------- 71
Panarna Railroad Co--------------------------------------------- -- 71
Changes in administrative personnel. ---------------------.---------- 71
Chanirns in administrative organii tion.... ----_,_ .------------- 72
Emploees.......... ------------------------------------------------------- 72
Gold emplo s. ___--------------------------------_ _--------------- ---- 73
Reruniting and turn-over in force-glid employees.. --_--.-------- 75
Adjustmnicnt in wages and hours of work..------------------------- 76







TABLE OF CONTENTS V

SECTION III-ADMINISTRATION-CODltinued
Page
Silver employees---------------------------------------------_-- 77
Silver wages--------------------------------------------___- 78
Sick and rest leave_--------------------------_------__--____ 78
Cash relief for disabled silver employees --------------------___ 78
Repatriations---------------------------------------- 79
Central labor office-------------------------------------------- 79
Safety program--------------------------------------------------- 80
Experiment gardens ------------------------------------------------ 81
Clubhouses------------------------------------------------------- 81
Legislation ---------------------------- ---__--__-----------_- 82
Capital allotments, fiscal year 1948 ---------_ _--------__--__- 83
Visit of congressional parties-------------------- --__----____-- 84

SECTION IV-GOVERNMENT
Area of the Canal Zone_-------------------------------------------- 85
Population _____------------------------------------------------- 85
Public health-------------------------------- ---------------- 86
Vital statistics- ---------------------------------------------- 87
Malaria-___-- _--------------------------------------------- 88
Hospitals- ------------------------------------- 88
Quarantine and immigration ---_------------ ---_ ------ 89
Municipal engineering ---_---------_--_---- _------------____--- 90
Water system- --_- -------------------------- --. ---------- 90
Sewer system --------------------------------------- 90
Roads, streets and sidewalks- ----------------------------------- 91
Other heavy construction activities------------------------------ 91
Cities of Panama and Colon ____--- ____-____-___-__________- 91
Miscellaneous activities-----_------- ___--___----------_ 92
Public order ----------------------- ----------------------- 92
Traffic accidents and control ---------------------__-------------- 93
Magistrates' courts ---------------------------------- -------- 94
Pardons and reprieves---------------------------------------------- 94
Fire protection-------------------------------------------------- 94
Public school system--_------------------------------------- --_ 95
Postal system ------------------------------------------------ 97
Immigration visas ------------------------------------ -- ------_ 98
Relations with the Republic of Panama -----------_____________________________ 98
Customs- -------------------------------------------------------- 98
Shipping commissioner -------------------------------------------- 99
Administration of estates ------------------------------------------ 99
Foreign corporations ---------------------------------- 100
Insurance-------------------------------------------------------- 100
Licenses ---------------------------------------------------------- 100
Selective service registration -___--------_-------__-__--___------ 100
Commercial aviation -----_ ___ --------_--_--_----__-------__--- 101

SECTION V-FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS
Accounting system--------------------------------------------- 102
Operation of Panama Railroad Co -------------------------_------ 103
Panama Canal operations------------------------- ._--_----____ 103
Index to tables-------------------------------------- 103
Financial tables-_--------------------------------_----------_- 104-136















OFFICIALS OF THlE PANAMA CANAL AND PANAMA
lA1L1 OAD) COMPANY
The following is a list of thle Imjor (lliciils o(if The Painimna Canal
andI the IPaiImnL Rairond (Co'0. u1 of JunIe 30, 1947:

Tmi: PANA.IA CANAL
Brig. Gen. J. C. AMlmlificy, ISA, Govcrnur
Brig. Gcii. F. K. Netwconmer, I'SA. Emniiieer of Mitintriuaiinc.
J. G. Clayoumrn, Superiinti lunt, Drvdginp- Division.
('Col. JimiiC.S II. StriLtton, I SA, Sii*rv -ising E'n 1in er, Special EigineilEr-
ing Division.
Capt. P. G. Nichols. S.N, Marino Sup-rinteiliitn, Marine Division.
F. H. WangL, Executive S crcta.iry, EJxceuiiive Dp)cpirtimnt.
Col. RichUtrtson Solve, USA, Assi-taint Engineer of Maint einnc.
Capt. W. F. CI'ristimis, USN, Superiitenlinit, .Mecluhanical Division.
L. W. Levwis, Chief Qiiu rt crnist er, S %it )Jly DepnIrtime'it.
Arnold Brkuclnr, Cotmptrollelr, Aclrouiiting Depar itment.
Col. Samuel D. Avery, USA, Chief Healti O( )liccr, Henrlthl Department.
B. F. Burdick, Chiief of Waishington Office anidl General Purchasing
Office r.
PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY
Brig. Gen. J. C. Mlihaffey, USA, President
Brig. Gen. F. K. Newcomer, USA, Serond Vice- President.
A. L. Prather, General liiniger.
(NI-V YOHK OFFICE)
T. H. Rosshottfrn, Vice President.
W. R. Pfizer, Thiird Vice Presidc1nt and Secirtnry.
W. L. Hall, Trasurer.













REPORTS OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND DIVISIONS

APPENDIXES NOT PRINTED
The material in the annual report of the Governor of The Panama Canal, pub-
lished in this volume, is to a large extent a summary of the data presented in the
annual reports from the heads of departments and divisions in the Canal organiza-
tion; the latter, regarded as appendixes to the report of the Governor, are not
printed. The annual reports of the Panama Railroad Co. and the Health Depart-
ment are published separately; the latter is compiled for calendar years only.
The reports of the heads of departments and divisions, as listed below, are on file
at the Washington Office of The Panama Canal and at the office of the Governor
at Balboa Heights, C. Z.:
Engineer of maintenance, report of.
Dredging division, report of superintendent.
Plans section, report of chief.
Safety section, report of safety engineer.
Special engineering division, report of supervising engineer.
Assistant engineer of maintenance, report of.
Electrical division, report of electrical engineer.
Locks division, report of superintendent.
Meteorology and hydrography, section of, report of acting chief hydrog-
rapher.
Municipal engineering division, report of acting municipal engineer.
Office engineering division, report of acting office engineer.
Accounting department, report of comptroller.
Marine division, report of marine superintendent.
Mechanical division, report of superintendent.
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Executive department:
Civil affairs, division of, report of chief.
Clubhouses, Panama Canal, report of acting director.
General counsel, report of.
License bureau, report of chief.
Personnel supervision and management, division of, report of director
of personnel.
Police and fire division, report of chief.
Schools, division of, report of superintendent.
Surveying officer, report of.
Aeronautics section, report of chief.
Collector, report of.
Magistrates' courts:
Magistrate:
Cristobal, report of.
Balboa, report of.
Pardon board, report of chairman.
Paymaster, acting, report of.
Public defender, report of.
Washington Office, report of chief of office and general puircha-sing officer.













































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ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BALBOA HEIGHTS, C. Z.,
November 17, 1947.
THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY,
Washington, D. C.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the report of the Governor of The
Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1947.
Respectfully,
J. C. MEHAFFEY, Governor.
INTRODUCTION
Administration of the affairs of The Panama Canal enterprises
involves three main elements: (a) Operation and maintenance of the
Canal itself; (b) operation of the auxiliary enterprises necessary to
provide adequately for the needs of shipping and of the Canal oper-
ating forces; and (c) government of the Canal Zone, populated by
American civilians, native or tropical workers and their families, and
United States Army and Navy defense forces.
In addition to these normal elements, during the recent war period
the Canal organization performed very important functions as a
supply and service agency for the greatly expanded activities of the
Army and Navy, particularly in their extensive construction programs.
While the Canal organization and equipment were not designed for
this duty and were by no means fully adequate, the services rendered
were regarded as very creditable. These services contributed materi-
ally to the efficiency and economy of the Army and Navy operations.
The immediate supervision of the administration of these various
activities rests with the heads of the nine major departments and
divisions. Responsibility for administrative control of the entire
organization is centered in the Governor of The Panama Canal, who
is also the president of the Panama Railroad Co., an adjunct of the
Canal enterprise organized as a Government-owned corporation.
By Executive order of September 5, 1939, the provisions of section
13 of the Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912, were invoked
as an emergency measure, and since that date the Commanding Gen-
eral, Panama Canal Department, United States Army, has exercised





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


final authority over the operation of the Panama Canal and all its
adjuncts, appendants, and appurtenances, including control and gov-
ernment of the Canal Zone; and the Governor of The Panama Canal
has been subject to that authority and the. orders issued under it.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CANAL
The primary function of The Panama Canal is to provide and main-
tain a waterway by means of which vessels may make the transit from
one ocean to the other, and to handle such traffic as presents itself for
transit, with a maximum of safety and a minimum of delay. Essen-
tially this involves the maintenance of the waterway, the operation of
the locks, and the control of traffic through the Canal. Throughout
the year the Canal force maintained its high standard for expeditious
service not only in the actual transiting of ships but in providing
emergency repairs, fuel, supplies, and the various supplementary serv-
ices incidental to shipping. There were no interruptions of ship traffic
during the year.

OPERATION OF AUXILIARY ENTERPRISES-BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Second only to the operation of the Canal is the function of supply-
ing necessary services to shipping and the Canal operating force.
These services are provided under coordinated and centralized control
by the various business units of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. and include oil and coal bunkering plants; storehouses
for food, ship chandlery, and other essential supplies; marine repair
shops; harbor terminal facilities for passengers and for handling and
transshipping cargo; a railroad line across the Isthmus; a steamship
line between New York and the Canal Zone; water and electric power
systems; and living quarters and retail commissary stores for the
operating force.
GOVERN MI ENT--A ADMINISTRATION
The usual functions of government., such as schools, police and fire
protection, quarantine, public health, immigration service, posts, cus-
toms, aids to navigation, steamboat inspection, hydrographic and
meteorological work, water supply, sewers, construction and manite-
nance of streets, and similar activities, which, in the United States are
directed by various officers of the national, State, and municipal gov-
ernments, are irntrusted in the Canal Zone to the Governor, and are
executed under his authority and responsibility. This centralization
of all governmental activities under one head is essential to economical
and efficient administration.

SERVICEs RENDERED TO SHIPPING BY THE PANAMA CANAL
The principal services rendered to shipping by the Canal and its
adjuncts are shown in the following table, which presents a comparison
of the activities during the fiscal year 1947 with those of the preceding
fiscal year and of the fiscal year 1939 which may be regarded as the
In.t normal year preceding the outbreak of the recent war:






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 3


Fiscal year

1947 1946 1939

TRAFFIC THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL
Number of vessels transiting the Canal:
Ocean-going tolls-paying vessels..--------------------------- 4, 260 3,747 5,903
Small tolls-paying vessels (see page 37)-..-------- ------ 847 285 914
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls (see p. 37)..-------- 1,265 5,554 664
Total transit. -._-------.-------- ------------------ 6,372 9,586 7,481
Tolls levied:
Ocean-going vessels. ----------------------------------- $17, 596, 602 $14, 773, 693 $23, 6,.1. 021
Small vessels- ----.-------------- .---------------. 37,759 22,713 38,409
Totaltolls.. ------ --- -------------------- 17,634,361 14,796,406 23,699,430
Cargo passed through Canal, carried by: --------------------- Tons Tons Tons
Ocean-going tolls-paying vessels..------------------------ 21, 670, 518 14,977,940 27, 866,627
Small tolls-paying vessels ------.-- ------------------- 16, 299 19,776 31, 251
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls. ..----------------- 1,001,608 7,471,446 95, 265
Total cargo----- ----------------------- 22, 688, 425 22,469,162 27,993, 143
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement) of ocean-going
tolls-paying vessels. ------- --------------------- 20,233,043 17,516,517 27,170,007
Cargo per Panama Canal net vessel ton (laden ocean-going
tolls-paying vessels only)---------------------------------- 1.305 1.295 1.238
Average tolls per ton of cargo (laden ocean-going tolls-paying
vessels only) ----.-----.---- ------------ $0. 689 $0. 695 $0. 727
OTHER SERVICES
Calls at Canal Zone unirl- 1,N hi,4 ni" I r: ii-i.i the Canal--- 826 1,044 831
Cjrr!c handled and ti iri., r r. I art |pa r (tons). ---------------- 1,492,931 1,237,155 1,580,859
Coal sales to ships (tons) ------------------------------------ 28, 989 23. 189 67, 865
Coal-number of vessels bunkered------------------------- 102 72 276
Fuel oil:
Total barrels pumped (both incoming and outgoing), ex-
cluding Panama Canal use-------------------------- 9,995, 865 30, 411.970 8, 599, 522
Number of vessels handled __ --------------------- 2, 089 3, 655 2,063
Repairs to ships other than Panama Canal equipment:
Number of vessels repaired ------------------------------- 1,587 3,056 587
Number of vessels drydocked ----------------------------- 205 228 119
Sales to ships (except U. S. Army and N.i .v
Provisions (commissary sales) ------------------------ $1,221, 529 $5,766, 265 $307,342
Chandlery (storehouse sales) --------------------------- 168,485 313,678 45,786


NET REVENUES

During the fiscal year 1947 the revenues from tolls charged to ship-
ping using the Canal were $17,642,146.24, and miscellaneous receipts
amounted to $109,811.83. The latter figure reflected a deficit of
$100,464.44 in postal operations. The net appropriation expenses
were $18,073,909.26, resulting in a net deficit in Canal operations
proper of $321,951.19. The business operations under The Panama
Canal produced a net rvelnuce of $1,142,341.02. Thus a net revenue
of $820,389.83 was d(lerived from the combined operations of the Canal
and its business units during the fiscal year 1947, as compared with a
net revenue of $722,196.87 in the fiscal year 1946.
The foregoing net revenues for business operations for the fiscal
year 1947 do not inlcl(lude an additional amount of $583,938.42 for prior
fiscal years to be deposited in the Treasury.

REPLACEMENTS

The past fiscal year in a rked the close of 33 years of successful opera-
tionr of The Pananmin Canal. A very important factor contributing to
this creditable reiornl is the enre that has been taken to inaintain all





4 REPORT (OF lV.11\:NORl OF THE PANAMA CANAL

panrlts f thle ('anl strict ures andl( equipment in good operating
condition.
Of the total capital value of The Panama Canal, approximately
$1 18,OHO,00o is thie value of property of the transit divisions (which is
subject to deteritora-ion). Some of this property, including locks,
ldams, II nd other coicretlc t structures, is still ill excellent condition and
requires but little expenditure e for upkeep. However, otler types of
property, sulijiect to more rapid deterioration, require systematic and
orderly reIplaCeniiit HS their economic life is exhausted, and appro-
priations must. 1w made by Congiress for this purpose, as well as for the
construction of new facilities ans tlie need therefore develops.
















SECTION I

CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL

STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC

The number of vessels transiting the Panama Canal in the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1947, including tolls-paying and those entitled to
free passage, totaled 6,372, a decrease of 3,214 transits, or 33.5 percent,
from the record number of 9,586 transits of the preceding fiscal year,
and a decreased of 1,109 transits, or 14.8 percent, in comparison with
traffic transiting in the fiscal year 1939. (See note at bottom of page.)
The following table presents a segregation of this traffic by direction
of transit, together with the totals for the fiscal years 1946 and 1939:

Fiscal year 1947 Fiscal year

Atlantic Pacific 1946 1939
to to Total 1to 193
Pacific Atlantic total total

Tolls-paying transits:
Ocean-going vessels 1 --------------------------- 2,021 2,239 4,260 3,747 5,903
Local vessels 2 ................... .. ... 437 410 847 285 914


Total tolls-paying transits ------------------
Tolls-free transits-.- .-----.--------.. ---- .---- _


2, 458 2,649 5,107 4,032 6,817
537 728 1,265 5,554 664
------I ----______ ---


Grand total transits----..--.------------------ 2,995 3,377 6, 372 9,586 7,481

1 Vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels rated on net tonnage, or 500
tons displacement and over for vessels rated on displacement tonnage.
2 Vessels under 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels rated on net tonnage, or under 500
tons displacement for vessels rated on displacement tonnage.

The sharp decrease in over-allitraffic in comparison with the fiscal
year 1946 resulted from the diminishing volume of tolls-free traffic
which decreased from 5,554 transits in 1946 to 1,265 in 1947. The
greater portion of the 5,554 vessels transiting free of tolls in 1946 com-
prised naval and other units directly concerned with the war in the
Pacific.
In contrast to the downward trend of tolls-free traffic was an increase
in the traffic subject to the payment of tolls, i. e., vessels engaged in
normal coinmeirce. This traffic is discussed in subsequent paragraphs
under the heading of "Ocean-Going, Tolls-Paying Traffic."
NOTE.-The normal procedure in this report is to make comparison of certain phases of the traffic under
discussion with the 2 years immediately preceding. Since the fiscal year 1945 was a war year and traffic
transiting during that period bears no relation to peace-time traffic, comparison of the past year's traffic is
made with the preceding year and with 1939, the latter being the last fiscal year preceding the outbreak of
the recent war.






H.PUORT 01' (l .U l.!Nt l W. TiHEl PANAMA (CANAL


The Pinama Canal does not comnpile'detailed statistics on cargo or
the routing of tolls-freet vessels since normally sucli traffic is relatively
light and consists largely of war ships which do not carry cargo, Army
and Navy .transports, etc. Hence, except, for the sections appearing
under the capt ions Snull Tolls-Paying Vessels Tra visiting Canal" and
"'Vessels Entitled to Free Transit" oii page 37, thle following dis-
cussion of traffic. t through the Panama Canal in the fiscal year 1947
pertains only to occan-going tolls-paying traffic.

OCEAN-GOING TOLLS-PAYING TRAFFIC
A total of 4,200 ocean-going tolls-paying vessels transited the Canal
in the fiscal year ended June o0, 1947, anl increase of 513 transits, or
13.7 percent, compared with the preceding fiscal year, indicating sub-
stantial progress in the reestabiislish nt of normal shipping via the
Canal. 'Tlie total number of cwenin-g going lolls-paying transit in 1947
was approximately 72 percent of thle 1939 level when 5,903 ocean-going
tolls-paying vessels were passed through the Cainal.
The following figures show tle principal features of ocean-going
tolls-paying traffic through the CanIal in the past. two fiscal years and
in the fiscal year 1939:

Fiscal year
1'17 19-46 1939

Number of transits...-- ..-..-..-.--.- .............. .... 4.260 3. 747 9u3
Net Lonnapge (Parunima C('anri.l In'surtule t .............. 2. 3.043 17, 51. 517 27. 17(0,
Cargo carried (lonsu of 2,21 I oundLI). ................... ..... .21. (.7. 18 14. 177.940 27. h66i627
'l olls... ........ ... .... ... ........... .... .. ....... $17. 9 602 $14.77.,,693 $23. 661,021


The combined movement of cargo in both directions in the fiscal
year 1947 amounted to 21,670,518 long tons which represents a gain
of almost 45 percent in comparison with the total passing through in
the preceding fiscal year, but a decrease. of slightly over 22 percent
from the amount recorded in the fiscal year 1939. The substantial
increase in cargo tonnage over 1946 in face of a relatively small gain
in tlie number of transits (13.7 percent) results from the transit of a
smaller number of vessels in ballast in 1947-vessels transiting without
cargo represented but 19 percent of the total transits in 1947 as against
34 percent uf the total making transit in 194G.
Tlhe. Atlantic-to-Pacific cargo movement in 1947, totaling 8,294,820
tons, was greater by 35.6 percent- than the tonnage routed in this
direction in tle preceding fiscal year but a decrease of 8.0 percent from
the total Pacific-hound tonnage in 1939. The Pacific-to-Atlantic
cargo movement, tot alig 13,375,698 tolls in 1947, made an increase of
51 percent over 1946 shipments in this direction, but was 29 percent
under the Atlaintic-hound shipments of tlie fiscal year 1939. One of
thile principal factors contribut ing to the failure of 1947 trallic to attain






RElPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


a level nearer that existing in 1939 has been the slow recovery following
cessation of hostilities of the normally important United States inter-
coastal trade. The tonnage of cargo moving in both directions in this
trade in 1947, exc-lisive of that carried in tankers, was approximately
44 percent of that carried in 1939. The delay in the resumption on a
larger scale of shipping in this trade is reported to arise from the inter-
coastal operators' inability under present high cost of operation to
compete with land carriers. Recent press reports indicate that a num-
ber of intercoastal operators will discontinue operations altogether in
the near future.
In tables appearing on pages 26 to 35 will be found a comparison of
cargo tonnage shipped over the various trade routes, together with
summaries of the principal commodities comprising these shipments.
In the Atlantic-to-Pacific movement gains were recorded over all of
these principal routes of trade in comparison with the preceding year.
The more important of these gains occurred in tonnage routed from
the east coast United States to the west coast United States which
accounted for 1,466,373 tons, a gain of 69 percent in comparison with
the 1946 shipments, and in tonnage shipped from the east coast United
States to Asia, amounting to 1,748,608 tons in 1947, a gain of 128
percent over the fiscal year 1946.
While there was an over-all decrease of 8 percent in the Pacific-bound
cargo in comparison with the fiscal year 1939, important gains were
recorded in shipments over four important routes of trade, as follows:
Tonnage shipped from the West Indies to the west coast of South
America reached a total of 858,168 tons in 1947, which was some five
times greater than the shipments of 1939 (these shipments consisting
largely of mineral oils from Aruba, N. W. I.); the east coast United
States to Australasia trade accounted for 688,724 tons in 1947, an
increase of about 84 percent over the 374,544 tons shipped in 1939;
shipments from the east coast United States to the west coast South
America, aggregating 774,499 tons in 1947, were about four times as
great as the 192,732 tons shipped in 1939; and shipments from the east
coast United States to the Philippine Islands increased from 277,399
tons in 1939 to 453,432 tons in 1947, a gain of approximately 64 per-
cent. Of the trade routes in which decreases were recorded in com-
parison with 1939, the United States intercoastal trade, accounting for
1,466,373 tons Pacific-bound in 1947, was 39 percent lower than the
1939 shipments, and the tonnage routed from eastern United States
to Asia, amounting to 1,748,608 tons, was down 33 percent. (NOTE:-
Shipments of scrap metal from the east coast United States to Asia,
totaling 1,152,844 tons in 1939, were nothing in 1947.) Total cargo
originating in Europe in 1947, totaling 650,900 tons, and destined
principally to Australasia and the west coast South America, was less
than half that recorded for the fiscal year 1939.
In the Pacific-to-Atlantic movement there were increases in most of
the principal trade routes in comparison with the preceding year. The
Atlantic-bound movement in the United States intercoastlii trade,






HI.w'uR Oili' i;rl(:Icll ill- 'TIE PANAMA CANAL


totaling 1,463,429 tons almost doubled the shipments of 1946, and
over other trade routes contributing heavy tonnage, the following
gains were recorded: Shipments from the west coast South America to
the east coast. United States. totaling 2.700,861 tons, increased 35 per-
cent; sliipmenits front thle west coast. Canada to Europe, totaling 2,638,-
0S6 tons, increased 7.3 percent; shiplenti frori the west coast United
States to Europ', iiiiiniiting to 1,.S41,1 13 tons, increased 12 percent;
sipIiients froilli 11e west inst. s Soutih A.llrica to Europe, amounting
to 1,097,6SS tons, increased 13 percent; and those from Australasia to
Europe, amountmiii\g to 90117,64 tons, doubled the 1946 shipments.
In comparing vthe Atlantic-hound cargo movement in 1947 with that
of 1939 the most significant change is recorded in the United States
intercoastal trade, which declined from 4,493,203 tons in 1939 to 1,463,-
429 tons in 1947, or about 67 percent. Other decreases of importance
were in shipments from the west coast United States to Europe which
decreased from 2,349,SSS tons in 1939 to 1,841,143 tons in 1947, a loss
of 22 percent; in the shipments from the west coast South America to
Europe which decreased from 2,481,541 tons in 1939 to 1,097,688 tons
in 1947, a loss of 56 percent; and in shipments from the Philippine
Islands to the United States which decreased from 918,937 tons in 1939
to 356,195 tons in 1947, a loss of 61 percent. The trade routes in which
the Atlantic-hound cargo movement was approximately equal or
higher than in 1939 included the following: West coast of Canada to
Europe, which amounted to 2,638,086 tons in 1947 compared with
2,539,436 tons in 1939; west coast South America to the east coast
United States, which amounted to 2,700,861 tons in 1947 compared
with 2,447,237 tons in 1939; anid from Australasia to Europe, which
amounted to 907,664 tons in 1947 compared with 759,794 tons in 1939.
The receipts from tolls reported to the United States Treasury for
the fiscal year 1947 were $17,642,146.24. This figure includes tolls
amorunitiing to $37,75.x78 on local tolls-paying vessels which are not
included in Canal statistics covering oceaen-going tolls-paying traffic.
The receipts reported to the L'niit ed States Treasury, moreover, in-
clude the sum of $7,7.85.00 collected for a vessel transiting in a previous
fiscal year. These two items account for the difference of $45,543.78
between thle thrills receipts reported to the United States Treasury and
the tolls of $17,396,602.46 shown in the following studies of traffic,
which are based on tolls levied at the time of transit.








IEUPORT OF' Cu\l'EHNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 9


CANAL TRAFFIC BY FISCAL YEARS 1915 TO 1947


Comparative traffic statistics covering ocean-going vessels for each
fiscal year since the Canal was opened to navigation are shown in the
following table:


Fiscal year ended June 30-


1915 2.......................................
1916 3-----------------------------------------
1917-..___ ------------------------------
1918. -----------.-------
1919 ---------------------------- ----
1920---- --------------------------
1921.-.----.-.------- ---- -------------
1922 ---------------------------------
1923-------- ----------------------
1924-------------------------------------
1925 ----------- ---- ---------------- -
1926 --------------------------------___
1927. ------------------
1928-.. ___-------- _--- ---------------
1929----------------------------------------
1930---.--------------------------------
1931---------------------------------------
1932----------------------- --------- -
1933 ---------------------------
1934 -------------------------------
1935 ----------- ------------ ------ -----------
1936 --------------------------------
1937---- ----------------
1938 --------- ---------------......
1939 _----------------------. -.
1940-----------..-. ---------...-----------
1941----------------------.---- -------
1942--- ---------------------------
1943------ ---.- ----------.......
1944------------------------------------ ..
1945------.......- -....--.-.............
1946-----------------------------------
1947.----------------.----------

Total.--------------------...-..-...


Number of
transits


Panama
Canal
net tonnage I


'Tolls


Tons of
cargo


- ~ I I I- -


1,058
724
1,738
1,989
1,948
2, 393
2,791
2,665
3,908
5,158
4,592
5, 087
5,293
6, 253
6,289
6, 027
5, 370
4,362
4,162
5, 234
5,180
5,382
5, 387
5, 524
5,903
5,370
4, 727
2, 688
1,822
1,562
1,939
3,747
4,260


130,532


3,507,000
2,212,000
5,357,000
6,072,000
5,658,000
7, 898,000
10, 550, 000
10, 556, 000
17, 206,000
24,181,000
21, 134,000
22, 906, 000
24, 245, 000
27, 229, 000
27, 585, 000
27, 716, 000
25, 690, 000
21, 842, 000
21, 094, 000
26, 410, 000
25, 720, 000
25,923,000
25, 430,000
25,950,383
27,170,007
24,144,366
20, 642, 736
11,010,004
8,233,999
6,073,457
8,380,959
17,516,517
20,233,043


585,476,471


$4,366,747.13
2, 403, 089.40
5, 620, 799. 83
6,428, 780.26
6.164,290.79
8, 507, 938.68
11,268, 681. 46
11,191,828.56
17,504,027.19
24,284, 659.92
21,393,718.01
22,919,931.89
24,212,250. 61
26,922,200.75
27,111,125.47
27,059,998.94
24, 624, 599. 76
20,694, 704. 61
19,601,077.17
24,047,183.44
23,307,062. 93
23,479, 114.21
23,102,137.12
23,169, 888. 70
23, 661, 021.08
21,144,675.36
18,157,739.68
9, 752,207.38
7, 356, 684.94
5,456,163.32
7, 243, 601.58
14, 773, 692. 98
17,596,602. 46


554, 528,225. 61


4,888,400
3,093,335
7, 054, 720
7, 525, 768
6, 910, 097
9,372,374
I1I. :.'5 971
10,882,607
19, 566, 429
26, 993, 167
23, 956, 549
26, 030, 016
27,733,555
29,615,651
30,647,768
30,018, 429
25,065, 283
19, 798,986
18,161,165
24,704,009
25,309,527
26,505,943
28,108,375
27,385,924
27,866,627
27,299,016
24, 950, 791
13,607,444
10, 599, 966
7,003,487
8,603,607
14,977,940
21, 670, 518


627, 503,444


I Panama Canal net tonnages prior to 1939 are estimated figures based on revised measurement rules
which became tIIlcnI.e Mar. 1, 1938.
2 Canal opened to traffic Aug. 15, 1914.
3 Canal closed to traffic approximately 7 months of fiscal year by slides.


770698-48--2


~ I I I


I


I








1() lit1I)RHT 1OF (:\nI' (ill )1.W THE: PANAMA (CANAL


TRAFFIC BY MONTHS, FISCAL YEARS 1947 AND 1946

Thie Mrlan1-going, tolls-paying traffic during each month of the fiscal
yenr 19-17 is summarized in the following table, in which are inserted
for comparison the correspor1ling figures for the preceding year:

Numi;r of '0PainaIi (Cin net Tons of cargo Tolls
l a'.i,- it II' ll i lBRgtl


S t I ] -1-47 I 1945-48 1 -4 46 1945-46


July........ .... 371
August. .... ... :.:
Sepltmiber.. .. :i12
October .. :1r1
November ... .
Dec-inIber .. 348S
January... 351
Ft-bruary :.-
M arch 40
April.. I 38
May . | 400
Junei ..... .... ... I .- 2
Total..-- 4.2tA)
Avernir I|h r
Inunlth . ... 355


In 1.792. 1I..5
.*'1 1,7111.43)
261 I. 415.0191
*l.1 1. :NA .5 -1
'i1 1. 3115 Nil
348 1,i.u.u 1(.A
38h I.664. 26-7
319 1. 7 lii.
357 1, Mim19.916
345 I.874.9 i
342 1.8.6I. 0s

3.747 3).2l,2.1:-t.l

312 1, 86, 087


892.685
IMg, 121
I 1.23, 731
I 4.4. 9116
1.391. 717
1. 6111. 133
1, 797.74.h
1. MO. 717
l. fiHi, 51)7
1. .5U, -_.Y;
1. Q01.7701
1. 411. 1I I


| 1,459,701


1.Wt1I.f.2 851.525
I.14A.CR'i5 1.032,. 20
I.3x2.973 924,191
1. 3:t. 274M 8l4. 68W3
1.3M4. 42 9Ik. 219'
1.M3.17 1, 1'.5 596
1. .'.7MIS 1.:Ii9.IK3
1,912.7;30 1. ..2. !M.
2,061, 104 I, 1'7. t67
2. 1.'. 571 1.fAl6.693
2,070.822 1.7111.09.1
2, I.'..773 I.413. UP2
21.ii..1.iB 14.9.77.9-11

1, M)5.877 1.24K. 162


NATIONALITY OF VESSELS TRANSIrTISNG CANAL

Segregation of ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic through the Canal
during the fiscal year 1947, by nationality, is presented in the following
table which shows the number of transits, measurement tonnage, tolls,
and tons of cargo:

Measured tonnage


Nationality




Argentline ....
B il:m . . . .
Ilruzilian ......
British.. .


C ull.ll n ... . .
Cosla Ilcn . . .
Danish ..-..-....-....-....
Vcu:rlo ran .. .. . .
Finnish... ...-...... ..... .
Fri-r ll . ..- ..--.
Inrek -.....-..-.- .. -
Iondurn..--... .. ... ..
Italian....... ...
M *ri ir.ili . ... ...
\lcth rl.n. ....
N' rwrn *in.ri
Pulriiiillia k iil
Per un i:in ---.-. .. ....
P'hi1iipiiin Islands -..

S .l .. I
S' vrknish ..


Yugoslav -.. .... ......



1939 --


Nuniher
of transit



9
4
5
''W2
67
17
1II
7


6

32
195
9
16
161
248
217
15
18
8
15
40
108
1,974
3
3

4.200
3,747
5,003


Panama
Canal net


39. 826
20. 871
12.737
4. 91 A. 1IK4
259. 117
.19. M17
16. V12
4.7.
3W2. 211
Ii. 4sI
1.757
31,5.619
I n2. 276
279, 221
45. 915
32. 14.
411.-7K1


2.K. 72
82.621
41.704
31, -.52
145.3.51W
144.2 00
10,4194.241
4,261
12, 15is

20, 2.11. l14.3
17, 516. 517
27,170,007


Registered


Gross Net


51.005 I
27. 70.
19. 0134

364.003
55. 047
2(i.2.19
7.476
4117,166
S.215
2, .1 I
417.f611 I
I 6i. 145
481, 0
4I0, 1110
4r.. 7.15
540. 26i
1. 47h. I.N
l,1.41. 4241
42. 611
95. -54
46, 272
49.759
117. 7h7
6lN. 713
14. -L -l. 382
5,986
16.844

27, 7.38. Mh
23.14.92.245
.14, W.l, OA5


30. 131
16. 649
10.f624
3.9943. 9:17
240.740
33, 590
16,150
4.340
215.257
4.211
1. 119
2';. 470
120, 101
269,249
36, 53M
28. 596
321. 108
878.871
622. 4K5
25. 211
57,717
30,158
29, 251
11, 334
4107,3.19
8, 641.. 69h
3.244
9.357

l.455, 773
14.338,165
20,745,286


) Inrludrvs only Issls otf :0 or more net tons, L'.i.iizi-i '.iiul ineasurernent, or 500 or more ilisplakemenL
tons on vessels ra0d on dlsplacement tonnage.


1. 5416. 535. 34
1.461.967. 1
1.203.611.22
1. 197.539. 10
1. 178.924 WU
1,427.374 72
1.458.068.72
1. W4, 426. 22
1. 670. 311. 12
1.642.021.14
1. .1 111.. 1AS
1,6i2.712..74
17. 5lti. 6W2.46

1, 46, 383. 54


M803, 850. 98
1,007,925.08
1,017.571 32
1, 176. 159.60
1, 132,256.62
1,325,131.68
1,489,075.22
1,299. 338.82
1.457. 698. 20
1.423,058.34
1.411,503.78
1.229. 223. 34
14.773.692.98

1,231,141.08


Tolls




$33,727.82
15, 994. 44
11.46.1 W ti
4,3.313, M844.. .16
212. Unm. 94
.1, 731. 46i
15.235.20
4.057 02
34.1 319. 74
5.664. tiW
1,5S1. 0J
283.113.a36
1.12,9716 26
212.963.38
39. 3W9. C1I
26. 812. 18
40. 7:14.94
1.u52.601.66
605. 13U 84
27. 338.04
73.512.00
34.760.16
310,844.26
118,451.34
388.445. 40
9.098.339.04
3,679. 92
10.801.44

17, 596. 602. 46
14.773. 692.U
23, 661, 021. u8


Tons of
cargo



2,.200
4,867
24.994
5. 435, 332
258.765
28, 201
IS, .193
5. 642
375,2 '0
3.774
2. 571)
377, 346
199.415
154,088
39. 988
34.858
359.108
1,145,745
657,449
28,494
85,753
33,220
35.989
146.625
484,912
11,712.664
2. 508
12.358

21. 670, 51 b
14.977, 940
27.866.627


I







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


CARGO CARRIED BY VESSELS OF LEADING MARITIME NATIONS
Segregating the traffic through the Canal by nationality of vessels,
the following table shows the aggregate cargo carried by ships of prin-
cipal maritime nations during the past two fiscal years and for the
fiscal year 1939; the percentage of total cargo carried by ships of each
nationality also is shown:

1947 1946 1939

Per- Per- Per-
Tons of cargo cent- Tons of cargo cent- Tons of cargo cent-
age age age

United States ------------------ ---11,712,664 54.1 8,790,676 58.7 9,909,380 35.6
British....-----.----------------- -- 5,435,332 25.1 3,606,015 24.1 6,801,556 24.4
Norwegian-----------------------1,145,745 5.3 864,940 5.7 3,408,078 12.2
Panamanian----------------------- 657, 449 3.0 510, 708 3.4 371,721 1. 3
Swedish --------.---------_---_- 484,912 2.2 177,271 1.2 1,008,245 3.6
French .----------------------- -- 377,346 1.7 29,706 .2 501,752 1.8
Danish... ------------------------- 375,260 1.7 47,716 .3 727,552 2.6
Netherland------------. ------------ 359, 108 1.7 204,590 1.4 675, 105 2.4
Chilean-------------------------- 258,765 1.2 209,447 1.4 62,904 .2
Greek ---------------------------- 199,415 .9 203,833 1.4 666,471 2.4
Yugoslav --------------------------- 12,358 .1 10,600 .1 266,913 1.0
Japanese--------------.------ -------- ------------- ------------------------ 1,710,303 6.2
German-..---------------------.- .---------- --------- -------- --- -------.- 1,468,996 5.3
All other----- --------------------_ 652, 164 3.0 322,438 2.1 287, 651 1.0
Total ----------------------- 21,670,518 100.0 14,977,940 100.0 27,866,627 100.0

VESSELS PAYING TOLLS ON DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE
In the Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as trans-
ports, supply ships, tankers, etc., with a measurement of 300 net tons
(Panama Canal measurement) or more, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons or more, are classified as ocean-
going, tolls-paying vessels. Statistics on these vessels, except such as
pertain to displacement tonnage, have been included in the traffic
summaries shown on the preceding pages. Since displacement ton-
nage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table pre-
sents statistics covering 14 vessels, which transited the Canal during
the fiscal year 1947 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.

Number Displace-
Nalir.nality Type of vessel of ment Tolls
transits tonnage

Argentine-------.------------- Naval----------------------------- 1 7,462 $3,731.00
British----------------.---- ----do--------------------------- 6 55,376 27,688.00
Danish--------------------- Traning ship-- ------------------- 2 2,676 1,338.00
Netherland.-----------------.-. Dredge---------------------------- 2 6,648 3,324.00
Do ---------------------- Drydock-------- ----------------- 1 6,050 3,025.00
Peruvian --------------------- Naval.----------------------------- 2 3,249 1,624.50
Total ----------------------------------- ---------------- 14 81,461 40,730.50

CLASSIFICATION OF VESSELS
The following table summarizes the ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic
through the Canal during the fiscal year 1947 showing laden ships and
those in ballast, and further segregated as to tankers, ore ships, pas-
senger-carrying ships, general cargo ships, and miscellaneous vessels
not engaged in normal commerce, such as naval vessels, cable ships,
yachts, etc. The traffic also is segregated by (direction of transit and
as to vessels of UnJitc(l States registry and those of all other
nationalities:











II:I(l'I' ( j:o (OF T IiiN lli 41i- T E. PANA1MA CANAL


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C^'2
r ai'3


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s-".



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REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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14 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


LA.%DEN AND BALLAST TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY


In the table below the ships of each nationality have been segregated
to show separate statistics on vessels which were carrying cargo and/or
pass.n'Vrcrs at the timei of transiting the Canal and those which
transited in ballust:


Nationality




Argentline.. ...
BeRlian . .
Braziliknr .
Brit i.sh
Chilean... .
Chinesem ..
C'olrnliian .
Comsa Micum............
Danish
Ecuadoran .. ... -
Finnish ...
French ............
Irfeek .. .. ..
Ilonuiiran
Italian.
Mlexiian .
Netherland-.----.. -...
Norwesgian i-..... .. --
Panamanian. .....

P'hilippine 1slu1+-
I'orit u rii .P

.S['punih. .
Swe'li.h ...
United Statr<

Yue ada.. .


1947 .
lIJNC
1 U $.1


Number
of
Transit


I


5


104
11




25
104
28
130
7
12
1585
184
144
12
17
5
13
21
87
1,601
2
2


Laden


I'iIiina Canal
Mrl tonnage


7,345
5 .374
12.737
4. 262. 370
252. 915
2.0-19
1i, 90-X
3,415
3614, 499
5.531
1.757
:11),37 7
129, uSA
177. 3.57
35, ij4,
2l1,317
42. 5331
9 447. h24
27. 16i
77, V 16
26.296
33. 540
76. 543
.,iS. 23:1
8, 569. 364
3.411I
8. 7X8


'3. 442 Iri. 60. 450
234 I 11 .563 49:1


4. b7


22,507, .503


Tolls



$6, 610. 50
4, 836 110
11.461.340
:i K36, :133 110
227,623. 50
25,244. 10
15, 215. 20
:. 073. 50
32M. 049 10)
4.977 90
1. 5Sl. :3u
279, 33. 41)4
116. 607. 711
IWti6l.3 )
31. 543.20
1. 285. 30
3x., 179. 711
lG. 453.9 )
4i2,.861 N0
21 .62x. .5j
70.124 40
23, 6 ri. 411
30, 194. 10
.1m. S 70
:1328. 707 00
7,712.427. 601
3.060 010)
7,900.20


14. 940.405 00
10. 407. 143 70
20. 25,*. 752 70


-I 13a"a"


Number
of
Transits


6
3

135
5
6

2
5
1


7
65
2
4
3
64
73
1
1
3
2
19
21
373
1
1


804
1. 224
1,005


Panama
Canal net
tonnage


32,481
15,497

"652, 813
6,202
II.7b

I,31r,
27.712
053

5.2'43
22, 2ill
101,864
10,870
1182u1
18,342
327,983
.10.942
1.57117
4, 705
1%.408
903
".8. I'7
2. 970(





5. 953.1124
4. 662. 5U04


Tulls



$23.386.32
11, 157 84

470,025. 36
4.465.44
8,487.36

983. 62
10, 952. 64
686. 16

3,.774 96
i, 2A 2 56
73.342. O0
7.824140
8,516.88
13,206.24
236,147.76
202.278 24
1.085 04
3,IA7 fin

6.50 i"
49. 562. 64
9., 738. 40
1.385, 911. 44
619. 92
2.902.24


2.615. 466. tiW
4. 2*A. 177. 2t
:3. 357. iX)2.88






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


AVERAGE TONNAGE, TOLLS, AND TONS OF CARGO PER CARGO-
CARRYING VESSEL

The average measurement tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per
cargo-carrying vessels of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal meas-
urement, transiting the Panama Canal during the past two fiscal years
and in the fiscal year 1939, are shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1939

Measured tonnage:
Panama Canal net---------------------------------------- 4,799 4,728 4,633
Registered gross .. ..------------------------------- 6,531 6,458 5,896
Registered net ------------------------------------------- 3,902 3,870 3,537
Tolls--------------------------------------------------------- $4, 165 $3, 988 $4, 027
Tons of cargo (including vessels in ballast) -------------------- 5,148 4,043 4,754
Tons of cargo (laden vessels only)---------. ------------------ 6,318 6,037 5,719


STEAM, MOTOR, AND OTHER VESSELS

The following table shows ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels transit-
ing the Canal during the two past fiscal years and in the fiscal year
1939, segregated according to method of propulsion:

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1939

Steamers:
Oil burning--------- ----------------------- ----------- 2,926 2,729 2,444
Coal burning ...------------------------------------------ 256 224 1,019
Motor ships ...------------------------------------------ 1,027 748 2,398
Not classified I ------------------------------------------- 51 46 42
Total--- --------------- ------------------- --------- 4,260 3,747 5,903

1 Indicates vessels not engaged in commerce.

FREQUENCY OF TRANSITS OF VESSELS THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL

During the fiscal year 1947, 1,790 individual ocean-going, tolls-
paying vessels, representing 28 nationalities, passed through the Pan-
ama Canal. In the aggregate these vessels made a total of 4,260
transits. The number of transits made by individual ships varied
from 1 to 34, and averaged 2.38. The greatest number of transits,
34, was made by the United States steamer Limon, engaged in the
banana trade between Gulf ports of the United States and Central
America.
Vessels of United States registry led in the number of individual
vessels transit.ing the Cannil during the year with 782, as well as in the
number of transits --1,974; those of British registry were second in
number of both individual vessels and of transits, with 527 and 892,
respectively.
The following table shows the number of individual ships, the fre-
quency of transits per ship, the total number of transits for the year,
and the average number of transits per individual ship, so-regregn t
by iatioinality:








REPORT OF (GOVEHNOH OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 17

The following tabulation compiled from the pIecrding table shows
the number of vessels making a given number of transits through the
Panama Canal (1 to 34), their aggregate number of transits, and their
percent of the total ocean-going, tolls-paying transits:

Total Percent of Total Percent of
Num- totalNanal number total Canal
Number of transit berof number totalinal Number of transits ber of
vessels of transits vessels of transits
transits (4,260) transits (4,260)

1------------------ 931 931 21.9 16----------------- 2 32 .8
2...------------------ 430 860 20.2 18----------------- 2 36 .8
3-.----------------- 147 441 10.4 20 ----------------. 1 20 .5
4---.--------------- 106 424 10.0 21---------------- 1 21 .5
5 .------------------ 42 210 4.8 22 ------------------ 1 22 .5
6----------------- 43 258 6.1 23---------------- 3 69 1.6
7-------------------26 182 4.3 25--------------- 3 75 1.7
8..----------------- 11 88 2.1 26..---------------- 1 26 .6
9------------------- 7 63 1.5 27--------------- 1 27 .6
10 _--___------ 11 110 2.6 28.-- --------------. 2 56 1.3
11.----- ------------ 1 11 .3 30---------------- 2 60 1.4
12------------------ 3 36 .8 34--------------- 1 34 .8
13------------------ 3 39 .9 -
14----------------- 6 84 1.9 Total.. ----. 1,790 4,260 100.0
16------------------ 3 45 1.1


GRoss TONNAGE OF VESSELS

The 4,260 ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels which transited the
Canal in the fiscal year 1947 included 4,246 vessels rated on net ton-
nage, and 14 vessels rated on displacement tonnage.
Of the 4,246 vessels paying on net tonnage, 2,166, or 51 percent,
were vessels ranging between 6,000 to 8,000 registered gross tons.
This group was made up to a large extent of Liberty and Victory type
vessels used extensively in the late wair. The average registered gross
tonnage of all vessels was 6,486 as compared with 6,458 in the previous
fiscal year.
The following tabulation shows the ocean-going, tolls-paying ves-
sels, excluding those rated on d(ispl;ace( eint tonnage, in groups accord-
ing to registered gross tonnage, setgrega t ed by nationality, with average
tonnages for 1947 and 1946 and group percentages for the fiscal year
1947:









REPORT OF G(IIFHNOR )I- THE PANAMA CANAL


-J a Cl-- i -





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; r.= ci- ^ ^S =" ?.^ ci = *t7. '. ^,i F 2 7\.
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1- -r -r *r *-. r i*i


I







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 19

PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES

Statistics of commodities passing through the Canal are not precise
because at the time of transit it is not required that complete mani-
fests of cargo carried by vessels be submitted to the Canal authorities.
In lieu of a manifest the master of each vessel is required to submit a
cargo declaration, which is a briefly itemized statement, listing the
principal items of cargo carried and showing their ports or country of
origin and destination. These cargo declarations form the basis of the
commodity statistics. There is a natural tendency not to list small
miscellaneous shipments but to include them under the head of general
cargo. Hence, except in the case of commodities commonly shipped
in bulk, such as mineral oils carried in tank ships, wheat, lumber,
nitrate, etc., aggregate shipments of the various commodities are likely
to be excess of the tonnage reported during the year and shown in the
annual summary. Subject to errors arising from this source, the ton-
nage of the principal commodities shipped through the Canal during
the fiscal years 1947, 1946, and 1939 is shown in the following table:
[All figures in long tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year
Commodity
1947 1946 1939

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
Mineral oils.--. -------------------------.---------- 2,200,916 2,297,848 1,032,671
Manufactures of iron and steel -------.-- -------------------- 1,082,272 549,644 1,495,497
Paper and paper products-. -.--.---------.------------------ 359,050 222,847 402,264
Sulphur-...--------------------------------------------- 309,586 156,535 234,879
Cotton, raw -----------------------------------------. 273,721 217,839 250,752
Cement ----------------------------------------------- 201,460 38,764 160,271
Flour -- ----------- ------------------------.---- 200,305 84,357 23,445
Machinery --------------------------------------------- 170,155 70,724 158,835
Tinplate---------------------------------------------- 163,820 76,996 194,186
Phosphates. ------------------------------------------- 156,212 172,463 202,981
Automobiles-.-- -------------------------------------- 135,530 86,950 152,131
Rice-- ----------------------------------- ---------- 133,905 71,596 14,887
Canned food products --..---------------------------------- 121,988 79,843 132,228
Nitrate ---------.---------------------------------...--- 113,035 3,239 54,181
Chemicals, unclassified --. ---------------------------------- 99,833 63,687 127,858
Coal and coke --- -----------.---------------------------- 91,503 48,853 147,273
Ammonium compounds--- -------------------------------- 81,364 3,991 51,062
Metals, various.-------------------------------------------- 80,969 45,202 400,285
Wheat------------------------------------ ------------- 80,831 40,517 2,604
Sugar-- --------------------------------------------- 79,793 47,961 36,832
Coffee--.---- ----------------------------------------- 74,174 58,228 73,314
Automobile parts and accessories-..------- -------------------- 72,952 31,440 80,693
Asphalt- ---------------------------------------------- 68,301 32,047 71,931
Tobacco--------.---. ---... ------.....---..---..------------...---------- 64,894 30,422 64,441
Ores, various---..------------------------------- ------------- 62,442 1,336 45,620
Textiles-- ...... -------------------------------------------- 58,230 26,885 98,325
Salt-------------------------------------- --- --------- 58,212 18,982 54,751
Woodpulp.---------------------------------------------- .... 45,249 32,599 59,834
Electrical apparatus....................... ..........-------------------------------------- 38,954 13,343 39,207
Liquors and wines----.........----------------....................------------------- 37,336 24,869 74,093
Groceries, miscellaneous......................----------------------------------- 35,580 13,241 24,794
Agricultural implements--------------------------------... .... 34,939 20,340 43,276
Creosote------------- ------------------...--...------------- 33,381 35 26,399
Railroad material....----------. --------------- ---------------__. 32,247 18,098 82,235
Soda and sodium compounds...------------------------------- 31,809 20,808 39,694
Lumber and mill products..------.--------------------------- 30,533 36,280 58, 157
Paints and varnishes--------------------------------.. ------. 28,660 15,659 36,057
Fertilizers, unclassified--.---------------------------- ---. 26,697 8,829 20,633
Floor coverings.......................-----------------------... ------------------- 26,506 10,263 27,237
Beer-------------- ------------------------------------............. 22,908 35,673 4,561
Drugs and medicines.--..----------.------------------------- 21,097 12,312 29,114
Rosin-----..................................----------------------------......---------------- 20,299 11,293 41,303
Glass and glassware-------------------------------------- 19,537 6,219 60,005
Asbestos--------- ------------------------------------ ........12,694 12,734 35,395
Blag..---------------------------------------------------......................................... 12,328 147 26,769
Oils, vegetable..---------------------------- --------------- 10,914 3,154 32,002
Potash--..-----------------------------------------------..................................................... 8,595 8,695 27,859
Soaps and products---------------------------------------- 7,878 10,459 28,630
Oilseed cake and meal--..----.----.....--------------------------- 5,483 146 27,504








IKKPO1T 'OF <;Ol(I\NNI (1F TH'IE PANAMA CANALT,


( llri iiiI


SII h i1ir. in



''I l.|


A7LANT I' T-) Al Iti t l1lilILlA 'I

I hI -Is.

A 11 W rril

T nIlal ...... .. ..- .. ... ............
PACIFIC TO ATIANTIC
Lumber anld i ll products .. . .. .
Ure ... ruu

Nitriiate ... . .. .
l':! rnl. 1 f-""l* products .. s .........
Metals, various .. .. .

C o1 -rlll ie ...


I 'n|llr .i. ....

Mineral oils .
t ',Tn. -
r .


, I lr ......
Oats.... .... ... .....
- rlill. fresh. .. ..., .,., .,





r i -I11. i11 11 . . . . . . ..
1 .5 111 L .. I t I
t I I-. I r l l s .|lfr. l. . ... . .
A .. l.nif -. - -- - -

. 11 iili 1r a s .r.- -
I r i tir ;. . .. . . c. t
Ib101.1 r, crude.... .. ..

l'-i| r iril I'pi er products
r--r i. .
r IIIr r .I 111' 1 I- IIl 11 Mii i .. . . I .
i (r iin rini. .i .*ii and unclassified .. .



TAmlloniuw puns ..........
:-Ir l ...... ...... . . .
Barley ... .



r'I i ii . .. .



1All l . .
1.i--t *II cake and me al

Fish oil
Poreelainware
F Ilie nIwal
' 1 *ans

All other

*'l I .. .. .. ..

I Does not include fresh fruit.


n ,ton ol y..i) p. iid s]

F'isil year


1947 19461'


I I


ORIGIN AND DI.S'l [NATION OF CARIGO S): ;1 i-:(;ATI-:)
IN PRItNCIlPAL TRADI-E AI-. EAS


BV COIUNTRIlS


T e' in- n li tiii lijl> S ]II\W fit, ih igin and d -;tilnltin. by countries
Ill ]) prIllly i l I j i 41. III\r Ir i of caIl o s s( ilg filr(i 1 by vess ,ls passing
tlirll 1L the CaIild fli.i il' 1In' |1ist ft 1i1,; mi.i ti11t 1ovelirs tlm( tov.h-
lll1 Of carulr. frn il the11 A. lli intI i to lI P III<.if pi ir in l t ot. tiir ro0n11 tin
Pai ifir to tIhr Atlilntic:


I


!.. :4 1
1. 70 1
0%1q
1. 112.314







I 1. 4I, 2.2
IH. IO
I. 111. 11 ;.
Y14.( 121
411,4'i ,
''11 t1.1



SI C4. 62
21s. 924
144.723

116,625
111. 06
.'. 202
------------
.--- ------- .77,67:3

GO, (127
.60,027
7. 090
51,596
49,083
11.933
41.328
39,952
39,0-54


---- -- 6. 153



26,168
26,0412

16.256





.. - 1,924-


14 0
.......,", .. .. W V


7h J7./KS
GnIA 4.1.1'7t;
7l, I

1. i1fio. Rij I. 126.4xU 2




I. 251 ,1.IW 3.19 1. iI
I, !N.l 711 S I. 1.1, 1. I.00
1..'.i 1.11 1 519,474
1.:125.i11N 1. 444.14 A
17-1.. M; 1.2X2.63 t
422.NIM 6. 74. 14
71. Si<1 .1. JS74
JI. l 35. 874
J.'". J 41:1

I IIV. .77 ', 4I'.0
.. 49.'2 1 GI, 6.57
*19. l1 Ii ).13 C'1?
192, 941 2.777. 311
1 .5599 18M5. 341
tl,089 11, I7
:'. 741 1.7, i'.i
11.438 1.1642
".e o 1112.I .'i.7
1:.751 119. 11
,1. 977 1106. 211
17,011 174,-444
411. W.4 11 ",. 7"

28, 957 .S'. 760
1'1.7.il 7l i..18S
26, 680 7, WO1
22.419 24. :rt
'1.259 1 n.(a115
22. 8.62 21.9!14
1 1,008 Ill. AM 1
106.891 120, 72
10.6G6 74 Zi'
22. 133 11.14)
10(6.29 ?2. !.111
11.272 3,473
10,338 1,350
13I ', 3. 1N


1 ". 1. 1 4l,
8,978 N.J1. 12
1.5,467 .%7.71!.
3,222 4s. 2.,7
20 I .. 02.5
I. 11 i 1. .ihl;
197 .A1. 4:1.1
7725.324
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26 REPORT OF GOV'EINORl OF THE PANAMA CANAL


CARGO SHIPMENTS lSEl(;E(ATED BY TRADE ROUTES


The following tables Ilre t 3. y (direction of movement, cargo ton-
tin1ge )pssing through live ('nil over various trade routes, together
will the principall coi111111141ities Iimaking Iiu) these shipments, for tlie
ptist two fiscal yvjrs 1111ii for the fiscal year 1939:

TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS
ATI.ANTIC TO PACI'lf'
(Tons of 2.2110in Iprl'l i


Fiscal year

19 17 1, l944 1939


F 'IST iMt U'ni!.-ul I Iinis 1





WTli firo cast coast I iIIt. I Startes
Hscst 1'.iI1I.IlL to:


'Al A.1t ('c1 s11 1 1111.1 fl l l








e'A .1 cat Ca.oadah .
Australrasls
thilippiiir I |il s .i
A SI: Il l ir l'>lll l.II>- I 3l rl.c.
l1in1t-.iu, C'. Z .

ToIral from east coast I m i States ----

I ast coas iit C.mi'l to:
WV St coast I'niti l t .i iiAiI .--. ... .- -
% *. t coast Canamida -.
Australasia .
Asi:l ? li li r Iili r -in. Islands).. . ....
Other irv riturj-s ... ... .
T-l 17i5 fromI cust coast in.r- I - . .. . .

F w t muoast f 'i if r il An.ri i -N 11j \ir .... .
Other territories. . .
TI'I.Ai from east coast <'. i'r &i America/lexico.


1, 466. 7.3 fA5. 510
3 6tl4I 40,497
:3.V77 | 24. 755
S 774. 1IM I ti)9. 705
2). lI. I Ix. 11M.924
Gm.724 i 9.679
451,. 4:12 I 215,. Wh
1. .i4xr.NIX 7".5. It-l
........ 81.657 24,942

-- ---- -'.1. 3, 324. 4.IN


: 14.1 *II


2.. i t 14 ti179
1. 1127 629
3' It;. '%9 IN I. % ll


27. ilI
641


16..93.t7
*i.. '.\'i
2h. iV.


2. 391. 523
22.2092
31, 7101
1 2. 732
141.804
374. 544
277 .19
2, 593. 808
8.514

1i.0.1-I.3 26


26. 287
.16. s8Wi
22. 73)
50,943



74. 57

1R. .552


East coast -imilt America to:
West coast IUnited :r:lI .. 1(16, 571 72,71 11 n. 521
\WI coast I('.ini ... .... ... ... . .7.. ''7. 'i.7 i.' f.a
A 1*1i coast Sout'h America .... .311.117.1 2. 112 l2. *49
Asia .-xi 1Iiiie il Philii[pin' Islands) .. ... .. .. 124.724
Otlli r l. rrilories ...9............. ...... ..... 9,270 11,6:57 12.94.1
Total from east coast South America ...-...- ........ 17 161. ". 407. n39
l rir ..li.l C Z. to:
\.\'.r coast ('i I r il Americteica/.exio ....... ... .. .12 11i,018 50. 907
West coast nuiith America .. . ----.. ..... 22 IJ. l11. 1 135..98ti
Other territories ..5....... 5,017 10. AI 26. 854
Total from Cristohbal .... .... .. .... .......... I l i 1 21.1. 747
West Indies to:
West coast I'lr.i-.l t r .-- ....~. ......-... ... 11. (7 .*. 7I In .064
W. 5i coast 'nil r.ii A mrnrin .1i/M 110 ..-..---- 131. '.l l. -.1) 15.. 142
1,..sI coast South America....... ........ ...N 1.151.1111 177.714
I-1i11oa. C. .. .... 242,938 7 .1 65.307
Australasia .... ...... . .- ... 72.188 3 i5.l3 21, 942
Asiin -tuin ire hilippin- lin.is) .. 2.589 ........... 19. 92
lli'wa uilin Islainds 4 .71 4,80 ....
oIhrcr I4rritl-rirs .. 2 8,912 8,673
Tut.il from West Indies ... . 4n I 4.1 9. 19! 318. 934
Europe to:
Wpet coast I ill.l IIP ............... I I.I.01 18.1il 337,401
West coast Canada. 4-7.. Wi8 4.1162 7B,789
West coast ('. -ir il .\i.*ria, Mexico. 2.. A4 2 258 91.873
WPit coast "eit h America .1............... .... 216.210 K9. li 1 415.607
Australviaii . ..... ._. ---- - 2L1 ..11.5 '. 127. 177 542.770
Builh.,a. r Z .............. 2.. .. .. ......... ... 2 3. .1ri4 12.487
Other .rll oris .................... ............. 16. 821 7. 736 4 6. 781
Tolll from lir.pa ............ 6.91.9110 331.291 1,525.708
Asia and Africa to other territories ..... ................... .44 . 44. 461
Toal cargo-Atlantic to I':ne .. ... ................ 8.24.820j 6,118.05 9,011,267








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-Continued

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


West coast United States to:
East coast United States -------------------
East coast South America---------------- ---------
Cristobal, C. Z....-------------------------------
West Indies---------------------------------------------
Europe ------------------.-------------------------------
Africa---------------- ---- .--. -----------
Other territories ----------------------------------------

Total from west coast United States --------------------

West coast Canada to:
East coast United States -------------------------------
East coast Canada -------------------------
West Indies------------------------------------------
East coast South America------------------------------
Europe------------------------------------
Asia------------------------------- ----------------------
Africa---------------------------------
Otherterritories.------------------------------------

Total from west coast Canada ----------------------- ..

West coast Central America/Mexico to:
East coast United States --------------------------------
Cristobal, C. Z.... --------.----- ....--------------
Europe..----------------------------------------------
Other territories.----------------------------------------

Total from west coast Central -\ -i-ric--,'.1M'1 ]" -

West coast South America to:
East coast United States -.---- -----.--.- - ------.
East coast Canada----------------------------------------
East coast South America ..-.------------- -------------
Cristobal, C.Z....------------------ --- -----------
West Indies-----------------------------------------------
Europe. ------------------------ --------
Africa..--------- ----------..-------------
Other territories ----- ------------------------------

Total from west coast South America. -------------------

From Balboa, C. Z.: Total ---------------------.-----

Hawaiian Islands to:
East coast United States------------------ ---------
East coast Canada--- --------------------------- -
Europe-...----.-.. -------------------.----- -
Other territories.------------- .-------------------

Total from Hawaiian Islands. -.-----------,.-------.---

Australasia to:
East coast Uliiirel States.------------------ ------
East coast Canada.-------------------------------- -
Europe----.---- ------------ --------
Other territories -------- ----- --------------

Toral from Australasia..----- ----------... --------.----

Philippine Islands to:
East coast United States-.--...-... ..-------- -----
To other territories---------- ------------------------

Total from Philippine Islands.-..----. .....-----.------

Asia to:
East coast United States...... --- .......--.........--..
Europe..------------.......-- ........................
Other territories......--------------------.....---------------

Total from Asia-...-- .-----------------------

Total cargo-Pacific to Atlantic. -----..--..-...-...--


1947


1,463,429
150,700
4, 864
171,886
1,841,143
100,554
26,431

3,759,007

25,025

25,673
39,015
2,638,086
28,659
224,029
861

2,981,348


308,494
71,737
28,063
20,504

428,798,

2, 700,861
8,423
43,483
42,659
86,456
1,097,688
263, 406
20,793

4, 263, 769


Fiscal year

1946 1939


787,424
64, 546
2,825
83,240
1,650,726
36,050
13,035

2,637,846

--------------
3,366
5,066
19,310
1,527,995
----.----------
201,252
--------------

1,756,989


256, 487
31,442
12,928
12,264

313,121

1,997,815
17,071
41,585
33,598
59,852
970,455
131,658
19, 255

3, 271, 289


8,916 -------


201,603
20,158
11,236
5,248

238,245

196,632
65,732
907,664
3,683

1,173,711

356,195
5,535

361, 730

156,166
2,922
1,086

160,174

13,375,698


101,823



101,823

237,679
31,945
4;7. 12
Id

727,449


31,256

31,256

20,082


20,082

8,859,855


4, 493, 203
45,222
55,073
487,189
2,34'-..5
44, ".;
46,151

7,521, 585


201,619
56,398
31,571
13,237
2,539,436
385
26,910
3,896

2,873,452


30,649
43, 472
48,116
1,353

123,590

2,447,257
132,364
12,464
143,186
103,903
2,481,541
24,180
220

5,345,115



361,857

79,174

441,031

86,999
87,546
-9, 794
12,001

946,340

918,937
2,525

921,462


280,593
363,048
39,144

682, 785

18,855,360


--







28 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC

ITons of 2.240 pounds)


East coast Unite. Slates to west coast UTnited Stales:
Canned fuo11 pr uct .... . ... . . .
Chemicals. unlsiled .. .. .
Electrical Bp 'rlartus .
Floor coverin .. .
Iron and steltl manufaitirli- ..
Mach inry ..
Mineral oills
Paints .
PaIwr and I'pr r prntliirl.
Phosphates .
Sulfur ...
Tinplnt .
All othl -r anld ui lasli.ir tl ..

Total. . .---

East coast 1 nitced States to west coast Canada:
SIiSulfu r... .. . ........... .. .
All other and unclassifled... ... .

Total...-- .--.-.--.-.-.-.... ..-...-.-- .-.-------.-.

East coast UI'ted States to west coast Central America/Mex-
imo. (No sinele outstanding commodity in this trade.)
Fast coast Unierl Statel to west coast South America:
Agricultural implemnls .
Automobiles and par ..
Canned food products -.
Cement..------....... --....-....-.--..
Chemicals, unclassie'l.. . ...... ....
Coal ........... .......
Flour ..... . .. .. ... ....
Iron and steel manufactures ...
Lubricating oils and greases-....---- .----... .
Machinery.-------------- ....
Paper and paper products -. .
Railroad material. ..... .
Wheat ......
All other and unclassified ...-- -.

Total ..... .. .


F:ast coast IUnited States to Hawuaiian Islands:
Iron and steel manufactures... --.-..--
Mineral oils----------...
T inplato. ------------
All other and unclassified. ...

Total .... ....... ..... .

East coast United States to Australasia:
Automo'biles and parts .... ..
M mineral oil ... .. .. .. .
P'hiiphates . . ...
Hosin ... .

TIn a .. . .l.


'I u l .. . . .. . . . .

East cast t;nited Stlate to I'hilippiine Islands:
Automobiles and parts.......--..-.........
Canned food products. .......
Flour ... .. ............ . .
Iron and stel manufactures----.........-----
Mineral oils.. ..
R ice . . .. . . . . .
Textiles.......... ..... ..
All other and unclassifled..


Fiscal year


1947 1946 1939


27. 66 21.619i; 94,119
If, 811 14.19W? 48,743
F1..55 4.019 22.028
3i.691 9,124 24,112
6.13.7M I 322.734 794,485
1 La iC I f II nCu


194. 91 9,. 939
13,7x1 6.I.2. '
til, 401, 44. MIM
17.701 14.529
6;. 607 2 7. IM)
9,84f6 2,569
369.43 291,1.58

1,466.373 865.51I1

30005 f25 6009


14,897


138, 689
13,768
129,607
6,733
133,017
7.,839
899,425

2.391,523


4,000
18,292


36.843 40,497 22, 292


13.088
65.35.0
20,153
48,441
15.774
52.198
32.379
168,541
25,3.50
60,763
21.008
11.5 89
13,.50fi
226,350

774,499


8.970
32.374
S. 474
20, _502
14,902
29,216
9.182
106, 9R7
Ifi. lii
34, 080
15,717
8.592
11.662
292.352

609,705


-- 1


I12.%i41
131.496
41.7N
QI CA I


269.053


.45, r14Y

62.5>7 7
10.8 3
193, 490
74.540
150.D016

C.. s. 724


13.231

33.215
72,378

118.824


7. 135
SA,23"
13'. 28i
6. 525
102. 211a
2*s. 7s2
238 ,519

(01. 679


4,609
1.3.223
2.404
2. 544
3,607
2,023
264
f.3.719
13,975
16,473
905
12,238
70
56.678

192,732


21,015
60
37.916
82.813

141.804


51.839
67,844

4.938
95, 637
383
153.903

374, 544


i;. 75 7. 2s 14.959
19,732 5.934 3. 720
36'.734 14.69I1 2,179
36. 400 19.932 96.497
36. 302 7. 029 9, 033
1114. 107 47,.52 362
10.645 4.737 10,001
191. 7M 158., 7 140,648


. .o..... ....... .... 453.432 2, 65.380 277.399


a,3
6,838


- .- ----- I


T otal ................. . ..









REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL z9


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE
RoUTES-Continued

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1939


East coast United States to Asia (excluding Philippine Islands):
Ammonium compounds----------------------------------
Automobiles and parts --.------------------.----------
Canned food products --------------------------
Chemicals, unclassified. ---------------------------------.
Coal -------------------------- --------------..
Copper (metal)--------------------- ------------
Cotton, raw---------------------------------------------
Flour -----------------------
Iron (metal pigs) ------------ ----------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures -----.....................-------------
Machinery..-------..--------------------------------------
Mineral oils ----------------------------------------
Nitrate-----. ----- --------------------------
Paper and paper products ------------------------
Phosphates ---------------------
Railroad material--------------------------------------
Rice------------------- ----------------------
Scrap metal----------------------------------------
Sulphur_------- ------------. ---------------
Tinplate -------- -------..-- -------------
Tobacco and manufactures --------..---- ---------..
Wheat.------------------------
All other and unclassified -------------------------..-

Total.----- ..------ ------------------

East coast United States to Balboa, C. Z.:
Cement----------------------------------------------
M ineral oils ....----------------------------------------
All other and unclassified ----------------------- -

Total -----------------------------------

East coast Canada to west coast United States:
Copper and lead concentrates.-------- ------------------
Allother and unclassified --._ ------- -------------.-

Total.- ------ ---------- ------------

East coast Canada to west coast Canada. (No single out-
standing commodity in this trade.)
East coast Canada to Australasia:
Automobiles and parts----.------------------------------
Paper and paper products---------------------- --------
All other and unclassified-------.-----------------

Total..------ ------------------- --------
East coast Canada to Asia. (No single outstanding com-
modity in this trade.)
East coast Central America/Mexico to west coast Central
Amprica/MRi'co:
Mineral oils------ ------------------------------
Allother and unclassified-------------- -------.--

Total----------------------------------------------

East coast South America to west coast United States:
Coffee-------------------------------- ---
All other and unclassified--------------------------...

Total------ ------------------------- ....

East coast South America to west coast Canada:
Mineral oils-.------- -----------.--...---.. -
All other and unclassified ------ -- -------
Total------ ---------- ------ ....---


74,658
18,034
38,667
23,419
27,290
2, 606
261, 551
122,471
5,680
139, 482
42, 889
256,354
105,632
34,497
49,889
13, 074
29,025
19,266
12,142
42,241
67,211
362, 530

1, 748,608


300
45, 397
35.645
15, 560
62
2, 063
204, 537
48, 589
218
43, 755
11,508
88,887
1,381
16, 325
3, 762
8,829
22,161
80
1, 322
4, 098
11,464
28,855
170, 366

765, 164


3,266
42,865
705
9,518

40,615
175, 934
2,917
197,872
208, 562
38,520
298,289
4, 718
3, 335
139, 197
10,343
100
1,152,844

33,027
32,265
2,267
196,649

2, 593,808


36,136. ...... ......-
42, 317 13, 316 3, 051
3,204 11,626 5,463

81, 657 24, 942 8,514

54,149 -------------- 15,809
296 -------------- 10,478

54,445 ---------- ---- 26,287



20,755 12,444 26,070
160,697 96,405 139,836
52,971 55,211 56,814

234,423 164,060 222,720




27,789 16 443 63,287
11 494 11,570

27,800 16,937 74,857

70, 592 46,231 45,113
35,979 26,530 65,408

106,571 72,761 110,521

20,391 51,669 ---
6,916 189 6,202

27,307 51,858 6,202








REPORT OF GOVERNOR O- THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT (


'OMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE
ROUTEs -Continued

A.1 I..\ N JIH 1TO PA CIFIC-Continued

(Tons of 2,240 pouri' .I


Fiscal year

1"-17 1946 13


East coast Soun th America to west coast South America:
M mineral iis .i..
All other and iuilaSilln . .... .n..

Total .... ...

Fast coast Siiuth America to Asia:
Cotton ....
All oliher inrlI unclassified .. ..........

Total. .. .. ...

Crislnl'nl to west coast (C'Irtj:rl Animricn'Nleticin (N1. single
outstnin.liin 11 *I ru.l1ii tYv in this tr:-dc
Cristlllbnl iIIn I i.i.st >.uti Amerinc. NI N single outstand-
[rinE crarnim.liiy In this tradt 1i
W'rst Inlih.-s iI %est coast I( ru-r l ik irsl
lM irilrid ..ils
All other and i 'in .. ...... ..


West Inrli.vc to west coast Central Amlriiululr'M I.:
M nllllr l ols..---- ---------
All other and unclassified.. ... .. ..

Tital .


W"'i Indies to west coast South America:
M mineral ls.... ..
n111nr.. .. .. ~~... ...... .
Al I either and unclassified ....--...-

Tidal

West Iiinl-. to Hanll.n.. C. Z.:
Mineral .il. ---
A ll other and unclassified. .......


West Inml, to Australasia:
rPl jil .
i11mi r I ails. ........ ... .. .....
*Ml other and unclassified .... .. .


West Indies to Asi.i Iirx eluding Philippine Islairil
Mm irr:!il oils.. .
All other and unclassifled-......................

I I LI

West Indies to ll.mumi .n I l-inds.
llri.r- Wl iil4 .
All other and uinu l'wifil.*I.

'uotal
A 11 ot l.* .I 1 r I ..1111 1w I.. l *. LI.. I*..


Iron and steel mainulaetures................
P':iI Tr :iandi I' p.r i Ir i. .... ... .


219
29.0854

30, 073


155
28.157

28.312


131.008
21.641

152, 649


...... ...... ------- 71.545
53.179

..... -... .............. 124,724





30,909 :3 180 M
4869 ...794 10, 06

31 :i s I M.9 10.0 04


112.1i ] 15, 2.
.), 119 5.M 7342
1-1 .2.''.(i 1i '.. 11 1.342


792,818
5-I. 614
10,736
4 S' lli5


ll. 53.31
2.. 599
11,890
>5l.n 20


1.5S. 573
11,42:1
7N1

177.714


234. 205 786.400 R5. 307
8,733 8, 954

212. 9. I 795. 3M4 .15, 307


.. 2.912 14.994 3,453
.... 43.432 277.172 ....
....... 1.844 2. 187 18,499

72. IS I 315. : 21 42


S.... OIL 19.892

...... 32..i9 19.892

4:1. 7191 .


..... ... 4....... 70
- 4.1.7191

23.714 ,
.. B935
... . 16, 57
... .724
si. (IV


4.F.Si)
-I. 'im l I .......

4. FA I ... .. .... ... .


9

18,052

IR. 061


21.094
44. 14
44. 558
227, .5S

3.17. 401


-- -------- -








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 31


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE
ROUTES-Continued

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds

Fiscal year


Europe to west coast Canada:
Cement--------------------------------------------------
Salt - ----- --.- -.- -- --- -- ... _---- -
All other and unclassified--------------------------------

Total_ _-----------------------------

Europe to west coast Central America/Mexico:
Cement------------------------------------------ ------
All other and unclassified ---.----. -----------------------.

Total-------- -------------------------------

Europe to west coast South America:
Cement ---------... .... --------..----.. ------
Iron and steel manufactures -------.. ------------ ---
Paper and paper products.--------------------------.....
Woodpulp----.-------------------------------
All other and unclassified ----.....--------------------. -

Total.-.. -----..-. ....- .. --- -..-.-_ ---.- -

Europe to Australasia:
Automobiles and parts---.--..--...--.....__ ------.---
Iron and steel manufactures ----------------------.----_
Machinery --_ ----. -------.----------------
Salt--------------------....-- .. -
Slag---- ---------.-- _----- __-------__
Textiles--------------........ ---------
All other and unclassified------.. ._--------- -----_---__ .

Total.---.-------. -.. _____ ----------------.---- .-.

Europe to Balboa, C. Z.:
Cement.........------------........... ..............-
All other and unclassified -----------------------...--

Total-- ---------------------------------


1947 1946


10, 232
11,200
26, 136

47, 568

21,015
1,999

23,014

31, 230
35, 720
33, 402
28, 719
87,139

216, 210

17,845
28,890
13,313
25,321
12, 120
22,147
120, 199

239, 835

24,076
2,296

26, 372


42
--------------
4, 020

4,062

1,000
1, 258

2,258

3,461
8, 997
9,382
10,114
56, 697

88,651

4,446
10, 621
7,408
5,633

6, 577
172, 492

207,177

3,346
--------3,346

3,346


1939


859
633
77, 297

78, 789

48, 691
43,182

91,873


54,377
72, 989
3, 773
15,289
269,269

415, 697

34, 282
101,345
26,060
31,149
26,495
22,227
301,212

542, 770

10,714
1,773

12,487


PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC


West coast United States to east coast United States:
Asphalt.----. ------.------------.--------.---
Beans----------------------------.------------- --__----_
Canned food products ------------------ --.------
Flour, wheat ------------..----- ------------ ---
Fruit, dried.------------.----------- ------ -- -
Iron and steel manufactures----..---..-- -- -------- ._.-
Lumber-------...-..
Metal:
Copper-------------------------- .-.----_-----_
Lead--.. ------ ------. -- -- ----------.. -- -__
Mineral oils.---------------------------
M olasses ... ---------------------- -- .------------ -
Ore, magnesite ----------- ---- --------- ---_
Paper and paper products. ------------------._-
Rice --------.. --- ---. - -------------.. ... -.. -.. .... .
Sugar---------- ---------- ------- --. -- ---- --- ---
W heat.- -- -------------. -------.- ------
W ood pulp --- ..- ------~.---.-... .....-...-
All other and unclassified. -------------..- ......- ... ...


Wi'st coast United States to east coast South America:
Lum ber ----- ---------------------- ..-.. . ----- - -
Iron and steel manufactures. -------------------....
All other and unclassified.------ ----------

Total.----------....------........ -._-- - -


1,801
226, 313
20,030
10,046
58,031
661, 170

168
12, 567
148,980
27,708
39,077
16,600
10, 537
13,048
17,150
22,454
177,749

1,463,429

15, 351
60, 207
75,142

150, 700


11
1,357
104, 934
28, 652
4,113
15,963
260, 260

896
15
110,374
14
23,114
10, 795
3,401
6, 180
77, 654
18, 297
121,394

787,424

1,889
10,479
52,178

64,546


64,113
68, 922
735, 122
115,597
157,016
6,218
1, 521,200

45,948
17,912
810,051
195
8,683
81,382
4,886
140,044
1,117
188, 777
526,020

4,493, 203

21,623
55
23,544

45, 222








11-:PORT OF ;(l\E i Ol 01 THI-E PANAMA CANAL


IM POTENT C(OMMODITY SHIPMIU NTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE
I1oL;TIS - Cont illui'(1

l I Il W<' TO A Il N ..1 I '-i liniueii

[Tons of .'..'ii Ir'nl '-l


F'.T-il year


I'9ll.


W Lest coast I Ih y tates t i r.i.'l';lI. I 4Z.:
11 imrul ni6.- --
S11 other and unclaid. ...... --

Tutl --

\\r coast rrillr .I tates to W'. tI Indies:
I 'armiini f-vo1 pr-illt -- ----
Iron and s... ari--.- ------ ------ur-
N1 IIILrur l oils -

.l other and unclasslchd.. .



\\,-;I COVt IUnited -r:tLr- to :lIri.["

lhtrley -......
liorm ... .. .. ..-----
Canned food Iroli --t---
I '1al -- ----------

'"kf -- .. .. ..----. -.-----.------- - - -- - -
rllu iiri, n ... ---------
Flour. whril
F rint. fri -I -----
I rin il. fn '4 1 ...-.- ...- .-... --
;ram1,s. or her than classified.
rijerr*ie ... . .
Iron and steel manufactures
Lumber. --..----..----
\Iirhiniryr ............ ---. .
rill; r


<'%VT ...W. .-..1 .-.i pulp
''I it r amd unclassified....... .
I I r i- I l il -I .l ... - . .





I'irta ....... .

\\.'-l coast United -lat.- to Africa:
Lumber -- ----- ----------- -
t h"-iLr ......... ......
All other and unclassifed



W'est coast ('uniAli; to east coast UIniil.I States:
lr i.ii-rs.

All other and unclassified. ....-......

T"i'. l -. -- ---- -

West crast 'anli!I to east coast Canada:
Lumber.......... .....----------..
All other and nl.h.iill- I



W -t coast ('iliilnitI to West Indies:
Lumber. .----
.MlI other and is l f b si

11 stail . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .


I -1 2. I'm
I % 1.7" 1

4. M864| '. 5.(i7


I li *; 1.1, 04b


71, 759 I "- 17.:hik





.:12. 1 0 91.287 1. h-'
41,464 1.91 1



.O 6552 1, 13:1 4%7. '.%9
21, 144 231N, 78 T .'8s J1
:313.17 -1 724 1Y
17, 114 l
77, 44,Ml .*n
17, 017 132 17.647
24. 222 2.. 221 '.314
9., 'A 12 11 n'-
4., 523 lit. 21 .31. 1170
2,544 H; .303 I. '.
21, 852 I'P 149 I%.
171 .9 -.7. VS5 113
!. 3.57 '..i. 9 159, S .1
n1 a '14 09

1 100 122 19.014
78,07. 928 :. 11.12
18g 1313 "A15. 77 1
1, 32G W 41(W -
172.477 .* 917 .' 454
22, 7111 ,551 22, 47
12.08 12 4,820 71.402

I M l.1 ... l 72.1 2..149.


7.1 198 12 I ef 33,762
1 1. C 1 .. ... .. ..
.11 .3r 12.111 4. 0 79

I111..s4 I 1. l .'11 44. h.4 9


21. 994

31'

.M11':.


.. . -.--"- j-- --
. 31.,7 I

311.613


1. .31ti 48.721


3 .1 .6 56, 39b


2.I 179 1 1 .1l 2 .969
I. 4 I 1. 111 I 7.6. 02

2.5.i7 5 .n i 31.571


I-







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THB PANAMA CANAL 33


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE
ROUTES-Continued

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


West coast Canada to east coast South America.
outstanding commodity in this trade.)
West coast Canada to Europe:
Ammonium compounds ------------------
Canned food products -- ----------------
Fertilizers, unclassified-_.- ------------
Flour, wheat-----------------------
Fruit, fresh ---------------------------------
Grains, other than oats and wheat -----------
Lumber --------------- ---------------------
Metals:
Lead_------_----------------------------
Zinc-------------------------------------
Oats..---- ------------------------------
Wheat-------------------------------------
All other and unclassified ----------
Total-----------------------------------


(No6single


West coast Canada to Asia:
Lumber ------------------- -------------------- -----
All other and unclassified ---------------- --. --
Total------------------------------- ----------------

West coast Canada to Africa:
Lumber. ------------------------- ---------------- -
Wheat----... ---------------------- .. -----------------
All other and unclassified - ---------------------
Total -----------------------------------. --------------

West coast Central America/Mexico to east coast United
States:
Bananas ----------------------- -----------------------
Ore manganese-_. .----- -----------.-----. ------
All other and unclassified .---- -.. -------. -----------....
Total ---------------------------------------------

West coast Central America/Mexico to Cristobal, C. Z:
Coffee---------------------------------------
Lumber .-----. -------------------------------------
All other and unclassified ---- --.-------------------------
Total----------------- ------------------------

West coast Central America/Mexico to Europe:
Bananas ----- --------------- ------ .------------.
Coffee---------------------.-----------------------
All other and unclassified...- ----------- ---------
Total ---------------------- -------

West coast South America to east coast United States:
Bananas.-- ---------------- --------
Cocoa.--.--------------------.---------------
Coffee --------------- --------- ---------
Cotton,raw--- -----------------------------------
Metal:
Copper...---.- .--.------------.. --------
All other and unclassified----------------------------
Molasses--.--. ------------------------------
Nitrate of soda.- --- --- --------------------....---..
Ore:
Copper---------------------------------------------
Coppern........ ...... ......... ............
Iron--------. -------------------------- --
Manganeso --------------- -----------
Tin..... .. -- ---------------- --- ............-
Zinc..
Other and unclassified.-- -----.-----... ------.-.
Sug ar.. ... ... .. . .-
Al niher anl inrlail .. ..


Trnpil .


1947




24,857
51,806
32,615
57, 021
23,992
21,398
978,113

7, 676
41,376
75, 468
1,281,104
42, 660
2,638,086

26,159
2, 500
28,659


Fiscal year

1946




11,338
50,905
14,313
3,900
13, 576
46,939
449, 566

40,910
16,907
4,618
825,806
49,217
1,527,995


1939





26, 269

7, 722
32,350
59,657
1,136, 26

117,875
67,827
49,888
972, 584
68,988
2, 539, 436


385
385


201,424 66,735 21,283
--------- 118,239 --------------
22,605 16, 278 5,627
224,029 201,252 26,910


268,891 234,335 25,801
25,543 12,053 ------------
14,060 10,099 4,848
308,494 256,487 30,649

45,746 14,968 31,999
13,209 5,020 4,336
12,782 11,454 7,137
71,737 31,442 43,472

25,661 9,071 50
1,860 3, 857 24,777
542 ----------.- 23,289


28,063 12,928

31,021 1,567
11,692 4,782
136,830 108,288
10,228 8,668

138,368 119,366
27,987 22,394
14,908 13,937
379,164 490,097

53,494 138,670
1,585, 131 588,585
113,684 130,193
35,218 50,515
79,641 131,360
5,010 19,745
25,221 .50,113
5.1,3h1 119. 635
2,700,861 1,997,815


48,116

18,806
5,181
24,242
6,060

82,959
6,242
7,396
546, 352

15,169
1,612,801
191
380
18,089
2', 347
42,117
35,925
2,447,257







34 REPORT OF GOVERNOR (m! THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTA NT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPALTRADE ROUTES-
Continued

1PI'IF F TI) ATLA.NTiC

[ I'nns of 2.240 pouniIsl


Weest coast Sni h America to east coast Canada.
M mineral oils.....
All other anld unIclasinf.. ........

Total .-- .- ----........- .- -

West coast South America to east coast Souirh America:

Sni nr. . .. .... .... ..... .
All IInt er an. i n i.-il-t ed. .I . . ----- -

T iral .. . .... . -----

esti coast South America to rriinohnl, C. 7

All other and in l.iiirl .......

Total. . ... .... ... .- -.... -

We'.I coast .'nliII America to West Indies:
Beans..... .......
M mineral ril ... .-.-
\i rn r of soda.... -. ... ... .....

All other and unclassified ..............

Tnt l . ....

West coast South America to Firm.p.i
Flarley . ....... -
nrans, iril --
('on t.n, raw .... .. .. ..

rnprr .. ----
,">i< .. ... ----- ... ..- ... .
M inerni oils...... .... ... .. .... ._.... .....
\itrlrp of soda.......- .............. ..-------....
Oilseeds.-.... ........ .. ....... .- .. .
Ore:
Popper .
Tninpr...
T in ------- ------ ..-- - ..-... .- ..
7inr
Other and unclassified.


All other in unlassified..- .. ..........


I\.rf coast 'iI IiI America to Africa:
\lf1 rlo of s .Ioda .- . .
All other and ifir l n ...


I 19-17



.. 8,423

. 4.12_3


1'isc l .11 r


1(11 t


1939


15..n 1216,461
l..l 5, 003

17.071 ( 1.12.34


12 111 7. 'i, i99
Ill. 0.078 I ifn7
10,1'Mi 4.-'.2 I 12.099

43. .4 13 41..'.'. 12.464


21n. lix

42."."'




.. 34,1 7
b12. 10-
Qj:


9. .21 I 93. 7
21.317 i 49.401

.1 *f; 1431 IRF


in. 2n

21. 13W
,...12,2
12.114


I,01*7 2. 17
12.W 4.'iralf
17..r. .51.. 27.. '

174,970 '9.5870
16,1672 11,177
A. 010 44.927
r'J.1S rA7. Wq C




18.312 18,893
1.937 9..41 8 11
115. 34 21 linq
11,878 1 7'9
40.925 11. WO
'5 182 41, 192

I W'7. 9.M | 70. 1.7.5


2nn1 Ti;'. 1 1. i;:
2. A41

2C*. Hi4. 1 11. li'


R.923
79i, 249
447

15. 284




3i. .120
.5. 320W
ns. 11 S

215. 36.1
2R.72?i
Nt. 3-1
r,-n. nmn

F15,013

21. R13
43. 823
42.492
2S.n073
29. 99
Q21
132. W13
13\. 4F.4

2. 4"1..S41
2.1 F1.I



24. 1 R
24. 1 8n


Hitl 1111 Islands to east coast United llrQ.ii .
fanned fruit.... .
11..I ....


12r. 7'7


i.. .1 lr
14. 1lf1


.n ar i 208. 2
\| ]other and 'iil:iiil.I .,...... 44,689 I.T44 9 I.I0

Total.-0......-.. .. 1..... ......... .0...... .. -l-.. .oi 101. 23 c61.8.7

Ilnaw :ll in IslandS to east onast I'niii.I (N. single outstand-
ing r.rTiirniilitY In this trade.)
UInwniIn Nilniit to F'iir..

Al other and Iunclassifled ..... .. ..

Tal .. ... 23Af 79. 174







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
Continued

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Australasia to east coast United States:
Ore:
Chrome -----------------------------
Manganese ------------------- --- --
All other and unclassified. ------------
Sand ----------------------------------.
Sk-ins and hides --------------------------
Wheat---.-------------------------------.
Wool..--- ...--------------------------.
All other and unclassified.----------------
Total. .---------------------------.


Australasia to east coast Canada:
Fruit, dried --- ----------------------------------------
Metal, scrap ---------. ----------------------
Sugar-----_-----------------------------
Wool. -------- ------ .- .----------------------
All other and unclassified ----------. ----------------
Total -------- --------------------------------

Australasia to Europe:
Canned food products------------------------------------
Copra--------------------------------------------------
Dairy products, refrigerated ------------------------------
Meat, refrigerated -------------------------------------
Metal:
Lead--- ----------------------------- ----
Other and unclassified------------------------------
Ore:
Chrome----------------------------------------
Zinc--------------------------------------------------
Other and unclassified ---------------------------
Phosphates------------------ ------------------
Skins and hides --------------------------
Sugar-----------..................................---------------------------
Tallow ---------------------------- -----------
Wheat....- -----.---- -------------------------------- .
Wool -------- --------------------.---- ------
All other and unclassified------. -------- ------------------
Total ----------------------.----.------- --------

Philippine Islands to east coast United States:
Coconut oil--------------------.-- ------ --------------
Copra--------------------------------------------------
Hemp, unmanufactured----------------------------------
Ore:
Chrome. .-------... -...--- ---- ------------
Other and unclassified -..---.- ....---------..---------
Sugar. .--------------------- ---------- ----------
All other and unclassified --------.------ ---------.-. ---
Total---------------------------------------------------

Asia 'recludine Philipjiinp T-andli trno iaisi front TTUnitil is1 ih-
Fish mea I ... .... .. .
Metal:
Lead.-...---..- ---------.-----...... ---...-....--
Zinc --------------------------.-------------
Oils, vegetable ..-.-. .. ----. ...----- ..------..--------
Ores various -----------------------.---------------------
Rubber, crude. --.- ---------------. ---------------
Silk, raw --- ------- -.-------.... --------..-. -----...---
All other and l..i l ....... . .. .
Total-- -------------- -- -- -- --- -- -- - --- --- ---
Asia (excluding Philippine Islands) to Europe:
Canned fish.. ._.---------- ----.--------.--------.-.
Soya beans...---------..-----. ------------------------
All other and inclassii .......... .. .
Total. --------------.-.--------------- .---------------.


Fiscal year


1947




8, 050

720
26,168
23,109
63
115,774
22,748
196,632


10,480
21, 564

19, 197
14,491
65, 732


30,142
58,975
183, 937
306,446

17,844
13,107

10,064
29, 937
12,694
35
13, 782
17,547
21,578

130, 132
61,444
907, 664


3,574
223,323
33, 739

64, 258
11,960

19, 341
356, 195



16,056
11,735
25.202
I.5. 11"II
33,471
1,428
52,594
156,166

--------------

2,922
2,922


1946




31,077

35,984
10,338
18,472
21,565
59,206
61,037
237,679


7, 157
- --------

13,317
11,471
31,945


2,345
4,310
60,287
192, 991

11,346
4,043

13,000
13,897
10,932
-------------
3, 074

8,616
28,644
13,303
91,024
457,812


--- -----------
- ------------
11,842

6,000


13,414
31,256



...- .........

10

17, 769
79
2,224
20,082

--------------
-------------
--------------
-------------


1939




8,744
24,518
7,019
1,076
16,540

13,375
15,727
86,999


11,485
----------- -
63, 816
5,074
7,171
87,546


4,681
82,147
145,913
168,720

13,078
2,143

5,500
16,526
16,525
87, 160
7,321
83,079
16,157
5, 326
68,886
36,632
759, 794


106,680
65, 531
15,588

18,650
8, 000
579, 691
124, 797
9Il.937


22,856

105
46
27,306
6,198
20,615
20,131
183,336
280, 593

50,364
224,621
88,063
363, 0M8


_ ~_~~


-------------
-------------
-------------
-------------






36 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


OCEAN PASSENGER TRAFFIC

The following tabulation shows by month the number of ocean
passengers, exclusive of transients, disembarking and embarking at
Canal Zone ports during the fiscal year 1947, segregated between
first-class and all others, with comparative totals for the fiscal years
1946 and 1939:


July. ... ..
August .
September...... .
October...
Norvemr'r
December..-......
January.
February. ..
March... ...

May.... .... .

Tutala, 1I7...
Total, 1946-...
Total., 1939..


I'tssringers liseinmbarkiing


F first
class

647
926
895
486
702
576
970
742
819
707
986


9,147
5. 726
19,073


0 1 Ohrs


44
75
4IR
206
15
21
18
27
76
289
35
5


859
422
16 ,368


Tural


691
1,001
943
692
717
597
988
769
895
080
742
991


10,006
6,148
35, 441


I'ua-cingirs embarking


Firm


736
490
625
Cr9A
730
521
005i
462
873
1,204
1, 126
998


Others


322'
293
626f
576
3m)3
245
244
22
73
601
113
23


I I I'


9,066
5.1933
18, 33


3. 914
I.5M4
16, 0


Tutal


1.058
783
1,251
1.272
1,096
76A
849
484
94R
1,805
1.239
1,021


12,570
6.769
35, 442


The following
of Cristobal and


table shows the passenger traffic through the ports
Balboa during the fiscal years 1947, 1946, and 1939:


Port of Cristobal Port of Balboa

1947 1946 1939 1947 1946 1939

Passenger disembarking----...-----.......-------...... 9.295 4,.210 26,799 711 1,938 8, 42
Passengers embarking. ----..--------------....... ....... 8,799 4.597 26,448 3,771 2,172 8,994



A further segregation of the passenger movement for 1947 shows
that 8,995 incoming and 8,573 outgoing passengers came from or were
destined to ports of the Atlantic, and 1,011 incoming and 3,997 out-
going passengers were brought from or were destined to ports of the
Pacific.

TRANSIENT PASSENGERS

In addition to th1 figures shown above of passengers disembarking
and embarking, there were 29,685 transient passengers brought to the
Tsthmus by vessels calling at Canal ports during the fiscal year 1947.
For lhe fiscal year 1946 there were 28,805, and in tlhe prewar year of
1939 the nunmbr was 114,053; the latter figure is almost four times
grli'lter than tli' nIllilll recorded for 1947.
The origin arid distinlaion of these transient. passengers aire indi-
catedi in Ihe following inhlaltion:


--- --


.. ............ .
- - - - - - -


-- -- -- -- -







]ILPURT OF GO'IEKRNOR OF THE PANAMAl. CANAL


Fiscal year

1947 1946 1939

Remaining on board vessels transiting Canal:
Atlantic to Pacific-----..-.___ -.... .... ......- 15,694 6,744 48,058
Pacific to Atlantic--..------------------ --- -- ------------ 13,019 21,328 30, 750
Remaining on board vessels entering port but not transiting Canal:
Atlantic to Atlantic ------------__ ......._ ._ _- -- ---.... 868 659 33, 996
Pacific to Pacific .. .- -......-- - ---_-----_ 104 74 1,249
Total----------------------------------------------- 29,685 28,805 114,053


Prior to the outbreak of the recent war, a great number of passengers
visited the Canal Zone as members of special tourist cruises, but these
cruises have been inactive since 1939. The bulk of this traffic was on
vessels calling at Cristobal which did not transit the Canal and is
reflected in the Atlantic to Atlantic movement in the table above.
Some resumption of the passenger services operated before the war
has been effected since the cessation of hostilities but, as will be noted
from the above table, the movement from one ocean to the other is
still far below the 1939 level.
The lack of passenger vessels has been partly responsible for the
relatively light movement of passengers in 1947, but it is also true
that travel by air has cut deeply into the ship tourist business.

SMALL TOLLS-PAYING VESSELS TRANSITING CANAL

Transits of small cargo-carrying vessels and other small miscel-
laneous craft of less than 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement)
or 500 displacement tons (for vessels rated on displacement tonnage)
are excluded from statistics on ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic,
although the vessels are not exempt from the payment of tolls.
Transit of these small vessels during 1947, 1946, and 1939, together
with the tonnage, tolls, and amount of cargo carried, are summarized
in the following table:

Fiscal year 1947 Total fiscal year

Atlantic:to Pacific to Total 1946 1939
Pacific Atlantic

Number of transits:
Rated on net tonnage.---------------. 437 410 847 280 913
Rated on displacement tonnage-----.----------- ----------. ------------ 5 1
Total transits-.-------------------... 437 410 847 285 914
Panama Canal net tonnage --------------- 26,934 21,646 47, 580 26, 594 45, 557
Displacement tonnage---------------------- ------------ ------------ ............ 1,970 180
Tolls.---.-------------------------. $19,628.02 $18, 230.76 $37,758.78 $22,713.16 $38,409.94
Cargo (tons)-----------.----.------- -------3,415 12,884 16,299 19,776 31,251


VESSELS ENTITLED TO FREE TRANSIT

Vessels operated in the Government service of the United States
and Republic of Panama, war vessels of the Republic of Colombia,
and vessels transiting solely for the purpose of having repairs made
at the Canal shops, are exempt from the payment of tolls, and such







38 l1.Pl'1'T (l- .niVl*.HINOI 01A THE PANAMIA CANAL

vessels are iot included in the general transit statistics pertaining to
Canal traflic.
Before the outbreak of the recent war, the number of vessels making
Canal transit free of tolls comprised but a relatively small part. of
Caal trafllic (less tlian 9 percent, in 1939). At the beginning of
hostilities there wais a r1a )idl expansion of such traffic and in 1946 a
total of .5i.554 t olls-f-ree vessels, or about 58 percent of total Canal
transit, made ('a11nll pa-sage. rin the past fiscal year (1947), the
first full year o peace-ti nme operation following end of hostilities, the
number of vessels entitled to free transit dropped to 1,265, or about
20 percent of tolni transit for the year.
The following tabulation shows for the past 2 years and for the
fiscal year 1939 the number of tolls-free vessels passing through the
Canal, their t onniage, tllh approximate amount of tolls to which they
would have been subject at the prescribed rates if tolls had been
charged against them, alnd the tonls of cargo carried by such vessels:

FisIal year 147 Total fiscal year

A[lniitic to L'iiiitiC lu T4. al it '6 19 Ea
I'rcilW- AllHiilic

Number of transit:
On rll 1 tu basi ....... ---------..-.-.. 421 449 870 3. 172 246
On .i'Ioplureilll l i tonnage basis........ 116 27U 395 2.3'2 418
'l'l transi ....---------------..-----....-- .. 7 1,265 5.554 664
I'niriiria t'41iil net -..------------... .. 1,008,703 GIL. 91j2 1. 1 .1 12, 664.743 5a3.2.17
D1 'jiZl-r-1 .111 . .. . .. ... . 1Q2. 45 1. 277, 26ti 1. 98 311 U. 423, 728 1, 670, 646
.\llA r i\rllrqit value of tOlls .------------.. . $1, 179. 6,4 $1, 126. 141 $2.305., 77 $15, 262. 07 $1.334. 420

CANAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
HoURS OF OPERATION
Dispatching of ships through the Canal is conducted on schedules.
Vessels awaiting transit. begin moving through the Canal from the
terminill ports at 6 a. il. and dispatches are made thereafter from each
terminus at intervals of from )2 to 1 hour. Tlhe following is a sum-
ImiIry of nrinoIl arrangements in effect at the end of tlie fiscal year.
From Cristobal IH1arbor, first ship at 6 a. iml., last at about 3 p. m.;
fronr Balboa uncliorage, first slip at 6 a. i., last at 3:30 p. m.
Tainikrs anid vessels carrying hazardous cargoes are dispatched at
the discretion of the port. captain and normally are not permitted to
prIoeed unless they can clear Gaillard Cut before dark.

LOCKAGES AND LOCK MAINTENANCE
OPERATING SCHEDULE OF LOCKS
Thenr were thi lee operating crews at all locks except. during the
over'lhniil period, whien five, and for a short period four, operating







HEPUJIT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


crews were in use at the Gatun Locks. The following operating
schedules were in effect at the locks on June 30, 1947:
Gatun:


Shift No.
Shift No.
Shift No.
Pedro Miguel:
Shift No.
Shift No.
Shift No.
Miraflores:
Shift No.
Shift No.
Shift No.


1: 7
IX:
2: 3


a. m. to
10 a. m.
p. m. to


8 a. m. to
9:30 a. m.
2 p. m. to

7 a. m. to
9:30 a. m.
3 p. m. to


3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
to 6 p. m.-8 locomotives.
11 p. m.-8 locomotives.

4 p. m.-8 locomotives.
to 5:30 p. m.-8 locomotives.
10 p. m.-8 locomotives.

3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
to 5:30 p. m.-8 locomotives.
11 p. m.-8 locomotives.


LOCKAGES

The number of lockages and vessels handled (including Panama
Canal equipment) is shown in the following table, by months, for the
fiscal year 1947, with corresponding totals for the previous 5 years:

Gatun Pedro Miguel Miraflores
Month
Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels

1946
July .---------------------------------- 475 640 498 695 491 683
August--.------------------------------ 425 542 440 595 440 593
September---- -------------------------- 338 428 360 525 355 534
October-------------------------------- 358 483 382 552 376 550
November------------------------------ 343 479 376 552 371 534
December.. ----------------- ---------- 379 553 399 570 394 575
1947
January------------------------------- 395 587 420 628 416 622
February-----------------------------. 392 522 420 568 411 560
March--...--- .-----.---- ------- 444 652 473 689 465 670
April.------ 435 551 461 615 446 593
May------.------------ ------- 446 624 459 625 457 634
June--------------------------------- 428 613 467 667 462 673
Total ----------------------------- 4,858 6,674 5,155 7,281 5,084 7,221
Fiscal year:
1942.----------------------- -----. 4,669 10,986 4,445 8,084 3,775 5,806
1943.----------------------------- 2,796 5,236 3,661 6,672 3,395 5, 934
1944---------------------------. --- 3,267 5,846 4,036 7,632 3,656 6,424
1945------------------------------ 5,261 9,201 6,268 12,334 5,635 10,097
1946------------------------------ 6,823 9,901 7,139 10,654 7,076 10,561


Both chambers were available for service at all three locks during the
year except during the period of the Atlantic Locks overhaul (de-
scribed in subsequent paragraphs) extending from January 5, 1947,
to April 17, 1947. From January 5 to March 4 the west chamber
was out of service and all traffic was routed through the east chamber,
while during the bala inc of the overhaul period the east chamber was
out of service and tnlffic was transferred to the west chamber.
Total lockages for the three locks were 28 percent under the number
handled in the previous year.








IcI*PuIltT lIi' ; li-l{*I ti l l. I Il II PAN.A1A (ANAL


The \ Hrrlige lillber if lockiELtVs inade daily and the average number
of vessels hanidlied per locknge during each of the past. five fiscal years
are shown in the following tabulalition:


A vrse r.nmtmher of lo es Acr number of vessels
pr *li per lo ikacu

I ro Mira- i I'.dro Miru-
il 'MuIIl lorus 11 Miuel l Uores

7. 7 10.0 9 *3 I 1 2 1 75
N 8.U 1.1 I U 7' u 1 TI'
S 14.4 17.1 1 4 71 1 7 I. I 7
S I 7 19.5 19 4 I V. I 4y 1 49
13.3 14.1 1.1 1 :1 1 II 1 42


IW4 .
194W
1947 ...


DELAYS TO SHIPPINGh

i. lort o|*)riill" llig *iIIllynv fillitiuIIed sIlloJildy throutighout the
Yuir (.cej|i fu1r II fiW illiilidelsit due to fullty optriltion or ininor fail-
ures of tciliplcilel Tlie f1lloi lg S1111111Iury iicludus all delays to
vessels wille tirinsitiigi the lucks due to Lthe incidelnts iniitiouned:


Slatun . ..... ...................
TI'drn M iu l .. . .. .. -.... ...-.----- ......--.........


Numil'er uf
lu.":nkagu
dvla3 ud


22
12
28
62


Aggrvegte
drilay caused
all lAs'els

1lr. M.
4 6
2 2-4

13 3L
I 8 g-
I 2 is


IMAINTI'ENANCE

ReI la r ilspectloI anid 1maintiience were continued for all locks'
mIaichinery ai( equipment. Rouline tests and inspections were
regularly carried out, with a view to detecting g weak points aind poten-
tial failures before break-downs occurred. Where inspection and
tests indicated that a mechanical or electrical part or device was in
need of replacement or repair, such replacement. or repair was made by
the operation and maintenance forces of thlie locks.
The study of the mo(ernizaition of the locks elect rical system, begun
during fiscal year 1946, was continued. A study of the modernization
of towing locomotives was begun during thle year. A project for
manufact ring six new towing locomot ives has been approved and the
Mechlanical Division is proceeding with the work.


--


l*'ivriil ya r






HiEPOIUT OF GOVERNUH? OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ATLANTIC LOCKS OVERHAUL
The overhaul of the Atlantic locks during the past fiscal year was the
first complete overhaul to be performed on any of the locks since 1939.
The work was begun on January 6, 1947, and was completed so that
both sides were in service on April 17, the total elapsed time being 101
days and the actual working time 85 days. The work was performed
on a two-shift basis, except for the rebearing work on miter gates which
was on a three-shift basis. Work was on a 6-day-a-week, 40-hour
week basis, with the exception of overtime authorized on the miter
gates and special protective works in order to coordinate this work
with the general overhaul.
The extra gold force employed for the overhaul totaled'235 employ-
ees, of whom 45 were brought from the United States and the remain-
ing 190 were borrowed from other divisions, transferred temporarily
from the Pacific locks, or employed locally. The extra silver force
necessary varied with the requirements, a maximum of 925 being
employed at one time.
During the overhaul period the Atlantic locks were operated on a
24-hour basis to accommodate shipping and to prevent undue delay
to transiting vessels. A brief r6sum6 of the work performed is given
below.
Eight miter-gate leaves were raised and rolled out for the renewal of
all bearing plates, pintles, pintle bushings, yoke bushings and pins;
This was the first time since 1935 that gates have been removed for
rebearing work at the Atlantic locks.
The 56 rising stem and 6 guard valves were removed, and were
replaced with 36 valves after being repaired and 26 spare valves.
The usual replacements were made of side and top seals, roller-train
track liners on valves and in pits, and front wearing pads. Some
new wall tracks were installed due to excessive corrosion. New
roller trains were made up and installed as required, using 160 new
guide bars and 3,500 bronze rollers. Six new valve stems were
installed.
Horizontal seals, hydraulic buffers, and split trombone extensions
were installed on the east emergency gate to complete the work
omitted during construction. Both gates were placed on support
beams for inspection, painting, and other miscellaneous work.
Pipe was imbedded from the east and west side wall culverts to
the chamber near the north caisson.seats. This will permit pumping
directly from the side wall culverts and eliminate the long run of
suictioni pipe to the first side-wall lateral culvert.
Bitumastic solution and enamel were applied to miter gates, rising
stem valves, cylindrical valves, bulkheads, screens and other mis-
cellaneous steel parts.


770698--48---4







Ji.'O( l lT iM ii 'l*)\ I((l{ u) 'iHE P.ANAMA (CANAL


POWER FOR CANAL OPERATION


STheIl table below simiinniarizes
tlie electric power r grIiieratid by
for th le past three fiscal years:


WrOsS I-ower erl tr.il. l
(intun hydro ITr iirii


ToUali .rri. .1 ..
Consurnedl illn i.lIIni -i rvi
Net grnerilor ..ili' ....
TrIn rLihl.<>ii' 1.--'
I't-rLiu II
PI'ek load kiI.0 .L
i)ute ..........

I J *, .. 1 ., 1147.


and gives pertinent data relative to
tht- power system of the Canal Zone


l-17 |


'.1. >'. I. j
] 1 II. 9,4N"


21'. -'i* 12''

2l, 1i.5,323
It., :TO
I '. l


**- ------- ----- 1

2* il. ;L LL i5.


I i ijl ":,IA

2.71. 43". .112

220. 1 5. I5N
0d Pr
11. 42


1945


iVI. W3. 1I)
65i.. 4IVU.U)I
12. 77tH. 7UO0
h1. I7u. 600
*'. lIt;. 023
.ti. 73.1. 577
.*!3fi.3IPt, 174
J11. 4C5. 403
11 41
47.3Uj)


The No. 5 and No. 6 gCIIenratiilg uniits in the Catii1n h11ydroelectric
station were put intu regular service in October 1946 and April 1947,
respectively.
Units Ngos. 1 and 2 at the M11ddrii hydroelectric station were
shut. downi, dismantled, andl ciiipletely overhauled during the year.
New t.urbhine runners wire in-tlllld, all weLring surfaces and bushings
replaced or r4silrf 1.-11 d, ;nd 111 i units Iestlred to su bstaitially new
coidit iOlln.
Thlie operation o(if th- No. 3 iinit. at lite \lirallores Diesel-electric
station, which \\s Is alis lli l during the fiszial eaur 1946 continued
to be iinsatisfaclory. Thi unit i receiving ig reful study and there
aret indientiiins that it can iltii iiinitly be made to operate reliably.
During the year service was telliiporirily ilnterrupted at various
s1l)lsiiiols o(11 Seven di hilr'nlit occISIul'ls. There were 27 transmission
line failures duIring (tlh y3iar, of which 8 'were caused by lightning
SIl1sh-ver, 9 vy ainiinal oemitact, 2 by kites and wires on the line, 2 by
ci('itrol or relay malfuiincliii, 1 by Inecllianical l failure of insulator,
1 bi nuJi;r(iing error, andi 4 by unklilliown causes.

W\AT :I Sl I Pl'1'LY AND CEN:ERA.L WlEATHER CONDITION

WATER SL'PPLY

Tlhi 8iitIr JIliViiif i (its of The 1i1Paimn Canal for hydroelectric
pIwI'rr, mnid .g, illu iniilmi[l use Ire supplied Ily Madden and
(;ltrill l .ll .krs l lill 1 i li\0 11 dra in an i 1 Of 1 I,2,'S9 squnar miles.
.\ll niltl il friomii M:1ild' Laikc, wlItli'r s)illetl at MIadden Dam or
drawn fur- uise of Ihe liIMaddiii l ivilIIrilcli station( flows into C1atun
Lnake alnd, t1'ethirr withl tli dirclT inllow from tlie are downstream
frilli \hM iLli 111'il i, i-i iuvail ul.l er for (1a till Lakei Iuses. The t(Ital


FPkal \ ar


___________ :~:-:4-41


::::


- - - - -- - -- -


r tc~l.:l, 3a46,







HIEPil'T OF GOVERNOR OF 1'11L PANAMA CANAL 43

flow into Madden and Gatun Lakes during the year ended June 30,
1947, amounted to 168,824 million cubic feet, which is 19 percent
below the average inflow for the 33 years since the formal t ion of Gatun
Lake. Evaporation losses from Madden and Gatun Lakes totaled
23,645 million cubic feet, leaving 145,179 million cubic feet available
for use. The source and expen!iditure of this water, together with
comparable data for the preceding year, are itemnized in the following
tabulation:


Million cubic feet. year Pe oful
ended June 30 water supply, year
ended June ended June 30

--1947 1946 1 71946
1947 1946 1947 1946


MADDEN AND GATUN LAKE WATER SUPPLY
Direct flow into Madden Lake------------------------ 78. 787 81, 751 ---
Evaporation from Madden Lake---------------------- 2,395 2,432 -.-


Available for Madden Lake uses ---------- ---
Direct inflow into Gatun Lake .-------------------
Subtotal-----------.--------------------
Evaporation from Gatun Lake ----------- ----------
Available for Gatun Lake uses _---------------
MADDEN LAKE WATER EXPENDITURES
Madden hydroelectric power---..- -.-.-.-- ..-------
Madden spillway discharge ---------.----------------
Change in Madden Lake storage _--- -------------


76.392 79,319 ----- ---------
90,037 111,848
166,429 191,167 -----__ ------ -
21.250 21,087 ---------
145,179 170,080 -.--------- ---- --


63, 243 65, 968 82.8 83. 2
14,720 12,832 19.3 16.2
-1,571 +519 -2.1 +. 6


Total Madden Lake expenditures--------------- 76, 392 79, 319 100.0 100.0
GATUN LAKE WATER EXPENDITURES
Gatun hydroelectric power---------. ------------------- 65, 648 62, 340 45.2 36.6
Gatun and Pedro Miguel lockages --------------------- 36, 817 52.000 25.4 30.6
Municipal and other uses----------------------.----- 3,108 3,249 2.1 1.9
Subtotal Gatun Lake uses---..---------------- -- 105, 573 117, 589 72.7 69.1
Gatun spillway discharge ---------------------- ----- 35,967 54.589 24.8 32.1
Change in Madden and Gatun Lake storage----------- +3,639 -2.098 +2.5 -1.2
Total Gatun Lake expenditures----.--.----------- 145, 179 170,080 100.0 100.0


Storms and floods.-No storms occurred during the year with wind
velocities high enough to cause any material damage to Canal struc-
tures. There were no rains of sufficient extent and durattion to
produce flood conditionsjof any'great magnitude on Madden and
Gatun Lakes. The only approach to a general flood occurred on
December 9, 1946, but the heavy rains did not extend downstream
from Madden Dam and continued foronmly] about 1 day. Mtdden
Dam drum gates were lowered to cirvit ion 246 feet, with the maximum
discharge of the year down Ith Chagres River clinnllel at Alhnljulai of
47,920 cubic feet per second. The maximum discharge at Gatun
spillway during the year was 94,648 cubic feet per second on November
30, 1946.
Dry season, 1947.-The 1947 dry season was somewhat longer and
dryer tlan usual, with dry season weather lasting from about the
middle of December to the middle of May. The total inflow into


------------









Madden aind Gatun Lakes during the 4-monthi period, January to
April inclusive, was 22 pIrceint below the 34-year average for the
same [)ii)d. The peri ld during which the flowinto Madden and
(iLt 111 ILakes was insullicienit Ito provide water for evaporation losses
from lake surfaces and f')r- Piinama Canal uses extended from Decem-
her 31, 1946i, to May 20, 1947, a totil of 141 days. Tihe total inflow
into \11adden airld niiln 1111 uikes during this 141-day period was I18,612
million cuibic. feet. Waiter expendit 11 ures for the same period amounted
to 40,206 million hubic feet, consisting of 11,718 million cubic feet
evaporation loss frmin litke surfaces, and Gatun Lake water use of
;37,4,S million cnubic feet. The dry-season draft on lake storage
amlounllitd to :11),.T.1 4 iiilliini crublic feet, of which 14,373 million cubic
feet were ldrwr frimii mlhlden. Lake anid 16,221 million cubic feet
frori ( IIn In Li ku'.
Lake hprqlli'u.-During tlie fiscal year ended June 30, 1947,
Madl de11 Lak \ Iriled inn iV cViiOil biweVIL 8 ini.xinIlunI of 2I53.09 feet
1on Driihbrir 9, l i (, n6 iid a liniiulii(i o(f 217.22 fee t on June 3, 1947,
a total ninge of 317.87 feet. Gatun Lake I varied in elevation between
al30)ll uixrinn of 197.21 feet NoVIllcber 30, 194l6, and a minimum of
S3.23 feet on April 2-., 1947, IL total range of 3.98 feet. Elevations onl
1June 30, liJ47, were 222.74 feet for M1addeni Lake and 83.77 feet. for
Gatun Lake.
Iiiinf'all.-Du iring the fiscal year ended June :30, 1947, the rainfall
int tlie Cinal Zone wais considerably below normal along the Pacific
coast and in the interior, and close to normal or slightly above near the
Atlantic coast. Along the line of tlhe Canal (channel, alnuual totals
ranged from a miniimumi of 55.46i inches at Balboa mear the Pacific
terminal to a maximum of 133.13 inches at Cristobal near the Atlantic
terminal. Thle month of maximum rainfall varied from July to
DecIember, depending upon thie location. The maximum monthly
amount recorded during the year was 26.71 inches at Cristobal in
December 1094G. The month of least rainfall was March 1947, with
monthly totals ranging from no measurable amounts at several
stations to 1.40 inches' at Monto Lirio.

AIR TEMPERATURES

Air temporal ures in the Canal Zone during the fiscal year averaged
at fraction of a degree above normal. There was little variation in
temperature throughout, the year, no monthly menn at, any station
departing more tlin 2.40 F. from the annual mean. Annual means
amd extremes iat Canal Zone stations for the fiscal year are given in
the following tabulatio(n:

1.1I7 maximum 1947 minimum
S, _______________ 1947 mean rDeparture
(ae F.) (a(F.)
Date *F. Date
Ialjoa elhLq . .1 1. A ;r. 15.1947 i.9 Aug. 22 104i 79. 1 +0.8
Madden Darn .......... .. .. 9i Feb. 20. 19Y47 i5 Jan. 6.1947 78.2 +0.1
Cristobal .... ..l. i ifct. 4, I'MG TU Feb. 16.11447 79. 8 -0-3


Hl-.PlORT (IF il I.H.M.Ni W1- 'I 111E P.ANAMA CANAL





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Annual extremes and means on record at the above stations are
as follows:

Absolute maximum Absolute minimum Annual
Station ----- mean
OF. Date OF. Date OF.)

Balboa Heights ----------- 97 Apr. 28, 1946 63 Jan. 27,1910 78.8
Madden Dam 98 Apr. 13, 1920 59 Feb. 4,1924 77.6
Jan. 30,1909
Cristobal -------------------------------- .. 95 Oct. 18,1924 66 Dec. 3.1909 80.1
Mny 21. 1925

WINDS AND HUMIDITY

Wind velocities for the fiscal year averaged 7 miles per hour at
Balboa Heights on the Pacific coast and 10 miles per hour at Cristobal
on the Atlantic coast. Monthly Inmcan velocities at Balboa Heights
ranged from 4 miles per hour in June to 10 miles per hour in March.
Monthly miieii velocities at Cristobal ranged from 6 mils.'-"per hourin
June to 14 miles per hour in April. The most frequent directions
were northwest along the Pacific coast and northeast along the
Atlantic coast. Maximum velocities for 5-minute periods were 26
miles per hour from the south on December 15, 1946, at Balboa
Heights and 26 miles per hour from the north on February 15, 1947,
at Cristobal.
The relative humidity averaged 84 percent at both Balboa Heights
and Cristobal. Monthly means at Balboa Heights ranged from
76 percent in March to 90 percent in September, and at Cristobal,
from 80 percent in January to 88 percent in June.

TIDES

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1947, absolute tidal ranges at
Canal terminals were 20.7 feet on the Pacific coast and 2.4 feet on
the Atlantic coast. At Balboa, the Pacific terminal of the Canal,
the following extremes occurred: Highest high water 9.9 feet above
mean sen level, lowest low water 10.8 feet below mwan sea level,
with the greatest range between consecutive tides 20.2 feet. At
Cristobal, the Atlantic terminal of the Canal, the following extremes
occurred: Highest high water 1.66 feet above mean sea level, lowest
low water 0.80 foot below mean sea level, with the greatest range
between consecutive tides 2.08 feet.

SEISMOLOGY
Three ecirthquake shocks were felt by Canal Zone residents during
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1947. The seismograph records indi-
cated that the epicenters of all three shocks were at a distance of
40 to 50 miles from Balboa Heights. All were light and caused no
damage in the Canal Zone area. The most. intense shock occurred
on July 12, 1946, at 3:05 p. in., 75th miieridiaii time. Tt was rlit ed






REPORT OF GOVERNOR R OF TIK- PANAMA CANAL


intensity III on the Modifieid Nlercalli Scale. The other two occurred
on October 19, 19460, at 2:47 p. In., and December 10, 1946, at 11:13
p. m., respectively, andl were rented at. intensity I.

M .AURIN ACTIVITII*-S

Marine activities \\ere at a reduced Ievel in the fiscal year 1947
by reason of a p;v:.5 Iperceent decrease in traffic in comparison with the
previous fiscal yeiar. Tlls is more fully discussed earlier in this report
under "Statist ics on Canl Traffic."'
Following tlie set tletient of a threatCened maritime strike in the
ITnitei States in .TiInie 194i, a large number of ships were dispatched
to the CInmIIl wiliiii a short. period of time, resulting in an abnormally
lIheavy conceIl*Iinil of vessels ntt. the Camnal terminals during the
early part of ti i fiscal year. During the period July 4-7, 1946,
931 vessIels rriV4d for transit, in at ldition to 13 Government craft..
On .Tiuly 4, 2.; Iiips arriveil for transit at Cristobal alone. Proba bly
(lrii a Ili-ll'lerstIandii, tie delay which naturally ensued in
dispel l 'Iiii ir 'III or these vessels through the Canal was the subject.
of priot-ti on the p:irt of some ste.namship operators. It was erron-
couisly rni tildl rrmi in one solurle that. the Canal would not transit
ShIlps on S;t 1a l;Is alnd Sundliays.

HARBOR ACTIVITIES

The taiile fl'loi\\in shows the number of vessels handled at docks
of the teriniimil ports of Cristobal and Balboa for the fiscal year 1947
us o'illpii red with the two previous years:

'risiot.:il fiIal year Balboa fiscal year

1147 1411 1M915 14 6 1945

Nim rit.. r .- '*. -1-- .1.l ked
II iI11lIrIL vI.- ri rs .ir '1.r r j'1r . 1.i'YU 1 119 1, 221 5113 513 801
I .,r ill ,i r purlpw . .. ... ~1 241 3 172 2, bl C5 2.053 2, 183
I..i .... 2. 2, 4 4.321 1,035 1 1,67 2.571 2, 984

AIDS TO NAVIGATION

On Jiunir ;n0. 1047, there were 747 aids to navigation in service in
the Panaml a ('nn;ial 1Ind1 its approaches, maintained by the Aids to
Navialiin NSldivision a;nd cln.sified as follows: Acetylene gas-
0opIi;Li d, I1i1; 'leH riially operated, :340; nmilighted, 298. Included
in Ihe Ii ivi a Ir tWo : ,ittoniatic acetylenie gfs-operated Iiglit loses,
loIalld at Mor ro P1ueros nd 14lat. Jicarita Island onl the coast of
Paimiiim in the Pacific approachli. Two visits were made to these
lii'Zi 10ii''^-1 duriiiing thie year for thlie purpose of inspecting and servic-
iwn, the v'ilimenetif.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ACCIDENTS TO SHIPPING

The board of local inspectors investigated and reported on 16
accidents to shipping in Canal Zone waters during the fiscal year
1947, a summary of which follows together with a comparison of
accidents in the two previous years:

Fiscal year
Cause of accident
1947 1946 1945

Collision------------- -------------------------------------------- 4 11 13
Ship struck lock wall --------------------------------------------- 6 7 13
Ship struck dock .--------- -----------------------------------. 1 4 6
Ship grounded------------------------------------------------ --------- 3 --------.--
Ship damaged by tug---------------------------------------- -- 1 -------- 2
Ship struck Canal bank ---------.--------------------------------- 1 2 3
Other causes------------ ------------------------------ --------- 3 7 13
Total---------------------------------------------------- 16 34 50

INSPECTIONS

Complete inspections were made of the hulls, power plant, and
equipment of 28 American and 20 foreign vessels and certificates of
seaworthiness issued. Fifty-three hulls of commercial, Panama
Canal, and Panama Railroad vessels were inspected in drydock.
Thirty-eight steam boilers were inspected and certificates issued.
Ninety-two air tanks and 20 CO2 fire-extinguishing systems were
inspected. Annual inspections were made and pertinent certificates
issued to 172 motor boats.
ADMEASUREMENT

Admeasurement activities during the fiscal year 1947, as in the
fiscal year 1946, were characterized by a heavy work load due to the
arrival of many newly constructed vessels and the remeasurement
of many vessels necessitated by their reconversion from war to peace-
time purposes.
SALVAGE AND TOWING

During the fiscal year 1947 the following off-shore work was per-
formed by the marine division tugs for private interests:
On July 8-9, 1946, the tug TaIrii'ila. assisted to the port of Cris-
tobal the S. S. S. Frnnt nar which had become disabled at sea; on March
27, 1947, the Ta'n r n illa made a short trip to sea to assist to Cristobal
the disabled S. S. Esso MfiYntprlier. The tug Gorpgona was dispatched
to the assistancceof S. S. Urmi-ir'. July 16-21, 1946,fand the'M. S.
Mashuk, August 29-30, 1946. The tug Favorite was dispatched to
the assistance of the S. S. Vianna February 24-25, 1947, and the S. S.
Royal Oak, February 2S-Manr-1h[6, 1947. mp
The tug Farnorie was used in the following towing operations:
Towing of 4 barges from Balboa to Buenaventura, Colombia, Sep-






48 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

timber 8--12, 1946; towing of two barges from Cristobal to Puerto
Cabezas. Nicaragua, September 12-20, 1946; towing of two barges
(two launches on deck) from Cristohal to Barranquilla, Colombia,
September 26- 30, 1946. Tle Farorite left Balboa on December 3,
194I, with material destined for Masachapa, Nicaragua, and assisted
in the installation of an off-shore pipe line at that. point, returning to
the Isthmus on D)eccmber 23, 1946.
The tug Tairirnilla towed a houseboat, and tug from Cristobal to
Barranquilla, Colomnbiil, September 26--30, 1946.

oIJER-ATION' OF TUGS

Two tugs, th1e Lmwin and Taboyga, acquired from the United States
Navy, wert delivered at Cristobal on.March 25), 1947, and will be
placed in service of the marine division early in the fiscal year 1948.
The LTmi'n will be used as a harbor tug, replacing the U. S. Tartrn illa
which fuis been in service since 1907. The Taboqgi will serve as a
lightl'ho use t11ender, off-shonr towhl ont and as a rescue and limited
salvage vessel, replacing the U. S. S. Farnrite which has rendered for
almost 40 vveirs excellent service in tending lights and hbuoys and
in off-shore towing and salvage operations.
The following statistics summarize the service of tugs used in nari r
activities (as disti nct from dredging) during the past three fiscal


(piin-rating hours, fiscal year Jobs handled, fiscal year

1947 1946 1945 1917 1946 1 1945

Crilohd. . -i- -- 5,708 10(665 i12.llf 4,788 3.1, 6 9.325
IItll.. .. .. 4,213 15,649 19.819 2,486 6, 7211 8.791
Tot1 1 9.921 2 14 ? :2.. 15 7.274 in. 5., 1. 116

Thie above laidle does not include statistics for tugs which were oc-
cisioniiilly iorrowed from dredging service to assist vessels during
clle'rgc'lli It doeS inli e dredginig service tuigs riited over
Ipelrio1; of tinie awiil operated iiuler orders of the Manriine Division.
1M \ I I FN\ N4 OF OF C\N NN l--OTHER DREDGIN( Au'CTIVIrTI S:

D)redgi werei operated throughout the year on the maintenance of
Tlie C('1anal caliiinne l, terminal ha rlbors, and(1 on various special projects.
Ill 1947 tlie total inaterial excavated amounted to 9,1i84,800 cubic
ynirds. which was 31 percent, less than the amount removed in the
pIe\lils Iriscal Vifmr.







REPORT OF GOVERNOtR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Excavation during the year is summarized in the following table:

Location Earth Rock Total

Canal prism dredging: Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards
Atlantic entrance, maintenance-------------------------- 205,300 0 205,300
Gatun Lake, maintenance----------------------------. 293,900 0 293,900
Ojillard Cut, maintenance, iiinlii.liiig slides-----.------ 306,600 52,0(10 358,600
Gaillard Cut, project No. 13.------.--------------------- 160, 700 251,100 411,800
Pacific entrance, maintenance ---------------------------- 37,000 0 37,000
Pacific entrance, project No. 1-B._---..-------------------- 17,000 0 17,000
Total, Canal prism. ..-----.--------.-------- .-----_ 1,020,500 303,100 1,323,600
Auxiliary dredging:
Cristobal Harbor:
Outer harbor, west anchorage------------------------ 2, 234, 500 0 2, 234, 500
Harbor approach channel.. ------------------------- 1,961,700 185, 500 2,147,200
Inner harbor, maintenance-.----------------------- 133,500 0 133,500
Colon fill ------ ----------------------------------.---- 1,867,800 676,800 2,544,600
Colon Corridor road fill-------------- ------------------ 476,800 410,000 886,800
Silver City fill ----- --------------------- 21,600 88,000 109, C00
Deep drilling and blasting test, New Gatun Locks bypass
channel, north approach -------------------------. --- 2,700 10,300 13,000
Balboa harbor, maintenance ----------------------------- 4,000 1,000 5,000
Balboa harbor, project No. 1, extension No. 4 ------------ 103,800 81,900 185,700
Total auxiliary----------------------------------... 6, 806, 400 1, 453, 500 8,259,900
Third Locks dredging-New Miraflores Locks bypass channel:
South approach.---------------------------------------- 26,500 74,800 101,300
Total, Third Locks------------------------------.--- 26,500 74,800 101,300
Grand total:
Fiscal year 1947.--------------------------- ------ 7,853,400 1,831,400 19,684,800
Fiscal year 1946 -------- ------.. ----------------- 12,105,100 1,846,700 113,951,800

I In addition 34,520 cubic yards of Cham6 sand were produced in fiscal year 1947 and 36,755 cubic yards in
1946.

Dredging operations are divided into three major districts: the At-
lantic district extending from contour 42 feet below mean sea level in
the Atlantic Ocean to Gatun Locks; the Central district, extending
from Gatun Locks to Pedro Miguel Locks; and the Pacific district,
extending from Pedro Miguel Locks to contour 50 feet below mean
sea level in the Pacific Ocean. The total excavation in these three
areas, exclusive of Third Locks excavation, is summarized as follows:

District
Total
Atlantic Central Pacific

Canal prism: Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards
Earth----------------------------------- 205,300 761,200 54,000 1,020,500
Rock-------------------------- ---------------------- 303,100 303, 100
Total------------------------------- --- 205,300 1,064,300 54,000 1,323,600
Auxiliary:
Earth-----------.----------------------- 6,698,600 ---------- --- 107,800 6,806,400
Rock------------------------------ ------ 1,370,600 ------------- 82,900 1,453,500
Total---------------------------------- 8,069,200 ------------- 190,700 8,259,900
Total (exclusive of Third Locks):
Earth--...------------------------------ 6,903,900 761,200 161,800 7,826,900
Rock----------- -------------------------- 1,370,600 303,100 82,900 1,756,600
Grand total:
Fiscal year 1947----------------------- 8,274,500 1,064,300 244,700 19,583,500
Fiscal year 1946-----------------------.. 6,421,000 965,100 4,630,500 112,016,600

I Does not include Chagres River gravel or Chame sand service.






II'ilT OF l.rVI(Ii, l)1 1I'11I:. P1ANAM1A CANAL


OIl DI \ Y V I I.NN II. 1M 1 1' I \ \ \ ,I C N \N1. 'ISM 1)It F 1 IN(G

ATI.A NTlt 1 i1N ItHII T

th'i i' ,it/i*fiirx.-M \1:iinl ilii' (Icdrodlgill onl tIe Atlantiic entrance
sectiotliL of tOhe C1(aiLI elhili.i] %.IIs i progress 12% days dutrinig the year
b) t li pi)pe)'-IiIu s1iction dlrld-r Lbis I 'nI. 5s, wlhii1i rCnlllOve i a total of
205().,30) cubilc yard., f lr ii.


frlltiun Lkl.-' .-\ n1111l of 2!I9l.00ll) ( cl'ic yiirId of alrtli was rnelloved
in Ilitiiiititiniig i llc ( atl liti L:il svii'ii of lII (.'11 inal chain l. This
tdrelginig w as IlTrfMrille 1 h le pipe-li ie suct it n dredge Las Cruc(ts,
Which \\iis i1111lViil't 22 dIlvv 1111 tli1 \\nrk.
n ilerolI u t.- A\ lIut:Il of 3-iSdi(( ( llhi c liirads of material was
removed in iia:iiii :Lili'jl ( mi LI-rd Cult. 'Iliis (reiging wals performed
by tlit' dipprtr dIrcd I d --, whlili a; Ithe wor<.
Pri', ot .Vo. 18. Tli pr-j.ri whih ce >iis-i, of widt-ning Culebra
ReIs*li li v 20(0 fet to the Wilt H iil, W;1s l-tarldui in ramTiiary 1935 and
lills 16 riI ro tii liii' on ;il -)\\-pirir*Ili llt I.li' si1 c tliit tim e. A total
of 224,;:uil) c yiird of mk r li%\i,11 IIruie by shore ininuilig; and
2fiS,(i;(i(o vu1ic -:Lli! of niateriil, cu ii.-i- (i_ of 171,0 0 cubic yards of
m1iPd U14 1ii t 9 ,11l0i i CIl)ic y rd i dl vIt!'thl, \\'er sluiced into tlhe
( 'iu l p i ill to be riol> tI bly rI' Iil\- tlf re igiu Op)lerldtilo s. During
1947 dipper drui 1g` e\c;LVaLtsd a totil of 411,S00 cubilic yards from
thiis project, as follow-"

Yur'lrap, ired'ced

SEarth Rock Total


S l . . . . . . .
------- --- ---------------
Paraiw........................ ........ III

1710,00 cub'- %! ril. uilri, I '..i"l cubile ir-l unmnina .
S4.2t01 eUble .ird.ls ini.'l; l. ."illI e bilC yards u nineiR.d
PAC I1 FI DISTICT 1


144.400 1 215.4ii 3.i9.800
1';.30)0 5, 700 22.U
1101, 70i1 | -2'1. 100 411, 00
____ t _______


P/(ifi;(( n1trnlice, l Ni,1 W .-a -4-. total of 37,000 cubic yards of
Irirtll i1 W is P IliovCd ll IIIn tll lil il lill 1* hl Pd ii elitrallte section of tl le
C(ilnd 11;iiiint*. This drcd*iing Was piiforitlld lby the dipper dredge
( f/I%'CI//s, \whlich \\ ;i.s epII)y0ed 12X dt:Lys oil the work.
P .r1f /, fr'utr,1 pirf I -J. -A tot al of 17,000 cubic yards of earth
wlll d'rdial oil hi projrrt luring 1047. Tlie dredging was performed
by I he dippll d) rrdlifltri, (01.,40iiii].\, W w10 1I-; em1IpIl ye'd41 (12-ays 0o1 (IIP

Al "X1l.1 \R DItl.DG ING OTI1. It IPHOJI-iTS

ATI I NTIC' DISTRICT

(rsl.R Jal iv nillf ( r ir 'rr,f i Ih'|' ili-I i ijc-li sulltio ll e d i La ('nice uf.
worIkoud 97 dl:iyv 1IIliiL' I'V117 111 ceiuvdll 2,23-4,500 ulibic yardIS Or






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Gristobal approach channel.-Dredging of the Criitobal approach
channel, Cristobal inner harbor, was in progre-s 98% days during the
year. A total of 2,147,200 cubic yards of in;.tTerial was removed,
details of which follow:
Yardage dredged
Equipment worked


Earth Rock

Las Cruces-----------------.-----.------------------- 55% 1,300,200 21,000
Mindi------------------------------------------- 424 661, 500 164, 500
Total---------- ----------- --------------------- 984I6 1,961,700 185,500


Total
1,321,200
826, 000
2,147, 200


Cristobal inner harbor.-Maintenance dredging in Cristobal inner
harbor was in progress 6 days during the year by the pipe-line suction
dredge Mindi. A total of 133,500 cubic yards of earth was removed.
Colon fill.-The pipe-line suction dredge Mit1ull worked 198}k days
in Manzanillo Bay, dredging niate.rial required to make a fill on the
undeveloped portion of Manzanillo Island for the Republic of Pain;iiiisa.
The fill is to be used in connection with the extension of the Colon
town site. The dredge excavated 2,544,600 cubic yards of mllt erial,
including 676,800 cubic yards of unmined coral rock and 1,867,800
cubic yards of earth.
Colon Corridor road fill.-The pipe-line suction dredge J111d4; worked
95% days in the southern portion of Folks River, Mlzriianillo Bay,
dredging material required to make a fill for the Colon Corridor road
for the Republic of Panama. The dredge excavated 886,800 cubic
yards of material, which included 410,000 cubic yards of unmined
rock and 476,800 cubic yards of earth.
Silver City fill.-The pipe-line suction dredge /'in/li worked 9
days in the southern portion of Folks River, dirdging material to
make a fill adjacent to Silver City. The dredge excavated 109,600
cubic yards of material consisting of 88,000 cubic yards of unmined
rock and 21,600 cubic yards of earth.
Deep-drilling test, New Gatun Locks by-pass channel, north approach.
-Derrick Barge No. 157 was in service 54 days operating as a clam-
shell dredge in the New Gatun Locks by-pass channel, north approach,
in the experimental deep drilling and blasting test for the special
engineering division. The derrick barge excavated a total of 13,000
cubic yards of material which consisted of 10,300 cubic yards of mined
rock and 2,700 cubic yards of earth.
PACIFIC DISTRICT
Balboa Harbor, ma inltenaincc.-Maintenance drdctlin in Balboa
Harbor was in progress 1 dny during the year by the dipper dredge,
Cascadas, which ex(anvNautud 5,000 cubic yardil of material, of which
1,000 cubic yards were uiunmitedl rock and 4,000 cubic yards were
earth.
Balboa Harbor, prujc.'l No. 1, extension No. i.-The dipper dredge
Cascadas worked 66 days on this project. A total of 185,700 cubic
yards of material was removed, of which 74,900 cubic yards wv're
mined rock, 6,000 cubic yards unmined rock and 103,800 cubic yards
earth.







.5)2 REPORT O(F I.OVERNOII IIF TIH PANAMA CAN ALI

THIRP IAICK-. D(EDGMIN
I)rIdgiIIg )(peltillons il1i Il Tliir Tn Locks project were continued
during first 2 months of thll liscal yrvar. Work was performed
only oni tihl New MlinillorI- Loicks by-pLss channel, south approach.
During August 9.l-ii ti \\h work oni wet xclavationl. Third Ijocks
project, was sliiprI j1iiiiitg 1 lir rsilts of studies iitliorize/.d )by
the SivCnty-rilul l ri ( 'viivr1-. of th1 i I i i(ttle 1111Sta der Public Law 280.
Details of tliI tlredging pirforinid on tlie New Mliiralloirs Locks
by-pu 4s cli1iiiriii, i0tl 1i |rolinrli'll, 11ar us follows:

YLurduge drdti*.l
worked
F.arth Rock 'I iilal

S-ii.i'-. ..- -- 25,- 00 .2 Wi. 400 82. 000
Paraiso...................~ --- L x. AI 14i. 4 lU I,300
l 1 ~..l~.il..;j....-,". 26,500 74.*10 101, JOI

Thie I iial e.xciivationi to date from the south approach channel is
9,25.4,911() cnbic yards. The by-pass (lAnui l was 88.7 percent com-
p)letvil :ti the end of the year.

I.-1 lMI N.\ CANAL STU DI ES (PU ItLIC LAW NO. 280)

Conr .suiiplcs were takeni in widely scattered areas along the
prnsviit Caiinal, the Gatun-Chorrera route and the Laga rtn-Chorrera
routV. A total of IS18 holes, with a combined depth of 45,444 feet,
was drilled.
SLIDES
Excavation from slides in aillard Cut from June 30, 1913, to June
3011, 191)i, totaled 51,9903,900 cubic yards. No slide material was
exeavri.-l in (.aillard Cut during the past fiscal year. Slide activity
trlirliiAlitit t1lie COlt was generally imiuchi less t han in mpreviotus years.
('iilbra Slidte (West) continued to be the most active of the slides,
Sillti a chararetc ristic slow and steady movement throughout tlie year.
hicore iiiingiil was in progress for 173 l days and 7,400 cubic yards of
roc'k were brkni. Small movements were observed in one other slide
arrti diiiii l liet- year. Numerous small bank breaks occurred which
werr ill I11it r111 to mIonvemlent s of no consequence. Thlere was no
Sitllrfriire with shipping on ancouint of slides during the year.

SIIlDIAR1Y DREDGING DIVISION ACTIVE [TI ES
#/ietl aiil rii I.-During tIhe past liscal year 30,200 cubic yards of
-1idH l ItIld rnl.veCl of all] *las11iC' (1Ith rnlll-f-ballik anlid waHShled) were
-hippeId frmil tli. *nri vel stmok pilE at (ain mboa, as comipaired with
i62, 123: r hiiir ycrdl- hii lil])tI in the pre-vious, fiscal year. No ruin-of-
iziik gravel r n\j pliip*d into 1li( sto;rk pile at (iamiboa.
Thie crimrilio ut .I/a/ a. \s in svrvict for 391. (Inys excavating 34,520
ii)hi< yards of arii nit Chainc Point, Rpuhtlic of Panama. This
sand Iwas pumped into biarges and I delivered at. dok 7, Balboa, for the
supply d'pairtfinit.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Hyacinth control and other activities.-The Canal and adjacent waters
through Gaillard Cut, Miraflores Lake, and Gatun Lake (including all
dump areas) were periodically patrolled throughout the year for the
purpose of keeping the growth of hyacinths under control. Log
booms at the mouths of the Chagres and Mandinga Rivers were
maintained to prevent hyacinths, logs, floating islands, and other
obstructions from entering the Canal channel during freshets or spilling
at Madden Dam. During the year, periodical inspection trips were
made in the Chagres, Mandinga, Frijoles, and Azules Rivers and
along the shores of Barro Colorado Island, Pena Blanca and Gigante
Bays, dumps Nos. 1 to 14, andMliraflores, Pedro Miguel, and Red
Tank Lakes. Weekly inspection trips were also made of the Canal
channel between Gamboa and Gatun.
It is estimated that 34,983,000 hyacinth plants were destroyed
during the past year, of which 10,368,000 were pulled and 24,615,000
were sprayed; of the plants pulled 4,893,000 were removed by the
debris cableway. One hundred and twenty-five cords of driftwood
were removed by the debris cableway during the past year, and an
additional estimated 249 cords of driftwood were picked up along the
banks of the Chagres, Mandinga, and Cocoli Rivers, Gaillard Cut and
Gatun, Miraflores, Pedro Miguel, and Red Tank Lakes.

EQUIPMENT
The more important items of dredging equipment or plant were
operated during the past year as shown in the following tabulation:

Out of service
Unit and name Type In service Reserve
Repairs or stand-
by

Dredges: Months Months Months
Cascadas .. .... ........------------------------------ 15-yard dipper--------. 11.3 0.7 .........
Gamboa-- .................-------------------------. .---do----------- -------------------- 12.0
Paraiso---------------.......--------------. .--.. do.--..----.--- .5 .5 11.0
Las Cruces ................... ..---------------------------- 24-inch suction_-..-.. 6.1 2.3 3.6
Mindi....................-------------------------------- 28-inch suction-------- 11.5 .5 ...
Crane boat Atlas............................-------------------------- 75-ton----------------- 11.5 .5
Derrick barge No. 167...................----------------------- 40-ton-..---------------- 5.7 .4 5.9
Grader Barge No. 4. ----- -----------.--------- 14-inch pumps -------- 11.8 .2
Relay barges:
No. ............------------------------------------------------------- 4.9 .1 7.0
No. 4------ ----------------------- ----------------- -- ------- ----------. 12.0
Drill boats:
Terrier No. S2 --.--------------------------- Steam-------.---- ---------------------- 12.0
Teredo No.-------- --- .--------------.. . do.--- ---------- .-- -- 12.0
Vulcan-------------- ------------ -- Air...----.......------------- 10.6 .9 0.5
Thor.............. .....------------------------------------ do-...--------------- 1.3 ---------- 10.7
Air compressor No. 9. --........ ............... 2,500 cubic feet per 12.0 .......... ..........
minute.
Floating cranes:
Ajax .......--------------------------------- 250-ton------- -------- 5.8 .5 5.7
Hercules........---------------------------------do ---------------- 6.2 ----..... 5.8
Ferry boats:
President Amador..--------------------- ------------------------ 9.0 3.0
President Roosevelt..................-------------------------------- ------------- 12.0 ---
Presidente Porras...................... .................---------------------------------------------- 3.0 2.6 6.4


In addition to the above, large and small tugs and an attendant
fleet of dump scows, sand barges and service lighters, launches, quarter
boats and related drilling and excavating equipment were also operated
as part of the dredging plant.






REPORT OF ;OVl:HiNIR 01-O THE PANAMA CANAL


'Thatchei Ferrv service \ 'ontinumls throughout the past year
with tIhe exception of 11 fe hours during the period of light traffic on
10 nights, when it wt\vs niecess-yiv to suspend service in order to repair
the ferrI y ramps rl -lips. This ferry crosses the Canal at. the Pacific
terminal a11d roinicts |iilboa on the east bank with Thatcher highway
on tlihe we-st. bank. Svrviie was maintained by rotating the three
ferry bo1t1 s. /'ro .l9 n ,i Analor, J'resident RIoos r it, and P'residente
Porra.s, i v1iiiii- tkwi- of tlic s1e firiis in cOntinl.olls service.
Since tlie opeliiin of t111' iridge across the Ca nail att. Mirallores in
flay 1942. t1li- fr.riv Irillic hins ln'eorni fairly f well stabilized. In the
folhl villw; 11li' lire l1il\\un1 thie 111I'r-' illiiiportil t statistics relative to
opt'ratioiiis of the Tiat'ter Ferry f-1or ti past three fiscal years:

Fiscal > car

1947 1946 1945

-iiiil, iri*.- 1n.' ...il 51,263 55,928
V..l I, i r i m.- I
r iii I a u I l 11. ri . ; 1.5 Vl7 15.347 29,472
i 1,1i.,l .t. Il. ;r l : I. 2. 211 1.l.i 62 13f.916
mulewrciail trucks ........ I3. mii 93. 764 I 042
'ianmmercial pa anger cars.. 140.2486 2, 7 i 91.9i1
r I >i- cars ..... -------- Nl 202,474 188, W2
I ..'il vehicles carrI l ...:.E . 4. .i 51I5 979 528.376
Total passengers carried... ...... *.*' 2. 1111 J.' 1 2., 7S5. 12

TNVI STi; ATION OF' 1l-:.NS. OF T.IN( It :ASI N; TIlE CAPACITY AND
SEC-::URITY OF THE PAN.AMA CANAL

An investi:;itioIn of mif11ns for inlrerasing tihe capacity and security
of the P:iliii.n r 1; Cant to 111cI( tl,' flutit llne ried-; of inlterocecnnic conm-
I.re-I niul riitional security, including a restudy of the Third Locks
project, was iatiIli')r'iz.d 1v Pilublic La.w No. 28.O, S-eventy-ninth Congress,
first sc inl, t1pprovc'd )Dece ci)ber 2S, 19-15. This act also authorized
lIn riiiliig of sucili S4t1udji 's iis lly I' deemed Inecessary to determine
wlr1 l11'r a1 v.iii:1. tr (l c.111in is at other locations, or any new means of
trii rpi Si ig 511hips across liin i, iiniy be more useful than the present
Crail %% |I ii iiiirtovitilits for t1ie purposes stated. A report of these
-tiiilii- i-k to be nllade to tin' C'oiiLrcss, thlroughli the Secretary of War
:11zii the Prri-Iilll nIIt later Ithan Dece'mer 31, 1947.
Stil ies \\'r.- Illid' of thie lok and sea-level canal possibilities at
31i l1o2aItiill oi 111it' .l American, Isthmus. ?Metihods were analyzed for
iii .eresiI' t lii' pi;cily anl security of tlhe existing Panama Canal.
A pr'di' i'n 11Il ;iinlyvsis of potential traffic of the Panama Canal to
tlie yar i i \\ 2 wi- iacl V by a trallic and commerce expert of the Uni-
Vrvisity of I't.ri ls*;va nit.
Nay i.-tilio'n ra.piir.i'iifiits as they affect the dimensions and align-
iment of th1 -IIhannl1 and the requirements for the control-of currents
W'I'e i lvelo)d II after consultations with pilots, ship owners, and marine






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


operating personnel at the Panama, Suez, Houston and Cape Cod
Canals; consultations with the Navy Department; and from ship-
model tests made by the United States Navy. A hydraulic model of
the Panama sea-level canal was constructed and operated to deter-
mine the effect of tides and the most favorable nimthods for tidal
regulation.
The bases for fixing safe excavation slopes were established by engi-
neering analyses, laboratory tests of soils and rocks, and studies of
the slides that occurred during and after construction of the existing
Panama Canal.
Information on modern weapons was supplied by the Offices of the
Chief of Engineers, Chief of Chemical Corps, and the Chief of Ord-
nance, United States Army; the Manhattan District; and the United
States Atomic Energy Commission. The strengths of soils and rocks
when acted upon by dynamic forces resulting from explosives were
studied under a research contract with Harvard University. The
conclusions reached on the effects of bombing on canal structures and
channels were reviewed by special consultants and authorities in the
fields of soil mechanics, dynamics, and seismology. Analytical studies
supplemented by tests of explosives in Canal Zone materials were made
to determine the effects of modern weapons in order to develop the
best means of protecting the Canal against bombing and sabotage and
the most efficient methods of repairing the Canal and restoring
traffic.
Rainfall and flood flows of the Canal Zone and vicinity were studied,
and a flood-control plan for a son-level canal was developed with the
assistance of specialists from the Office, Chief of Engineers, United
States Army.
Studies were made of construction methods using large dry-excavat-
ing equipment and dredges capable of (di-ng at great depths. Deep-
dredging equipment was investigated under contract by three corpora-
tions of manufacturers and operators of dredging equipment. Deep
subaqueous drilling and blasting tests were made. The Chief of
Engineers, United States Army, provided assistance on the design of
power plants, dredges, and electrical and mechanical installations.
Purchase, and operation costs of construction and excavation equip-
ment were furnislheil by manufacturers, and the methods of cost analy-
sis were reviewed by a special consultant. Studies cere made of
requirements for townsites, utilities, and other facilities durinigi and
after canal construction.
General plans 4lised on the foregoing studies were developed for
lock canals and sea-level enals at 8 of the most favorable of the 30
routes. The best plans for a lock canal and for a sea-level canal at
each of these 8 routes \\were setlcted and analyzed.
A board of consulting enminoers, consisting of Admiral Ben Moreell,
Brig. Gen. Hans Kramer, Prof. B. A. Bakhmeteff, Mr. Joel D. Justin,
Mr. W. H. McAlpine, and Mr. Hibbert M. Hill, appointed by the
Governor, advised on all major enginieerilg aspects of the studies.
In December 1946 Rear Adm. John J. Manning was appointed to the
Board, vice Admiral Moreell, retired.






,)56 REPDHT OF ;OVEINOR OF' THE PANAMA CANAL

THIRD11 LOCKS PROJECT
Final reports were completed on the Third Locks project which was
authorized by Public LTa w No. 391, Seventy-sixth Congress, first. session,
approved August 11, IWO.. The Cucaraclia foundation test was cornm-
pleted. while work nil the long-term corrosion tests was continued.
Excavation of (lie south approach chaunnel- for the New M1iraflores
Locks was continiidil through August 1946 by forces of the dredging
division. The minjor portion of the equipment purchased for this
work reniains in a stn d-by status during thle suspension of the work on
the Third Locks project.








SECTION II


BUSINESS OPERATIONS
The business enterprises operated by The Panama Ca ninl and by the
Panama Railroad Co. embrace a number of activities whiichl in the
United States would normally be carried on by private enterprise.
These activities have been developed to meet the needs of shipping
passing through the Canal and of the Canal-Railroad, Army and Navy
organizations, and their employees. During the war years these activ-
ities were expanded and adjusted to meet the requirements of the war
effort and served very important needs of the Army and Navy. The
business enterprises include the supply of fuel, provisions, ship chan-
dlery, and repairs to vessels; the provision of public utility services; the
maintenance of living quarters, and the sale of food, clothing, and other
essentials to Canal and Railroad employees; the handling of cargo and
allied operations; the operation and management of a railroad line;
and a steamship line between New York and the Isthmus.
The Canal and the Railroad are separate organizations, but the
administration of both organizations is vested in the Governor of The
Panama Canal, who is also president of the Panama Railroad Co.
PANAMA CANAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Business operations of The Panama Canal are conducted separately
from operating activities pertaining directly to the transiting of vessels
and the government and sanitation of the Canal Zone. The annual
appropriation acts for The Panama Canal authorize the expenditure
and reinvestment of all moneys received from the conduct of auxiliary
business activities, with the proviso that any net profit derived from
such business activities shall be covered annually into the Treasury
of the United States.
It is the aim to operate the business activities as a whole on a self-
supporting basis and, in general, to include as a charge against their
operations a fixed capital charge of 3 percent as interest on the net
investment. The amount representing charges for interest on invest -
ment is a part of the net profits covered into the Treasury and is in
effect a reimbursement to the United States. The net investment in
business activities totaled $35,865,808.25 on July 1, 1946, and the cap-
ital charge for the fiscal year 1947 was $1,075,974.24 (table No. 20,
sec. V). The net revenue of $1,142,341.02 (which excludes $583,938.42
for prior years to be deposited in the Treasury) exceeded the capital
charge by $66,366.78.
MECHANICAL AND MARINE WORK
On the basis of revenues received for work accomplished there was
an over-all decrease of 44.3 percent in the volume of business performed
by the mechanical division in comparison with the fiscal year 1946.
The decline in work required by the United States Army, Navy, and
War Shipping Administration (the latter included in "other United
States departments" in the table below) caused revenues from these
sources to drop from $6,094,092, or 56.7 percent of the total revenues
770698-48-5 57







REPORT OF GOVERNOR R OF THE PANAMA CANAL


in 19416, to S 1,625.925. or 27.1 percent of the total, in 1947. Revenues
from 'I' Panama Cnnal, totaling $1,759,200 in 1947, declined 27.3
percent from thle total in l -1i while tliose from the Panama Railroad
('Co. totalling $S9:3,:3 1, were slightly in excess of revenues of $843,005 in
194H. Revenues frmIn outsidt- interests increased from $1,393,297 in
19461 to $1,711,127 in 1947, a inin of 22.8 percent.
Thle work load< \\s fii irly steady during the year except for a period
early in the third quartlerv when hllere was practically no commercial
mliarinte work. This coirditionii improved sorimewhlat in the fourth
quarter.
Normally, work done for the divisions of The Panama Cananl organi-
zation accounts for aipproxi mat ely 50 percent of tle mechanical divi-
sion work load. This proportion declined to the low of 16.4 percent
of the total in 19.-1; in 1947 it amounted to 29.4 percent of the total.

GROSS RIEVE1NUES- CLASS AND SOURCE

The following tnlble shows the class and source of work performed
for the pnst tw-o fli-nel yenrs:


Class:
M arin --- ------ ----
in .. . . .
Fnalric: lr'il sltork .... ... ... ......
Sundri . . . . . ... .......


Fiscal year 1947 Fiscal year 1946


nu Percent Revenues rce
leues of total of toral


$3, 30. .09
1373. 823
1, 1j9, 41 S


Total --------....---. --. --..-..-.-.-----... B, 9,603 100.0 10. 751, 146 100.0
Origin
'The Pain.inm Canal . .. . .. 1, 29 4 2,421"1.752 22 5
P.in:ini I .Ilrota 1 C o .. ... .. ... ... ....... ; .n .3. 1 14 843. nn5 7.8
1'. S Arimy .- -....--- ........ ..-- ...- .. -5 .-9.'OM 4 9. g 1,3-23.212 12.3
U.. S. N. ...- ............................... '.. 414 14 2 I 1.9 61. 1S.2
Other I rili'ed States er-.irtnienis 6. .. .. '7 3. 1 2,81M. In n 26 2
Commercial....... ... ......... ............. 1.711 127 2A i1.1.3. 297 13 0
Tot.l ...................... .. .. .... .... '. (s..n 10 0 In. 751. 140 100.0

I Adljilsld niure.
REPAIRS TO SHIPS

The following statement shows the number of vessels and the total
"ship days", for each cntegorv of vessels repaired at Balboa and
Cristohnl for the fiscal year 1947:


r.itPgrryv


Balboa


Number
of ships


Ship
days I


-1 -t- I


C oiinfiC cli1
Tainkr .
01 other ........
SS ArTnl
S P N-iY .
The 1'inm i Ci1 Vanail
nial. 1. 7
(i D'il. mi .


.I 44
315
132
57

. 71


267
1,164
967
3-144
3.f12
7, 970


I Total days consumed in repairing number of ship, indicated.


$7, 94. 824
71,2. 406
4SN. 787
1, .23. 149


Cristohal


Total


Number
of ships


Ship
days I


Number
of ships


99
1,148
246
94
130
1.717
3.186


5.5,
833
114
37
107
1, 14R
1,963


Ship
days'


440
3,342
1.489
1,320
936
7,526
15,923


173
2, 178
522
2.50
501
3,714
7.953


~----~


-1


.........
----------
----------






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


DRYDOCKS AND MARINE RAILWAYS

The following table summarizes drydock and marine railway
operations during the fiscal year 1947, with comparative figures for
the two preceding years:
Number of vessels drydocked

Fiscal year 1947 Fiscal year

Category Cristobal
Balboa drydocks Total 1946 1945
drydocks and marine total total
railways

U. S. Army------------------------------- 43 26 69 93 121
U. S. Navy-------------------------------- 32 16 48 65 269
Other United States departments .- -- ---------- -. ----- ------------ 25 56
Commercial------------------------------- 38 49 87 42 54
Total outside interests--------------- 113 91 204 225 500
The Panama Canal--------------------- ----- 18 7 25 37 46
Panama Railroad Co--------- ------------- ------------ 1 1 3 ----------
Grand total------------------------- 131 99 230 265 546

During the fiscal year 1947, there were 152 times in which one
drydock was unoccupied for 1 workday at Balboa, and 295 times in
which one drydock or marine railway was unoccupied for 1 workday
at Cristobal.
PLANT IMPROVEMENT

During the fiscal year 1947 work was continued on the plant
improvement program authorized and begun during the fiscal year
1945, namely, the installation of machine tools and equipment fur-
nished by the Navy, changes in the electrical power system, and the
illumination of the shops.
The physical installation of 71 items of machinery, 60 of which were
furnished by the Navy, was accomplished in the Balboa shops, and
the physical installation of 40 items of Navy-furnished machinery
was accomplishcti in the Cristobal shops. Power was made available
for the operation of 60-cycle machinery now in service or to be located
in the Balboa wood shop and instrument repair shop, and the 2,300-
volt service to the 1-ton Lectromelt furnace in the foundry was
provided. Work is in progress on the installation of 60-cycle power
in the pattern shop, foundry, boiler shop, and the pipe and sheet
metal shop.
The 60-cycle leads to dock No. 13, Balboa, were completed during
the year and the remaining portion of this project will be completed
in 1948. Equipment and materials are on hand for installation of
facilities to provide 60-cycle and d. c. ciirrniit to docks Nos. 13, 14,
and 15, Cristobal.
ELECTRICAL WORK

The principal activities of the electrical division are the operation
and maintenance of the electric light and power system and the con-
struction and maintenance of electrical facilities as required by The
Panama Canal and other Government agencies, or by vessels under-







60 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

going repairs at the Canal terminals. It also supervises the operation
and maintenance of the Panamnn la ilroad-owned telephone. telegraph,
electric clock, printing telegraph, and railway signal system.
Following is a comparison of the two principal classes of expendi-
tures of the electrical division for the past. three fiscal years:

Ficeal year

11; 194.5

Ele.ctrn ml runistruetonit andiit maintenance work $1. 705. 8R $1I. AK 1 t11 V2. 139.477
Mi intenrrll I and oiwr ii. i-n if eletrtic power s\. TI'lr|hllci, .-ysteri In d I: I %l % I.% signals .. ... .. ..... ..243. 1sJ
1 ThrSg functions transferred to the Palnania liHllrowul Co. orwanivi ion July 1, 1945.

Among Ilie principal projects of electrical work carried oii d(luring
the year were improvements to street-lighting facilities, the wiring of
silver voeatiil nill and occupational high schools, thie improvement of
2.'- and 60-cycvle facilities within the mechanical division area at
Mllint Hope rand Balboa, the wiring of newly constructed gold and
silver quarters and the installation of electrical facilities to be used in
colnlec-t i(n with the construction and operation of the sea level-canal
r11lm01 l near Miraflores Locks.
Inforinailion concerning the principal construction projects under-
tilknir and thle operation of the power system are given on page 41 of
this rriport, under the general heading of Canal Operation. The
expeiidit ur-s shown above include interdepartmental transactions
As an exniiple. maintenance and repairs on the power system are
perforinmed by the electric work unit and the cost of this work is there-
fore inclildrd in the expenses of both the power system and the elec-
tric work unit.
PI' H.ASI-:S IN THE UNITED STATES
The principal purchases of supplies for The Panama Canal were
iiade. as heretofore, through the Washington Office of The Panama
Canal; the volume of the purchases is indicated by the following


Fiscal year

47 1411i, IMS.

N ianrl.r rfiri iii i.ri r, i. I 1' 7. W.7 ;.20 i I 9. M543
liln -.' r .,[. ,.r~ I.len l . . .. $7..161. .N $>.. N .7 414. 466
\iiI IIIw rif .'ii- r1r1 iin nI \I III I .*Trs |Ir'[)nre'i r .. I 15. 045 17. 514 1.1. 369
Vnluii- f l..\ '.l h r.. .'. :$.ll7 i .l65. l. t) $7. 600, 469
\i unl,' .-f r-..-I (i in 1 vu.r'hv r pri-pir inre '*' 470 .519
Valiln. tl. 0 iin. ...... ... .1 13 $1. :.333,763 $1. 685.657
C li .ii nk. 11 . I...k. .. f.4 $.16152 3i2, 603

STOHEHOUSLS AND SHIP CHANDLERY
In adilition to the main functions of requisitioning, storing and
issuing general supplies for the Canal and Railroad (exclusive of the
mIlerchnindising operations of the commissary division) The Panama
Canal storehouises sell ship chandlery and other supplies to commercial
shipping, as well as to units of the United States Navy and Army.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The following figures indicate the volume of miaterhil and supplies
cleared through the stores accounts during the past three years:

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1945

GENERAL STOREHOUSES
uross revenues-sales and issues------------------------.-- $9, 585,596 $9, 878,899 $12, 497,371
Cost of materials, plus operating expense--------------------- 9,486, 152 9,878,899 12,456,774
Net revenues ------------------------------------- 99,444 0 40,597
Inventory as of June 30 1 -----.---------------------------- 11,185,146 9,523,446 8,960,137

I This includes all material and supplies of The Panama Canal, by far the greater part of which is in the
general storehouses.

OBSOLETE AND UNSERVICEABLE PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

During the year disposition was made by sale, or by destruction
where the items had no money value, of obsolete or unserviceable
property and equipment which had an original value of $761,809.
Replacements were made as necessary.

BULK PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

All deliveries of fuel oil, diesel oil, gasoline and kerosene to and from
storage tanks, for private companies and for The Panama Canal, are
made through pipe lines and pumping plants of The Panama Canal.
The following table summarizes the operation of the oil handling
plants for the past three years:

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1945

Fuel and Diesel oil: Barrels Barrels Barrels
Received by The Panama Canal------------------------- 306,382 331,016 435,684
Used by The Panama Canal--------------------------- 242,020 317, 846 372,721
Sold by The Panama Canal----------------------------- 18,885 19,506 24,124
Miscellaneous transfers on tank farms ------------------ -- 3,907 16,693 27,893
Pumped for outside interests-------------------------- 9,995, 865 30,081,448 32,156,533
Total barrels handled.--.---------.------------------- 10,567,059 30,766,509 33,016,955
Handled at Mount Hope (Atlantic side) -------------------- 8,052,849 19,286,943 14, 211, 063
Handled at Balboa and Gamboa (Pacific side)--------------- 2,514, 210 11,479, 566 18,805,892
Total barrels handled-. --- -- -- -- --- 10, 567,059 30, 766, 509 33,016,955
Number of ships discharging or receiving fuel and Diesel oil:
Panama Canal craft -------------------------------------- 196 250 290
Allothers-------------------------------------------- 2,089 3,655 3,370
Total.--------.----------------------------------------- 2,285 3,905 3,660
Gasoline and kerosene received:
By The Panama Canal: Gallons Gallons Gallons
Bulk gasoline ..1- ----------.------- 11,676,512 11,665,836 12,578,076
Bulk kerosene..----------------... -------___ 2,962,649 2,950,773 2,655,954
By Outsiders:
Bulk gasoline --------. ------------------.--------- 25,999,761 29,399,902 23,001,664
Bulk kerosene...--------- ---------------------------- 2,925,436 6,242,856 3,427,913
Financial results of operations:
Total revenues------------------ ---------------- $2,140,793 $2,101,440 $1,583,027
Total expenditures (including cost of sales)--.---.---------- 2,063,244 2,042,160 1,328,820
Net revenues.----- ------------------------------------- 77,549 59,280 254,207






REPORT OF ,(l\-INIH 01- F '11L PANAMA CANAL


lr'ILDIN(; (.ONS'I'i TION AND MAINTENANCE

T1lt. pro.riilm of rfiii.t(ll iri imlir wuIy alt thlte c11( of tIhle fiscal
\' iir 1 9-11w Vuis inmti iiiii'n in 109-17.
I Theli prinripial projvt? of I nii cliii iCnstruiition for The Panama
(a'2111l et1lllipieti.tl Iyv the buildilll 1d iiSi0n ue s hown11 ill the following
pu)n ge ra h% 1il II' P ithri i-'e 1pri-irid, the projects listed are new
htlililiLZs:
.ui ci('n-Iilbiau. ( .)rmi typv-1I4, 19 type-112, and one type-102
faimily q(Iin rtfi.r; r iii'l1trurtiioim of greil (iliarters building No. 220;
lt rt* io .ll ris Will 2in1iliti lls to Bial lli cl bIil mi is 0 .
Lii THo'.- ('.ii *rr-ioii of biiiltlinmi; Nos. 920, 905-B, and 928 to

P rlm .11, uil T til-1 nidl Ie-k'r[ fnciliitiu at. N1ir illlor.Is Locks.
( 'ri.' / ri/ /.- .\ friiuii ll 2111(1 I.d **lI-.ioii ()o clll)u IoIise.
/oirri'iti -Si.\ type-218, two (131i--112, aind ine. type-104 family

(1 tr f 't Fm. Imiir frailr-typ>e filiily (iinrtiCrs; leinentariy school.
'mjimp ( 'Iiiii rr.-- ix iini.-imnry-type, five type-127, tWO type-128, and
two (1pi-12'. failiilY quarters.
(iin.- TIiilt jill d locker faiiliti.s at lorks.
IIn Iudlitiml to the prilicip)il )roj'(wects listed abovC, wlilIl were
for 1tin- 1Palitillll IRtiUlitlad Co1mpany, the Army and Navy, and for
SIll plo\'i'
l'liw Volume cII t(lqprioillh It.s IilleiliisredI in fliiiiniuial terms totaled
$4..'1 1,77:, as roUipaillid with $4,28,11S3 IIn tlhe fiscal year 1946.
A.liL'h tliHi.e l W 1is11 at1dc this t I r 21i \Mn o l iture1 11M111 offset 1 v the volume of n llintennlnce work
WiTiili hlid been ll-frelr'iI Alurling thei' Wir yYcars. Tlire was a decline
ill \\wk for Ili A1.ri1 audl Ni\l hbut (h were we iiindicatioiis in the
l tlri 1121pilt al' the y21iir that this hiiliicss minglit in-cIreas in the near
fiitur.. \V1-rk pliforiflld fir employees d eeraised considerably from
the pll \' imi. V-til.
'lr t titdl 1 (liinl of work for ti le palftt three years is sumllmarized as
fulldu -.

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1914
'nr '.rr i dllibons ...... l t ,112 $3,3.11.43 $256, 574
FV Tr *. in it I: L:r.. 11 r'i .! 1 y..... .1. i. 117.M 3 I'l ',.2:.4 214.940
F"rT other 4 1 i. 1- (n h d 111 I r i.rnl. ii eiplo-T) s .iid
other.... 43, 418 6-72. r. 1. 00.. 560
I il i4, .. i 7.)1 4, ?fiS, S3 3. 822,080

Qu.1it I HS FOIs 1 MIi.c i1:.1-;S

<' lf i ti/l i .s I-. iR[Pl I 73 aiIrii In'miis hlintig len ve'ii l. riicited i(Idun tillte year. At. the close
of Ilt fisi yvur 24 11 pal)il veil>k wcrn 11I deI r coiniSrti(ltfioll.
Tile t- pricipil Ciii uip in tlie (1'perati i ii f quarters for gold employees






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 63

was an adjustment of rental rates which became effective January 1,
1947. The new rental rates averaged approximately 25 percent
higher than the former rates, although the increase was not uniform
in all classes of quarters. At the same time, the rates for janitor
service, care of grounds, and maintenance of furniture were also
increased.
On June 30, 1946, there were 121 applications for family quarters
from regular employees in all districts, and on June 30, 1947, 28 appli-
cations were on file, a decrease of 93 from the previous year. Under
existing regulations employees are required to have an assignment to
family quarters before permission is granted for their families to come
to the Canal Zone. In addition, there are on file 434 applications for
provisional or temporary assignment from employees of other agencies
on the Isthmus who are entitled to occupy available Canal quarters in
accordance with assignment rules.
Silver employees.-The operation of quarters for silver employees
was continued on substantially the same basis as in previous years.
Construction of experimental types of housing units, begun in fiscal
year 1946, was continued during the year, 10 buildings containing 28
apartments having been completed in the silver town of Camp Coiner.
Ninety-six apartments at Gamboa were transferred from gold use to
silver family quarters, and one 40-room gold bachelor building was
transferred for use in housing silver bachelors. The laborers' barracks
at Gatun and Cocoli remained closed during the year. Barracks in La
Boca and Camp Bierd were closed due to the repatriation during the
year of contract laborers. Some of these buildings have been converted
for use as bachelor rooms and dormitories and similar disposition will
be made of the others whenever practicable.
The revenue from rentals was inadequate to meet normal operation
and maintenance during the year and a severe curtailment of mainte-
nance was necessary to avoid incuiring a deficit. An increase of
rental and other charges to provide additional revenue will be neces-
sary to meet increased expenses in the coming year. All preliminary
work in this connection has been completed and the adjustment is
scheduled to be effective September 1, 1947.
The demand for quarters for silver employees is still far in excess of
supply. As of June 30, 1947, there were 1,130 applications for family
quarters and 950 applications for bachelor quarters, a total of 2,080
as compared with 1,760 on file June 30, 1946.

MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
The motor transportation. division is charged with the operation
and maintenance of motor trn importation for the deptirtmelnts and
divisions of The Panama Canal and Panana Railruad Co. The
centralization of transportation facilities in this Division and the
requirement that it be operated on a self-sustainining basis hivce been
primarily for the purpose of supplying need ed t rn sport Lion at
minimum cost to The Panama Canal and Panama Railroiad Company.
Repair work is also performed for employees and for contractors
engaged in work for the Government of the Canal Zone.







li.lHIlT OF Idl.VNE li HII 1 ILIE PANAMA CANAL


'I hw pill 'li tr lisporitiilln \-tcii of privately owned busses under
I lie -Il ision 1 iil ollrnit iii lie iittllOf tr trallnsporttion division
tcm1l itii d tor' I1I (IITV iI11111l 1'1i-' iii tl iir falili t' iil an111 between the
116li4ii. towns of il.e ( 'iiinil r'i; 127 uiisi's wT1i1 operatilg as of Junell

It.eliiiiii. of lii Il i-i1'u diliiii!Z tih parIt y"'Or, incl ding motor
11-pTiir stiloji IItivitl. It lt. iil! s2.i1, 24.Ii)3, 11141 the expenses, $2,043,116,
I11ii ing at nle dtliirit of .$19,1s.1.3 for 1the liscal y.rar 1947.
In th le is'i 1.i!ir 1117, 81 ciiis alitl truckls were purchased and
22 cars anid Ilil 1u wetre n-tiret. At the close of tln' fiscal year
931 r1is a3il nri'.. .45 ii ers, aiaid 7 IlotorcyCIes were on ha1nd.

PANA.\MA C.\N.L PRESS

'It li'J-1ili:Ii TIi 1f tle PiIliiii1 C2uii1l Press woIre (coiiit'd tinder
tli *inlli Ji'ii'ies' :I,* 1iiitrlifore. 'Tli prilfilnt plant carri's stocks
il 1111ii(':1il. 11111 jiits such fiiorms, stutionltry, ctc., as arI' rl'ulired
lol, tr I-l i 1111ii- in collneclio with thte operation of The Panama
C 1i121l : l1 ticr P Ilu:i iin al R1 il al- d Co()i lpiiy.
T fi-ll!'' i rli, is a -i iliii'ii y of ti1 2 Cinii iiiil (opt'ritioliS of this
plaint tnIITlz lii' 11i1-ll Iree years:

Fiscal year

I 1. 7 #4 II4

t a -.ib s r, ...... !i-1'l, 33 M 71.3 757 $) Al. M
t- *I x I c I ot of 1.ii i. I 11 IIl "I ii 117. 11111.-
.' *t o( t soflitlor'r srtorWs not prtocssd)- ...-.. 451,393 465 375 506,347
Nett ws. . ........ -'-' li,:2 12,247


Sl ib lSI S NCE

''lic -il-i-i rile. -it itii. wlicli was set up M ay 1, 1941, to provide
incslol for rioiit rarnt bilinri.> 1-,ihlijt to the Isthmus in connection with
tihe IziriwL \11I11i tlillie 1li 11.11 I nt li n lls 1was Iliseolltilil (ld. The Section
Sill 1'r i 1 nlii ll.lI ill the Ilext f-i-;l vcar.
1)ii li'. tle 9 nimotiihs of 10-17 which the section operated, a total of
,1..i 12-' mIeals or :. 11,7( nil M lis Vtere served; the ration cost was
ii..5') lII I riy iin l'1.7 U-( iiijmuired with $0.443 per tlay in the previous


1i1.K1 1 D. 1..- :1 1 1) l'I;iNM RENTAL OF LANDS IN THE CANAL
ZoNE

I-unII- f(oi 'nilli III sites 111(1 (il-tuniilk sites in (lle Canal Zone totaled
Si.t.-.I for \li ,.!inr 4niiip8i4:Irl with S:23.942 for tie fiscal year 1946.
IRit ;il- frills i lt'ri' iliiIr ill ill thlie (.' ii1 Zone totaled $7,251 as
(iriiirinl Witli w **.(l117 for 1the r'f' **1*1I1 year. At the close. of the
fistCil \i sir 1;.11 1ie t1H1 \i in flr) ri -t. iilVriii 1,296 liectares of agri-





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


cultural land within the Canal Zone. This is a reduction of 36 in the
number of licenses as compared with the previous fiscal year and a
reduction in the area held under licenses of 50 hectanre.. This reduc-
tion is largely the result of the policy adopted as a health measure in
May 1935, that no more licenses for agricultural land would be issued
and that holdings under licenses previously granted shall not be sold
or transferred.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS UNDER THE PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
The Panama Railroad Co. was incorporated in 1849 under the laws
of the State of New York for the purpose of constructing and operating
a railroad across the Isthmus. When the concession, rights, and
property of the New French Canal Co. were purchased in 1904, owner-
ship of the stock of the Panama Railroad Co. was transferred to the
United States Government. Since the acquisition of the railroad by
the United States, its corporate status has been preserved and the
railroad has continued to function as a common carrier.
At the beginning of Canal construction work, by Executive order
of the President of the United States, the Panama Railroad Co. was
made an adjunct to The Panama Canal. Its operations are supervised
by a board of directors functioning under the direction of the Secretary
of War. As the operations of the railroad complement those of the
Canal, the policy has been for the board of directors to elect the Gover-
nor of The Panama Canal as President of the Panama Railroad Co.
Thus, the Governor of The Panama Canal is the administrative head
of the Panama Railroad Co. This practice has insured complete
coordination of the activities conducted by the two organizations.
As the activities of the Railroad Company are covered in detail in
its annual report, only the major features of operation as they relate
to Canal administration are covered in this section.
In addition to the operations of the trans-Isthmian railroad, the
business enterprises conducted by the Panama Railroad Co. include
the following: A steamship line operating between New York and the
Canal Zone; the loading, unloading, storage, and transfer of cargo for
shipping interests at the terminal ports; the operation of wholesale
warehouses, retail stores, and subsiiia iry manufacturing plants en giged1
in the supply of food, clothing, and other essential commodities to
governmental agencies and to Government employees and their fami-
lies; and the operation of coaling plants, hotels, a dairy, and a laundry.

TRANS-ISTH MIAIN RAILROAD
The railroad line operates between Colon, the Atlantic terminus,
and Panama City, the Pacific terminus. In addition to those cities,
the railroad serves all nearby activities of The Panama Canal. Gross
revenues from the operations of the railroad proper (not including
subsidiary business activities) during the fiscal year 1947 amounted to
$2,708,167. Revenue freight totaled 380,164 tons, as compared with
539,292 tons during 1946, a decrease of 159,128 tons.







t66 RF.PORT OF GOVFEINORH oF THE PANAMA CANAL


('iiprllnItive statistics (.nv.rir the signifirait. features of railroad
operntios. 1lii1-iuin tOlIL past three years are presented in the following




Fiscal year


A lk -l et. I ,llr- I. I. T'l. I. I I|I. -I .1 I %r I l III


l IrE'l.L

t *F L I .m r!iIII j! I I i I.
Nivrid 1 r f I o p r l:l


l 1ir r. Li



I *.- ii. r train m .h a ..
Ir ,.. 1 I i. . . . .

I J tri i r!n.; ..I


u. .io 93i
$2. 7is. 1f7 $3, 177. .W $. 244. 226

.:. -1"H M44 1. filfl 4:29. 121
... 1 :<.hll 44l.Nilk 4" .iV7
4i ,i. 21 7S1 r K'.11u9 T7 H I1

S? .. 52i $35.55
...27.15 231 i6 I 19 57
II hI? !0). 170 152.412
fii ) 9.79 I 155.938
4 XIr"1 r.. "lu 6,633
215. .i. 241`"1 7-44 1- 314. 9 3
I1..., 100 I1A.225 1 A0.279


i.' I.1VINC; AND FouwARDING AGENCY

Ti' lii i-inmn li iiii he (l(- doc1 mnil harbor activities of the Panama
linilrinl Co. at the two terminiils of the Canal. The following
-I ir-i .il l sinmariz.r the rcioilt; of operations for the past three years:


Fiscal year


1l47 7


1946


1Iu 1,1i *.. lll . . .


$2. 921.9R2 $2. 495.292'
T'"iiq To,,.
.. 1,492, 931 1,237.155
..... 5 32.354 1u4.10

.. 2. 3 2. I..1 I
37 1.1 I


COALING PLANTS

T'I \hrmne of ro;,li 1il plant lopr-ntiions at Cristobal and Balboa
fill Ill. j1:1-l till-r. yVruir1 i shown ill tlle following table:


' .&i 4l old. . .1


1047

$V-05, 236
Tons
29. 11S
:in, 775


Fiscal year

1946

$CWiR. 375
Tons
32.52S
31, 122


1945

$927. 391
Tons
43.627
42. 279


$2. 38.0 26
Tons
1.374.679
414.476
2, 533
99






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TELEPHONE SYSTEM

Gross revenues received from the operation of telephones, electric
clocks, and electric printing telegraph machines totaled $370,579.
During the year 1,769 telephones were installed or reconnected and
1,443 were discontinued or removed, resulting in a net increase of
326 telephones for the year. At the end of the fiscal year 1947 there
were in service 5,594 telephones, as well as 56 electric clocks and 42
automatic printing telegraph typewriters. Telephone calls handled
through the automatic exchanges averaged 103,249 calls per day
in 1947 and 110,262 per day in 1946 during the sample days tested.
This represents an average of 18.4 calls per telephone per day in 1947,
as compared with 20.9 in 1946.

COMMISSARY DIVISION

The primary function of the commissary division of the Panama
Railroad Co. is to supply at reasonable prices food, clothing, and
household supplies to meet the needs of United States Government
personnel and the various United States Government departments on
the Isthmus. In carrying out this function the division operates
wholesale warehouses and cold-storage"plants as well as retail stores in
each of the Canal Zone towns. Sales are restricted to agencies and
personnel of the United States Government, except that ice, cold
storage, food, and other essentials may be purchlised by commercial
steamships passing through the Canal or calling at its terminal ports.

SALES

Net sales for the fiscal year 1947 totaled $32,278,463, compared
with $37,126,703 for the previous fiscal year. The value of mer-
chandise on hand June 30, 1947, was $5,941,239 compared with
$4,391,680 at the close of the fiscal year 1946. The ratio of sales
to inventory indicates a tfh'eoricticnl stock turn-over approximately
every 9% weeks. The distribution of sales for the past three fiscal
years is shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1945

U. S. Government (Army and Nv)......................---------------------- $1, 775, 569 $2,846,043 $4,807,204
The Panama Canal-------------------------------------- 3,479,546 3,929,709 3,919,390
The Panama Railroad------------------------------------ 359, 517 435,360 409, 118
Individuals and companies.------. ------------------------- 1,137,669 1,164,454 1,560,284
Commercial ships ------------------------------------- 1,221, 529 5,766,264 5,271.972
Employees-..---.--.----. --------------------------------. 25,251,773 24,263,250 23,473.518
Gross sales--------------------------------------- 33,225,603 38,405,080 39,441,486
Less discounts, credits, etc.---------..----------------------- 947, 140 1,278,377 1,306,781
Net sales---------.-.-----------------------------.. 32,278,463 37, 126,703 38,134,705







HIEPORT OF GOVEHNOR I-OF THE PANAMA CANAL


PurchIases during the yeur uggregated S28,3,)S,129, a decrease of
$3,031.2S9 from the prewvios year. The following tIabulatioIn shows
till. vale of the variolluis (*lui.ss of ier'c llandrlise purchased for the past
three years:



R47 1946 Im3

lr -t-r-i., $S,428, 747 $A, 026, $8, 277.128
1'anle al to-l-ar-.- ....1...115. DO 1.) 07M.020 1, IU. .372
I uuii r u ir<, -.. ..I.7 115 1. 5 ..... 1..1.1 .321 1.414, 161
Ir )T. l ,r .... .... ...L...Mi 4, 872. 121 4. 20. 129
li .s 1. 13. aill 1. 70. 7'36 1. :74. P96
I'll k to. . .. ...... 441 7.W. 124 7. I11. R76
Ki ... ......u 1. 1. 917. 21si 1 9.' .. 271
(Cnull. 472. iK % .r3 2.5A> 1. 2f1, 479
Iillk and .rrtn . ......... 2 4:11 m. .10.1 423.384
Dntr% l-r-mil- . ... .. ... 2, 74L. 131 3, 2.1,273 2., IJ. 178
I ir ir r r . . -- --- 20.17 ................... ..
I .. .. ....30 12 :sl. 311.1. 41 i 29. 819. 474


HOTELS

Tili- TTi)l's Tivoli tindl Washington were operated by the Panama
Rnlilronil Co. without cliange of policy (during the year. These
hl 411 ucr.' an essential Ilajiijunct to the Canal, providing necessary
Tiir* IG 1 I illl hlr t ( litin1S. 1 1iiil ot 1ers.
Tlil. r"-- rrvinue from hotels was $947,20;3, as comptired with
SI'I 'l.3:4- 1 n l94Yl, 1iild thfin number of guest (ays was 9S,652 compared
%%itlh 102.fii32 in 1940.
MINDI DAIRY

Elfi-rtiv1 Jmuiiy 1, 1947, the operation of the Mindi Dairy as a
-4p2rii fiiiictio'ii of thlie compally was discontinued and the activity
1!i= 1 llII')(rpifitecd into tint commisslrlllSSy divisionI as a productive plant.
ThI1 investment in pasiliecs, buildings and equipment, and the cor-
r- pmiy iii L i'icId dijepreciation were transferred to "Comrmissary
Plant iiiil ore." The result, of operations for tlhe first 6 months of
thile Vi r Wi4 triinsFii'-'rl to indI included in commiiiissary operations.

PANAMA LINE

Tl II'linIlsl Lie1. which hd been inactive since 1942 inllsofar as thel
iiriiiiil lipiitliifi of svi'-vie l)tweeii New York and the Canal Zone
SII' 1I Iil rirll, iirsiiii'ld opertioul of its three comll)ination ptassenger-
i '_'i -1i d* 'r diiri iir th ie i year 1947. Througliout tlie war period.
th IP iliiiri>, S. S. Pitrzft inidml S. S. Crtign.hal were operated by the
I'nit-d Stud-s Army 1i i Iroop trinsports, while the S. S. Ancon, after
ii ir IL litili.-d uis Itrn Otir Utll. StItId NHYJ intio a coiiuiniillitions aind command ship.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The first postwar voyage in the New York-Canal Zone service was
made by the S. S. Panama on September 20, 1946, followed by the S. S.
Cristobal on February 5, 1947, and the S. S. Ancon on June 26, 1947.
Full reconversion and refitting of the steamers S. S. Cristobal and
S. S. Panama are not complete, since the urgent need for their servic-es
made it necessary to defer taking them out of service for such work
until the 1947-48 winter season when the service demands will be
lessened. The S. S. Ancon, however, has been completely recon-
verted and reequipped, and will follow a regular schedule.
The gross operating revenue of the Panama Line for the fiscal year
1947 was $2,438,160, and the gross operating expenses totaled $2,264,-
036, resulting in a net profit from operations of $174,124.
Freight carried during the year totaled 124,534 tons. Freight for
account of The Panama Canal and other departments of the United
States Government in the Canal Zone was carried at tariff rates but
passengers for account of those departments were carried at reductions
from tariff rates ranging from 25 to 71 percent.













SECTION III


ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENTS
The organizat ion of Tlie Pa nania Canal on the Isthmus embraces
five principal MdHi-tiiie its, naiiely, operation and maintenance, sup-
)lv, Ictcitiiig. exmillive, alI health. In addit ion, an office of The
' aiIalia ( 'iiiIl iii iia lillt iniied in Wastiington, D. 6. C. The Panama
ail Iroidl Co., a ( overI Illlit-iiwned corporation conducting business
ent rpri- es on thei IstIhmiius, is a distinct unit, but it is closely affiliated
with id uIoented sTlI aIII ati adjullct to The Panama Canal.

OPCt.l'TION AND .MAINTENANCE
TI '1i depl'Iti lent of operation findi aintiennilce includes tlie manage-
Illeirt finltiiiris nrid tluose directly involved inl the operation and main-
tciiiiincL of tih( Cltnnl as a \\aterway, including the dredged channel,
lock-,. laiimi, nids to navigation, accessory activities such as shops and
Slrydocks, vessel inspLection, electrical and water supply, sewer systems,
riimds ridl strcct-t, hvtlrograpliic, observations, surveys and estimates,
ainil 1im cI lluneIus construction other than tlie erection of buildings.
Crins ruction of the third locks, now in a suspended status, and inves-
t i 'ut ionl of [In a us of increasing the capacity and security of the Panama
('i rinl, as providled by Public Law No. 280, approved December 28, 1945,
ako tire ii-uideud in thiis department.

SUPPLY
The IIupjpl deparltnient is charged with the acquisition, storage, and
di-tribiil t4 ion of mnultterials and supplies for Thle Panama Canal and
Railrn-ld; tli 1m1iiitill enLce and construction of buildings; the assign-
m1111i of livillg ilirt rs; cilie' of grounds; the operation of storehouses,
nil-liiiiidliriIL phimltk. till exprrinient garden, and a printing plant; and
tie iipplyi ig of mot ir-tr iiiisportiiation facilities for the various depart-
nI-nis anIdI divi ions of the Canal and Railroad organizations.

ACCOUrNTNG
1'lwie willriiuting d)pal rIti ienit. is responsible for the correct recording
IIf liii11 inmli trial I tr sli onti iills of the Ca(' in l itlnd Railroad; the administrative
iilllitillr of Ni lr'llrs ir ipriliniiniary to thi liiial inimlit 1iy thle General Accounting Office; cost
kpinL of ('Cnal id Rl lIilroad; the preparation of estimates for
njpjropriations; anild lie exanminiatiin of claims.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


EXECUTIVE
The executive department embraces the civil government functions
including the administration of police and fire protection, postal serv-
ice, customs, shipping commissioner duties, estates, schools and, in
addition, the general correspondence and records of The Panama Canal
and Panama Railroad Co., the personnel administration, wage adjust-
ments, general information, relations with Panama, and the operation
of clubhouses, restaurants, and moving-picture theaters.

HEALTH
The health department has jurisdiction over all matters pertaining
to sanitation and public health within the Canal Zone and the cities
of Panama and Colon, the operation of hospitals and dispensaries, and
the enforcement of quarantine regulations.

PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
The operations of the Panama Railroad Co. on the Isthmus are
carried on as an adjunct to The Panama Canal. As the Governor of
The Panama Canal is also President of the Panama Railroad Co., the
heads of all departments, both of the Canal and Railroad organizations,
report to him.
CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
Mr. William H. Dunlop, in addition to his duties as chief, plans
section, was designated budget coordinator, effective July 1, 1946.
Col. Samuel D. Avery, United States Army, was appointed superin-
tendent, Gorgas Hospital, on July 1, 1946, vice Col. Wilmer C. Drei-
belbeis, United States Army, relieved from duty with The Panama
Canal.
Col. Horace S. Villars, United States Army, was appointed superin-
tendent, Colon-Margarita Hospitals, on July 4, 1946, vice Lt. Col.
Merrill H. Judd, Army of the United States, relieved from duty with
The Panama Canal.
Col. Murray C. Woodbury, United States Army, \\was appointed
chief, aeronautics section, on July 5, 1946, vice Col. Albert C. Foulk,
United States Army, relieved from duty with The Panama Canal.
Lt. Col. David McCoach III, United States Army, was appointed
planning engineer on July 13, 1946, vice Lt. Col. Raymond C. Judd,
Army of the United States, relieved from duty with The Panama
Canal.
Mr. Ralph J. Chit tick was appointed magist rate, Balboa, on July 30
1946, vice Mr. Clarence G. Decker, deceased.
Capt. Walter F. Christmans, United States Navy, was appointed
superintendent, nmeclhaniciil division, on August 3, 1946, vice Capt.
Antonio S. Pitre, United States Navy, relieved from duty with The
Panama Canal.
Lt. Col. Ellsworth I. Davis, United States Army, was appointed
assistant supervising engineer, special engineering division, on Au-
gust 5, 1946.







Hi.IPUltT O' (F i.olN ll .F Till-. PANAMA CANAL


('anpt. Ilrler 11ii. 'iii. I'id States Navy was appointed
Illin-ill' .i[l.riiiirllri iii l 11111i Srpi11ii1T 1, IIi4(i, vice Commodore Stuart
A. .111111ilin. Vii'in* Sltalt*- ly, i*lievell from (Iuty with The
!'niuallia ( ailII l.
SMr. irneI ( 'C. Ui( t i ii- iippo1inird printer, The Pan11ama Canal,
on D etibliri- 2N. I'. i., '-.- M I r. 'li oilore A. A iistoos, retired.
C '. Silul1 I). A.\ \,-. Iileud S litis Iriiiy, was appointed Chief
health odlicr n 2.iiiiir *2.. 1-7, \icc Col. IHInry C. Dooling, United

('.)I. Ilri0-10 l illari. I 'itd Stfti s Armiiy. w\as appointed super-
intinldeait. (ai'ru- HIliiitai1. 'in .Tiauairy '2'2, 1947, vice Col. Samuel D.
AvtrN I'.iii l lN. -'- A i I, pl-iirnicti to chief health officer.
('l. W\ 'lln1111 i. 1F-Ilr, I'iiited Stat es Arrniy, was appointed super-
ilt rnhi t l, ( l 'ii-I: iI- irita IIHopitils, on aniiary 22, 1947, vice Col.
Iriir 1 V 1i11n -, (I iira S1i2 11- A riny, promoted to superintendent,
( nir21V I Ir-piii l.
(Ci2il. 'll lipE (i1. NIclk. Uniitol States Navy, was appointed marine
in i 'l-nli.it ni April 12, 1947, vice Rear Adm. leb)er H. McLean,
Uniiiit* Sint'*- Ni\ v. rilirvod friin duty with The Panama Canal.
Mr. .in iiNk M '1isall \\.Is aIppoiiitud chief, division of civil affairs, on
Juni 4, 6i-7, r Mr. ('redel H. Calhoun, retired.
('?lilt. Edn\:l S. Hlutiiiinsoii, iUnited States Navy, was appointed
nIpiiin 'r iii.. part, Blloii. on June 5, 1947, vice Capt. Harry L.
Fr.liii-n. Jr.. t'niittil Sti te's Navy, relieved from duty with The
I l lin C;i l(la .
SI r. Levi E. Neal \\iws aipp)oiinted inaster of transportation, Panama
liilroll.l(d Co., nll Juini 17, 1947, vice Mr. Armand C. Wood, retired.
CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZE NATION
BU D(,LT COORDINATOR
EjllctivC July 1, 1 v 4t1 thle chief, plans section, was designated
1iil::t (*rii2inlinr in udilition to hiis former duties. The chief, plans
Iti lu'ri. 1iinl liiiilL'rle cnlirina(or, represents the Governor and the
tniir[]i 'ir of maiiiii1itiruiiw in thle budgetary administration of The
I'niin1:111 ('nnal an114 tlie' Pallinina Railroad as follows: (a) Study and
(Inlllliiiitc iiorniimiiinlil ions and justifications by department heads
lrii'rriiiiI eni'plIy nllelit, i(|luipnlll it, supplies, and services which are
for ir lii'-ii'ii in ti -li' r A(iii1t*. lt r h appropriation; (b) analyze and report
ilp i 'in| i iilin in 1h11ir re liltioins to ulidgetary limitations; and (c)
e'4ir.luiir2 witli ilel l it p Irolle'r li'v preparation of the budget and
It i IIL iiil ilitll tc Of 1 ditlL: iy count rols.
iM PLOYEES
'I'111 frti ia ii iplliIl.-I by Thlt PaiInaimia Canal and the Panama Rail-
rnllad C(o. 1i- (' upn'r'-dil -f \\>o cliaIss which for local convenience have
lf'u !'-ri'ed "-,'qidd" 1d ">ilvrl" emIployees. The terms "gold"
rmiiplri[rI k* hill \r" cir elloiip1V cnir.in oliatedl during the construction
IPrllil oif thic ('i rll 1 111i I lie 1aiiel er of piailng ill silver coin common
lilmip-r,'r iidl od lii a1iiu-1i1Iil or -vilislIillt-l workers employed in the
'I'rolpic-. N ll- lkilll ri.1ft. 4 nii iiil l lio occl'up ing executive, pro-
ff.'oInal. hl iiiliiri positions wri panil in gol]d coin, the latter group








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


being recruited largely from the United States. Althoui l all einimployees
are now paid in United States currency, the originiil: terms used
to designate the two classes of employees have been re1l;inril for con-
venience. The terms "gold" and "silver" are applied also to quarters,
commissaries, club] houses, and other public facilities.
The gold employees-that is, those carried on the gold pay roll-
comprise those employees who are engaged in the skilled trades and
in the executive, supervisory, professional, subproft.essional, clerical,
and other positions where education, training, and special qualifica-
tions are required. The force of silver employees is composed almost
entirely of natives of the Tropics, a considerable number of whom are
Pananmnians. They are employed principally as laborers, helpers,
and semiskilled workers on work that does not require the services of
highly trained or qualified persons.
Responsibility for personnel administration in The Piannmi Canal
is vested in the division of personnel supervision and management,
executive department.

GOLD EMPLOYEES


The distribution of the gold personnel on June 28, 1947, and on
June 28, 1946, is shown in the following tabulation:


THE PANAMA CANAL

Accounting department ---.--- -------------------
Dredging division--------------------------------------
Gravel plant-..-------.------- ------------.-----
Thatcher ferry-----------------------------------------
Electric power system ----.------- ------------
Electrical work------------------------------
Locks division.... ----------- ------------------------
Marine division---------------------------------------
Mechanical division---------------------------------
Meteorology and hydrography_------------------------
Municipal work..--..-.-....--.----------- --------
Sosa Hill quarry------------------------------------
Water system -...-------- ------------------------
Office engineering division ----------------------------
Special (engirni.riing division-..------------------------..
Offices of-
Governor------------------------------------------
Comptroller ----------------------------------------
Engineer of maintenance--...-------------------------
Assistant engineer of maintenance -----------------
Executive secretary ----.... .-------------------
General counsel -----------------------------------
Aeronautics section ------------------------------------
Civil affairs division ---.-.. ...-- ------.- ..-- -------
Clubhouses ---------------------------...-
Collector...--------------------- ------ --------------
Correspondence and records ----......---------.............--
Iihrary. ...............................-..............
License bureau. -------.... .. ....-..-...----
TMagis lrater courts _____---------------------------_
PayniaLter. ..------..........--......-- ...----.-.....
Pay-roll bureau.----- ---..-....-.-..-..-..-......-
Pcrsonnel -nll r\ imio ti Hald . ......
Police section includingg ci\ il Inritlligence.. .....
Fire section .......... -----------.----.--------
Bureau of posts...-.........-.........--- -------
Schools division.........---------------------------------
Physical education and recreation.---------.------------
Building division---.---.-- -------------------------
770698--4--6


As of-

Increase Decrease
June 28, June 28,
1947 1946


------------
.-......-..-
------------
-----------
..........--
6







77






2
------------
------------



























46
1
-- - ---



-- - ---



- - - -





------------

------------
------------




------------


24
108
2
1
------------

4
214

26
------.------







17






1
4
--"*" 31









7
22
-------

------------

------------



- -- -- -- -- ii




------.------
- --- -- -- ii-

------------

------------
--- - -
59








REuPORT (iF i:IM(Noil Wi I 1E PANAMA CANAL




IncrIease Drcrease
S11 7 114i
r~ii:iim.4I


T11L I'IAm.J I Aj II I I 1,I l-
Q111 lii.gs 0rl rUtriI 'l- .r
1; L-111l1 L t 11 )1 L . . .
M i -i-r tr b'l1 -1 -rt.-it i. . . . .
Soil alinfling 1-1:111 . . . .h- .
V*IIIir IfLI I '1113 n . . . . . . .
I l Itr r'




J.bi I


T, x I. ..I, u
'1.' . hr . .. . .. I







'. I r &c ... -- - - -
rIf A. .. . . t .. ..


Net crea
"Total fors ..... .. .... .
\'t l>fe14t, Mi*tl fwr"s


I .....


1
3

312
24.'
4. 7i,*5,


6


2


... .------------. 25
- -21
2l 7 ... ........ 6

:(.. .... ........ 474


117 132 1........... -
124 17 7 .....
347 37 ........... 20
25 27 :... 2
35 31 4 .

I.1J II .7
5 . . .
. *, 411 .''. r .i.-1 i I
. . .. ...... .. .. .. .. . .. .. ... .. 00


Niort. --Part-ltime mnUployetres nurntring 165 on June 28, 1947, and 87 on June 28, are not Included
in the alwAve talA .

A 4*i'irl d111it in nictiv ity resulted in a net reduction of 500, or
8.4 pri*nIll, ill tili* ov ru-all, go(d force in collmparison \\ithl the number
irii)|I>\IIil i 1n JIini 2l.s. 104-t. As will be noted in the for-cegling table,
Itle Irillip;li IilliTir'iil ll d1ree1ses OccurrIed in the lcdredIing division,
the iiiiiiiiii l ivilm, and tlhe building division. In contrast with
tIh g4ilr ril1 d I ) i 11' I trrid wtril sub)Stantli il iecrenscs in two Units,
\i., the piviiiil rnwinmriing' division arid the schools division. The
rr-.. fif the p ri lrii:iiiri riig division adv uicI'ed fromii 132 in June
PI1111 to 20'i'. in .Jinr I'll 7. : g;iin fr 77 employees; the Inrger force in
Ilii uiiit \\i Ii I *i tf;i 1 I to if l y folrw 'dW1l the ilnvesti ion of nielicll of
illi'Ii ill" tIIli i r ;lm u i i l :.I iii :-ur iirity of till' ('illl l 11s provided by
I'llI,- L.:\w No. 2JM, iipprli]veid DeceinmIbr 2-S, 1943.
Tiiiiiri, if 41 6i iliirlnrd for the idhools division in the foregoing
1:il li f il'i [l not, ir-i'v-ci iI ll i il rt pitiulire of tilie 11it chrl ngce in the gold
lr'mii'Lld h of th e illi-.iiiII 1)i\vcn Junii 2.S. 10I-1, 2111d .June 28, 1947.
S M1 Ii I1ll l I I I I' li l- \\ii c ii l Ilitjil il followiig 1 (le ,ldl o tie sch10ool
\oi 'r, ii. 1 '.ilI rIe ort r I.II*I1, aI Ir T : I Ir ii llh'11r of V:1Iflllt positions
` i;h: did tll, Iiipi'rt for 1w 17, resultiiin friii r'.iniatioins following the
i-1i 1(f t1i1 -. iinl nv air. In the f'rrv' ripoits of M Iay 31, 1946, and
M iny 21, 17, 1 liII r I H i i ilml \i\I 11 w lirii lt1e s(11iots re in session,
rid htlli- ripr. -.lt a bt Ir.i IIIIchX Of the diiilhll srenllth in the 2 years,
!a u.in of 2! irip ii*i is indirti lrd. This gain of 2S \wais made up for
till I1mllt pili'l (f 'IipIlrrI i'mi -,ilulli- ill (III ne1i w silver occupational
high s IICrVa\ il(cr'ILS illn IrIrIlII t ill till' 1 ild( schIoI ls.


__::___1






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 75

RECRUITING AND TURN-OVER OF FORCE-GOLD EMPLOYEES

The following table shows additions to and separations from the
gold force of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co. during
the fiscal year 1947:

Panama Panama
Canal Railroad Total

Additions------------------------------------------------ --- 1,114 103 1,217
Separations:
Resignation.------------------------------------------- 867 96 963
Toenter military service---------------------------------- 18 3 21
Reduction of force--------------------------------------- 245 9 254
Termination of temporary employment or reassignment-- 326 9 335
Removal for cause---------------------- -------------------------- 20 2 22
Retirement:
Age--------------------------------------------------- 50 9 59
Disability-------------------------------------------- 35 7 42
Optional---------------------------------------------- 20 ------------- 20
Involuntary ----------------------------------------- 5 1 6
Disability-not qualified for retirement ----------------------- 8 1 9
Inefficiency---------------------------------- --------------- 2 ------------ 2
Transfer to other departments-------------------------------- 15 2 17
Disqualified in trial period----------------------------------- 2 2 4
Death-...---------------------------------------------- 20 4 24
Total separations. -------------------------------------- 1,633 145 1,778
Net separations--------------------------------------------- 519 42 561

NOTE.-The above figures do not include 112 terminations of employees on part-time or irregular basis,
or 6 terminations of American citizens on the silver roll.

As the figures of net separations in the table above were taken from
the weekly personnel reports, which usually lag a week or 10 days
behind the actual termination dates, there is a difference of 61 in the
number of net separations and the net dec(11reas in force as shown on
page 74. The actual net dec-irease. in force was 500 as shown on
page 74.
Based on an average aggregate gold force of 5,793 for the period
covered, the 1,778 separations from all causes shown in the foregoing
table represent a turn-over of 31 percent, as compared with 43 percent
reported in 1946. When sepaI rations by termination of temporary
employment or reasnigineiit are excluded, the turn-over rate is
24.9 percent for 1947 as comp.ired with 39.7 percent, for 1946; and
when separations due to reduction of force also are excluded, the rate
for 1947 is 20.5 percent as compared with 31.7 percent for 1946.
Employment.-Of the total additions to the force during the fiscal
year 1947, 437 were employed or reemployed in the United States, as
against 810 during the previous year. The total additions during the
year iinclued 221 veterans restored to duty following military or naval
service. Applicants for employment1 with veterans' preference, as de-
fined by the Veterans' Preferenice Act of 1944, have been given priority
in job placement, andl 342 such employment were maidl during the
year, for a total of 563 veteran employment and restorations.
Employments in the United States were made I.nrgely for the special
engineering division, the locks division in connection with the Gatun
Locks overhaul, the health department, and the schools division.
With the exception of recruitment for the special engineering division
and the locks division, practically all recruitment was replacement







ti Ilt.I'UHIT ohF (.Oc\'E(HN(It ( THE PANAMA CANAL

1inpl 111111i11, .ille l) Iit few lew positions were established and filled
uirirlil 1 Ir l ill'.
A.t ilii ,(DSt iof tliri y1ai., there rv We'I req1 ilisitions peidinig inl the
I'iif-d States fur 91 m M iploy1 niiits. The hulk of these outstanding
I-.' illi-ilios wias frm tIhi- -iimilsk division, for thl allinuial teacher replace-
111i it ill 'lI)tlIlI, iii for the hilth djiparti t. No veteran

I1iiiiiiL thle v'iir tili dilliilties inll (illisportatilon of neiiew viployers
hi t l 't If'llllii:-., N liili I lai persisted dlii'ilip t1ic WItr ulld i ll(mediltely
ziflti' the '->-.!i tiin of hostility es inul whlicli resulted inl delays in the
rri val of 11 ii\\ zijpliiis, Were ovrcoi' e to a intrg ext ent. Although
ti'1, 'Ir*iiii I)]- f the 010 'Pirinu 1 11t Ir lfe rflasllai1 i Operaltion aInd are' used
li ?M)]I .'xt*uiit ii the1 tn1rii-qporzitition of uwnw empIiloyees, it hlias been
f'unid llor' I'iN l ilelint ullidl iil ior e- expeinsive to transport many of
IlIirl to ti lt-i I-lliiis by pLailiv. Tils sitltuation is particularly true in
Itli f(ralulur.potlliliiul of tlinc' floill tlhe Silouithiet a11nd Wster States.
\\'itil t(l dIiI lin in i/iz1 of force, the houisiing situation locally has eased
ailid i11n1w pei'mit I li joint arrival in t lie Canal Zone of new employees
Iand I their fiiifilit .

A.JI-rIlMI.NT IN WAGES AND HO't'S OF WORK

>i f in'iil a.-I w-I'I ailli zi/.id for all Imajor groups of emliployees
duriii-lr the liscail year 1947, with the' exception of those employees
w 11 fIi of pIVy arne cl 'd 11 on navy yard rates ill the United States.
T'II' -i n-li o week \wlicli was plu'al in effect on September 9, 1945, was
clr1ntini ruI dI thri iiu liot the fiscal year 1947.

SILVER EMPLOYEES

'T1I1r followilIL' illile shows a comparison between the silver force of
Thie PIIina ('ziiil n :mid Pailiima Railroad Co. on June 28, 1947, and
Juiii- Ls, 19461:

As of-
Inclrease ccrn'ase
Junrp 24, June 2,
1J47 19-I'i

THE PA\AMA CANAL

l r..I: r!.. Ir l I IT101 1,F' %1 ..8
---- -..- -- .1r 14 ........ ... .
I ..t 1 . . 9 5
I i. rl l I ysl ...... . . ......... ... 102 104 .. ........ 2
I in. .r l .'k . 252 '.. 34
ILk I -ll I ... 1044 983 61
it ri., .li .,i .. 942 1,(). .... ... 117
*. .-I*l = h ona.... 1,040 .3..1 ............ Xs315
M It..r li.,\ li\ 1 '* I .., r:illl. 29 25 4
'IlFl 11,-1 -O-rk -1,181 1,365 184
.. i .. .... I 194 ............
i.. r.*'I,.. i ii iI 54 u9 .-- - 44
I i n I .. I i ii 97 116 ............ 19
i *r r. .; 2. - I- - I- --

I ^ .. 1 .11.= ... r... . .. ........10 41 .
I. Iii' Ilriria u I 1
3 3
S2'-ilrn-*Ler ........ 2
.'y n i .. . ... . .. . . ... . . -a







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 77


As of--
Increase Decrease
June 28, June 28,
1947 1946

THE PANAMA CANAL-continted
Pay-roll bureau-------- ------------------------------ 13 15 ------------ 2
Personnel supervision and management -------. --- 25 27 ------------ 2
Police section (including civil intelligence)-------.------- 51 53 ..-.-....._- 2
Bureau of posts -------------------------------------- 61 49 12 ----
Schools division ------------- --------------------- 204 156 48 ----.---
Physical education and recreation---..------------------- 34 33 1 -------
Building division -. ---------- ------- 1,215 1,992 ----------- 777
Buildings and grounds-------------------------------- 402 554 ------- 152
Gasoline stations------.------------------------------- 27 26 1 -----------
Motor transportation --------.------. ------ 504 628 ----- 124
Oil handling plants ------------- ----------- --------- 114 133 ---- 19
Panama Canal press -------------------------------- 123 143 ---------- 20
Quarters:
Janitors------------------------------------- 177 209 _.--..-.--- 32
Subsistence ------------------- -------- -------- 148 ----------- 148
Storehouses ------------------------------------- 427 533 106
Sanitation:
Gorgas Hospital---------------------------------- 588 630 ------ 42
All other units--------------------------------- 1,068 1,140 ------- 72
Total, The Panama Canal ----------- 12,383 15,331 132 3,080
Net decrease -------------------------------------------- ------------ ------------ 2,948
PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
General manager------------------------------------- 514 556 ------- 42
Receiving and forwarding agency--- ------- ------- 2,732 2, 107 625 ------
Commissary division. ----------------------- ------ 3,272 3,641 369
Hotels --------------------------------------------- 341 276 65 --------
Telephone section ------------------------------------ 20 21 -------- 1
Signal section ---------------------------------------- 14 12 2 ------
Total, Panama Railroad Co---------------------- 6,893 6, 613 692 412
Net increase ----- --------- ---------- ------------ 280 ------------
Total force ----_ -...-- .---- ---- ---- 19,276 21,944 824 3,492
Net decrease, total force----------------------...--- --------------------- -- 2,668

I Adjusted figure.
NOTE.-Part-time employees numbering 26 on June 28, 1947, and 38 on June 28, 1946, are not included in
the above table.

As indicated in the foregoing table, there was a net decrease of 2,668
silver employees (12.2 percent) in comparison with the force as of June
28, 1946. Reflecting the return to more normal operations, large
reductions occurred in the majority of the units listed, the more
important declines being recorded in the dredging division, mechanical
division, clubhouses, and building division. Notwithstanding this
general decline in activity, there were a few units in which it became
necessary to carry larger forces than reported in the previous year.
Included in the latter was the receiving and forwarding agency, a
Panama Railroad Co. unit, which increased its force by 625 over
June 28, 1946; this increase developed from a 71-percent inci'reavse over
June 1946 in cargo handled, transferred, and stevedored at the docks
as well as, to a smaller extent, to the application of the 40-hour week
to 177 regular monthly employees. The hotels, also operated by the
Panama Railroad Co., reported an increase of 65 silver employees,
this expansion in force resulting from the application of the 40-hour
week and an increased night shift in the room department, (at the
HotelTivoli) to meet the revised schedule of arrivals and departures
of commercial aircraft.






]IF.PORT OF G;o'VIlmNH ) OFI THE PANAMA CANAL


Units otf T'I'l PItaIn1,1ii:m ('.IInal which rIeported substantial increases
ilililid'id tihe lo-ks dlivisi ii nil Ithe schools division. In the locks
divisioll I llI*r WILS il1 iiir1*>*'* (i of 61 ruiplol*yvrs which were made up for
lh-e mosit part (f itt limi|)' Iiry'l fiorn' for cltiean-tip operations following
thlI Atlilic lso\ i M1-ri:1 iiil ll the i ijiistnieiit of personnel to com-
pl)tv tllhe fiore rei. b1y 1flv *I0-hour week. The increase of 48 in
Irl sIoil('l livi-s i II tl l r I'.Iil riDiili t11e Io)*iilng Of two occupational high
riIhools( fiIr criiiid clildr.Ii. iiililil i instructors for night schools
tild iuist lit ii n 4lI I 1> 4ii ill 1 ( iel (I !L fee .

Sn.v-:]( \WAGI-:S -

1W'it Iof iii|1'iirs oIf t1ui sil ver roll helrr no direct relationship to
W1i1e-s of ri' irjpondin cli-srs of workers in the United States. As
silverr-roill riiiplo. are for the most part, natives of the Tropics,
their wiiL'r' .i:Ii !I.re il bli.di1hl at levels tlint will insure a standard
of liviL \ i n II 1iPirinliLr r ;ivirn ly with that prevailing for native workers
in tlhe li.1puiii.i of 1iiiiiimnin iand i.-lsewiere throughout the Caribbean
rfiV. A.\I iihi're:i'i* Of ipp)ri iinmn rliN 6 cents an hour to conform with
the '.reirlulyV itii iridl. (o-It (of livillng was Nauthorized for silver workers
fon J iIly 1 lylii.
SiCK AND REST LEAVE

r)nlir tlir preitIIt r't Iil ltollS .silver rinployeV S earn leave at the
rate of I hour fmir e(c:li II) lioiir' of s'rvice'in t ie libasie workweek, not
to ci<-cild 16 luiirs in eaich of the 12 pay periods throughout. the fiscal
yrI r. Tli iiixi \ium lc'rliniu ilation is 480 hours. Two hundred
niid fortN hours of this ( iie are the sick-leave reserve and all hours in-
xcrs, f 24i'( ma)vy be Igritiii td as rest leave or commuted to a cash pay-
Ilin't 11pji) ii t rmiiinationi. The number of hours leave paid during the
fis.iill .yrr :dmrd .TuI- 30, 1947, was 2,S,87,6lO.

CAsrH RlIIlF FOll DISABLED SILVER EMPLOVI*:1.S

Alipliraiii-nis for relief iiunder the act of Congress of July S, 1937,
a\-eivi*rnl :n1 piiri ii lh iilifiri the fiscal year 1947. ThIe regulations
I**taitli-l ihl diirin t1iil Inti ir pa Irt of the fiscal year 1938 for adminis-
fIrinL this relief err ii colinued without mlnterial change.
The tinle b1 iow shows tihe disposition of all applications from em-
jployrrsi of 1htill T'hi Painama Cainal and tlhe Panama Railroad Co.
during thir fiscal vyiir 19-17:

\,.i,11 Tn1,.11111 Panama Tomn Ta
Canal Railroad Total

\1l1-!1. *'- 1i1- on lTnl Ii''. 1. 1,W .. ..- ....-....... . . 33 10 4.1
\ i.)l- .i! rw 'l r,:. 7. 7 4 62
I 43.0) 7;5 5.505


P r'. 116: ---- It A.H 3 52
I' "II. 4I 75 W5
NoTr. I; rn. I'r r. ;hI r ..: nn acc oln t the dI nt h otr suhequent r imln Ilominsnl of cash r rlief recipi-
ents: i h- .I'l:ri>) I 'ii ii *. the I' P ii i i iH P ilr.-.i.l I 'i 43.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 79

Total and average costs per month during the fiscal year 1947
were as follows:

Monthly Monthly
Number of average pay- avr a-
cases ment per average ay-
case ments

Panama Canal rolls----------------------------------------- 958 $21.55 $20,647
Panama Railroad Co. rolls------------------------------------ 302 19.86 5,999
Panama Railroad pensioners---------------------------------- 181 114.33 11,160
Total -------------------- -------------------------- 1,341 20.74 27,806

1 Superannuated employees granted cash relief prior to July 8,1937.

Expenditures on behalf of The Panama Canal cash-relief program are
paid from annual appropriations for that purpose, while those of the
Panama Railroad Co. constitute a continuation of the former plan of
granting cash relief to the superannuated employees of that company
and are paid by the Panama Railroad Co.

REPATRIATIONS

In 1934 an appropriation of $150,000 was provided for the repatria-
tion and rehabilitation of alien former employees (and their families)
who have rendered at least 3 years of service with the United States
Government or the Panama Railroad Co., on the Isthmus. During
the fiscal year 1947, $2,853 was expended for the repatriation and re-
habilitation of 27 former employees and 3 members of their families, a
total of 30 persons. To the end of the fiscal year 1947 a total of
$97,474 has been expended from this appropriation.

CENTRAL LABOR OFFICE

The central labor office program of The Panama Canal provides for
eligibility control over applicants seeking employment with Govern-
ment agencies and private contractors operating on Government
work in the Canal Zone. A general decrease of employment activities
is indicated by the comparative figures presented below, showing the
total numbers of silver employees carried on the rolls of the various
organizations as of June 1947 and June 1946, the decrease in total
force being 17.1 percent:

June-

1947 1946

Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co-----------------.------.----------. 19,302 21,982
U. 8. Army------------------......-------------------------------------- 7,221 9,414
U. S. Navy -..----------------------------------------------------- 2,880 4,625
Government contractors and miscellaneous----------... --------------------- 2,065 1,925
Total------------.------------------ ------------------------------ 31,468 37,946

NOTE.-The figures in this table are based on those that the various cooperating agencies report and on
which they are assessed to support the central labor office and are exact. Prior to 1947, figures were deter-
mined by taking the em ployment of the preceding June 30 and adjusting them according to re ported em plo.-
ment and terminations. Thi., the figures shown above for 1946 do not correspond with thost piiubhlihvd
in last year's report.






1:1-;PIHT OF id\J-MKNo i n], 0 .l' T E PANAXMA CANAL


Ilmii 'ie Of tlie iisiilliciint jsupply)v of qualified labor on the Isthmus
to liiiilli i 1 e l ILvy fons4 r -iillno program carried on during the war
rnlt'r*'liy', The 1, 'rlllrniL ('aIal was forced to resort to tihe recruit-
iiinit of 4riiii0icLI linbot.- from thlie Reputiblic of Colombia, Jamaica,
(' R *i- mir,. 1an-d "1d Silv1dir. With lthe diminishing need for outside
L3i1ir -jilt.' t lit ist*-ii itll f 1ist ilities thie majority of these workers
IlI li' i tr[it1til flil ed to I ihir native cointriies. From the inception
,if tIl fnl.rriil rI'rtiilii jIg prI'rani in 1940, 22,2.65 contract workers
lhvV b''vrti broi l. t lt tIl' I Is ltins, of which 21,80.5 have been returned
to fltir Iitli\ve countries, IleiviniI ILS of Juntr 30, 1947, a total of 460
rreiiilIlill~i 'll In i' IT1li uiiis.

SAFETY PROGRAM

Duriingi- ll iw ri yvir 10.4), heva use of an unfavorable injury rate
iLs tcili):Lr41l toIn tloer (govrrillillit )igcllcleS 01 d an upward trend in
thl ( ';ai,.l-l Niln1!:01 riate, it was dviv c ii II-d to enlarge and place greater
fi'll i:L-i-i 1ill1 tle s:ift ty pJrognmil. Additional personnel, designated as
siifetvy ;I i-tl:i 1 t-, was R'lifullcd to safeTty duty and a Panlilma Canal-
P:L;i.1111: I l'iiri)l : ifety lyoaord,. represent ing all department heads,
\wa\! : hli-h id to review progress of t lie safety program, make recom-
iiiriiil ;liniI-. Linl formulate and promulgate safety policies for reducing
Li, ridi (if' andl i1njirii'...
The fi-.-;il r;i 1947 was the first year since the establislihment of an
nrniii/'' r ;:itfety [mprr;ii in 10940 that Ilie Canal-Railroad organiza-
tiir fail'-dl to show A cnii(iillned substantial improvement. in frequency
Lf I' in Int)iiiiMirii' w ith the previous fiscal year.
The ft>llo\\wiin statistics cover the accident, rates for the Canal-
Kiniln,:il rlouiii/.ii ion for thei seven full fiscal years since institution
ri t li inf 'iy piui")>rril :


*.I i ",r.lni h I.-i 1 ll rerfl ift i T* 1ir 111 SelveTrity F Itali-
So \ rki .l ii hnr-,,g RI, les ,

i .. i i ". i 7.i 214. 1710 2 9 21
2 1:' 'Mii 4 7 '.I' Si Zi i'2 2. 5 27
S. 1 . I. i *.:. .I 2M li. 11 4 2 45
S Inni 2. 7.n 34 1 i.V 770 1.Y7 17
mii, 11 I. .440 23 .m)7 1.32
iv .I 1 1 X 1, 2512 24 L.'l. 4 4

I1 e .'. '* I hr Inst in i iir .* Icr million mIn: -hours worked.
1 ' i'* if (I ; ti e Cbfl ts, l1 1 *1I L Iter thouim inid mni -hours worked.

A .\%il1 le <'1i \ ri froli the kluvie 1li>le tliere also was an increase
in Itle severrit rnili in 1,'17 illn uriiniiri-mni with the I preceding fiscal
vii ri, 1not wiit Hi I ill rr a ilrlitiii froni 8 to 4 fat alities and 22 to 16
Ill Himn l il llie r1i l1ij 'il *:-ll ll eITiiinlim it partial or total dis-
'ilil. Ihlin' Hit i1-t in the st.\vrity iate in fiei' of a decline in the
i H111111er of -1i.- injuli. 1- r<'-iitl( fliniii ill application in 1947 of
iI'liinty i lil!Ire t( lhiui.. -'.,019 ldi ,\- i -rriIl* 4 ovur from Il)rior fiscal
1 :l-;n~ I' ii--- "'iL'T indv %%rwI ijimnrt ued inll the years they occurred,
illi III -II *iiilt i'Iiit Iii lst lillu' ciirried over to succeeding years.
Lpllii liniiil d1i- it''in of t1he ius. li yvar and determination of the
ilgrtpr of d Lli llltI v, 1irlill (*llnrvrsg Ilnve inewn recorded.






REPORT OF GO\'FRNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 81

The table below shows injury and death compensation benefits
for the Canal-Railroad organization for each of the -e-ven years
since the institution of the safety program, comrpuared with the
annual average for the preceding 23 years:

Injury com- Compensa-
Yearly average sensation tin pe $000
pay roll

23 years, 1918-40 --------------------------------------------------------- $51,886 $3.31
Fiscal year-
1941--------------------------- ------------ .-----------..---.. 86,290 2.55
1942 ---------------------------------------------------------- 98,830 2.21
1943 ------------------------------------------------------------- 104,550 2.17
1944 ---------------- ----------------------- -120,037 2.58
1945..------------ ------------------------------- 107,585 2.56
1946------------------------------------ ----------------------------- 109,658 2.78
1947 ---------------------- -------- -------------------------- 110,899 2.75

As noted in the above tabulation there was a decrease from $2.78 in
fiscal year 1946 to $2.75 in 1947 in the average compensation rate per
$1,000 pay roll, which is well below the 23-year average of $3.31 expe-
rienced prior to the establishment of the safety program. Approxi-
mately 76 percent of the compensation payments for 1947 were for
injuries and fatalities occurriing in prior fiscal years. Payments on
some of these prior cases will continue for several years and, therefore,
the compensation rate cannot be expected to ldecrease during the next
few years in proportion to the azitiripateil decrease in work load.
These payments would have been materially higher except for the
progress in accident prevention resulting from the inauguration of an
effective safety program.

EXPERIMENT GARDENS

The Canal Zone plant introduction ga rdens and experimental station
were established in June 1923. The gardens, which include green-
houses, nurseries, and exp riilental plantings, embrace approximately
125 acres of land, and are devoted to the propagation and cultivution
of a wide variety of usefull and ornamental plants from all parts of the
worll, primarily for the purpose of determinillngl their adaptability and
value under local soil and climatic co(ndlitionis, for general propagation
on the Isthmus. This unit also design-s and supervises all landscape
work for The Paiminai Canal and the Panama Railroudl Co., handling
a total of 69 projects during the year. In order to help meet the
demand for fresh Nvegetables, the gardens maintain a small, self-
supporting vegetable garden.

CLUBHOUSES
The Paniamna Canal clubhouses unit is charged with the opera tions
of activities ldesignled to provide restauraiit, motiorn-pict iire, bowliii,
and other facilities to United( Statis Governimenl t p)e-IA;1rnlllll, their
families and guests. The clubhouses are'self-sutpport i lng and no appro-
priationis are required for these activities.
During the year, major improvements to the kitchen and refrigerat-
ing sections of the Balboa clubhouse were completed and work was
proceeding on major alterations and additions to the Cristobal gold






HIEPOHT OF GoVEHNOR iil' THE PANAMA CANAL


clubhouse, restaurant, anil iloblby ureas. Plans were nearing comple-
tion at the end of the vitir for the erection of an up-to-date clubhouse
for silver personnel at Cristoial. and a modern air-conditioned theater
to) replace te t' existing ollminltedu structure at. Balboa.
'I'There 'were no important changes in tlihe prices or in the general
managemenient policies during tlie year. The lessened demand for serv-
ice resulting from Hlie siiiller population caused the shortening of
operations Ihours ill cerltanin clubhouses, while the lower volume of busi-
ness niecessitatetd an over-aill reduction in force affecting both gold and
silver personnel.
LEGISLATION
Among tire Inws 41nn1ctd by thie Congress during the fiscal year 1947
which relate to or- apply in thlie Car nal Zone or affect. Thle Panama Canal
and which are of impotrlTnce andI interest are those described below:
An act rpproveld July 31,1946, extending the Federal Credit. Union
Act to the Carln] Zone.
An act approved A ugust 2, 1946, autliorizing certain administrative
expenses in thle Goverrtnment service, a1nd for otIher purposes.
An act approved August 2, 194t6, to provide for increased efficiency
in tlte legislative branch of thie Giovernment. (Legislative Reorganiza-
tion Act. of 1946), title IV of which act comprises the Federal Tort
Claims Act.
Ar net. aRpproved August 7, 1946, extending the benefits of the
Panama Cnril const ruction service annuity law of May 29, 1944.
Legislation reIlating to the Canal Zone introduced during the fiscal
year 1947 and still penling in CoIingress includes:
Four bills (11. It. 171, 6. 73S, IH. I. 1896, and H. R. 2997) to extend
the benefits of the Paniama Canal construction service annuity law of
May 29, 1944.
A bill (S. 11.S7) to unrend the Canal Zone Code so as to add certain
provisions corrcerlin' a minimum wage and overtime compensation.
Two bills (I. It. 1259 and H. R. 2547) to amend the Canal Zone
Code retirement provisions so as to provide for optional retirement
after 25 years of ser ice regardless of age.
Two bills (I. R. 1260 and H. R. 2546) to amend the Canal Zone
Code ritiremenwrit provisions so as to extend to persons retired prior to
July 29, 1942, tlhe provisions of anll amendatory act of that date provid-
ing an adltillional minimum I1method of computation of retirement
niluillities.
A bill (H. R. 2273) which would permit anil annuitantt under the
Puurnn Canal construction service annuity law of 1May 29, 1944, to
riceivet lIt)0tl 1r11 atin tlllly Iliter (11al law ndiin an nnuity for which he
n111iV ll. i o' e ligible 11111er ny general rlet irel'ent law.
A ill (11. i. 2.s17) to amend the Canal Zone Code in reference to
several vriei ilrl, for ti'e mIost part, unrelated subjects.
A bill (11. :luso) with reference to improving housing conditions
in the C(nll Zoine.
A bill (11. It. 319) to revise urnl codify title 18 of the United States
Cod (Crilins mid C irimiiuial PIrocedure).
A bill (11. R. 3195) to amendtd the Canal Zone Code retirement pro-
visions so as to text'til thdimni to alien employees.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 83

A'bill'(H. R. 3214) to revise and codify title 28 of the United States
Code (Judicial Code and Judiciary).
A bill (H. R. 3250) to extend eligibility for employment with The
Panama Canal or the Panama Railroad Co. to prrson-i who are not
citizens of the United States or of the Republic of Panama.
Two bills (H. R. 3513 and S. 1490) to transfer the Paiimiia Railroad
pension fund to the Civil Service retirement and disability fund.
A bill (H. R. 3629) to authorize the War Departnient and Navy
Department to transfer to The Panama Canal property which is
surplus to the needs of those departments.
Two bills (H. R. 3749 and S. 1416) to amend the Federal Employees
Pay Act of 1945 so as to require readjustment of the basic rates of pay
of certain wage-board employees of the Panama Railroad Co.
Two bills (H. R. 3837 and H. R. 3838) to amend the Internal
Revenue Code so as to extend the Federal income tax to the Canal
Zone.
CAPITAL ALLOTMENTS, FISCAL YEAR 1948
The appropriation for 1948 cnrried $2,008,000 for improvements and
betterimentsi and for the replacement of worn-out or excessively
deteriorated facilities as follows:
Quarters for American (gold) employees -------------- $400, 000
Quarters for native (silver) employees---------------- 300, 000
Gorgas Hospital improvements---------------------- 1, 080, 000
Road and street replacements_ ---------------------- 100, 000
Road extension, Corozal Cemetery------------------- 28,000
Miscellaneous minor improvements ------------------ 100, 000
Total-------------------------------------- 2,008,000
Brief comment on these projects is given below:
Quarters for Anit ic it n (gold) employees.-This is a continuation of a
program for replacement of certain housing for American employees
on the gold roll. The units to be replaced are old frame buildings
erected during the construction period of the Canal, and which now
are in an advanced stage of deterioration.
Quarters for native (silver) employees.-This appropriation is to be
used for continuing a program of replacement of unsatisfactory hous-
ing for aliens on the silver roll. Many of the units to be replaced were
intended originally as temporary structures for the construction period
of the Canal, but it has been necessary to keep them in service because
of the pressing need for housing.
Gorgas Hospitll iinproctnentds.-This appropriation is to cover the
construction of an obstetrical building at Gorgas Hospital. The new
structure will provide facilities for modern and centralized obstetrical
services, and at the same time release space required for use of other
patients. The obstetrical facilities now in use are inadequate for the
proper care of patients.
Road and street replacements.-This appropriation is to be used for
the continuance of a program of modernizing the narrow and deteri-
orated streets and roads of the Canal Zone. The majority of these
streets and roads were built to the standards of the period prior to 1924,
and are not suited for the weight, volume, and greater speed of traffic
now using them.






IHIPORT (OF c;W\HltNSit l1 THE PANAMA CANAL


Inad IS xjinRiifin, C('r#al ( (nmte ry.-This road extension will be con-
struct rtl to pro video ans- tIn iL 1 inW burial ground whicli it lhas been
lneve-.Nnry to add to the W\slt Iinliiin section of the Corozal Cemetery.
.AIsi80 iliimui mi ujur u;irWiH't Mnts.-The fund provided in tils cat-
egory will permiit roust Iruction during the year of improvements of a
militir nature, th liei-il of which may arise from time to time andl which
cOU1d not b)e forFr.ciii tit 1 iltln' ii t budget was prepared.
VISITS OF CONGRESSIONAL PARTIES
Sever-al Iillb-rs of the I.it ted Stltes C'ongress mlnacde visits to
the Isthmus during the past fiscal year for the purpose of inspecting
installations in the 0Cn Zone. Judge John H. Kerr and 'Mr. W. F.
Norrell, eliirman and menlmber, respectively, of the Military Establish-
ment. Appropriation Subcommittee of the House of Representatives
arrived aboard the steamship Panama, of the Panama Line, on Novem-
her 2i;, 1946. Jdgie Kerr departed for tihe United States on Novem-
ber 29, 1946, but Mr. Norrell was able to prolong his stay until Decem-
ber 19, 1946. Messrs. Albert, J. Engel, Francis Case, George H.
M.ahon, mind Harve Tibbott, also members of tlie Military Establish-
ment Appropriation Subcommittee of the House of Representatives,
arrived aboard thlie steamrship Panama, on December 16, 1946, and
departed for the United States on December 19, 1946.
Senator Robert. A. Taft, of Ohio, paid a brief unofficial visit to the
Canal Zone, arriving at the Canal Zone. Airport on December 2, 1946.
11e departed for the United States, via. Cuba, on December 4, 1946.
Twelve members of the House of Representatives, the majority of
whom were members of the Committee on Merchant Marine and
Fisheries, arrived aboard the steamship Panama, on April 1, 1947, and
depIartdtI for tlie United States on the same vessel on April 5, 1947.
Tlhr pIi-rt imiluided the following: Messrs. Fred Bradley (chairman),
David M1. Potts, Willis W. Bradley, Raymond H. Burke, John C.
Br -opy11i, I'Fralklini J. Maloney, Herbert C. Bonner, James Domengeaux,
Eirir-te J. Keogh, Emory H. Price, John E. Fogarty, andl Henry D.
Lulicatde, Jr.














SECTION IV
GOVERNMENT
The civil government of the Canal Zone is conducted as prescribed
in the Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912, and subsequent acts
and Executive orders applicable to the Canal Zone. Wlnuiirver
practicable, governmental functions have been assigned to depart-
ments in the organization established for the operation and main-
tenance of the Canal. Complete cooperation and increased efficiency
are derived from such coordination of functions.
Data on expenses and revenues of various features of Canal oper-
ation and government, are contained in the financial and statistical
statement in section V of this report.

AREA OF THE CANAL ZONE
The total area of the Canal Zone,' with areas segregated for various
purposes, is shown as of June 30, 1947:


Land area
Military and naval reservations (inclusive of revocable license
areas):
Military reservations ---------------------------------__
Naval reservations ---_-----____--_____- __________


Square miles


89. 83
12. 25


Total ---_------------------------------------_-__--
Canal Zone town sites and areas in active use ----------- -----
Miscellaneous assigned land areas:
Barro Colorado Island ----------------------------- 5. 71
Forest preserve---------------------------------------5. 47
Cattle pastures -------------------------------------- 39. 90
Commercial licenses----------------------------------_____ 4. 94
Third Locks project_------------------------------------ 72


102. 08
15. 94


Total------------------------------------------------ 56. 74
Swamps-----------------------------------------------_____-- 15. 16
Remaining usable land_ ---------------_----------------------- -_ 172. 26
Total land area of the Canal Zone- -------------------------- 362. 18
Water area (inclusive of Madden Lake to the + 260-foot contour) ------- 190. 94
Total area of the Canal Zone-------------------------------- 553, 12

POPULATION
By compiling information obtained from the chief quartermaster,
the land section, the Army and Navy authorities, and by making a
house-to-house canvass of persons employed by commercial interests,
in March 1947 an estimate was made of the population of the Canal
Zone. The estimated population figures include civilian employees
I Not inclusive of noncontiguous areas, with the exception of Paitilla Point Military Reservation.
85






86 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

of the Army and Navy and their families, and members of the families
of Army and Navy personnel, buIt omit, commissioned, warrant, and
enlisted personnel of tlie a reiiid forces.
The following is a summary of the population by districts:

AIrnFriiivns .Al tiihir
-- - Tutal
W 1_ Wn Chilir-n urii WoIn__ _lillrin
Balhoa d ist ric. r. ** *; .'3,.17 W. .1. 429 .5,.582 30.302
CrLitobal district. l .i27 1 2. 171. 2.1Q22 4. 216 2, L,27 4 74-12 17.050
Total. 1 7.. 3,319 8,414 7, 369 is.': 5. 6Wi, l,; 34 47,352
Total.l a...... ..(.. 886. 1 70w2 5,65 7 12.-A. .,171 I).711 48,352
Total, 4A'.. 7. l, 4 5, 1,7 4,040 1 I, 1760 t. .T9 7. 97 44, 88

The population of March 1947 was 2.1 percent lower than that of
the previous year, but 6.0 percent, higher than in 1945. While there
has been a sharp decrease in the number of men in the past 2 years by
reason of diminirished activity following the end of the war, there has
been a Inrge increase in the population of American women and
children. These are largely families of service personnel who were
permitted to come to the Isthmus following the end of hostilities.
A substantial increase also occurred in the number of children of other
nationalities in comparison with the fiscal year 1945.
In addition to the population figures shown above, the records
indicated that, in March 1947 there were 1,551 Americans (46S men,
519 women, and 564 children) residing in United States Government
quarters in New Cristobal, Republic of Panama.
PUBLIC HEALTH
The health of the Canal Zone populace remained relatively good
during the year. Excluding malaria, and venereal diseases, the aver-
age number of reportable diseases per month for the year was 72 as
compared with 64 per month during the previous fiscal year, 57 per
month during the fiscal year 1945, and 125 per month for the fiscal
year 1944. Pneumonia and measles constituted 72 percent of the
total number of cases reported during the fiscal year 1947, 40 and 32
percent respectively.
The malarial rate for employees of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. continued to be relatively low. The rate for the 6-
month period January through June 1947 was 14.2 percent, in com-
parison with rates of 15.2 and 11.6 during the similar periods in 1946
arnd 1945.
Normally acute anterior poliomyelitis cases average three or four a
year in this area. During the first 6 months of the fiscal year 1947
tlihere were no cases of poliomyelitis in the Panama. Canal hospitals,
but in the last 6 months of the year there was an unusual rise in the
incidence of this disease. During this period 10 cases were admitted
to Panama Canal hospitals. The reason for this unexpected increase
in the number of cases of poliomyelitis cannot be definitely explained,
but fast steamship and airplane travel to the Isthmus from communi-
ties in which the dispense is known to be prevalent may have been a
factor.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 87

VITAL STATISTICS

The morbidity and mortality rates from diseases and injuries, to-
gether with other vital statistics relating to the population of the
Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, are set forth in detail
in the report of the health department for the calendar year, which is
published annually in booklet form. For this reason, the data herein
pertaining to vital statistics are limited to a brief resum6 of the im-
portant information.
General death rates.-The death rate for the Canal Zone is artificially
low in comparison with Panama City'and Colon, because employees
generally leave the Isthmus after retirement. Below are shown death
rates by yearly periods for the past five calendar years:

Death rate per 1,000 population-all causes

Calendar year

1946 1945 1944 1943 1942

Canal Zone ---------------------------------------- 6.31 5.12 6.13 6.24 6.24
Panama City- ----------------------_--- ------- 9.44 9.42 10.57 10.49 10.62
Colon..--------------.------.--.----------------- 12.00 12.32 11.55 12.11 12.13

1 Omits Army and Navy personnel.

Principal causes of death.-The principal causes of death in each of
the groups of population were as follows:
Number of deaths and annual rate per 1,000 population-calendar year 1946

Canal Zone Panama City Colon

Nimhir Rateer Number Rate per Number Rate pr
1,000 1,000 1,000

Organic diseases of the heart-------------- 46 0.951 114 0.877 54 1.149'
Cancer of various organs ----------------- 39 .806 106 .801 41 .872
Pneumonia.--------------... ---------.-- 26 .537 134 1.030 49 1.043
Diseases of the arteries ...-------------. ------ 24 .496 42 .323 21 .447
Tuberculosis.--------------.--.------..-. 19 .393 241 1.854 74 1.574
Apoplexy- --------------.._ _....--... 18 .372 53 .408 38 .808
Nephritis (acute and chronic) ------------ 15 .310 44 .338 28 .595
Syphilis --------------------------------- 7 .145 23 .177 19 .404
Diarrhea and enteritis---------...-----------. 1 .020 65 .500 24 .511

I Includes following deaths due to diseases of the coronary arteries and angina pectoris: Canal Zone, 17;
Panama City, 22; Colon, 9,

Birth rate.-In the Canal Zone a change in the birth rate, as distinct
from the number of births, has only limited significance because of the
'peculiar situation which exists with regard to the popilat ion on which
!the rate is calculated. For the past 6 years, population figures have
!excluded uniformed personnel of the Army and Navy, but included
members of their families, and children born to Army and Navy
families are included in the total number on which the rate is calculated.
A factor which depresses the birth rate concerns silver personnel in
the Canal Zone. Canal Zone quarters are generally available only to
silver employees who have more than average length of service and
such employees are therefore in the older-age brackets. A further








88 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE PANAMA CANAL


varirble, although gradually licroniing less of a factor, is the number
(of int mitnit labonrrs I-her wit hliut tlhiir families, which swells the popu-
Int ion litrures witlliit midliqn appreciably to the Canal Zone birthrate.
Tl'r following taldil sliims ilie birth rats in the Canal Zone and the
I"r1iinal cities rIf 1'liiinnria a nti Colon for th past 5 years:

firth rile per 1,000 population


\lii.-
i ,,l. ,
I i il l i irini *,
fun 111 i i f
< -..! .n


I 'ni' n'linr y'-iar

I'-1 .1-'. 1944 1943. 1942


44 .' 2 2 I '. 27 21 23.08
IN *'* % 47 i9 (17 1 2.5 13.07
42 2\ 71 24 M : I'1 4s 1I1.65
.12 1'2 32 *: 2 ? 14 S. i : 14 Wl 30.38
. .i. 47 :1. M 37. :34. 32 27.38


iT.- F I' i tillston r wt for '.ii 1Z1i-lli. excludes Arm l \"ii .:unDifor a lw personnel.

l flti J/// s1iov-; the if;ant i mortality rates per 1,000 births for the past 5 years:

liai oitlf ip ft'iilvs Pnir r I jrar foif age p r 1 ,000 live births


'nall ndnr yanr

r 194i I 1944 I 943


ii ii 1/ .ii .
Iblr 1

1A .J i I .1
I in il I
'1 *i,] 1


17
1:I
14I
67
..... . ...... ..

........... ....TI


24 17 24
44 43 51
.14 .: 38
72 70f 73
;94 4 C.5


1942


22
53
38
79
79


MA L RIA


T'lle aitis for innlaria
111r' Si 1\11i Il low:


I.1nIl In ir


among employees only for the past 10 years



IC ati l .r r'.tT,.inidar ya Rate per
SIlrius.tlii I thousand

12 . 25
14 1944. 13
i17 l'.!4:. 13
14 I'.. 12


Tliii'I*i n \Wi'i*i 1i111 i fomlls Froml malaria among employees during the
i6 yriir l1946i.

HOSPITALS

Thlle uiiIriln'r of patirit-dlays in Panarna Canal hospitals for the past
three fiscl ver.rs was as follows:







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


fPatient-days]

Fiscal year


_ _ _ _ _ _ 1 -- ___________----.-- I


Gorgas Hospital ----------------------------------------------
Corozal Hospital:
Insane..--------------------------------------------------
Cripples and chronic-medical and surgical cases-----------
Colon Hospital -----------.----------------------------------
Margarita Hospital -------------------------------------------
Palo Seco Leper Colony--------------------------------------
Total-- ------------------------------------


234,616
89,600
34,938
52, 711
21,722
41,349
474,936


273, 183
90,838
35,066
51,842
27, 021
42,765
520,715


337,683
94,621
35,317
53,109
28,406
43,159
592,295


QUARANTINE AND IMMIGRATION

During the fiscal year 1947 inspection was made of 5,653 vessels
and 5,136 airplanes, compared with 6,868 vessels and 4,303 airplanes
during the previous fiscal year.
No cases of quarantinable disease were encountered at Canal Zone
ports during the fiscal year. However, constant vigilance and pre-
cautionary measures are exercised toward preventing the introduction
of plague, typhus, yellow fever, smallpox, and cholera. During the
past year smallpox has been endemic and epidemic in most parts of
the world. In this hemisphere there have been outbreaks in the
United States and in Central and South America. In spite of the
outbreaks in countries close to the Isthmus of Panama no cases oc-
curred in the terminal Isthmian cities, mainly because passengers
are required to present evidence of vaccination within 3 years or be
vaccinated upon entry into the Canal Zone.
The following is a summary of activities for the fiscal year 1947,
together with the figures for the two preceding fiscal years:

Fiscal year

1947 1946 1945

Vessels inspected and passed --.----.------------------------- 5,653 6,808 5,190
Vessels granted pratique by radio ----------------------------- 127 50 --------------
Total.... ...........------------------------------... ---------.----- -- 5,780 6,918 5,190
Crew passed by quarantine..----------------------------------- 257, 131 340, 941 288, 503
Crew passed by radio ---.-.--.---------..------. -------.-.-. 5,986 2,140 --------------
Passengers passed at quarantine ...----------------------------- 68, 529 172, 556 65, 322
Passengers passed by radio.--.....------.---------------------------------------.--------- ------ ------
Total.-------.-----------.--.----.------.. -------------- 331,646 515,637 353,825
Airplanes inspected and passed---.------------..------------- 5,136 4,303 3,512
Crew of airplanes inspected and passed------ ---------------- 21,296 17, 276 13, 487
Passengers of airplanes inspected and passed-------.----.-----.. 66, 816 57, 080 47, 473
Total--...-..--- ---------------------------..---------- 88,112 74, 356 60,960
Vessels detained in quarantine -..----- ------------.. ------------ 1 3 2
Crew detained in quarantine on board ship................... 100 181 412
Passengers detained in quarantine on board ship.... ......._ 900 2,148 744
Passengers admitted to huopi tal on account ofquarantine laws. .... ...... ..
Number ouf incoming pa.sen.nr.s vac( mnated against smallpo 4, 1028............
Numberof detention da. ar hoinpialron account of quarantine
laws----------. ------------ - --------------------- - ............. .
Immigration cases admitted to station-... .------------------- --...., u7 4. 5, 455
Number of immigration detention days......................----------------------- 32, 794 35, 411 40,156
Persons held for investigation and itlkastd ..... ............ 144 83 124
Persons deported under immigration laws.....--...... ------------------- 3, 820 5, 227 5, 831
Supplementary saunaiv inispe t i'on of vessels . ........... 3,405 6, 101 6.128
Vessels fumigated............... ....... ..... ........... ..... 81 108 175

770698-48-----7






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING

S1ll it-ipl work catrrie d oil tIring Iit I yrvalr in'llll idrd the construction
atil maIllllintefillniec if rnmd-I, sIrelts, anid sidewalks, and the operation
Ii il innifiit'lllli('t' of f Ii'' \\it ler aiald s'\w 'r systillems inll the Can1all Zone,
including rT'es'rvoi rI, lilter [llaits, iiili pump11 stat ions. The mainte-
IlIllT e (if the wat ri s istvi s' \\ r systemi i uta tli st rheets in the cities of
PaI'aIII a ald C'ole.iI, 1in1ui Ili furniisigig of fill ered water to Ithse i unic-
pililitiis, mwire litiicilcl 'v Ilis livisivn. Ccilistirue'iion work was
p'rforiried mnil scrv ie's r'ldcra'd for (dpilrli ientlls and divisions of
Thei' l'iIltilli ( iiinll. lli Ariny, airid tlie Navy, the government of the
lreplilivc of Pimiiuitnn 1ii1 for ildhividlills anid conipniesll Only thle
Iliiljt'r it'llns (If lli \%mrk ara' co'inillnrii trdul pon in this report.

WATI.: It SYSTIV.M

('o0st11Itpi i llnf WI \\it'r for nilllcipid iiss anid for sales to vessels
dining til ha' pitst Ilirca fis'cn 1 Yi'rs wais is follows:





-- Ji-.: year
I .l l- .1. Of *. vil .1

* *nall Zone ?, 11S32 7, 17 46l'. 7. 22. 3 :.7
I r'. o I' i orn ... 3., 1"n 194 3, t,71 3,181.B81

..... .. .. ..... I........ 1 212.75.


I 11 1i 1 ldiliill to then I'-imi-I Illill ilill iir wirk p -rr-f iir r onl t (II pipe
lill'-, rr-rr\ uailr-., litlilll jI II-;. i1itd plllriJ)ipinl st.if tins, a Iuiiinhlr of
i*II tl )ijri I- w!re ril lrtr or 0 1 rf ic Ill Ill., f s of coliplet iol
ill tlll i 1 I ll' H it1. ycir. Tin I*ll i l >r ill tiipo i fni t tlnSc Illcl* die'd the
retizil ilatitiu ri n11dl r 'rtIi al'iIIll of th1 'W21-iIri ri t-ll'ra ui water line from
a pltinIt west -' iiin E I ( I' l 1tr IHn-pitl ) o lirI Balboa plili 1) station,
A1nili A.1 1 pan-c IIr 11llur'f I l' tit the end of f ll't v i1). WYork wa-s niar-
Illik iin[IIrIit'fl tit t i '' 41l I ti lf lllr'r on ti li iistall tioa l of a 10-inch,
W-pr)e-'di6i', W:ai-liii' y--rS n f 'ci rIoii l Bil i o1m It dozaiIalho to Fort
A inlitddl, wi, hli p i ijart Ii nhi u1rrI aiiTrbit'd withiti lij proposed( work of
flr A Im Vy tf It' Fl .\nlildn lir to prillnit a si11 tibiltaneots cliiiig--over fromll
i11 lii1'- ito Va low-pr'ssi 'll f iIll. Thle e'rin'ral srvey of the water
-vstirIll wliaili wi- -tirt'rd 1in Navi'lii'ri 1945.) was continued during
Ill,' 'll',; iic pjTi)iTu'iiit Ii J)ps ire briiiw l b1rolight upll to date, and sub-
-tulll l [r1 pi' f 'r*.- 1i-. iinla oill n lil' t pr1i diitil of inspecting all valves,
lv11lii-,it'- Mid I 1ii 1r41 1ir d tu ntiti ii ii-." till 1 lc'n S aIry repairs.

-: 1u: H sYSTKMl

In otlditi 'it to hli' ra'-tilr Imlil rt1nincll-a'work performed on the Canal
Zoia sI'.Wr systtin, it ravis-ino of ti(- draii'nmm system south of Roose-
\ilt Av'riun b)rt\ ii'li 41 tion iE. (mirguIs Hospital, and Mindi Street,
ACnii, "As <" ili)td lmuhrimnr tli tear. TVlis project involved the
''stillnftinia of a aitrrafu iiiirt wi i stilb) walls (to permit the instal-




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