• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 Introduction
 Section I: Canal operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Administration
 Section IV: Government
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00030
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1946
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00030
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Front Matter
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Section I: Canal operation and trade via the Panama Canal
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Section III: Administration
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Section IV: Government
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Back Cover
        Page 125
        Page 126
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ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL

FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR


ENDED JUNE 30

1946


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1947


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington 25. D. C.
Price 25.cents














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction_----------------------___ -------------------------- 1
Operation and maintenance of the Canal------------------------- 2
Operation of auxiliary enterprises-business operations-.------------ 2
Government-administration -----_---_------------------------- 2
Services rendered to shipping by the Panama Canal ------------.-- 3
Net revenues----------------------- ------------------------- 3
Replacements--- ---------------------------------------------- 4

SECTION I-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL

Statistics on Canal traffic ----------------------------------------- 5
Ocean-going tolls-paying traffic ------- _-------------------------- 6
Canal traffic by fiscal year 1915 to 1946-------------------------- 8
Traffic by months-fiscal year 1946 and 1945- -------------------- 8
Nationality of vessels transiting Canal -------------------------- 9
Vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage ---------------------- 9
Origin and destination of cargo- ------------------------------.-- 10
Total cargo shipments-Atlantic to Pacific-------------------- 10
Total cargo shipments-Pacific to Atlantic ------------------- 11
Origin and destination of principal commodities- Atlantic to
Pacific --------------------------------- ----- --------. 12
Origin and destination of principal commodities-Pacific to At-
lantic ---------- ------_---__-------------. ------------16
Classification of vessels between laden and ballast traffic------------ 19
Laden and ballast traffic by nationality -----.----------------. 22
Average tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per cargo-carrying vessel_-- 22
Steam, motor and other vessels --------------------------------- 23
Frequency of transits of vessels through the Panama Canal --------- 23
Gross tonnage of vessels ---------------------------------- 25
Small tolls-paying vessels transiting Canal ------------------------ 27
Vessels entitled to free transit -- ------------- ------- ----- -- --- 27
Canal operation and maintenance ----- ----------------------------- 28
Hours of operation --------------------------- ------------ 28
Lockages and lock maintenance --------------------------------- 28
Operating schedule of locks ---------------------_-_--------- 28
S Lockages---------------------------------------------- 28
Delays to shipping----------- ----------------__------------- 29
Maintenance-------------------------------------------_ 30
Power for Canal operation -----------------------__------------_ 30
Water supply and general weather conditions --------------------- 31
Water supply-------------------_------_------------------ 31
Air temperatures----------------- --------_--------------- 33
Winds and humidity------ -----_-------------------------- 33
Tides----------------------------------______-------------- 34
Seismology ---------- __--___--- --------------------__------------____ 34
Marine activities---------------------__---------------------- ______ 34
Harbor activities -----------_------_ ---------------------- 35
Aids to navigation--------- ----------------------_....-------- 35
Accidents to shipping-----------------__----------_---------- 35
Inspections-------------------------------------------- 36
Admeasurement- ---------_--_----------------------- ----- 36
Salvage and towing ----___---______------------------------------ 36
Operation of tugs---------------------------------------- 36




2038089






IV CONTENTS

Canal operation and maintenance-Continued Page
Maintenance of channel-other dredging activities- ---------------- 37
Ordinary channel maintenance-Canal prism dredging ---.-.--- 38
Auxiliary dredging-other projects -- ------------------------ 39
Third locks dredging ----------------------------_-------__ 40
Slids---..- ----------------.--------------------.-.__ 40
Subsidiary Dredging Division activities ----------------------. 41
Equipment----- --------------------...-_--....--------- 42
Ferry service------- ---------------------------------------- 42
Third locks project----------------------------------------_ ----_ 43
Investigation of means of increasing the capacity and security of the
Panama Canal ---------------------------------------------- 44

SECTION II-BLUSINESS OPERATIONS
Panama Canal business operations ---------------------------------- 45
Mechanical and marine work -----------------------.--------- 46
Gross revenues-class and source- --------------------------- 46
Repairs to ships ----------------------------------------- 46
Dry docks and marine railways ---------------------------- 47
Plant improvement ------------------------------------- 47
Electrical repair work --------------- ------------------------- 48
Purchases and inspections in the United States_ ----------------- 48
Storehouses and ship chandlery ----------__-----------------------_ 48
Obsolete and unserviceable property and equipment --------------- 49
Bulk petroleum products-----------------__-- ------------------ 49
Buildings construction and maintenance---------------- ---------- 50
Quarters for employees ----------------------- ------------- 51
Motor transportation------------------------__-------.......------ 51
Panama Canal press -----------------------------_------------ 52
Subsistence-------------------------------------------------- 52
Revenues derived from the rental of lands in the Canal Zone- ----, 52
Business operations under the Panama Railroad Company --- -------- 53
Trans-Isthmian railroad------------- ------------------------ 53
Receiving and forwarding agency-- --------------_-------------- 54
Coaling plants ------------------------------------------------ 54
Telephone system--------------------------------------------- 55
Commissary Division -------------------------__--------------_ 55
Sales ------ --------------------------------------------- 55
Purchases---------------------------------------------- 56
Hotels---_ ------------------------------------------------- 56
Mmindi Dairy -------------------------------------------------- 56
Panama Line------------------------ ---------------------- 56

SECTION III-ADMINISTRATION
Departments------------------------------------------------------ 58
Operation and maintenance------------ ----------------------- 58
Supply --------------------------------------------------- 58
Accounting -_------- ------------------------------------- 58
Executive ----_------------------------------------------ 58
Health ------------------------------------------------------ 59
Panama Railroad Company -------_--------------- ------------ 59
Changes in administrative personnel -------------------------------- 59
Changes in administrative organization --- _------------------------- 60
Employees--_ -----_--_--- ----------_---------------------------- 60
Gold employees ----------------------------------------------- 61
Recruiting and turn-over in force-gold employees ----------------- 62
Adjust meant. in wages and hours of work ---------------------- 63
Silver employees --------------------------------------------- 64
Silver wages. --------_---- --_---------------------------------65
Sick and rest leave -------------------------------------------- 65
Cash relief for disabled silver employees -------------------------- 65
Repatriations --------------- ---------------------------- 66
Central labor office --------------------------------------------- 67
Work simplification program ------------------------------------ 67






CONTENTS V

Page
Safety program------------------------------------------ -- 68
Experiment gardens--------- ----------- ------------------------ 69
Clubhouses----------- ------------------------------------ 69
Legislation_------------------- ------------------------------- -- 70
Capital allotments, fiscal year 1947 --------------------------------- 71
Budget administration.. ------------------------------------------ 73

SECTION IV-COVERNMENT
Area of the Canal Zone .------------------------------------------- 74
Population --------------------------------------------------- 74
Public health ..... -------- --------------- ---- ------------- 75
Vital statistics ------------------------------------ -------- 75
Malaria -------------------------- ----------------------- 77
Hospitals ------------- -------------- ----------------------- 78
Quarantine and immigration ----------------------------------- 78
Municipal engineering ------------------------- ------------------- 79
Water system ----------------------------------------------- 79
Sewer system----------------------------------------------- -- 80
Roads, streets and sidewalks ------------ ----------------- 80
Other heavy construction act ivit ies ------------------------------ 80
Cities of Panama and Colon --------------_------------------ ---- 81
Miscellaneous activities_ -------------------------------------- 81
Public order ----------------------------------------------------- 81
Traffic accidents and control ----------------------------------- 83
Magistrates courts ----_-----_------------------------------------ 83
Pardons and reprieves---- ----------------------------------------- 83
Fire protection. ------------------------------------ ------ 84
Public school system ---------------------------------------------- 84
Postal system -------------------------------------------------- 86
Immigration visas- --------------------------------------------- 87
Relations with the Republic of Panama ------------------------------ 87
Customs---------------------------------------------------------- 88
Shipping commissioner -------------------------------------- ---- 88
Administration of estates ------------------- --------------------- 89
Foreign corporations ---------------------- ----------------------- 89
Insurance-------.--------------------------------------------------89
Licenses ---------------------------------------------------- -----89
Rationing program ------------------------------------------- ---- 90
Commercial aviation----------------------------------------------- 90

SECTION V-FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS'
Accounting system ---- ------------------------------------------ 91
Operation of the Panama Railroad Company--------------------- --- 91
Panama Canal operations ------------------------------------------ 92
Index to tables___-------------------------------------------------- 92
Financial tables ------------------------------------------------ 92-122












OFFICIALS OF THE PANAMA CANAL AND PANAMA
RAILROAD COMPANY
The following is a list of the major officials of The Panama Canal
and the Panama Railroad Company as of June 30, 1946:

THE PANAMA CANAL

Maj. Gen. J. C. MEHAFFEY, USA, Governor

Brig. Gen. F. K. Newcomer, USA, Engineer of Maintenance.
J. G. Claybourn, Superintendent, Dredging Division.
Col. James H. Stratton, USA, Supervising Engineer, Special En-
gineering Division.
Commodore S. A. Manahan, USN, Marine Superintendent, Marine
Division.
Col. F. H. Wang, AUS, Executive Secretary, Executive Department.
Col. Richardson Selee, USA, Assistant Engineer of Maintenance.
Capt. A. S. Pitre, USN, Superintendent, Mechanical Division.
Col. L. W. Lewis, AUS, Chief Quartermaster, Supply Department.
Arnold Bruckner, Comptroller, Accounting Department.
Brig. Gen. H. C. Dooling, USA, Chief Health Officer, Health De-
part.ment.
B. F. Burdick, Chief of Washington Office and General Purchasing
Officer.
PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY
Maj. Gen. J. C. AMEHAFFEY, USA, President

Brig. Gen. F. K. Newcomer, USA, Second Vice President.
A. L. Prather, General Manager.

(NEW YORK OFFICE)
T. H. Rossbottom, Vice President.
W. R. Pfizer, Third Vice President and Secretary.
W. L. Hall, Treasurer.
VI














REPORTS OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND DIVISIONS
APPENDIXES NOT PRINTED
The material in the' annual report of the Governor of The Panama Canal,
published in this volume, is to a large extent a summary of the data presented
in the annual reports from the heads of departments and divisions in the Canal
organization; the latter, regarded as appendixes to the report of the Governor,
are not printed. The annual reports of the Panama Railroad Company and the
health department are published separately; the latter is compiled for calendar
years only. The reports of the heads of departments and divisions, as listed
below, are on file at the Washington Office of The Panama Canal and at the office
of the Governor at Balboa Heights, C. Z.:
Engineer of maintenance, report of.
Dredging division, report of superintendent.
Plans section, report of chief.
Safety section, report of safety engineer.
Special engineering division, report of supervising engineer.
Assistant engineer of maintenance, report of.
Electrical division, report of electrical engineer.
Locks division, report of superintendent.
Meteorology and hydrography, section of, report of chief hydrographer.
Municipal engineering division, report of municipal engineer.
Office engineering division, report of office engineer.
Accounting department, report of comptroller.
Marine division, report of marine superintendent.
Mechanical division, report of superintendent.
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Executive department:
Civil affairs, division of, report of chief.
Clubhouses, Panama Canal, report of acting director.
General counsel, report of.
License bureau, report of chief.
Personnel supervision and management, division of, report of director of
personnel.
Police and fire division, report of chief.
Schools, division of, report of acting superintendent.
Surveying officer, acting, report of.
Aeronautics section, report of chief.
Collector, report of.
Magistrates' courts:
Magistrate:
Cristobal, report of.
Balboa, report of.
Pardon board, report of chairman.
Paymaster, acting, report of.
Public defender, report of.
Washington office, report of chief of office and general purchasing officer.















































Digilized by [he Inlerner Archive
inll 2010 *ih1 luindinig hiom
University ol Florida, George A. Smalhers Libraries wilh supporil hom L'riai's and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofgol946cana








ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE
GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BALBOA HEIGHTS, C. Z.,
November 19, 1946.
The SECRETARY OF \VAR,
Washington, D. 0.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the report of the Governor of The
Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1946.
Owing to t.he resumption of peacetime commerce early in the fiscal
year and the consequent. increase in traffic subject to the payment of
tolls, operations for the year resulted in a net revenue of $722,197,
exclusive of the fixed capital charge. This net revenue contrasts with
deficits recorded in each of the three preceding fiscal years, when the
greater part of t.he Canal traffic was engaged in direct war service and
therefore entitled to free passage of the Canal. With the exception
of the fiscal years 1943 through 1945, during which period the value
of the Canal was measured by its importance to the war effort rather
than by the economic features of its operation, Canal revenues have
exceeded operating expenses each year since 1921, when the water-
way was declared officially open to commercial traffic. In seven of
these years the net revenues exceeded the fixed capital charge of 3
percent., and the Canal operated at a surplus.
A major development during the year was the beginning of the in-
vestigation of means for increasing the capacity and security of the
Panama Canal t.o meet. the future needs of interoceanic commerce
and national security, including a restudy of the Third Locks Project.
This investigation is being conducted in accordance with Public Law
No. 280, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, approved December
28, 1945.
Respectfully,
J. C. MEHAFFEY, Governor.
INTRODUCTION
Administration of the affairs of The Panama Canal enterprises
involves three main elements: (a) Operation and maintenance of
the Canal itself; (b) operation of the auxiliary enterprises necessary
to provide adequately for the needs of shipping and of the Canal
operating forces; and (c) government of the Canal Zone, populated
by American civilians, native or tropical workers and their families,
and United States Army and Navy defense forces.
In addition to these normal elements, during the recent war period
the Canal organization performed very important functions as a
supply and service agency for t.he greatly expanded activities of the
Army and Navy, particularly in their extensive construction pro-
grams. While the Canal organization and equipment were not





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


designed for this duty and were by no means fully adequate, the
services rendered were regarded as very creditable. These services
contributed materially to the efficiency and economy of the Army
and Navy operations.
The immediate supervision of the administration of these various
activities rests with the heads of the nine major departments and
divisions. Responsibility for administrative control of the entire
organization is centered in the Governor of The Panama Canal, who
is also the president of the Panama Railroad Company, an adjunct
of the Canal enterprise organized as a Government-owned corporation.
By Executive order of September 5, 1939, the provisions of section
13 of the Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912, were invoked
as an emergency measure, and since that date the commanding gen-
eral, Panama Canal Department, United States Army, has exercised
final authority over the operation of the Panama Canal and all its
adjuncts, appendants, and appurtenances, including control and
government of the Canal Zone; and the Governor of The Panama
Canal has been subject to that, authority and the orders issued under it.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CANAL
The primary function of The Panama Canal is to provide and
maintain a waterway by means of which vessels may make the transit
from one ocean to the other, and to handle such traffic as presents
itself for transit with a maximum of safety and a minimum of delay.
Essentially this involves the maintenance of the waterway, the oper-
ation of the locks, and the control of traffic through the Canal.
Throughout the year the Canal force maintained its high standard
for expeditious service not only in the actual transiting of ships but
in providing emergency repairs, fuel, supplies, and the various supple-
mentary services incidental to shipping. There were no interruptions
of ship traffic during the year.

OPERATION OF AUXILIARY ENTERPRISES-BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Second only to the operation of the Canal is the function of supply-
ing necessary services to shipping and the Canal operating force.
These services are provided under coordinated and centralized con-
trol by the various business units of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Company and include oil and coal bunkering plants; store-
houses for food, ship chandlery, and other essential supplies; marine
repair shops; harbor terminal facilities for passengers and for handling
and transshipping cargo; a railroad line across the Isthmus; water and
electric power systems; and living quarters and retail commissary
stores for the operating force.

GoVERNMENT-ADMINISTRATION
The usual functions of government, such as schools, police and fire
protection, quarantine, public health, immigration service, posts,
customs, aids to navigation, steamboat inspection, hydrographic and
meteorological work, water supply, sewers, construction and mainte-
nance of streets, and similar activities, which, in the United States are







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 6


directed by various officers of the national, State, and municipal gov-
ernments, are entrusted in the Canal Zone to the Governor, and are
executed under his authority and responsibility. This centralization
of all governmental activities under one head is essential to economical
and efficient administration.


SERVICES RENDERED TO SHIPPING BY THE PANAMA CANAL

The principal services rendered to shipping by the Canal and its
adjuncts are shown in the following table, which presents a compari-
son of the activities during the fiscal year 1946 with those of the 2
years immediately preceding:


S Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944


TRAFFIC THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL

Number of vessels transiting the Canal:
Ocean-going tolls-paying vessels.--...------------------...................
Small tolls-paying vessels (see p. 27) ......................
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls (see p. 27) ........-
Total transits...-..--..........--------....------....--...---......------
Tolls levied:
Ocean-going vessels... ~ .- -......- .... .........-.-- --.---
Small vessels---------...........------ .---------- ---------
Total tolls---..---.................------- ..--.------.-----------
Cargo passed through Canal, carried by:
Ocean-going tolls-paying vessels.....---........-..-..---
Small tolls-paying vessels..............-----..--------.---.--.-----...
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls -------------------
Total cargo --.------- ----------------..---------
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement) of ocean-going
tolls-paying vessels - .....................-...... -..---------
Cargo per Panama Canal net vessel ton (laden ocean-going
tolls-paying vessels only).....- ----- ..---- ----.
Average tolls per ton of cargo (laden ocean-going tolls-paying
vessels only).----.......-----....------.---..--......-----------------
OTHER SERVICES

Calls at Canal Zone ports by ships not transiting the Canal..
Cargo handled and transferred at ports (tons).......... ..
Coal sales to ships (tons)........................ -- -
- Coal, number of vessels bunkered.................--- .........
Fuel oil:
Total barrels pumped (both incoming and outgoing), ex-
cluding Panama Canal use...........................
Number of vessels handled --...--...........----------------------
Repairs to ships other than Panama Canal equipment:
Number of vessels repaired.......................--....
Number of vessels drydocked ............................
Sales to ships (except U. S. Army and Navy):
Provisions (commissary sales) --.--------...........----------
Chandlery (storehouse sales)....------------..-----....----


3.747
285
5, 554
9,586
$14, 773, 693
22. 713
14, 796, 406
Torns
14, 977.940
19,776
7, 471, 446
22,469,162
17, 516, 517
1.295
$0.695


1,044
1,237, 155
23, 189
72

30, 431.970
3,655
3,186
228
$5, 766. 265
$313, 678


1,939
361
6, 566
8,866
$.7, 243, 602
22, 609
7,266,211
Tons
8. 603, 607
20, 883
10, 774, 651
19,369,141
8,380,959
1, 402
$0.642


1,273
1, 374. 679
42, 560
158

32, 180.658
3,370
4,303
500
$5,271,972
$447.886


1,562
235
3, 333
5, 130
$5, 456. 163
17, 683
5, 473, 846
Tons
7.003, 487
17,156
4, 752, 034
11,592,677
6,073,457
1,389
$0.648


813
1, 734, 556
58, 53
213

23,688,710
2.431
3,514
418
$1. 596. 608
$337, 577


NET REVENUES

During the fiscal year 1946 the revenues from tolls charged to ship-
ping using the Canal were $14,791,807.14, and civil revenues including
profit from postal operations amounted to $267,684.60. The net ap-
propriation expenses were $15,214,130.16, resulting in a net deficit in
Canal operations proper of $154,638.42. The business operations
under The Panama Canal produced a net revenue of $876,835.29.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Thus a net revenue of $722,196.87 was derived from the combined
operations of the Canal and its business units during the fiscal year
1946, as compared with a net deficit of $4,974,915.75 in the fiscal year
1945.
The foregoing amounts for the fiscal year 1946 do not include charge
for the capital loss of $669,226.38 representing the unamortized value
of water and sewerage systems and pavements in the Republic of
Panama. Effective January 1, 1946, in conformity with Executive
Order No. 9551 of May 16, 1945, and pursuant to the provisions of
Public Law No. 48, approved May 3, 1943, all right, title, and interest
of the United States in and to the water and sewerage systems in the
cities of Panama and Colon were transferred to the Republic of
Panama without further recovery of the construction costs from the
Republic of Panama.
REPLACEMENTS
The past fiscal year marked the close of 32 years of successful opera-
tion of The Panama Canal. A very important factor contributing
to this creditable record is the care that has been taken to maintain
all parts of the Canal structures and equipment in good operating
condition.
Of the total capital value of The Panama Canal, approximately
$118,000,000 is the value of property of the transit. divisions (which
is subject to deterioration). Some of this property, including locks,
dams, and other concrete structures, is still in excellent condition and
requires but little expenditure for upkeep. However, other types
of property, subject to more rapid deterioration, require systematic
and orderly replacement as their economic life is exhausted, and appro-
priations must be made by Congress for this purpose, as well as for
the construction of new facilities as the need therefore develops.













SECTION I


CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL
STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC
Total transits of the Panama Canal in the fiscal year ended June 30,
1946, including vessels on which tolls were assessed and those transiting
free of tolls, numbered 9,586. This is the greatest number of transits
for any fiscal year in the history of the Canal and exceeds the previous
record fiscal year's traffic (1945) by 8.1 percent. The following
table presents a segregation of this traffic by direction of transit,
together with the totals for the fiscal year 1945 and 1944:

Fiscal year 1946 Fiscal year

Atlantic Pacific -4 1944
to to Total 1945 1944
Pacific Atlantic total total

Tolls-paying transits:
Ocean-going vessels I--................................---------------------------- 1,516 2,231 3,747 1,939 1,562
Local vessels 2....- ....--.... .. .-...............-.-. 135 150 285 361 235
Total tolls-paying transits-----------------.......................... 1,651 2.381 4,032 2,300 1,797
Tolls-free transits..........-------------------------...................----... 2,239 3,315 5,554 6, 566 3,333
Grand total transit -------------------...................--......-------.... 3,890 5,696 9,586 8.866 5,130

I Vessels of 300 net tons and over (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels rated on net tonnage, or 500
tons displacement and over for vessels rated on displacement tonnage.
i Vessels under 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) for vessels rated on net tonnage, or under 500
tons displacement for vessels rated on displacement tonnage.

As will be observed from the foregoing table there was a sharp
increase in the movement of ocean-going traffic subject to the pay-
ment of tolls, the number of tolls-paying vessels passing through in the
fiscal year 1946 (3,747) being almost double the number transition in
the preceding fiscal year. The volume of traffic in this category began
to increase immediately following the cessation of hostilities in the
Pacific, reflecting corresponding increases in the number of vessels
transferred from war service, under Government control, to peace-
time commerce under private owners and operators.
The peak of the tolls-free traffic for 1946 was reached in the early
part of the year immediately preceding the end of the war in the
Pacific, and while this shipping continued to be an important element
in Canal traffic throughout the year it declined steadily during the
closing months. The peak month for tolls-free transits was July with
733 and the lowest month was June with 221.
The Panama Canal does not compile detailed statistics on the cargo
or routing of tolls-free vessels. In normal times tolls-free traffic
consists largely of war ships, which do not carry cargo, and supply
vessels of the Army and Navy. Since the fiscal year 1946 was






6 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

partially a war year, cargo carried in tolls-free vessels continued at a
high level with 7,471,446 long tons. About 67 percent of this cargo
transited during the first 3 months of the year. Ninety-three percent
of the cargo passing through the Canal in tolls-free vessels in 1946 was
routed from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The following data show the total amount of cargo carried through
the Canal since the fiscal year 1939 segregated as to that carried by
tolls-paying and by tolls-free vessels:
Tolls-paying
Fiscal year Total Tolls-free
Ocean-going Local I

Tons Tons Tons Tons
1939........................................--------------------------------------...... 27,993,143 27,866,627 31,251 95,265
1940.-...... -.............-.............--------.... --.. ---.. 27,523,727 27,299,016 25,818 198,893
1941.............................................. 25,198,599 24,950,791 24,881 222,927
1942.----------------.............-..............-.------...--..--------..... ----14,187,080 13,607,444 12,999 566,637
1943.............................................. 11,030,105 10,599,966 11,059 419,080
1944-----------.......----------------................------------............. 11,592,677 7,003,487 17, 156 4,572,034
1945.............................................. 19,369,141 8,603,607 20,883 10,744,651
1946................... .................. ........ 22,469,162 14,977,940 19,776 7,471,446

I Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement.

Except for the sections appearing under the captions "Small
tolls-paying vessels transiting Canal" and "Vessels entitled to free
transit" on page 27, the following discussion of traffic through the Pan-
ama Canal in the fiscal year 1946 pertains only to ocean-going tolls-
paying traffic.

OCEAN-GOING TOLLS-PAYING TRAFFIC
A total of 3,747 ocean-going tolls-paying vessels transited the Canal
in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1946, which is an increase of 1,808
transits, or 93 percent, in comparison with the fiscal year 1945, and an
increase of 2,185 transits, or 140 percent, compared with the fiscal
year 1944. The total number of ocean-going tolls-paying transits in
1946 was about 79 percent of the number of corresponding transit
during the fiscal year 1941, which immediately preceded the entry of
the United States into the war. The following figures show the
principal features of ocean-going tolls-paying traffic through the
Canal in the past 3 fiscal years:
Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

N um ber of Iransits ..... ................................... 3,747 1,939 1,562
Net tonnagep (Panama Canal measuremenIt).................. 17, 516,517 8,380,959 6.073,457
Cargo carried (tons of 2,240 pounds)........................... 14,977,940 8,603,607 7,003,487
Tolls........ ........ ......................................... $14,773,693 $7,243,602 $5,456,163

The combined movement of cargo in both directions in 1946
amounted to 14,977,940 tons, which was 40 percent below the volume
passing through in 1941, and 46.3 percent under the volume in 1939.
(NOTE.-Since 1946 was, for the most part, a peacetime year, comparisons
throughout the discussion on the movement of cargo are made with the fiscal year
1941, which immediately preceded the entry of the United States into the war,
and the fiscal year 1939, which ended just prior to the outbreak of war in Europe.)





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The Atlantic-to-Pacific cargo movement in 1946, totaling 6,118,085
tons, was 35.5 and 32.1 percent lower, respectively, than the corres-
ponding movement in 1941 and 1939, while the Pacific-to-Atlantic
cargo movement, totaling 8,859,855 tons, showed a decline of 42.7
and 53.0 percent, respectively, as compared with shipments in 1941
and 1939. A noteworthy development during 1946 was the revival
of the United States intercoastal trade which was virtually dormant
during the war. In 1946 a total of 1,652,934 tons was shipped through
the Canal in this trade, 865,510 tons from the Atlantic to the Pacific
and 787,424 tons from the Pacific to the Atlantic. These shipments
were about 25 percent of the totals shipped in each of the fiscal years
1941 and 1939.
In tables appearing on pages 10 to 19 will be found a comparison of
cargo tonnage shipped over the various trade routes, together with
summaries of the principal commodities comprising these shipments.
In the Atlantic-to-Pacific movement, shipments from eastern United
States to the west coast of South America and to Australasia were at
considerably higher levels than in 1941 and 1939, while shipments
from the United States to Asia totaled only 765,164 tons in 1946 as
compared with 3,082,897 tons in 1941 and 2,593,808 tons in 1939.
The type of cargo routed to Asia during the fiscal year was sub-
stantially different from that carried in 1941 and 1939. A large part
of the cargoes shipped in 1946 consisted of relief supplies (food prod-
ucts, cotton, etc.), whereas in 1941 and 1939 they consisted largelyof
metals, chemicals, iron and steel manufactures, mineral oils, and
phosphates. Shipments from Europe, which reached 1% million tons
via the Canal in 1939, amounted to 331,291 tons in 1946, the larger
portion of which was routed to Australasia.
In the Pacific-to-Atlantic movement, shipments from North and
South America attained considerable volume in 1946. AMuch of the
cargo shipped from western United States and Canada (36 percent
of the total east-bound cargo) consisted of consignments of food
products and other items for the United Nations Relief and Reha-
bilitation Administration. Shipments from Australasia to the United
States were considerably above those of 1939 and closely approached
those of 1941; shipments from Australasia to Europe were less than
half of the shipments in 1941 and about 60 percent of the 1939 ship-
ments. Cargo tonnage originating in Asia (including the Philippine
Islands), which aggregated some 3 million tons in 1941 and 1.5 million
tons in 1939, totaled approximately 50,000 tons in 1946.
The receipts from tolls as reported to the United States Treasury
for the fiscal year 1946 were $14,791,807.14. This figure includes
tolls amounting to $22,713.16 on local tolls-paying vessels which are
not included in the Canal statistics covering ocean-going tolls-paying
traffic. The tolls receipts reported to the United States Treasury,
moreover, reflect adjustments for overcharges and undercollections
which in 1946 amounted to $4,599. These two items account for
the difference of $18,114.16 between the tolls receipts reported to
the Treasury and the figure for tolls levied on ocean-going tolls-paying
traffic as shown in the following studies of traffic, which are based on
tolls levied at the time of transit.








8 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


CANAL TRAFFIC BY FISCAL YEARS 1915 TO 1946

Comparative traffic statistics covering ocean-going vessels for each
fiscal year since the Canal was opened to navigation are shown in the
following table:


Fiscal year ended June 311-



1915 ......................... .. . ....
1916 ...... ...........------- - -....... - - -
1917........... .........--.....---- ------.. - -.......
1918---.......------.. -------------.............
1919..... .................. ..-........--- --- .
1920............................---------..............
1921 ........ ....... . .............. .........-
1922........................................- .
1923...............................-...........
1924.................... ......................----
1926-............. ... -.......... ...--....--.
1926 ......................................-- .
1927 ......... .. ................ ........-..
1928..................- ........................--------
1929............................-. ..........-- -
1930-....... ..................... -....- .-. -
1931 .. ................... ............. .......
1932 .................. .......... - .. .
1933 ................... .......... ..
1934 ............. .... .... ..... .....- .- - .
1935..................... ...................---------
1936 ............ ...... ... -. .. ........-
1937........................ ----. ..........
1938................... .... ...-. .. ..- ....-.
1939............- ........... .. ........... ....-
1940 .........................................
194 ....................................
1942............... ............. .............
1943.................. ........................
1944.................. ... ... .......... -
1945- -........................... ...... .-..- .
1946........... ..............................

T otal ....... ........ .................


Number of
transit


1,058
724
1, 738
1.989
1,948
2,393
2.7901
2. 165
3, S018
5, 158
4, 502
5, 087
r, 293
6,253
6,289
6,027
5,370
4, 362
4. 1h2
5,234
5, 180
5. 382
5.3S2
5,3s7
5.524
5.903
5,3711
4.727
2. 6iS
1,822
1,562
1,939
3,747

126,272


Panama
Canal nret
tonnage'


3,507,000
2,212,000
5,357,000
6,072.000
5.658,000
7,898, 000
10,550.000
10.556,000
17,2016,.000
24,181,0110
21, 134,000
22,906,000
24,245,001.1
27, 229, 000
27,5S5, 000
27,716,000
25,690,000
21, S42, 0110
21, 094, 00i
26,410, 1100
25, 720, 000
25, 923.000
25, 430,0011,
25,950,383
27, 170, 007
24, 141,366
20,642, 736
11,010.004
8, 233, 999
6,073, 4-157
8,3SO,959
17,516,517


Tolls


$4,366,747.13
2,403, 089. 40
5,620,799. 83
6,428,780.26
6,164,290.79
8, 507, 938. 68
11, 268,681.46
11, 191,828.56
17,504,027.19
24, 284, 659. 92
21,393, 718.01
22,919,931. 89
24,212,250.61
26,922,200.75
27,111, 125.47
27,059,998.94
24,624,599.76
20,694,704.61
19, 601, 077. 17
24,047,183.44
23,307,062.93
23,479, 114.21
23, 102,137. 12
23.169,888.70
23,661,021.08
21,144,675.36
18.157,739.68
9,752,207.38
7, 356,684. 94
5,456,163. 22
7,243,601.58
14,773,692.98


565,243,428 536,931,623. 15


Tons of
cargo


4,888,400
3,093,335
7,054,720
7,525,768
6,910,097
9,372,374-
11,595,971
10,882,607
19,566,429
26, 993,167
23, 956. 549
26,030,016
27,733, 555
29,615,651
30,647,768
30,018,429
25,065,283
19, 798,986
18, 161, 165
24,704,009
25,309.527
26, 505,943
28,108,375
27,385, 924
27, S66. 627
27, 299. 0V16
24,950,791
13, tiu7, 444
10, 599,966
7,003,487
8,603,607
14,977,940

605,832,926


I Panama Canal net lonnages prior to 1939 are estimated figures based on rieised measurement rules
which became effective Mar. 1, 193s.
2 Canal opened to traffic Aug. 15, 1914.
3 Canal closed to traffic approximately 7 months of fiscal year by slides.

TRAFFIC BY AMONTHS-FISCAL YEARS 1946 AND 1945

The ocean-going tolls-paying traffic during each mnont.h of the fiscal
year 1946 is summarized in the following table, in which are inserted
for comparison the corresponding figures for the preceding year:


July................
August........... .
September........
October .........
November.........
December....--....
January ..
February..........
M arch.............
A pril...............
May. ..........
June...........

Total...... ..
Average per month h.


Number of
transit


1945-16

198
249
261
334
308
348
386
319
357
345
342
3(MI

3,747
312


Panama Canal
net tonnage


1944-45 1 1945-461


892,685
1,189,121
1,253,731
1,484, 986
1. 391. 717
1,610,133
1,797,74,5
1,540,707
1.692, 507
1. 650. 29i
1,601,770
1.4111. W


1944-45

195.823
577.507
535, 72x
5S9, x22
719. 178
70S. 277
A8. 627
56i. 074
830. 4!-
736. rij4
90II. 0:I"
1.012.3011


Tons of cinrgo


1945-4G


851,525
1,032.203
924, 191
x46, 6.83
908. 219
1. 133, 59b
1, 35!,. 0i3
1.:352. 585
1. 6,s7, ,6.7
1.,611, 603
1. 761. C,93
1,438,602


1,939 17.5 517 8, 30,95I 14. 977, 94
16.2 1.4.'.9.709 C(j.,4 13 1.248. 162


1944-45


548.904
6 1, 917
554, 970
1132, 75fi
775. 409
708, 676
713, 020
639. 167
797. 039
712. 558
h%43. b65
1. 025. 23ti


Tolls


1945-16


$803.850.98
1,007.925.08
1,017, 571.32
1, 176, 159.60
1, 132, 256. 62
1.325,131.68
1. 489.975. 22
1.299. 338. 2
1.457.698. 20
1. 423. 058. 34
1, 411. 503.78
1.229. 223.34


8,603. 07 14. 773.692.98
716.967 1, 231, 141.08


1944-45


$446,205.86
510,325.02
460,442.60
513,403.78
615,680.66
599,137.56
595,471.98
514.147.54
720.501.92
626.099.46
772,390.62
869, 794. 58

7,243.601.58
603. 633. 46


------







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


NATIONALITY OF VESSELS TRANSITING CANAL

Segregation of ocean-going tolls-paying traffic' through the Canal
during the fiscal year 1946, by nationality, is presented in the follow-
ing table, which shows the number of transits, measurement tonnage,
tolls, and tons of cargo:

Measured tonnape


Nationality


Argentine.........-----.------. .-....----..
Belgian.....-...................
British..........................
Chilean................... ...
Chinese-........................----------- ---
Costa Rican------------....................
Danish.--......................---.
Ecuadoran.............-...... ..
French---------..........-----...........-- .
Greek...........................
Honduran................ .....
Mexican........... ....... ....
Netherland..----....-..--...--.---...
Norwegian....................
Panamanian.......... ..... .
Peruvian.......................
Philippine Islands............
P olish ..........................
Portuguese.--------......-------
Soviet...-----------... ..-------........ .
Spanish....................
Swedish.------...----.........-----........
United States............ ..--
Venezuelan----------------....................
Yugoslav-------------.....................
Totals:
1946...................
1945. ...-- .---- .--. ------. .-
1944............... ....


VESSELS PAYING TOLLS ON DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE

In the Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as trans-
ports, supply ships, tankers, etc., with a measurement of 300 net tons
(Panama Canal measurement) or more, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons or more, are classified as ocean-
going tolls-paying vessels. Statistics on these vessels, except such
as pertain to displacement tonnage, have been included in the traffic
summaries shown on the preceding pages. Since displacement ton-
nage cannot be combined with net tonnage, the following table presents
statistics covering 42 vessels, the majority of which were vessels of
war, which transited the Canal during the fiscal year 1946 and paid
tolls on displacement tonnage.

Nationality Number of Displacement Tolls
transits tonnage Tolls

Blitishb.......... ......... ...... .... .................. 34 147,347 $73,673.50
Chilean........--------..........--------------........---. ..-----------------.. .-----------...... 6 9,089 4,544.50
French.............. ................. .. ....... ... ......... 1 2,657 1,328.50
Mexican--.......................... 1 1,651 825.50
Total ................................................... 42 160,744 80,372.00

I Includes only vessels of 300 or more net tons, Panama Canal measurement, or 500 or more displacement
tons on vessels rated on displacement tonnage.
725661--47- 2


Registered


Numb her
io transits




4
3
751
53
9
10
20
6
9
4
230
15
167
22.5
153
7
1

10
30
45
1, 983
2
2

3,747
1,939
1,562


Panama
Canal net


18,714
20.118
3, 859,699
153, 840
41,464
6,830
58, 590
5,718
35, 695
18,577
[510,796
22,326
299, 050
1,033,295
590,085
12,587
4,892
5, 121
55,457
20.375
109, 830
205,885
10,413, 147
8, 508
5,918

17. 516,517
8, 380, 959
6, 073, 457


Gross

17,560
28,207
5, 297, 886
215. 669
53, 535
10,680
63, 141
6, 720
44,994
18,,841
838,931
33,086
352,064
1,264,772
803,966
17,899
5,011
7, 176
60, (098
29,363
147,426
276,614
14, 314, 288
11.070
7, 248

23, 926, 245
11.426,602
8,048,116


Net

10,019
16,832
3,190,533
137,574
34,457
6,199
37,074
3,132
26,439
11, 221
483, 334
20, 227
20.5, 689
753,567
477,565
10,271
2,978
4,380
37, 660
17,451
89.031
188, 586
8, 562, 614
6, 692
4,640

14, 338. 165
6,922, 805
4, Sn2, 402


Tolls




$16.842.60
16,757. 10
3, 373.695. 76
142,321. 18
36,208. 26
5,901.12
51, b64. 86
5,146.20
33,454.00
14,373.72
420,467. 40
19,032.14
253,045.98
849,994.02
483, 893.28
11,328.30
4, 402.80
4, 608.90
45,934.02
18,337.50
89, C645. 22
176,533.56
8, 687. 887. 38
6,891.48
5, 326. 20

14,773,692.98
7,243,601.58
5,456, 163.32


Tons of
cargo




6,630
2.3. 166
3.606.015
20L)9,447
39, 384
9,055
47. 716
6,110
29,706
9,326
203, 833
19,973
204.590
864,940
510,708
13,620
1,869
9,216
52,181
19,637
104,747
177,271
8, 790, 676
7,524
10, 600

14,977,940
8,603,607
7, 003,487







10 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF CARGO 2

The following tables present, by direction of movement, the origin
and destination of cargo passing through the Canal, together with
the principal commodities making up these shipments, for the fiscal
year 1946 and, for comparison, corresponding figures for the fiscal
years 1941 and 1939.
The use of the standard cargo declaration form, which for security
reasons was discontinued for the duration of the war effective June
30, 1943, was resumed in November 1945. Except for the period
July 1, 1943, to October 31, 1945, the cargo declaration form required
of ships' masters has formed the basis of the commodity statistics since
1920, when such data were first compiled. The cargo declaration is an
itemized statenient listing the tonnage of the principal items of cargo
carried and showing port (or country) of origin and destination.
The tables below include only cargo carried by ocean-going tolls-
paying vessels.
TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
ITons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939

East coast United States to-
W est coast United States.......--................... ............ 865,510 2,947,549 2,391,523
West coast Canada ............................................. 40,497 20,590 22,292
West coast Central America/Mexico............................ 24,755 52,423 31,710
West coast South America...................................... 609,705 456,335 192,732
Hawaiian Islands............------...--........--.--. ------------..----...---..-......---- 118,824 227, 795 141,804
Australasia ..----------...-..........---------. ....--..-..--.--...--..----------.........-.. -----609,679 416, 292 374,544
Philippine Islands. .....--------..---..---..-..-..---..---......-----..----........ .--------...... 265,380 257, 425 277,399
Asia...........................---------- -- ..--....--------------.---....--. .------------. 765,164 3,082.897 2,593,808
Balboa, C. Z-----------......--........-----------..-... ---.........--------. .. ...--------. 24,942 77,599 8,514
Total from east coast United States........................... 3,324,456 7, 538,905 6,034,326
East coast Canada to-
West coast Canada---------......---.......... ------.......------............ ...---------------. 5, 182 11,594 46,893
Australasia... -------.............................. ...--------------........----------------------..... 164,060 142. 780 222,720
Asia..........--------------------.....................---.....---------------------- 14,979 10, 700 50,943
Other territories. ----------.. --..-............................--------------------------. .. 629 13,626 27,854
Total from east coast Canada......................-.......... 184. 8.0 178,700 348,410
East coast Central America/Mexico to-
West coast Central America/Mexico.................. ......... 16.937 29, 431 74,857
Asia.-----......----------.... -----.. ---- --------------------------- 20.603 115,565 21,757
Other territories.........-------------------........... ....------------........--.....-..-- .-......-------- 5,.916 20,486 21,938
Total from east coast Central America/Mexico................ 43,456 165,482 118,552
East coast South America to-
West coast United States--...-----.------------...---.-....-----.............-...... 72,761 152,603 110,521
W est coast Canada. ............................................ 51,858 7,979 6,202
West coast South America..-................................... 28,312 51,917 152,649
A sia ......................................................... . .. .. ...... 222,759 124,724
Other territories---------......--------......-..--...-------.....-......--------.......--....... 11657 .4, 740 12,943
Total from east coast South America.......................... 164,588 439,998 407,039

2 Comparative figures for the fiscal years 1939 and 194: tire shown for the purpose nf providing comparison
between cargo movements during the past fiscal year and those for the year immediately preceding the
outbreak of hostilities in Europe and those immediately preceding the entry of the United States into
the war.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 11


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-Continued

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939

Cristobal, Canal Zone to-
West coast Central America/Mexico--..----..--.-----.....----...--..------- 49, 048 51,804 50,907
West coast South America.....----.----------..........--...-..---....------------ 19,310 139,500 135,986
Other territories----..--...............-------------.--........---..----.---.....------ 10, 893 25, 383 26, 854
Total from Cristobal............................------------------------------------.............. 79,251 216,687 213,747
West Indies to-
West coast United States-..---..-...........-----.---.--..---------...---..--.... 58,974 3,440 10,064
West coast Central America/Mexico....----------..-----..- ------....--- 155,900 16,609 15,342
West coast South America..-.-------------..........-----.------------........... 651,020 255,884 177,714
Balboa, C. Z.........--..--.---....-----------.--------.---------------.... 795,354 130, 823 65, 307
Australasia-------.........--.---.......------............--..------...--..-.....------.-------....----. 315,353 20,219 21,942
Asia---........----------....---------......---....-...--..---------------...........-------... .--.....--------- 64,374 19,892
Other territories.....--.---..--- -------------------------.... ... ----.....-. 13, 592 11,696 8,673

Total from West Indies...--------.------------------....----. 1,990,193 503,045 318,934

Europe to-
West coast United States...................----------------------------------- 18,061 23,354 337,401
West coast Canada...---------.......--.--..-----------.....-------------.. 4,062 47, t07 78,789
West coast Central America/Mexico-----------.....--..---............------------ 2, 258 ------------..... 91,873
West coast South America................... .................---------------------------------- 88,651 102, 694 415,697
Australasia..-----..--.. ------------------------------...... --..-----.. 207, 177 219,657 542,770
Asia..- ...------....----- ------........--... ----------------------------- 2. 183 48,625 35,419
Other territories--........-......---------.---........-----.---.-----------..--.......--..... 8, 899 ............ 23,849

Total from Europe......--------------...------------------..............................----. 331,291 441,937 1,525,798
Asia and Africa to-
Other territories. ----.............------..-----.----------------...---...--..--------... .....---------.... 3,692 44,461

Total cargo-Atlantic to Pacific.... ---.. ---.......--............. 6,118, 085 9,488,446 9,011,267


PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC


West Coast United States to-
East coast United States.....--.........--.......................
East coast South America. .................................
Cristobal, C. Z................ ............ ...............
West Indies. . ..........-----...........................--.......
Europe .............................................- ..............
Africa..- ....- ................-..... .....--- .........-...- -
Other territories...... ....... ........... .. ........ ...... .....

Total from west coast United States.--...---......-----.----------....

West Coast Canada to-
East coast United States.....-------...............-------------...........---....
Europe....----------...------------...............-------------------.........
Africa......--------....--.-.-----..----..-.------.--------..........
Other territories -.....--......--..................--.........
Total from West coast Canada.....--.......-----------------..

West Coast Central America/Mexico to-
East coast United States..---...............------------------------........
Other territories--......---.----.--...---.......---- .............
Total from west coast Central America/Mexico...-----..---......

West coast South America to-
East coast United States--.......- ---------- --------.....
East coast Canada........-..............----------............
Cristobal, Canal Zone..-..---..----.------..---------...----------.......
West Indies----------.-----------------.............................--.....
Europe..---...-------................ ..........---- ...........
Africa........- ....- .....-- ... .. .......... .....-.............
Other territories...----------..-..---..-----------------......------.........

Total from west coast South America. --..--.-.....-...-......


787,424
64,546
2,825
83,240
1,650,726
36,050
13,035

2, 637,846


1,527,995
201,252
27,742

1,756,989

256,487
56,634

313, 121

1,997,815
17,071
33,598
59,852
970.455
131,658
60,840

3, 271, 289


3,933, 753
64,272
107,856
147,498
433.660
71,120
32,320

4, 790, 479

50,962
1,114,069
137,812
64,030

1,366,873

126, 119
32,645

158,764

2,961,992
30,363
150,092
55,509
429,064
12,514

3,.639,534


4, 493, 203
45, 222
55,073
487,189
2,349,888
44,859
46,151

7,521,585

201,619
2, 539,436
26,910
105,487

2,873.452

30,649
92, 941

123,590

2,447, 257
132,364
143,186
103,903
2,481,541
24,180
12,684

5,345,115







12 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-Continued

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939

From Balboa, C. Z.-Total.................-- ....--...... ............. ........... 2.813 ........
Hawaiian Islands to-
East coast United States-------- ------------ --------........... 101, S23 581,355 361, 857
Europe..--...----......---------------------- ---.. --.. ........... 12.651 79,174
Total from Hawaiian Islands ................................ 1li1.23 594. 006 441,031
Australasia to-
East coast United Sit es....................................... 27,679 26,592 86,999
East coast Canada-----------..-... ---------------------------- 31.945 1.50, 939 87, 546
Europe----------------------------------------------- -157, 12 1, 12, 503 759,794
Other territories.------- -----------------------------------------... 13 12,377 12,001
Total from Australasia------------- ----------............. 7-----27.449 1,592,411 946,340
Philippine Islands to-
East coast United States----------------------------------- 31, 256 1,512,890 918, 937
Other territories ----------------------------- -- -------- ............ 11,905 2,525
Total from Philippine Islands---- ------------------------- :31, 256 1,524, 795 921,462
Asia to-
East coast United States.----- ----------------------------- 20,082 1, 640, 278 280, 593
Europe------------------------------------------------- ............ ------------......... 363,048
Other territories---- -- ----------------------------------- -----......------- 152,392 39,144
Total from Asia--------------------------------------- 20,082 1,792,670 682, 785
Total cargo-Pacific to Atlantic--------.. -------------------- 8, M5y, 855 15. 462, 345 18, 855, 360


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939

East coast United States to west coast United States-
Canned goods, various------------------------------------- 23. 190; 119,461 94, 119
Chemicals, unclassified.------------------------------------ 14. 1i0 53.537 48,743
Iron and steel manufactures-----.------------------------- 322, 734 1.237, 651 784, 485
Mineral oils -- --.-------------------- ------------------ 99J, 93 140. 281 138,689
Paper and paper products---------------.--------------. 44. 48 125, 027 129,607
Sulfur............. ..............------------------------------. .------------ . 27, 159 146,396 133,017
T inplat-e................... ....... .... .... 2, 5;y 50, 025 67, 839
All other and unclassified ................... ...... ............... 331. U5 1, 175, 171 995,024
T total ...... ................................. ... .. <65, 51.0 2, 947, 54'J 2,391,523
East coast United States to west coast Canada-
Sulfur................................. ..... ........ .... ..... 25, 600 2.300 4,000
All other and unclassified-.......... ........ .. ........ ...... 14,.897 18,290 18,292
Total-................... .................. .......... ... 40. 497 -20.590 22,292
East coast United States to west coast Central A mer ica/MexIico-
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)
East coast Unit-ed States to west coast Soulth Anerica-
Automobiles and aecrssories-.................. ...... ....... 32,374 19,727 13, 223
Cement......... ................................. ..... 20, 502 22, 991 2,544
Chemicals, uniclassifid............ .... ............ .... 14,902 13, 743 3,607
Coal........... .. .. .......... ....... ...... .. ........... .. 29,216 90, 434 2,023







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES-Continued

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939


East coast United States to west coast South Amricrca-Continued
Iron and steel manufactures .............. ......................
Lubricating oil and preases.-.. -- ...---. ....... .......
M machinery. ..................... . .. ........ . .
Paper and paper products..........---- ............ ...
All other and unclassified ................ ............-..... .-

Total ................... ......... ............. ......

East coast United States to Hawaiian Islands-
Iron and steel.................. ......... .. ............ .
Tinplae................ ....... ........... .............
All other and unclassified ... ....... ..................

Total ..................................... ......

East coast United States to Australasia-
Automobiles and accessories................... ....
Iron and steel manufactures-........ . ........ ..
M machinery .................. .. .. .. .... .
M ineral oils................. .... ........ .- .. ..... .
Paper and paper products.................. ..............
Phosphates....- ............... .. .
Sulfur ................... .... ....... ...... .......... ....
Tinplate ................ . ... ... .... ....
Tobacco and manufactures.............. ...................
All other and unclassified ................ ................. .

Total...... ............. ......... .......... ......

East coast United States to Philippine Islands-
Flour .... .............. ................ ...............
Iron and steel m anufactures................. .............. ....
Refrigerated meat ................. ... ..................
Rice............. ...... ................... .. ...
All other and unclassi fed ................ ... ....... ..... .

Total. .......................... ...............

East coast United States to Asia-
Automobiles and accessories ................. ................
Canned goods, various............... ............ .....
Chemicals, unclassified ....... ........................
Copper (metal) .................................... .......
Cotton, raw.................... ............... ........
F lour......... .... ........... ... ........ . . . ...
Iron (in pigs) ............ .............. .. .........
Iron and steel manufactures................ .............
Lead (metal) ................ .......... ... ..............
Machinery............... ......... .................. .
Mineral oils ...................................... ..............
Paper and paper products. ................ .................
Phosphates.......... ................................. ....
Railroad material..................... ........ ................ .
Rice......................... ............ .....................
Scrap metal...... ........................... ................... .
Tinplate............... ......... .....................
Tobacco.................... ................... .............
Wheat......... ......... ....... ............ .................
All other and unclassified..................... ..................


Total.......... ............... ............................. 75. 164


East coast United States to Balboa, C. Z.-
Mineral oils...................... ........ ... ............
All other and unclassifled........................ .......

Total............................... ............ .......

East coast Canada to west coast Canada-
(No single outstanding commodity in this trarle.)


13.316
11.626

24.942


108.207
15.,52h
22,125
15. 416
148. 166

456,335


41,095
55,. 970
130.730

227,795


23,520

11.S3
79,9501
7,987
818
123 754
719
6, 797
134,801


63.719
13.,975
16,473
905
76,263

192,732

21,015
37.916
82,873

141,804


51.839
15, 805
9,856
67. 814
5, 193

95,637
383
14,546
113,441


106. "7
1fi. 691
34, 0SO
15, 717
339, 23';

609. 705

13,231
33.215
72,378

118.824


7,135
7,S79
3,.591
sS.238
17.1105
138. 2S)
102. 20O
28,782
11,318
205,251


609,679 416,292 374,544

14,690 4,340 2,179
19,932 74, 696 96,497
13,694 3 ------
47,052 ----------- 362
170,012 178,386 17S, 361

265,380 257,425 277,399


45,397 44,836 42,865
35,645 17,932 705
15,560 32,304 9.518
2,063 94,028 40,615
204,537 65,969 175,934
48,589 3.290 2.917
218 77, 10 197. 872
43,755 501,256 208,562
116 50,724 13.772
11,508 69,118 3S. 520
88,887 720,508 298, 289
16,325 87,628 3,335
3,762 250,184. 139,197
S. 829 15,367 10,343
22, 161 ------1 100
80 390,079 1,152,844
4,098 50. 805 33,027
11.464 36, 936 32 265
28.855 225 2,267
173.315 574,296 190,861


3.082, 897

25,598
52.001

77, 599


2. 593. 808

3,051
5,463

8,514








14 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIEs-COntinued

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons or 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939


East coast Canada to Australasia-
Automobiles and accessories ......................... .........
Paper and paper products ................................
All other and unclassified-.....................................

Total ................................... .....................

East coast Canada to Asia-
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)

East coast Central America/Mexico to west coast Central America/
Mexico--
Nlineral oils. ..................................... ........... .
All other and unclassified.................... ......... .. ......

Total................. ............. ..--- --- --- --.... ..

East coast Central America/Mexico to Asia:
Lead (m etal) ........................... ....... ...... ........
M ineral oils ...................................................
All other and unclassified_----.-------- -------.----------.--.

Total ---------------------------------------------

East coast South America to west coast United States:
Coffee ......... ...........- ..... . . ..... . . .
All other and unclassified................. .......... ..

Total---------------------------------------------------- --

East coast South America to west coast Canada:
Mineral oils.----------------- ----------------------------
All other and unclassified---------------------------- .

Total. -------.----------------.........

East coast South America to west coast South America:
Mineral oils............ .................. ..........-... .....
All other and unclassified................ ...................

Total............. ........................................ .

East coast South America to Asia:
Cotton.......- ............-. .. .....-.. .......... .. ..... --
All other and unclassified..--..--------- -------------...

Total-.---- ------ -_-_-------- ------------------- ----- .

Cristobal. C. Z.. to west cnast Central America/Mexico:
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)

Cristobal, C. Z., to west coast South America:
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)

West Indies to west coast United States:
Mi neral oils........................ ............................
All other and unclassified ..................................... .

Total...................... ..................... .........

West Indies to west coast Central America/Mexico:
M mineral oils.......................................... .......... .
All other and unclassifed. ........................... ........

Total ............. .....................................

West Indies to west coast South America:
Mineral oils........................ .................. ........
Sugar ......................... ......................
All other and unclassified............... .................. ..

Total....................... ....... ... ............... ... ....


12.444
96,405
55, 211
164.060


16, 443
494

16, 937


19,249
1,354

20. 603


46.231
26.530

72.761

51.669
189

51, 8.58

155
28, 157

28,312


33, 180
25,794

58,974

155, 380
520

155, 900

613.531
25, 599
11.890

651.020


10.503
865.842
46. 435

142.780


27. 119
2,312

29, 431

33.228
79.280
3,057

115 565

54,870
97, 733

152,603


7.979

7,979

29,398
22, 519

51,917

100, 167
122.592


26,070
139.836
56.814

222,720





63,287
11,570

74.857

21, 757


21, 757


45,113
65.408

110, 521


6.202

6. 202

131, 008
21,641

152.649

71,545
53. 179


1 222.7.59 124.724


3,440

3.440

16,609

16.609

251, 113
3.962
809

255,884


10,064

10,064

15,269
73

15,342

165. 573
11,423
718

177,714







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 15


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIEs-Continued

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939


West Indies to Balboa-
Mineral oils-.............. .... ....................-.- .. -- ..---
All other and unclassified-.............. .......................

Total................. ...... .. ................ .........

West Indies to Australasia:
Asphalt.... ............................. ........
Mineral oils. -------...- ......--------------------
All other and unclassified................... ................

Total..............--------------------..... .------------ .

West Indies to Asia-
Salt------.........----. ....... ....--------- --------- ---------
All other and unclassified..-....................--........------

Total.--.----..---------------....-------------------..----.

Europe to west coast United States-
Iron and steel manufactures -------.......-........-----.--.--.--...-..-----
Paper and paper products---------------...........---....--.--......--.-----
All other and unclassified-----..--------....-......-....--....-----.---..-..---

Total---------........-.......-----.--------------------------..--

Europe to west coast Canada-
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)

Europe to west coast Central America/Mexico-
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)

Europe to west coast South America-
Cement.-------.---.............----------...------.-------------
Chemicals, unclassified-----....----....---.--------....---..--.---....--------. -
Iron and steel manufactures-------------...........--........-----.---.......--..-----
All other and unclassified................-----........-----.............

Total-----.-----------..................--------------------------------.

Europe to Australasia-
Chemicals, unclassified---------...........-------.....-------..--.---.---
Iron and steel manufactures.. ..........--. ...-- ...-......---
Machinery--.--..-- ..-.......-. ...... ....--------------
Salt------ ....----.- ....... .......--------..... ---------------
All other and unclassified..-................---------------------

Total.----------------------------..-----..----------------

Europe to Asia-
Potash....------..........-.....-..........----.-..--...... ------
Salt--.............-....-..........-................--.-- .....
All other and unclassified.....-..-------------.---------... ......

T otal .. -......... ..-.-... ... . .. -
Total------------------------------------------------

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

West coast United States to east coast United States-
Asphalt------..-..----------- --..-----------------------.. .. --
Beans, dried..-..---.................--........-...........
Canned goods, various.. ------.-.-.-.-............-.-....-.....
Flour, wheat..---............................------------.......-----
Fruit, dried......-.....................--...-......-..........-
Lum ber........ -.. ...- .......................... ...... ...
Mineral oils-....................................................
Paper and paper products.............--..................---
Sugar----.................------------------..-...........-------...........
Wood pulp--...-----...------...--.--.---.....--------... ..-------.... ...------
All other and unclassified......----..------.----...............

Total ... ..................------------------------


786, 400
8.954

795, 354

14,994
277, 172
23, 187

315,353


.....------..... 64,374


9

18,0652
18,061


3,461
3,457
8,997
72,736

88,651


1,363
10,621
7,408
5, 633
182, 152


130.823

130,823

9,955
10, 264

20.219

59,323
5,051


I 'i


33
5
23,316

23,354


8.070
9,567
8,552
76,505

102,694

9,191
30,255
16,508
17,603
146, 100


65, 307

65,307

3,453

18,489

21.942


19, 892


19,892

44,164
44,558
248,679

337,401







54,337
16,004
72,989
272, 367

415,697

11.897
101.345
26,060
31,149
372, 319


207, 177 219,657 542, 770

. -.-.......... 17,181 ..--. ....
.-........... 21.550 ..........-
2,183 9,894 35,419


2,183


11
1,357
104,934
28,652
4,113
260,260
110,374
10,795
6,180
18,297
242,451


48,625


42,784
53,261
742,595
97,627
131,021
1,452,871
756,901
69,738
101,195
99,883
385,877


35.419


64,113
68,922
735,122
115,597
157,016
1.521,200
810,051
81,382
140,044
188,777
610,979


787, 424 3.933,753 4,493,203







16 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES-Continued

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939

West coast United States to east coast South America-
(No single outstanding commodity in this trade.)
West coast United States to Cristobal, C. Z.-
Mineral oils ................................ .. ..... ... .. .......... .58,4.58 32,955
All other and unclassified.............. .... .. ........ ......... 2,825 49,398 22,118

Total............................................. . ... 2.825 107. 56 55,073
West coast United States to West Indies-
M mineral oils ......... ............... ......... ....... ......... 183 23,602 401,358
R ice.............. ................... .. .. . .. ...... ... 19,353 25,458 17,308
Canned goods, various....................... .... .... ..... .... 19,523 23,023 13,045
All other and unclassified............... .............. ... .... 44,181 75,415 55,478

T otal.............. ......................... . .. 83.210 147, 498 487,189
West coast United States to Europe-
Barley-.......................... .. ..... .... ...... 10,---4 M...... .. 136,713
Borax .. ......................................... ........ 9, 138 25,217 66,598
Canned goods, various ................... ..... ........- ..... 218. N78 46,764 225, 723
Coal..... .................. ....... . ........ .. ............ 190.724 149
C oke........... .................. . .-... ................ 44,081 27 38
Cotton, raw ....... ......................................... ... 132 2,768 17,647
Flour, wheat--. --- _------------------------_. 25.221 ............ 8,314
Fruit:
Dried -- ------------------------------------------ 50.412 8,132 161,102
Fresh ----------- ---------- ---------------- . ------- 16.231 1,841 319,176
Grains, unclassified------------ -------------.. ------------- 43303 ........... 1,650
Iron and steel manufactures --------------- ------------------ 7, 555 25 113
Lumber --------------------- -------------------------- 429.3S9 194,681 159,535
Mineral oils ------------------------- ---------------- --- ,313 29, !09 605,776
Metals:
Lead ----------------------------------------------- 19.591 ............ 750
Other and unclassified..........................---------------------------------- 5, 459 75 22,196
Wheat -- -....---------------------------..------------- 26,917 64,466 528,454
Wood pulp----.----- .----------------------------- 8,551 32, 825 22,478
All other and unclassified--------------------------------- 192,227 27,430 73,476

Total.---_---------------------------------------------- 1. 650, 726 433,660 2, 349. 888
West coast United States to Africa--
Lumber. ------------------------------------------------ 12, 380 29, 400 33, 762
Wheat .------------------------------------------------ 11,652 .....................
All other and unclassified---------------------------------- 12, 018 41, 720 11,097
Total-- .------------------------------------------- 36,050 71,120 44,859
West coast Canada to east coast United States-
Lumber.-------------------------------------------- -------- -. 35.313 167. 8f.6
All other and unclassified. ----------- ----- .. ... 15, 649 33, 763
Total .-------------------------------------. ----------..... 50.962 201,619

West coast Canada to Europe-
Barley, oats and other grains---. ------------------- --- ------ 46. 389 2,000 109, 545
Canned goods, various ---------------------------- ------- 5, 905 -13, 221 26,269
Lumber--- ------------ -------------------- ------ 449,506 816,836 1, 136,276
Metals:
Lead ----------------------------------------------- 40.910 82, 614 117, 875
Zinc----.------------------------------------------ 16, i07 87. 666 67,827
Whest ........ ... ........ .. ..8.. ..... .......... 825. 906 60, 100 972,584
Wood pulp--.---------.. ------------------------------ 8, 610 11.454 5, 82.5
All other and unclassified................. ................... 88,902 10,178 103.235
Total................................... 1. 527,995 1.114,069 2, 539. 436
West coast Canada to Africa-
Lumber ----------------------------------------------- 66, 735 122,632 21,283
W heat ... ... ............... ..... ...... ......... 118,239 ......... .......
All other and unclassified------..--------------------------- 16. 278 15, 180 5, 627

Total . . . . . ... .................................. 201,252 137,812 26,910







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 17


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES-Continued

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939


West coast Central Armerica/Mexico to east coast United States-
Bananas.............. .....................
All other and unclassified.. ................. .. ....

Total ................... ............ .................

West coast South America to east coast United States-
Coffee.......... ................... ... ............ ........
Metals:
Copper. ............ ......... ..... ..........
Lead ...... ... ........ ......... ........... ..........
M mineral oils.... ... ..... ....... ......... ... ....
Nitrates........................... ............ . .........
Ores:
Copper........................ ................
Iron .................. .... ......... . ..........
Manganese............. .............. ............
Tin.......... . . ....... .....
Z inc...... .............. .... .... ......... ..
Other and unclassified. --. -............. ...... ...
Suear ............ .....-...... ... . ... .... ... ......
All other and unclassified.............. ........ ......

Total ............-. ..-.........-....- : ............... ...
West coast South America to east coast Canada-
M mineral oils............... ........................ .....
All other and unclassified.... .................... ...........

Total ................... . ...... .......... ... .........

West coast South America to Cristobal, Canal Zone-
Coffee..........................................................
All other and unclassified.......................................

Total..... .........- ................ ..... ....... ............

West coast South America to West Indies-
B eans .............. .-...........-.- .-. .-. ......
M ineral oils.... ........ ........ ............ ...... .. ....... ..
N itrates....-..... ........................
R ice ...................... ... .............
All other and unclassified..................... .... .... ... .

Total..................-... ....... .....

West coast South America to Europe-
B arley .... ........................................ ......
Beans, dried...............--------------------........---------......--....--.....--------
Cotton, raw......... .. .................. ....... ............ ..
Metals:
Copper. ......... ..... .........-..... ... ..... ..... .. .
Lead... .......... .... ... ................... -.......... ...
M ineral oils............................ ........................ .
Nitrates...........................................
Oilseeds............. ....... ......................
Ores:
Copper... .. ...... ......... ..........-.. ..... ....
Lead.....-----------............--------------------------------
Tin................................... ..- ..- ..
Zinc .................. ......... .............. .......
Other and unclassified ...................-- -................
Sugar ..............................................
All other and unclassified............................ .........

Total... .....- ......... ..... ............... ..................

West coast South America to Africa-
N itrates.... ... ...................... .........
(No other commodities in this trade.)


234. 335
22, 152


116,860
9,259


25,801
4,848


256,487 126,119 30,649

108.288 29,811 24,242

119,3fir 290,091 82,959
11, 189 28,184 2,139
..... ....... 41,867 ----------
490. 097 535,776 546, 352

138.670 46,750 15,169
588. 585 1,687,070 1,612,801
130, 193 16,965 191
50,515 10,643 380
1.31,3hNl 41,227 18,089
19.745 32,371 25,347
50.113 79,606 42,117
15. 6944 118,631 77,471

1.997, 15 2,961,992 2,447,257

15,540 30,360 126,461
1,531 3 5,903

17,071 30,363 132,364

9,281 110,985 93,785
24,317 39,107 49,401

33, 598 150,092 143,186

10,280 4,145 8,923
............ 17,660 79,249
21,136 10,714 447
16,322 732 ------
12,114 22,258 15,284

59,852 55,509 103,903


2,537
8,916
51,275

59,570
11.177
44,927
667,960

15,568

18,893
9,516
21,305
15,860
42,951

970,455


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10,106


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220


38,360
2,121
1,338
29,985
32,443

429,064


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55,329
52,663
65,115

235,363
28,726
679,000
864, 384
65,013
21.813
43,823
42,492
28,073
29,899
132,563
137,285

2,481.541

24,180


r







18 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES-Continued

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939

Hawaiian Islands to east coast United States-
Canned fruit............... ..................................... 65,204 239,322 129,683
Sugar-... ......................... .................. 30, 173 307,849 208,208
Allother and unclassified-......................... ........... 6,446 34,184 23,966
Total------------..---.................------------.............--------------...................----. 101,823 581,355 361,857
Hawaiian Islands to Europe-
Molasses............................................ ..... ... ..... ... 12,651 79,174
(No other commodities in this trade.)
Australasia to east coast United States-
Metals: Lead...........------------------------............. ...........--------------........... 11,282 13,206
Ores:
Chrom e-...........- ..-..................................... 31,077 39,158 8,744
Lead...............--------- ......-----------...-----.........--------........ --------------- 10,981 2,846 -..--------
Manganese----... --------------------....... ..--------------.......... ------------.... ----......... 24,518
Zinc ........................... ........ ......... ... .. 13,453 ........... ........
Other and unclassified...................................... 10,850 4,225 7,019
Skins and hides-.................. ......... .... ............ 18,472 23, 670 16,540
Wheat ....---................ ............ ............ 21,565 76,302 .- ......
Wool..... ................ .. ................... ..-..-...... 59,206 65,135 13,375
All other and unclassified........ ................................ 60.793 42,050 16,803
Total................................................--------.... 237, 679 266,592 86,999
Australasia to east coast Canada-
Sugar ................... ................. ............ ...... -. 976,
Sugar... ........95,709 63,816
Allother ................................................... 31,945 55,230 23,730

Total......................................................... 31,945 150,939 87,546
Australasia to Europe--
Copra ........ .............. ................ ........ ........ 4,310 13, 140 82, 147
Dairy products--.... ......... ................................ 60,287 280,596 145,913
Fruit, dried-....... ........- ........ ........-. ......... 7,754 13,174 311
Meat, refrigerated..... --................. .. ............. 192,991 291,772 168,720
Metal,lead -------.................................. ............. 11,346 23,773 13,078
Ores:
Chrome ......- ................ ...........- 13,000 -.------- 5,500
Zinc....................... ... ............... 13,897 23,133 16,526
Other and unclassified------------------......---------....... ------ 10,932 755 16,525
Phosphates................. ...... .............. ................. ......... 15,100 87,160
Sugar.....................-. ................... ......... . 172,679 83,079
Tallow ...................... ............. 8,616 26,140 16,157
Wheat............ ................... ....... 28,644 93, 159 5,326
Wool ......... ............ ....................... .. 13,303 95,786 68,886
All other and unclassified--------------..............---------.....-----........-----.... 92,732 113,296 50,466
Total---------------.......---------...............--------................................ 457,812 1, 162,503 759,794
Philippine Islands to east coast United States-
Coconut oil. ............... ............................ ............ 144,432 106,680
Copra............................ .......... ..... ........... 70,312 65, 531
Hemp, unmanufactured.................. ................... 11,842 49,415 15,688
Ores:
Chrome....-----.------.---------........------------............--------------6,000 140,029 18,650
M anganese. ........................ ..... ....... 65,346 .-----...-
Other and unclassified...................................... ............ 9,067 8,000
Sugar....... .................. .............. ... .. ............ 955,191 579,691
All other and unclassified....................................... 13,414 79,098 124,797
Total-..-----------....--------------..............-----------................................---------. 31,256 1,512,890 918,937
Asia to east coast United States-
-a Flour, sago.....-------------------.....-----.......--........................--------------------......... .....---------....... 134,701 166
Hemp, unmanufactured........................................ ............ 61,996 1,698
up Metal, tin......---------------.....--------.............---------------........................... ............ ------------88,145 2,002
Oils, vegetable...----------....----.. ---------------... --.... --..--------....--.. 10 105,810 27,306
Ores:
Magnesite.------...--..-------------------------------------.... .......... -------- 35,341 1,673
Manganese- ...---------..---------.. ----------------.. ---.. ------------ 21,414 3,002
Tin............-------------------------...............-------------------................... ............ 12,216 860
Other and unclassified....-----.....----.--..-----..------------------.. -----.... ---91,141 663






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 19

ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES-Continued
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1946 1941 1939

Asa to east coast United States-Continued
Rubber, crude ................................................. 17,769 743,827 20,615
Spices...... --......----------------............-----.... ---------------------- 125 22,474 1,145
Tea.......... ............-------------------------------------........---------------. 88 27,966 8,678
Tetiles.......................------------------...................--------------------------------. 165 21,358 16,843
All other and unclassified....................................... 1,925 273,889 196,042
Total...........-------.......------.---.--------------------.....................---..---........------ 20,082 1,640,278 280,593
Asia to Europe-
Canned fish-...... ................. ............ ....... ... ... ... .... .. 50, 364
Soya beans ------.......... ---..---------.............. ......-------.................... 224,621
All other..-----------... ... ----------------------.......---..------------- ............. ----- --- 88,063
Total........................................--- --------------------------------............. ----------- ------------- -------.......... .. 363,048


CLASSIFICATION OF VESSELS BETWEEN LADEN AND BALLAST TRAFFIC

The following table summarizes the ocean-going tolls-paying
traffic through the Canal during the fiscal year 1946 showing laden
ships and those in ballast, and further segregated as to tankers, ore
ships, passenger-carrying ships, general cargo ships, and those not
designed to carry cargo, and also as to vessels of United States regis-
try and those of all other nationalities:










REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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22 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

LADEN AND BALLAST TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY

In the table below, the ships of each nationality have been segregated
to show separate statistics on vessels which were carrying cargo and/or
passengers at the time of transiting the Canal and those which trans-
ited in ballast:


Laden Ballast

Nationality Number Panama Number Panama
of Canal net Tolls of Canal net Tolls
transits tonnage transits tonnage

Argentine------......--------- 4 18,714 $16,842.60 .--...... .- .......- ..............
Belgian-------.... -------........-..-- 2 12,623 11,360.70 1 7,495 $5,396.40
British..-------------.----. 521 2,894, 661 2,605,194.90 196 1965,038 694,827.36
Chilean---.......-- ..-- ......... 46 1b0,066 135,059.40 1 3,774 2,717.28
Chinese---------......-.--..---...------------ 8 35,301 31,770.90 1 6,163 4,437.36
Costa Rican.----------------............... 8 5,464 4,917.60 2 1,366 983.52
Danish-------..--....---.. --.....----..-- 19 52,667 47,400.30 1 5,923 4,264.56
Ecuadorean.--..-..---....------- 6 5,718 5, 146.20 ---.....-----... ...--...-.. ---...........
French.--------.....--..-..------... 8 35,695 32,125.50 -------.......--.... --......-...
Greek--..--.--.........-...---- ..-- ---. 1 5.546 4.991.40 3 13,031 9,382.32
Honduran.................. 134 292,746 263,471.40 96 218,050 156,996.00
Mlexican.................... II 11,844 10,659.60 3 10,482 7,547.04
Netherland... ........ ... 143 209,611 188,649.90 24 89,439 64,366.08
Norwegian .................. 132 589.009 530,108.10 93 444.286 319,885.92
Panamanian................ 92 327.956 295,160.40 61 262. 129 188.732.88
Peruvian-............ ...... 7 12,587 11,328.30 ---... ....... ............ ...........
Philippine Islands.......... 1 4.892 4,402.80 .......... ........ .............. -
Polish ...............-------------------..... I 5. 121 4,608.90 .......... ........ ....-....- -
Portuguese----------------- 6 33,361 30,024.90 4 22,096 15,909.12
Soviet--------------.-------- 7 20,375 18.337.50 .......... .-.......-.. ............-
Spanish-....-....-. ...--... 16 .58,709 52,838.10 14 51,121 36,807.12
Swedish......--.......... I 35 157.202 141,481.80 10 48,683 35,051.76
United States----....------..... 1,270 6,613, 453 5,952,107. 70 713 3, 799,694 2,735,779.68
Venezuelan................. 1 4,254 3,828.60 1 4,254 3,062.88
Yugoslav-................... 2 5,918 5,326.20 .-....-- --- ....- --------. --- --..
Totals:
1946......... ..... 2,481 11,563,493 10,407,143.70 1,224 5,953.024 4,286,177.28
1945 .............. 1,427 6,137,095 5,523,385.50 471 2,243,864 1,615,582.08
1944............... 1,237 5,041,735 4,538.485.98 267 1,031,722 742,839.84


AVERAGE TONNAGE, TOLLS, AND TONS OF CARGO PER CARGO-
CARRYING VESSEL

The average measurement tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per
cargo-carrying vessel of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measure-
ment, transiting the Panama Canal during the past 3 fiscal years, are
shown in the following table:


Fiscal years

1946 1945 1944

Measured tonnage:
Panama Canal net ...... .....-------------.............--- ---- 4,728 4.416 4,038
Registered gross.........---........... -----------.----............-------------...----.......--------- 6.458 6,020 6,351
Registered net-..--------------.. ... .....-------------------------------.. 3,870 3,647 3,233
Tolls.. -............... ......................---------..--..-...---.--------- $3,988 $3,816 $3,628
Tons of cargo (including vessels in ballast).......................... .. 4,043 4,533 4.657
Tons of cargo (laden vessels only).----...------...----..........---------..--.---.-------. 6,037 6,029 5,662





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 23

STEAM, MOTOR, AND OTHER VESSELS
The following table shows ocean-going tolls-paying vessels transiting
the Canal during each of the past 3 fiscal years, segregated according
to the method of propulsion:

Fiscal years

1946 1945 1944
Steamers:
Oil burning. ---......-------... --.. ...... -------.............................. 2,729 1, 182 738
Coal burning..... --------------.. .............. ........... .......... 224 118 160
Motor ships. ...------------..-------......---------.....-------......................................------------------. 748 586 593
Not classified I..----- ---------------------------------------- ..........--...........----------------... 46 53 71
Total-----...........................................----------------------------------------....-------........... 3,747 1,939 1,562

I Indicates vessels not engaged in commerce.

FREQUENCY OF TRANSIT OF VESSELS THROUGH THE PANAMA
CANAL
During the fiscal year 1946, 1,952 individual ocean-going tolls-
paying vessels, representing 25 nationalities, passed through the
Panama Canal. In the aggregate these vessels made a total of 3,747
transits. The number of transits made by individual ships varied
from 1 to 34, and averaged 1.92. The small motor vessel Dido,
plying between the Atlantic terminus of the Canal and the west coast
of South America, and the steamer Iriona, engaged in the banana
trade between Gulf ports of the United States and Central America,
made 34 transits each.
- Vessels of United States registry led in the number of individual
vessels transiting the Canal during the year with 1,226, as well as in
the number of transits-1,983; those of British registry were second in
number of both individual vessels and of transits, with 433 and 751,
respectively.
The following table shows the number of individual ships, the
frequency-of transits per ship, the total number of transits for the
year, and the average number of transits per individual ship, segre-
gated by nationality:









REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 25

The following tabulation compiled from the preceding table shows
the number of vessels making a given number of transits through the
Panama Canal (1 to 34), their aggregate number of transits, and their
percent of the. total ocean-going tolls-paying transit:

Total Percent Total Percent
Nme v o total O oftotal
Number of transits Num n of Canal Number of transit umber number Canal
transit of vessels of trans- transits
s (3,747) its (3,747)

1---.. -----...........---------- 1,296 1,296 34.6 14.................. 1 14 0.4
2....--....--.. ... 333 666 17.7 15.................. 2 30 .8
3-------.. ---.........---------. 104 312 8.3 16.................. 2 32 .9
4.... ....---- ......------------. 89 356 9.5 19 .............. . 2 38 1.0
6........... ........ 46 230 6.1 20 ................ 2 40 1. 1
6.................. 31 186 5.0 21.......... .. 1I 21 .6
7.-...- ...- ........- 7 49 1.3 22...... .......... 2 44 1.2
8............... ..... 11 88 2.3 23........ .... .1 23 .6
9.-..........--.... 6 54 1.4 24............... ... 2 48 1.3
10.................. 6 60 1.6 33.-........ ..- I 33 .9
11.................. 2 22 .6 34............ .. ... 2 Cs 1.8
12............ ...... 2 24 .6
13................ . 1 13 .4 Total........ 1.952 3 747 100.00


GROSS TONNAGE OF VESSELS

The 3,747 ocean-going tolls-paying vessels which transited the
Canal in the fiscal year 1946 included 3,701 merchant vessels, 4
cable-repair ships paying tolls on the basis of net tonnage, and 42
vessels paying tolls on the basis of displacement tonnage.
Of the 3,705 vessels paying on net tonnage, 2,056, or approximately
56 percent, were vessels ranging between 6,000 to 8,000 registered
gross tons. This group was made up to a large extent, of Liberty and
Victory type vessels designed for war use. The average registered
gross tonnage of all vessels was 6,458 as compared with 6,020 in the
fiscal year 1945, representing an average increase per vessel in regis-
tered gross tonnage of 7.3 percent.
The following tabulation shows the ocean-going tolls-paying vessels,
excluding those rated on displacement tonnage, in groups according
to registered gross tonnage, segregated by nationality, with average
tonnages for 1946 and 1945 and group percentages for the fiscal year
1946:


725661-47---3











REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 27

SMALL TOLLS-PAYING VESSELS TRANSITING CANAL

Transits of small cargo-carrying vessels and other small miscellane-
ous craft of less than 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) or
500 displacement tons (for vessels rated on displacement. tonnage)
are excluded from statistics on ocean-going tolls-paying traffic, al-
though the vessels are not exempt from the payment of tolls. Transits
of these small vessels during the year, together with the tonnage, tolls,
and amount of cargo carried, are summarized in the following table:

Fiscal year 1946 Total fiscal year

Atlantic to Pacific to Total 1945 1944
Pacific Atlantic Total

Number of transits:
Rated on not tonnage..........-- ......-------.. 135 145 28s:' 361 209
Rated on displacement tonnage........ ............ 5 5 ............ 26
Total transit ..................... 135 150 2.85 31i 235
Panama Canal net tonnage ............... 11,672 14,922 26.594 27,.394 18.015
Displacement tonnage .............. .... ............ 1.970 1.970 ...------------....... 5,833
Tolls.--------.. ---. -..-.. ... $9.775 41 $12,937.72 $22,713.1 ii $22,609. 16 $17,682.98
Cargo (lori .......---........ .... -.... Iu,723 9,053 19.776 2U83 17, 156


VESSELS ENTITLED TO FREE TRANSIT

Naval and other vessels owned and operated in the Government
service of the United States and Republic of Panama, war vessels of
the Republic of Colombia, and vessels transiting solely for the pur-
pose of having repairs made at, the Canal shops, are exempt from the
payment of tolls, and such vessels are not included in the general
transit statistics pertaining to Canal traffic.
In normal times free transits comprise but a relatively small part
of the total Canal traffic (less than 9 percent in 1939), but the war
brought about a great expansion of such traffic. In 1946, 5,554
tolls-free vessels were passed through, these comprising approxi-
mately 58 percent of the total transits. Approximately 60 percent
of these 5,554 vessels were routed from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
The following tabulation shows for the past 3 years the number
of tolls-free vessels passing through the Canal, their tonnage, the
approximate amount of tolls to which they would have been subject
at the prescribed rates if tolls had been charged against, them, and the
tons of cargo carried by such vessels:

Fiscal year 19.14 Total fiscal year-

Atlantic to Pacific to Total 194 1944
Pacific Atlantic

Number of transits:
On net tonnage basis.................. 1.59# 1,576 3,172 3,739 2.107
On displacement tonnage basis........ 643 1,739 2,382 2.827 1,226
Total transits........... ........... 2,239 3,315 5,554 6,566 3,333
Tonnage:
Panama Canal net.................... 5.808,934 6,855,809 12,664.743 11,328,776 5, 303,061
Displacement.......... -.............. 2,031,970 7,391,758 9,423,728 7,493,480 2,903,783
Approximate value of tolls ................. $6,287,427 $8,974, 660 $1.15,262,087 $13.171,772 $5. 876,729
Cargo (tons)............................... 6,943,495 527,951 7,471,446 10,744.651 4, 572,034






28 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Full information on naval and other vessels owned and operated
in the Government service of the United States, including naval
supply ships manned and operated by the Navy, is not req-uired by
The Panama Canal at the time of their transit. For these vessels
estimates are made of the displacement tonnage or the Panama
Canal net tonnage and the consequent value of tolls. No attempt
is made to estimate cargo tonnage carried by naval supply ships,
which comprise only a minor part of the total non-tolls-paying cargo-
carrying vessels.
CANAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

HOURS OF OPERATION
Dispatching of ships through the Canal is conducted on schedules.
Vessels awaiting transit begin moving through the Canal from the
terminal ports at 6 a. m. and dispatches are made thereafter from
each terminus at intervals of from one-half to 1 hour. The following
is a summary of normal arrangements in effect at the end of the fiscal
year.
From Cristobal Harbor, first ship at 6 a. m., last at about 3 p. m.;
from Balboa anchorage, first ship at 6 a. m., last at 3:30 p. m.
Tankers and vessels carrying hazardous cargoes are dispatched at
the discretion of the port captain and normally are not permitted to
proceed unless they can clear Gaillard Cut before dark.

LOCKAGES AND LOCK MAINTENANCE
The number of operating crews on Gatun Locks was reduced from
four to three on June 30, 1946 and on Miraflores Locks from four to
three on April 26, 1946. The following operating schedules were in
effect at the Locks on June 30, 1946:
Gatun:
Shift No. 1: 7:00 a. m. to 3:00 p. m.-8 locomotives.
2: 10:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m.-8 locomotives.
3: 3:00 p. m. to 11:00 p. nm.-8 locomotives.
Pedro MIiguel:
Shift No. 1: 8:00 a. m. to 4:00 p. m.-8 locomotives.
2: 9:30 a. m. to 5:30 p. m.-8 locomotives.
3: 2:00 p. m. to 10:00 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Mliraflores:
Shift No. 1: 7:00 a. m. to 3:00 p. m.-8 locomotives.
2: 9:30 a. m. to 5:30 p. m.-8 locomotives.
3: 3:00 p. m. to 11:00 p. m.-8 locomotives.
LOCKAGES
The number of lockages and vessels handled (including Panama
Canal equipment) is shown in the following table, by months, for the
fiscal year 1946, with corresponding totals for the previous 5 years:






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Gatun Pedro Miguel Miraflores
Month
Lookages Vessels Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels

1946
July-.------------------------------ 625 982 666 1, 052 649 1, 007
August.---------..------...-------------- 664 1,004 700 1,077 689 1,033
September-------------------------- 621 899 654 945 656 946
October------------------.........----------- 647 899 679 958 680 971
November-------------------------- 579 749 593 789 594 80i
December--..--..--------------------.. 577 801 599 850 596 861
1948
January ------------..-----------...-----... 632 951 648 98R 643 1,004
February --------------------------- 574 883 600 998 5.7 94l
March------------------------------. 537 808 569 912 560 886
April -----------...----------------- 458 617 490 727 485 727
May....------------------------------- 475 655 492 70(4 4S19 07
June---------.------.---------------- 434 623 449 654 449 659
Total-------------.... --------.. 6,823 9,901 7,139 10,654 7.076 10.561
Fiscal year:
1941 --------------.------------- 5, 103 8,018 5,018 7,489 4, 943 7,410
1942..--------------------------- 4, 669 10,986 4,445 o, u84 3,775 5. 806
1943---------------------------. 2,796 5, 216 3,661 6,672 3,395 5. 9.4
1944 -.. ..---------------------. 3,267 5,846 4.036 7,632 3,656 6., 44
1945--------------------------- 5,261 9,201 6,268 12, 334 5,635 10, 07

The heavy traffic through the Canal during the final months of the
war in the Pacific produced new monthly records for the number of
lockages at all locks. After exceeding all previous records in July,
the number of lockages increased still further in August, the totals
for that month being the highest recorded to date. Record figures
prior to July 1945 were: Gatun, 610, established January 1929; Pedro
Miguel, 619, established November 1944; and \liraflores, 592, estab-
lished December 1927.
The average number of lockages made daily, and the average
number of vessels handled per lockage during each of the past 5
fiscal years are shown in the following table:

Average number of lockages per day Average numberof vessels per lockage
Fiscal year
Pedro Mira- Pedro Mlira-
atun 1Miguel flores Gatun Mliguel flores

1942...--------------------........ --- 12.8 12.1 10.3 2.35 1.82 1.54
1943--..---..----..------------------ 7.7 10.0 9.3 1.87 1.82 1.75
1944------------------------ 8.9 11.1 10.0 1.79 1.89 1.76
1945...-----------.----------..-..-- 14.4 17.1 15.4 1.74 1.96 1.79
1946-------------------------- 18.7 19.5 19.4 1.45 1.49 1.49

DELAYS TO SHIPPING
The lock operating machinery functioned smoothly throughout the
year except for a few incidents due to faulty operation or minor
failures of equipment. The following summary includes all delays to
vessels while transiting the locks due to the incidents mentioned:

umber of Aggregate delay caused
lockages all vessels
delayed

Gatun--------------------------..--------------.. -------------------- 36 7 hours 18 minutes.
Pedro Miguel---------.....------....-----------------------------....18 5 hours 50 minutes.
Miraflores.-----------------------------.....--------------------------.......31 7 hours minutes.
Total..-------------...--------------- ----------------------. 85 20 hours 10 minutes.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


MAINTENANCE
Regular inspection and preventive maintenance were continued for
all locks' machinery and equipment. Routine tests and inspections
were regularly carried out with a view to detecting weak points and
potential failures before breakdowns occurred. Where inspection
and tests indicated that a mechanical or electrical part or device was
in need of r placement or repair, such replacement or repair was made
by the operation and maintenance forces of the locks.
Inasmuch as special improvement projects were under way on the
locks during the past several years, regular overhaul periods were
impracticable, and the normal schedule which called for major over-
hauls at the Pacific locks in 1941 and the Atlantic locks in 1940 was
not adhered to. Minor overhauls were performed at all locks during
this period, however, and sufficient work was (lone to insure safe
operation until the regular periodic overhauls might be resumed. In
1946 Both sides of all locks were in continuous operation, with the
exception of the west side of Pedro Miguel locks which was out of
operation for the inspection of the emergency gate during the period
April 18 to April 26. The next of the major overhauls is scheduled
for the Gatun Locks starting in January 1947.
A preliminary study of the modernization of the locks, electrical
system was made during the year.

POWER FOR CANAL OPERATION
The table below summarizes and gives pertinent data relative to
the electric power generated.by the power system of the Canal Zone
for the past 3 fiscal years:
Fiscal year

S1946 1945 1944

Gross power generated:
Gatun hydro station---- -------------------------- 87.516, 900 91,683,100 89, 314,900
Madden hydro station........--------.------------------- 159, 120,700 165,.419, 800 157, 459, 700
Diesel stations--------------------------------- 13,500,500 12,776,700 604,000
Total generated--.--- ------------------------- 260,138,100 269,879,600 247,378.600
Consumed in station service--------------------------- 2,645,088 3,106,023 J.360, 617
Net generator output ----------- --------------- 257.493, 012 266,773, 577 246,017,983
Distributed to consumers ----------------------------- 226. 810, 535 236. 318,174 222, 548,235
Transmission loss-(kilowatt-hours)-------------------- 30, 682,477 30,455, 403 23,460, 748
Transmission loss--(percent)----------------------.-- --- 11. 92 11.41 9.5
Peak load (kilowatts)--..--------------------------------- 50,400 47,300 46, 000
Date.------......----------------........------------------------.. _____ ()
1 Oct. 3, 1945. 2 Feb. 9, 1945. 3 Nov. 1, 1943.
Work was continued on the installation of the new No. 5 generating
unit in the Gatun hydroelectric station, and at the end of the fiscal
year 1946 was 75 percent complete. The expansion of the existing
plant at the Gatun hydroelectric station to include generating units
Nos. 5 and 6 was planned in 1942, but actual work on the project
was suspended until 1945. The installation of both new units is
scheduled for completion early in the fiscal year 1947. The material
for modernizing ten 6,600-volt feeder circuit breakers was received and
work was completed on the modernization of four feeders.
Two new turbine runners, together with miscellaneous parts to com-
plete overhaul of Nos. 1 and 2 turbines for the Madden hydroelectric






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF PANAMA CANAL 31

station, have been received and stored in the station. In order to
maintain the required power output, the overhaul of these two turbines
is being delayed pending the placing in service of the new generating
unit at the Gatun hydroelectric station.
The assembly of No. 3 engine at the Miraflores Diesel-electric station
was completed during the fiscal year 1946.
During the past year service was temporarily interrupted at various
substations on five different occasions. There were 24 interruptions
to transmission line service during the year, of which 3 were caused by
lightning flash-over, 1 by mechanical failure of insulator, 1 by bird
contact (nest), 1 by insulator flash-over, 1 by animal contact, and 17
by unknown causes.

WATER SUPPLY AND GENERAL WEATHER CONDITIONS
WATER SUPPLY
The water requirements of The Panama Canal for hydroelectric
power, lockages, and municipal use are supplied by Madden and
Gatun Lakes which together drain an area of 1,289 square miles. All
outflow from Madden Lake, whether spilled at Madden Dam or
drawn for use of Madden hydroelectric station, flows into Gatun Lake
and together with the direct inflow from the area downstream from
Madden Dam remains available for Gatun Lake uses. The total
flow into Madden and Gatun Lakes during the year ended June 30,
1946, amounted to 193,599 million cubic feet, which is S percent below
the average inflow for the 32 years since the formation of Gatun Lake.
Evaporation losses from Madden and Gatun Lakes totaled 23,519
million cubic feet., leaving 170,080 million cubic feet available for use.
The source and expenditure of this water, together with comparable
data for the preceding year, are itemized in the following tabulation:

Million cubiet Peear ent of valuable
Millied June 3ye- waler supply )ear
ended June 30-

194 19 1946 1946 1945

MADDEN AND GATUN LAKE WArER SUPPLY
Direct flow into M adden Lake....----................... 81,751 102,968 ............ ............
Evaporation from Madden Lake.------.----...........----------...... -- 2,432 2,454 ...........
Available for Madden Lake uses-......--..--------------..... 79, 319 10, 514 ............ ............------------
Direct flow into Gatun Lake................--.......... 111,848 127, 194 ............ ............
Subtotal......................................... 191, 167 227, 708 ............
Evaporation from Gatun Lake. -.--.--...-..------------------..- 21,087 20,312 ............ .........
Available for Gatun Lake uses....-----.---...........-... 170. 08 207,396 ----------.......... ............
MADDEN LAKE WATER EXPENDITURES
Madden hydroelectric power -----------------........... --------............ 65,968 64,860 83.2 64.5
Madden spillway discharge ............................ 12,832 43,264 16.2 43.0
.Change in Madden Lake storage...................... +519 -7,610 +.6 -7.5
Total Madden Lake expenditures -............... 79,319 100,514 100.0 100.0
GATUN LAKE WATER EXPENDITURES
Gatun hydroelectric power-----------.....-----....-...-......-----------.... 62, 340 65,093 36 6 31.4
Gatun and Pedro Miguel lockages....-................. 52,000 42,949 30.6 20.7
Municipal and other uses........--------.--..-------...---------...---- 3,249 3, 158 1.9 1.5
Subtotal Gatun Lake uses.....--..-......---------.---------- 117. 589 111,200 69.1 53.6
Gatun spillway discharge. .............-.....------------------------ 54, 589 114, 656 32. 1 55.3
Change in Madden and Gatun Lake storage...........---------- -2,098 -18, 460 -1.2 -8.9
Total Oatun Lake expenditures --................ 170.080 207.396 100.0 100.0





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


STORMS'AND FLOODS
No storms occurred during the year with wind velocities -high
enough to cause any material damage to Canal structures. The only
noteworthy general storm was the heavy rainstorm of December 4-6,
1945, which did not last long enough to produce any serious flood
problem. This storm was of the northerr" type and was general
over the entire Canal Zone region, but the heavy rains were confined
to a comparatively small area near the Atlantic coast. Four-day
rainfall totals, December 3-6, inclusive, ranged from maximum
amounts of 17.15 inches at Agua. Clara andll5.46 inches at Gatun on
the Atlantic slope, to minimum amounts of 3.39 inches at Balboa on
the Pacific coast and 3.73 inches at Salamanca in the Madden Lake
area. The 4-day inflow into Madden and Gatmui Lakes, December
4-7, inclusive, amounted to 18% billion cubic feet, compared with 4-day
inflows of 19 billion cubic feet in the storm of December 1944 and
42 billion cubic feet in the storm of October 1923, the largest flood
since the formation of Gatun Lake. It was necessary to operate 10
gates at the Gatun spillway on 3 successive days, December 4, 5, and
6, with a maximum discharge of 110,437 cubic feet per second.
The four drum gates at Madden Dam were lowered to elevation 248
feet for a 24-hour period with a maximum discharge in the Changres
River channel at Alhajuela, a short distance downstream from Madden
Dam, of 30,500 cubic feet per second.
DRY SEASON-1940
The 1946 dry season was approximately normal in duration but was
considerably drier than usual, the total flow into Madden and Gatun
Lakes for the 4-month period, January to April, inclusive, being 31
percent below the 33-year average for the same period. The period
during which the flow into Madden and Gatun Lakes was insufficient
to provide water for evaporation losses from lake surfaces and for
Panama Canal uses extended from January 2 to May 13, inclusive, a
duration of 132 days. The total flow into Madden and Gatun Lakes
during this 132-day period was 13,906 million cubic feet and the total
water expenditures was 48,063 million cubic feet, consisting of 10,705
million cubic feet lost by evaporation from lake surfaces and 37,358
million cubic feet withdrawn for Panama Canal use. The dry-season
draft on lake storage amounted to 34,157 million cubic feet, of which
14,366 million cubic feet were drawn from Madden Lake and 19,791
million cubic feet from Gatun Lake. The total draft, on storage during
the 1946 dry season was the greatest on record since the beginning of
Canal operation. This was due not only to less run-off than usual
but also to increased water use.
LAKE ELEVATIONS
During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1946, Madden Lake varied in
elevation between a maximum of 255.01 feet on December 6, 1945, and
a minimum of 217.70 feet on May 15, 1946, a total range of 37.31 feet.
Gatun Lake varied in elevation between a maximum of 87.13 feet on
December 20,1945, and a minimum of 82.50 feet on June 27, 1946, a
total range of 4.63 feet. Minimum elevations for both lakes were the
lowest recorded in recent years.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


RAINFALL

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1946, rainfall was near or
slightly above normal along the Atlantic coast and over the Madden
Lake area and somewhat below normal along the Pacific slope and
over the interior valleys in the vicinity of Gatun Lake. Along the line
of the Canal channel, annual totals ranged from a minimum of 61.59
inches at Balboa Heights near the Pacific terminal to a maximum of
137.46 inches at Gatun near the Atlantic terminal. February was the
month of least rainfall with monthly totals in the Canal Zone area
ranging from a trace to 2.16 inches. November was the month of
greatest rainfall with monthly totals ranging from 7.08 inches to 32.36
inches. The greatest amount of rainfall in 24 consecutive hours was
8.67 inches at Agua Clara on December 4-5.

AIR TEMPERATURES

Air temperatures in the Canal Zone during the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1946, averaged a fraction of a degree above normal. There
was little variation in temperature throughout the year, no monthly
mean at any station departing more than 2.40 from the annual mean.
Annual means and extremes at Canal Zone stations for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1946, are given in the following table:

1946 maximum 1946 minimum 1946 Depar-
S8ation mean, ture.
F. Date 0 F. Date F. F.

Balboa Heights ...................... 97 Apr. 28.1946 69 Feb. 25, 1946 79.3 +0.5
Madden Dam .......................... 96 May 4.1946 64 do- 77 7 +0.2
Cristobal. .................... ........ 94 Oct. 2, 1915 70 June 9. !916 80.2 +0. 1

Annual extremes and means on record at the above stations are as
follows:

Absolute maximum Absolute minimum Annual
Station mean
0 F. Date a F. Date F.

Balboa Heights.................................... 97 Apr. 28, 146 63 Jau. r27,1910 78.8
Madden Dam.... ........9... .. ........ ..... 98 Apr. 13, 1920 59 Feb. 34 1924 7 .5
Cristobal..-........... .............-... .. 95 ct.l 2?1,1925, 66 Dec. 3, 1909 80. 1


WINDS AND HUMIDITY
Wind velocities for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1946, averaged 7
miles per hour at Balboa Heights on Ehe Pacific coast and 10 miles
per hour at Cristobal on the Atlantic coast. Monthly mean velocities
at Balboa Heights ranged from 5 miles per hour in August to 11 miles
per hour in March. Monthly mean velocities at Cristobal ranged
from 6 miles per hour in September to 16 miles per hour in February.
The most frequent directions were northwest along the Pacific coast
and northeast along the Atlantic coast. Maximum velocities for





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


5-minute periods were 29 miles per hour from the south at Balboa
Heights on October 10, 1945, and 30 miles per hour from the north
at Cristobal on December 5, 1945.
The relative humidity averaged 82 percent at Balboa Heights and
81 percent at Cristobal. At Balboa Heights monthly means ranged
from 72 percent in March to 88 percent in August, and at Cristobal
monthly means ranged from 75 percent in February to 86 percent in
June.
TIDES
During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1946, absolute tidal ranges at
Canal terminals were 21.5 feet on the Pacific coast and 2.46 feet on
the Atlantic coast. At Balboa, the Pacific terminal of the Canal, the
following extremes occurred: Highest high water 10.3 feet above mean
sea level, lowest low water 11.2 feet below mean sea level, with the
greatest range between consecutive tides 21.3 feet on October 23, 1945.
At Cristohal, the Atlantic terminal of the Canal, the following ex-
tremes occurred: Highest high water 1.38 feet above mean sea level,
lowest low water 1.08 feet below mean sea level, with the greatest
range between consecutive tides 1.88 feet on November 22, 1945, and
December 19, 1945.
SEISMOLOGY
Four earthquakes were felt by Canal Zone residents during the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1946. None exceeded intensity IV on the
Modified Mercalli Scale and none caused any damage in the Canal
Zone area. The most intense shock of the year was recorded at
Balboa Heights on July 5, 1945 at. 7:03 a. mn., seventy-fifth meridian
time. It was rated locally at Intensity IV. Later reports indicated
that the epicenter was located near Santa Fe, Province of Feraguas,
Republic of Panama, about. 100 miles in a westerly direction from
Balboa Heights. The other three shocks were light and were felt by
only a few residents of the Canal Zone. They were rated at inten-
sities I to II and all occurred within a distance of 50 miles from
Balboa Heights.
MARINE ACTIVITIES
Marine activities were at a high level in the early months of the
fiscal year 1946 by reason of heavy Canal traffic, discussed earlier in
this'report under "Statistics on Canal Traffic." The preponderance
of Pacific-bound traffic which prevailed throughout the fiscal year
1945 continued until October 1945; following the cessation of hos-
tilities the return of large numbers of vessels from the Pacific reversed
the trend, however, and from October 1945 to the end of the fiscal
year 1946 the majority of traffic was Atlantic-bound. On October
22 and 23, transits were restricted to Atlantic-bound ships only, in
order to relieve the congestion which had occurred in Balboa. On
these 2 days 68 ships were passed through-35 on October 22 and
33 on October 23.
Twenty-seven new FM two-way radio telephone sets were received
during the year as replacement for old AM installations in floating
equipment. When the complete change-over to FM equipment has
been effected, all harbor craft and activities of the marine division
will be connected by two-way radio telephone operating on a single
frequency-of 34,740 kilocycles.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


HARBOR ACTIVITIES

The table following shows the number of vessels handled at docks
of the terminal ports of Cristobal and Balboa for the fiscal year 1946
as compared with the 2 previous years:

Cristobal-Fiscal year Balboa-Fiscal year

1946 1915 1944 1946 1945 1944

Number of vessels docked
Handling passengers and'or care --...-...---.-------..-- 1,149 1.221 817 513 801 697
For all other purposes ....---------------.......--...-.------- 3,172 2,81-1 1,333 2,058 2,183 1,410
Total ......................... ----...... .....- 4,321 4,035 2. 150 2,571 2,984 2,107

On July 9, 1945, floating drydock YFD No. 6, stationed at Balboa,
was used for the first time. The steamship Apache Canyon., a C-2
type cargo vessel, 526 feet. 6 inches in length and of 10,173 gross tons,
was docked without incident.

AIDS TO NAVIGATION

On June 30, 1946, there were 746 aids to navigation in service in
the Panama Canal and its approaches, maintained by the aids to
navigation subdivision and classified as follows: Acetylene gas-oper-
ated, 108; electrically operated, 334; unlighted, 304. Included in the
foregoing are two automatic acetylene gas-operated lighthouses, lo-
cated at Morro Puercos and at Jicarita Island on the coast of Panama
in the Pacific approach. Two visits were. made to these lighthouses
during the year by the U. S. S. Favorite for the purpose of inspecting
and servicing the equipment.

ACCIDENTS TO SHIPPING

The board of local inspectors investigated and reported on 34 acci-
dents in connection with shipping in Canal Zone waters during the
fiscal year 1946, a summary of which follows together with a com-
parison of accidents in the 2 previous years:

Fiscal year
Cause of accident
1946 1945 1944

Collision----. ............... ................... ..... ...........- ..... 11 13 12
Ship struck lock wall ............ ......... ...... ...---..- ..--- ....--- -----.----- 7 13 6
Ship struck dock-----------------------------... ....--------------------- 4 6 6
Ship grounded.---..--...--..-----------.......-....----...---....---------......--......----------......... 3 -------- 4
Ship damaged by tug. .-..-...............-----------............-------------...........----..---.--...-----.---..-- 2 3
Ship struck Canal bank..........----------------------................--------------......--..--....----.... 2 3 2
Other causes.----...-.-------------------..--------.---------.......----------- 7 13 4
Total-----..---........-----------------------------------------------. 34 50 37


An accident caused by the ignition of gasoline on water was responsible
for the only fatality during the year.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


INSPECTIONS
Complete inspections were made of the hulls, power plant, and
equipment of 13 American and 16 foreign vessels and certificates of
seaworthiness issued. Sixty-seven hulls of commercial, Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad vessels were inspected in drydock.
Sixty steam boilers were given annual inspections and hydrostatic
tests. Seventy-five air tanks and 33 CO2 fire-extinguishing systems
were inspected. Annual inspections were made and pertinent cer-
tificates issued to 181 motorboats.
ADMEASUREMENT
The admeasurement. activities during the year were characterized
by a heavy work load attributable to the arrival of many newly
constructed vessels, and the remeasurement of many vessels neces-
sitated by their reconversion from war- to peace-time purposes.
SALVAGE AND TOWING
On July 23, 1945, the tug Tavernilla was dispatched to sea to rescue
a small Panamanian craft, the Ricardo Arias, the main engines of
which had become disabled. The Ricardo Arias was brought to port
successfully.
The tug GCorgona was sent from Balboa on December 7, 1945, to
assist the Viking Lass, a small Honduran vessel, which had grounded
on Rey Island of Las Perlas group. With the aid of a Navy tug,
this ship was assisted off the island and brought to Balboa, arriving
December 8.
From January 30 to February 4, 1946, the Favorite was engaged in
towing to Balboa the steamship Marmex, a Mexican freighter which
experienced engine trouble at sea.
On September 3, 1945, the Navy floating dry dock YFD No. 3
started transit of the Canal southbound to Balboa. Since the beam
of the drydock exceeded the width of the locks, it was necessary to
careen the dock on its side in accordance with the procedure which
had been previously developed for transit of a. similar dock on June 1,
1945. The entire transit was made with the dock in that position and
was completed according to schedule on September 4, without damage
to the drydock section or to the locks.
OPERATION OF TUGS
In December 1945, Balboa ceased to be the home port for a fleet of
oil tankers employed in carrying cargoes to the Pacific war theater.
With the consequent reduction in harbor movements, four Panama
Canal tugs which had temporarily been assigned to assist in the
handling of harbor traffic were returned to the dredging service, leav-
ing only two tugs on duty at Balboa after May 1, 1946.
The following statistics summarize the services of tugs used in
marine activities (as distinct from dredging) during the past 3 fiscal
years:







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Operating hours-Fiscal year Jobs handled-Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944 1916 1945 1944

Balboa------....---..-..--..--------------.............---- 15,649 19,.819 9,780 6,720 8,791 408
Cristobal-........------------------------..........----............. 10,665 12,816 5,964 3,S36 9,325 4,392
Total----------.. --........---- ........ -----------26,314 32,635 15,744 -10, 56j 18, 116 10, SOO


The table above does not include statistics for tugs which were
occasionally borrowed from dredging service to assist vessels during
emergencies. It does include dredging service tugs rented over
periods of time and operated under orders of the marine division.

MAINTENANCE OF CHANNEL-OTHER DREDGING ACTIVE ITES

Dredges were operated throughout the year on the maintenance of
the Canal channel, terminal harbors, and on various special projects,
including a substantial amount of excavation on the third locks
project. In 1946 total material excavated amounted to 13,951,800
cubic yards, which was 25 percent less than the amount removed in
the previous fiscal year.
Excavation during the year is summarized in the following table:

Location Earth Rock Total

CANAL PRISM DREDGING
Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards
Atlantic entrance, maintenance-.............................. 2,079,000 274,500 2, 353, 500
Gaillard Cut, maintenance, including slides........--.--.----..---..-- 257,200 191,800 449,000
Gaillard Cut, project No. 13.................................. 107,600 397,200 501,800
Pacific entrance:
Maintenance.. ........-----------................--......... 4,474, 600 ...........--------------.. 4, 474, 600
Project No. I-C..-------------....---..----------................--------- 155,900 .............. 155,900
Total, Canal prism------..............--------------------..............-------........ 7,074,300 863,500 7,937, 500
AUXILIARY DREDGING
Cristobal Harbor:
Outer harbor, west anchorage................--------------------------... 2,656,700 62, 00( 2,718,700
Harbor approach channel------------------..... ...----------- 1, 176,000 53,000 1,229,000
Colon fill..---..--..---------.........------------------------......---------.......... 40,000 79,800 119,800
Refloating S. S. Laurence J. Gallagher---------.........----------------...... 1,300 10,000 11,300
Total auxiliary....----------------.................------------........--------......... 3,874,000 204,800 4,07S,800
THIRD LOCKS DREnlIGNG
New approach channels:
New Mirafiores locks:
North approach------------..--............---------...................------------. 14, 400 36.400 50,800
South approach..............----------------------..............----.......1,------- 142,400 742,000 1,884,400
Total approach channels. --.--........---..-...-------.....---------- 1,156,800 778,400 1,935,200
Grand total:
Fiscal year 1946---------------.....--..--........---------...............---- 12,105,100 1,846.700 13,951.,800
Fiscal year 1945----------------------........-----............-----...... 14,816,700 3, 752, 900 1 18,569,600

1 In addition 36,755 cubic yards of Chame sand were produced in fiscal year 1946 and 25,615 cubic yards in
1045.

Dredging operations are divided into three major districts; the
Atlantic district extending from contour 42 feet below mean sea level
in the Atlantic Ocean to Gatun locks; the central district, extending
from Gatun Locks to Pedro Miguel locks; and the Pacific district, ex-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


tending from Pedro Miguel locks to contour 50 feet below mean sea
level in the Pacific Ocean. The total excavation in these three areas,
exclusive of third locks excavation, is summarized as follows:

[Cubic yards]


Canal prism:
Earth..........................---------
Rock -----------------------------------
Total....---------- --.... ---------------
Auxiliary:
Earth.......----------..... ............... .
Rock...................................-...
Total.--.---------------------... --....
Total (exclusive of third locks):
Earth....... ................... ........ -
Rock...... ................ .........
Grand totals:
Fiscal year 1946.--..--.--------- .............
Fiscal year 1945.--------------..........-..-....


District


Atlantic


2, 079, 0011
274, 500
2, 353, 500

3, 872, 700
194,800
4,067.500

5,951,700O
469,300

6,421,000
8, 499, 7u0


Central


364, 800
589, 000
953, 800

1,300
10, 000
11,300


Pacific


4, 630. 500
0
4, 630, 500

0
0
0


Total


7,074,300
863,500
7,937,800

3,874,000
204,800
4,078,800


3(.fi, 10 4,630,500 10, 948, 300
599,000 0 1,068,300


965, 100
93b, 500


I Does not include Chagres River gravel or Chame sand service.


4, 630, 500
6,' 81, 800


S12,016,600
116,298,000


ORDINARY CHANNEL AIAINTENANCE-('ANAL PRISM DREDGING

ATLANTIC DISTRICT

Atlantic entrance.-In the Atlantic district, maintenance dredging
of the Canal channel by pipe-line suction dredges was in progress 101
days during the year. The total maintenance dredging on this section
of the Canal channel for the year amounted to 2,353,500 cubic yards,
details of which follow:

Yardage dredged
Equipment worked
Earth Rock Total

Las Cruces... ---------------.... ...................... I 313.300 130,0i00 343,300
Allindi...............------------.... .. ............ ......... .. S 1765.700 244,500 2,010,200
Total--..-------.. -----------------... --..- -------- 101 2,079, 00(l 1 274, 500 2,353,500

1 Unminin-l rock and gravel.
CENTRAL DISTRICT

Gaillard Cvt.-In maintenance dredging by dipper dredges 299,100
cubic yards were removed from Gaillard Cut (excluding 149,900 cubic
yards of slide material). Further details of this dredging are given
below:

Yardage dredged
Equipment Days d
Earth Rock Total

Cascadas.......................................... 38 i 97,300 147,8o0 145.100
Paraso........-................... .. . .. 43% 125,400 1 28, 600 164,000
Total.......................... ............. 82 222,700 1 70,400 299, 100

I Unmlned rock.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Project No. 13.-This project, which consists of widening Culebra
Reach by 200 feet to the westward, was started in January 1935 and
has been continued on a low priority basis since that time. A total
of 402,400 cubic yards of rock was broken by shore mining, and 450,400
cubic yards of material, comprising 297,900 cubic yards of mined rock,
8,000 cubic yards of unniined rock and 144,500 cubic yards of earth,
were sluiced into the Canal prism to be removed by regular dredging
operations. During 1946 dipper dredges excavated a total of 504,800
cubic yards from this project, as follows:

Yardage dredged
Equipment woraysed
Earth Rock Total

Cacads ......................... ...........----------. 41 35,000 1220,600 255,600
Paraiso-.............. --... ....-... ........ ... ....- 49 72,600 2176,600 249,200
Total.........----.-----.-----..----...........-..--....--------------.... 90 107,600 397,200 504,800
I 1]3, 100 cubic yards mined; 37,500 cubic yards unmined.
3 151,700 cubic yards mined; 24,900 cubire yards unmined.

The balance of 149,900 cubic yards dredged from the Canal prism
in the central district was slide material, further details of which will
be found under "Slides".
PACIFIC DISTRICT
Pacific entrance, maintenance.-A total of 4,474,600 cubic yards of
earth was removed in maintaining the Pacific entrance section of the
Canal channel. This dredging was performed by the pipe-line suction
dredge Las Cruces, which was employed 180 days on the work.
Pacific entrance, project No. 1-0.-A total of 155,900 cubic yards
of earth was dredged on this project during 1946. This dredging
was performed by the pipe-line dredge Las Cruces which was employed
18 days on the work. A description of this project, authorized August
26, 1942, appears on page 42 of the Governor's annual report for 1943.
AUXILIARY DREDGING-OTHER PROJECTS
ATLANTIC DISTRICT
Cristobal approach channel.-The pipe-line suction dredge Mlindi
worked 59W1 days during 1946 on the Cristobal approach channel,
excavating 1,229,000 cubic yards of material, which included 53,000
cubic yards of unmined coral rock and 1,176,000 cubic yards of earth.
Cristobal outer harbor.-The pipe-line suction dredge MAindi was
employed 83 days during 1946 on the Cristobal outer harbor, excavat-
ing 2,718,700 cubic yards of material of which 62,000 cubic yards were
unmined coral rock, and 2,656,700 cubic yards were earth.
Colon jill.-The pipe-line suction dredge Alindi worked 18 days
during 1946 in. Mlanzanillo Bay, dredging material required to make a
fill on the undeveloped portion of Mlanzaaillo Island for the Republic
of Panama. This fill, to be used in connection with the extension of
the Colon townsite, will be completed in the next fiscal year. The
dredge excavated 119,800 cubic yards of material, including 79,800
cubic yards of coral rock and 40,000 cubic yards of sand.





40 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

CENTRAL DISTRICT
Refloating vessel.-The dipper dredge Paraiso worked I % days in
refloating the steamship Laurence J. Gallagher which had run aground
in Gatun Lake. The dredge removed 11,300 cubic yards of material,
of which 10,000 cubic yards were unmined rock and 1,300 cubic yards
were earth.
THIRD LOCKS DREDGING
The Panama Canal's dredging division is charged with the perform-
ance of practically all of the wet excavation in connection with the
third locks project.
During the past year the following construction dredging was per-
formed in various approach channels for this project:
New Miraflores locks north approach channel.-Subaqueous mining
was in progress for 204 days in this area, during which time 44,500
cubic yards of rock were broken. The pipe-line suction dredge
Mind worked 17' days, removing 50,800 cubic yards of material, of
which 32,100 cubic yards were mined rock, 4,300 cubic yards unmined
rock, and 14,400 cubic yards earth. Total construction excavation to
the end of the fiscal year aggregated 2,885,100 cubic yards, at which
time the project was 70.7 percent complete.
New IMiraflores locks south approach channel.-Subaqueous mining
was in progress 342 days, during which 320,100 cubic yards of rock
were broken. Dredging in this channel was in progress 311 days,
during which time a total of 1,884,400 cubic yards of material were
removed, comprising 742,000 cubic yards of rock and 1,142,400 cubic
yards of earth. Further details of this dredging are given in the
following tabulation:

Yardage dredged
Equipment ^edDays
Earth Rock Total

Cascades. ............... ........ ........... ...- . 1641' 223, 100 1402.300 625,400
P raen............. .............................. 7 48,300 2185.300 233,600
Las Cruces...... .............. .... ............ 6-82 871.000 3 154,400 1,025,400
Total-----------..... --. ------------.. -- ------.. ----... ll 1142,400 742,000 1,8R4,400

1 355,5(KI cubhi yaris Iined; 10,6800 cubic yards uomniiued.
"All minel rock.
3 97,200 cubit yards wined; 57,200 cubic yards unmineid.

The total excavation to date from the New AMiraflores locks south
approach channel is 9,153,600 cubic yards. The project was 87.7
percent completed at. the end of the year.
Istlhmian Canal studies (Public Lawo No. 280).-Core samples were
taken along various proposed routes including the present Canal
alignment-Gatun to Pedro Miguel Locks. A total of 46 holes, with
a combined depth of 10,823 feet, was drilled.
SLIDES
Excavation from slides in Gaillard Cut from June 30, 1913, to June
30, 1945, totaled 51,844,000 cubic yards. During the past year 149,900
cubic yards of slide material were excavated, bringing the total excava-
tion from slides to 51,993,900 cubic yards as of June 30, 1946. Slide





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


activity throughout the Cut was generally.much less than in previous
years. Culebra slide (west) continued to be the most active of the
slides. Small movements were observed in four slide areas during the
year. Only at barge repair slide (east) and at a large bank break
between stations 1600-1602 (west), involving approximately 22,000
cubic yards, did any slide material enter the Canal prism. Numerous
other bank breaks occurred, all of which were limited t.o small move-
ments of no consequence. There was no interference with shipping on
account of slides during the year.
The dredge Cascadas worked 8 days in the barge repair slide (east),
removing 39,200 cubic yards of material, which included 32,700 cubic
yards of unmined rock and 6,500 cubic yards of earth.
The dredge Paraiso worked 35 days in Culebra slide (west), remov-
ing 110,700 cubic yards of material, which included 70,200 cubic yards
of mined rock, 12,500 cubic yards of unmined rock, and 28,000 cubic
yards of earth. Shore mining in this slide was in progress for 145
days and 5,400 cubic yards of rock were broken.
SUBSIDIARY DREDGING DIVISiON ACTIVITIES
SAND AND GRAVEL
During the past fiscal year 62,123 cubic yards of sand and gravel
of all classes (both run-of-bank and washed) were shipped from the
gravel stock pile at Gamboa, as compared with 104,344 cubic yards
shipped in the previous fiscal year. No run-of-bank gravel was
pumped into the stock pile at Gamboa.
The craneboat Atlas was in service for 28% days excavating 36,755
cubic yards of sand at Chame Point, Republic of Panama. This
sand was pumped into barges and delivered at dock 7, Balboa, for
the supply department.
HYACINTH CONTROL AND OTHER ACTIVITIES
The Canal and adjacent waters through Gaillard Cut, Miraflores
Lake, and Gatun Lake (including all dump areas) were periodically
patrolled throughout the year for the purpose of keeping the growth
of hyacinths under control. Log booms at the mouths of the Chagres
and Mandinga Rivers were maintained to prevent hyacinths, logs,
floating islands, and other obstructions from entering the Canal chan -
nel during freshets or spilling at Madden Dam. During the year,
periodical inspection trips were made in the Chagres, Mandinga,
Frijoles, and Azules Rivers and along the shores of Barro Colorado
Island, Pena Blanca, and Gigante Bays, dumps Nos. 1 to 14, and
Miraflores, Pedro Miguel, and Red Tank Lakes. Weekly inspection
trips were also made of the Canal channel between Gamboa and
Gatun.
It is estimated that 35,071,000 hyacinth plants were destroyed
during the past year, of which 11,240,000 were pulled and 23,831,000
were sprayed; of the plants pulled 2,250,000 were removed by the
debris cableway. Forty-four cords of driftwood were removed by
the debris cableway during the past year, and an additional estimated
299 cords of driftwood were picked up along the banks of the Chagres,
Mandinga, and Cocoli Rivers, Gaillard Cut, and Gatun, Miraflores,
Pedro Miguel, and Red Tank Lakes.
725661--47---4







42 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


EQUIPMENT

The more important items of dredging equipment or plant were

operated during the past year as shown in the following tabulation:


I Out of service


Unit and name'


Dredges:
Cascadas. ..................
Gamboa ......... ...............
Paraiso...... .....................
Las Cruces. .............. ....
Mlindi.......................... .
Craneboat: Atlas........... ......
Derrick barge: No. 167...............
Grader barge: No. 4 .............
Relay barges:
No. s3............. ..........
No.R4............. .-.....- -..... -
Drillboats:
Terrir \o. f .....................
Teredo No. R ................
Vulcan ................ .. ........
Thor -........... ... .... ..- ..
Air compressor: No. 90 ..............
Floating cranes:
Ajax......... ..... ..........
Hercules............ ... .......
Ferry boats:
President A ndor ...............
President Roosevelt ...............
Presidentle Porra ..............


Type


15-yard dipper...................
......do ......-......................
.- . d o ............................ .
24-inch suction ....................
28-inch suction........... ........ .
75-ton............. ..............
40-ton ..........................
14-inch pumps ....................

................... .............
....................................
S team ............ --- .- - .
. ...d o .. .- ........... ........
Air .............. .............
--- -- .d o ................... ...... ..
2,500 cubic fret per minute........

2.5 -ton............. ..............
... .d o .... ...... . .... ... ...


In serv-
ice



MAonths
8.3

6.8
9.4
N. 6
x.7
2.8
11.8

4.2



.....
11.2
12.0

1.6
3.5

6.9
8.3
8.6


Repairs


Months
3.7

.6
2.6
3.4

.3
. .........


* - --8

.8




.5
.7
.1


Reserve
or stand-
by

Months

12.0
4.6

3.3
8.9
.2

7.8
12.0

12.0
12.0
10.9


10.4
8.5

4.6
3.0
3.3


In addition to the aihove, large and small tugs and an attendant
fleet of dump scows, sand barges, and service lighters, launches,
quarterboats and related driillng and excavating equipment were also
operated as part of the dredging plant. At the end of the year four
large and three small tugs were engaged in or available for dredging
service.
FERRY SERVICE

Thatcher Ferry service was continuous throughout. the past year
except for 32 days-from September 17 to October 17 when service
was suspended because of repairs to the ferry racking, and on June 19
and June 20 on account. of repairs to the ramps. This ferry crosses
the Canal at the Pacific terminal and connects Balboa on the east
bank with Thatcher highway on the west bank. Service was main-
tained by rotating the three ferryboats, Presidente Amador, President
Roosevelt and Presidente PIorras, keeping two of these ferries in con-
tin uus service.
Since the opening of the new bridge across the Canal at Miraflores
in May 1942, the ferry traffic has become fairly well stabilized. In
the following table are shown the more important statistics relative to
operations of the Thatcher Ferry for the past 3 fiscal years:






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Single trips made........................................... 51, 263 55,92S 54,639
Vehicles carried:
Panama Canal vehicles. .................. .. .... 15.347 29,472 32,681
United States m military vehicles- .- ..-...... ................- 1)1,28 Ix,916 163,723
Commercial trucks .............. .............. ........... 93,764 79,042 91,118
Commercial passenger cars. ......--............................- 92,766 91,914 92, 723
Private curs................. ........ ........... .............. 202,474 188,982 216,991
Total vehicles carried ........................................ 505, 979 528,376 597, 266
Total passengers carried.----.................................... 2,401,329 2,785, 612 3,211,690


THIRD LOCKS PROJECT

The third locks project, providing for the improvement and enlarge-
ment of the capacity of the Panama Canal in the interest of defense
and interoceanic commerce at a cost not to exceed $277,000,000, was
authorized by act of Congress, Public Law No. 391, Seventy-sixth
Congress, first, session, approved August 11, 1939. The project
involves t-he design and construction of a new set of locks at some.
distance from the existing locks, the excavation of approach channels
to connect the new locks with the existing Canal, and the design and
construction of appurtenant works.
Excavation work on the third locks project was started by the
dredging plant of The Panama Canal on July 1, 1940. The entire
program was prosecuted vigorously from that date until 1May 1942.
On AM-ay 25, 1942, the Governor, pursuant to a directive of the Secre-
tary of War, issued instructions drastically curtailing the scope of the
work to be undertaken on the third locks project, in view of the urgent
need for manpower and materials in the over-all wa.r program.
Under the modified program, dredging in the approach channels
was continued but on a lower priority basis. The contract, for excava-
tion of the new Gatun locks was carried to completion, but the similar
contract on the Pacific side was terminated with partial completion
of the excavations for the new Mliraflores and new Pedro Mliguel locks.
Other features carried to completion were the designs and specifica-
tions, construction of the bridge over existing M\iratflores locks, the
relocation of various utilities, and the construction of emergency
electric power plants. Among the important items suspended under
the modified program were the contracts for construction of the locks
structures, furnishing cement., processing aggregates, and the fabrica-
tion of miter gates and bulkheads.
All phases of the scheduled design, including studies, drawings, and
specifications for the third locks project, were completed during 1946
and the final reports were practically complete except for minor
revisions. Progress was made on the long-term test to determine
the corrosion behavior of the principal metals and alloys in tropical
atmosphere, and in fresh and salt waters of the tropics.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


During 1946 1,935,200 cubic yardsjwere excavated from the ap-
proaches to the new Miraflores locks; further details of the dredging
work on the third locks project are given on page 40 of this report.
The dredging program was scheduled for completion during the
fiscal year 1947 but as a resultloffstuidies'aut.horizedby Public Law
No. 280, Seventy-ninth Congress, it. is anticipated that the dredging
will be suspended pending completion of the studies and further action
by Congress on the recommended project.

INVESTIGATION OF NMEANS"OF INCREASING THE CAPACITY AND
SECURITY OF THE PANAMA CANAL
An investigation of means for increasing the capacity and security
of the Panama Canal to meet the future needs of interoceanic com-
merce and national security, including a restudy of the third locks
project, was authorized by Public Law No. 280, Seventy-ninth Con-
gress, first session, approved December 28, 1945. This act also
authorized the making of such studies as may be deemed necessary
to determine whether a canal or canals at other locations, or any new
means of transporting ships across land, may be more useful than the
present Canal with improvements for the purposes stated. A report
on these studies is to be made to the Congress, through the Secretary
of War and the President, not later than December 31, 1947.
In the latter part of January 1946 an outline of the scope of the new
studies was completed and key personnel were tentatively selected.
Full-scale recruiting was started in April and by the end of the fiscal
year the major portion of the new organization had arrived on the
Isthmus. A board of six consulting engineers was appointed by the
Governor to advise him on various engineering aspects of the studies.
Work on the initial phases of the studies has progressed satis-
factorily. Geological core borings were started in March and by
June 30 46 holes with an aggregate footage of 10,823 had been com-
pleted in the Gatun Lake and Gaillard Cut. regions of the Panama
Canal. Reconnaissance field mapping along selected alternative
routes in Panama was started, and preliminary estimates of dredging
quantities involved, for comparison of various sea-level alignments in
Panama, were completed. Other work in progress at the end of the
year included the assembly and evaluation of all information on
alternative routes, and the construction of a hydraulic model of a
sea-level Canal based on the existing Panama Canal alignment.
On March 19 and 20, 1946, a conference on dredging was held in
Philadelphia, at which representatives of 30 dredging companies, the
Corps of Engineers, and The Panama Canal were present. The
purpose of this conference was to discuss the single-stage and multiple-
stage lowering plans for converting the present lock canal to a sea-
level canal, and the practicability of constructing and operating
dredging equipment of unprecedented size and power. Subsequent
to this meeting negotiations were initiated with a view to entering
into development design contracts for special dredges.











SECTION II


BUSINESS OPERATIONS
The business enterprises operated by The Panama Canal and by
the Panama Railroad Company embrace a number of activities which
in the United States would normally be carried on by private enter-
prise. These activities have been developed to meet the needs of
shipping passing through the Canal and of the Canal-Railroad, Army
and Navy organizations, and their employees. During the war years
these activities were expanded and adjusted to meet the requirements
of the war effort and served very important needs of the Army and
Navy. The business enterprises include the supply of fuel, provisions,
ship chandlery, and repairs to vessels; the provision of public utility
services; the maintenance of living quarters, and the sale of food,
clothing and other essentials to Canal and Railroad employees; the
handling of cargo and allied operations; and the operation and man-
agement of a railroad line. A steamship line between New York and
the Isthmus also was operated prior to the outbreak of war but the
steamers of the line were requisitioned early in the. emergency for
direct employment in the war effort; it is expected that during the
fiscal year 1947 the three vessels of the line will be returned to normal
operations of the Company.
The Canal and the Railroad are separate organizations, but the
administration of both organizations is vested in the Governor of The
Panama Canal, who is also president of the Panama Railroad
Company.
PANAMA CANAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Business operations of the Panama Canal are conducted separately
from operating activities pertaining directly to the transiting of
vessels and the government and sanitation of the Canal Zone. The
annual appropriation acts for The Panama Canal authorize the
expenditure and reinvestment of all moneys received from the conduct
of auxiliary business activities, with the proviso that any net profit
derived from such business activities shall be covered annually into
the Treasury of the United States.
It is the aim to operate the business activities as a whole on a self-
supporting basis and, in general, to include as a charge against their
operations a fixed capital charge of 3 percent as interest on the net
investment. The amount representing charges for interest on invest-
ment is a part of the net profits covered into the Treasury and is in
effect a reimbursement to the United States. The net investment in
business activities totaled $34,161,338.58 on July 1, 1945 and the
capital charge for the fiscal year 1946 was $1,031,554.16 (table No. 20,
sec. V). The net revenue of $876,835.29 fell short of this capital
charge by $154,718.87.






46 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

MECHANICAL AND MARINE WORK

On the basis of revenues received for work accomplished there was
an over-all decrease of 32 percent, in the volume of business performed
by the mechanical division in comparison with the fiscal year 1945.
The first quarter of 1946 saw the activities of the division continuing
at the high level prevailing in 1945, but after the cessation of hostilities
in the Pacific there was a sharp curtailment of the work load. Reve-
nues from the United States Navy which totaled more than $5,000,000
and formed the chief source of income in 1945 (31.3 percent), dropped
to under $2,000,000 in 1946 and comprised only 18.2 percent of the
total revenues. A substantial decline also was recorded in the vol-
ume of work performed for "other Government, departments," which
consisted primarily of repairs to a fleet of special tankers in the Pacific
tanker pool which were based at the Pacific terminal of the Canal for
about a year prior to the cessation of hostilities in the Pacific. These
tankers were withdrawn from the Pacific terminal shortly after the
war ended. Work for the United States Army and commercial inter-
ests also declined in 1946, while that, for The Panama Canal and
Panama Railroad Company was at, substantially the same level as in
the previous year.
Normally work done for the divisions of The Panama Canal organi-
zatmion accounts for approximately 50 percent of the mechanical divi-
sion work load. The past 5 years has seen this decline t.o the low of
16.4 percent of the total in 1945; in the fiscal year 1941 over 58 percent.
of the work load was for Panama Canal divisions.
The following table shows the class and source of work performed
for the past 2 fiscal years:

Grrtos reverue- Class and source

Fiscal year 194'6 Fiscal year 1945

Revenues Revenues Percent
orftotal oftotal

Class:
Maarine................. ............... $7. 946i, S21 73 9 $12, i57, 201 80.5
Railroad ...................... .... .792, 40u 7 4 769. 534 4.9
Fabricated stock.. ......... ...... .. .............. 7476 4.5 497, 142 3.2
Sundries......... . .. .. . ... . 52.3,149 14.2 1.792, 156 11.4
Total... .. ... ............ 1, 751,146 100.0 15,. 716,033 100.0
Origin:
The Panama Canal ..... ......... .... 2,420.752 22 5 2. 587.423 16.4
Panama Railroai Comp3nv ... ......--- ..- 8-3, 005 7.8 21,468 5.3
U. S. Armn ............... ................... 1.324,779 12 3 1, S83,017 11.9
U. S. Navy. ... ......... ... ................. 1, O, 773 18.2 5.005, 773 31.3
Other United St iiirs ill|artnic nl ................. 2,810, 190 26. 2 3,204,870 20.4
Commerci il................. .............. .. 1,3901,617 13 0 2, 210, 482 14.7
Total ..................... ................ 10, 751,146 100.0 15, 716,033 100.0


REPAIRS TO SHIPS

The following statement. shows the number of vessels and the total
"ship-days" for each c(at.egor of vessels repaired at Balboa and
Cristobal for the fiscal year 1940:







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Balboa Cristobal Total
Category
Number Ship Number Ship Number Ship
of ships days of ships days of ships days

Commercial:
Tankers..........----......-..-..-........ -- 428 2,518 430 1,568 858 4,086
Other ................................. 298 1,013 999 3,005 1,297 4,018
U.S. Army .....---------....... ........... 233 2,068 209 1, 285 442 3,353
U. S. Navy. ............................. 219 1,639 226 1, 021 445 2,663
The Panama Canal ....................... 33 63S 88 91.5 121 1,553
Miscellaneous.............. .............. 12 94 11 15V 23 250
Total, 1946 .......................... 1,223 7.970 1,963 7,953 3, 186 15.923
Total, 1945...................... 1,j43 10, 51 2,434 10.959 4,377 21,475

ITotal days consumed in repairing number of ships indicated.

DRYDOCKS AND MARINE RAILWAYS

The following table summarizes drydock and marine-railway opera-
tions during the fiscal year 1946, with comparative figures for the 2
preceding years:
Number of vessels drydocked


Category


U. S. Army----------..-----.......--........-..-------..
U. S. Navy......... ..................
Other United States departments............
Commercial.......----....-----..---...........
Total outside interests.................
The Panama Canal -----.........................
Panama Railroad Company .................
G rand total ............................


Fiscal 3car 19463


Balboa dry-
ducks



24
24
20
126
2


Cristobal lry--
duck. and
marine rail-
ways

35
41
1
22
99
20
1


During the fiscal year 1946 there were 88 times in which one dry
dock was unoccupied for 1 day at Balboa, and 220 times in which
one dry dock or marine railway was unoccupied for 1 clay at Cristobal.

PLANT IMPROVEMENT

At the close of the year the general shop improvement, program,
authorized and begun during 1946, was virtually accomplished, with
only 10 projects remaining to be completed. Additional plant floor
space was provided through the construction of new buildings, removal
of existing facilities to more advantageous locations and the rearrange-
ment of machinery and equipment. There were 388 pieces of new
equipment and machine tools installed and placed in operation during
the year. Work was continued on the installation of 60-cycle power
to serve both shops and ships' service at both terminals. Two floating
dry docks were furnished by the United States Navy to provide
increased dry-docking facilities. One of t.he floating dry docks was
placed in use for a period of only 3 months, the service being discon-
tinued upon removal of special tankers for this area. At the Cristobal
shops a floating pier was constructed and put in use to facilitate ship
repairs.


Fiscal year


Tutal


93
65
25
42
225
37
3


total


121
269
56
54
500
46

546


19-1
total


112
259
47
418
31

449


145 120 265







48 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

ELECTRICAL REPAIR WORK
The principal activities of the electrical division are the operation
and maintenance of the electric light and power system and the
construction and maintenance of electrical facilities as required by
The Panama Canal and other Government agencies, or by vessels
undergoing repairs at the Canal terminals. Personnel employed in
the operation and maintenance of the Panama Railroad-owned tele-
phone, telegraph, electric clock, printing telegraph, and railway signal
systems was transferred to the Panama Railroad organization on
July 1, 1945. Following is a comparison of the two principal classes
of expenditures of the electrical division for the past 3 fiscal years:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Electrical construction and maintenance work-............... $1,06,426 $2,339,477 $2,863,306
Maintenance and operation of:
Electric power system .................-- ................ 1,061,305 1,173,630 1,039,388
Telephone system and railway signals...... ............. .............. 243, 180 266,424

Among the principal projects of electrical work carried on during
the year were the wiring of newly constructed gold and silver quarters,
the wiring of silver high schools, and the installation of 60-cycle equip-
ment in the mechanical division shops area at Balboa.
Information concerning the principal construction projects under-
taken and the operation of the power system are given on page 30 of
this report, under the general heading of "Canal operation." The
expenditures shown above include interdepartmental transactions.
As an example, maintenance and repairs on the power system are
performed by the electric work unit and the cost of this work is there-
fore included in the expenses of both the power system and the electric
work unit.
PURCHASES AND INSPECTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
The principal purchases of supplies for The Panama Canal were
made, a:s heretofore, through the Washington office of The Panama
Canal; the volume of the purchases is indicated by the following table:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Number of purchase orders placed..--------------------....------ 8,206 9,643 8,931
Value of orders placed........................................ $6,355,766 $7, 414,466 $5, 418,842
Number of disbursement vouchers prepared.---------... --.--. ----- 17,514 13,369 20,884
Value of above vouchers-------..-...---.---...--....--...-------........----.-- $9,935,612 $7,660,469 $11,352,061
Number of collection vouchers prepared-------------............ --. ------- 476 519 708
Value of above vouchers................ ..........-----......---- $1,333,763 $1,685,657 $2,206,937
Cash discounts taken-............................ ............ $36,152 $32, 603 $40,757

STOREHOUSES AND SHIP CHANDLERY
In addition to the main function of requisitioning, storing and issuing
general supplies for the Canal and Railroad (exclusive of the mer-
chandising operations of the commissary division) the Panama Canal
storehouses sell ship chandlery and other supplies to commercial






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


shipping as well as to units of the United States Army and Navy.
The following figures indicate the volume of material and supplies
cleared through the stores accounts during the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944


General storehouses
Gross revenues, sales and issues-............................... $9,878,899
Cost of materials, plus operating expense...................... 9,878,899


Net revenues-----........------.. ----.....--...........--------- --- ..- -
Inventory as of June 30 1.......... ......... ...........


0
$9,523,446


$12,497,371
12,456,774
40,597
$8,960, 137


$17,040, 252
16,997,995
42, 257
$10,834,536


I This includes all material and supplies of The Panama Canal, by far the greater part of which is in the
general storehouse.

OBSOLETE AND UNSERVICEABLE PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

During the year disposition was made by sale, or by destruction
where the items had no money value, of obsolete or unserviceable
property and equipment which had an original value of $634,035.
Replacements were made as necessary.

BULK PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

All deliveries of fuel oil, Diesel oil, gasoline, and kerosene to and
from storage tanks, for private companies and for the Panama Canal,
and some deliveries for the United States Navy, are made through
pipe lines and pumping plants of the Panama Canal. The following
table summarizes the operation of the oil handling plants for the past
3 years:

Fiscal s ear

1946 1945 1944

Fuel and Diesel oil: Barrels Barrels Barrels
Received by The Panama Canal...- .........----- ..-- ......--- 331.016 435.684 505,950
Used by The Panama Canal......................----------.....----------------. 317, 846 372,721 411,491
Sold by The Panama Canal.............................. 19, 506 24,124 29,346
Miscellaneous transfers on tank farms..-..------------ -------- 16, 693 27, 893 24. 643
Pumped for outside interests. -....---....----.--.---............----------.....-.. 30,081,448 32, 156, 533 23, 659,364
Total barrels handled.---------...---......-----......----------........... 30,766. 509 33,016,955 24, 630, 794
Handled at Mount Hope (Atlantic side)..-----..----.....---- 19,286.943 14, 211,063 11,886,897
Handled at Balboa (Pacific side).................-----------........ -----------11,479, 566 18, 805,892 12, 743,897
Total barrels handled......------------...............------------.......-----... 30, 766.509 33,016,955 24, 630,794
Number of ships discharging or receiving fuel and Diesel oil:
Panama Canal craft.....------------------..---..............----------------...... 250 290 215
All others..--- --.. -------------......-..--------....-.......... 3,655 3,370 2,431
Total. ---------.-------------------------------............................. 3,905 3,660 2,646
Gasoline and kerosene received:
By The Panama Canal: Gallons Gallons Gallons
Bulk gasoline---.----------------.....-----......................----------.... 11,665,836 12,578,076 11,162,293
Bulk kerosene..--------.--------.......------------............---2,950,773 2,655,954 2,612,310
By outsiders:
Bulk gasoline----------------------------------.............. 29,399,902 23,001,664 31,496,430
Bulk kerosene---------------------------------- 6,242,856 3,427,913 1,709, 148
Financial results of operations:
Total revenues....----------------------------------....... $2, 101,440 $1, 583,027 1,548,701
Total expenditures (including cost of sales).--.-------.....-----.... 2,042, 160 1,328,820 1, 179, 789
Net revenues---..-----------------------................................... 59,280 254, 207 368,12






50 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

BUILDING'CONSTRUCTION AND; MAINTENANCE

The program of construction under way at. the end of the fiscal year
1945 was continued in 1946.
The principal projects of building construction for The Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad Company completed by the building
division of The Panama Canal are shown in the following paragraphs.
Unless otherwise specified, the projects listed are new buildings:
Ancon-Balbna.-One type 104 and seven type 112 family quarters;
paint shop facilities, mechanical division; storage building No. 3,
mechanical division; utility and dispensary buildings for the health
department; and alterations and extensions to the Ancon Clubhouse
restaurant.
Red Tanik.-Dispensary building and additions to the junior high
school.
Pedro Aiguel.-Three locomotive pit shelters at the Pedro Miguel
locks.
Paraiso.-School building; three frame quarters; and five masonry
quarters.
Afargarita.-One type 102 quarters building.
Gat iun.-Locomot ive pit shelter.
In addition t.o the principal projects listed above, which were com-
pleted during the year for The Panama Canal and the Panama Rail-
road Company, work was performed for the Army and Navy and for
employees.
The volume of operations totaled $4,268,083, an increase of $446,000
over the previous year. Work for the Army and Navy was about
$300,000 less than in the previous year but this was more than offset
by repair and maintenance work for Canal divisions and new quarters
construction. Work performed for employees remained at about the
same level as the previous year. The cost. of maintenance and repair
work performed during the fiscal year 1946 aggregated $1,663,938, of
which $601,858 was expended on maintenance of quarters occupied
by gold employees and $203,918 on maintenance of quarters occupied
by silver employees; the balance of $858,162 was spent on all other
maintenance work performed by the building division.
The total volume of construction and maintenance work for the
past 3 years is summarized as follows:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

For Canal divisions:
Repair and maintenance work................ ............ I 122 $829,119 $809,360
Construction work ............................... . 2. 146. 21 1,717,455 3, 101,859
For the Pauania Hailroint (C iiiuiany:
Repair and maintertnancx work. .......................... 127, 32 95. 424 71,888
Construction work............ ... ........ ....... 136r. 222 119,522 81,233
For other deparItments of the iovIrn1in nrit, ,uniplovyes, and
others ............................................ ..... 672. 866 1,060,560 1,841,357
otanl.................................... .......... 4, 268,083 3, 822,080 5, 905,697
T' trial rnainitrnance.............. .. ... ... ..... .... ........ 1,663, 938 1, 274,637 1, 183,685
T'Ital coustruction...... ... .... .................. ....... 2.604,145 2,547,443 4,722,112
Total............ ...- ...-............ ......... ......... 4,268,083 3,822,080 5,905,697





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 51

QUARTERS FOR EMPLOYEES
Gold efmployees.-Replacement construction of quarters, which was
discontinued in 1943, was resumed during 1946. Sixteen apartments
in two-family houses were completed in the Ancon-Balboa district.
One cottage at Margarita was completed and at Cristobal the con-
struction of 34 apartments in two-family houses was well advanced
at the close of the year. Several condemned quarters, the inainte-
nance of which is paid for by the occupants, are still in use. Under
existing regulations employees are required to have an assignment to
family quarters before permission is granted for their families to come
to the Canal Zone.
On June 30, 1945, there were 243 applications for family quarters
from regular employees in all districts, and on June 30, 1946, 121 were
on file, a decrease of 122 from the previous year. A gradual discon-
tinuance of wartime activities and the consequent reduction in the
number of employees constitutes the main factor in this reduction in
the number of applications.
No changes were made in the general regulations governing assign-
ment and rental of quarters to American employees.
Silver employees.-The operation of quarters for silver employees
was continued on substantially the same basis as in previous years.
Construction of experimental types of housing units, representing a
marked improvement, in facilities for this group of employees, was
started during t.he year. Ten buildings containing 26 apartments were
comIpleted at Silver City and 8 buildings containing 22 apartments
were complete at. Parnaiso. The development of new types has been
a matter of continual study throughout, the year. The laborers' bar-
racks at. Gatun remained closed. The remaining barracks building
in use at Cocoli will be closed shortly after the beginning of the fiscal
year 1947 when the occupants thereof will be transferred to quarters
at La Boca which will become vacant because of the repatriation of
contract laborers.
The demand for quarters for silver employees is still far in excess of
supply. As of June 30, 1946, there were 903 applications on file for
family quarters and 857 applications for bachelor quarters, a total of
1,760 as compared with 2,292 on file June 30, 1945.
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
The motor transportation division is charged with the operation
and maintenance of motor transportation for the departments and
divisions of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company.
The centralization of transportation facilities in this division and the
requirement that it be operated on a self-sustaining basis have been
primarily for the purpose of supplying needed transportation at
minimum cost to The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company.
Repair work is also performed for employees and for contractors en-
gaged in work for the Government in the Canal Zone.
The public transportation system of privately owned busses under
the supervision and control of the motor transportation division,
continued to carry employees and their families in and between the
various towns in the Canal Zone; 150 busses were operating in this
service as of June 30, 1946.





52 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Revenues of the division during the past year, including motor car
repair shop activities, totaled $1,919,690, and the expenses $1,905,180
which left a net revenue of $14,510.
In the fiscal year 1946, 7 cars and trucks, 1 trailer and 2 motorcycles
were purchased, and 16 cars and trucks were retired. At the close of
the fiscal year 842 cars and trucks, 35 trailers, and 7 motorcycles were
on hand.
PANAMA CANAL PRESS
The operations of the Panama Canal Press were continued under
the same policies as heretofore. The printing plant carries stocks of
materials, and prints such forms, stationery, etc., as are required on
the Isthmus in connection with the operation of The Panama Canal
and the Panama Railroad Company.
The following is a summary of the financial operations of this plant
during the past 3 years:

Fiscal year-
1916 1945 1944
Oross sales revenues ................... .................... $-75,757 $518, 594 $492,782
Total expenses (including cost of materials used in manufac-
turing and cost of stationery sturs not processed)-.......... 405.375 506,347 486,730
Net revenues...-.. .................................... 10,382 12,247 6,052


SUBSISTENCE
The subsistence section, which was set up on May 1, 1941, to pro-
vide meals for contract laborers brought to the Isthmus in connection
with the large construction program, continued under the same
policies as in the previous year. Operations were on a larger scale
than in 1945 because of the necessity of further expanding operations
in the mechanical division early in the fiscal year 1946. The La Boca,
Gamboa, Camp Bierd, and Cocoli messes were in operation throughout
the year, but it is expected that the Cocoli mess will be closed early in
the fiscal year 1947.
In the fiscal year 1946 a total of 4,155,186 meals or 1,385,062 rations
were served by this unit, an increase of 42 percent in comparison with
the number served in 1945. The ration cost was $0.443 per day in
the fiscal year 1946 as compared with $0.413 in the fiscal year 1945.

REVENUES DERIVED FROM THE RENTAL OF LANDS
IN THE CANAL ZONE
Rentals for building sites and oil-tank sites in the Canal Zone
totaled $23,942 for the year as compared with $35,162 for the fiscal
year 1945. Rentals from agricultural land in the Canal Zone totaled
$7,097 as compared with $7,755 for the preceding year. At the close
of the fiscal year 687 licenses were in effect, covering 1,346 hectares of






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


agricultural land within the Canal Zone. This is a reduction of 41 in
the number of licenses as compared with the previous fiscal year and
a reduction in the area held under licenses of 70,1 hectares. This
reduction is largely the result of the policy adopted as a health measure
in May 1935, that no more licenses for agricultural land would be
issued and that holdings under licenses previously granted shall not
be sold or transferred.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS UNDER THE PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY
The Panama Railroad Company was incorporated in 1849 under
the laws of the State of New York for the purpose of constructing and
operating a railroad across the Isthmus. When the concession, rights,
and property of the New French Canal Co. were purchased in 1904,
ownership of the stock of the Panama Railroad Company was trans-
ferred to the United States Government. Since the acquisition of the
railroad by the United States, its corporate status has been preserved
and the railroad has continued to function as a common carrier.
At the beginning of Canal construction work, by Executive order
of the President of the United States, the Panama Railroad Company
was made an adjunct to The Panama Canal. Its operations are
supervised by a board of directors functioning under the direction of
the Secretary of War. As the operations of the railroad complement
.those of the Canal, the policy has been for the board of directors to
elect the Governor of The Panama Canal as president of the Panama
Railroad Company. Thus, the Governor of The Panama Canal is the
administrative head of the Panama Railroad Company. This prac-
tice has insured complete coordination of the activities conducted by
the two organizations.
As the activities of the Railroad Company are covered in detail in
its annual report, only the major features of operation as they relate
to Canal administration are covered in this section.
In addition to the operations of the trans-Isthniian railroad, the
business enterprises conducted by the Panama Railroad Company
include the following: The loading, unloading, storage, and transfer
of cargo for shipping interests at, the terminal ports; the operation of
wholesale warehouses, retail stores, and subsidiary manufacturing
plants engaged in the supply of food, clothing, and other essential
commodities to governmental agencies and to Government employees
and their families; and the operation of coaling plants, hotels, a dairy,
and a laundry.
TRANS-IBTHMIAN RAILROAD
The railroad line operates between Colon, the Atlantic terminus,
and Panama City, the Pacific terminus. In addition to those cities,
the railroad serves all nearby activities of The Panama Canal. Gross
revenues from the operations of the railroad proper (not including
subsidiary business activities) during the fiscal year 1946 amounted
to $3,177,256. Revenue freight totaled 539,292 tons, as compared
with 590,610 tons during 1945, a decrease of 51,318 tons.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Comparative statistics covering the significant features of railroad
operations during the past 3 years are presented in the following table:


Fiscal year

1940 1945 1944

Average miles operated, Colon to Panama-............... 50.93 50.93 47.61
Gross operaLing revenue ................... ................... $3, 177,256 $3,244,226 $3,520,081
Number of passengers carried:
First-class............................. 336,610 352, 191 358,907
Second-class......................-............. ---..--. 444,899 429, 627 487. 840
Total......-----------.. -----.--------..........----------. ---------- 781, 509 781818 846,747
Revenue per passenger-train-mile .................. ... -$. 52 $5.55 $5.79
Revenue per freight-train-mile-............................... $23. 69 $19. 57 $16.30
Passenger train mileage -----.....----......------- .-.. --... .----.------------. 150. 170 1.. 412 161,836
Freight train mileage-.......................-- ........... 139. S79 155, 938 208,277
Work train mileage-- ......................................... f. C05 6, 633 4,079
Total train mileac -e.... .e... -.. . .... .29,714 314,983 374, 192
Switch locorumotive miles. ............. .... ....... .. . ... IiN. 225 180,279 232,933


RECEIVING AND FORWARDING AGENCY

This division handles the dock and harbor activities of the Panama
Railroad Company at the two terminals of the Canal. The following,
statistics summarize the results of operations for the pnst 3 years:


Fiscal year

194Fl 1945 1944

Total revenue-. .............. ..... .- ....--.- -----......- $2,495, 292 $2, 838.626 $3, 364,189

Tnnr Tons Tons
Total cargo handled and transfrr rl ross dock ......... 1,237,155 1,374,679 1,734,556
Cargo stevedored by Panamna H:Lill'ad.l Compasny. 404, 103 444,476 673,209
Cargo ships handled ............ ---..-........-- .--.... 2, 363 2,533 1,767
Agency services furnished vessels. .................... 137 99 50


COALING PLANTS

The volume of coaling plant operations at Cristobal and Balboa
for the past 3 years is shown in the following table:


Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Gross revenues.....----------------..................---------------............---------............ $668,375 $927,391 1.,308.907

Tons Tons Tons
Coal sold ---. ............................................. ... 32,528 43,627 59,750
Coal purchased............................................... 31, 122 42,279 53,282






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TELEPHONE SYSTEM

Gross revenues received from the operation of telephones, electric-
clocks, and electric printing telegraph machines totaled $386,496.
During the year 1,467 telephones were installed or reconnected and
1,874 were discontinued or removed, resulting in a net decrease of 407
telephones for the year. At the end of the fiscal year 1946 there were
in service 5,267 telephones, as well as 55 electric clocks and 44 auto-
matic printing telegraph typewriters. Telephone calls handled
through the automatic exchanges averaged 110,262 calls per day in
1946 and 127,681 per day in 1945 during the sample clays tested.
This represents an average of 20.9 calls per telephone per day in 1946,
as compared with 22.5 in 1945.

COMMISSARY DIVISION

The primary function of the commissary division of the Panama
Railroad Company is to supply at reasonable prices food, clothing,
and household supplies to meet the needs of United States Govern-
ment personnel and the various United States Government depart-
ments on the Isthmus. In carrying out this function the division
operates wholesale warehouses and cold-storage plants as well as retail
stores in each of the Canal Zone towns. Sales are restricted to agen-
cies and personnel of the United States Government, except that ice,
cold storage, food, and other essentials may be purchased by commer-
cial steamships passing through the Canal or calling at its terminal
ports.
SALES

Net sales for the fiscal year 1946 totaled $37,126,703, compared
with $38,134,705 for the previous fiscal year. The value of merchan-
dise on hand June 30, 1946, was $4,391,680 compared with $3,794,231
at the close of the fiscal year 1945. The ratio of sales to inventory
indicates a theoretical stock turn-over approximately every 8% weeks.
The distribution of sales for the past 3 fiscal years is shown in the
following table:

Fiscal year-

194f 194.5 1944

U. S. Government (Army and Navy)....................... $2. S4, 043 $4. S07, 204 $9, 793,040
The Panama Canal ................... .......... -.... ... 3,9 ,7 3, 919.390 4,170,701
The Panama Railroad-.....--..------------...--........---------..--------.......-.... 435. 30 409, 118 419,719
Idlidi luals and companies ................. .4. ............ 164,454 1 60,284 2 072, 333
Commercial ships.......................................... 5. 766, 24 5,271,972 1. 596.607
Employees.................... ................... ....... 24,263,250 23.473. 518 23 183,746
Gross sales .................... .. ......................... 38.405, 39, 441, 486 41. 236, 146
Less discuunts, credits. etc-................... .. .. .......... 1 743 7 1, 306, 7"1 2.015,719
Net sales............. ...... ................--............ 37, 126. 703 3. 134,705 39,220, 427






56 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

PURCHASES

Purchases during the year aggregated $31,339,418, an increase of
$1,519,944 over the previous year. The following tabulation shows
the value of the various classes of merchandise purchased for the past
3 years:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Groceries................. ................. ................ $8,026,090 $8,277,928 $8,264,247
Candies and tobacco ......................................... 1,078,020 1,055,372 1, 185,909
Housewares............. ......................... ............ 1,603,321 1,414, 161 1,508,613
Drygoods..................... ......... .4.. ... ...... 4,872, 129 4,233, 129 3,507,543
Shoes................................ ....................... 1,764,736 1,374,896 1,431,202
Cold storage.----------............................... ................ 7,399, 124 7, 198,676 9,319,656
Raw m aterial................................................. 1,917,218 1,895,271 1,881,940
Cattle--....... ...... ... ....... ...... .... .. ..... ......... 1,062,968 1,266,479 1,478,063
M ilk and cream ..................................... ........ 384,539 423,384 361,327
Dairy products-------.......------.....---...---.....---------. .-----.......-.. 3,231,273 2,680,178 3,635,199
Total................................. ......... 31,339,418 29,819,474 32,563,699

HOTELS

The Hotels Tivoli and Washington were operated by the Panama
Railroad Company without change of policy during the year. These
hotels are an essential adjunct to the Canal, providing necessary
accommodations for foreign visitors, American tourists, visiting
Government officials, and others.
The gross revenue from hotels was $994,341, as compared with
$992,879 in 1945, and the number of guest days was 102,632 compared
with 98,516 in 1945.
MIND DAIRY

The operation of the Mindi Dairy continued as in previous years.
Milk production for the year was 473,387 gallons, compared with
482,296 gallons in the preceding year, a decrease of 8,909 gallons.
Fresh milk is furnished to the hospitals and, on doctors' prescriptions,
to invalids, infants, and nursing mothers. The surplus remaining
after these needs are met is available for purchase by employees, units
of the Canal and Railroad organizations, and Army and Navy units
stationed on the Isthmus.

PANAMA LINE

The Panama Railroad Company's steamship interests, the Panama
Line, continued inactive insofar as normal operations of its service
between New York and the Canal Zone were concerned. During
the year, however, the Line's three combination passenger-cargo
steamers Panama, Cristobal, and Ancon were returned to their owner
after serving several years in direct war service of the United States
Government. The Panama, which was taken over by the War De-
partment in June 1941, was returned to the Line on May 15, 1946,
and the Ancon and Cristobal, relinquished for direct war service in






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


January 1942, were returned February 25, 1946, and June 14, 1946,
respectively. The vessels suffered no major damage during the war
period. The Panama and Cristobal were operated by the United
States Army as troop transports while the Ancon after being utilized
as a troop transport, for a short period was converted by the United
States Navy into a communications and command ship. At the
end of the year, the three vessels were undergoing repairs and general
reconditioning preparatory to resuming their normal service between
New York and the Canal Zone. It is expected that the Panama will
be in its regular prewar run by September 1946, and that the Ancon
and Cristobal will follow later in the year.
The restoration of these vessels to their prewar service will bring
long-awaited relief to the employees of The Panama Canal and the
Panama Railroad Company who, in the past 5 years, have lacked
adequate transportation between the Isthmus and the United States.
During this period the majority of these employees and their families
have remained on the Isthmus far beyond the time when, in the
interests of their health, efficiency and morale, a change from the
Tropics to a temperate climate was advisable.


725661-47--5









SECTION III


ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENTS
The organization of The Panama Canal on the Isthmus embraces
five principal departments, namely, operation and maintenance,
supply, accounting, executive, and health. In addition, an office of
The Panama Canal is maintained in Washington, D. C. The Panama
Railroad Company, a Government-owned corporation conducting
business enterprises on the Isthmus, is a distinct unit, but it is closely
affiliated with and operated as an adjunct to The Panama Canal.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
The department. of operation and maintenance includes the man-
agement functions and those directly involved in the operation and
maintenance of the Canal as a waterway, including the dredged
channel, locks, dams, aids to navigation, accessory activities such as
shops and drydocks, vessel inspection, electrical and water supply,
sewer systems, roads and streets, hydrographic observations, surveys
and estimates, and miscellaneous construction other than the erection
of buildings. Construction of the third locks, now in a suspended
status, and investigation of means of increasing the capacity and
security of the Panama Canal also are included in this department.

SUPPLY
The supply department is charged with the acquisition, storage,
and distribution of materials and supplies for The Panama Canal and
Railroad; the maintenance and construction of buildings; the assign-
ment of living quarters; care of grounds; the opera tion of storehouses,
oil handling plants, an experiment garden, and a printing plant; the
supplying of motor transportation facilities for the various depart-
ments and divisions of the Canal and Railroad organizations; and the
operation of messes for contract labor.

AccoUNTING
The accounting department is responsible for the correct, recording
of financial transactions of the Canal and Railroad; the administrative
auditing of vouchers covering the receipt and disbursement of"funds
preliminary to the final audit by the General Accounting Office; cost
keeping of Canal and Railroad; the preparation of estimates for
appropriations; and the examination of claims.

EXECUTIVE
The executive department embraces the civil government, functions
including the administration of police and fire protection, postal
service, customs, shipping commissioner duties, estates, schools and,






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


in addition, the general correspondence and records of The Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad Company, the personnel administration,
wage adjustments, general information, relations with Panama, and
the operation of clubhouses, restaurants, and moving picture theaters.

HEALTH
The health department has jurisdiction over all matters pertaining
to sanitation and public health within the Canal Zone and the cities
of Panama and Colon, the operation of hospitals and dispensaries,
and the enforcement of (quarantine regulations.

PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY
The operations of the Panama Railroad Conipany on the Isthmus
are carried on as an adjunct to The Panama Canal. As the Governor
of The Panama Canal is also president of the Panama Railroad
Company, the heads of all departments, both of the Canal and
Railroad organizations, report to him.

CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
Lt. Comdr. W'. C. Bat.helt, United States Naval Reserve, was ap-
pointed assistant to the marine superintendent on August 8, 1945,
vice Lt. Comdr. A. W. Weir, United States Naval Reserve, relieved
from duty with The Panama Canal.
Col. G. Mi. Powell, United States Army, was appointed assistant
chief health officer on August 13, 1945, vice Col. Albert R. Dreisbach,
United States Army, relieved from duty with The Panama Canal.
Mr. Vincent J. Clarke was appointed general manager, commissary
division, on September 27, 1945, vice Mr. Arthur W. Goulet, deceased.
Mr. J. Wendell Greene was appointed paymaster, The Panama
Canal, on October 1, 1945, vice Mr. James H. Smith, retired.
Col. James G. Steese, United States Army (retired), was appointed
assistant to the Governor, November 13, 1945.
Col. Richardson Selee, United States Army, was appointed assistant
engineer of maintenance on November 13, 1945, vice Col. James G.
Steese, United States Army (retired), appointed assistant to the
Governor.
Mfr. W. B. Heite was appointed superintendent, motor transporta-
tion division, on January 1, 1946, vice Mr. Samuel Grier, retired.
Dr. C. C. Clay was appointed manager, Mindi Dairy, on March 1,
1946, vice Dr. T. L. Casserly, retired.
Col. Hugh A. Kelly, Army of the United States, military assistant
to the Governor, was relieved from duty with The Panama Canal on
April 22, 1946.
Mfr. W. B. Jones was appointed chief of customs and deputy
shipping commissioner, Port of Balboa, on May 1, 1946, vice Mr.
H. C. Ingersoll, retired.
Mr. J. T. Glancy was appointed chief of customs and deputy
shipping commissioner, Port, of Cristobal, on May 1, 1946, vice Mr.
W. B. Jones appointed chief of customs and deputy shipping commis-
sioner, Port of Balboa.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Col. J. H. Stratton, United States Army, was appointed supervising
engineer, special engineering division, May 6, 1946.
Commander H. H. Home, United States Naval Reserve, was ap-
pointed assistant to the marine superintendent on May 19, 1946,
vice Lt. Comdr. W. C. Bathelt, United States Naval Reserve, relieved
from duty with The Panama Canal.
CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
TELEPHONE AND SIGNAL DIVISION
Effective July 1, 1945, there was established the telephone and signal
division of the Panama Railroad Company under the immediate super-
vision and direction of the electrical engineer, Panama Railroad Com-
pany. Effective the same date, the organization and personnel of
the telephone section and railway signals units of the electrical division
of The Panama Canal were transferred to the telephone and signal
division of the Panama Railroad Company.

PAY ROLL BUREAU
Effective July 1, 1945 a pay-roll bureau was established in the
executive department under the direction of the executive secretary.
The function of the pay-roll bureau is to prepare such pay rolls of
The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company as are assigned
to it and to perform such other duties related thereto as may be re-
quired.
EMPLOYEES
The force employed by The Panama Canal and the Panama Rail-
road Company is composed of two classes which for local convenience
have been designated "gold" and "silver" employees. The terms
"gold" employees and "silver" employees originated during the con-
struction period of the Canal from the practice of paying in silver
coin common laborers and other unskilled or semiskilled workers
employed in the Tropics, while skilled craftsmen and those occupying
executive, professional, and similar positions were paid in gold coin,
the latter group being recruited largely from the United States.
Although all employees are now paid in United States currency, the
original terms used to designate the two classes of employees have
been retained for convenience. The terms "gold" and "silver" are
applied also to quarters, commissaries, clubhouses, and other public
facilities.
Thle gold employees-that is, those carried on the gold pay roll-
comprise those employees who are engaged in the skilled trades and
in the executive, supervisory., professional, su professional, clerical,
and other positions where education, training, and special qualifica-
tions are required. The force of silver employees is composed almost
entirely of natives of the Tropics, a considerable number of whom are
Panamanians. They are employed principally as laborers, helpers,
and semiskilled workers on work which does not require the services of
highly trained or qualified persons.
Responsibility for personnel administration. in Thie Panama Canal
is vested in the division of personnel supervision and management,
executive department.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 61


GOLD EMPLOYEES

The distribution of the gold personnel on June 28, 1946 and on
June 30, 1945, is shown in the following tabulation:


A, of
Increase Decrease
June 28, June 30.
1946 1945

THE PANAMA CANAL

Accounting department.......... ......... 2. .3 288 ...... . 5
Dredging division....... .. --- .- 316 348 ...... .. 32
Gravel plant............ ........... ................ 3 3
Thatcher Ferry....................... 31 23 8 .
Electric power system............. ...... ..... 54 53 1
Electric work ......... .... ... .. .. . 177 291 . ... 114
Locks division............. ................... .. 359 302 57
M marine division........... .. ...... .. 242 247 ........ 5
Mechanical division .... .................. ... ... 478 1, 859 .. .. 981
Meteorology and hydrography..... .. .... 1 10 1 ---------
Municipal work................ ... ... . .. 172 162 10
Sosa Hill quarry.. ........ ......... 6 5 ---------
W ater system . ............. .4............... 4 4 ...... 2
Office engineering... ...... ....... ....Ill 99 12 ---------
Special engineering division (third locks).. ...... .- 132 31 101 --------
Offices of:
Governor........... .... 4 4 .. . .. ...---------
Com ptroller....... ............... ... ... ... ... 6 1 . --
Engineer of maintenance.......... ................ 12 11 1
Assistant engineer of maintenance ........ .. 4 .. 4
Executive secretary ...-...-......... .. . ... 5 3
General counsel ................-. .-. 4 5 "1
Aeronautics section.............. ....... 5 3 2 ...--------5 3
Civil affairs division ...........2. ... . ..- -2 42 20 ..------
Clubhouses.............- .- ........ 103 133 .-.... 30
Collector..................................... ....... 20 19' 1
Correspondence and records.. .. ..... 5 ........ 9 44 5 -----
Library ......... ..... ........... 10 1 2 ..-
License bureau ........ .. ........................ 5 .. 3
M agistrates' courts ................... .......8 6 2 ---------
Paym aster.................... ......... . ...... 18 16 2
Pay-roll bureau -. ......- -... .... 32 25 7
Personnel division....... ...... ....... ... .. Il.l 122 11
Police section (including civil intelligence) ..... ...... 243 235 8 ...------
Fire section ............ ....... ............. 78 75 3
Bureau of posts ......... ... ... .. 173 73 100 -------
Schools division....... ............ .. 133 125 8 -----
Physical education and recreation.. 22 26 .... .. 4
Building division...... .....2.. .. 172 56 .-----
Buildings and grounds... ............... 6 ....... 1
Gasoline stations ........... .... 2...... . . 2 1 1 ..
Motor transportation. ... . .. .... .. ... 199 192 7
Oil-handling plants. -..---- --. ..- .-.- - ... 54 50 4 ...
Panama Canal Press.......... ....... .................. 16 14 2
Quarters, subsistence. ................... ..... ........ 10 8 2
Storehouses.. ..........-. . .........---.- 119 115 4 ........
Sanitation:
Gorgas Hospital. .......... ..... .. 333 339 . ..... .. 6
AU other units.................... 287 304 . ... 17

Total, The Panama Canal .......... ... .. 5,239 6,029 429 1,219
N et decrease ....790............... ............. .. ............ .... 790
PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY

General manager.. ............... .. ...... 132 121 11 .....- -
Receiving and forwarding agency. ..................... 117 120 ......... 3
Commissary division........................ ....... 362 349 13
Mindi Dairy .... .......................... .... 5 5 .
H otels...... ......................... .......... ..... 27 22 5 ........
Telephone and signal division............. ....... 36 39 ........ 3

Total, Panama Railroad Company..... 679 656 29 G
Net increase.......... ............................. .. ....... .23 .........
Total force.................. ............ 5,918 6,685 458 1,225
Net decrease.................................................. .. ......... .. ..767

NOTE.-The above distribution has been revised to conform with the budgetary classification adopted
July 1, 1945.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


A reduction of 767, or 11.5 percent, occurred in the over-all gold
force as compared with the number employed on June 30, 1945. The
principal reductions were in the electric work unit, down 39 percent;
the mechanical division. down 53 percent; clubhouses, down 23 per-
cent; and the dredging division, down 9 percent. Opposing this trend
were increases in four divisions. The force of the locks division in-
creased 19 percent largely through the necessity of employing per-
sonnel to guard the locks, a function previously performed by the
Army. The increase of 101 employees for the special engineering
division was due to the initiation of studies during the year on investi-
gations of means for increasing the capacity and security of the Pan-
ama Canal. The increase of 100 in the bureau of posts resulted from
the return to civilian control during the year of 13 Army and Navy
post offices. Resumption of building programs which had been inter-
- erupted by the war resulted in an increase of 56 in the force of the
Building Division.

RECRUITING AND TURN-OVER OF FORCE-GOLD EMPLOYEES

The following table shows additions to and separations from the
gold force of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company
during the fiscal year 1946:


Additions................... ................... .................
Separations:
Resignation .................... .. ....
To enter military service. .... ........... .-...-. .-.-. .
Reduction in force......... ........ .. ...........- .......
Termination of temporary employment or reassignment....
R em oval for cause................. .. .................. .. ..
Retirement:
Age ..................... ............. . .
D disability ............. ....... ........ ... ... . .
O optional ..... i -------------------------- -- -- --
Disability-not qualified fur retirement --.........
Inefficiency .. .....................................
Transfer (to other departnientsof G Iovernment).........
Disqualified in trial period.......... ..... .......... ..
Death................................. .
Total separations .. . .
Net separations.................. ... .. ........
Net additions --------.......... ........ ...


Panama
Canal


I. 501
thi)
4933
19S
75
57
13
27
13
4
22
2
12
2.483
642


Panama
Railroad

200

137
4
6
4
5
14
3
.. ... .... ... .
I
5
181
..............


.. 19


Total


2,041

1,638
70
499
202
80
71
16
28
13
4
23
3
17
2. 664
623
. . . .


NOTE.-The above figures di not i include 156 terminations of employees on part-time or irregular basis, or
6 terminations of American citizens on the silver roll.


As the figures of net separations in the table above were taken from
the weekly personnel reports, which usually lag a week or 10 days
behind the actual termination dates, there is a difference of 144 in
the number of net separations and the net decrease in force as shown
on page 61. The actual net. decrease in force was 767 as shown on
page 61.
Based on an average aggregate gold force of 6,198 for the period
covered, the 2,664 separations from all causes shown in the foregoing
table represIhnt a turn-over of 43 percent, as compared with 25 per-
cent reported for 1945. When separations by reassignment or expira-





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


tion of temporary employment are excluded, the turn-over rate is
39.7 percent for 1946 as compared with 23.8 percent for 1945; and
when separations due to reduction of force are also excluded, the rate
for 1946 is 31.7 percent as compared with 22 percent for 1945.
Employment.-Of the 2,041 additions to the force during the fiscal
year, 810 were employed or reemployed in the United States; of this
number 736 were employed by The Panama Canal and 74 by the
Panama Railroad Company. Due to the cutting back of United
States recruitment at the time hostilities terminated in August 1945,
the number of local employment was greater than the number ap-
pointed in the United States. With the suspension or cancelation of
many requisitions after August. 15, it was expected that. recruitment
and employment, except for veteran restoration, would drop to a low
level; however, this expectation was not realized due largely to the
increase in the rate of turn-over during the period from September
1945 through May 1946. Although the manpower controls of the
War 1Manpower Commission and the Civil Service Commission were
relaxed in September 1945, and selective service inductions were
limited to low-age groups, recruitment in the United States has been
very difficult, particularly in securing well-qualified craft personnel.
During the year there were 465 veteran restorations.
At the close of the fiscal year 1946, there were requisitions for 259
employment pending, including 71 for restoration of returning vet-
erans. These unfilled requisitions were largely for the schools division,
the health department, the mechanical division, and the special
engineering division.
For appointments made during the year, the time interval between
date of nomination and arrival of the employee on the Isthmus
averaged 50 days. Although the relaxation of manpower controls
and the simplification of employment procedures following the end
of hostilities tended to reduce the time lapse, arrivals in general were
unduly delayed throughout the year as the result of increasing diffi-
culties in obtaining air transportation to the Isthmus. It was neces-
sary during 1946 to rely almost entirely on transportation by plane
from the United States, and the revocation of priority regulations on
air travel made it more and more difficult to get reservations in
competition with the steadily expanding traffic, tourist and otherwise,
moving between the United States and points in Central and South
America by commercial air carriers. It is expected that the trans-
portation problem will be eased early in 1947, when the Panama Line
steamers are returned to active service.
ADJUSTMENT IN WAGES AND HOURS OF WORK
Major salary and wage changes that became effective during the
fiscal year 1946 provided increases for the following: Classified and
related employees; postal employees; policemen and firemen; school
teachers; floating-equipment personnel; printing plant employees;
personnel of the transportation division of the Panama Railroad
Company; and craft employees whose rates were based on naval
shipyard rates.
The 48-hour administrative workweek established January 1, 1943,
was discontinued September 8, 1945, and an administrative 40-hour
week was placed in effect September 9. 1945.








64 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


SILVER EMPLOYEES

The following table shows a comparison between the silver force of
The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company on June 28,1946,
and June 30, 1945. The data include all full-time employees carried
on the pay roll even though absent from work on the given day.
Part-time employees numbering 38 on June 28, 1946, and 150 on
June 30, 1945, are not included.


As of-
-- Increase Decrease
June 28, 1946 June 30, 1945
- - - - -


THE PANAMA CANAL

Accounting department...........................
Dredging division................... ..............
Gravel plant .. .......................
T hatcher Ferry .......... ........................
Electric power system .........................
Electric work ................ ............ ... ...
Locks division.. ....... ............ ........
Marine division..... ................... .......
M mechanical division ........ ..............
Meteorology and hydrography..................
Municipal work.. ...... ...................
Sosa Fill quarry .. ............. ..........
Water system........... ........... ..........
Office engineering................ ............
Special engineering division (third locks)...........
Aeronautics section..............................
Civil affairs division................. .........
Clubhouses ................... ..................
Correspondence and records ......... .......
Library................ .................. ..
License bureau................. .......... ..
Magistrates' courts....... ..............
Paymaster .................. .....................
Pay-roll bureau................. ................
Personnel division .................................
Police section (including civil intelligence) ........
Bureau of posts...... ................ ..........
Schools division .......................... .... .....
Physical education and recreation.................
Building division ........... .............
Buildings and prounds.... ..................
Gasoline stations........... ................ ..
Motor transportation ...................... ....
Oil-handling plants. .............. ........ .
Panama Canal Press. ................... ..........
Quarters:
Janitors................. ..... ......
Subsistence ................ .......... ......
Storehouses................ .............. .....
Sanitation:
Gorgas Hospital............. ........... .
All other units..............................


6
1,599
14
79
104
286
983
1,059
1,355
25
1,427
94
32
98
116
22
3
1,507
44
3
1

3
15
27
53
49
156
33
1.992
554
26
628
133
143

209
148
533

630
1,140


Total, The Panama Canal.................. 15,331
Net decrease ............. ......................

PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY


General manager..................................
Receiving and forwarding agency .................
Com m issary division.. ............................
Mindi dairy.. ......... ... ................
Hotels---............................................------- ----------- ----
Telephones and signal division................

Total, Panama Railroad Co ................
Net decrease .......... ..............

Total force. . .... ....................
Net decrease, total force....................


556
2,107
3,501
140
27b
33

6,613
..............


6
1,965
52
74
113
403
954
1,141
2,795
24
1,252
78
110
94
32
17
2
1,777
39
3

2
3
11
30
53
40
140
32
1,931
606
19
537
114
142

210
174
568

733
1,103

17,379



491
2,533
3,507
138
266
33

6,968
..............


............
............


.............
5




1
175
16

4
84
5
1

5







16
I







61
. .. .... . ..
4







91
19
1

1


............
37

572



65
............

2
10


77
............


_____________ _____________ I I


21,944


24,347 649
....... ------------


366
38

9
117

82
- ------ --- i3

1,440


78





















1
26
36

103


2,620
2,048




6



432
355
355


3,052
2,403


NOTE.-The above distribution has been revised to conform with the budgetary classification adopted
July 1, 1946.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


There was a decrease of 9.9 percent in the over-all silver force in
comparison with June 30, 1945. As in the case of the gold force, the
decrease reflected the return of Panama Canal activities to a normal
operating basis following the end of active hostilities. The largest
numerical declines were in the dredging division, electric work, me-
chanical division, clubhouses, Gorgas Hospital, marine division, and
the receiving and forwarding agency of 'the Panama Railroad Com-
pany. Increases occurred in certain units, however, among which
were 175 additional employment for municipal work and 91 for the
motor transportation division, these being largely due to the prose-
cution of additional major construction projects in the Republic of
Panama. The increase of 61 in the building division resulted prin-
cipally from the resumption of building programs interrupted by the
war. The increase in force of the special engineering division resulted
from the inauguration of new studies to investigate means for increas-
ing the capacity and security of the Panama Canal.
At the beginning of the fiscal year 1946 the Canal force was working
on a 48-hour week with overtime. During the year the working hours
were shifted to a. straight. 40-hour week, with few exceptions, and the
employment of additional personnel as a consequence of this change
has accounted for part of the increase in some of the units where the
force was expanded during the year.

SILVER WAGES

Wages of employees of the silver roll bear no direct relationship to
wages of corresponding classes of workers in the United States. As
silver-roU employees are for the most part natives of the Tropics,
their wage scales are established at levels which will ensure a standard
of living comparing favorably with that prevailing for similar workers
in the Republic of Panama and elsewhere throughout the Caribbean
area. On April 1, 1946, hourly employees received an increase in
their hourly rates which was designed to protect their take-home pay
after they were placed on the 40-hour week.
Studies for the purpose of adjusting rates of pay of silver employees
to conform with the generally increased cost of living were carried
forward during the latter part of the fiscal year, and following the
completion of these studies pay increases were authorized effective
July 1, 1946.
SICK AND REST LEAVE

Under the present regulations alien employees, not otherwise en-
titled to vacation leave privileges, earn sick leave at the rate of
24 calendar days per year. A total of 20,624 sick-leave payments
were authorized during the fiscal year 1946 as compared with 21,581
during the previous fiscal year. A total of 3,434 rest-leave payments
were authorized in 1946 compared with 5,236 in the previous year.

CASH RELIEF FOR DISABLED SILVER EMPLOYEES
Applications for relief under the act of Congress of July 8, 1937,
averaged 30 per month during the fiscal year 1946. The regulations
established during the latter part of the fiscal year 1938 for adminis-
tering this relief were continued without material change.







6O REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

The table below shows the disposition of all applications from
employees of both The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad
Company during the fiscal year 1946:


Applications


Applications on hand, July 1, 1945 ..............................
Applications received during period .....-..... ................
Total.................. . ...................
Disposition:
Applications approved for payment................... .....
Applications suspended for various reasons.................
Applicants died before relief approved......................
Applications rejected for various reasons....................
Applicants ineligible because of act's limitations-...........
Applications not complete but in various stages of progress,
June 30, 19 ..4............... ...... ..............
Total ................. ... ..... .............. .... ... ...


Panama
Canal

26
290
316

183
........ ... .
3
1
96
33


Panama
Railroad

3
67
70

52
1



10


316 70


NOTE.-Removal from the rolls on account of the death or subsequent reemployment of cash relief recipi-
ents: The Panama Canal, 53; Panama Railroad Company, 20.

Total and average costs per month during the fiscal year 1946 were
as follows-


Mlonthly Monthly
Number average
of cases payment payments
per case


Panama Canal rolls_.----------------------- ----------------
Panama Railroad Company rolls-----.-------- -----------
Panama Railroad pensioners --------------------
Total ---------------------------------------------


694
262
I 91
1,0-17


18. 51
18.06
1 14.21
18.02


$12,845
4,732
I 1,293
18,870


I Superannuated employees granted cash relief prior to July 8, 1937.

Expenditures on behalf of The Panama Canal cash-relief program
are paid from annual appropriations for that purpose, while those of
the Panama Railroad Company constitute a continuation of the
former plan of granting cash relief to the superannuated employees
of that company and are paid by the Panama Railroad Company.

REPATRIATIONS

In 1934 an appropriation of $150,000 was provided for the repatria-
tion and rehabilitation of alien former employees (and their families)
who have rendered at least 3 years' service with the United States
Government or the Panama Railroad Company on the Isthmus.
During the fiscal year 1946, $15,258 was expended for the repatriation
and rehabilitation of 133 former employees, and 66 members of their
families, a total of 199 persons. To date, a total of $94,621 has been
expended for repatriation and rehabilitation of 1,172 employees ac-
companied by 862 membersof family, a grand total of 2,034 individuals.
The average cost per person for repatriation and rehabilitation has
been $46.52, and the average cost per employee, $80.73.


Total

29
357
386

235
1
3
103
43
386






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


CENTRAL LABOR OFFICE

The central labor office program of The Panama Canal provides
for eligibility control over applicants seeking employment with Gov-
ernment agencies and private contractors operating on Government
work in the Canal Zone. A general decrease of employment activities
is indicated by the comparative figures presented below, showing the
total numbers of silver employees carried on the rolls of the various
organizations as of June 1946 and June 1945, the decrease in total
force being nearly 4 percent:

June 1946 June 1945

Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company..............--...- .......... 22.315 24,347
U S. Arm y.......................... ............... ..... ...... ........... 12,577 10,922
U. S. Navy... ---...................--------------------..... ......... ..--------- .----...-----.... .... ----------------- 5,165 5,.16
Other Federal agencies .............-- ........................................ 375 )
Governm ent contractors ............................................... .... 1,169 663
M iscellaneous............... .............. ...................... ............ 228 1,915
Total... ..---------...............--.......-- ------------------------.............------------------. . 41,29 43.363

I Included with miscellaneous.

Because of the insufficient supply of qualified labor on the Isthmus
to handle the heavy construction program carried on during the war
emergency, The Panama Canal was forced to resort to the recruitment
of contract laborers from the Republic of Colombia, Jamaica, Costa
Rica, and El Salvador. With the cessation of hostilities and the
resultant tapering off of construction for defense, there was no need
for further recruitment of foreign labor.
From the inception of the foreign recruiting program in 1940,
22,265 contract workers have been brought to the Isthmus. Of this
number, 19,317 have been repatriated, leaving as of June 30, 1946, a
total of 2,948 still on the Isthmus. The following table shows figures
for the different areas from which the workers were recruited:

Number re-
Number Number maining on
recruited repatriated Isthmus
June 30, 1915

Colombia-------.. -..-----.... ...----------------------..................----------- 2, 244 2, 156 8
Costa Rica -.................. ............................ . 2, 248 2, 131 117
El Salvador..........----------...-----------........... ..--------------............ ..... 12 773 ,1 2. 4
Jamaica----....---------............---......--------.... .. .----------------------- 5,0 4,861 139
Total.....------...----------...........----------------........------................... 22,265 19,317 2,948

WORK SIMPLIFICATION PROGRAM
During the latter part of the fiscal year 1946, a representative of
the Division of Administrative Management of the Bureau of the
Budget, Washington, D. C., was detailed to the Canial Zone at the
request of the 'Governor to institute a work simplification program
as set forth by the Bureau of the Budget.
The program was instituted on March 9, 1946. The representa-
tive of the Budget Bureau remained on the Isthmus 2 months super-






68 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

vising the starting of the work and the training of key Panama Canal
personnel to whom the prosecution of the program was entrusted.
At the close of the year the program was underway in several units of
the Canal organization. This work will be carried on throughout the
coming fiscal year and formally introduced to other departments.

SAFETY PROGRAM
A safety section in the Canal-Railroad organization was estab-
lished on April 26, 1940. The principal duties of the safety section
are to promote the application of safety measures in all subdivisions
of The Panama. Canal-Panama Railroad organization, and to develop
and improve the programs of accident prevention for the organization
as a whole. This is accomplished by various activities such as
periodic inspections of field conditions, investigations of accidents,
recommendations pertaining to safety matters, holding of safety
committee meetings in various divisions of the organization, and
development of interest among supervisory and other employees
in the subject of accident, prevention.
During the fiscal year 1945, because of an upward trend in the
Canal-Railroad injury rate it was decided to enlarge and place greater
emphasis on the safety program. Additional personnel were assigned
to safety duty and a Panama Canal-Panama Railroad Safety Board
was established on which all Department heads are represented, to
review progress of the safety program, make recommendations and
formulate and promulgate safety policies for reducing injuries and
accidents. The effectiveness of this intensified safety program has
been confirmed by the fact that there was a 30-percent. reduction in
the accident, frequency rate this fiscal year as compared with that of
the previous year.
The following statistics cover the accident rates for the Canal-
Railroad organization for the 6 full fiscal years since institution of
the safety program:

Year. Man-hours Lost time Frequency Time Severity Fatalities
worked injuries rate I charges rate 2
1941......... ..... ........ 72,725,000 5,750 79 214, 170 2.94 21
1942..... ................ ..92,429.000 4,978 54 238.628 2.58 27
1943........................ .. 94.325,000 3, 585 38 230,914 2.45 28
1944............. ......... 80, 499,000 2,770 34 158,770 1.97 17
1945......................... 70, 10S,001) 2,347 33 90,159 1.29 6
1946......................... il,510,00 1,440 23 81,007 1.32 8

I Frequency rate is the lost time injuries per million man-hours worked.
2 Severity rate is the time charges, in days, per thousand man-hours worked.

The slight, rise in the severity rate over that of the preceding year
was caused by the increase in the number of fatalities from six to eight.
The number of injuries causing permanent partial disability was
reduced from 26 for the previous year to 22 for this year.
The table below shows injury and death compensation benefits for
the Canal-Railroad organization for each of the 6 years since the
institution of the safety program, compared to the annual average
for the preceding 23 years:






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 69


SInjury co- Compensation
early avransation er $1000 pay

2'3 years, 1918-40. . . . . ... .... ... .. ..... $51,886 $3.31
Fiscal year:
1941 . SO, 2911 2.55
1942........ 98,30U 2.21
1943 . . . . . .................... .......................... 104. 550 2. 17
1944 ... ... .. .... ..... ... . .. ........... 120,037 2.58
19415 .. - - - - - - - - --. . . . ... . 107,5 5 2.56
94 .. .. ... .. . . ......... 109, 65 2. 78

Approximately 75 percent of the compensation payments currently
paid from month to month cover accidents that occurred in previous
fiscal years and so the amount of such payments will not decrease
during the next few years in proportion to the progress made in the
prevention of accidents. Accordingly, because of the recent, period
of expanded activity the aggregate annual payments and rates may
be expected to be high for the next several years but these payments
would have been materially higher had it not been for the great im-
provement in accident prevention evidenced by the data shown above.
A sharp uptrend of vehicle accidents resulted in active promotion
by the safety board of a change and improvement in traffic regulations
and requirements for driver's licenses. A study of this matter is now
being conducted by the executive secretary, general counsel, and
police section.

EXPERIMENT GARDENS
The Canal Zone plant introduction gardens and experimental
station were established in June 1923. The gardens, which include
greenhouses, nurseries, and experimental plantings, embrace approxi-
mately 125 acres of land, and are devoted to the propagation and
cultivation of a wide variety of useful and ornamental plants from all
parts of the world, primarily for the purpose of determining their
adaptability and value under local soil and climatic conditions, for
general propagation on the Isthmus. This unit also designs and super-
vises all landscape work for The Panama Canal and the Panama
Railroad Company. In order to help meet the demand for fresh
vegetables, the gardens maintain a small, self-supporting vegetable
garden.
The landscape section handled a total of 98 projects, the majority
of which were for The Panama Canal.

CLUBHOUSES
The Panama Canal clubhouses, which are operated on a self-
supporting basis, comprise activities designed to provide restaurant,
motion picture, bowling and other facilities at. reasonable rates to
Government personnel, their families and guests. These activities,
particularly the restaurants, were considerably expanded during the
war years when the business transacted was some six or seven times
higher than the prewar level. The cessation of hostilities and the
subsequent reduction of civilian and military personnel on the Isth-
mus resulted in a decline in all of these activities.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


During the year the clubhouse bakery on t.he Atlantic side of the
Isthmus, formerly operated under the supervision of the clubhouse
manager, was placed under the management of an experienced baker
as a separate operating unit, resulting in a greater variety and better
quality of bakery goods for clubhouse patrons. Alterations and
improvements to the Balboa clubhouse kitchen, cafeteria, etc., begun
in the fiscal year 1945, were substantially completed at the end of
the fiscal year 1946. A new soda luncheonette section was installed
and placed in service at the Cristobal Gold Clubhouse.
LEGISLATION
Among the laws enacted by the Congress during the fiscal year 1946
which relate to or apply in the Canal Zone or affect The Panama
Canal and which are of importance and interest are those described
below:
An act approved December 6, 1945, providing for the financial
control of Government corporations (Government Corporation Con-
trol Act).
An act approved December 28, 1945, authorizing an investigation
of means of increasing the capacity and security of the Panama Canal.
An act approved April 16, 1946, extending the privilege of retire-
ment to certain judges, including the judge of the United States
District Court for the District of the Canal Zone.
Legislation relating to the Canal Zone introduced during the fiscal
year 1946 and still pending in Congress includes:
Two bills (H. R. 3748 and H. R. 6160) to extend the benefits of
the act of May 29, 1944, providing for the recognition of the services
of civilian officials and employees engaged in and about the construc-
tion of the Panama Canal.
A bill (H. R. 4148) to amend section 339 of the Nationality Act of
1940 so as to provide for the issuance of certificates of citizenship to
persons claiming United States citizenship under the provisions of
section 203 relating to birth in the Canal Zone or Republic of Panama.
A bill (H. R. 4321) to amend the Canal Zone Retirement Act with
respect to the taxation of retirement annuities paid to certain em-
ployees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company.
An omnibus bill (H. R. 5402) to amend the Canal Zone Code in
reference to several varied and, for the most part, unrelated subjects.
An omnibus bill (H. R. 55S7) to amend the Canal Zone Code in
several respects, principally for the purpose of enacting substantive
lav in support of certain appropriation act provisions.
A bill (H. R. 6372) which would extend the Federal Credit Union
Act to the Canal Zone.
A bill (H. R. 6813) to amend the Canal Zone Retirement Act so as
to make retroactive the provisions of the act. of July 29, 1942, providing
an additional minimum method of computation of retirement
annuities.
A bill (H. R. 6814) to amend the Canal Zone Retirement Act so as
to provide. for optional retirement on full annuity after 25 years of
service regardless of age or length of service on the Isthmus.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


CAPITAL ALLOTMENTS, FISCAL YEAR 1947
The appropriations for 1947 carried $4,504,381 for improvements
and betterments and for the replacement of worn-out or excessively
deteriorated facilities as follows:
Expansion of water system, Pacific side -------------- ---------- $2, 169, 000
Road and street replacements-----_----------- ---------------- 497, 000
Six additional towing locomotives for Locks---------------------- 455, 000
Occupational high schools for alien colored children, La Boca and
Silver City ---------------------------------------------- 369,000
Construction of silver quarters -------------------------------- 276, 000
Steam plant and distribution lines, Gorgas Hospital--------------- 247, 000
Pattern stowage building, mechanical division, Balboa ------------- 157, 600
Addition to white elementary school, Camboa--------------- 56, 500
Paint shop improvements, Balboa------ --------- ------------- 52, 000
Toilet and locker facilities, Pedro lMiguel locks ------------------- 48, 300
Additional nurses quarters, Corozal Hospital--------------------- 46, 981
Road improvements, IMount Hope cemetery --------------------- 30, 000
Miscellaneous minor improvements -- _------------------------ 100, 000
Total----------------------------------------------- 4,504,381
Brief comment on these projects is given below:
Expansion of water system, Pacfic side.-The appropriation of
$2,169,000 was made to defray the cost of the first part of a 2-year
expansion project designed to make available additional water sup-
plies for the Republic of Panama, the Army and Navy, and The
Panama Canal on the Pacific side. The principal increase in demand
in the near future is expected to come from the Republic of Panama.
Road and street replacement.-This appropriation is to cover the
second part of a 6-year program to modernize the narrow and de-
teriorated streets and roads of the Canal Zone. The majority of
these streets and roads were built to the standards of the period of
1914 and 1924 and are at present not suited for the weight, volume
and greater speed of the traffic using them. The heavy traffic to
which these streets have been subjected, particularly during the war
emergency, has greatly accelerated their deterioration and increased
the cost of maintenance.
Six additional towing locomotives for locks.-The addition of these six
locomotives for the locks will enable the necessary towing service to be
maintained and at the same time permit the overhaul and repairs of
the present equipment which has been subjected to severe service in
the past few years.
Occupational high schools for alien colored children, La Boca and
Silver City.-This appropriation is to cover the cost of construction of
two 3-year occupational high schools, one at La Boca on the Pacific
side and one at Silver City on the Atlantic side, for the children of the
aliens who reside in the Canal Zone and are employed on the silver
roll. The operation of these occupational high schools will provide
training courses to prepare the children for efficient service in certain
occupational groups in which large numbers are employed on the.
Canal Zone.
Construction of silver quarters.-The construction of silver quarters
in 1947 initiates a program of replacement of existing unsatisfactory
family housing for permanently employed aliens on the silver roll.
As erected, these new quarters will replace the old frame buildings now





72 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

used for silver living quarters. Dating from the construction period
of the Canal, many of these buildings were originally erected as tempo-
rary buildings, but have been kept in service because of the pressing
need for housing. The appropriation provides for the construction
of 27 individual buildings, containing 66 apartments.
Steam plant and distribution lines, Gorgas Hospital.-This appropria-
tion is to defray the cost of a new steam plant and distribution lines
with sufficient capacity to provide steam and hot water in sufficient
quantity and at proper temperature at all points in the hospital.
Pattern stowage building, mechanical division, Balboa.-The new
pattern stowage building, mechanical division, Balboa, will provide
sufficient space to store and preserve all patterns now on hand, and
insure space for patterns which may be acquired. The present build-
ing is beyond economical repair and, furthermore, is too small for
proper stowage of the 21,000 patterns now on hand.
Addition to white elementary school, Gamboa.-The present elemen-
tary school has become too small to accommodate properly the number
of children of elementary school age now residing in Gamboa. To re-
lieve this overcrowded condition and to provide adequate facilities for
future increased enrollment, an addition of four rooms is to be made
to the present building.
Paint shop improvements, Balboa.-The location of the present paint
shop facilities in the building division area is such that it presents a
constant fire hazard to other facilities in the area. This appropria-
tion provides for the removal of the paint shop to an area at some
distance from the other building division activities which would be
endangered in case of fire.
Toilet and locker facilities, Pedro Miguel locks.-The existing facili-
ties are housed in a temporary wooden structure, which is neither ac-
cessible to all locks employees, nor adequate for the requirements.
The appropriation will ever the cost of constructing a combined store-
room, locker room, and toilet room on the west wall of the locks; a
toilet building at the north end of the east side wall, and a toilet
building at the north end of the west side wall.
Additional nurses' quarters, Corozal Hospital.-The existing nurses'
quarters at Corozal Hospital have become inadequate for the proper
housing of nursing personnel stationed there. To remedy this con-
dition it is proposed to construct a new building containing 8 apart-
ments which, when completed, will provide sufficient quarters to meet
the present needs and the anticipated increased requirements of the
future.
Road improvements, Mount Hope Cem etery.-These improvements
will consist of repaving, widening, and otherwise improving the roads
in the Mount Hope Cemetery. The existing roads are over 30 years
old, lightly constructed of asphalt macadam, and were originally laid
for horse-drawn vehicles.
AMiscellaneous minor improvements.-The funds provided under this
category will permit construction during the year of improvements of a
minor nature, the need for which may arise from time to time and
which could not be foreseen when the budget was prepared.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BUDGET ADMINISTRATION
Effective with the 1947 estimates of appropriations a revised func-
tional classification of the budgetary presentation for The Panama
Canal was adopted. In tne revised preservation individual functional
classifications have been provided for a number of operations formerly
listed under one general heading while other operating subsections
have been consolidated with related units.
One of the major revisions in classification occurred with respect
to appropriation for the executive office listed under maintenance and
operation appropriation. Of the activities in this group the following
were set up as separate functions in the budgetary presentation, under
maintenance and operation appropriation: Office of the Governor,
office of the engineer of maintenance, office of the assistant engineer
of maintenance, office of the general counsel, personnel administration,
general correspondence and records, and the air terminal. The office
of the executive secretary and the library unit were likewise set up
as distinct functions but were transferred to civil government appro-
priation. The remaining functions under the old executive office
classification were transferred to civil government appropriation: the
civil intelligence section being grouped with the police section, and
the shipping commissioner with civil affairs. Another change in
classification under maintenance and operation appropriation includes
the grouping of various functions under the classification of highways,
so as to bring together in tue budget presentation the related sub-
functions of roads and streets, street lighting, ferry service, and
bridges.
The revised classification provides a more comprehensive budget
presentation and is designed to facilitate the examination of the
estimates of appropriations in the Bureau of the Budget.


725661-47----6












SECTION IV

GOVERNMENT

The civil government of the Canal Zone is conducted as prescribed
in the Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912, and subsequent acts
and Executive orders applicable to the Canal Zone. Whenever prac-
ticable, governmental functions have been assigned to departments
in the organization established for the operation and maintenance of
the Canal. Complete cooperation. and increased efficiency are derived
from such coordination of functions.
Data on expenses and revenues of various features of Canal opera-
tion and government are contained in the financial and statistical
statement in section V of this report.

AREA OF THE CANAL ZONE

The total area of the Canal Zone,' with areas segregated for various
purposes, is shown as of June 30, 1946:

LAND AREA
Square miles
Military and naval reservations (inclusive of revocable license
areas):
Military reservations----------- ------------------- 88. 24
Naval reservations----------------------------------- 12. 03
Total -----------_ --------- --- --------------------------- 100.27
Canal Zone town-ites and areas in active use ------------------------- 16. 39
Miscellaneous assigned land areas:
Barro Colorado Island _-------------------------------- 5. 71
Forest, preserve--------------- ---------------------- 5. 47
Cattle pastures ---------------- --------------------- 41. 80
Commercial leases -------------------------------------- .23
Third locks project---------- -------------- ----------- .72
Total --------------------------------------------------- 53.93
Remaining usable land ----------- ----------_ ------------------- 176. 43
Swamps-------------------------------------------------------- 15. 16
Total land area of the Canal Zone --------------------------- 362. 18
Water area (inclusive of Madden Lake to the +260-foot contour) ------ 190. 94
Total area of the Canal Zone------------ -------------------- 553. 12

POPULATION
By compiling information obtained from the chief quartermaster,
the land section. the Army and Navy authorities, and by making a
house-to-house canvass of persons employed by commercial interests,
in March 1946 an estimate was made of the population of the Canal
Zone. The estimated population figures include civilian employees of
i Not inclusive of nncononiguous areas, with the exception of Paitilla Point Military Reservation.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


the Army and Navy, and members of the families of Army and Navy
personnel, but omit commissioned, warrant, and enlisted personnel of
the armed forces.
In previous years the population figures were secured by making a
house-to-house canvass of the entire population of the Canal Zone with
the exception of that of Army and Navy reservations, the latter infor-
mation being furnished by the Army and Navy authorities.
The following is a summary of the population by districts:

A-mericans All others
Total
Men Women Children Men Women Children

Balboa district -----------............. 5.446 5, 595 4,402 8, 284 2,981 5, 606 32, 314
Cristobal district................ 4, 35 1,487 1,255 4,569 2,190 5, 102 16,038
Total 1946-------------............... 6,881 7,082 5,6.57 12.85.3 5,171 10,70-S 48,352
Total 1945.-------------- 7,150 5,937 4,040 13,176 6,398 7,987 44,688
Total 1944............... 8,251 5,771 3,710 16,073 6,466 7,504 47,775

The population as of March 1946 was 8.2 percent higher than in
1945. The Canal Zone population has been at abnormally high levels
during the past 6 years because of the large number of persons brought
to the Isthmus to work on construction projects of the Army, Navy,
and Panama Canal. The peak civilian population of the wartime
period occurred in 1943 when the total reached 59,370, which was
about double the 1938 population.
After the end of hostilities, members of families of service personnel
were permitted to come to the Isthmus, with the result toat there was
a marked increase in the number of American women and children as
reflected in the table above. A substantial increase also occurred in
the number of children of other nationalities.
In addition to the population figures shown above, the records
showed that in March 1946 there were 1,563 Americans (488 men,
536 women, and 539 children) residing in United States Government
quarters in New Cristobal, Republic of Panama.

PUBLIC HEALTH
The health of the Canal Zone populace remained relatively good
during the year. Excluding malaria and venereal diseases, the aver-
age number of reportable diseases per month for the year was 64, as
compared with 57 per month during the previous fiscal year, 125 per
month for the fiscal year 1944, and 115 per month for the fiscal year
1943.
The malarial rate for employees of the Panama Canal and the
Panama Railroad Company continued to be relatively low. The rate
for the 6-month period January through June 1946 was 15.2, in com-
parison with rates of 11.6 and 12.7 during similar periods in 1945
and 1944.
VITAL STATISTICS
The morbidity and mortality rates from diseases and injuries
together with other vital statistics relating to the population of the
Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, are set forth in detail






76 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

in the report of the Health Department for the calendar year, which is
published annually in booklet form. For this reason, the data herein
pertaining to vital statistics are limited to a brief resume of the most
important information.
General death rates.-Death rates in the Canal Zone, Panama City,
and Colon have declined appreciably in the past 5 years. The rate
for the Canal Zone is artificiallyllow in comparison with Panama City
and Colon, because employees generally leave the Isthmus after
retirement. Below are shown death rates by yearly periods for the
past 5 calendar years:

Death rate per 1,000 population, all causes

Calendar year

1945 1944 1943 1942 1941

Canal Zune I ........--------------- --. .------ ...---- ... -- 5.12 6. 13 6. 24 6.24 8.75
Panama City .......... ...- ...... .......... .. 9.42 10.57 10.49 10.62 11.43
Colon ........... ..----------------. .-- ----- --------------- 12.32 11.55 12.11 12.13 15.00

I Omits Army and Navy personnel.

Principal causes of death.-The principal causes of death in each
of the groups of population were as follows:

Numbehtr of deaths and annual rate per 1,000 population, calendar year 1945

Canal Zone Panama City Colon

Number Rate per Nunmb.r. Rte per Number Rate per
t.IJOu 1,000 1,000

Cancer of various organs........... 29 0.65 101 0.81 47 1.00
Organic diseases of the heart........ 29 .65 )104 .8U 33 .70
Diseases of the arteries '.......... 20 .45 37 .3u 27 .57
Diarrhea and enteritis ............ I .40 92 .74 60 1 28
Apoplexy......... .. .--------- 12 .27 51 .41 24 .51
Tuberculosis .......... .... .----- 10 .22 211 1.6.9 73 1.55
Nephritis (acule and chronic..... lu .22 55 .44 45 .96
Syphilis .. --- ..-.. ...----- lu .22 36 .29 18 .38
Pneumonia............. .... ..---- 16 1 . 36 77

I Includes following deaths due to diseases of the coronary arteries and angina pectoris- Canal Zone, 14,
Panama City, 23; Colon, 15.

Birth rate.-In the Canal Zone a change in the birth rate, as dis-
tinct from the number of births, has only limited significance because
of the peculiar situation which exists with regard to the population on
which the rate is calculated. For the past 5 years, the rate has been
based on population hgures which exclude uniformed personnel of the
Army and Navy, as distinct from members of their families, although
children born to Army and Navy families are included in the total
number on which the rate is calculated.
A further point to consider concerns the population of silver families
in the Canal Zone, inasmuch as Canal Zone quarters are generally







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


available only to silver employees who have more than average length
of service and who are therefore in the older age brackets. The
fact that the population of the Canal Zone includes a large number of
contract laborers without their families is another factor which obvi-
ously tends to distort the birth rate.
The following table shows for the past 5 years the birth rates in the
Canal Zone and the terminal cities of Panama and Colon:

Birth rate per 1,000 population

Calendar year

1945 194- 1943 1942 1941

Canal Zone:
W white ...................... .......... ... 32.23 32.65 27 21 23. 08 24. 75
Colored..--..... ....... .... ....... ............ 18.47 19.07 15.25 13 07 15.80
Combined ..................................... 23.74 24.11 19.48 16.65 19.10
Panama City ...............-------------------- -------- 32.62 34.03 34.06 30.38 29.60
Colon-................... .............. .......... 38.81 37.45 34.32 27.38 27.20

NOTE.-Population base for Canal Zone excludes Army and Navy personnel.

Death rates among children under 1 year oj age.-The following table
shows the infant mortality rates per 1,000 births for the past 5 years:

Deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births

Calendar year

1945 1944 1943 1942 1941


Canal Zone:
White.. --.............. .. .............. .....
Colored-------............ .---------------.... ----------
Com bined.......................... ..........
Panama City--- ...............--..................
Colon.-------... ---............ . . ..


24
44
34
72
94


17
43
30
70
84


24
51
38
73
65


22
53
38
79
79


51
61
56
89
97


MALARIA

The rates for malaria among employees only for the past 10 years
are shown below:


Calendar year Rate per Calendar year Rae perd

1936..... .................. .... ...... 12 1941-..... ..... .... .. ...... .. ...... 14
1937 ............ ....... .............. 12 1942................ ......... .. .25
1938 ................ - ....... ..-- 10 1943................ .................. 15
1939........................... ... ... 14 1944 ... .... ..... ................. 13
1940............. ............. ...... .. 17 1945-........... .............- ----.. 13


There was one death from malaria among employees during the
calendar year 1945.






78 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

HOSPITALS
The number of patient days in Panama Canal hospitals for the
past three fiscal years was as follows:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Gorgas Hospital ...................... 273, 183 337, 683 35, 429
Corozal Hospital:
Insane...................... ............................... ... 90,838 94,621 98,198
Cripples and chronic medical and surgical cases.-........... 35. 066 35,317 36,029
Colon Hospital... ........-.-.......... ............. 51,842 53,109 47,048
Margarita Hospital..... .......................... ......... 27,021 28,406 22.348
Palo Seco Leper Colony................... ......................... 42,765 43,159 42,426
Total................................ . ... ...... 520,715 592,295 611,478

QUARANTINE AND IMMIGRATION
During the fiscal year 1946, inspection was made of 6,868 ships and
4,303 airplanes. as compared with 5,190 vessels and 3,512 airplanes
during the fiscal year 1945. Passenger traffic on arriving vessels and
airplanes likewise increased over the previous year.
One case of alastrim and one case of typhus were. reported on
arriving vessels. Each case was isolated in Gorgas Hospital and the
ships detained under quarantine until appropriate quarantine meas-
ures were accomplished. Neither case was fatal and no additional
cases developed.
Constant vigilance is necessary to prevent the entry of plague,
typhus, and jungle fever into the Canal Zone. During the fiscal year
1946, 18 percent of all passengers (10,028) arriving in the Canal Zone
by airplane were vaccinated for smallpox; many of these passengers
had never received a previous vaccination.
The following is a summary of transactions for the fiscal year 1946,
together with the figures for the 2 preceding fiscal years:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Vessels Inspected and passed.....-....................-. .--... 6,868 5. 190 3,568
Vessels granted pratique by rad in....................... .......... 50....................
Total----------- ......................... 6.918 5,190 3,568
Crew passed by quarantine-................-.. ....-.... ..... 340,941 288,503 184,946
Crew passed by radio-............-. ................... ........ 2, 140 ............ .. ..
Passengers passed at quarantine ............... ................. 172. 556 65,322 53, 134
Passengers passed by rad io................................... .-- .--..-- --...... ............--
Total.... ........ ........................ .......... 515, 637 353, 825 238,080
Airplanes inspected andi pancd .................................. 4,303 3,512 2,656
Crew of airplanes in-pcctel and passed ............................ 17. 276 13, 487 11, 345
Passengers of airplanes Inspected and pass. i..-................... 57,080 47. 473 36,912
Total ............... ................ ................... 74,356 60,960 48,257
Vessels detained in quarant ine............... ................ ... 3 2 3
Crew detained in quarantine on board ship.......................... 181 412 175
Passengers detained in quarantine on board ship.................... 2, 148 744 55
Passengers a admitted to station on account of quarantine laws....... ....................... ............
Number of detentiun lays at station on account or quarantine laws............ ........... .....-.----
Immigration ensls admitted to station .............................. 4,636 5.455 2,946
Number of immin rnl on dlientin n days ............................. 5.441 40,156 35,399
Persons held For investigoai ion and released......................... 83 124 114
Persons deported under immigration laws............................ 5,227 3,831 3,533
Supplementary sanitary Inspection of vessels ....................... 6,101 6,128 4,695
Vessels fumigated........... . ........................ ....... 108 175 107






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 79

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING
Municipal work carried on during the year included the construction
and maintenance of roads, streets, and sidewalks, and the operation
and maintenance of the water and sewer systems in the Canal Zone.
The furnishing of filtered water and the maintenance of the water
systems and the streets in the cities of Panama and Colon, Republic
of Panama, also were handled by the municipal engineering division.
Construction work was performed for departments and divisions of
The Panama Canal, the Army and Navy, the Government of the
Republic of Panama, and for individuals and companies. Only the
major items of this work are commented upon in this report.
WATER SYSTEM
Consumption of water for municipal uses and for sales to vessels
during the past 3 fiscal years was as follows:
[Thousands of gallous]
Fiscal year
1946 1945 1944

Canal Zone ... ......................................... 7.497,466 7,822,367 7,919,237
City of Panama .................- .................. ....... 3, 556,796 3. 1S1.9S1 2,909,916
City of Colon .............. ................... ... ..... .. 1.302.426 1.307.372 1,388,098
Sales to vessels....................... .......... ... 361.685 364.165 230,744
Total...-....................- ...... .........-..-....--- 12,718.373 12.675.885 12,447.995
In addition to the regular maintenance work performed on the pipe
lines, reservoirs, filtration plants, and pumping stations, several special
projects were completed on the water system. The most important
of these was the cleaning and cement-lining under private contract of
39,154 lineal feet of 30-inch and 18,818 lineal feet of 36-inch cast iron
raw water main between Garnboa pump station and the Miraflores
filtration plant. Previous to this work the main was capable of
delivering to the filtration plant only 10,800 gallons per minute by
gravity from the surge tank at Summit; after its completion a flow of
16,500 gallons per minute was obtained under the same conditions,
representing an increase in capacity of about 52 percent. Cleaning
also was accomplished of the 20- and 30-inch filtered water gravity
mains from Miraflores to Balboa.
Work was completed during the year on the installation of a 20-inch
pumping main from Ancon postoffice to a. point west of section E,
Gorgas Hospital, a distance of 3,920 feet. The purpose of this project
was to replace the old and poorly located 20-inch main with cement-
lined pipe and to increase water supply to Panama City.
The installation of 15,000 feet of 30-inch cast-iron cement-lined pipe
from Paraiso raw water pump station to the Miraflores filter plant,
with a cross connection between the existing 30-inch line at the Paraiso
Wye, was completed in January 1946. This was a carry-over from
the previous year of a project which was started in January 1945.
Work was started in November 1945 on a general survey of the
water system. The permanent water system maps are being brought
up to date, all valves are being inspected and given necessary repairs
and maintenance, and the information indexed. Leaks amounting
to several million gallons per month were located and repaired.





80 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

SEWER SYSTEM
InI addition t.o the regular maintenance work performed on the
Canal Zone sewer system, the work started in the previous year on
the.repair of existing concrete box sewers in the Balboa area was
completed during the fiscal year 1946.
ROADS, STREETS, SIDEWALKS-CANAL ZONE
Regular maintenance work was performed on the roads, streets,
and sidewalks during the year. In addition to this ordinary mainte-
nance work, a number of special projects were carried on during the
year. The more important of these included the completion of paving
and other improvements to Balboa Road, between Roosevelt Avenue
and Pier Street, and paving and other municipal work on two sections
of Frangipani Street., Ancon. Work was 85 percent. complete at the
end of the year on the repaving and other improvements to Roosevelt
Avenue, between Corozo Street. and Thatcher Street, Balboa.
Another project started during the year included the reconstruction
of Tivoli Avenue and Fourth of July Avenue. This project covers
the rebuilding of Tivoli Avenue from Shaler Road to Gorgas Road and
the reconstruction of Fourth of July Avenue from Gorgas Road to
Balboa Road. All of the old macadam and asphalt pavement will be
replaced with S-inch reinforced concrete and other improvements will
be made as necessary. The work on the first section of Tivoli Avenue,
from Shaler Road to Ancon Boulevard, was 10 percent complete at the
end of the fiscal year 1946.

OTHER HEAVY CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
Dredging Ditision Dock, Diablo Heights.-This project was started
in October 1944, and was commented upon in the Governor's annual
report for 1945. As originally designed, the main section of the dock
was to consist of a deck 50 feet wide by 494 feet long, supported on
14 bents which, in turn, are founded on piles drilled into rock bottom
of the Canal. In addition, there is an approach trestle 21 feet wide
by 260 feet. long, supported on 13 bents of piles. In February 1946
the construction program was revised, reducing the length of the main
dock to 429 feet; no change, was made in the approach trestle. A
total of 1,527 lineal feet of piles were set in 1946, completing a total of
4,174 feet. Other principal items of work accomplished during 1946
included the placing of 26 precast. 6-foot square reinforced concrete
caisson shells and- 13 prefabricated collapsible base forms; pouring of
3,377 cubic yards of concrete, and the installation of 1,080 lienal feet
of pipe work and 7,500 pounds of metal work. The dock was 82
percent complete at the end of the year.
Ferry slip repairs, Balboa.-This project. covered repairs to both
the east and west ferry slips at Balboa. A total of 65 piles, varying
in length from 70 to 90 feet, were driven at the west ferry slip and eight
70-foot piles at the east slip. A total of 68,000 board feet of creosoted
timbers 12- by 12-inch, 12- by 16-inch, and 8- by 16-inch, were used
in wales and framing.
Repairs to Albrook Field runway.-The purpose of the project was
to restore the surface of the runway to a suitable grade. This was





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 81

accomplished by filling the sags with asphaltic concrete to bring them
to a grade to produce a smooth riding surface. A total of 693,560
pounds of road asphalt, 30,488 gallons of cutback asphalt, 707 tons of
asphalt mix and 5,000 cubic yards of rock were used in repairing 52,000
square yards of surface.

CITIES OF PANAMA AND COLON
Regular maintenance work was performed on the water and sewer
systems during the year. Several improvement projects also were
carried on during the year, the most important of which covered the
paving and other improvements to Avenida Balboa from Calle 30 to
Calle 3 de Noviembre, Panama City. Work on this project, which
was started in the previous year, was carried forward during 1946
and at the end of the year was 90 percent complete, the final work
being held in abeyance pending the removal of the buildings at the
intersection of Calle 3 de Noviembre and Avenida Balboa. Other
important items included various municipal improvements to the,
area between Calle 11 and Calle 12 and between Avenida Melendez
and Gorgas Drive, Colon; and the installation of 18,600 feet of 16-
inch water line from Corozal bridge to Pueblo Nuevo.

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
Sosa Hill Quarry and rock crushing plant.-Rock crushed during
the fiscal year 1946 and sold to various departments and divisions of
The Panama Canal, Panama Railroad Company, the United States
Army, the United States Navy, the Republic of Panama, and to in-
dividuals and companies, totaled 94,345 cubic yards. This plant also
produced 14,085 tons of asphaltic mixtures for resurfacing old roads
and for the construction of new roads and streets.
Central lMiaing Plant.-During the year 24,819 cubic yards of ready-
mixed concrete were produced and sold.
PUBLIC ORDER
During the fiscal year 8,722 persons were arrested, an increase of
approximately 13 percent as compared with the previous year. Sta-
tistics covering these arrests, with corresponding figures for the previ-
ous year, are given in the following table:

Fiscal year

1946 1945

M ale-.......................... . ................. ...... .. ... 8,192 7,314
F em ale ............. ......................................... .... 530 421
Total.............................. .. .. . .. .. 8, 722 7, 735
Arrests made with warrants.........-. ... ...... ............. ........ .... 1.058 932
Arrests made without warrants-- ...................................... ..... 7,664 6,803
Total-................................ ... ........ . . .. 8,722 7,735
Residents of the Canal Zone................... ............................. 2.634 2,308
Residents of Panama-................................................. ..... 5, 344 4,878
T transients .............................................. ..... .. 744 549
Total.............................----....... ................... ... 8,722 7,735





82 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

There were 9,387 charges filed against persons arrested during the
fiscal year 1946, of which 9,075 were misdemeanors and 312 were
felonies, the latter being 3.3 percent of the total offenses charged.
The following were the principal causes of arrest:

Fiscal year
Cause- of arrest
1940 1945

Violation of vehicle traffic regulations............... .............. ........... 4,820 4,145
L oitering ......... .......... ... ....... . . ..................... .......... 788 532
Trespassing..................---- .......... ........ ............... ............ 544 277
Petit larceny--------------------------------.................................... ---------------------------521 399
Intoxication-------------------- ----------.. ....................................... -------------------------------491 351
Disturbing the peace --------------------...........-------................ --------------------------311 296
Battery----------------------------...... ...........................------------------------------------ 294 296
Fugitive from justice----------------------------.......... ................ .. --------- ------254 197
Vagrancy---------------------------------------------------------------------.. .. .. .......... .. .....215 109
Enemy alien entering Canal Zone...................... ............. ...... 3 3
Violation of Trading With Enemy Act. ..... .................. ......... ............ 2
All others.-- ------ --- .. ..................................... ........ 1,146 1,682
Total------------------------...................----------------........------...----...... ---------9,387 8,289


Homicides.-Five cases of homicide were investigated by the cor-
oner during the year, one of which was the result of a motor vehicle.
accident., three the result, of gun fire, and one the result of stabbing
The motor vehicle accident resulted in the death of a Canal Zone
patrol officer whose motorcycle was struck by another vehicle.
Suicides and other inivesfigatiois by the coroner.-The coroner inves-
tigated four cases of suicide during the past year, two of which were by
drowning, one by the use of firearms, and one by the use of a knife.
Coroner's investigations were made in a total of 79 cases of deaths
during the year, of which 22 were from natural causes, 12 from acci-
dental drowning, 10 from vehicle injuries, and the remainder from
other causes.
Prisoners.-During the year the number of prisoners serving sen-
tences in the Canal Zone jails averaged 93.5 per day. All physically
able prisoners were employed on useful work.
Seventy-four convicts were committed to the Canal Zone penitenti-
ary, an increase of seven as compared with the preceding year. Sen-
tences imposed on these convicts totaled 194 years and 9 months.
Sixty-four convicts were discharged, leaving 101 in custody at the
end of the year. Computed at standard rates of pay for common
labor the value of the labor performed by convicts during the year
amounted to $41,182. Of this amount, 24 percent represented the
value of work performed in the operation, maintenance, and improve-
ment of the penitentiary buildings and grounds; 60 percent on the
penitentiary farm; and the remaining 16 percent on outside municipal
work.
Deportations.-By order of the Governor, 32 persons were deported
from the Canal Zone during the fiscal year, of whom 22 were convicts
who had served sentences in the penitentiary and 10 were persons
whose continued residence in the Canal Zone was regarded as un-
desirable.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 83

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND CONTROL

There were 770 traffic accidents reported during the year, or an
average of 64 per month, compared with an average of 53 per month
during the previous year. These accidents resulted in the deaths of 12
persons and injuries to 426 other persons. Following is a classifica-
tion of the causes of these accidents for the past 3 fiscal years:

Fiscal year
Cause
19-16 1945 1944

Negligent driving. ................... ...................... 516 404 468
Reckless driving. ............... .............. -............. 71 92 127
Careless pedestrian . ................ ....... ............. 62 47 70
Intoxicated driver...... ...................................... ..... 33 29 35
Defective vehicle ............................................- -- 28 24 18
Careless passengers ................................. ............ 9 4 12
Inexperienced driver ..... 8 9 11
All others............................. .. .................. 43 29 23
Total......... .......... ... .......... .................... 770 638 764

MAGISTRATES' COURTS
The following is a summary of business transacted at the magis-
trates' courts for the subdivisions of Cristobal and Balboa for the
fiscal year 1946, together with comparative figures for the fiscal
year 1945:

Cristohal Balboa Total

144t) 1945 1946 1945 1946 1945

Cases handled:
Criminal .......... ...... ........ ..... 3,05S 2,384 5.488 5,091 8,546 7,475
Civil......................... ... ...... 12 14 Il 10 31 24
Total.................... .. .. .. ......... 3,070 2,39S 5,507 5, 101 8,577 7,499
Disposition of criminal cases:
Conviction ............. ...................2,827 2,171 5,0145 4,704 7,912 6,875
Acquittal............ ....... ..... 98 79 178 172 276 251
Dismissal ............... ... 102 54 96 87 198 141
Held for district court............ ............. 61 C0 125 128 186 208
Total................... .................... 3, Oxx 2. 34 5,484 5,091 8,572 7,475
Convictions in which execution of sentences was sus-
pended and defendants placed on probation........ 70 95 174 120 244 215
Rearrested for violating terms of probation. 13 10 10 7 23 17
Revenues.......... ... .......... .. .. . $25, 508 $21,042 $30,361 $27,855 $55,869 $48,897

PARDONS AND REPRIEVES
The pardon board, consisting of five members appointed by the
Governor, acts in an advisory capacity in the consideration of requests
submitted by prisoners for executive clemency. During the past
year the board submitted recommendations to the Governor on 37
applications for executive clemency, 33 of which were for commuta-
tion of penitentiary and jail sentences, 1 for a full pardon, and 3 for
revocation of orders of deportation following service of sentences of
imprisonment. The Governor extended clemency in 10 of these
cases.
On June 4, 1946, Mr. Patrick S. Coakley was appointed to the
pardon board, replacing Mr. Oliver Bullock, whose retirement from
the Panama Canal service became effective 1May 31, 1946.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


FIRE PROTECTION
During the past fiscal year three emergency fire substations were
closed and their personnel transferred elsewhere for duty.
During the year 336 fires, 65 false alarms, and 14 emergency calls
were reported. The following table classifies the owners who suffered
property losses during the year, as compared with the previous year:

Fiscal year 1946 Fiscal year 1945

Number Property Number Property
of fires loss of fires loss
The Panama Canal ................... ................ 214 $18,646 256 $44,479
Panama Railroad Company-........................... 40 602 23 94
U. S. Army................ . .......... ........ 23 126,057 12 1,110
U S. N avy........ .... ..- ...-. ... .........- 12 86,105 10 40
Private (including ships 4................ ......... .... 47 259,140 36 21,567
Total... ................ ........................ 336 490,550 337 67,290
Total property involved. ................... ......... $14,675,769 $7,465,273

Two serious fires occurred during the year-one on March 1, 1946,
in the Masonic Temple building in Cristobal, and the other on April
13, 1946, in a two-story residence at Balboa Heights.
The Masonic Temple building fire originated in a film trimming
room operated by a film-distributing company occupying rooms on
the main floor of the building. The flames spread so rapidly that
two men who were on the fourth floor when the fire began received
burns which required their hospitalization. Twelve firemen also were
hospitalized subsequent to the fire due to the inhalation of toxic gases
generated by burning motion picture film. Several explosions oc-
curred during the fire when gases entered the film storage vault through
the ventilating system. The damage was estimated at $224,684.
The residential fire at Balboa Heights originated in a dry locker in
one of the two apartments of the building. The flames spread
rapidly to the remainder of the apartment due to the fact that about
6 hours prior to the fire the entire dwelling had been sprayed with a
disinfectant consisting of approximately 95 percent kerosene. The
estimated loss by The Panama Canal was $14,373 and private loss
was estimated at $2,000.
PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM
The public school system for white children includes eight kinder-
gartens; nine elementary schools, grades 1 through 6; two junior
high schools, grades 7 and 8; two senior high schools, grades 9 through
12; an apprentice school; and a junior college. Public schools for
colored children include six kindergartens; eight elementary schools,
grades 1 through 6; five 3-year junior high schools, grades 7 through
9; and a 4-year normal training school.
The schools for white children operate on a 9-month basis and
February enrollments are used for purposes of comparison, since
they usually represent the enrollment peaks. In February 1946,
3,357 pupils were enrolled in the white elementary and secondary
schools, as compared with 3,006 in February 1945. The white
kindergarten enrollments were 281 in February 1946, as compared
with 218 in February 1945.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 85

For the past 3 years the average daily attendance has been as
follows:
Fiscal year
1946 1945 1944

W hite schools (see note) ............. ........................ ........... 3, 130 2,881 2,624
Colored schools..-------...........---------...---..-...--.........---------. ...... --..............--- 2,626 2..85 2,748
NOTE.-Junior college and kindergartens not included.
There was an increase in the enrollments in the Canal Zone Junior
College over those of the preceding year. The February enrollments
of regular and special daytime students numbered 89, compared with
60 in February of the previous year. While initial enrollments in
October 1945 in the extension division of the junior college (which
are in addition to those of regular and special daytime students) were
only 232 as compared with 391 in October of the previous year, the
February 1946 enrollment. of 217 nearly equaled that of February 1945
when it was 225. It is anticipated that, the reduction in tuition fees
scheduled for the school year 1946-47 will result in an increased enroll-
ment. The admission of students desiring to attend college under the
provisions of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 should also
stimulate enrollments.
The apprentice-learner school was closed during the past year be-
cause of the great reduction in enrollment due to wartime factors;
however, some apprentice-schbol work was carried on in night-school
classes. It is expected that. the apprentice school will be reopened in
October 1946.
During the school year the white schools, not including the appren-
tice school, were in session 178 days and the colored schools 214 days.
At the close of school in June 1946, 140 white teachers, including
7 junior college instructors, and 106 colored teachers were in regular
employment in these schools.
Canal Zone white children continued to achieve above and colored
children below United States norms provided for the standard tests
used in the schools. On the basis of standard achievement tests
administered, the average grade-8 white pupil was 1 school year and
6 months above, and the average colored pupil was 1 year below the
United States norms.
In the white high schools the median pupil scored at the seventy-
third percentile on United States norms provided for the tests, whereas
in 1945 the median Canal Zone white high-school pupil scored on the
sixty-seventh percentile.
A comparative study in methods of teaching Spanish was completed
during the year. This plan involved the teaching by two different
methods of two groups, matched in previous Spanish achievement,
intelligence, and sex. One group was taught by regular classroom
procedure and the other by means of commercial recordings. The
results of this experiment showed no significant superiority for either
method at the end of a year's study. Achievement in the study of
United States history and trigonometry had not been satisfactory
during the past, but considerable improvement in both of these sub-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


jects was made as shown by the standard tests given during the year.
Additional study will be carried on in an attempt to improve student
achievement in United States history.
In accordance with the planned expansion of the education now
offered to Canal Zone colored children, two occupational high schools
are to be constructed during 1946-47, one in La Boca on the Pacific
side of the Isthmus, and one at Silver City on the Atlantic side.
With the completion of the buildings it will be possible to extend the
period of schooling for colored children from 9 to 12 years. Two shop
buildings also are under construction as part, of the expansion of the
colored schools. An elementary school building at Silver City is under
construction to replace the existing building which has become obsolete.
Physical education classes for both white and colored pupils are
conducted by personnel of the physical education and recreation
section. In addition, personnel from this section provide leadership
and guidance for the Boy and Girl Scoutt organizations on the Isthmus,
and supervise such sports and recreational activities as baseball,
basketball, handball, football, tennis, boxing, fencing, archery,
athletic meets, instruction in swinunming and water safety.

POSTAL SYSTEM

In addition to the 11 post offices operated by the bureau of posts
at the beginning of the year, 4 Navy and 9 Army post offices were
returned to civilian control during January and February 1946,
making a total of 24 post offices in operation by the bureau of posts
at the close of the year. The bureau of posts continued to handle
closed transit mails from the United States to Central and South
American countries.
Operations for the past 3 years are summarized in the following
table:

Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Receipts:
Sale of air mail postage --------.--------------- $366,. 673 $262. 729 $313, 192
Sale of all other postage stamps, postal cards, stamp books, etc-.-- 198, 929 98, 263 93, 481
Money order fees-------------------------------------- 32, 512 28,583 38,342
Box rents collected------ ---------------------------------- 32. 252 31, 076 32,076
Handling mail-other aencies.. -.......-------- -------------- 14. y00 24.394 28.013
Other receip ......................-------------------- ..-- .. 524 2,475 4, 140
Total receipts- ----------------- ------------------ ----- F45980 447,520 509,244

Tran ipr.rlution tilargus fir air mail .. .. .... 11.323 151,290 267,839
All otii-r charn'cs an.l .......... I ----- -. 382, 4U3 325. 430 397, 707
Total X pr'ns si. .3, 726 I 476, 720 665, 546
Net iurpluns oiffici i .............. ............. 254 (29). 200) (156, 302)
Transrferred froin pIi- al X.. 1! .I' Il i-rcl t avcoinil ... ............... ............ 1l .,000 200,000
Reportpfl sirils ............... . ..... ............. .... 82, 2.54 70,800 43, 698

The only changes made in the air mail postage rates during the
year were those in rates to Colombia and Venezuela. A heavy in-
crease in the volume of air mail and parcel post resulted from the re-
turn of the Army and Navy post offices to the bureau of posts during







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 87

January and February. The transfer of these post offices to civilian
control did not, however, affect the air mail and parcel post rates
allowable to service personnel. The surplus of $82,254 for 1946, re-
ported above, was due principally to the reduced transportation
charges on air mail allowed by the United Stats Post Office Depart-
ment effective April 1, 1945.
Statistics relative to the operation of the Canal Zone postal system
for the past 3 fiscal years are covered in the following table:


Fiscal year

1946 1945 1944

Registered and insured article dispatched:
Official letters and parcels registered free.-------...---------..------. 61,694 56,182 57,930
Foreign registered letters....................--..............----- 39,574 26,443 46,400
Foreign registered parcels ...........--- ......-- ..............---- ---------625 174 194
Domestic registered letters-----------..........-.......---------.....--.----------- 30,377 25,745 27,878
Domestic registered parcels. ..................................---- 509 301 534
Insured parcels .--.........-...... ...--..-................... 35,51i1 10,840 11,054
Total registered and insured articles dispatched............... 168,280 119, 685 143,990
Registered and insured articles received:
Registered articles ....................................--- ........ 105, 283 79,874 85.655
Insured parcels .............................. .................. 50.310 48, 298 49.026
Foreign parcel post.. .------------------.....------...--........-----.....--------- 2,617 1.950 1,974
Total registered and insured articles received... ..............-- 158,210 130, 128 136, 655
Dispatches and mail by steamor-Cristobal:
To the United States. ............................-- ......... 124 130 108
To foreign countries-............................................. 723 814 747
Total dispatches sent................-......-- ...........-..... 847 944 855
Receipts of mail by steamer-Cristobal:
From the United States................. ....-........- ...----.. 167 147 119
From foreign countries.-------......-..-......-..-----......---------------..---...-..........------ 482 489 522
Total dispatches received..................................... 649 636 641
Dispatches of mail by steamer-Balboa:
Total made.--.-----.......---..--......-----.-------..-.-----.------.----------- 953 909 666
Total received. ................................................. 811 928 838
Dispatches of mail by air-Balboa:
Total made....-------............----------------------------...- ..------- ...--17,743 14, 431 13,887
Total received.................. .......--......... ............. 16,381 14,709 14,271


IMMIGRATION VISAS

During the fiscal year, 263 visas were issued by the executive secre-
tary to alien residents of the Canal Zone traveling to the United States.
Of these, 23 were quota immigration visas, 143 were nonquota immi-
gration visas, 76 were nonimmigrant visas, and 21 were transit
certificates. Fees collected for visas amounted to $1,717.75.

RELATIONS WITH THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA

During the year, correspondence and discussions were conducted
between the Governments of the Canal Zone and the Republic of
Panama with reference to various matters of local joint interest arising
from the relations of the two Governments and the proximity of their
respective areas. The matters handled were generally of a routine
nature, dealing with customs, immigration, municipal improvements,
public health, postal service, repatriation of aliens, and vital statistics.






88 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

CUSTOMS
During the war years the bureau of customs assumed the duties of
enforcement in the Canal Zone of wartime restrictions placed upon
travel and the movenient of cargo, mail, and currency, which, in the
United States, were handled by the Department of Treasury and
Customs. With the termination of hostilities considerable modifica-
tion in the restrictions was effected and their scope curtailed. -The
restrictions imposed by the act of July 2, 1940 (export control) and
those directed against enemy nations which are set forth in Executive
Order 8389 of April 10, 1939, as amended (foreign funds control), are
still in effect but. the enforcement of the regulations issued has been
greatly simplified. It has been possible to discontinue the examination
of outgoing baggage and to suspend the examination of communications
carried by travelers so that. customs operations have for the most part
reverted to a peacetime basis.
The following is a statistical summary of the more important items
handled by the customs during the past fiscal year, with corresponding
figures for the 2 preceding years:

Fiscal year
Iteiii
1946 1945 1944

Vessels entered .................................. ............ 12. 592 9,058 5,582
Vessels cleared .......... .................. ................. 12, 538 9,033 5,573
Aircraft entered................... ............ ..... ......... 3,899 3,080 2,587
Aircraft cleared ............. ...... .. ... .... . .. -.... 3.897 3,076 2,591
Customs releases on shipments consigned to Panama .........-5,793 4,514 3,974
Shipments of household goods of employcy es, inspect ed aid sealed for
shipment to United States................. ... ......-......... 143 93 123
Invoices certified for shipment to United States .. ............... 949 2,092 2,732
Chinese passengers arriving.......... . ....... ........ ...... 68 87 49
Chinese admitted to Panama........ ..... .... ....... ....... 46 78 39
Vessels with Chinese crews checked .. ....... ........ .... 616 442 219

SHIPPING COMMISSIONER
The shipping commissioner and his deputies have the same author-
ity as shipping commissioners in United States ports and United
States consuls in foreign ports with respect to United States seamen.
During the fiscal year, 4,227 seamen were shipped in vessels of the
United States and 2,992 were discharged. No sick or destitute sea-
men were returned to the United States at the expense of the appro-
priation for relief of destitute American seamen, but 1,561 were
signed on vessels as workaways, and returned to the United States
without expense to the Government.
The total wages earned by seamen who were discharged at Canal
Zone ports amounted to $1,956,699, and the total approved for deduc-
tions on account of advances, allotments, fines, slop-chest account,
etc., was $1,096,777. The balance of $859,922 was either paid to
seamen under the supervision of the deputy shipping commissioners
or received on deposit for the seamen by the deputy shipping com-
missioners. The wages, money, and effects of six American seamen,
two of whom died in the Canal Zone and four at sea, were handled by
the shipping commissioner during the year. Their personal effects
and cash amounting to $2,728 were remitted to the proper courts for
disposition.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 89

ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATES
The public administrator takes charge of all estates requiring
administration within the Canal Zone that are not handled by others
legally entitled to administer them. In the case of estates with total
assets exceeding $1,000 in value, the public administrator charges the
regular commissions fixed by law, which are paid into the Treasury of
the United States. Commissions amounting to $1,552 were collected
during the fiscal year. The estates of 210 deceased or insane persons,
with cash assets of $52,534 were settled during the fiscal year.
FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
Foreign corporations doing business in the Canal Zone are required
to have licenses, and 101 such corporations, the majority of which
were steamship lines, steamship agencies, and Government contrac-
tors, were licensed during the fiscal year 1946. Fees amounting to
$1,010 were collected.
INSURANCE
The license fee for insurance companies doing business in the
Canal Zone is $10 per year plus a tax of 1% percent on premiums
collected. At the end of the fiscal year 22 insurance companies
were licensed to write insurance in the Canal Zone.
Life insurance companies reported that as of December 31, 1944,
a total of 1,713 policies were in force. During the calendar year
1945, 189 policies were issued and 133 canceled, leaving 1,769, with
an aggregate face value of $6,563,195, in force as of December 31,
1945. Premium collections on life insurance policies during the
calendar year 1945 totaled $200,038. Claims settled during the year
totaled $36,500. .
During the calendar year 1945 .the premiums received by miscel-
laneous insurance companies, including accident, automobile liability,
fire, surety, fidelity, etc., but excluding life insurance, amounted to
$258,126. Losses paid during the year totaled $52,631.
The tax of 1,k percent on premiums collected by all classes of
insurance companies amounted to $6,984 for the calendar year 1945,
as compared with $9,335 during the previous year.
LICENSES
The number of motor vehicle licenses and transfers issued during
each of the past 3 fiscal years and the aggregate fees collected therefore
are summarized below. These include licenses for official vehicles
for which no charge is made:
Fiscal year
1946 1945 1944
Vehicle licenses issued. ..--....--..-.... --........ .................... 16,685 16,469 16,753
Motor vehicle transfers--.. ------.------------..-------------.....-..-....-. 6,079 5,458 7,213
Total .......--------... ------ ------------------------------ 22, 764 21,927 23,966
Fees collected--------..........--- ---------------------....----------. $100, 374 $91, 844 $94. 789
In addition to the vehicle licenses covered above, several other types
of licenses were issued, such as chauffeurs' licenses, peddler licenses,
etc.
725661-47-7






90 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

RATIONING PROGRAM
The program for the rationing of tires and gasoline which was estab-
lished in 1943 in accordance with delegation of authority to the Gov-
ernor by the Office of Price Administration was discontinued during
the fiscal year 1946. Gasoline rationing was terminated October 31,
1945, and tire rationing December 31, 1945.
COMMERCIAL AVIATION
Commercial aviation activities remained centered on the Pacific
side of the Isthmus at the Canal Zone air terminal. The steadily
growing demand for transportation to and from the Canal Zone re-
quired that the established air carriers expand passenger capacity by
increasing the number of regularly scheduled flights, adding larger
aircraft to their fleets, and supplementing their regular flights with
special charter flights to and from the Canal Zone. During the last
quarter of the fiscal year several new companies began nonscheduled
charter flights from the United States to various points in South
America, serving the Canal Zone in transit. One carrier was author-
ized to conduct "round-the-clock operations" over four of its routes
into the Canal Zone.
A total of 630 itinerant aircraft was handled at the Canal Zone air
terminal during the year, representing a substantial increase over the
number handled annually in the war period when civil flying was
greatly limited.
Tabulated below is a statistical summary of commercial aviation
activities in the Canal Zone for the fiscal year 1946, as compared with
the 2 previous years:
Number of passengers carried by regularly srhe lf'd airlines
Fiscal year
194ti 1945 1944

Incoming ......... ..................... ......... ..... 57. 493 44, 432 1 39,606
Outgoing................... ...... ......... .------ ------- 54,667 45, 5.584 43,220
Total..... .. .. ..... . . - -- 112. 160 90.016 I 82.826
Air express and mail I
[Thousands of pounds)
Fiscal year
1946 1945 1944

Entered .. 2, 485 2,203 2,315
Cleared ... .............. ... ... .. ............ .. 2,109 1,915 | 1,873
Total ........ ......... 4.594 4 118 4.188
I Includes transshipped cargo which enti.-rud and cleared; r.'celudes weight of transfer mail which does not
reach or pass through Canal Zone pust offices.
Number of aircraft entered and cleared
Fiscal year
1946 1945 1944

Entered. .. ........ ................ 3. 53 3 0S1 2,586
Cleared . ..... . 3, 951 3. 076 2.591




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