• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Section I: Canal operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Administration
 Section IV: Government
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Index
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00029
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1945
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00029
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Section I: Canal operation and trade via the Panama Canal
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Section III: Administration
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Section IV: Government
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Index
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Back Cover
        Page 145
        Page 146
Full Text











UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LI BRAR Y





For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Goverment Printing Offce. Washington 25. D. C. Price 25 cents


(~,,, ~ I


14~


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTIING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1946


ACNNUAL REPORT



GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL
FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR


ENDED JUNE 30
1945


















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction__ ___ -__~______ ___________ _____ 1
Operation and maintenance of the Canal..._____ _____ 2
Operation, of auxiliary enterprises-business .operations____ __ 2
Goverrnment--Administration---- ____________ ------_____ 3
Services rendered by thie Canal to shipping_ _________ -- 3
Net revenues -- _____----------_--- ----- 4
IReplacements_-_- ---_---- _--_- __________ __ 4

SECTION I--CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAIMA CANAL

Statistics on Canal trabffie ---- -------_________ 5
ICanal trafdie by ~scal yeans 1915 to 1945---- ---- -- ______ 10
Tra~ffe by monthe--fiscal years 1945 and 1944______...____ 10
Nationality of vessels transiting (Canal _________ ____ 11
Vessebs paying tolls on displacement tonnage_______ ____ 12
Chrigin and destination of cargo__----------- ------ _______ 12
Total cargo shipments--Atlantic to Pa~cifie----- ______ 13
Total cargo shipments--Pacific to Atlantic______ ____ 14
Origin and destination of principal commodities-Atlzantic to
Pacife _______ _____________ 15
Origin and destination of principal commodities -Pacific to
Atlantic_____ _________ _________ 17
Classification of vessels between laden and ballast traffic______ 19
Laden and ballast traffic by nationality _________ 22
Average tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per cargo-carrying vessel__ 22
Steam, uotor and other vessels_____ ._________.__ 23
Frequency of transits of vessels through The Panamna Canral____ 23
Gross tonnage of vessels_____.. ________.___ 25
Small tolls-paying vessels transiting Canal_____________ 27
Vessels entitled tofree transit._____,____________ 27
Canal operaticu and maintenance_______________ 28
Hours of operation ___ _____________ 28
Lookages and lock maintenance__________________ 29
Osxsra~ting schedxde of locks_________________ 29
Lookage~s___- --------- ______________ 29
1Deas to shipping_-_-----------______ ,_____, 30
Alaintenanc~e...._------ --______ __ 30
Power for Canal operration------------ --- ______, 31
Pfater supply and general wetzather conditions_ _________ 32
Water supply- ---------------,_- __________ ___ 32
Air temperatures_ _----------,_____ ___-----_____ 35
Winds and humidity-----------,-- ......_______ 35
T ides ............. ...... ...... ..... .... 35
Seis olo y -- ---- -- --- --- -... ... ... .. 36


C!








IV CO NTE NTS

Canlal operation and main tenance-Continued Page
N~arine setivities-------------------------------------------- -_ 36
Harbor activities, _________ _I_,_____ __ 37
Aids to navigahion_-_-- ,_________ .__, ___ 37
Accidents to shipping_____, ____,_____ __ 37
Inspections------------------------------------ .._____ 37
Admeasurement___ ____-_____ ..________ 38
la~lvage and towing------------------------------ ---- ___ 38
Operating of tugs--------------------------- -------_ 39
Maintenance of channel--other dredging activities_-- -- -_ _____ 39
Ordinary channel mraintenabnce--Canal prism dredging____, 41
Auxiliary dredging--other projects _____________ '41
Third locks dredging ________________ 42
Slides. ...____-__________ 43
Subsidiary Dredging Division arctivities_- __ _______ 43
Equipmrent____ ___-_____ ____ ____ 44
Ferry service-_____-__-__-____ 45
Third lockrsprojeect---_-- --_---- _- __- _____ 45

SECTION II- USINIEss OPERATIONS

Panama (Lanal business operations_____ --_-- _--- ___ 47
Edechaniced anid nurine work--_____----------- 48
Gross revenues-class and source------- --__. __ 48
]Repairs to ships________________________ 49
3Drydocks and nunine railways__- __- -___---_- 50
Plant inaprovement..__________--- __ ____ 50
Electrical repair workr__-- ___ -,-------- _--- 51
Purchases a~nd inspections in the U~nited States,________- 51
Storehouses and ship chandlery.. .._-_---------- 52
Obsolete and unserviceable property and equipment----- __-- 52
Budk petroleum products_-__------------ 52
Building construction and maintenan ce 53
Quarters for employees,_---- ---------------- 54
Motor transportation__ __-_----- --------- 56
]Panama Canal press_-_-_-_----------- 56
Subsistence----- ----------------------- 57
Revenues derived front the rental of lands in the C nal Zone,__- 57
Business operations under the Panarna Railroad Co_,-------- 57
Trans-isthmian railroad,---- --------- ----- 58
Receiving and forwarding agency_,~,--- .-------~-- 59
Coaling plants,,----- ____.------- --------- 59
Telephone sy~stern ,-,,,- .--------- .. __ ....-- 59
Commissary division ...-__----------- 59
Sades ...... -- ------------ --L ------- __ 60
Purchases ... .... -------- --- ------------- 60
H-otehls,,--- ---------- .-----I--- -__...... 61
Idindi lairy........,,, .... .. ...-------- -----------_..... 61








CONTENTS V

SECTION III-AD)MIN1STRTESION Page
Departments .... .... .... -.---- -- ....--_- 62
Operations and maintenance_--_ .....-------______ 62
Supply___ -__----------------_ 62
Accounting___.__-_----------------____ 62
Executive_,____~--------- 63
Health _, _,_------ --------- --____ 63
Panamoa Railroad Do_-_---.-- ----------_ ____ 63
Changes in administral ve personnel----- ----------____ 63
Employees_-- __ ----..----- .--------- ... ___ 64
Gkid empoyees. _______---------- ... -- --- 65
Recruiting and turnover of force--gold employees-____ ___ 66
Adjustment in. wages and hours of work____________ 67
Silver engdoyees-- --,------- _-------- ____ 67
Silver wages__-- _-- ------,--- ---- ______ 69
Elick and rest leave__- ------- ___--_-____ 69
Cash relief for disab ed silver emqdoyees______________ 70
1Repatriations...._ _--- -----,------ --___--____ __ 71
(kntral labor ofaee-----.- ---------- ---- ______ 71
Sadety progrant- -_-_- ..------- --______ 72
Purchase of WNar Savings bonds by funp ovees-___^ ----_ _____ 73
Experiment gardens_-_--- --. --------- _____ 74
Cilubhouses_--------- --------------- --- 75
Legisdation_-- --- _----- -----___- _______ 76
(14pited atllotruents, Hacal year 1946...._- ___ ________ 77

SECTIox IV--GOVERNMENT
Area of the (Lanal Zone,---,-_- ----------_________ 80
Populadion.-------------- -------- -- -- 81
Ptdblic health____,_ _________ _____ ____ 81
Vital statistics_-,, -_, __-___ __ _. ______ 81
Malaria_,, __, ___,_____ ________ __ 83
Ilos~pitads_, _______.___________________ 83
Quarantine and inu igration.._____________ ____ 84
Municipal engineering _.__ ..,_________________ 85
Water system_____,,_n________ ...._______ 85
Expansion, of water supply facilities--______________ 85
Sewer system_---__- .... _______ ________ 86
Roads, streets and sidewalks_____ _________ ___ 86
Other heavy construction activities_______________ 86
Test of Cucaracha rock: formation_ -_-- __________ 87
Cities of Panauna and Colon. -_- __-__ ________, 87
Miscellaneous activities,,,__ ...____________ 87
Publioorder_- _____ .___ ..____ ___________ 88
Traffic accidents and contrti--______________ __ 89
Magistrates courts ._______________ 90
1Pardons and iman-ieves,------ __ ------------- __, _.. .......... 90









VI CONTENTS

Page

Fire protection ......------ ------- ------ ------- -___------- 91
IPublicsechools systern ----- ------------- ------------ 91
Postal sys8tem. --- - --------- ------------------- ----- 93
Immigration visas.. ----- ---- ---------- ------------------- -- 94
Relations with the Republic of Panama -----.. ---------- 94
CustOmtS_.---------- --------------- -------------------- --------- 95
6thipping comanissioner---- ---.. ------- ------------------ 95
Adnainistrationi of estates, __ -------- - -------------- 96
Foreign corporations --- --- --- ------------------------- -- 96
IHsuTrUce----------------------------- --------------- 96
Licenses -- -- -- -- -- ---------------------------- 97
Rationing progrant _---- ------------- ---------------.--- 97
Conunerciad aviation __ --- ------------ ----------------- 98

SECTION V--FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS

Accounting system __ __ -- - ----------- ----------------- 99
Operation of the Panama Railroad Co -- __ --- ------------ -- 100
]Panama Canal operations _--- -------.------ --------------_- 100
Index to tables _------- -L. ------------------- ---------------. 100
Financial tedbles ___ ---------.. ------ ------------------------ 102-133













REPORT'S OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND) DIVISIONS

APPENDIXES NOT PRINTED

The material in the annual report of the Governor of The Panama Canal, pub-
lished in this volume, is to a large extent a summary of the data presented in the
annual reports from the heads of departments and divisions in the Canal organi-
zration; the latter, regarded as appendixes to the report of the Governor, are not
printed. The annual reports of the Panama Railroad Co. and the health depart-
ment are published separately; the latter is compiled for calendar years only.
The reports of the heads of departments and divisions, as listed below, are on ~file
at the Wrashington Office of The Panama Canal and at the office of the Governor
at Balboa HEeights, C. Z.:
Engineer of maintenance, report of.
Dre~dging division, report of superintendent.
Plans section, report of chief.
Safety section, report of safety engineer.
Special engineering division, report of acting chief.
Assistant engineer of maintenance, report of.
Civilian Defense Corps, report of director.
Electrical division, report of electrical engineer.
SLocks division, report of superintendent.
Meteorology anld hydrography, section of, report of chief hydrographer.
Municipal engineering division, report of acting municipal engineer.
Office engineering division, report of offce engineer.
Accounting department, report of comptroller.
IMarine division, report of marine superintendent.
Mechanical division, report of superintendent.
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Executive department:
Civil affairs, division of, report of chief.
Clubhouses, Panama Canal, report of director.
General counsel, report of.
License bureau, report of acting chief.
Personnel supervision and management, division of, report of director
of personnel.
Police and fire division, report of ch~ief.
Schools, division of, report of superintendent.
Surveying officer, report of.
Aeronautics section, report of chief.
Collector, report of.
Magistrates" courts:
Matgist~rate:
Cristobal, report of.
Balboa, report of.
Pardon board, report of chairman.
~Payrmaster, acting, report of.
Public deffender, report of.
-Washington office~, report of chief of office and general purchasing officer.
VII











































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in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from Lyrasis and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreporofo945cana












OF THE

GOVERNOR OF THE: PANAMA CANAL,


IBALBOA 11EIG;HTS, CANAL ZONE,
January 25, 1946.
The SECRETASRY OF V~AR,
WIashington, D. C.
I have t~he honor to submit the report of the Governor of T'he
Panama Canal for t~he ~fiscal year ended June 30, 1945.
The intensification of the war in the Pacific during 1945 resulted
in a 73-percent increase in Canal traffic in comparison with the pre-
v~ious year. This heavy traffic included large numbers of vessels of
wvar, as well as commaercial-type vessels carry-ing supplies to the
western Pacific. Coincident with the increased flow of traffic was an
increased demand for vessel repairs, especially for the large flfeet of
oil tankers based at the Canal; a~nd for supplies, including provisions,
fuel, water, ship chanzdlery, etc.
The preponderance of tolls-free vessels over those subject to the
paymellnt of tolls continued as in the two previous years sad, conse-
que3ntly, the Panama Canal operated at a deficit as in 1944 and 1943.
The approximate amount of additionalt revenue that would have ac-
crued to the P~anama Canal if tolls-free vessels had been assessed at
the prescribed rates is $13,000,000.
'Very respectfully,
J. C. MEH[AFFEY, ODB672TROT
INTRODUCTION

~A~dmaiistration of the affairs of The Panama Canal enterprises
inolves three main eleent~ns: (a) Operation and maintenance of the
Canal itself; (b) operations of the auxiliary enterprises necessary to
provide adequately for the needs of shipping and of the Canal operat-
ing forces; and (c) government of the Canal Zone, populated by
American civilians, native or tropical wForkers and their families, and
United States Army and Navy defense forces.
In addition to these normal elements, during the past 6 years the
Canal organization has performed very important functions as a
supply and service agency for the greatly expanded activities of the
Army and Navy, particularly in their extensive construction program.


A1NNUJAL REPORT







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE: PANA1\1A CANAL


Whilile thle Canal organization and e~quipme~nt were not designed for
this duty and are by no means fully adequate, the services rendered
ar~e regarded as very credlitable. These services have contributed
materially to the( efficinc~y and economy of the Army anrd N~avy
operations, and will continue to do so for the duration of the war.
The immediate superv\ision of the administration of these various
activities retsts with the heads of the nine major departments and
diivisionls. Responsibility and control of the entire organization are
cenlt~r~ed in the Goveirnlor of The Panama Canal who is also the president
of the Panama Railroad Co., an adjunct of the Canal enterprise,
organized as a Govermnent-owned corporation.
By Exclcutivei order of September 5, 1939, the provisions of section
13 of the ]Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912, were inlvoked~t
as an emergency? measure, and since that date the Commanding
General, Panama Canal Department, United States Army, has ex-
ercised final authority over the operation of the: Panama Canal and
all its adjuncts, appendants, and appurtenances, including control
and government of the Canal Zone; and the Governor of The Panama
Canal has been subj ect to that authority and the orders issued u ndler it.
OPERATION. AND R/AINTENANTCE OF THE CANAL

The primary function of The Panama Canal is to provide and main-
tain a waterway by means of which vessels may make the transit
from one ocean to the other, and to handle such traffic as presents
itself for transit with a maximum of sarfety3 and a mimlniumn of delay.
Essentially this involves the maint~nanlcce of the warterway:3, the opera-
tion of the locks, and the control of traffc, through~ the Canal. Through-
out the year the Canal force maintained its high standard for exspedi-
tious service not only in thle actual transiting of ships but in providing
emergency recpairs, fuel, supplies, and the various su~pple~mentary
services incidental to shipping. There were no,inlterIruptions of ship
traffic during the yeiar.
OPERATION or AUXILIARY ENTERPRISES--EU'SINESs OPERATIONS
Se~conld only to the? operation of the Canal is the function of sup-
plyinig neccssaryy services to shiippinig and the Canial operating force.
These services are provided under c~oordinated~ andi centralized control
by the various business units of The Panama. Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. and include oil and coal bun~kerinlg plants; st~orehouses
for food, shlip chandlery, and other esse~ntial supplies; marine repair
shops; harbor termminal facilities for passengers and' for handling and
transhlippilgr caurg5o; a railroad line across the Isthmus; water anrd
elecctric: powerl systems; and livinga quarters and retail commssary
stores for thie operating force.












GOVERNMIENT-ADIMINISTRATION

The usual functions of governmentt, such as schools, police an~d fire

protection, quarantine, public health, immigration service, posts,
customs, aids to Inavigation, steamboat inspection, hydrographic and
met~eorologric~al workr, water supply, srrewers, construction and main-
tenance of st~reet~s, and similar activities, which, in th~e United States
are directed by various officers of the national, State, and Imunicipal

geovecrnments, are entrusted in the Canal Zone to thle Governor, and
are execulted under his authority and responsibility. TIhis centraliza-
tion of all governmental activities under one head is essential to
economlical and e~fficient administration.

SERVICES RENDERED BY THE CANAL TO SmermaING

The principal services rendered to shipping by the Canal and its
adjuncts are shown in the following table, which presents a com-
parison of the activities during the fiscal year 1945 with those of the
f2 years immediately preceding:

Fiscal year


1945 194 1943r


8,866 5,130 4,372

$67, 243, 602 $5, 456, 163 $7, 356, 685
22, 600 17, 683 12, 0541
7, 266, 211 5, 473, 846 7, 368, 739
Tons Tons Tows
8, 603, 607 7, 003, 487 10, 590, 966
20, 883 17, 156 11, 050
10,744,651 4, 572,034 419,080


_ _11.1111_~~_--.11


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE PJANAMIA CANAL


TRAFFC THOUGH THE PANAMA CANAL

Number of vessels transiting the Canal:
Ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels.................---------
Small tolls-paying vessels _.... ... .............-------- -
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls (see p. 27)._ .. -
Total transits-.~ --.... -..........-------------------
T'olls levied:
Ocean1-going vessels----. ~.-....~.--.........-----------
Small vessels-- --. ---.. .............------ ------- ---
Total tolls_-.. ....---... ........-----------------------.

Cargo passed through Canal, carried by:
Ocean-goinLg. to:lls-paymrn vessels.......----------- ....... -
Small tulls-pat ing easelsls ....... ... --------------- ....
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls _-_-.. ..... ---
Total cargo~-~-..............---------------- -- ----
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement) of ocean going,
tolls-paying ressels~.~.~~-......-----~-~.-----------------
Cargo per Panama Canal ne~t vessel ton ladenn ocean going,
tolls-pay ing vessels only). ...--- ----- -------
A average tolls per ton of cargo (ladlen ocean going, tolls-paying
vessels only)_ _ _ __-.--... .. .. .. .- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -
OTHER SERVICES

Calls at Canal Zone ports by ships not transit Eng the Canal....
Cargo handled and transferred at ports (lons) ..................
Coal sales to ships (to).---............------------5--------- .
Coal, number of vessels bunkered__.-.-- ........--------------..
Fuel oil:
Total barrels pumped (both incoming and outgoing), ex-
cluding Panamas Cana use... .....---------------........
Number of vessels handled ....... -
Repairs to shlips other than Panama Canal equipment.
Number of ~vesse~ls repaired.........------------ ----------.
Number of vessels drydocked ................... ...........
Bales to ships (except U. S. Army and Navy;:
Provisions (commisar salesi)..............--------~--------
Chandlery (storehous sales)............------------------.


1,562
235
3, 333


1, 822
177
2, 373


1, 939
361
6, 566


19, 369, 141

8, 380, 959
1. 402
$0.642


1, 273
1, 374, 679
42, 660
158

32, 180, 658
3, 370
4, 303
500

$5, 271, 972
$447, 886


11, 592, 677

6, 073, 457
1. 380

$b0.648


813
1, 734, 556
58,583
213

23, 688, 710
2,431
3, 514
418

$1, 506, 608
$33;, 5;77


11, 030, 105

8, 233, 990
1.435

$0.633


483
2,018,3;i
75, 491
294

20, 546, 768
3, 057
2,318
332

Slol, 84306







4: REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH~E PANAMA CANAL

NET R1EVENUES

During the fiscal y-ear the revenues from tolls charged to commercial
shipping using the Canal were $7,222,656.14, and civil revenues plus
the postal surplus amounted to $238,715.40. The net appropriation
expenses were $13,905,470.81, resulting in a net deficit fromn Canal
operations proper of $6,444,099.27. The business operations under
Thie Panama Canal produced a net revenue of $1,469,183.52. The
combined net deficit resulting from the operation of the Canal a~nd its
business units during the fiscal year 1945 was thus $4,974,915.75 as
compared with a net deficit of $5,367,630.75 in the fiscal year 1944.
REPLACEMENTS

The past fiscal year marked the close of 31 years of successful
operation of The Panama Canal. AS very important factor contribut-
ing to ths creditable record is the care that has been taken to maitain
all parts of the Canal structures and equipment inI good operating
condition.
If the total capital value of The Panama Canal, approximately
$100,000,000 is the value of property of the transit divisions whichh is
subject to deterioration). Some of this property, including locks,
dam~s, and other concrete structures, is still in excellent condition and
requires but little expenditure for upkeep. H-owever, other types of
property, subject to more rapid deterioration, require systemaatic and
orderly replacement as their economic life is exhausted, and appropri-
ations mlust be made by Congress for this purpose, as well as for the
construction of new facilities as the need therefore develops.














SIECTIONS I


CANAL OPERATIONr AND) TCAD)E VIA THflE PANA1VIA CANAL,
STATISTICS ON CA~NAL TRAFFIC

Total transits of the Canal in the fiscal year 1945, intcluding vTessels
onl whch tolls were assessed and those tranlsiting free of tolls, numr-
bered 8,86j6, w~hicha represents an increase of 72.8 percent over thie
5,130 transits in the preceding fiscal year, and more than doubles the
4,372 transits of the ~fiscal year 1943. The following table presents
a segregation of this traffic for the past three fiscal years:

Fiscal year
1945 1944 1943
Tolls-paying transits:
Ocean-going of 300 ne~t tons (Panama Ca a1 measurement) and over .. 1, 939 1, 562 1, 822
Local traffic, under 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement)_... ..._ 361 235 177
Tolls-free transits..---_-~- .............--------------- .. ..... 6,566 3, 333 2,373
Total transits._ ____----~. __~-~---.. .... ..... ... .. ..... 8, 866 5 130 4, 372

As will be noted from the table above, substantial increases were
made in both tolls-paying and tolls-free transits in comparison, with
the two past fiscal years. The increase was particularly noteworthy
in tolls-free traffic which. doubled similar traffic in 1944, and almost
three times as great as the number of free transits in 1943. This
heavy increase in tolls-free traffic, the larger portion of which. was
routed from the Atlantic to Pacific, w~as the result of added emphasis
directed to the prosecution of the wvar in. the Pacific.
The use of the Canal b~y the heavy volume of tolls-free traffic is,
of course, a war development and transits in this category in 1945
accounted for 74 percent of the total transits, as compared with 65
percent of the total in 1944. In 1939, whicha may be considered the
last normal year in Canal traffic, free transits comprised less than 9
percent of the total traffic through the Canal. The tolls which wIcould
have been collected from these tolls-free vessels if they had been
assessed at the regular commercial rates would havPe amounted to
approximately $13,171,772. Further data on vessels transiting free
of tolls will be found on page~ 27 of this report.
The ]Panama Canal has never compiled detailed statistics on the
cargo or routing of tolls-free vessels nor have these been included in










the general statistics, w~hich1 are confinedl to tolls-paying traffic. IIIl
normal times tolls-free traffic consists largely of w~arships, which do
not carry cargo, and supply vessels of the U~nited States Army and
Navy. At thne present time a great number of cargo vessels are car-
ry~ing supplies for the Arm and ~Navy as a direct part of the war
effort. As these vessels are exempt from thie payment of tolls they
are not included in the traffic statistics, although they now comprise!
the bulk of the cargo carried through the Canal.
The following data showr thze total amount of cargo cared through
the Canal since the fiscal year 1939, segregated between that carried
by tolls-paying and tolls-free vessels:

T'olls-paying
Fiscal year Total Tolls-freet
Ocean-go~ing Local 1

Tons Tons Tons ITons
1939 ~. __~. .... . ________ ._______ 27, 993, 143 27, 866, 627 31, 251 95, 265
1940...... ..___~~ ~__ __.........__ ___. ... 27, 523, 727 27, 299, 016 2,l 198, 893
1941___. __.. ..___.. ..... .~._ 25, 198, 599 24, 950, 791 24~, b81 222, 927
1942 ~_...... ....._____ __. __ __.___ 14, 187, 080 13, 607, 444 12, 990 566, 637
1943..____ .. ___~___ ..... __. ...~___ 11, 030, 105 10, 599. 966 11, 059 419, 080
1944..... _____ .....___~ __ ....... ...... 11, 592, 677 7, 003, 487 17, 156 4, 5;2, 034
1945....... _ _ _ ..._._ ._ __ .. ..... .. .. 19, 369, 141 8, 603, 607 20, 883 10, 744. 651

1 Vessels under 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement.

ExceIpt for the section on page 27 the following discussion of trafi
through the Panama Canal in the fiscal year 1945 deals only with
tolls-paying traffic:

TEMPORARY CHANGE IN BASIS FOR COMPILATION OF` SHIPPING STATISTICS

At the start of the fiscal year 1944, The Panama Canal discontinued
the use of its standard cargo declaration form, for the duration of
the war. Prior to that time the origin and destination of all important
items of cargo hard been shown on this form. by the masters of all
tolls-paying~ ~vessels tr~ansiting the Canal. For vessels traveling over
long routes the origin or destination of the cargo was frequently dif-
ferent from. the uItimatett origin or destination of the vro~a~ge.
In lieu of the carlgo declaration form, ships' masters nowc are re-
quiredl to furnishl only general statistics as to the important commodi-
ties on board at the time of tranrsit~ingr the Ca~nal. The P'anama Canal
rcceivecs inldepeltl ndent special recpor~ts from the Un~lited States N~avy
showing the ports of origin. and destination of commercial ve~tssels
transiting thne Canal. These two sets of data.n are consolidated to
prepare statistics on, origin and destination of cargo anld type of com-
modlities shippedl.
An example of thle difference between the standard procedure and
the one adopted for the duration of the waer is the case of vessels


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THEE PANpAMlA CANALkjt







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THEiE: PANAluA CAlNAL


coming ~from the: west coast, of North America. Vessels from this
ara often lift important parts of their cargo in both. Canada and
the United States, and under The 1Panama Canral's standard procedure
this distinlctionl was shown. Under the present procedure, however,
all cargo in one ship is conlsolidatced into one tradel route, and no
attempt is made to distinguish between. cargo originating in. the
ULnited States and in Canada.
This temporazry procedure is not as accurate or complete as the
stalndard peace-timle procedure, but it is considered adequate for
the wair period, since the commercial shnipping transiting the Canal
in the w~ar period is entirely subject to war conditions, both as to
routing and as to commr~odities carried, and so is not comparable
wFith commercial shipping in normal times.
Ocean-going, tolls-paying tra~tfic.--A total of 1,939 ocean-going,
tolls-paying vessels of 300 net tons or more (Panama Canal measure-
mnent) tranrsited the Canal in 1945, which. is an increase of 377 transits,
or 24.1 percent, in comparison with the fiscal year 1944, and an
increase of 117 transits, or 6.4 percent, compared with the fiscal year
1943. The following figures show the principal features of ocean-
going, tolls-paying traffic through the Canal in the past three fiscal
years:

Fiscal year
1945 1944 1943

Number of transits_____.. __. ~ _~.--__. __I............ .. 939 1, 562 1, 822
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement) ~_ ~_ .._ ..__ 8, 380, 959 6, 073, 457 8, 233, 0999
Cargo scared (tons of 2,240 lbs.)............. ....... . ._, 8. 603, 607 7, 003, 487 10. 599, 966
Tolls_ ___. _~~__~_. __.__~ ..... ..... ....... .. 7, 243, 602 $5, 456, 163 $:, 356, 685


In the fiscal year 1939, which immediately preceded th~e outbreak
of hostilities in Europe, ocean-going, tolls-payTing transits numbered
5,903, falling but little short of equalling the peak years of 1928
through 1930, when t~ransit~s averaged 6,190 per year. The outbreaks
of war in. Europe early in thie fiscal year 1940 had an immediate
adverse effect on traffic, particularly in thie normally important
'Europe/N~orth America and Europe/South America trades. Traffi
over the other main channels of trade continued for somne time at
about prewar levels, but beginning with January 1941 whichh approxi-
miat~ely coincided wFcith the discontinuance of heavy shipments to
.Japan) traffic declined sharply and at thze time! of thre entry of the
United States inrto war in D~ecember 1941 was about t wo-thirds
of normal. The entry of the United States into the war brought
abou t a further decline, resultin chiefly from the virtual disappea rance
from the Canal of vessels engaged in the important United Stat~es







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA. CANAL


intercoastal trade. In the early months of the fiscal year 1943 the
volume of Canal traffic was sharply expanded by a ~flow of war cargoes
from areas in the Atlantic to Russia (via the Persian Gulf), India
and to ports in ~Africa (principally the Suez Canal area) and return
cargoes of various rawv materials. The use of these long routes
wpere evidently influenced by safety considerations since shorter
routes to these destinations were available and would have no doubt
been, used had it not been for the danger from enemy action. Cargo
passing through the Canal between. these areas in 1943 amounted to
3% million tons, or about oneCI-third~ of the tontal. passningr through the
Canal that year. Traffic over these routes continued into the early
months of the fiscal year 1944 but finally~ disappeared after the IMedi-
terranean passed into allied _control and the -submnarine menace
became less acute.
The combined cargo mnoveme~nt in both directions in. 1945 amounted
to 8,603,607 tons, a gain of 1,600,120 tons (22.8 percent) in comparison
withz ton~nage passing through inl 1944. The Atlantic-to-1Pacific
movement advanced from 3,354,349 tons in 1944 to 4,234,935 tons in
1945, up 26.3 percent, while the movement in the opposite direction
increased from 3,649,138 tonls inz 1944 to 4,368,672 tons in 1945, up
19.7 percent.
Heavy shipments of mineral oils from the N~etherlands W~est Indies
and ports in Venezuela and thae east coast of Colom-bia contributed
~in large measure to the substantial increase in the Atlantic-to-
Pacific cargo movement as compared with the preceding fiscal year.
Shipments of such products to Balboa, at the Pacific termainus of thce
Canal in. 1945, totaled 1,061,859 tons, an increase of 348,175 tons
in comparison with 1944; to the west coast of Canada, 295,030 tons,
up 283,845 tons; to Australasia includingg islands of South and Central
Pacifc), 634,810 tons, up 334,600 tons; to west coast South
America, 102,399 tonts, up 99,682 tons; and to the west coast Cenrtral
America, 107,760 tons, up 49,503 tons. Other items shipped to -the
1Pacific in. 1945 included 566,684 tonls of general :merchandise from
the east coast. United States to the west coast South Amerrica; this
compares with 515,190 tons in 1944, and thus constitutes an increase
of 51,494 tons, or 10 percent. Cargo tonnage routed from E~urope
to Australasia totaled 289,2150 tonis, whTEich represented an increase~
of 85,880 tonls, or 42.2 percent, over 1944. Shipmlents from the east
coast Unit~ed States/Canada to Australasia wecre down from the
preceding year dropping from 920,909 tons in 1944 to 721,808 tons
in 1945, a lossP of 199,101 tons or 21. penrcent, from the~ preceding year.~
Cargo shipments from Europe to the west coast South. America totaled
43,999 tons in 1945 as compared with 25,736 tons in 1944, a gain of
18,263 tons. Westbound shipments of cargo to Inldia, the Persian.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF T~E: PANAM?1A CANAL;


Gulf area and Africa, which formed important elemlenlts in Canal
traffic inl 1943 anzd 1944 wNere missing in 1945. In 1944 such shipmenlts
wer~ie as follows: East coast United States to India/Persian Gulf,
216,923 tons; east coast United States to Africa, 81,353 tons; and
West Indies to Africa, 100,589 tons.
At? total of 2,161,563 tons, or about half the cargo moving from
the Pacific to Atlantic in the fiscal year 1945 originated on the west
coast of South Am~erica. Of this amount 1,807,729 tons (comprising
chiefly of nitrate, metals and ores) were destined to the eastern
seaboard of the United States; this compares witha 1,327,149 tons
rou ted to the U~nited States from the west coast of South; America inl
1944, and constitutes an, increase of 480,580 tons, or 36.2 percent.
A total of 164,387 tonls of the cargo originating on the west coast of
South America in 1945 were destined to Europe. This total, com-
prising chiefly of nitrate, more than doubled the tonnage of 1944.
Shzipmenlts from Australasia via the Canal in 1945 accounted for
1,326,132 tons, of which 1,186,067 tons wPent to the United Kingdom
and 118,325 tons to eastern United States. The shipments to the
United K~ingdoml in 1945 were higher by 187,137 tons, or 18.7 percent,
than those in the previous year, wThile those to the U~nited States
were up 26,779 tons, or 29.3 percent, in comparison with. the ship-
ments in 1944. Commodities shipped in considerable amounts over
these routes consist of refrigerated meats anld dairy products, metals,
ores, and wool.
Cargo shipments fromr the west coast U~nited States/Canada via
the Canal in 1945 totaled 706,3175 tons, of wMhich 555,098 tons were
destied to the United K~ingdomz and 107,985 tons to eastern Unlited
States. The 555,098 tonls routed to the U~nitedl Kingdom~ exceeded
the tonnage of thie previous year by 212,417 tons, or 6(2.0 percent;
about 80 percent of the 1945 tonnage was made up of lumber. -The
cargo shipments destined to eastern United Stat~es from thae waest
coast United States/Canada (107,985 tons) exceeded those of 1944
b~y 60.2 percent anld wPere maade up chrie~fly of lumber.
FEurther details of the origin and destination of cargo shipped
between principal geographical areas, together with the principal
commodities comprising these shipments, are presented onl pages 15
through 19 of ths report.
The receipts from. tolls as reported to the United States Treasury
for the fiscal year 1945 were $7,222,656.14. This figure includes tolls
on local tolls-payving vessels amount~inga to $22,609.16, which are not
included in thet Canal statistics covering ocean-going, tolls-paying
traffic. The tolls receipts reported to the United States Treasury,
moreover, reflect adjustments for overcharges and unldercollections
683509--46---2












which in 1945 amounted to $43,554.60. These two items accout
for the differences of $20,945.44 between the tolls receipts reported
to the Treasury and the figure for tolls levied on ocean-going, tolls-

praying traffic as reported in the following studies of traffic which
are basedt on tolls levied at the time of transit.


CANAL TRAFFIC BY FISCAL YEARS 1915 To 1945


Comparative traffic statistics covering ocean-going vessels for each
fiscal year since the Canal was opened to navigation are shown in the
following table:

Number Panama
F sl-al year ended June 30-- of Canal net TollsTosf
transits tonnage 3 cargo

1915 1.____I _~~~_~~.~~~~-~ 1, 058 3, 507, 000 $4, 366, 747. 13 4, 888, 400
1916 2.~_ .~_ .___ __ ____~_~_____ 724 2, 212, 000 2, 403, 089. 40 3, 093, 335
1917______._.._-~. 1~--~~~~- 738 5, 357, 000 5, 620, 799. 83 7, 054, 720
1918..~_____~~~_~~~~~~~ 1, 989 6, 072, 000 6, 428, 780 26 7, 32-5. 768
1919 1, 948 5, 658, 000 6, 164, 290. 79 6, 910, 097
1920. -2, 393 7, 898, 000 8, 507, 938. 68 9, 3"2. 374
1921~.~______~~-~~. _~..~~~~ 2, 791 10, 550, 000 11, 268, 681. 46 11, 595, 971
1922_~___~~~ ...~~~~~~ ..~.~~-- 2, 665 10, 556, 000 11, 191, 828. 56 10, 882, 607
1923 ..________~_~~~~_~~ 3, 908 17, 206, 000 17, 504, 027. 19 19, 566, 429
1924, ... .. ..____________~_~~ 5, 158 24, 181, 000 24, 284, 659. 92 r...16
1925______~ ~.~~ ~_~-~ .~~~~~~ 4, 592 21, 134, 000 21, 393, 718. 01 23. !r.W. 549
1926__~~-~ ..~~~~~~ ... ~ -~~~ .. _...... 5, 087 22, 906, 000 22, 919, 931. 89 26, 030,l 016
1927____-_~ .... ~ ~.~ ~ .. ... ~~-... 5, 293 24, 245, 000 24, 212, 250. 61 27, 33, 555
1928 __--~-~.~. ~~. .~. . ...... 6, 253 27, 229, 000 26, 922, 200. 75 29, 615, 651
1929_____~~~..~~.~~~.~ 6i, 289 27, 585, 000 27, 111, 125. 47 30, 647, 768
1930_ .. .... 6, 027 27, 716, 000 27, 059, 998. 94 30, 018, 429
1931~___ ~ __ _ .___~___~~~~ 5, 370 25, 690, 000 24, 624, 599. 76 25, 065, 283
19372 .~__~_~ ~. ~~.~.~.~ ~~ .~~-~ 4, 362 21, 842, 000 20, 694, 704. 61 19, 798, 986
1933 _~ _~ .~~~~~~~~ ~~~-.. ~ ~ .. ~ 4, 162 21, 094, 000 19, 601. 077. 17 18, 161, 165
1934._____~ ~ .~~-~~ .... .. ~~~... ~ 5, 234 26, 410, 000 "4. 047, 183. 44 24. 704, 000
1935 ...... ~~_~ . ...~__~_ 5, 180 25, 720, 000 23.3,3 062.93 25, 309, 527
1936 ....... ......5, 382 25, 923, 000 23, 47,114. 21 26, 505, 943
1937_ ~ ... __~.-__. _.~-.~~~~~- ... 5, 387 25, 430, 000 23, 102, 137. 12 28, 108, 375
1938.._ .. .. . . _.. ______~ .~. 5, 524 25, 950, 383 23, 169, 888. 70 2?, 385, 924
1939.___. ~ -.. .. . ...~ . .~ ~~~~ 5, 903 27, 170, 007 23, 661, 021. 08 27, 866, 627
1940~_~~~~~~ ... ~ . ~~~. ~~~.~~.~. --. 5, 370 24, 144, 366 21, 144. 675. 36 27, 299, 016
1941 __ ___.. ... ....... ..... __ 4, 727 20, 642, 736 18, 1.57. 739. 68 24, 950, 791
1942 ..... ....~~- ~_~. ~_...~ ...L.2 688 11, 010, 004 9, 752. 207. 38 13. 607, 444
1943 . ........ .. ... .___~ 1, 822 8, 233, 999 7, 356, 684. 94 10. 599, 966
1944______.~ _........ _____ _.. .... ..... 1, 562 6, 073, 457 5. 456, 163. 32 7, 003, 487
1945. ..... ~~.~~_ ~_ _ _ _ _ 1, 939 8, 380, 959 7, 243, 601. 58 8, 003, 607
Tlt 31. _~. _~.~~.~._~_........ .. ... .... 122, 525 547, 726, 911 522, 157, 930. 17 590, 854, 986

t Canal opened to tratffic Aug. 15, 1914.
a Canal closed to tr:Jln-l approximately 7 months of fiscal year by slides.
a Panama Canal net linnapfer priror to 1939 are estimated figure; based on, revised measurement rules
which became HTot-sr 1it eM ar i, 193~

TRAFFIC BY hMONTH[S

]FISCAL YEARS 1945 ANID 1944

The ocean-goning traffc during each month of the fiscal year 1945

is sumnunarize in the following table in which are inserted for com-
panrisonr the correspolndngln figresrP for t~he pl.receing yealr:


REPORT OF GOVIERtNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL













Numbe~r of Panamna Canal net Tons of cargo Tolls
transits tonnage

1944-45 1943-44 1944-45 1943-44 1944-45 1943-44 1944-45 1943--44

July_____ .____ 120 131 495, 82t3 553, 901 548, 904 580, 644 $446, 205. 86 $487, 843. 56
August~~--~.-.. 140 162 577, 507 668, 300 661, 917 781, 764 510, 325. 02 613, 079. 14
Beptemnber~____ 139 122 535, 728 479, 535 554, 970 557, 651 460, 442. 60 438, 141. 76
October. ~--~- 145 120 589, 822 433, 307 632, 756 536, 964 513, 403. 78 391, 543. 52
NTovember_____ 183 139 710, 178 524, 975 775, 499 673, 023 615, 680. 66 466, 229. 60
December_____ 161 102 708, 277 339, 018 708. 676 350. 208 599. 137. 56 310, 272. 56
Jan uar y .~~__~~ 163 120 688, 627 489, 454 713, 020 564, 602 595, 471. 98 438, 784. 24
February. _~_~_ 139 143 586, 074 524, 289 639, 167 585, 994 514, 147. 54 461, 868. 58
March~______ 170 144 830, 899 499, 661 797, 039 575, 279 720, 501. 92 451, 497. 84
April____~--. 159 140 736, 684 608, 747 702, 558 775, 593 626, 099. 46 ,542, 748. 12
May____~__~ 192 108 900, 039 436, 127 843, 865 464, 958 772, 390. 62 395, 178. 70
June ...------ 219 122 1 012, 301 516, 134 1 025, 236 556, 807 869, 794. 58 458, 975. 70
Tot al. .. .. .. 1, 939 1, 562 8, 380, 959 6, 073, 457 8, 603, 607 7,003, 487 17, 243, 601. 58 15, 456, 163. 32
Average per month_ 162 130 698, 413 506, 121 716, 967 583, 624 603, 633. 46 454, 680. 27



NATIONALITY OF VESSELS TRANSITING CANAL


Segregation of ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic x through the Canal
during the fiscal year 1945, by nationality, is presented in the follow-

ing table which shows transits, measurement tonnage, tolls and tons
of cargo:

Measured tonnage

Number Tons of
Nationality of Registered Tolls ro
transits Panama
canal net
Gross Net

Arg:entine ....... .... .~ 4 28, 192 28, 456 16, 456 $25, 372. 80 9, 611
Belgian..... ....... .... .- 4 29, 980 42, 272 22, 228 25, 632. 90 45. 163
British.... ... .. .. ..._ 636 3, 438, 593 4, 759, 182 2, 876, 312 3, 082, 925. 14 3, 347, 421
Chilean .................-.. 69 180, 341 246, 612 153 324 169, 758. 90 281, 293
Colomblian _............-- 1 (a) (2 () 642. 50 ..... ....
Costa Rican_ ... . . ... 12 8, 196 12, 816 7, 440 7, 007. 58 10, 858
Dansh.. ..... . .3 21, 801 29, 469 18, 705 19, 620. 90 31, 923
Ecuadorean. _____--.. 8 7, 624 8, 960 4, 176 6, 690. 06 7, 250
Greek. _._ ..............~ 4 19, 357 24, 732 14, 948 15, 795. 72 16, 341
HEonduran __............ ... 119 210, 034 358, 639 200, 847 175, 855. 14 124, 476
Mexicatn.... .. _.._ _..- 22 28, 689 39, 195 25, 958 23, 98,5. 90 31. 6731
Nethertland,................. 194 173, 797 172, 717 89, 867 153, 879. 34 156, 390
Norwegiian. ..............._ 81 432, 424 551, 452 329, 429 359, 086. 86 407, 804
Panamanian... .... ... .~- 120 488, 926 654, 682 402, 239 401, 010. 30 460, 186
Peruvian_ .... .. ........~ 14 13. 538 21, 794 12, 218 21, 277. 98 13, 268
Polish..... ............_... 1 5, 121 7, 176 4, 380 3, 687. 12 ...... .. .._
Portuguese _ _ .... .-~ 6 33, 681 36, 598 22, 908 26, 267. 76 17, f281
Soviet~ ....... ..... .-.. 2 7, 567 10, 104 5, 896 6, 810. 30 12, 465
Spanish....... .. ......_..._ 13 39, 378 52, 636 31, 996 32, 139. 90 35, 598
Swedish__ ___. ____. 8 41, 960 57, 635 42, 656 35, 161. 74 49, 836
Un i ted States~___. ........ 600 3, 107, 495 4, 235, 445 2, 586, 688 2, 605, 213. 16 3, 493, 353
Uruguayan_.. __.........._ 4 16, 187 18, 035 11, 074 13, 696. 92 14, 711
Venezuelan ........ _-~. .. 11 31, 605 48, 548 27, 978 25, 858. 08 34, 895
Yugoslavian___ ...... ..... 3 7. 473 9, 447 6, 082 6, 224. 58 1, 811
Totals:
1945.. ... .... 1_ 939 8, 380, 959 11. 426, 602 6, 922, 80)5 1$7, 243, 601. 58 8, 603, 607
1944.__........_... .. 1, 562 6, 073, 457 8, 048. 116 4, 862, 402 5,456, 163. 32 7, 003, 487
1943............. 1, 822 8, 233, 909 10, Ii73. 750 6, 578, 130 7, 356, 684. 94 10, 599, 966

t Includes only vessels of 300 or moore 6et tons, Panama Canal measurement, or 500 or more displacement
tons.
Displacemnent tonnage.


REPORT OF GOV'ERNOR OF THE PANAM/A CANAL







12: REPORT O1F GOVERNOR OF TH~E IPANAMIA CANATtL

`JrESSELS PAYING TOLLS ON DISPLtAC]EMENT TONNAGE:

In the Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as trans-
ports, supply ships, tankers, etc., with a measurement of 300 net
tons (Panlama Canal mecasuremnent) or more, and vessels of wcar,
dredges, etc., with a displacements of 500 tonzs or mzore, are classified
as ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels. Statistics on these vessels, ex-
cept as relate to displacement tonnage, hav~e been included in the
traffic summaries shown on the preceding pages. Displacement ton-
nage cannot be combined with net tonnage, and the following table
presents by nationality statistics covering 41 vessels, the majority of
which were vessels of war, which transited the Canal during the ~fiscal
year 1945 and paid tolls on displalcem~ent tonnage:

Nationality Numzber pf Displacement Tolls
transits tonnage

British .... .. ... .... ... ..... ___...._ ..__ __......___ __ __ __.. .. 32 185, 360 $92, 680. 00
Colombian .............. _____. ____._ __._ _.._ 1 1, 285 642. 50
Netherland................ .... ~_ _ ._ 1 935 467. 50
Peruvian ___._ __.... ....... . .... .. .. .. .. 6 18, 423 9, 211. 50
U united States............ . ....... ........ 3, 265 1, 632. 50
Total___-_--- ~ _~_........... ........ ... ... 41 209, 268 104, 634. 00


ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF CARGO

TIhe following tables present, by directions of movement, the origin
and destination of cargo passing through the Canal, together with
the principal commodities making up these shipments, for th3e past
three fiscal years. In using these tables it is important to bear in
mind that these data include only cargo carried by tolls-paying
vessels, and that during the fiscal year 1945, 56 percent of the cargo
passing through the Canal was carried by tolls-free vessels, and
accordingly is not included in these statistics. It should also be
noted that data on the origin and destination of cargo for the fiscal
y-ear 1945 are not strlict~ly comparable wvithl those of normal times, as
explained onr page 6 of this report:
















[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Fiscal year


1945 1944 1943


1, 375, 926 1, 807, 623 3, 642, 049


65, 395 17, 283 33, 047
.... ... .. ... ... ...38, 347
.. ... .. . .... ...24, 394

65, 395 17, 283 95, 788
16, 201 3, 584 4, 098


274, 947 11, 185 .....
35, 704 23, 932 10, 810

310, 651 35, 117 10, 810


30, 316 13, 482 8, 842
17, 136 17, 794 37, 647

47, 452 31, 276 46, 489


50, 699 14, 865 .....
107, 760 5,01 16, 324
157, 904 1,25 11, 897
1, 061, 859 713, 684 459, 083
634, 810 300l, 210ICO 5( 21,:488

. . .. . 86, 004
43, 945 24, 876 15, 925

2, 056, 977 1, 230, 360 745, 975


289, 250 203, 370 316, 548
43, 999 25, 736 42, 834


IMPORT OF GOV'ERN'OR OF TH3E PANAMIA CANAL


TOTAL CA RGo SHIPMIENTS-ATLA NTIC TO PACIFICC


East coast United States to--
W est coast 17 nit ed States............... ... _ _ _ ..
West coast South America ......... ............... ......
East coast South America (via Strait of Magellan) .. ..
A ustralasia ........ ........... .......... . .
A frica ............ ~..... ... .. . ... .. ..
A sia .... .... .... .... .... .... ..... .... ... -- - -
Balboa, C. Z.... ....................... .... --
Bigh seas (destination unknown) ............ .. ... .....
Or her territories_..... ....... .... . .

Total from east coast United States~~-.-._-... ..........

East coast Canada to-
Australasia.... ... --~----....... .... .
A sia .. ... .......... .......... .........
Other territories.. ... ... .. ...... .... ... ..

Total from. east coast Caunadat_--_....... .... ......
From east coast Central America and/or Mexico, total ~---

East coast South Amnerica to-
West coast Canada........ ........... .... . ... ~---~~
Other territories- ......................... . ---

Total from east coast South America .. .. ......... ....

Cristobatl, C. Z. to-
West coast Central America/Mexico--.... ....... __
Other territories........ ....... ....... ... . ... .

Total fom Oristobal, C. Z~.............. .. .... .....

West Indies to-
W~est coast Canada_ __ ....................___ .. .. _
West coast Central America/Mexico.... --.. .......... -
West coast South America.............. ............. .
al o ,C Z _._ ......._._ .... .. ... ...... ... ..

A frica .. ... ..... ... ... ....... ..... . .. ..
High seas (desti'p~" 88~0natonuknw) ........ ..

Total from West Indies_____._... .... ............ .....

Europe to--
Australasia.. .. . .. . ..........-.--. -----_ .. .. ...
West coast South Amoerica............................ ..
Other territories.......-----.... .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. ..

Total from Europe................... .... .............
From A frica, total ........ ........ ........ .... ... ........

Total cargo, At lan I i to Pacifle..........................


78, 119
566, 684
6, 254
656, 413


5, 540

62, 916


704
515, 1900
51, 394
903, 626
81, 353
216, 923
8, 531

20, 902


226, 184
54, 284
259, 290
883, 976
1, 493, 388
47, 784
670, 580
6, 563


360, 809
1. 524

4, 234, 935


220, 106


3, 354, 340


400, 058


4, 945, 267











.4- REPORT OFi GOVERNOR OF TI-IiE PANA1MA CANAL


TOTAL CARG~o SHIPMIENTS---PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds


Fiscal ye~ar


1945 1944 1943


118, 325 91, 546 230, at 8
1, 186, 067 998, 930 1, 10~.91.24
21, 740 936 10, 555

1,3726,132 1,091,4121 1,403,817


393, 237 671, 665
--- --- -- --- --- --- 99,735
11, 480

--------- 393, 237 782, 880


28,250 95,852j 176, 738
4, 161 119, 228
---- --- --- ---- --- --- 10, 542

28, 250 100. 013 306, 508


---- --- --- ---- -.. ... 23 ;. 956
---- --- --- ---- ... ... 33. 224
----- ---- -- ---- -... 10 .078

---- --- --- ---- --- --- 281, 258


-------...26, 392 20, 015
-----.....2, 032 ...........,


107,985

27, 620
555, 098

15, 672

706, 375





119, 951



43, 508
41, 414
60, 646
164, 387

43, 879

2, 161, 563

26, 401


West coast United States/Canada to--
East coast United States.~~_-~.~..... --~-~---~-~-~~.-~--.----------
Cristobal, Canal Zone _..~ ........................... ... . -
W est Indies .... ... .... ..--_-- --- ---- --- ---- --- ---- ---
E u ro p e .. ... ..... ..... .....----- ----- ----- -- -- ----
H8igh seas (destination unknown) ~~. --.--. ---.-~.~.-.......
Other territories.. ~ -.~-~~-~~~~~.-.~~~~..~......------ ~ ~~~~..

Total from west coast United States/Canada__._-......... ....

West coast Central America/Mexico to--
United States~...._-~~..~~~............- -------- --------
O their territories ... ... ... ... .-- --- --- --- --- --- --- --.

Total from west coast Central America/Mexico ------------...

West coast South America to--
East coast United States~-~---~~.-.--. _ _ __ _......
East coast South America_._. ~.~-~.- ~_-~.-...................
Cristohal. Canal Zone-- ~...__~~~~~-~~~~~-----------------
W est Ind ies-. ..... .... ..-- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---
]E urope. --- - - -- -- - --
High seas (destination unknown).... ._~~--~~ ..~..-~~--.~...... ---
Other territories_ ~.~..~~~-~-.- ~----- ---------------

Total from west coast South America _ ~~~.~-~.~~~~~
From Balboa, C. Z.--total~~~.~~~~.~. ~~.~.~~.. ........
Hawaiian Islands to east coast United States ._-~-~-~ .. ... ~-
(No other cargo shipments from Hawaiian Islands.)

Australasia to-
East coast U~nited States _ _ _ -~~.~~.~~.
E urope __ _~_-~.~-... ..........-- -- - - - - - - - - - -
Other territories.~ ~......------------------- ---------------- --

Total from Australasia._.---. ~.-~.~.-... -------------~-. -----.---

Asia to-
East coast United States _~. _ _ _ ..... .. ~

Other territories. -.~~.~........--------.------------ -----------.

Total from Asia .~-~~-~ ...............-- -- - - -- - - -

East coast South America (via Strait of Magellan) tot-
East coast United States~~.- ~~.....--- ---------------- .
Europe_.-. ~~~----------
Other territo Ecs_.~ ~~...- ------~-------- --------------

Total from east coast South America .. ~-~~~. .. .~~.......

ALfrica to-
E~ast coast United States.~.--~~..........-------- -
Fulropel(.......... .------------------------------------------


Total from Africa ..~... ..-~.~....------------------ -------------

Highb seas to--
Hfigh seas~.--.....~.- ------------------- ---- ---------------------
Othier territories..............-...---------- --- --------------------

Totairl foro high seas.~~.~.~.--.~-~.~-......--------- --------

Grand total, Pacific to Atlantic.. .~-. ......... ..........-----..


67, 410

31, 157
342,681

18, 176

459, 424


10, 198
27,683

37, 881


1, 327, 149
12, 273
69. 411
36. 288
71, 331

2, 297

1, 518, 749
8,809
11, 189


17, 103
142, 287
86,448
882, 367
20, 169


1, 148, 374


7, 366
7, 962

15, 328


1, 304, 555
7. 277
67, 239
64, 692


2, 978

1, 602, 488
3
93, 428


S28,424

3, 649, 138


20,6i15e1

5,654, 699


4, 368, 672












RF;PORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE, PANA1MA CANAL 15



ORIGIN AND D)ESTINATION O` ]PRINCIPAL COMIMODITIES--ATLANITIC

TO PACIFIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds


Fiscal year


1945 1944 1943


19, 246 39, 866 36, 692
41, 179 70, 807 32, 303
1, 112 8, 343 12,000
9,198 17,042 12,191
1, 499 1, 835 13, 732
494, 450 377, 297 119, 366

566, 684 515, 100 2f26, 184


2,826 8, 087 14, 717
3, 428 43, 307 39, 567

6, 254 51, 394 54, 284


509 22, 669 19, 226
17, 088 17, 980 31, 703
1, 730 9, 648 10, 658
111, 184 115, 966 38, 652
19, 147 26, 672 7, 302
50, 177 84, 028 58
58, 497 95. .523 21, 665
35, 939 44, 710 17, 046
362. 142 486, 421 112. 980

656, 413 903, 626 250, 290


.... ... .. ... ... ... 52, 779
3, 200 45, 537
.. .. ._ _ _ 17, 701
... .. 4, 580 105, 560
.. ..2, 043 14, 214
3, 489 275, 565
..... .... 14, 513
.. . .... .... 11, 591
. .. 7, 513 156, 090
60, 519 190, 426

.. .. .. 1, 353 883, 976


.. ..... .._ 11, 591 . . .
.... ... ... .. ... ... 68, 156
..... ..2, 401 152, 477
.... ... .. ... ... ... 12,288
..... .... ... .... ... 1.522

29,. 538


.. . .. ... ... ... 201, 361
7, 115 43. 366
94,764 li8,044
_ . 40,. 231
.... ... ... .... .. ... 34. 556
.... ... ... .... .. ... 420, 413
.. .... ... .... ... 13, 026
............] 101,052 223, 782

...... .... 216,9231 I..493.3


East coast United States to west coast United States:
Flour. wrheat......-~-... -....... ..... ... . . . . .
A 11 other and unclassified~........... _..__ ..... ...

Total _ _~__ _ _.. .. __ __.. .... ... ..

East coast United States to west coast South America:
Coal __. .... ... ... .... .. ......
Iron and steel manufacturers . ... .. ...... __.
L~ubricating oil and greases__~ _~ __........ .... .. ..
Machinery ~~_ ... ....... . ... ..
Paper andl paper products ~_______________ ~ ~
.A l o~t he.r sad unelassified____. _~_ ..._ __~

Total _____ ___________

East coast United States to east coast South America:
Coal____ _______ _____
All other and unclassified................. __.__.

Total. ____ _..._ _______ ... _ ...

East coast United States to Australasia:
Automobiles and accessories_. .. ._____________ __
Iron and steel manufactures_.. .... .. ... _____
M/achinerry. .. .. ............ .... .
Mineral oils__ ___ . .. ._______. _
Paper and paper products_ __~_._._____.__.. .... _
Phosphates.__. __.-. __-... . _
Sulphur .. .... _ _ __ ... . __
T'inplate. ____ ~ _. ____.____. .. .... _____ ____
All other and unclassified ... .... ___ ____

Total.............. .... _ ______ ........ .

East coast United States to Africa:
A m munition--------- ........ ........ ..... ..
Autolmobiles and accessories....... .. .. ________
Canned goods, various.__._.~........ ... . ___
Iron and steel manufacturers .. .._. ... _____
M aLchinery....... ...... .. ... ... ...... ..
M1Pineral oils .................. ....... ___
Ordnance, except amnmunition____.____.. _____
Railroad material..................... ... .... _
War material, unclassified. ______________ .. __
All other and unclassifred~.. _____._.__~_..........

T otal ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... .. .. ..

East coast United C'tates to Asia:
Alcohol, technical_ ______._ ___._~............... .. ...
A m m unition.___..... .... .... ... .. ... ... ...
Automobiles and accessories................... ...... .. _..
B eans~edible .... ... ... .... ... ... .... ... . .... ... ...
Cannedl goods, various...._...~~~. ~....~._. ....... ....
Chemicals, anelassified. _.___~_._._.................. ...........
Explosives.___, ____._.__._....................__ .....
Flour .. .......... ......... ....._
Government atores.. .. ~................ ~_~______........... ..
Iron and steel manufactures_~__._.__.._................_...
Machinery.
Mrineral oils .1:::::::: ...._ :::::I: I::
Ordnance, except ammutinition............. ........ . .
Railroad material____ ____ ____.___................. ......
Warsrmaterial, unclassified ................................. .
W hreat .............. .~. ~.~........~~~ ..... ..... ..... ... ... .
All1 other andl unclassified ............. ............. ..... ..

Total...................... ____.~ ~_. ... .................... .. .


78, 119


7... .
704


. . .















ORIGIN. AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COIMMODITIEs--ATLA NTIC








194 1944 1943


5, 540 8, 531 47,784


26,327 6,808 5,231
39,068 10,475 27,816

65,395 17, 283 33,047



274, 947 11,185 .....






20,083 .. ... ...
11,858 7,700 ....
18,758 7,165 ...

50,699 14,865 ......


107, 760 58, 257 16, 324
... ..... 1, 644 .. .

107,760 59, 901 16, 324


102,399 2,717 10,554
44, 263 ...... .... ...... ....
11, 242 13, 518 1, 343

157,904 16,235 11,897


1, 061, 859 707, 734 446, 811
____... .... 5,950 12,272


~f I


--~1~1---------


I----~I-I


III


I I


:::.~... ... ....


I I


REPORT OF GOV'ERNORl OF THTE: PANAMA CANJAL


East coast United States to Balboa:
Mineral oils ... ..... .... -------- --------------------------
All other and unclassified ......... - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Total....----------- ------------------------------------------

East coast Canada to Australasia:
Paper .. -------------------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified ........----------------------------...

Total..............--------------------------------------------

East coast Canada to Asia. (No single outstanding commodity from
east coast Canada to Asia.)
East coast South America to west coast Canada: Mineral oils.... ..

Cristobal to west coast Central America/Mexico. (No single out-
standing commodity from Cristobal to west coast Central America/-
Mexico.)

West Indies to west coast Canada:
Mineral oils...... .............-------------------------------
Sucar........----------------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified. ..... --- -------------------------

Total..........------------------------------------------------

West Indies to west coast Central America/Mexico:
Mineral oils _ _ _ .. ........................--
All other and unclassified .. .. _..... ........

Total..........------------------------------------------------

West Indies to west coast South America:
Mineral oils_ _.. ...----------------------------------------------
Sugar..........--------------- ----------------------------------
All other and unclassified .. ........_.....................

Total........--------------------------------------------------

West Indies to Balboa, C. Z.:
Mineral oils. .. .. .................... - - - - -....
Allotherandunclassified.._.....------------ -----------------

Total. ..------------------------------------------------------

West Indies to Australasia:
Asphalt. .. ..........---------------------------------------
Mineral oils..... ...................-----------------------------
All other and unclassified .. .. _ .. .... _..

Total.................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -......
West Indies to Africa: Mineral oils.. ..................... ....

Europe to Australasia:
Ammunition......... .... .... . . _____.. .. .......
Chemicalsunclassified.. ......... .. .......------------------
Government stores..... .........--------------------
Iron and steel manufactures........ ...................-----.....
Machinery...._. ..................--------------------.......
Ordnance, except ammunition.. .. .........................._
Salt.... ...------------------------
Sndaand sodium compounds.. ....... ..... .......
War materialunclassified............. ....... .......
All other and unclassified ... .... ..........................


43,062


`------5-----


713, 684


450, 083


1, 061, 859


21, 484


11634,810~ I-300,210 -


634, 810


300, 210


21, 488


28,127
15,806
21,106
23,191
10,785
14,641
27,563
27,922
15,073
123,334

316,548


4,940
------------
7,276
4,738
..... .....
6,084
3,400
3,807
173,125

203,370


1,700
------------
11,505
2,022
.. .... ...
----------..
2,628
3,455
267,940


.... .... ... .... ... 289,250


Trotal.~.... ...............


14 7


............
25, 736


Toal................................... ............


2, 834.


43,900


25, 736


8,531










REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH~E PANAMIA CANJAL 17


ORIGIN AND ~DESTINATION or PRINCIPAL @OMMODITIES--PACIFIC

To ATLANTIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Fiscal year


19451944 1943


West coast United States/Canada, to east coast United States:
Lum ber __ _.................... .. .. .........----.._ .. ~
M ineral oils.................--~~--- -- - - - - - - - -
Wheat ..................-----------~--~-------- -----
All other and unclassified.................---~--.--.- _- -.

T otal.....................-~----~~- -- - - - -- - -- -

West coast United States/Canada to Cristobal, C. Z.:
M ineral oils ... _ _ .. ~..... ... __ __ .
All other --....------------------~-----~------------- ~-.~--~-


18, 490 7, 768 1, 149
3, 341 2, 600 10, 812
84, 042 80, 801 90, 628
453, 483 459, 915 261, 989
31, 704 25, 920 16, 764
... ..... 14, 417 46, 298
893, 772 416, 211 607, 496

.... .... .. .... .... 44, 760
117, 627 78, 650 149, 319
4, 513 2,17289
10, 053 9,11 11, 568
190, 704 199, 629 63, 983

1, 807, 729 1, 327, 149 1, 304, 555





22, 889 41, 737 25, 493
18, 525 2;.,67-1 41, 746

41, 414 60, 411 67, 239


83, 560


24, 425

107,985


7, 989

49,061
10, 360

67,410


1.... ....

17,103




129, 831
12, 456

142,287


10, 622
10, 891
10, 703
28,665
25, 567

86, 448


18,339
22,358
13, 817
20, 429
10, 697
92,982
435, 884
13, 111
60, 334
42,149
71, 444
80, 823

882, 367


7,366


7,366


Total.~~~~.~ ~ ~~~..~....~.. ~~.~~..------------- -~- ---- --------~. ....... .....


West coast United Stattes/Canada to West Indies:
Canned goods, various ............... .. --- --- -~~-
Flour............... ...--------------- ------~--~
Lumber .... ............... --~---~-~ . .. ..
Rice ..... ..... ...-- ----~~------~- ------- -
Aillother and unclasssified.._ ... . -----.~. ... -~ .. .

T o tal..... .... ..... .... ..... ..... ... ... .....

West coast United States/Canada to Europe:
B o ra x. ... .... .... ..... ... .... .... --- - - -- --- ----
Canned goods, various ..................---~~-~~-- --------
Chemicals, unclassified....--~-~.-.. --.~... ...... ...
C otton ..... ..... . .. ...... ..... . .....
Grains, other than, wheat_ _----.-- _ _-~... ..... -
Lead, m etal. ..... ......-~- _~~-...... ... ..
Lumber ..... . .. -----~---. ___-~-.~~-~ . . .
Phosphates......... .. .. ..... .. . . ...
W h ea t ............ .. ......... ... .. ...
W oodpulp....... ...... .. ... ... ... .... .. ...
Z ine, m etal ... .... ..... .... ..... .... ... - ----
All other and unclrassified----.......-....-~-..... ....

T o tal..... ..... .... ..... .... ... ... __... ... .. .

West coast Central America/Mexico to east coast United States:
B an an as... .... ... .. .... . .... .. .. .. . ..
All other and unclassified -.-......................... ..

T o tal..... .... .... .. .... .... ---- .... .... ... ..

W'est coast South America to east coast United States:
B ea n s... .... .. .... .... .... .. .... . .... .. ...
Coeos and cocoa beans. ............ ......... ... ...... ...
C offee.........--................ ~... . . .__ .. .
C p rmetal.. ..- --............... --.---- __..

M ~ineraloils__.. .... ... .... . .. .. ... .. ..
Nit rate .. ..------ ~r..... ... ... -~._ _-. ~ __.... .. ... .. ... ... .. ...
Ore:
Iron_ _ _ _ __.~.~-.--.... . .. . .. . . .. .. . .
Or her than iron~---------- . -......................-. .
R ic e ... .... .... .... .... .... ... .... .. .... .... .. . .
WF7 ool...... .. __-_--_~... .. .. . .. .. . .. .
All1 other and unclassified........-----------------~.... .....

T otal... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .. . .. ....

West coast South America to east coast South America. (No single
outstanding commodity from, west coast South America to east
coast South. America).
W'est coast South America to Cristobal, C. Z.:
C offee . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
Allother and unclassified............... .....

T otal.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .


1, 700

18, 419

7, 501


22, 221

8, 936


27, 620 31, 157


10, 664
3, 089


61,109
417,973
9, 549


26,785
25, 929

555, 098


84,371
2, 493

86,864


25, 420
49


34, 205
200,524
12, 300
4, 076
3, 260
13,020
49, 827

324, 681


9,546
652

10,198










I'5S REPORT OF` GOVERNOR OF THIE PANAMA CANAL(



ORIGIN. AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPAL COMMFIOD)ITIES-PACIFIC

TO ATLANTIC---COH fill ld

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Fiscal year


1945 1944 1943


60, 646 36, 2838 64. 602


4, 729 12, 347 8, 049
47, 532
126, 396 16, 864 6,526
22, 104 23, 977 24, 033
11, 158 1.5, 243 7,086

184.387 71, 331 93, 226


12, 108 1_____1._____
14, 293 1._.__~. _1____. .
10, 489 93, 428
700 .

26, 401 11, 189 93. 428


8, 806 1, 800 16, 086
25, 150 48, 585 80, 505
6, 200 1, 863 18, 105
.... 15, 638
18, 000
28, 563 18, 053 81, 429
31, 606 21, 245 18, 255

118, 325 91, 546 230, 018


I


West coast South America to West Indies:
Mineral oils._. __._- _________~ __ ~____._~~
Nitrsate _. __. ___~ _______
Rice~. - ~ _._.___~_____
All other and unclassified _ _ ~ ~_ -.. .. ... ...

T otal - -- ___. ._..... .._ ... .... .._ . .. .. .. .

West coast South Amelrica to Europe:
Cotton
Mineral oils._.-- _____.____ ____
N~itrate--- ______________
Ores, various__-_.. ____________
All other and unclassified__ .____~____~_ _____

T otal __.. __. _ _.. .... ____.. __. _. _. .. _ .... ...

Hawaiian Islands to east coast United States:
Caned fruit~.~.~. ~~. ..___ . _
Scrap metal..__. ___ ..________ _~ ______. __
Sugar.____-- ___.._______
All other and unclassified~_ ..__ _-___ _________

Total.. .___ .... __ ... ... ___ _ _

Australasia to east coast United States:
Lead, m etal- ...... ... ._ - _______
Ores, various ~. ~~~. __________
Sand. __. ___ ___~ _______ ________ ___
Sugar.._____ ~ _____._.______~._~ __~_._
Whale oil _____... __ .__~__ ......___ .. .. ~__
W ool..... __ _ __..... ........ .__ _ _ _ .. ... __
All other and unclassified__.._ __.. ..____ .. ~~____

T'otal._ .. .... . . .. .. .. _


12, 400
11, 969
19, 662
20, 661


8, 720
27, 404
24, 522


36, 288


Australasia to Europe:
Ammunition ___ .. ..._. __. ____
Dairy products_.. ....____ ~_____.._ _
Flour, wFheat ~ _____. .... .. .. ___
Fruit, dried _______. ~ _.~. .. ~__
Lead, metal~.___. ... ___~______
Meat, refrigerated. _~~__________
SOre, other than zine_______ ______~
Sugar_. _____________.. _....
Tallow _..... _~__ ______ _____.
Wheat__~_.__ _____.._~__ _____.
Wiiool._... ___ ..___ ___ __ .. ___


All other and unclassified___._. _____~_


18, 813
203, 731
17, 736
32, 614
98, 233
376, 996
1, 200

14, 365

103, 746
S1 97, 735
220, 898

1, 186, 067


208, 844

35, 331
66, 404
277, 367
3, 012

17, 676

100, 710
1 92, 365
197, 221

098, 930


72, 813
6,657

212, 691
S10, 840
515
2, 296
16, 241

5, 535
65 6-19


299, 479
241, 0l66
34, 521
65. 456
269, 794
13, 808
14,357
29, 697
151,789

S69 18, 1517

118, 759

1, 163, 244


112, 366
29.312
90.856
251, 016


11, 989
28, 503
12. 245
'0.946
t;8, 147


.. .......
.. .. .. ..
. ..
.. .. .
..
.. .
_. .
.... .. .
..... .
...... ....
--

... .. ....


T otal ...... ...... ... .. ______.

Asia to east coast United States:
Bags and bagging.. _ .. . .. ... .. _
C opra.~~..... .... ... .... .... .. ... .... .... .... .
Jute, unmanufactured.__~ __._._......... ............ .
Ore, manganese..
Ore, other than manganetse ......... .... .__
Rubbe~r raw;P._..___. __. ~_._. ~_.._... .. .. .. . .... .. .. .. .
.ck ins anld hides.....-....-._. _ ...... ...
T ea . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textiles .. ..... .. _~_
VrP eretable i~s ... .. .. .. ...
.111 olr hr and unclassified....._...... ..... _ ~_ ... .

T"otal_~ _~_._._.-.-~-.-....... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .


671, 665


303, 237


t Zine metal and oreno brealt-down for 1944 and 1945.













ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF PRINCIPALS; CO MMrO DIrTIrE S-PACIFIC
To ATLANTIc--Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943


Asia to Europe:
Nuts, edible._... ____....-~--.... .~... ... .- -- --- -- ---- -------- -- 20,803
Oilseeds... ...... --~-----.---~-~--.....-. .......----------- ----------------- 16, 647
Tea__~ ____~_~~~-~~---- ........................s 18, 659
All other and unelassified......... ..... .. ................. ..- --- -- -- --- -- -- I 43, 626
TIotal ....... ......._ .. .. .. .. .. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 99,735

East coast South America to east coast United States:
Meat, cned_ __ . .. .....----~-~- 4, 000 798 22, 277
Ore~s, various .....~ --.. ................ -- --- -- --- -- 1, 000 44, 606
Quebracho extract .... ...------~-~-- 7, 503 7, 413 28, 499
Skins and hides.-._____--_.--.--- 1, 000 10, 631 21, 116
WooL __ __ __ .... ...---~----~ 6, 706 7, 571 22, 576
All other and unclassified .__~_~_---~~~.- 9, 041 68, 439 37, 574
Total _ __ _____ __-~------- _28, 250 95, 852 176, 738

East coast South America to Europe:
Meat, canned __ __ ....-----~----- 3, 798 28, 847
Mreat, refrigerated _________._--.~~~-~--. .------------ ... 58, 088
A 11 ot her and unclassified ----~~-~------ 363 32, 293
Total...... .................... . .- 4, 161 110, 228
Africa to east coast United States:
Lu mber .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..- --- ... .. --- --- --- --- --- -- 13, 700
Ores, various... ...~-_---... .. .. . .. .. .- - - -- -- - -- --- -- - 173, 083
Sisal fibre .. ___-. __.~ _ _ __... . . .. . .. . - -- - - - - - - - 15, 247
All other and unclassified ....... .... .... ..... ............- -- -- 35, 926
Total_ ____ _ __________._ .... 37, 956
Africa to Europe: (No single outstanding commodity fromo Africa
to Europe.)



CLASSIFICATION OF VESSELS BETWEEN LADEN AND BALLAST TRAFFIC

The following table summarizes the ocean-going, tolls-paying traffic

through the Canal during the fiscal year 1945 segrega~ted between
laden ships and those in ballast, as well as between talnker~s, ore ships,

passenger ships, general cargo ships, and those not designers to carry

cargo, and also between vessels of United States registry and those of
all other na tionali ties:


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH-E: PANAMA CANAL;











20 REPORT OF GO\'ERNOR OF THE PANA~A CANAL

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REPORT OFi GOVERNOR OF THrE: PANJAMA CANAL












LADEN. AND BALLAST TRAFFIC 3BY NATIONALITY.

In the table below the ships of each nationality have been segre-
gatedl to show separate statistics on vessels which were calrring
cargo and/or pas~sengecrs at the time of transiting the Canal and those
which transited in baillast:

Laden Ballast

Nationality Number Panama Number Panama
of trans- Canal net Tolls of trans- Canal net Tolls
its tonnage its tonnage3

Argentine._ ..__. _ ____ 4 28, 192 $25, 372. 80 _____.______________
Belgian~~ ~~~.~~ ~~~~ 3 22, 485 20, t236. 50 1 7, 495 $5, 396. 40
British ______ ____~__ 488 2, 858, 101 2, 572, 290. 90 116 580, 492 417, 954. 24
Chilean .. ...__. ___._. 67 185, 741 167, 166. 90 2 3, 600 2, 592. 00
Costa Rican~_._. ____.. 9 6, 147 5, 532. 30 3 2,049 1, 475. 28
Danish______ - e~_ 3 21, 801 19, 620. 90 __._, ___.._,_____._
Ecuadorean__.. ___.. 7 6, 671 6, 003. 90 1 953 688. 16
Greek ___..__~ ~ .. __. 2 10, 326 9, 203. 40 2 9, 031 6. 502. 32
H~onduran___~__.___~ 80 136, 837 123, 153. 30 39 73, 197 52, 701. 84
Mexican .________.. 15 18, 499 16, 649. 10 7 10, 190 7, 336. 80
Netherland~._~...____. 175 157, 100 141, 390. 00 18 16, 697 12, 021. 84
Norwegian._________ 54 265, 231 238, 707. 90 27 167, 193 120, 378. 96
Panamanian___. ____ 76 272, 131 244, 917. 90 44 216, 795 156, 092. 40
Peruvian_____ ..____ 7 12, 884 11, 595. 60 1 654 470. 88
Polish. _____.___ ___ ._~ I__..__ ... __.. .. __ 1 5, 121 3, 687. 12
Portuguese___~ __. __ 2 11, 208 10, 087. 20 4 22, 473 16, 180. 56
Soviet___~__~.. ~ ___.. 2 7, 567 6, 810. 30 __._._ ~_.... ___ .._______
Spanish___._.. ____._ 7 21, 043 18, 938. 70 6 18, 335 13, 201. 20
Swedish_.__. .. ~ ._~_~~ 6 27, 503 24, 752. 70 2 14, 457 10, 409. 04
United States ._. __.._. 409 2, 034, 357 1, 830, 921. 30 190 1, 073, 138 772, 659. 36
Uruguatyan._.. ...___ 3 11, 346 10, 211. 40 1 4, 841 3, 485. 52
Venezuelan___~. ______ 6 17, 236 15, 512. 40 5 14, 369 10, 345. 68
Yugoslavian__.. .._-~ _~ 2 4, 689 4, 220. 10 1 2,784 2, 004. 48
Total:
1945_~~__.__. .~ 1. 427 6, 137, 095 5, 523, 385. 50 471 2, 243, 864 1, 615, 582. 08
1944.~..____.__ .., 2377 5, 041, 735 4, 538, 485. 98 267 1, 031, 722 742, 839. 84
1943._.... ...... .... 1, 605 7, 455, 623 6, 709, 136. 22 189 778, 376 560, 430. 72


AVERAGE TONNAGE, TOLLS, AND TONS OF CARGO PER CA RGO-
CARERYING VESSEL

The avle~nrag mensulrrement tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per
car~go-carrying ve~ssel of 300 net tons and, over, Panama Canal measure-
menlt, transition~ the Panama Canal during the past three fiscal
years, are shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Mceasred tonnage:
Panama Canal net~..~........~~.~-~.~~ 4,416 4, 038 4, 500
Its.RIgI 't(red gross. ... ......... ................... .~.......~. 6,020 5. 351 6, 061
Hega6rterc milnet;..~..~...-..-...... 3, 647 3, 233 3, 667
Tulls ~.~ ~ ......... ........ $3, 916 $g3, 628 $4, 052
Tons of cargo (inc~lullhng \'e sets uI al~lasts81 4, 533 4,657 5,900
Tonls of cargo (Ilash-n vessels o~nly.l.> ........ ..... I6, 029 5, 662 86,604


REPORT OF GO\'ERNOR OFi THE PANAMLA CANALQI










STEAMl, NOTOR, AND) OTHER VESSELS

TChe following table shows ocealn-going, tolls-payinga vesse~ls transit-
ing the Carnd during each of the past three fiscal years, segregatted
according to the m~ethtod of propulsion:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Steamers:
Oil burning.... .............--- .--.~--------------------. 1, 182 738 878
Coal burnig _ ~-----~-. ... .... 118 160 301
Motor ships_ __-.....---~-~--~-------..-----~-----~-- -- 586 593 613
M isc~llaneous.__ ._ --..... .... ~.............- ------------ 53 71 30
T[otal__.. __---- ------~-~-------- .................. 1, 939 1, 562 1, 822


FI;REQUrENCY. OF TRANSITS OF VESSELS THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL

During the fiscal year 1945, 750 individual ocean-going, tolls-
payig vessels, representing 24 nationalities, passed through the:
]Panama Canal. In. the aggregate these vessels made a total of 1,939
transits. The number of transits made by individual ships varied
from 1 to 40, and averaged 2.59. The greatest number, 40, was made
by the small motor vIessel ~Douro, plying between the Athintic terminus
of the Canal and the west coast of South America.
Vessels of Britis~h registry led in the number of transits during the
year, with 636, while those of United States registry were second,
with 600. Great Britain also led in the number of individual vessels,
with. 302, w~hih~ there wertre. 299 individual vessels represented in the
600 transits of United. States registry.
The follo-wing table shows the number of individual ships, the
number of transits for each ship, the total transits for the year, and
the average number of transits per individual ship, segregated by
nationality:


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THI-E: PANA~MA CANAL











2L4: REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TI-IE PANAMA CANAL


VCessels making indicated number of trantsits during ,fiscal year 1945


I--- --I---L -L-I-*- i--1- 1-- 1 1 i----- I 1 I 1 1-- ----------


~I)~~11111


Nationality 11 13


5 _6


8 9


10 1 11 1 12 1 14


20 1 21


Argentine..........
Belgian__...... _~_~
British.______......
Chilean.......____
Colombian .__~__
Costa Rican.__~--
Danish... ..---~--
Ecuadorean___-.~..
Greek........._~__.
Honduran__,..._-
Mexican_. . .._~~
Netherlands.. ..-~-
Norwegian . ..__-
Panamanian_,.. ---
Peruvian..... .._-.
Polish __..... .. ..-
Portuguese____.-.. -
Soviet........ ..-_-
Spanish.... ..._-_-
Swedish_____.... .
United States ---_~-
Uruguayan___--. .
Venezue~lan. ...___
Yugoslavian. ...-~-

Total:
1945.......
1944. .......
1943.........


357 1211
518 133
909 176


... 1
1 ..
.... ..


Total
tratns-
its


4
4
636
69
1
12
3
8
4
119
22
194
81
120
14
1
6
2
13
8
600
4
11
3


1, 939
1,562
1, 822


Trnsm-
its per
ship


4.00
4.00
2. 11
5.31
1.00
12.00
3. 00
8.00
1.33
9.92
5.50
10. 78
2.38
4.00
2.33
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.17
2.00
2.07
2.00
3. 67
1, 50


2.59
2.08
1655


hotal
sips


1
1
302
13
1
1
1
1
3
12
4
18
34
30
6
1
3
2
6
4
299
2
3
2


750
750
1,175


Nationality


25 26 I 27 I 28 j 29 134


37 38 39 I 40


Argentine.........---- .
Belgian.........------
British....------------
Chilean0.........
Colombian ........... ~
Costa Rican. ..-------
Danish........ ....
Ecuadorean ---~-----
Ofreek_.... ..... .....
Honduran.. ---------
Mexican _.... . ~.-
Netherlands.. _..--~--
Norwegian__..__....--
Panamanian....--....
Peruvian...... ......
Polish. ... . ..
Portuguese .... ... .
Soviet. __-_... ....
8panish_._~_.___.......
Swedish ._. ._~ .
United States.... ....
Uruguayan... . ..
Venezuelan. _
Yugoslavian~.-........

Total:
1105... .
1944..-......
1943_,.....---


.. .. ~
. ...
... 1 1


- :1 1


1 1
.....


1 1


1: 1. 1


. 1


......











TIhe following tabulation taken fromn the! preceding tob~le shows for
thle fiscal year 1945 the number of vessels making a given number of
tranusits thrloulgh the Prranama Canal (1 to 40), their agl~grege number
of tranlsits, and their percent of the total ocean-going, tolls-payinlg
ti-ansits (1,939):

Total Percent of Total Percent of
Number oftransits uer nubr o iaa Number of transits Num, nubrtoCa
vessels transits (1,939) vessels transits (1,939)

1 ... ......_~~- 357 357 18.5 14____. ... . .. 1 14 0.7
2~-.... ............. 211 422 21. 7 18..._ .. ..__~ 1 18 .9
3__.. .....-~~~ 53 159 8. 2 2 . . 2 40 2. 1
4 .. .... .~-~~ 54 216 11. 1 23_-.. .. ____~ 1 23 1. 2
5 .... ...........~-~ 15 75 3. 9 2 1 26 1. 3
6_.. ...........-.-. ... 17 102 5. 2 28 __~. __. ... ~. 2 56 2. 9
1......--~- ----- ----- 6 42 2. 1 3 1 36 1.9
8.... ........ .. ~ 9 72 3.7 37.. ......_.__. 1 37 1.9
9. _---.. ... _. 5 45 2. 3 38__. ..__~~_ 1 3b 2. O
10 .--~-~-.-. . 5 50 2. 6 4. 1 40 2. 1
11.._ ..........-- 1 11 6
12............ ... 5 60 3.1~ Total... .~ 750 1, 939 100.06


GRoss TONNAGE Or VESSELS

TPhe 1,939 ocean-going, tolls-paying vessels which transited the
Canlal in the fiscal year 1945 included 1,891 merchant vessels, 7 cable
repair ships paying tolls on the basis of net tonnage, and 41 vessels
paying tolls on the basis of displacement tonnage.
Of the 1,898 vessels paying on net tonnage, 728 werel~ vessels ranging
between 6,000 and 8,000 registered gross tons, this re~presentilgr the
most gcnerl~u size of vessels to trafnsit the Canal in 1945. This group
was made up largely of vessels of the libertyy type built expressly for
wa'r use. The avcr~age! registered gross tonnage of all ve~sse~ls paying
tolls on the basis of Panama Canal net tonnage in the fiscal year 1945
was 6,019 as compared with 5,387 in the fiscal year 1944, representing
an increase of 11.7 percent.
Tlihe following tabulation shows the ocean-going, tolls-paying
vessels, excluding those paying tolls on displatcemnent tonnage, in
groups arccordilgr to registered gross tonnage, segregated by nation-
ality, with ave~ralge tomxn.ages for 1945 and 1944 and group perlcentagese
for the fiscal year 1945:


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH~E ;PANAM\A CANAL,


GS3309-46---3





so








a


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


5 8 on coon aE =










SMaALL I\OLLS-PAYINGG VESSELS TRANJSITING CANAL

Transits of small cargo-carrying vessels and other small maiscel-
laneous craft of less than 300 net tons (Pnnamln Canal mlnsleasuement
or 500 displa~emenlt tons are excluded from statistics on ocean-going,
tolls-paying traffic, although thre vessels are not exempt from the
payment of tolls. Transits of these small vessels during the yea r,
together with the tonnalge, tolls, and amount of cargo carried, are
summanrized in the following table:

Atlantic to Pacific to Tol
Pacific Atlantic

Transit:
Rated on net tonnage ... ._ _......... .... . __ 188 173 361
Rated on displacement tonnage___~...~ __~__~____
Total transits .. .. ... .. . ... ..... .. ... 188 173 361
Panama Canal net tounage~ ~-_. ..~-.~. ... .. ..... ..... .. 14, 069 13, 325 27,3794
Displacement tonnage. ______-_._______-__~_I________________~____
Tolls____ ___ ___ ___...~_ __ ___._...___ ..... .. ... ... .. .11, 430. 26 $11, 178. 90 $22,60i9. 16
Cargo (tons)~~._-. _______~. ... ... ......_ _. __.... 035 11, 848 20, 883

VESSELS ENTITLI~ED T`O EREE TRANSIT

Naval and other vessels owned and operated in the Gove~rlnment
service of the United States and Rtepublic of Panama, war vessels
of the! Republic of Colomnbia, and vessels transiting solely for having
repairs made at the Canal shops, are exempt from the payvmcnt of
tolls, and such vessels are not included in the general transit statistics
pertaining to Canal traffc.
In normal times free transits represent a relatively- small part of
the total Canal traffic (less than 9 prcelcnt in. 1939) but since the entryv
of the Unite~d States into the war there Ihas been a great expansion
in such traff1ic which during the past year amounted to 6,566 tolls-
free vessels. This was almost double the number of tolls-free vessels
passing through in the previous fiscal year and comprised 74 percent
of the total trafic, in 1945. Of the 6,566 vessels transiting free in
1945, 80 pece~cnt were routed from thne A~tlalntic to the Pacific.
The, following tabulation shows for the past 3 years thie number
of vessels, the measured t~onnlage, the applroximlatc amount of tolls


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE; PANA3MA CANAL










to which. they would have been subject at the prescribed rates if tolls
had been charged against them, and the cargo carried by such vessels:

Fiscal year 1945 Total fiscal year

Atlantic to Pacific to Total 1944 1943
Pacific Atlantic

Number of transits:
On nlet tonnage basis _ _~-~-~. 2, 661 1, 078 3, 739 2, 107 1, 5213
On displacement tonnage basis ~ ~~~~ 2. 613 214 2, 827 1, 226 850
Tota trasits5, 274 1, 292 6, 566 3, 333 2, 373
Tonlnage:
Panama Canal net_ .~_~~.~~~~- 7, 613, 848 3, 714, 928 11, 328, 776 5, 303, 061 1, 453, 560
Dispacemnt .7, 232, 611 260, 869 7, 493, 480 2, 903, 783 1, 007, 351
Approximate value of tolls__ $_.~~.-~- 10,5 34,61 $2, 817, 154 $13, 171, 772 $5, 876, 729 $1, 739.410
Cargo (tons)-~-~.~~-.-~~~~.-.... ---.. 10, 729, 348 15, 303 10, 744, 651 4, 572, 034 419. 080

Ful information on combat vessels of the U~nited States NavyTi.
including naval supply ships completely manned and operated by the
Navy, is not required by The Panama Canal for handling ships in
transit. F~or the~se. vessels estimates are made of the displaemersntt
tonnage or the Palnama. Canal net tonlnage and the consequent value
of tolls. No attempt is made to estimate cargo tonnage carried by
naval supply ships, which. comprise only a minor part of the total
non-tolls-paying, cargo-carrying vessels.
CANAL OPERATION ANI) IVIAINTENANiCE

H-ouns or OPERATION

Dispaltching of ships through the Canal is conducted on schedules.
Vessels ow~niting transit begin moving through the Canal from the
terminal ports at 6 a. m. and dispatches are made thereafter from ea ch
terminus at intervals of 1 hour. T'he following is a sumnmarly of nor-
mal arrangements in effect at the end of the fiscal year.
From1 Cristobal Harbor, first ship at 6 a. m., last at about 3 p. m.,
from Balboa anchorage, first ship at 6 a. m., last at 2:30 p. m, V~aria-
tions often occur in these schedules due to wartime emergencies.
Tankers and verssels carrying hazardous cargoes are dispatched at
the discretion of the port captain and normally are not permitted to
proceed unless they can clear the lock~s before dark. Numerous excep-
tions are made in thcse~ cases in order to avoid dlelayring war cargoes.
Special precautions and regrulations for handling ships in the locks
were continued2 throughout the! year.


28


REPORT OF GOV]ERNOR OF THEE PANAMIA CANAL





































LOCKAGES

Lockages and the number of vessels handled (including Panama
Canal equipment) are shown in the following table by- mortlhs for thze
past fiscal year, with corresponding totals for the past 5 years:

Gtatun Pedro Miguel Miraflores
Month
Lockages 1'esse~ls Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels


July_ ~............................... 376 619 540 1, 149 405 659
August_ _.......................... 433 797 567 1,208 459 842
September---.. ..................... 394 683 534 1, 183 431 777
October .... ... ................... 427 720 543 1,15441 784
Novemnber.......................... 487 813 619 1,23524 888
December.................~...~.... 461 867 492 921 487 946
19/5
January...... ---.--.-.~.-............ 413 794 451 900 440 908
February................ .......... 403 767 441 868 435 874
M~arch....~...................... .. 446 780 495 937 486 913
A?\prdl....... ~. .................... 308 707 463 862 446 790
Masy._.......... .................... 477 772 519 891 497 814
June.....-----.... --.... ............ 546 8;3 604 977 584 902
Tosl a............ ..... ....... 5, 261 9,201 6,268 12 334 5, 635 10, 097
Fiscal year:
1940___._,_. ._. ... ......._.... 5, 302 7, 713 5,32 7, 63 5, 286 7, 570
1941.~.~........~......... ........ 5,103 808 5,018 7,480 ,4 7, 410
1942.............~................ 4,669 10i, 986 4,445 8,084377 5,806
1943...................~.....~~... 2,796 5, 236 3, 661 6,672 3, 395 5, 984
1944............................ 3, 2671 5, 846 ~4,036 71,632 3, 656 6, 424


In November a new record for the number of lockanges for any one
month for any locks was established when 619 lockages were made at,
Pedro 1\liguel. The previous record of 614 was made at Pedro M~iguel
in January 1929.


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THSE PANAIMA CANAL


ILOCKAGS AND LOCKEC ~1.INTENANCE

The following was the operating schedule of the locks at the end of
the fiscal yrear 1945:


Gatun:
Shift No.




Pedro Mliguel:
Shift No.



Mciraflores :
Shift No.


a. m. to 3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
9 a. m. to 5 p. m.-8 locomnotives.
p. m. to 11 p. m.--8 locomoutites.
5 p. m1. to 1 a. m.--8 locomotives.


1: 7
1X:
2: 3
2XI:


1:,8 a. m. to 4 p. m.-8 locomnotives.
2: 9:30 a. m. to 5:30 p. m.-8 locomotives.
3: 4 p. m. to 12 mz.--8 locomotives.


1: 7 a. m. to 3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
2: 9 a. m~. to 5 p. m.--8 locomotives.
3: 3 p. m. to 11 p. m.--8 locomotives.
4: 5 p. m. to 1 a. m.--8 locom-otiv~es.











The average number of lockages male daily, and the average
number of vessels hanldled~ per lock~age, during each of the past five
fiscal yenr~s, are shown in the followinng table:

Average number of lockages Average number of vessels
per day per lookage

Gatun 1\ 1Miraflore~s Gatun Miraflore~s

1941_.___._ ..._.._..._.. ._..... .... 14. O 13. 7 13. 6 1. 57 1. 49 1. 50
1942__.........~ ._..................... 12. 8 12. 1 10. 3 2. 35 1. 82 1.564
1943_-__~__....... ...._._............ 7.7 10.0 9.3 1.87 1.82 1.75
1944____.~....... . ......_.... ..... 8.0 11.i 1 10. 0 1.79 1. 89 1. 76
1945_-~.~.~.~. .. __..... ............ 14. 4 17. 1 15. 4 1 1.74 1.96 1.79


DELAYS TO SHIPPING

The lock: operating machinery functioned smoothly throughout
the year except for a few incidents due to faulty operation or minor
fa lur~e of equ ipm ent The following summary includes all delays to
vessels while transiting the locks due to the incidents mentioned:

Nu ofge Aggregate delayr caused
delayed alvesl

Gatun...-. _.~ .... .___ _.. _~ ..._ .. __. _. ~_. 36 6 hours 42 minutes
Pedro Mhigul rl _. _____ ... _... .. __ __ ._. ~ .. ... ..______ _. 12 4 hours 23 minutes
Miraflores... __..._ ..._ .._ .. .____. .__ _ _. ... ....... 44 12 hours 54 minutes
Total_........... .. ... .. .. 92 23 hours 59 minutes

MAI NTENANCE

During the progress of special improv-ement projects oln the locks
in tlhe past several y-ears, regular overhaul periods were impracticable
and the normalll scheduled. which called for overhaul at the Pacific locks
inl 1941 and the Atlantic loc-ksi 194 ~f3 wasL nlot dee ttCtIB o.
M/irnfilores locks had a minor overh-aul of both chambers in 1942
which was inltendedi~ to last until 1944. Between January 12 and
April 21, 1944, both sides of Mliraflores locks w~ere overhauled, except
for miter glt~e r~lebearing, which was intended to put these looks in a
safe peatn cnrr tlr condition for at least four mlore years.
The: west sidle of Pedro Miguel locks hadl been overhaluledl betwlteen
M~r~ch 1 and July 2, 1943, anrd thle east sideo was overhaluled between
.August 13 and Septemnb er 29, 1943. Cerltainl regular overhlaul fea-
tures wFere not per~formecd, but suffcient work wras dlone~ to insuret safe
operationl until 1948.
Some work wa~s done on the east side of Gatun locks in 19414 and
the west sidle wras given a minor recond~itioninlg during that year.
Gatunl locks are now considered to be in safe oper31atin condition until
1947, and a major overhaul at Gatun is :now scheduled for that year.


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMIA CANAL










Regular inspection and preventitive .maintenance, was continued
throughout the year for all locks mlachines and equipment. Routine
tests and inspections wecre scheduled so that a large number of weak
points and potential failures we;re, discoveredt before break-down
occurred. Th'lere was insuffcient personnel to completed~ all mainte-
nance wrork that should have been done. ByV concentrating on im-
portant work, however, and that which would cause delaliys to lockinage
Soperationrs if neglected, it wmas possible to avoid any serious break-
downs.
POWER FOR CANAL OPERATION

The table below- summarizes and gives pertinent data relative to
the. electric power generated by the power system~ of the Canal rZone
for thbe past three fiscal years:

[KEilowatt hours]

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Gross power generated:
Gatun hydro station. .____ ..~~_ ... ~~. _. 91, 683, 100 89, 314. 900 78, 970, 800
Madden hydro station. .___~ ~_ ~.__ --~._ -~ ~~ 165, 419, 800 157, 459, 700 140, 29.'. tIlloI
Diesel stations_. _____ ~ _. ___. __._~. 12, 776, 700 804, 000 2 9.40
Tota geeraed _. ... ...260, 879, 600 247, 378, 600 221, 358, 200
Consumed in station service_ __. ____.-~.. ... . ~ 3, 106, 023 1, 360, 617 1, 254, 849
Net generator output___ .._______ __.._ ... .. 266, 773, 577 246, 017, 983 220, 103, 351
Distributed to consumers_.~. _.. ...__ ________... .... .. 236, 318, 174 222, 548, 235 198, 433. 204
Transmission loss (kilowatt hours)__l _.. ... ~. ...._~_. 30 455, 403 23, 4e9, 748 21, 670, 147
Transm ission loss (Ilercent)~ __~_~___~. _. ._. 11. 41 9. 5 0. 8
Peak load (kilowatts)......_ .._.. ~_ ~ _ ____ .. _ .._ 47, 300 46, 900 39, 800
Date._._. .~.~~-.-....__... ..... ..~ ~ ~_~ .- . .._---~ .... (1) (2) (")

1 Feb. 9, 1945. Nov. 1, 1943. June 21, 1943

All mlachzine tools previously installed in the space which will be
occupied by the new turbo-units Nos. 5 and 6, now authorized for
installation in the Gatun h~ydrIoelect ric sta tion, were removed from the
station and installed in a new shop building erected just outside the
station building. Changes in conlduits anid cable runs, erection of
new oil circuit breaketr and instrument trannsformer compartmentss
and extension of the 6,600-volt bussing in the Ga~tun hy)dr~oelctric~
station, to accommodate the ne units Nf~os. 5 and 6, wecre! advancedt
to about 50 percent of completion. Equipment, for the electrical end
of thie new unlit No. 5 has been re~ceived and arranged for convenient
installation during the coming~ yearl.
During the past. year service w~as temlporar1ily interrurpted at various
substations on 9 different, occasions. There wer~re 30 interruptions
to transmission line service during the year, of which 4 wcrer caused


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE PANAM[A CANAL











by lightning flash-over, 15 by bird, animal and reptile contacts, 1 by~
locomotive crane contact, 3 by pilot wrire relays, 1 by the mechanical
failure of insulator, and 6 by unknown causes.

WI7ATER SUPPLY AND GENERA-L WEATHER CONDITIONS

WATER SUPPLY

The water requirements of The Panama Canal for hydroelectric
power, nlonckags, and municipal use are supplied by M/adde3n and

Gatun Lakes which together drain an area of 1,289 square miles.
All outflow from Madden Lake, whether spilled at Madden. Damr or
drawn for use of MIadde~n hydroelectric station, flowvs into Gatun
Lake and together with the direct inflow from the area downstream
from Madden Dam~ remains available for Gatun L~akie uses.i The
total inflow of wa terC.1 into Mladden and Gatun Lakes during the year
ended June 30, 1945, amounted to 230,162 million cubic feet, whlich
is 9 percent above the average inflow for the 31-y)ear period since
the formation of Gatun Lake. Thze source and expenditure of this
water, togecther with comparable data for the preceding year, are
itemized in the following tabulation3:

P1rcEnt of avail-
Million cubic feet, able water sup.
year ended June 30 ply, year ended
June 30

1945 1944 1945 1944

MADDEN AND GATUN LAKES WATER SUPPLY
Direct inflow intto Madden Lake... ... ... .............._ 102, 968 87, 764 . .....
Evaporation from Madden Lake_. . .................... 2, 454 2, 219 .... .. .. ..........-
Waster ava3ilablle for Madden L~ake use....._ ______ 100, 514 85, 545 .... ...
Direct inflow into Gatun Lake.. ... -__ __ __ ....__ 127, 194 182, 767 .. .. .....
Subtotal_ .__... .. ...................... ........ 227, 708 218, 312 ......... ..........-
Evaporation from Glatun. Lake... .. .... ... .______ 20, 312 18, 568 ..........
Water available for Gatun Lake use ~_-.--.- __......... 207, 396 199, 744 ......... ..........-
MADDEN LAKE WATER USES AND EXPENDITURES
Madden bydroelectric power~.......... ......... ...... 64,860 63, 180 64. 5 73. 9
Madden spillway discharge. ~ .____._.___.____.... .......... 43, 264 22, 183 43. 0 25. 9
Change in hladdeln Lake storage___._. _____.___.......... -7, 610 182 --7. 5 .2
Total Madden Lake uses~ and expentditures_.......... 100, 514 85, 545 100. 0 100. 0
GATUN LAKCE WATER USES AND EXPENDITURES
G~atun bvd roelect1r ie PoW rT. ....~....................... .... 65, 093 64. 237 31. 4 32. 2
ratun andl Predlro ~icuel lockags....~.................... .. 42, 949 26, 330 20. 7 13. 2
Mluniciipal and of her use~s....~................... ........... 3,15~8 4, 334 1.5 6 22
Tot3 lGatun Lak~e uses.,._____.__---..-.-............. 111, 200 94, 921 53. 6 47. 6
Gatun spillwa.y discharge~...-__..... -----............... 114, 656 102, 726 55. 3 51.4
Chankre in. Madden and Gatun Lake storage...............~ -1 i8, 460 2. 097 --8. 9 1.0
Toltal Gat~un Lake uses and expenditure ..~.~._....... 207, 396 199, 744 100. 0 100. 0


REPORT OFi GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMCA CANAL







:REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAhlA CANAL


STORMdS AND FLOODS
The only not~ewor~thy general storm in the Canal Zlone area during
the year was the heavry rainstorm and flood of December 13-15, 1944.
This storm was of the norther type and was very similar to the storm
of the preceding year. Like the 1943 storm it occurred in middle
December and marked the close of the rainy season, but the winds
were not as strong and the sea swells along the north coast of the
Isthmaus wpere not as heavy as in the preceding year. The strongest
winds occur~redl on the afternoon of Decem~ber 14, the wind at Oristobal
avera.ging 22 miles per hour from the nor~thwe~st for 10 hours with a
5-minute maaximum. velocity of 31 miles per hour. The! heaviest
rains fell in the 60-hiour period, 6 p. mn. D~ecem~ber 12 to 6 a. m. De-
cemnber 15, anid did not continue long enough to create any serious
flood problem. 1\faximnum 24-hour rainfall amounts of 13.62 inches
at Agua Clara and 13.50 inches at Cristobal on December 14-15
broke all 24-haour rainfall records in the Canal Zone area. The
muaximlum 24-hour inflow into Madden and Gatun Lakes combined
averaged 125,000 cubic feet per second. The 4-day flood inflow into
Madden and Gatun Lakes totaled about 19 billion cubic feet, com-
pared with 4l-day inflows of 22 billion cubic feet in December 1943
and 42: billion cubic feet in October 1923, the largest flood since the
formation of Gatun Lake. During the height of thae flood period the
M~adden Dam drum gates were lowered to elevation 246 feet anld
Madden Lake rose to a maximum elevation of 257.16 feet, with a
maximum discharge downr the Chagres River channel at Alhajuela
of 68,165 cubic feet per~ second. All 14 gates were opened at tlhe
Gat.un spillwcpay withL a maximum discharge of 146,244 cubic feet per
second.
DaRY SEASON, 1945
The 1945 dry season in the? Canal Zone was somewhat drier than
usual, the total run-off froml the Gatun Lakre drainage basin for the
4-month period, January to Alpril, inclusive, bein 15 percent below
th~e 32-year average.. The period during which the inflowF into M~adden
and Gatun Lakles was insufficient to provide water for evaporation
losses froma lake surfaces alnd for Panama Canal water uses extended
from January 5 to June 8, a duration of 155 dlays. This period was
considerably longer than usual and embraced not only the Inormnal dry
season months of January through April but ext~endled over about 5
weeks of early rainy season during which the rains were too sca ttered
and too light to replenish ground water and stream flow sufficiently
to meet wTat~er requirements and to start the rainy season uptrend in
lake levels. The total dry season draft on reserve storage in Mladden
and Gatun Lakes amounted to 30,4122 million cubic feet, slightly more
than half the total water requirements for the same period. The







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH-E PAN.AI0A CANAL


total inflow into Malddecn Lake wyas 16,402 million cubic feet; walt~er
requirements for M~addenr Ltake evaporation. losses, generation of
power at Madden D~am, and other uses totaled 29,797 million cubic
feet; and the draft on M~adden Lake storage amounted to 13,395
million. cubic feet, lowering the lake level 29.77 feet' from elevation
250.65 feet to elevation 220.88 feet. The total inflow into Gatun
Lake, including all water drawn~ from Miadden~ Lake, was 40,682
million cubic feet; water requirements for Gatun Lake evaporation
losses, Canal lockages, generation of power at Gatun, and other
uses totaled 57,709 million cubic feet; and the draft on Gatun Lake
storage amounted to 17,027 million cubic feet, lowering the lake level
3.73 feet, from elevation 87.04 feet to elevation 83.31 feet.
LAKE ELEVATIONS
During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1945, Miadden. Lake varied
in elevation between a maximum of 257.16 feet on December 15, 1944,
and a m~ninimum of 220.79 feet on June 9, 1945, a range of 36.37 feet.
TPhe maximum. of 257.16 feet was recorded during the flood of Decem-
ber 13--15, 1944, previously discussed, and is the highest ever at ta.ined,
the previous hlighl being 256.06 feet on December 18-20, 1943. Gatun
Lake varied in elevation between a m~aximum of 87.08 feet on. Janur-y~
5, 1945, and a minimum of 83.10 feet on June 30, 1945, a range of
3.98 feet.
RAINFALL
Despite the fact that the total inflowv of water into Mai~ddenl and
Gatun Ltakes was considerable above normal, rainfall in the Canal
Zone proper for thne 12-month period ended June 30, 1945, was
somewhat below normal at all stations, the excess run-off being
derived from heavy rains in the out.1ying portions of the drainage
basinl. Along the line of thre Cand1~, annual1 total~s ranged from 60.64
inches at Balboa H-Ieights, near the IPacific terminal, to 119.2 inches
at Gatun netr thne Atlanltic termllind~. March was the month, of the
least rainfall w~ith monthly totals inr the Canal Zone area~ ranging from
zero to 1.77 inlches, while October was the? m~onth of greatest. rainfall
with monthly totals wrangling from 9.51 to 31.12 inches. Arifl
of 4.78 inches inr 1 hour was rccor~ded at Baslboa on August 28, 1944,
which is the grea~tes~t hourly amount on record for the Pacific slope
of the Canal Zone. The gracltest~ rainfall amount on reccord for a,
periodl of 1 hour in thec Canall Zone and adljacent, reacu is 5.68 inches
at Gaturn on Dcemb~er 6, 1939. Mlaxrimum raninfall amount's for 24
hours of 13.62 inches at the Agual Clara station in the hlls east of
Colon, and 13.50 at Cristob~al, werel~ recocrdedl on DecembTer 14--15,
1944, the highlcst. 24-hour rainfall ever r~ecor~ded at any Canal Zone
sta tion.










AmR TEMPERATURES

Air temperatures in. the Canal Z;one for the fiscal year 1945 were
very near normal. April was the warnlmest month with bihourly mean
temperatures of 81.50 F`. at B3alboa H-eights on the Pacific coast,
79.80 ]F. at Maldden Dam in the interior, and 81.00 F. at Cristobal
onl the Atlantic coast. October wras the coolest month with mean
temperatures of 77.0", 77.00, and 78.90 F., at tkhe three stations
respc-t i v ly. Annual extremelc s and means at Canal Zione Stations
for the fiscal year 1945 are givecn in the following table:

1945 maximnum 1945 minimum
Station 19p n ean D pa tre
0 F. Date O F. Date

Ralmon Heigrhts ~______~__ 95 Apr. 21, 1945 66 Jan. 9. 1945 79. 3 +0. 5
Madden Dam._ ~________ 04 Mcay 18, 1945 61 Jan. 9, 1945 78. 1 +. 6
June 20, 1945
Cristobal__ ~.. _I_________ 92 Sept. 12,1944 71 Nov. 16, 1944 80. 4 +. 3
June 19, 1945

Annual e trecmes and means on record at the above stations are as
follows :

Absolute maximum Absolute minimumAna
Station I------------ mean
a F. Date a F. Date (OF J

Balrboa H~eights. ..__ _____. _____ .____ ..... 97 Apr. 7,1912 63 Jan. 27,1910 78.8
Madden Dam ... _____ _ .__~_____ 98 Apr. 13, 1920 59 Feb. 4, 1924 77. 5
Jan. 30, 1929
Cristobal...... . ... ..._______ 95 Oct. 18, 1924 66 Dec. 3, 1909 80, 1
May 21, 1925

WINDS AND HUMIDITY

Wind velocities for the fiscal year 1945 averaged 6 mles per hour at
'Balboa H-eights on the Pacific coast and 10 miles per hour at Cr~istobal
on the Atlantic coast, the highest average velocities occurring along
the Atlantic coast, which during the dry season months is exposed to
the full. force of the northeast trades. Fiv~e-minute m~aimu vef6-
cities occurring during the year were 28 mies per hour from the south
on August 22, 1944, at ]Balboa H~eights and 31 miles per hour from thie
northwest on December 14, 1944, at Cristobal.
The. relative humdity averaged 83 percent at ]Balboa Heigohts and
80 percent at Crirstobal. At Balboa Heights monthly means ranged
from 73 percent in Mfarch to 90 percent in October, and at Crist~obal
the range w~as from 74 percent in Marnlch to 85 percent in August..
TIDES

During the fiscal year 1945 absolute tidal ranges at Canal terminals
were f21.9 feet on dthe Pacific. coast and 2.38 feet on the At~lant~ic. coast.
At Balboa at the Pacific terminal of the Canal, the :following ex-


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE; PANAM~A CANAL







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF` THE PANAMA CANAL;


tremnes occurred: HI-ighest highf water 10.5 feet above mean sea level,
lowest lowF5 water 11.4 feet below mnean sea level, the greatest range
between consecutive tides being 21.1 feet on October 4, 1,944, and
April 14, 1945. At Cristobal at the Atlantic terminal of the Canal
the following extremes occured: Highest high water 1.49 feet above
mean sea levecl, lowest low water 0.89 feet below mean sea level, the
greatest range between consecutive tides being 1.77 feet on De-
cember 1.
S E ISMhOLOGY

Three earthquakes wvere felt by Canal Z2one residents during the
fiscal year 1945. None was of sufficient intensity to cause any damage
locally. The first shock was recorded on the Balboa Heights seismo-
graphs on March 17, 1945, at 6:59 p. m., seventy-fifth meridian time.
It was rated in the Canal Zone at intensity III, Modified M~ercalli
Scale. The Unzited States Coast and Geodetic Survey located the
epicenter at being about 170 miles southeast of Balboa Heights on
the floor of the Pacific Ocea~n on the east side of the entrance of the
Gulf of Panama. The other twclo shocks occurrng at 8:06 a. m. and
11: 58 a. m. on June 3, 1945, were rated locatllyg at intensity IV and
intensity I, respectively. These were~ generally felt in the Province of
Chiriqui, Republic of Panama, and minor damage was reported from
David and Puerto Armuelles. The United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey located the epicenter of the main shock recorded at 8:06 a. m.
June 3, at a point close offshore the Pacific coast of Panama, midway
betwPeen David and Puerto Armuelles, a distance of about 215 miles
from Balboa H~eights.

MARINE ACTIVITIES

Marine activities wTere characterized by heavy work: loads at both
terminatls in 1945, due to the sharp increase in Canal traffic which
pyade a gain of approximnt elv '73 percent in comparison with the pre-
vious year. The comparatively limited docking facilities at Balboa,
which was used as a repair base for the large fleet of t~ankecrs carrying
wa-r cargoes to the Pacific war t~henter, nccssitatedd the berthing of
vessels three, and four abreast at thle pie~rs, and doubling up at the
moormngs. The system of convoys in effect up to the cessation of
hostilities in Europe t~axed personnel and equipment at Crist~obal to
the limit in. providing quick servicing and prompt dispa t.ch. Wartime
precautions for safeguarding the Canal and vessels in transit con-
tinued throughout the year.











11jARtBOR ACTIVITIES

TChe table following shows the number of v-essels handled at docks
of t.he terminall ports of Cr~ist~obal and ]Balboa for the fiscal year 1945
as compared with the two previous years:

Cristobal fiscal year Balboa fiscal year

1945 1944 1943 1945 1944 1943

Number of vessels docked:
Handlmgn passengers and/or cargo --.-...... . .. 1, 221 817 639 801 697 693
For all other purposes _........_ -_ _ ..~-~~~-- 2, 814 1, 333 1, 404 2, 183 1, 410 1, 230
Total.. __ _ .... ........... .... ..... 4, 035 2, 150 2, 043 2, 984 2, 107 1, 923

AIns To NAVIGATION

On June 30, 1945 there were 767 aids to navigation in service
in the Panama Canal and its approaches, maintained b~y the lighthouse
subdivisions and classified as follows: Acetylene gas-operated, 115;
electrically operated, 342; unlighted, 310. Included inl the foregoing
are 2 automatic gas-operated lighthouses at Morro Purcos and
Jicarita Island on the coast of Panama in thle Pacific approach, m~ain-
tained in the interests of the United States C~oast Guard. TIwo visits
were made to these aids during the year by the UT. S. S. Favorite, for the'
purrpose of inspecting equipment and servicing the aids.
ACCIDENTS rTO SHIPPING

The board of local inspectors investigated and reported on 50
accidents in connection with shipping in Canal Zone waters during
the fiscal year 1945, a summary of which follows with a, comparison of
necident~s in the t~wo pervious years:

Fiscal year
Cause of accident
1945 1944 1943

C oll ision__...... ..... ..... ..... .. ... .... 13 12 14
ship struck look walL__...... .... . __._ _ _. . 13 6 7
ship struck dock_--- ________~ ___ ......... ...... .. -.... .. ..... 6 6 1
Ship grounded______,______.................... ... ..... 4 5
Ship dam aged by tug ................. . .. .. ...___ 2 3 1
Ship struck canal ba~nk_ _________...........__ .... .......... .. ..... 3 2 1
Other cause~s...................._______ ............. ....... ._~.-_.... 13 4 6
T otal .... .... ... .... ... ... ... .... .... ... .... ... .... ... 50 37 35


Tw~o accidents investigated by the board involved personal injury to
employees.
INSPECTIONS

Complete inspections were made of the hulls, power plant andl equip-
ment of 13 American and 11, foreign vessels and certificates of sea-
worthiness issued. Eighty-t~hree bulls of conunercial vessels and of


REPORT OF GOV'ERNOR OF TH-E: PANAMAI CANAL







38 REPORT OF G;OVERNOR OF THE PANAIMA CANAL

Canal, Railroad, and other United States Gover~nment plants, were
inspected in dry dock. Eighty steam boilers wejlre given annual
inspections and hydcrostatic, tests. Eighty air thanks and 22 CO'
fire extinguishing~ systems were inspected. Annual inspections were
made and pertinent certificates issued to 182 motorboats.
ADMEASUREMENT
UTnder authority of the Se~venty-fifth Congress the so-called dual
system of measur~ement was abolished and a, single system under
Panama Canal rules of measurenwnt,~lt with rates of toll prescribed by
the Presidenlt, was inlnugurnted~t Miarch 1, 1938. February 28, 1945,
therefore, marks the completion of 7 years of successful operation
of the rev\ised system. So satisfactory hias this proved to all interests
that, as far as Canal tolls are conr-tllcerne it is believed net t~onnage is
the most e~quitable rate baset on which charges may be det~ermined.
Neither the Stepheln formula nor the Tutin formula, recently br~ought
forward in. Br~itish~ cir~cles, nch~cl based on the use of the principal
dimensions of a ver~Ssel, would as saisfactorCflily lend themselves to
det ermnin3 t ion of char1Iges conunen ~lSurIate with thne service rendered in
transiting vessels through the Canal.
During the year new types of vecssels continuedl to arrive at the
Canal for initial transit. These included the Vrictory type cargo
vessel anid the T2 tankller.
SALVAGE AND rPOWVING
?The Ul. S. S. Ta~~rernlla renlrth-redt assistance on July 6, 1944, to
the United~t Statets tanlker KI;fttaning which had a section of its hull
blown off from an enellmy torped~to off Cristobal. The U. S. S. La
Bo0ca wvas e~lnlgaged on Junre 1 to 2, 1945, in tow\ingc to the inner harbor
mooring at Balboa the S. S. iSamue,(l L. Je~frey which had been badcly
damaged~c in a collision. at sea. Th~le U17. S. S. Favorite wa~s engaged in-
salvage and towvingf operations during~ the yeanr as follows: Fr~om
September 12 to 21, 1944, towing into por~t thle S. S. Gulf M~lacracbo
which, hatd bee.~~n dlisabl.,l at men:; from November~cl 25 to Dcemcllber 6,
1944, towing the (lredge'' La Chconnal~r from th~e mouth of the! A-t~rato
River on lith Atlntlic coast of Colomblia,, to and through thet Canal
and to tht-e mlouthl of the San1 Juan1 ]River on. thle Pacific coast of oolom-
biat, a dlistanI ce~ of 650 m iles; fr~om Ja nuary11 22 to 27, 1945, towing dredge
C(lr~blaba fromn Buenavent~~ urnr Colomb~in, to Balboa, C. Z., for re-
pair~s, andt re~tutlrnin it to Bue~naventura upon. ~completion of repairs;
from May? 16 to 22, 1945, towing the S. S. rr.; de Miayo, which was
without power due to boilerl tr~oub~le, from the Canal Zone to Guaya-
quil, Ecundlor; fr~om Miay 22 to 27, 1945, towing barg'be No. d14 from
G~uayaquil to Balb~oa on. Irtulrn trip from deliverIing the S. S. 2L4 De
31aryo; from June 1 to 3, 1945, towing floating dr~ydoc~k U. S. N. YFD









No. 6 through the Canal. This latter operations was probably the
most interesting towinlg job performed during the year. Due to the
widthl of its main section it was necessary to e~nreen the drydock on its
side, and the entire transit was ac~complished in tha~it. mnlnler. Thne
~voager wa~s completed as planned and without damage either to the
drydock or the locks.
OPERATION OF rfUGS

The. past fiscal year wans th~e bus~irstin the history of the Canal termi-
nals insofar as harbor activity wvas concecl~rned, with operating hours
more than doubling those in thte previous year. T'o cope w~ith this
increased activity the regular tug fleet of tugs at Bhalboa was aug-
mented by three tugs, the La Boca, the Empiifre, and the Obispo,
borrowed from the dredging service during the yetar., The Obispo
continued in use until M~ay when it was reFplacedl by the tug Boh~io
(also of the dredging service) beenusec the latter was deemed more
suitable for use as a harbor tug. Increase in Canal traffic necessitated
further need on June 4, 1945, of the Obispo which was employed in
assisting vessels in Gaillard Cut anid towing vessels from Gatun.
Despite the em~ploym~ent of this additional tug equipment during thte
year, it was also ncecssaryS to call out extra tugs from the dredging
service for use at thze Balboa terminal during periods of haea~vy move-
menits. Four tugs, the Tavernilla, the Alhajular~r, the 31Tr/raflores, and
thne Cardr crna, rema~ine~d in service at Cristobal for thne entire year.
The following statistics summarize the services of tugs use in marine
activities (as distinct from dredging) duin~g the past three fiscal years:

Ol., rulline ho-urs Jobs handled,
tim a yearfiscal year
1945 1944 1943 1945 1944 1943

B alboa ......... _.... ._...19, 819 9, 780 7, 548 8, 791 6, 408 5, 112
Cristobal_. .. ... ____ . .. ___ __ ...__ _ 12, 816 5, 964 5, 364 9, 325 4, 392 4, 284
Total ..... ..... .... ....32, 635 15, 744 12, 912 18, 116 10, 800 9, 396

I"The table above does not include the statistics for tugs whZic~h were
occasionally borriowedct from dredgingS service to assist \essels during
peak periods.

AfAINTENA~NCE OF CHANNEL--OTHEIR DREDGING ACTIVITIES

Dredgaes worked throughout, the yecar on the mlaintenance of the
Canal channel, terminal harbors, and on various special projects,
including a substantial amount of excavaF~tion onl the third locks
project.. In 1945 the total excavalted amoulnted to 18,569,600 cubic
yards, wh)rich represents a 34 percent increase over thle amount re-
moved in the previous fiscal year.


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH-IE PANAM~IA CANAL


















I (~I


236, 200 383, 800 620, 000
989, 100 662, 500 1, 651, 600

1, 225, 300 1, 046, 300 2, 271, 600


[Cuble yards


I Does ~not include Chalgres Rivepr gravel or Chamne sand setrvice3.


40 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THTE PANAM\A CANAL


Excavation during the p~ast year is summarizedd in the following
table:
[Cubic yards]


Rock


Location


Eatrth


Total


15, 000
680, 100
58, 700


7.*.3, 8(00



375, 500
1, 212, 900

6, 300
100, 600
178, 700

78,800

1, 952, 800


CANAL PRISM DREDGING
Atlantic entrance, maintenance-..... --__ _ _. . ... ..
Gfatun Lake, maintenance.~. __ _ _ ... ._ ..
Gaillard Cut, maintenance, including slides.. ... . ~~~- -
Garillard Cut, project No. 13 ..._ __.. ______ ~____~_
Pacific entrance, maintenance .......... ... ... _. .
W est Ferry slip~ ___-._. .. _... _. ... ... ... ..... .
Project No. 1-B _...__ _.._.._. .. .. .. .. . .

Total, Canatl prism....... .. ... .... .............. .
AUXILIARY DREDGING
Cristobal Harbor:
Inner harbor, maintenance __~~.. .. _______
Outer harbor, west anchorage _. ~._-____. __ ._ .. ..
Harbor approach channel...__ ... ... ..... ______ _. .
Balboa Harbor:
Inner Harbor, maintenance ~~~~~ ... .. . . ...
Project No. 1, Ext. No. 2 .. ...... ... . . _____
Naval operating base~-~.~~-~~...... ______
A pprnchl to pier 20_--. ~~-~ -~--.~.... _____
Franre Fieldl stockpile_.-.............. .... . .

Total, auxiliary _ __._..... .... .... ... .... ..
THIRD LOOKS DREDGING
New bypass channels:
New Miraflores looks:
N orth approach. ........... ..... .... ... __
South approach.__ ____-_.............. .. .

Total bypass channels__~..... ... .. .... .. .... .
Grand total:
Fiscal year 1945.. . . . . . . . . . .
Fiscal year 1944 . . . . . . . . . .


1, 553, 000
6, 600
116, 000
118, 800
3, 697, 200
94, 400
29, 500




114, 800
2, 117, 500
2, 995, 500

2,395, 700
73, 000
159, 900
67, 800
51, 700

7, 975, 900


i, 553, 000
6,600
131, 000
798, 9000
3, 755, 900
94, 400
29, 500

6i, 369, 300


114, 800
2, 493, 000
4, 2018, 400

2,402, 000
173, 600
338, 600
67, 800
130, 500

9, 928, 700


14, 816, 700
11, 421, 100


3, 752, 900
2, 428, 800


1 18, 569, 600
1 13, 849, 900


1 In addition 25,615 cubic yards of Chame sand were produced in fiscal year 1945 and 88,580 cubic yards in
1944.


Dredginlg operations are divided into three major districts: the
Atlanrtic district from contour 42' below mean sea-level in the Atlantic

Ocean to Gatun lockrs; the Central district from Gatun lockrs to Pedro

Miiguel locks; and the Pacific district from Pedro Mliguel locks to con-
tour 50O' below mnean sea-level in the Pacific Ocean. The total exscava-

tion in these three areas, exclusive of third lockts excavation, is sum-
matrized as follows:


District

Central


Total


Atlantic

Canni p~rism-~
Earth . . .__.~.___._~ ......., 553, 000
Rock. _~ _ __._ _~... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Total _......... ........... .... ....... 1, 553,000
Auxihiary:
Earth~.__.._................ _~_~~._. .. ,5, 27. 500
Rock~.. ___ ___.____._._.... ............... .. 1 B,20
Total~ _ __..........._._~_ ___ .. . .. . . -n 700
Total (exclusivet of third locks):
Earth ..8,3.RR00
Rock...................... ... ...... I I.6r;:. 2nd
Olrand totals:
Fiscal year 1945.. .. .. .. 849,70
Fiscal year 1944........... ... 2, Z41, 300


Pacific


241, 400
695, 100
936, 500





241.400


036, 500
1, 583, 300


3, 821, 100
58, 700
3, 870, 800

2, 696, 400
28.5, 600
", 982. 000

6,5r17. 5(00
344l. 31'0

6, 861, 800
3, 703, 600


5, 615, 600
753, 800
6, 369, 300

7, 975, 900
1, 952, 800
9. 928, 700

13, 591, 400
2. 706,600I(

1 16, 298, 000
; 528, 200






REPORT Ofi GOVERNOR OF TH~E: PANIAMA CANAL


ORDINARY CHANNEL n1.AI1NTENA NCE--CANAL PRISM DREDGING
Atlantic Dis~trict.---Maintenance dredging in the Atlantic entrance
section of the Canal channel wias in progress 36% days during the past
year by the pipe-line suction dredge Mindi, which excavated a total of
1,553,000 cubic yards of material.
Central: District (Gatun Lake anzd G;Faillard Cut).--The dipper dredge
Paraiso worked 2 days on maintenance dredging in Gatun Lake
during the year, excaat~ing 6,600 cubic yards. The dipper dredges
Garnboa and Parariso wrork~ed 38 days during the year on maintenance in
Ga~illard Cut, from which a total of 114,200 cubic yards was excavated.
Of this amount the dipper dredge Paraiso, emaployedl 16 days on this
wrork, dredged 37,200 cubic yards and the dipper dredge Gamboa,
w-orkiing 22 days, excavated 77,000 cubic yards.
GailtlardE ut--Projiect No. 18.--This project, which consists of
widening Cuzlebra Reach. by 200 f~ee to the westward, w~as started in.
January 1935 and has been continued on a lowi priority basis since
that time. During 1945 shore mining, grading and sluicing were
carried out as in thae past. A total of 439,300 cubic yards of rock was
broken by shore mining, and a total of 445,000 cubic yards of material
was sluiced into the Canal prism to be removed by regular dredging
ope~rat~ions. Thae dipper dredge Gamboa, working 124 days during the
year onl thais project, excavated a total of 601,900 cubic yards of rock
and earth, wcYhile the dipper dredge Paraiso, employed 36 days on the
samle w\\ork, removed 197,000 cubic yards. Total excavation to date
on this project is 5,589,800 cubic yards and at the end of the fiscal
yealr 1945 it was 71 percent complete.
Pacific distr~ict.-A total of 3,755,900 cubic yards was excavated in
maintaining the Pacific entrance section. of the Canal channel. Of
this amount, the pipeline suction dredge Las Oraces, working 160
days, removed 3,706,700 cubic yards, and the dipper dredge Paraiso,
w~ork~ing 18% days, dredged 49,200 cubic yards.
WFCest Ferry Slp, Balboa Htarbor.-The pipeline suction dredge Lasr
Cruces worked 5%5 days on this project., excavating 94,400 cubic yards.
AUXILIARY DREDGING~--OTHER PROJECTS
Cristobal inner harbor.-The pipeline, suction dredge A~izndi worked
4 days on maintenance: dredging in Cristobal inner harbor during the
past year, e~xcavatin~g 114,800 cubic yards of material.
Cristobal wuest anchorage.-T~he pipeline suction dredge nA~ndi
worked 79 days on this project, excalvat~ing 2,493,000 cubic yards.
Cristobrl: approach channel.--The pipeline suction dredge Mindi
worked 185!2 do~ys on ths project, excavating 4,208,400 cubic yards
of material.


6883500--46----4







HEPOR~T OF GOVERNOR OF` THIE PANAMWA CANAL


Fracncr Fie-ld stockcpille.-The pipeline suction dredge M~indi workied~
15 days in Alanzanilla. Bay, excavating 130,500 cubic. yards for use
inr building a stock~pile of fill material onr F~rance Field for the. U~nit~ed
States A~my..
Ba~lboa ~Harbor.-Main~tennu~ce dredging wras performed during the
year in Balboa H-arbor as follows: The pipeline suctionl dredge LZas
Oraces worIked 93% days, excavating 2,352,500 cubic yards; the3 dipper
dredge Paraise worked 1% days, excavating 3,400 cubic yards; thie
dipper' dred'ge Cascadas worked 3%1 days, exc~avating 11,100 cubic
yards.
Approa'" ch~ to pier SO0, Balboa Ha~crbor.--The dipper dr~d ge Par~aiso
worked I day on this project, excavating 5,500 cubic yards; the pipe-
line suectionr dredge~r Las Cruces worked 4 days, excalvating 62,300
cubic yards.
United States N8 2avy opir~atinig base, Balboa.--The dipper dredge
Parrraise worked 17%1 days on. this project, excava:ting 43,100 cubic
yards; the pipeline suction dredge Las Cr~uce~s worked 38 days, ex-
cavating 295,500 cubic yards.
Impl)'lrominen pl Ilrojlect No. _1, extension No. 92, Balboa Hl~arbor.--
Suba~queous mining wras in progress 20 days during the year on this
proj ect and 10,400 cubic yards of rock were broken. T~he dipper drcege
rAwadoli'cs worked 35%~ days, excavating 120,300 cubic yards of ma-
tceriall. The pipeline? suction dre~cdge Las Cru~Ct8 w~orke~d 8 days, ex-
cav t inga 53,300 cubic yards.
TuIRn LOCKS DREDGING
The Panama Canatl's dredg]~ing division is charged with the per-
formance of prancticnlly all of the wYet excavation in connection with
theL construction of the third locks project. Durig thie past year thne
following construction dredging was performed in various approach
channelscl for this project:
New M~ltJIraffres locks north alpproa ch channel.--Subaqu eous mi ni ng
was in progress for 156 days in this area, during which time 34,400
cubic yards~ of rock1 were bro~ken. T'he dipper dredtge~ Garnboac worked
104 tlays during the year, removing 397,100 cublic yards of material,
and the clipper d~redgSc cPara;Pse worked 46 days, remnovinlg 222,900
cubic yards. Total cocnstrulctionl exrcavation to dalte is 2,834,300
cubic ya rd~s and~t it wans 69.4 percent complete at the end of the year.
Nearl, M7\irafformc' locks south app2rach chacn nel.-S~~ubaqueou mining
was~1 inl progre'~ Ss for 214 day1~s, during vhiich 2.37,500 cubic yards of rock
w~ere brokenI. TIhe dippeir dredlge Cascadasn workled~ 1821% days, re-
mov~ing 750,8030 cubic yards of mater~ial tle. dipper dredgre P3araiso
wvor~ked 91 cdays, removing 335,100 cub~ic yards; anid the pipeline
suectionl ilcdrege ILas Crurce~s wor~kedl 54%2/ dayvs, removing 565,700 cubic







REPORT OFi G;O\ERNOR OF TH3E PANA~MA CANALI


yatrds. At the end of the year excavation on this project totaled
7T,269,2)00 cubic yards and it wvas 69.6 percent completed.
SLIDES
Excavation from slides in Gaillard Cut from~ Junre 30, 1913, to
the beginning of the current fiscal,year totaled 51,8'27,200 cubic y~ard~s.
During the past year 16,800 cubic yards were excavated from this
area, bringing the total exrcavation. from slides to 51,844,000 cubic
yards as of June 30, 1945. Slide activity throughout the Cut was
ge~nerll much less than in the previous years, being even less than.
in fiscal year 1944. Culebra (west) continued to be thle most active
of all slides. Small movements were observed in seven slide areas
during the past year, including a small distinct break in barge repanir
slide (east). N~o slide material entered the Canal prism. Numerous
bank breaks occurred but these were all limited to small movements
of no consequnce.
During the past year the dipper dredge Paraiso worked 4 days in
Culebra slide (west) removing the 16,800 cubic yards mentioned
above. Subaqueous mining was in progress for 116 days during the
year and 63,800 cubic yards of rock were broken.

SUBSIDIARY DREDGINGC DIVISION ACTIVITIES
SAND AND GRAVEL
Durig the past fiscal year 104,344 cubic yards of sand and gravel
of all classes (both run-of-bank and washed) were~c shipped from the
gravel stock: pile at Gamboa, as compared~t with 225,514 cubic ynrdls
shlipped in. the previous fiscal year. No run-of-bank grlavel was
pumped into the stock pile at Gamboa.
T'he craneboat A-tlas w\as in service for 22%C days exa~;vating 25,615
cubic yards of sand at Chiame Point, Republic of Panama. This
sanld was pumped into barges and delivetredc to the stock pile at
Balboa..
HYACINTH CONTROL AND OTHER ACTIVITIES

The Canal and adjacent wPaters through Guillard Cut, M~iraflorles
Lake, and Gatunl Lake includinga all dump ar~eas) were patrolled and
the growthCt of hyacinths kept under contr~ol. Log booms at the
m~outh of the Chagres and Al~andinga Ri~vers wiere mainltained to
prevent, hyacintbhs, logs, floating islands, and other obstructions from
entering the Canal channel during freshets, or spilling at Mandden
Dam, D~uring the year periodical inspection. trips were ma~de~ in. the
Chagres, Alandingt, Frijoles, and Azules Riv~ers anld along the shores
of Barro Colorado Islandl, Pena Blanca and Giganmte Bays, excavation









44: REPORT OF GOVERNOR OFE TH~E PANAMJA, CAN~AL


dumps, and M~iraflores, Pedro M~iguel, and Red Tanki Lakes. Weekly
inspectionz trips were also made of the Canal channel between Gambon
and Gtatun.
It is estimated thiat 39,936,000 hyacinth plants were destroy-ed
during the past year, of which 16,040,000 w~ere pulled and 23,896,000
wecre sprayed; of the plants pulled 3,825,000 were removed by the
debris cablew~ay. Eighty-sevenr cords of driftwood were removed by
the debris cableway during the past year and an additional estimated
457 cords of driftwood wFCere picked up along the banks of the Chagares,
Mandinga, Chilibre, and Cocoli Ri-vers, Gaillarld Cut, and Gatun,
Mira~flores, Pedro Miguel, and Red T'ank Lakes.

EQUIPMENT

The more important items of dredging equipment or plant were
operated during the pastf year as shown in the following tabulation:

Out of service
I - - -
Unit and name Type service
Repairs eser ory

Dredges:
Cascadas~._____.__...... . ._ 15-yard dipper .. . .._~ 7. 6 1. 3 3.1
Gamboa_ ___________ __.__.- .. . ...do.. -.. ........ 8.2 1. 1 2.7
Paraiso ..... _______ __. _ __ _l-_do do. . ...~~- 7. 7 1. O 3. 3
Las Crzuces_--_.... ......~-~~~ 24-inch suction ___.... . 12.0 --~.- -. .. ......----
Mindi_____________. .. ... 28-inch suction .. ...~_~_~ 10. 5 1. 5 ...........-
Craneboat: Atlas.___~ ... ______ 75-ton ______ ____. 8.2 1. 4 2.4
Derrick barge: No. 157.____ __-. _I 40-tont_~. _____~~-~- 5.4 1.06 5.6
Oraderbarge: No. 4.... 14 --- I-inch pumps ....~._.. 6. 5 1 5. 4
No. 5 _ .__~_-- ~~-. ~~~_~ I------.~-.-.....~ ...- 5.6 .7 5.7
No. 4~..--. ---- ... .------.-- 12. O
Drillboats:
TererN .... .. Steam ........~~~-I.~~-.- 12.0
Teredo No. a_ _____. __.__~....._. ... .~-~d o_ -----~.--.-.. ...- .. -... ........ 12.0O
Vulcan ................. ........... ._ Air_ _ __-_. _~~.-. 4. 9 1. 1 6. O
Thor................... .. ... __ do ._ 10. 8 3 9
~Air compressor: No. $49. .. .... . __~__ 2,500 C. F. 11_. __. __._. ._ 5.9 ......... 6.
Floating cranes:
Ajax_ ..............- ~ .. .. .-~- 250-ton. ... -- __~_..~.~.-.. 3. 2 3. 6 5. 2
H~lercules.. ..... -----~~-~~--~- .l~-~o ... .......do ...... .. 3. 1 2.1 6.8
Perry boats:
President Amador_ --~~~--~-~~~--- ......... ... 6.8 .1 5. 1
President Roosevelt. .......... .. ..- -- --- --- 7.9 ---------- 4. 1
Presidente Porras... ........ 9. 1 1. 9 1.0


In addition to the above there were also operated as part of The
Panama Canal's dredging plant, large tugs and small tugs or tenders
and an. attecndant fleet of dump scow~s, sand barges and service lighters,
launches, quarter boats and related drillinlg and excavating equipment.
At the end of the year nine large and three small tugs were engaged in
or available for dredging se~rvice.







REPORT OF` GOVERNORl OF THE PAZNAMA CANAL 45

FERRY SERVICE

TShat cher Ferry service was continuous throughout the past year
except for 3 days, from January 29 to February 1, when it wras sus-
pended to facilitate dredging in the Canal. This ferry crosses the
Canal at the Pacific term~inal and connects Balboa on the east bank
w~ith TLhatcher highway on the west bank. Service was maintained by
rotating the three ferry boats, Presidente Amador, President Roosevelt,
and ~Presidente Porras, keeping t~wo of these ferries in continluous
service.
Since the opening of the newv bridge across the Canal at M/iraflores
in May 1942 the ferry traffic bas become fairly well stabilized. In the
following table are? shown the more important statistics relative to
operations of the Thatcher Ferry for the past three fiscal years:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Single tripsmzade ................... --------------------- 55, 928 54, 639 41, 158
Vicles carrier];
Panama Canal vehicles...................----- ------------ 29, 472 32,681 23,118
U. S. Army vehicles.... ... ...........----- ---------------~ 138, 916 163, 723 122, 780
Commer~cial trucks ......................... ~-~- -- 70, 042 01, 148 101, 795
Commercial passenger cars~..--.__ ...... ..... . .....~ 91, 964 92, 723 OS, 991
Private cars _ _. ..... ...------~- 188, 982 216, 091 167, 659
Total vehicles carried................ ------~~---- ------------ -- 528, 376 597, 266 479, 343
Total passengers carried- -__.....-------.........--- ...-- ... 2, 785, 612 3, 211, 690 3, 208, 626

THIRD L-OCKS PROJECT

The third locks project, providing for the improvement and enlarge-
ment of the capacity of the Panama Canal in the interest of defense
and inter-oceanic commerce at a cost not to exceed $277,000,000 waTs
authorized by act of Congress, Public No. 391, Seventy-sixth Congress,
first session, approved August 11, 1939. The project involves the
design and construction of a new set of locks at some distance from the
existing locks, the excavation of approach, channels to connect the newv
locks with the existing Canal, and the design and construction of
appurtenant works.
Excavations work on the thid locks project was started by the
dredging plant of The Panama Canal on July 1, 1940. The entire
program woas prosecuted vigorously from that date until May 1942.
On Mlay 25, 1942, the G~overnor, pur~suant to a directive of the Secre-
tary of mWar, issued instructions that construction of the thid looks
project be modified in order to bring it into closer conformity with the
over-all wPar program.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAM\IA CANAL


Underl the modified program, dredging in the approach chanels
was continued but on a lower priority basis. The contract for excava-
tion of t~he. New G~atun Locks was carried to completion, but the similar
cont~rnet on the P~acific side was terminated with partial completion
of the excavations for thce New Mlirafolores and NI\ew Pedro .11iguel
Lockls. Other features carlrie~d to completion were the designs and
specifientions, construlctionl of the bridge over existing Miraflores
Lockis, the relocation of various utilities and const ruct ion of emergency
electric power plants. Among thne important items suspended under
the modified program were the contracts for construction of the locks
st.r~uct~ures, furnishing cement, processing aggregates, and t~he fabri-
cation of miter gates and bulkheads.
Dur1ingr 1945 a total of 2,271,600 cubic yards wvas excavated from~
the approaches to the Newv Miraflores Locks; further details of the
dredging work on the third locks project are given on page 421 of thzis
report. Progress was made on the Cucaracha foundation test, the
long term metal corrosion test, and other research studies. Disposal
of equipment and supplies acquired as the result of terminrationl pro-
ceedings progressed satisfactorily, and all except an inlsigrnificant
am~ount was sold without loss to the Government. All phases of the
design, including studies, drawings, specifications, and final reports
wvere either completed or materially advanced.
The release of employees, wvhich started because of the modification
of the thid-locks construction programs, w~as continued throughout
thle year. The force working on the project was reduced fromr 88 at
the start of the fiscal year to 31 at the end of the fiscal year.













SECTION II


BUSINESS OPERATIONS

The business enterprises opera ted by T'he Panama Ca nail and b~y the
Panama Rtailroad Co. embrace a number of activities which in the
United States would norm~ally be enrried on by pr~ivatec initiative.
They have been developed to meet the needs of shipping passing
through the Canal and of the Canal-Railroad organization and its
employees. During the past year, as in the 4 years prerceding, these
activities have also served very important needs of the Army and
Navy, and have been expanded and adjusted to meet the require-
mlents of the war effor~t.. The business enterprises include the supply
of fuel, provisions, ship chandleryy, and repairs to vessels; the provi-
sion of public utility services; the maintenance of living quarters'and
the sale of food, clothing, and other essentials to Canal and Railroad
employees; the handling of cargo andl allied operations; and the opera-
tion and m~anatgement of a railroad line. A steamnship line between
NewF Ylork and the Isthm~us also was operated prior to the outbreak
of war, but since the steamlers of the line were requisitioned for direct
em~ploymlent in the war~effort, this function was inactive during 1945.
T'he Canal and the Rtailroad are separate organizations, but the
admlinistration of both organizations is vested in the Governlor of The
Panamla Canal, who is also president of the Panama Ralilroad Co.
PANAIMA CANALP BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Business operations of T'he Panama Canal are conducted separately
from operating activities pertaining directly to the! transiting of vecs-
sels and the government of the Canral Zlone. Thze annual appropria-
tion acts for the Panama Canal authorize thae expenditure and rein-
vestment of "all mrone~ys received from the conduct of nuxidliary business
activities, with the proviso that any net profit derived. from such
businlesss activities shall be covered annually into the Treasur of the
Unlited. States.
It is the aim to operate the business act~ivities as a whole on a self-
supporting basis.and, in general, to include as a charge against their
operations a fixed capital charge of 3 percent as interest on the invest-
ment. Th]3e amount representing charges for interest on investment
is a part of the net profits covered into the Treasury and is in effect
a reimbursement to the U~nited States for interest paid by it to holders







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OFi THE PANAIMA CANAL


of U-nited States bonds. Tlhe investment in business activities totaled
$46,950,5639.31 at the beginning and $47,613,043.80 at the end of the
fiscal yearl (tables Nos. 4 and 5, sec. VT). The capital charge for the
fiscal year 1945 was $1,052,505.51 (table No. 20, sec. V). The net
revenues of $1,469,183.52 exceeded this amount by $416,678.01.

M/IECHANICAL AND) MARINE: ORK

On the basis of revenues received for work accomplished, there was
a general over-all decrease of 8 percent in the total volume of business
performed by the mechanical division, in comparison with. 1944, a
record year. There were reductions in work performed for The
Panama Canal, the Panama Railroad Co., and the U~nited States
Army and Navy, thze most notable being a 15 percent decrease in work
performed for the Navy3. The reductions were par~tially offset by a
substantial increase in the work performed for other Unted States
departments, principally thze War Shipping Administration, caused byT
the concentration at the Pacific termilnal of the Canal of tankers in
transit to war theaters in the Pacific.
The work load of thze mrechatnica~l division, like that of ship repair
yards in general, is highly erratic. Because of this fact it was deemed
advisable to establish and to enforce strictly a priority schedule for
each tyvpe of work undertakers. As in 1943 and 1944, it was necessary
to refuse certain classes of work which would have tied up existing
facilities and made them unavailable for the servicing of vessels of
higher priority. In each case of this kind, however, suffcient repairs
were made to allow the ve~cssel to proceed safely to some continental
repair yard for the accomplishment of permanent retpa-ir~s.
The salvage depot, placed in operation during the fiscal year 1944
at the Pacific terminal, continued to develop. TIhe principal item of
equipment added this year wvas an atuxiliar~y salvage bar~ge which is
being fitted out for drydock serviice at Balboat. It is planned eventu-
aly to equip this barge for use in emeri'lgenlcy salvage operations at the
Pacific end of the Canal.
Gnoss REVENUES--CLASS AND SOURCE

As was the case in the fiscal year71s 1943 and 1944, the re~venues
received as listed, below do not acc~urantely relc~ct the volume of work
performed for the United States Navy, because! thze Navy conrtinued
the practice start ed in 1943 of supplying pracrtically all material used
for naval work0.












The. following table shows the classes and sources of work performed
during the past two fiscal years:

Fiscal year Percent Fiscal year Percent
Csaegory 1945 of total 1944 of total

Class:
Marine~. ______.---...........---------------_ $12, 657, 201 80. 5 $12, 607, 957 73. 4
Railroad... ......-.--~-~-------------------------- 769, 534 4. 9 1, 021, 101 5. 9
Fabricated stock _____----. ~~.-. _ _. 497, 142 3. 2 768, 426 4. 5
Sundries_ ...... ...............----------- ... .. 1, 792, 156 11. 4 2, 773, 237 16. 2
Total ... .. ..... ....--------- ------------- 15,716,033 100.0 17,170,721 100.0
Origin:
Panama Canal____._-~,--... ............... -- -- 2, 587, 423 16. 4 3, 674, 955 21. 4
Panama Railroad---..---..~-.-.-.........- --- --- 824, 468 5. 3 1, 092, 726 6. 4
U. S. Army........ ............---------------- 1, 883, 017 11.9 2, 552, 516 14. 9
U. S. Navy ..____--.---~--... .........- --- 5, 005, 773 31. 3 7, 949, 610 46. 3
Other United States departments _ .~-~. 3, 204, 870 20. 4 13, 536 1
Commercial ......... ....,-.--~----------- 2, 210, 482 14. 7 1, 887, 378 10. 9
Total... ...................... _ .~~-~ 15, 716, 033 100. O 17,170, 721 100. O



Operating expenses for the fiscal year totaled $15,613,315, leaving
at net revenue from operations of $102,718.

REPAIRS TO SHIPS

The following statement shows the number of vessels and the total

"ship days," for each category of vessels repaired at Balboa and
Cristobal for the fiscal year 1945:

Balboa Cristobal Total

Category
Number Ship Number Ship Number Ship
of ships days of ships days i of ships days i

Tankers_. ....... ... ...............- -. _ _ 540 2, 881 347 1, 590 887 4, 471
CommerciaLt~_._~_.~-.-~.-~...............-- 320 1, 027 893 2, 825 1, 213 3, 852
Navy_________-.-.~---.........-....--------. 619 2, 563 681 3, 878 1, 300 6, 441
Army ~_ .. ...._~-~~~--~~.~ 372 2, 712 310 1, 280 682 3, 992
Panama Canal .... .. .....----~.-~-~-~ 12 201 62 324 74 525
Miioellaneous___-_--~~--~-- _ .... 80 1, 132 141 1, 062 221 2, 194
Total .. ...._-..---~---~ 1, 943 10, 516 2, 434 10, 959 4, 377 21, 475

1 Total days consumed in repairing Inumber of ships indicated.


REPORlT OF GOVERNOR OF THTE PANA1MA CANAL







50 REPORT` OF G;OVERNCOR OFi THI3E PANAIMA CANAL

DRYDOCKS AND MARINE RAILWAYS

The following table sumnmarizres d~rydockr and marine railway
operations dulr~ingr the fiscal year 1945, with comparative figures for the
two pr~eceding years:

Fiscal year 1945 Fiscal year

Cristobal
Balboa drydocks Total 1944 1943
drydocks and marine total total
railways

Number of vessels drydocked:
U. 8. Army...... .. -~_ -~_ .... ..... 93 28 121 112 61
`U. S. NaV3\? _. _. . ... .__ ...___ 75 194 269 259 232
Other United States departments ~_. ~- _ __. ... 55 1 5 .......
Commiercial.__. ._~. ._ _____.__. .__ .. 26 28 54 47 38
Total outside ._ __. __. ... ___ .___ ... 249 251 500 418 331
Panama Canal.. ._ ..._~~__ _.. _~_~____ _.. 29 17 46 31 31
Panama R ailroad.. .. . ____ __. . .... __ ......... 1
Grand total~ __........ . .. . .. .... 278 268 546 449 363


During the fiscal year 1945 there wecre 33 times in which 1 drydock
was unoccupied for 1 day at Balboa, and 135 times in which 1 drydock
or marine railway was unoccupied for 1 day at Cristobal.
PLANT IMPROVEMENT

The general program of expansion and modernization of marine
repair and other facilities was continued throughout the past year.
Approximately 150 pieces of newr equipment and machine t~ools were
installed annd placed inz operation. Additional buildings wiere erected
to house the expanded facilities, while numerous major repairs to andl
overhauls of existing facilities and equipment were accomplished to
increase the capacity of the plant to meet the added wartime demands
placed upon. it.
Work is now in progress on. the! further improvement of all facilities
by the installation of 60~-cycle power to serve both shops and ships'
service! at both terminals. At Cristobal, dock No. 13 was extended by
the addition of a flo t~ing pier to p~ermit the mlooring of two tankfers.
T~he most serious deficiencyT canfro~ntingr thte mechanical division in.
1945 wias the, lack of adequate pi~er space!. T'he berthing of three to
four vessels abreast has been a par~talR solution. to this problem, but
this has resultedl in many ship Ilovements which, if adlequat~e pier
space had been available, would not have been necessary. These
movements have not only delayed mzan~y relatedl operations, but have
complica t ed the dri strIib~ution of the di vision 's daily productive effort.










ETLECTIRICAL, REPAIR W~ORKt

The principal activities of thle electrical division are: The opera-
tion and mlaint~enance of the power ~system;ll the operation and main-
t~enance, of telephone, telegraph, electric clock, fire alarm, printing
telegraph, and railway signal systems; the operation and maintenance
of fthe street-lighting s~steml; anld the installation and maintenance
of electrical equipment as required by The Panama Canal and other
government agencies, or by vessels undergoing repairs at the Canal
terminals. Following is at comparison of the three principal classes
of expenditures of the! electrical dlivision for the past three fiscal
years:

Fiscal year
1945 1944 1943

Electrical construction and maintenance work__ ...~__ .... 8 2, 339, 477 $2, 863, 306 $4, 046, 604
Maintenance and operation of-
Electric power system_ ._______________~~~ 1, 173, 630 1, 039, 388 1, 182, 345
Telephone system and railwsay signals_ ...~_~_____ 243, 180 266, 424 279, 968

One of the important developments of the year wras the inaugura-
tion of a high frequency radio communcation s~ystemn for the police

]F"urther information concerning the principal construction projects
undertaken and the operation of the power system are given on page
31 of this report., under the general heading of Canal operation, while
operating statistics of thie telephone system are covered on page 59
under the operation of the Panama Railroad Co. The expenditures
shown above include interdepartmental transactions. As an ex-
ample, maintenance, and repairs on the power system are performed
by the. electric work unit and the cost of this work is therefore in-
cluded in the expenses of both the power system and thle electric work
unit.
TIhe vPolumne of electrical construction andl maintenance. work. con-
t~inued to decline during the past year, and a redluctilon in the ~force.
of gold employees recruited to do Navy marine electric work was
necessit~atedl by the cancellation of contracts for that work.

PvaTcHASES AND INSPECTIONS IN THEE: UNITED STATES

The principal purchases of supplies for TLhe Panamna Canal were
ma~de, ats heretofore, through the Washingoton Office of The Panama


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF" TH-E PANSAMA CAN~AL








5;1 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMLA CANAL

Canal; the volume of the purchases is indicated b~y the following
table:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Number of purchase orders placed ~___~_____ .... .. 9, 543 8, 931 13, 373
Value of orders placed_ ... .. ______. .. .... .... ... $7, 414, 466 $5, 418, 842 $13, 265, 404
Number of disbursement vouchers prepared __ ..~.~__ 13, 369 20, 884 28, 703
Value of above vouchers.. . . .. ____________.. $7, 660, 469 $11, 352, 061 $30, 948, 054
Number of collection vouchers prepared--___~-_ ____ 519 7()8 484
Value of above vouchers_... ________ ___ __. ~- $1, 685, 657 $2, 206, 937 $3, 522S, 004
Cash discounts taken__ _.________~ __ ... .... ~ __ $32, 603 $40, 757 590i, 566


STOREHOUS~ES AND SHIP CHANDLERY

In addition to the main function of requisitioning, storing and
issuing general supplies for the Canal and Railroad (exclusive of the
merchandising operations of the Commissary Divisionz) The Panam~a
Canal Storehzouses sell ship chandlery and other supplies to commer-
cial shipping as well as to units of the U~nited States Army and Niavy.,
The following figures indicate the volume of material and supplies
cleared through thae Stores Accounts during the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

GENERAL STOREHOUSES
Gross revenues--sales and issues-_.. ~- _. ~ _ _..~~ $12, 497, 371 $17, 040, 252 $21, 316, 977
Cost of materials, plus operating expense-- __~ ~ ... ._ 12, 456, 774 16, 997, 995 21, 297, 328
Net revenues......... ..._~_~_-~-~~~~ ..~~.... .. 40, 597 42, 257 10, 649
Inventory as of June 30 1a _^~ ~_~ --~---~-~-. ...... 8, 960, 137 10, 834, 536 13, 434, 960

1 This includes all material and supplies of The Panama Canal, by far the greater part of which is in the
general storehouse.

OBSOLETE AND UNSERVICEA~BLE: PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

During the year disposition was matde by sale, or by destruction
where the items hlad no money value, of obsolete or unservice-
able property and equipment which had an original value of
$46j3,224. Replacements were maade as necessary.

BULK; PETROLEUM Pa)onUCTS

All deliveries of fuel oil, Diesel oil, gasoline and kerosene to and
from st.orage tanks, for pr~ivat~e companies and for The Panama Canal,
and some delivcrie~s for the United Staites Niavy, are mcade through
pipe lines and pumping plants of The Panamaa Canal. The following









REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE: PANAMAI. CANAL ~ 5;


table sumlmarizes the operation of the oil handling plants for the past

3 years:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943


Fuel and Diesel oil:
Received by The Panama Canal___~~_~ ... _~~~
Used by The Pan~ama Canal___~__~. ~.~-.-~~~~
Sold by~ The Panama Canal,.~~~.~~ _~. ~.-~~-~~
1Misellaneous transfers on tank farms~~. ... ~~~--~~
Pumoped for outside interests -~ _~-~~..~~~~~. ~-~~
Total barrels handled._ _-----~-~~~~~ _ _ ..
Handled at Mount Hlope (Atlantic side) __.~~-.~--.. ... -~
Band led at Balboa (Pacific side)..... ...---- ....... ~-~
Total barrels handled .-----..... -~~~......_ .
Number of ships discharging or receiving fuel and Diesel oil:
Panama Canal craft- _---~.~..~.---.. ... .. ...
All others .. _. . --~--~--.-
T otal__..__ ,_ .. ..... ..... ....... .... ..
Gasoline and kerosene received:
By The Panama Canal:
Bulk gasoline.. .......... ......... _. . .... --
Bulk kerosene _ .---_---...... -.. ........ __
By outsiders:
Bulk gasoline_ _____. ... --.. .... ...... .... ..
Bulk kerosene.--.. .--.......... ... ...
Financial results of operations:
Total revenues_ _ .---- _ _-~--.-~.. _..~ .
Total exspeandlures(including cost of sales)_ ___ .__
Net revenues _____ .._ ........ _ ... ~~--~


_ I _I__ ~


BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE

The program of construction under wslay at the end of the fiscal
year 1944 wpas continued in 1945.
The principal projects of building construction for The Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad Co. completed by the building division
of The Panama Canal are shown in the following paragraphs. Unless
otherwise specified, the projects listed are newv buildings:
Ancon-Balboa .-F~irst-aid station for health department; bakery
for Panama Canzal clubhouses; lubricant storehouse; splinlter-proofing
of oil-bandling plant; and extensive additions and improvements to
various buildings of the mechanical division, anrd to the lumber shed.
San Juan ----Gasoline loading pump station.
Corozal.-Infirmnary for Corozal H~ospital, and recondlitionlingr miter

gate spare parts storehouse for lockis division.
Parariso.-Conversion of Army buildings to silver family quarters,
and remodeling of building :for commissary division.
Oriobal-Colon.--Cafe teria building, copper and sheet metal shop,
and saw mill, for the mechanical division; lubricant, storehouse; mer-


Barrels
435, 684
372, 721
24, 124
27, 893
32, 156, 533
33, 016, 955


Barrels
505, 950
411, 491
29, 346
24, 643
23, 659, 364
24, 630, 794


Barrels
450, 846
471, 366
34, 706
34, 240
20, 512, 062
21, 503, 220


13, 767, 378
7, 735, 842


14, 211 063
18, 805, 892


11, 886, SW
12, 74-3, 897


33, 016, 955 24, 630, 794 21, 503, 220


215
2,431
2,646

Gallons
11, 162, 293
2, 612, 310
31, 496, 430
1, 709, 148

$1, 548, 701
1, 179, 780


171
3, 057
3, 228

acll~ons
13, 007, 076
3, 219, 988
27. 592, 908
2,490, 852

$1, 617, 781
1, 129, 620
488, 161


|290
3, 370
3, 660

Gallons
12, 578, 076
2, 655, 954
23, 001, 664
3, 427, 913

$1, 583, 027
1, 328, 820


254, 207 368, 912







54 .REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

chant marine dispensary; venereal clinic building; splinter-proofing
of oil-handling plant; and extensive alterations and improvements to
Colon Hospit.al.
Gafltu.~n --Swnuin pool; units A and B, gold clubhouse; and garage
for motor transportation division.
Ala2rgarrita .-Unit No. 4, M~a rgari tar Hospital.
In addition to the principal projects listed above, which were
completed during the year for TIhe ]Panama Canal and the Panama
Railroad Co., several large projects were completed' for the United
States ArmyT and Navy.
Expenditures in connection with the construction and maintenance
of buildings declined about $2,100,000 as compared withL the preceding
year, reflectinlg a reduction. of approxrimately 35 percent in construe-
tion, work for all Panama Canal, Army, and N~avy units, with a slight
increase only for the Panama Railroad Co. The cost of maintenance.
and repair works performed during the past year aggregated $1,274,637,
of which $591,626 was expended on maintenance of quarters occupied
by gold employees, and $196,606 on, maintenance of quarters occupied
by silver employees; thae balance of $486,405 was spent on all other
maintenance work performed by the building division.
The total vPolumne of construction and maintenance work for the
past 3 years is summarized below:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

For Canal divisions:
Repair and maintenance work ~.~___~. ~ ....... _. ... $829, 119 $809, 360 59.54. 3;'1
Construction work..__..__._.~.__~__. .... ...... ..... 1, 717, 455 3, 101, 859 5, 145, 956
For the Panama Railroad Co.:
Repair and maintenance work___.. ..._~_~._._.~ .. ..... 95, 424 71, 888 238, 741
Construction work ...._._._.~. I__.____... ....__.~........ 119, 522 81, 233 157, 604
For other departments of the Government, employees and
others_ ~_~.. .~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ . .~ .. .~. .. 060, 560 1, 841, 357 2, -16. 049
Total _~. ... ... ....... ... _..... 3, 822, 080 5, 905, 697 8,963, 723
Totalmaint~nanor ......... ... ...... 1, 24, 637 1, 183. 585 1, 624, 647
Total constructionn~. __.___. .... .._.~.~ ~~.. ~ .~_~......... 2, 547, 443 4, 722, 112 7, 339, 076
Total_____. _ __-. .._.. ........ ........... 3, 822, 080 5, 905, 697 8, 963, 723


QUARTERS FOR EMPLOYEES

Gold emlployees.--No newr quarter for gold employees were con-
structed during 1945. The replacement of some of the oldest
quarters buildings will be undertaken as soon, as funds, materials,
and personnel are available for thiis purpose. Old quarters constructed
prior to 1909 show increased deteriorationl each year, which necessi-
tates progressively increasing maintenance expense. Several con-







REPORT OF` GOV!ERNOR OF TH3E PANAMIA CANAL


demnedI quarters, the maintenasnce? of w~hichz is paid for by the occu-
pants, are still in use.
During the past fiscal year, employees who had not established
residence here for their families prior to Dece~mber 7, 1941, were not
allowed to bring their families to the I~sthmus until such time as they
wjrere assigned himrily quarters. At the close of the fiscal year many
families had arrived and were occupying the quarters reserved for
them, and family quarters were being held for other employees whoe
hiad applied but had not yet obtained transportation for their families
to the Canal Z~one.
On June 30, 1944, there were on file in all districts 283 applications
for origila~l assignment to family quarters from~ regular employees,
and on June 30, 1945, there were 243, a dlecreaise of 40 from1 the
previous year. The demand for gold quarters has decreased con-
siderably in the past 3 years because of a reduction in th2e number of
employees due to the cessation of work on the third locks project and
the completion of major items of other construction work.
Representatives of the FEederal H-3ousing Authority made studies
anrd recommendations for a long range program of future housing
fatcilit~ies in the Canal Zlone for employees and their families. The
recommendations include the provision of various types of quarters,
with adequate! facilities for families ranging from 2 to 10 persons.
No changes were made in the general regulations governing assign1-
ment and rental of quarters to Almerican employees.
Steerr quarters.--The operation of silver quarters was continued
on the same basis as in previous years. No new silver quarters were
constructed during the year. The quarters in Paraiso transferred
by the Army to the Canal wvere converted for family and bachelor use
and assignments were made beginning Novemlber 1, 1944, as the
buildings were remodeled. The laborerls' barrAcks at Camp Gatun
remained closed throughout the year. Camp C'ocoli barracks re-
mained closed until April 1, 1945, when several of the buildings were
reopened to house Salvadorealn contract laborers.
At the request of the G~overnor representatives of the Federal
Housing Authority made an extensive study of low-cost housing and
submitted a long-range program for housing 50 to 100 percent of
permanent silver employees, with adequate facilities for housing
families frm 2 to 10 persons.
T'he demand for quarters for silver employees is still far in excess
of the supply. As of June 30, 1945, thcr-e were 1,367 applications on
file for family quarters snd 925 applications for bachlelor quarters,
ar tot.al of 2.292, as compared withl 2,758 applications on file June 30,
1944.










MoronR TRANSPORTATION

The motor transportation division is charged with the operation
and ma~intenance of motor transportation for the departments and
divisions of The Parnama Canal and Panama Railr~oad Co. The cen-
tralization of transportation facilities in this division and the require-
ment that it be operated on a self-sustaining basis have been pri-
mlarily for thne purpose of supply-ing needed transportation at minimum.
cost to The Panama Canal and 1Panama Railroad Co. Repair wPork
is also performed for employees and for contractors engaged in workr
for the Government in the Canal Zone.
The public transportation system of privately owvnedi busses under
the supervision and control of the motor transportation division,
which. was necessitated by gasoline and tire rationing and thie resultant
curtailment in the operation of privately owned vehicles, continued
to carry employees and their families in and between the various townus
in the Canal Zone; 159 busses were operating in this service as of
June 30, 1945.
Revenues of the division during thie past year, including motorcar
repair shop activities, totaled $2,557,833 and the expenses $2,459,130
which left a net revenue of $98,703.
In the fiscal year 1945, 17 cars and trucks and 2 tr~ailer~s were pur-
chased, and 132 cars and trucks, 1 trailer and 3 motorcycles were
retired. At the close of the fiscal year 851 cars and trucks, 34 trailers
and 5 motorcycles wiere on hand.

PANAMA CANAL PRESS

The operations of the Panama Canal Press were continued under
the same policies as heretofore. The prlintfilgr plant cares stocks of
materials, and prints such forms, stationery, etc., as are required on
the IsthLmus in connection with~ thne operation of The Panama Canal
and the Panama Railroad Co. This unit also performed some work
for the Unlited States Navy and the Army during 1945, including the
printing of Yank, the Army w~eekcly new\\spaper.
The following is a summary of the financial operations of this plont
during the past 2 y-ears:

Fiscal year
1945 1944 1943

Gross revenues ................... ................... ................ $518,5694 $492, 782 $569, 780
Total out put includingg supp'lic not processerd in the printinF plant .. 506,347 486,730 561, 896
Nert revenue .... .. ....... .. .. 12, 247 6, 52 7, 884


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE PANTAMA CANAL







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANA~MA CANAL


SUBSISTI'ENCE

TIhe subsistence section, which was set up onl M/ay 1, 1941, to pro-
vcide meals for contracts laborers brought to the Isthmlus in connection
with the large construction program, continued under the same policies
as in the previous year. Operations were on a reduced scale, however,
because of the repatriation of thne majority of the contract laborers.
The La ]Boca, Gamboa, and Camp Bierd messes continued in opera-
t~ions throughout thie year and the Cocoli mess was reopened April 1,
1945, because of the importation of Salvadoreatn contract laborers.
In t~he fiscal year 1945 a total of 2,920,416 meals or 973,472 rations
were served by this unit, a decrease of 57 percent from the 2,270,486
rations served in. the previo-us y~ear. The ration cost was 50.413 in the
fiscal year 1945 as compared with 80.400 in the fiscal year 1944.
REVrENUES DERIVED IFROM THE RENTAL Or LANDS
IN THE CANAL ZONTE

Rentals for building sites and oil-tank sites in the Canal Zone
totaled $35,162 for the year as compared with $32,165 for the fiscal
year 1944. Rentals from agricultural land in the Canal Zone totaled
$7,755 as compared with $7,564 for the preceding year. At the close
of the fiscal year 728 licenses were in effect, covering 1,416% hectares
of agricultural land within the Canal Zone. This is a reduction of 28
inr the num~fber of licenses as compared with the previous fiscal ;year
and a reduction in. the area held under licenses of 73)( hectares. This
reduction is largely the result of the policy adopted as a health measure
in M~ay 1935, that no more licenses for agricultural land would be
issued ancd that holdings under licenses previously granted shall not
be sold or transferred.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS ULNDER THE PANBlYI RAILROAD
COMPANY
The Panama R~ailroad Co. was incorporated in 1849 under the laws
of the State of New York; for the purpose of constructing and operat-
ing a railroad across the Isthmus. When th concession, rights, and
property of the NewV French Canal Co. were purchased in~ 1904,
ownership of the stock of the ]Panama ]Railroad Co. was transferred
to the Ulnited States Governent. Since the acquisition of the rail-
road by the U~nited Stat.es, its corporate status has been preserved and
the railroad has continued to function. as a common. carrier.
At the beginning of Canal construction work, by Executive order of
th President of th United States, the Panama Railroad Co. was made
ant adjunct to The Panama Canal. Its operations arec supervised by a
board of directors functioning under the direction of thae Secretary
683500 -5






















































1945 1944 1943

50. 93 47.61 47.61
$3, 244, 226 $3, 520, 081 $4, 738, 504

352, 191 358, 907 443, 910
429, 627 487, 840 702, 989
781, 818 846, 747 1, '46, 899
$5.55 $5.79 $8.82
$19. 57 51t'..3 $o14.22
152, 412 161, bj.30 146, 134
155,938 208, 277 305, 545
6633 4, 079 8, 117
314, 983 374, 192 459, 796


58 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE PANAIMA CANAL


of War. As the opern tionls of the railroad comnplemlent those of the
Canal, the policy has been for the board of directors to elect the Gov-
ern~or of T~he Panlama Canal as president of the Palnnama Railroad Co.
Thus, the Governor of The Panama Cana~l is the administrative head
of the Panama R~ailroad Co. This ~raic~tice has insured complete co-
ordination of the activi tices condu c~ct e by the two organizations.
As the activities of the ra~ilr~oad~ complanly are covered in detail in
its annual report, only the major features of operation, as t~heyT relate
to Cana~l administration are c~overled~ in this slc~tion~.
In additional to the operations of the trans-isthmian railroad, the
business enterprises conducted by the Panama Railroad Co. include
the following: The loading, unloading, storage, and transfer of car~go
for shipping interests at the terminal ports; the operation of wholesale
warehouses, retail stores, and subsidiary mranufacturing plants en-
b~gaged in the supply- of food, clothing, and other essential commodities
to goverilnmntalt~ l agencies and to employees and their families; and the
operation of coaling plants, hotels, a dairy, and a laundry.

TRANS-ISTHMIAN RAILROAD

The railroad line opecrantes between Colon, the Atlantic terminus,
and Panama City, the P~acific terminus. In addition to those cities,
the railroad servec.s all ncar~by activities of The Panama Canal. Gross
revenues from th-e opecrationsl of the railroad proper (not including
subsidiary bulsinetss activilties) during the fiscal year 1945 amounted
to $3,244,226. Revenue freight totaled 590,610 tons, as compared
with 829,355 tons during 1944, a decrease of 238,475 tons.
Comparative statistics~ coverinlg the significant features of railroad
operations dlurinlg the past 3 years are plresented in thte following table:

Fiscal year


Average miles lc-rme--elrl. Colon to Panama......~~~~ ........ .
Gross operating revenue. _.__._______ __~_-_ __
Number of passengers carried:
First class. ...~~~-~~~ .~~~~~~ .. .. .. ...... ....-- ~~~~~~ ..
Second class_.._. ~.-_~.~-.......... ... ..~-~.... ~ ... -.......
Total___~...... ....--~~-~-~ ........~-~. ......... ......
Revenue per Iljossenger-tirailn-nills... .
Revenue per irl~e llh -tr.unl-nute . ....
I'asslengulr train mileage..~.~~.~ ~~._.._............ .........
Frleighr train uallls. co . .. . .. . .. .. .
W o'rrk train nlih-acr . . . . .. . . .
Total train millage. ... . . ... .. ...
Switch locomotive mInle~s .... ..... ....


180, 270


232, 933


317, 906








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE-E PANAM[A CANAL 59

RECEIVING AND FORWVARDING AGENCY

This division hzandles the dockr and harbor activities of the Panam~a
Railroad 'Co. at thae twrio termilnals of the Canal. The following
statistics summarize the rcsullts of operations for the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Total revenue.-~~~~- .. -... --.~.~.-... -----~------------- ---- $2, 838, 626 $3, 364, 189 $4, 388, 212
Tons Tons Tons
Total cargo handled and transferred across docks-__---- 1, 374, 679 1, 734, 556 2, 018, 377
Cargo stevedored by Panama Railroad Co.~~--..~----~ 444, 476 673, 209 854, 110
Cargo ships handled___~-.-~~.~. ~.-~--~ 5.....---- -----533 1, 767 2, 381
Banana schooners handled ~.-----~. -.-...... ... --------- ---------- --------
Agencey services furnished vessels_ .~-~~.-. _ _ _---- 99 50 36


COA~LING PLANTS

The volume of coaling plant operations at Cristobal and Balboa for
the past 3 years is shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Gros revnue .. ... _$927, 391 $1, 308, 907 $1, 875, 602
Tons Tons Tons
Coal sold~. ~~~-.-~. -.. ~--~--~-~----- -~~-~------- ~~-~---------- 43, 627 59, 750 77, 906
Coal purchased -----.. --.~-... .....- ~- ---- ----- 42, 279 53, 282 59, 030


1CELEPHIONE SYSTEM

Gross reiven~ues received from the operation of telephones, electric
c~lock~s, and electric printing telegraph. machines totale~d $382,429.
During the year 1,316 telephones were installedl and 1,144 were
dliscontinued or removed, resulting in a net increase of 172 telephones
for the year. At thle end of ther fiscal year 1945 there were iln se-rrvice
5,674 telephones, as well as 53 electric clockis and 49 atutomratic
printing telegraph typewriters. TPelephone calls haindled- through the
automatic exchanges av~rnaged 127,6381 calls per day in 1945 and
141,037 per day- in 1944 during the sample? days tested. This repre-
sent~s an average, of 22.5 calls per telephone per dayp in. 1945, as
compared with 25.6 inr 1944.

CO hIlllSSARY DivsIOn

The: primary function of the comlmissary- division, of the Pannlam
Railroad Co. is to supply at recasonable prices food, clothiing, and
household supplies to meet~ the neeeds of Uniited States Gov-ernment








fjU REPORT OFE GOVERNOR OF THE: PANAMIA CANAL


per~sonnecl anrd the various United States Government departments
on the Isthmusl. In carrying out this function the division operates
wh~oleisalet wartehouses and cold-storage p>1lnts as well as retail stores
in each of thie Canal Zonec towns. Sales are rest ricted to agencies and
personnel of the U~nited States Gover~nment.. except. thzat ice, cold
storage, food, and other essentials may be purchased by commercial
steamshipis passing through the Canal or calling at its terminal
ports.
SALES

Net sales for thle year totaled $38,134,705, compared with
$39,220,427 for the previous fiscal year. The value of merchandise
on hand June 30, 1945, was $3,794,231 compared with $5,767,525
at the close of the fiscal year 1944. The ratio of sales to inventoryT
indicates a thleorctic~al stock turn-over approximately every 8 wneekls.
The distribution of sales for the past three fiscal years is showcin in
the following table:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

U. S. Government (Army and Navy) .________~__ $4, 807, 204 $9, 793, 040 $19, 370, 638
The anam Caal __ 3, 919, 390 4, 170, 701 4, 932, 976
The Panama Railroad Co. ~--~--~~~ ~--~~- 409, 118 419, 719 593, 510
Individuals and companies_ __~_~~~~~~~~~.~~ ~~~~- 1, 560, 284 2, 072, 333 1, 771, 385
Commercial ships_~___-.-.~.-. ~ .~~~~~-~.~... ~- 5, 271, 972 1, 596, 607 737, 061
]Employees_~ .......--~-~~~~--~-~ ~~~ ~-~- 23, 473, 519 23, 183, 746 22, 486, 611
Gross sales __.~-~----~~~~. 39, 441, 486 41, 236, 146 49, 901, 181
Less discounts, credits, etc__-~ ~.--....... .... .~~~ 1, 306, 781 2, 015, 719 2, 953, 139
Net sales_ -_-.---- .... ~-----~~-.... .. ......... 38, 134, 704 39, 220, 427 46, 948, 042


PURCH-ASES

Purchases dur~ingl the year aggbrrlegated' $29,819,474, a decrease, of
$2,744,225 from thie previous year. The following tabulation shows
thne value of the various classes of metrchandisse purchased for the
past 3 years:

F~P isclya
1945 1944 1043

Groceries_ --.- ~~.~.-.--....... ~ ~ .-.~~~-~~-.~. -- ------ .. $8, 277, 928 $%8, 254, 247 $8, 716, 892
Candy and tobacco~~~.. ...-~~~ ~~-~-~ ..-~...... 1, 055, 371 1, 186, 800 1, 135. 739
Biousewares........~ .-~~ .-~..~.~-~~.~.~~. ~-.~.. ....- 1. 414. 161 1, 508, 613 1, 51 3, 607
Drygoods.._._.___.~.--.~.~...... .~ ...... .... 433, 129 3, 507, 543 5, 591, 027
Shoe .... ... .... ... .... .... ..... .... 1, 3;7, 896 1, 431, 202 2, 006, 714
Caldl storave........... ... ..... 7, 198,676 9, 319, 656 1,815, 161
Rawr mate~rils~j........~.......... ..... ...1. .. 1, 895,271 1, 881, 940 2,642.2,347
Cattle... .-----......... --......... . ..............- ..-- 1,1 266, 479 1, 478, 063 1, 40. 892
lrllk and cream-....................-.~............. ..23. 383 361, 327 324, 032
Dairy products ............ ........... .........____............ 2,680. 178 3, 635, 189 5, 714, 400
TIotal_.... ........ ............................. 20, 810, 474 32, 563, 600 42, 600, 910







REPORT" OF GOVERNOR OFi THIE PANAMA CANAL 61

HOTELS

Thie H~otels T'ivoli and Washingrton were operated by the Panama
Ra il roadl Co. without change of policy during the year. These
hotels are an essential adjunct to the Canal, providing necessary
accommodations for foreign visitors, Americatn tourists, visiting
Govetrnmentlt officials, and others.
The gross revenue from hotrels was $992,879, as compared with
$957,374 in 1944, and the number of guest days was 98,516 compared
with 101,823 ~in 1944.
M/JINmI DAIRY

The operation of the Mindi Dairy continued as in previous years.
Milk production for the year was 482,296 gallons, compared with
441.,910 gallons in the preceding year, an increase of 40,386 gallons.
Fre~sh milk is furnished to thle hospitals and, on doctors' prescriptions,
to persons having preference, such as invalids, infants, and nursing
mothers. The surplus remaining after these needs are met is supplied
to employees, units of the Canal and Railroad organizations, and
Army and Navyr units stationed on the Isthmus.












SECTION,!III
AI)VI~INISTRATION
DEPABRTNIVENTS
The organization of The Panam~a Canal on the! Isthmus embraces
five principal departments, namely, operation and maintenance,
supply, accounting, executive, and health. In addition, an offce of
The Panama Canal is maintained in W~ashington, D. C. The P~anama
Railroad Co., a Government-owned corporation conducting business
enterprises on the Isthmnus, is a distinct unit, but it is closely affiliated
with the: Canal organization.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
Th1e department of operation and maintenance embraces functions
related to the actual use of the Canal as a waterway, including the
dredged channel, locks, dams, aids to navigation, accessorys activities
such as shops and drydockrs, vessel inspection, electrical and water
supply, sewYer systems, roads and streets, hydrographic observations,
surveys and estimates, and miscellaneous construction other than the
erection of buildings.
SUPPLY

The supply department is chn rlged~ with- t~he acquisition, storage,
and distribution of materials and supplies for The Panama Canal and
Railroad; the maintenance andi construction of buildings; the assign-
emet of living quarters to employees and care of grounds; the opera-
tion of storehouses, fuel-oil plants, an experiment garden, and a
prlinltinlg plant; thre supplying of motor transportation facilities for the.
various dcpar~tmnlclt s and divisions of the Clnall and Railr~oad organi-
zations; and the operation of mlesses for silver-roll contract labor.

ACCOUNTING
The accountingb depal~zrtnwa'lt is responibCISlel~ for thle correct recording
of filnanc~il transactions of the Canal and 'Railroad; the adlminis-
trative audtiting( of vouchers of funds prelimninar~y to the final audit by- thne General Accounting
Office; coat keeping of the Canal and yRailroad; the checking of time-
keepinlg; the I'preparation of es~timatCs for alpproprintionls and the
allotment of appr~opriationls to the variouls departmlents and divisions;
and the examilat~ion~ of claims.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE: PANAMA CANAL


EXECUTIVE

The executive depa~rtmelti em~rbraces the office of the Governor and
all general adlministra~t ive activities. In this department are included
thne administration. of police and fire protection, postal service, cus-
toms, shipping-commissioner~l duties, estates, schools, playgrounds,
ge~nerll correspondence and records of T~he Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co., personnel records and management, wage adjustments,
general information, relations wr~ith Panama,, and the operation of
clubhouses, restaurants, and moving-picture theaters.

HEALTH

The health depar~tmelntl has jurisdiction over all matters per~taining
to sanitation and public health within. the Canal Zone and the cities
of Panama and Colon, the operation of hospitals and dispensaries,
and~ the enforcement of qu a rn lt in e regulations.

PANAMA RAILROAD CO.

The opers t ionls of the P~anama Railroad Co. on the Isthmus are
related closely to those of The Panama, Canal. As the Governor of
The Panama Canal is also president.Iof the Panama Railroad Co.,
the heads of all departments, both of the Canal and ]Railroad organi-
zationsu, report to him. The genernl. administration of the composite
organization is cenltered in. the executive office, and thre accounting
work in the accounting depal~rtment.. The: Panama Railroad and the
business di~visionls of thne Canal organization are billed for their proper
shares of the general.overhead expense.
CHANGES INT ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL

Capt.. Harry L. Ferguson, United States Navy, wa~s appointed
captain of the port, Balboa, marine division, on July 1, 1944, vice
Capt. Miles P. Duv~al, United States Navy, r~elievedt' from duty with
The Panama Calnal.
Capt. ALntonio S. Pitre, U~nitedt States NIJJavyT, was appoinlted super-
inltendent, mecchanical divisionr, on July f29, 1944, vice Capt. Joseph
Af. K~iernal, Uni ted St a ts Na~vy-, relieved from duty with TChe Panama
Canal.
Surgeonl Clarence Hr. Warning, UnJitedc States Public Health Ser~vice,
was appointed chielf qualrantine. officer on Aiugust. 1, 19414, vrice S-ur-
geon Henry A. H~olle, retlie~ved from duty with. The Panama Canal.
Capt. Alexander Fi. J~unker, United States Navy, w~as appointed
captain of thze port, Cristobal, marn~e division, on. October 29, 1944,
vice Capt. Forrecst Ml. O'Leary, United States N\avy, relieved from
duty wc~ith The Panamza Canal.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH-E PANAMA CANAL


Mir Jamecrs H-3. Smith was appointed paymaster, The Panam~a Canal,
on September 1, 1944, vice IMr. Mercer B. H-uff, ret~ired.
Col. James G. Steese, Un~ited States ALrmy, -was appointed assis-
tan~t engineer of maintenance on December 21, 1944, vice Col. Charles
G. Holle, United States Army, relieved from duty with. The Panama
Canal.
L~t. Com1dr. Frederick H. Blake, United States Naval Rleserve,
was appointed assistant superintendent, mechanical division, on
February 13, 1945, vice Commanlder Victor B. Cole, United States
Navcal Reserve, relieved from dutyp with T~he Panama Canal.
Mr. Russel L. KElotz was appointed chief, special engineering divi-
sion, on Junle 2, 1945, vice M/r. E. E. ALlbbott, supervising engineer,
resigned.
EMPLO YEES
T'he force employed by The ]Panama Canal and thae Panama Rail-
road Co. is composed of two classes which for local convenience
have been designated "gold" and "silver" employees. T'he terms
"gold" employees an~d "silver" employees originated during the con-
struction period of the Canal from~n the practice of paying in silver
coin common laborers and other unskilled or semiskilled workers
emaploy~ed in the Tropics, while skilled craftsmen. and those occupying
executive, professional, and similar positions were paid in gold coin,
the latter group being recruited largely from the United Sta tecs.
Although all employees are now paid inl Unlited States currency, the
original terms used to designate the two classes of employees have
been retainedi for convenience. T'he terms "gold" and "'silver" are
applied also to quarters, commissaries, clubhouses, and other public
facilities .
The gold employeesc~-that is, those enrriedl on the gold pay roll--
comprise those emlployees who are engaged in the skiilled tradces and
in the executives, supervisory, professional, subprofes~sional, cl~r~icanl
and other positions where education, training, and special quanlifica-
tions are required. The force of silvec-r emnployeesc is comlposed almnost
entirelyg of natives of the Tropics, a considerable number of whom arec
Panamanians. They, are emnployed~ principally as labol~res, hclperrs,
and semiskilledr wrorkersl~ onl work which does not require the services
of highly trained or qua~lifiedt pe'rsons.l
Responsibility for perso~innl adtministrani onl in The Panama Canarl
is v~estedl in the dlivision of personnel sulpelrvisionl and manlagement,
exec u tive decpalrtmnenlt .









REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PAivAMA CANAL; 65


GOLD) EMPLOYEES


The distributions of the gold personnel on June 30, 1945, and on

une 30, 1944, is shown in the following tabulation:

As of June 30--
Increase Decrease
1945 1944


THIE PANAMA CANAL

Accounting department~~~~ _~ -------- _------- 288 288 .
Dredging division._~ .~-~ ~~~~~~- ----------------- -- 364 371 7
Assistant engineer of maintenance:
Eletical division___~__.-~~----- -------- 383 479 i_ ..__~ 96
Locks division_ .--~.~------------ ---- 302 276 26 .
Mrunicipanl engineering division~__~-~-~-------- 213 250 46
Orlice einsineering division. ~------ -------- 99 117 18
Meteorology and hydrography section~__-~~~~~---- 10 10 -- .
Executive department:
Personnel~..___..---~- ------ ------- -------~-------- 122 133 ....---- 11
Executive offices. ..... ------ ~------------------- -.--- 137 145 ..-8
Bureau of posts. __~~-~---~~-~----,----------- -- 73 83 10
Civil affairs and customs_~~~~~~~~-------- 50 58 ---8
Club houses .... - - - ------- 133 136 3
Collector.... ~~-------~ ---- ------- ---- ---------- 19 19 .- .
Fire section.. ~~~~-~-~.-. -- -~------------- ---------- 75 107 .. 32
Magistrates' courts ------~------------ 6 7 1
Paymaster..-~~-~-~--.-~~-- ----- ---------. 16 17 1
Police section... ----~~--------------------- --------- 219 274 55
Schools . .. ---------------------- 125 117 8 -
Playgrounds ... --~~~----- -- ---------------- 26 24 2
Health department .. _... ------------------------ 643 641 2
Marine division_~-~ _~~~~~----- 247 223 24 .
Mechanical division.___~~~-~--------- 1, 859 1, 825 34 .
Special engineering division_~-~--~ -~~ --- - -- -- 31 86 .. 5
Supply department:
Subsistence... ~_~~-~ --------- ------------- 8 7 1
Chief quartermaster__. _~---~~---- 23 24 -1
Building divisionl_-. ~~--------------------- 172 163 9----
District quartermasters..........--~------------- ---------- 45 42 3 ..
Experiment gardens .....----------- --------- ---------- 9 14 5
lhlotor eas r repair shop.... ~--~-~ -- ------------------------- 101 107 .6
Motor transportation division_ _ ..... ... _ _ _- 91 103 ...12
Oil-handling plants_ _. .......--------------------------- 50 45 5 ..
Panama Canal Press_..--.-~-------------------------- ---- 14 13 1 ..
Storehouses. ------ ------ 115 122 ...7
Fortifications division. --~--------------------- ---------- 2 ..2

Total, the Panama Canal ._-- .... ..............---- 6,068 6, 337 115 384
Net decrease.... .......----------- ------------ ----- --------I----------- - ----- 269

PANAMAa RAILROAD CO.

Rairod proper...~~~-~ ..---~---~-~--------------------- ----- 121 133 . ..--. 12
Receiving and forwarding age~ncy_ ...---~~-~-~-----------------.. 120 120 ---..---
Commissary division _ _-----~--------------------------- 349 356 ... 7
D ry farm ..................-- -- -- - - ----------- ------- 5 5 . .. -
H o e s. .. . .. .. .. -- -- -- - -- -- -22 17 5 . . .
Rteal-estate section.................--------------------------- (P) 6 .. 6


617 637 5 25
-- - -- --- -- - --- -- -20

6,685 6, 974 120 400
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --28


1 Division abolished--remaining function transferred to office engineering divso.
rDiviso abolished--remaining function transferred to supply de~parmet


Total, Panama Railroad Co~_~-.. ....... .. ....... ....
Net d~erease.........~-.-----.-----.----------------

Total force......------~------------------------ .. ...
Net decrease......... ........-------------------------







66 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH-E P~2ANAMA CANAL


Although an overl-all decrease of 289 oc~culrred in the gold force in
comparisonl with thoe previous year, signifiennt incr~leases were recorded
in twvo divisions directly concerned with transit of vessels because of
the heavyv traffc in 1945. In1 this category the gold force of the locks
division increased 9 percent and that of the marine division incr~easedl
11 percent. Dellcrseas in force recsultingg from a gradual resumption
of more normal act ivit ies were recorded in a numl-ber of units, the more
important of which wrjere! as follows: Electrical division, 20 percent;
police and fire division, 23 per1ce~nt; municipal engine~er~ing division,
18 percent; and the office e~ng~ineerin~~g division, 15 perce-nt. The re-
lease of employees of the special engineering division resulting froml
the modification of the third locks construction program was con-
tinued throughout 1945, the force totaling 31 on June 30, 1945, as
compared w~ith`t 86 at the end of 1944.

RECRUITING ANJD TURNOVER OF FORCE---GOLD E1VIMPLOYEES

The following table shows additions to and separations from the
gold forces of The Panama Canal and the Pa~nama Railroad Co.
during thoe past year:

Panama Panama Tol
Canal Railroad

Additions ____............. _.. ... 1, 323 98 1, 421
Separations:
Resignation.._~~_.- _- ----.~. ..... __. __... ____.. _. 839 91 930
To enter trralitar\- service~_...~. ~ .. _._.~.~ ~_. ... 283 16 299
Reduction in for~ce._..~. -. __.. __._.... -. _~__.__ 119 1 120
Termination of temporary employment or reassignment.- ___ 78 4 82
Removal for cause. ....... __. ______ -- ~.~. __ .._~_ __ 68 3 71
Retirement:
Age* ______~ ___.___~_...-- . 43 6 49
TI~hllll v__y..... -- ~.. __..~.. --- _.. __~.__._ 38 3 41
Optional __.___._.___. _._..__.. .... 29 2 31
Disability--not qualified for retirement - .. _____._ _ 8 3 11
Inefficiency..~.~._.._~. _.. ...~...... .... 4 ._. ...~ 4
Transfer (to other clop~~.rinwnisof(, rCole un rlnll ) 21 3 24
Disq aliied n tial erid .2 .~_.. . 2
I,~r-ah _..._....._~._____~........ .. ... .. 15 2 17
Legal incompeten cy ......_. ... _... ..... . ...~ ..._ ....~_. 1 _.... ..._ 1
Total sllptaraions . ...~_. _... ._.. 1, 548 134 1, 682
Net separations.~__. ..~~.. ~~..~... ...._._._. ._.. 225 36 261

NOTE.--The above figures do not include 121 terminations of employees on part-time or irregular basis, or
13 terminations of American citizens on the lter roll.


As the figure~cs of net separaitionls in the table above were takn
from the weekly her~sonnell reports, which usually lag a weekcl or 10
days behlindir the actual tclrminatioln dates, ther~ie is a dlifferenice of 28
in thet nu~mberI of noct separantions and the ne~t decrease inr force as
shzownm oln page 65. Thet actuanl net decrease in force w~as 289 as shownI
on page' 65.






REPlR\T OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Based on an average aggregate gold force of 6i,72~2 for the period
covered, the 1,682 separations from all causes shown in the fore3going
table represent a turn-over of 25 percent, as compared with 38.2
per~cntl reported for 1944. Whzen separations by reassignment or
exp~iration of temporary) employment are excluded, the turn-over
ra te is 23.8 percent for 1945 as compared with 36.6 percent for 1944;
and wchen separations due to reduction of force are also exc~luded, the
rate for 1945 is 22: percent as compared with 32.5 percent for 1944.
Emp~loyment.--Of the 1,421 additions to thie force during the
fiscal year, 718 were employed or reem~rploy~ed in the United States;
of this number 686 were employed byT The ]Panama Canal and 32
by the Panamra Railroad Co. Recruitment for the past fiscal year
in general reflected employment conditions in the Unrited States.
T~he manpower controls of the War 1Vanpower Commission remained
in effect during the whole period, and as a result The P'anama Canral
retained the employment offices which were established last year in
several cities in the United States for the? purpose of carrying out direct
field r~ecruit~ment in cooperation with. the United States Employment
Service in those cities. Selective service policy required maintaining
a 30-year minimum appoill~ntment, age for most occupations and the
replacement of most of the male employees under 30 years of age
eligible for military service. Relatively few eligible men under 30
are now in service in comparison with the large number a y-ear ago.
Thcus, with the exception of thie curent craft recruitment program,
nearly all recruitment in the United States has been for replacements.
This is shown clearly- in the relatively static condition of the working
force during the fiscal yecar.
ADJUSTMENT IN WAGES AND HOURS OF WORK:
There wclere no major adjustments in the rates of pay for positions
of Thie Panamail Canal or Paanama Railroad Co. during the year;
however, the Fiederal Employees Pay Act for 1945, which provides
for an increase! in the base pay of classified employees effective July 1,
1945, was approved June 30, 1945. The 48-hour work week which
became effective January 1, 1943, w\~as continued throughout the year.
SILVER ]EMPLtOYEES
The following table shows a comparison between the silver force
of The ]Panamna Canal anld Panama Railroad Co. on June 30, 1945,
and June 30, 1944. The data include all full-time emnployees carried
on the pay roll even though absent from work on th3e given- day.









68 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Part-time employees numbering 150 on June 30, 1945, and 51 on

June 30, 1944, are not included:


As ofJune30--
Increase Decrease
1945 1944


THE PANAMIA CANAL

Accounting department............._ _ __........._ .. __... 6 6
Dredging division___ ..... .. ...______________ ...___.. 2, 091 1, 811 280 .
Assistant eopnginer of maintenance:
Electrical division __..._.._ .__ .... ....... . .. 549 543 6 ..
Locks division-- ----------- ...____ _________. ---~_____ 954 924 30 .
Municipal rgineering division._... ______ ...___ 1, 440 1, 758 /_ .___ 318
Olficer reinanrrinr division__~___ .....__~_~____ 94 107 1_____1 13
Meteorology and bydrography section ._ _. ... ._____ 24 25 ......___ 1
Executive department:
Executive office~- __~ _____ __.__........__ ...... 48 51 1_ _____ 3
Personnel division__ _.. ___... ___._... ..__ 30 29 1
Bureau of posts_ ___. ___.__....__ .______ .... 40 42 .....____ 2
Civil affairs and customs ______. ... ..______ 2 2
Clubbouses..... .................____ 1, 777 1, 748 29
Magistrates' courts_... _______________._ 2 2 ..
Paymaster _ __,_ __ ___, __ __..__ ........... ...1 3 3
Police section... ..___________ ....___ .. ..._ 53 55 ......___ 2
Schools . .. .. ____ _~ ____ 140 174 ......___ 34
Playgrounds.. ._ .____ ... _______ .. ~ ~ ___. 32 32
Health department_ __._._~_._ __._... .... 1, 836 1, 759 77 .
Marine division__________ _____ ____ ....___ 1, 141 896 245 .
Mechanical division............ ....___ .__._ _____ __ 2, 795 2, 285 510 .
Special engineering division... . ________~~_ __ 32 62 1_ ...___ 30
Bupply ideparetmet
Ofces, chief quartermaster_ __________ ___ ..___ 6 4 2 ...
Building division__ __. __ ___ .. ____ 1, 931 1, 678 253 .....
De lrtr itIquarter masters... .______~ ___ 708 638 70 _....
Experiment gairdenai ~.-_______________..... 138 169 ....____ 31
Motorcar repair shops..____________________ 130 130 .. .....
Motor-transportation division .._~_~____~~.____ 407 400 7 .....
Gil-bandlinr plants_ ___._ _____... .. .._ 114 85 29 ...
'Panama canal Press ~._ __ ___._ __ __.__ _ 142 128 14 .....
Storehouses~_______ _. ~_____ 568 479 89 .....
Subsistence section __ __~ ...... _______ ........._ 179 143 36 .....


17, 412 16, 168 1, 678 434
. .. .1, 244 .........._

491 550 .....~- ~ 59
2, 533 2, 693 1_. ... .._ 160
3, 507 3, 233 274 ..
138 126 12 ...
266 267 ..........- 1
(1)3 .........._ 3

6, 935 6, 872 286 223
.. .. . ... ...63 . . .


Total, the Panama Canal. ___._.____. .___._
N et increase .......... ..... .. .. ..__~

PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
Railroad proper..... ..... ....__. _~_~.__._. ._ _ ~
Receciving and forwarding agency._ _..~~~~~~~._ ____
Commissaries __. __~_. ._~ ..... ....._~ __ .. ... ... .
Dairy fatrm............. ............ ..... .
H otels ....... .. ........... ... .. ....
Real estate....~~ .~ ~ _~ ___ __ ..... .. ..__ .... ~.... .. .. .

T~otal. Panama Railroad~ Co.. .. .... ..... ... ... ._~
N et increase .. ..__ ......._. ... ._ ..__ . ._ .. . _ _


TIotal force.~.-_--__.____.... __.... .. ..... 24, 347 2,4 ,6 5
N et increase.. ___. __.__ _ __._.. .. . . .. . . . .. .. . ... . . 1 3 7 . . .


t Divisino abolished-remnaining function. transferred to supply department.


I~n contrast to the over-all dlecrse recorded in. the gold force there

wpas an over-all gain in? thae silver force of 1,307, or 5.7 percent, in

comparison with the rlnumberI emlployed as of June 30, 1944. As in
the case of the gold force the greater volume of Canal traffic in 1945

necessit.ated thie employment of additional silver personnel in the

marie division, which increa~sed 27 percent. An increase of 19 per

celt in the storehouses, also, is a reflection ~of increased traffic through.

a heavier demand for suipplies. The silver force of the mechanical

division increased 22 percent on the basis of year-end comparative







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THIE PA4NAM1A CAlNAL


figures, but on a m~onthrrly average basis the increase was 13 percent.
The 13-percent increase in the monthly av-erage silver force occurred
in the face of a decrease in activity as measured by the amount of
billig for the year. ~However, the amount of drydock work included
in the billing for 1945 was substanltiallly in exYcess of similar work in
1944, and the fact that this type of worked requires more labor per
revenue dollar explains to a large extent the apparent discrepancy.
The silver force of the dredging division, reflecting the greater amount
of dredging performed (an increase of 34 percent over 1944), increased
16 percent in comlparison wiith the number on the roll June 30, 1944.
The number of silver employees on the rolls of the commissaries
showed an increase of about 9 percent in comparison with the num-
ber employed as of June 30, 1944; this larger force was due to a num-
ber of factors, the principal of which were the increased personnel
necessary for furnishing supplies to the increased number of vessels
calling at Canal ports, additional employments required because of
increased absenteeism, and the greater number of female employees
required to fill jobs formerly held by males. ~While an increase of
15 percent is indicated in the number of silver employees in the build-
ing division, the monthly average on. the rolls in 1945 was actually
less by 31 percent than in the preceding year. Reductions in acti-vity-
resulted in a decrease of 18 percent in the silver force of the muni-
cipal engineering division and 6 percent in the receiving and fo~rward-
mng agency.
SILVER WAGES
Wages of employees of the silver roll bear no direct rela tionship
to wages of corresponding classes of workers in the Unhited States.
As silver-roll employees are for the most part natives of the Tropics,
their wage scales are established at levels based on wages prevailing
for tropical labor in the Caribbean area. There were nro important
changes in silver wvage rates during the past fiscal year.
SICK( AND REST LEAVE
TPhe regulations governing the grannting of sick leave to alien em-
plo~yees not othaerise entitled to vacation leave privileges were
amended Ja nuaryr 1, 1945. Effective that date leave is earned by such
employees at the rate, of 24 days per year of serice an~d accrues at the
rate of 2 days per calendar month. Prior to January 1, 1945, leave
was earned at the rate of 15 days per yea~r. The new regulations
further liberalize these privileges, in that an employee starts to earn
leave immediately upon employment instead of after 5 years con-
tinuous service.
A total of 21,581 sick: leave paym~ents were authorized during t~he
6scal year as compared wpith 22,668 during the previous ~fiscal year.









/'() E TO OENR FTEPNM AA













A toal f 5236 estieve pymets ereauthoize ian 195om
paredwith3,259in te preiousyear





material change.13
The abls blow howthedispsiton f al apliction frm e--






Applcatonson h ndJul 1, 944 ----------------- .. 73 1
T o al -- -- -- -- -- -- -- . -- .307 66 373
Ap lcainsa prvd o p y en ---------------.... -140 48 188

Appic tinsreecedfo v riusre so s ............... ..1 _.......... ~ 1
Ap lcat ieigbe eaueoflmiaiosofA t.......... _124 13 137
19 5 .. . -- - -- . .. . .. . .. . -- .. .. .38 5 43
T o al -- -- -- - -- .. .. .. .. .. .307 66 373

NOTE.--Removal from the rolls on account of the death or subsequent reemployment of cash relief recip-
ients: Panama Canal, 42; Panama Railroad, 20.


Total and average costs during the"~fisal year 1945 welre as follows:


I


Panama Canal rolls..... -


234


$19. 39


$10, 340


Expenditures on behalf of The Panama. Canal cash relief program
are paid from annual approprintions for that purpose, while those of
the Panama Railroad Co. constitute a continuation of the former

plan of granting cash relief to the superannuated employees of that
company and are paid by the Panama Railroad Co.








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 71

REPIATRIATIONS
I~n 1934 an appropriation of $150,000 was provided for the purpose
of reput~rint~inlg alien former employees and their families whoe have
rendered at least 3 years service with thze Unrited States Government
or thne P~anama Railroad Co. on the! Isthmus. During the fiscal year
1945 appr~oximately $14,559 was expended for the repatriation and
rehabilitation of 120 former employees, accompanied by 46 members
of their families, a total of 166 persons. To date a total of $76,677
has been expended for repatriation of 973 employees accompanied
by 796 members of family, a grand total of 1,769 individuals. The
average cost per person for repatriation has been $43.34, and the
average cost per employee, $78.80.

CENTRAL LABOR OFFICE

The central labor office program of TIhe Panama Canal provides for
eligibility control over applicants seeking employment with govern-
menrt agencies and private contractors operating on the Isthmnus.
The general decrease of' employment activities is demonstrated by the
comnparative figures presented belowcc, showing the total numbers of
silver employees carried on. the rolls of the various organizations as
of June 1945 and June 1944:

June 1945 June 1944

Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co --------------- __________ 24, 347 23, 040
Panama Canal contractors.~____________ _
Panama Canal department (Army)_ - ___________________ 790 5, 57i0
Army service exchanges ______....... ______.........__ ._ .._ 1, 344 1, 536
Division engineer (Army).- -- ---------.. 2,____ _________~___1___ 788 7, 506
Division engineer contractors ____,------ _______ ..... .. .. 239 407
U. S. NaVY---- ----- ......-_____~_ ___. .. 5,516 5,448
U. 8. Navy contractors._ ~_____ .___ ____. ____..____ ... .. 4241 145
Miscellaneous __ __ __....------. .... .. ... ..... .. . ... .__ ___~ __ i, 1 915 662
Total .... .. ..__~___________ 43, 363 44, 314

Because of the insufficient supply of qualified labor on. the Isthmus
to handle the heavy conlstruction program carried on during the war
emlergncyc~, The Panama Canal w~as forced to resort to the recruitmetnit
of contract. laborerls from the Republic of Colombia, Jamaica, Costa,
Rica, and El Salvador. All recruitm-reit~ offices were closed in Sep-
tember 1943 with the exceptionl of the one in El Salvador, which
continued to operate until the endl of the fiscal y~ear 1944 when it
was closed. During the fiscal year 1945 the labor situation on the
Isthmus again became critical and it was necessary to Ireopen the
office in El Salvadlor in April 1945.













From the inception of the foreign recruiting program~ in 1940, a









Number re-
Number NumIbe~r maining on
recruited repatriated Isthmu,
June 30, 1945

Colombia_..... ________ _ ___ _.. _ ..._ _______~__ .. ,244 2, 092 152
Costa Rica... _____~_. .. ..... __.. . .. 2,248 2, 109 139
El Salvador ... . .. .. 1______ 2, 115 8, 856 3, 259
Jamaica _. ____....... ... .. ... 5, 000 4, 879 121

Total.. .. __ __ ..__ _ __ .. .. ...... .... ___ ..... ..__ 21, 607 17, 936 3, 671


REPORT OF GOVERNOR, OF TH~E PANAluACAL












The following statistics cover the accident rates for the Canal-





Year ~Man-hours Lost time Frequency IDays lotSeverity Fatalities
Year worked accidents rate I time. rate 1

1941 ... ... ... ......... ...., 72, 725, 000 5, 750 70 214, 170 2. 94 21
1942 ._ ..... .... _ ..----- 92, 429, 000 4, 978 54 238, 628 2, 58 27
1943 ____ _ .........---- 94, 325, 000 3, 585 38 2L30, 914 2.45 28
1944__.. ..__..... . ____. .-.. 80, 499, 000 2, 770 34 158, 770 1. 97 17
1945__.- ....... ... ........... ... 70, 107, 000 2, 347 33 90, 159 1. 291 6
I Frquecy ate s te lst tme ccient permilionman-our woked


REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF` THIE PANAMA CANAL







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE: PANAIfEA CANAL


The pay-roll deduction plan for the! purchase of War Savings bonds
also continued withL great success throughout the year, the! deductions
for gold employTees for the fiscal year 1945 amounting to,$4,758,585.25
as compared withL $4,419,704.75 in the preceding year. At thne close
of the year the percentage of employee participation was 91.28 for the
Railroad and 92.18 for the Canal employees, while the percentage of
the gross pay roll subscribed wFpas 21.20 and 19.01, re~spectively.
Effective December 1, 1943, the pay-roll deduction rnethod for the
purchase of war bonds was extended to the silver employees, with
monthly deductions limited to $6.25, $12.50, and $18.75. The total
amount subscribed by silver employees in 1945 was $184,018.75 as
contrasted wFiith $114,337.50 subscribed during the preceding fiscal
year.
EXPERIMENT GABRDENS
The Canal Zone plant introduction gardens and exper~irnent~l
station were established in June 1923. The gardens, which include
greenhouses, nurseries, and experimental plantings, embrace approxi-
mateily 125 acres of land, and are devoted to the propagation and culti-
vation of a wide variety of useful and ornamental plants from all parts
of thie world, primarily for the purpose of determining their atdapta-
bility and vcaluec under local soil and climatic conditions, for general
propagation on the Isthmus. This unit also designs and supervises
all landscape work for The Panam-a Canal and ]Panama Railr~oad Co.
The volume of work handled by the landscape section of thze gardens
continued to decline during the year, due principally to the near comp-
pletionn of a large program of landscape work in new Canal Zone town'~s
and in Army- and Navy reservations, and of soil and erosion. work.
During the year the regular long-range experimental work was
contiued. Experim~ental plantings were made of several new species
of plants, among these being new varieties of field and sweet corn,
mangoes, Brazil nuts, lawn grass, and several species of covepr crops
and commercial Citronella grass.
The operation. of the nursery as a separate and self-suppor~ting
depar~tmentt of the experiments gardens has proved to be one of the
most important services which the gardens can render. Each year
thousands of plants of species previously~ tried out, under Isthlminn
conditions and found worthy of further propagation find their way
into different, par~ts of the Canal Zone, Panama, andr neigh~borin~g
count~rie~s. During the past year the demand for varieties of citrus,
mango and avocado p~lnlts far eceededl~ c the~ supply, and the nurseries
are being enlrrgred to t~ake care of the anticipat.ed dtemands for next

Sales continued good at the Balboa sales store where the garden's
products wecre made. conveniently available to th1e public on a small







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


scale. Items sold included sweet corn, string beans, lima beans,
okra, tomatoes, ban~anns, grapefruit, limes, lem-ons, mangoes, mango-
stee~ns, and such other products as were available.

CLUBHOUSES

The Panamra Canal clubhouses, which are operated on a self-
supporting basis, comprise activities designed to provide at reasonable
rates restaurant, motion picture, and other recreational facilities for
Government personnel and their families. These activities have
undergone considerable expansion during the current period of in-
creased activity on the Isthmus. Since a large proportion of the
per~sonnel brought to the Isthmus in the past several years have
necessarily come without their families, the problem of feeding them
has devolved largely upon the clubhouses. Furthermore, the club-
house facilities are used extensively by members of the armed forces
stationed on the Isthmus.
AL~ll of these factors produced much overcrowding in all. the club-
houses, particularly in the larger ones located in the terminal areas
of Balboa anld Cristobal. To meet this situation it became necessary
to undertake a major program of expansion of the clubhouse facilities.
During the year improvements and additions were made to the
clubhouse plant to take care of thze greatly increased demands anzd as
replacements for w-orn-out facilities. The most ]important of these
w~er~e the construction. of a new theater for the Cristobal gold club-
house; alterations at Balboa clubhouse to provide on one level en-
larged kitchen and storerooml space with adequate refrigeration; the
installation in that clubhouse of a soda luncheonet te!; and the con-
str~uction of a central bakery which was opened in October 1944 to
provide a variety of baked goods for consumption in the clubhouse
restaurants and for retail sale to the public.
Clubhouse facilities for the community of Red Tank are now
hlousedc in a building formerly used as a school which wvcas remodeled
for thde purpose subsequent to the total destruction by fire of the old
`Redl Tank clubhouse in February 1945.
The reoccupat~ion of PanItiso as a townsite for silver employees
nercessitalted the establishlmenlt of clubhouse facilities for that com-
munity~. The Paraiso clubhouse wvas accordingly put in operation in
August. 1944, and a t.heater was opened in March 1945 to serve jointly
the residents of both ]Parniso and ]Red TIank.
During the fiscal year 1945 the business and r~evenlues of the club-
houses remained at nearly the same level they had reached during the
previous year. Activity of the clubhouse chain is still si or seven
times above prewar levels.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH-IE PANAMIA CANAL


LEGISLATION
Among the laws enlacted by the Cong~ress during the fiscal year
1945 which relate to or apply in the Canal Zonle or affect TIhe Panama
Canal and which are of importance or interest are those described
below :
An. act approved July 1, 1944, amending subsection "'a" of section 42
of title 7 of the Canal Zlone Code, by increasing from. 4 to 8 years the
term of the United States district attorney and of the United States
marshal.
An act approved ]Feburary 24, 1945, providing for audit of th~e
financial transactions of all Government corporations by the General~
Accounting Office.
Legislation relatting to the Canal Zone introduced during this
fiscal year and. still pending in Congress includes:
Two bills (]H. R. 84 and H~. R. 3439) to extend thet benefits of the
act of May 29, 1944, providing for the recognition of the services of
civilian officials and employees engaged in and about the construction
of the Panamna Canal.
Three bills (S. 95, S. 516, and Hi~. R. 2125) to amend the Canal
Zone Code retirement provisions so as to provide for the retirement at
age 55 of an employee with 30 years' service~ on an immediate annuity
having: a value equal to the present worth of a deferred annity begin-
ning at the age of 60 years, and another bill (H. R. 632) to the same.
effect except that onlyS 25 years' service would be required.
A bill (H. R. 362) to amend section 98 of title 2 of the Canal Zione
Code with respect to retirement credit for past service; to amrend
section 168 of title 4 of the Canal Zone Code prescribing the cases in
which service of summonos may- be made by publication; and to amend
section 784 of title 5 of the Canal Zone Code in reference to the t~akling
of vehicles for the purpose of temporary use or operation without the
permssion, of thne owner.
A bill (H. Rt. 631) to amaend the Canal Zone Code r~et~i~rement pro-
visions to provide for optional full retirement after 30 years' service
relgardless of age or lenrgthl of se~trv\ice on the Ist.hmnus.
A bill-(Hi. Rt. 1288) to amlendr the Cananl Zone Code with respect
to thLe taxationl of r'ctiremenl.'rt annuities paid to cer~taini employees of
T~he Panamau Canal and the Panama Railr~oad Co.
Two bills (S. 96 and1( H3. R. 1080) for the relief of thtef fa.mnilies of
certain emlployees of The Pa namall Canlal who were killed in the marine
accidents involving the tugs Alhajuelar and. Okagres.
Three: bills (S. 1186, S. 1193, and H., RE. 3596) to amnend thes Canal
1Z~one ret~iremlen t provisions so as to pro vide for vol u n tryr re tiremen t on
full annuity after 30 years' service on the Isthmlnus, regardless of age.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE: PANAMIIA CAN(AL


CA3PI~TAL; ALLOTIVENhTIS, FISCAL YEBR 1946

The appropriations for 1946 carried $1,739,700 for improvements
and bet~terments and\ for the replacement of worn-out or excessively
deteriorated facilities as follows:


Vocational schools shop buildings for alien colored children, La Boca
and Bilver City _ ---- -- -- --_- -- ---. -- -- - - --
Road and street replacements __ -------- --. ---
Plans and construction of silver qluarters----- --------
School for laborers' children, Silver City___---.- ------
Addition to gymnasium, B3alboa __ ________------
D~esigns and studies for postwar construction __
Toilet and locker facilities, hliraflores locks_______ __---
Toilet and locker facilities, Gatun locks_ _-------- --
Sewvage disposal system, drydock No. 1, Balboa_ __-__---
Cemetery improvements, Corozal and Mount Hope ______--
Office building and drying room, Canal Zone penitentiary ____-
Tracks and roads, Cristobal shops_______ ___------
Silver dispensary:
Red Tank ________- --------- -------
La Boca_ _ ____-----------


$320, 000
299, 000
250, 000
205, 000
176, 000
174, 000
72, 000
61, 000
36, 000
34, 000
33, 000
29, 700

25, 000
25, 000


Total _ _---- _--------- -------- $1, 739, 700

Vocational schools shop buildings for alien colored children, La Boca
and Silver City.--This appropriations is to cover the cost of construction
of vocational schools shop buildings which will provide the required
space and equipment for the inauguration of a 2J-year vocational
course in which the children of alien colored employees will receive
intensive training in the manual skills of various occupattions. With
the training and experience to be received in th~e vocational schools,
the graduates mlay be hired for work without the long breaking-in
period, their work will be performed more efficiently, and the entire
Canal-Railroad organization will be benefited by the acquisition
of a group of employees more capable and more skilled than their
predecessors.
Road and street rep7lacements.-T-Phe majority of the streets and roads
in the Canal Zlone communities wCere built to the standards of the
period from 1914 to 19242, and are therefore inadequate for thle weight,
volume and greater speed of the traffic, now using them. Th~e heavy
traffic to which these ron.ds have been subjected,~ particularly during
thae wiar emergency, has greatly acceleratedi their deterioration and
increased the cost of ma in tenan ce. This appropriation is to cover the
first part of a 6-yUear program to modernize worn-ou t and narrow streets
in the Canal Zone.
Plans and ctonstruction of silver quarters.-Dlue to the high cost of
maintenance resulting from exrcessive, deterioration of silver quarters
now in use, t~he majority of which wecre constructed during or immiredi-






REPORT OF G;OVERNOR OF THE: PANAIMA CANAL


ately follow\inlg the comlpletion of the construction of the Canal, and
thle ovcrev~o\\vaing nlow\ exist ing in the quarters, it is necessary to plan
the inlitiatio~r of a, replacementt and ex~pansionI program a~s soon as war
conditions will permit. This appropriation is to provide for the cost
of designs and plans and the onstrrct~io n of a lim~itedl number of
quzartelrs of exper~imenrrtal .types.
School for laborers' children, Silver Osty.---For many years the school
authorities have been severely handicapped in their efforts to provide
a thorough a~nd well-roundedi educational program in the colored
school in Silver City because of the lackr of sufficient and suitable
cinssrooms in which to conduct the desired c~ourses. With the present
facilities, it is necessary to operate the school on an unsnt.isfnetary
shift basis in small, badly ligrhtedt, inadequarllntely vent~ila.ted~, and over-
crowded classrooms. The appropriation covers the cost of construct-
ing a2 new building in which a proper educational progrmn mlay be
ca~rriedl out.
Addition to U//'' lr`;naim, Balboa.--The present~ facilities at the Balb~oa
gymnasium are not only inadequa~lte to meet thle dcmandlt of the schools
b~ut are: also insufficient to permit a rea~sonable program of heaflthlful
exercise and games for adults. This appropriation will provide the
adltlit.iolnnI space andZ equlipmentt needed to endlle1, the schools to pre-
sent an effective physical educational program and to perrmiit the in-
nuglburatio nl of an adequate physical atnd recrea-~tiornal program for
adults.
Designs and studies for postwar clnstructi~oi, .-During the war
eme'l'rgEncy' The 1Panamflla. Canal has dlef erred much important and de-
sirable construction in ord er to conserve strategic materials, reduce to a
mninimnum its re~quri rem ents on the limited shipping space ava ilablel, and
make its en~gineeringr andt building forces available for work on. urgent
defense projects. With the end of the wvar, efficienlt operation. of the
Canal will requ~rirec th~e completion of the decfeIrred construction, the
pr~glressi ve~ removall of objce t i onIa ble cond1-1i tio ns which, would not have
been pe~rmit tedr to stand during normal times, and the construction of
de~simble~~ ope~r t ing anrd community enterprises. It has been deccided,
thecrefore, to perform, the ncecssarly pre~limirnary planningii in a-vanmce
so thetl \vithl the cessation of hostilities construction. w\orki may be
unlde~rtakenl as promptly as funds become available.
Toirl/t and~l Irclo ckr fcilities~r, Mi~a~lores aznd Gatus Locks.-Th eit con-
stru~ction~ of the proposed buildings att Mirnflorecs and Gatunr Lockcs
w\ill provide! employees at ealch locks wlith a cetntratlly loca.ted~ structure
cont~aining6 suitabllle and necessible toilelt fuelclit.iesp, a place to change
wret and dirty clothing, sufficient,~ lockers in which to store personal
belongings, andl a. room equipped with tarblesJ and benches in, which
to eat Ilunchecs,






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF TH~E PANAMA CANAL(


Sewage disposal system, drUdock No. 1, Balboa.-When a vessel
enters drydock, it is necessary to discontinue the customary discharge
of toilet facilities overboard unless a sanitary system is available in
the dock to take care of the discharge. Since no such system is pro-
vided in drydock No. I at Balboa., ship personnel must use shore in-
st.alla t ions, resulting in the overcrowding of the facilities provided
for use by the employees of the repair shops. This appropriation
provides for a sewage disposal system to allow ships to use their own
toilet facilities while undergoing repairs in drydock No. 1.
Cemetery improvements, Corozal and Mount Hope.-This appropria-
tion is to cover the construction of a new gate house at the Mount
Hope cemetery required by the construction of a new road of more
convenient and ready access to the burial ground; the appropriation
also will provide for the erection at Corozal cemetery of public toilet
facilities for which there is a pressing need, and cover the cost of
resurfacing, and the installation of proper drainage therefore, of the
cemetery roads.
Ofce building and drying room, Canal Zone penitentiary.-This
appropriation will cover the cost of replacing the present office and
storeroom building now in use, as well as a place to be used for drying
of prisoners' laundry. The present building in use for administra-
tive purposes and the storage of records and equipment is now in a
bad state of deterioration from age and termite attack, while the
drying room is essential because of the heavy and prolonged rainfall
during the major part of the year over the area in which the peni-
tentiary is situated.
Tracks and roads, Oristobal shops.-The full utilization of new
facilities established in the Cristobal shops to meet the large increase
in the work load during the war emergency has necessitated the con-
struction of suitable service roads and tracks not provided during
the construction and expansion in the area. The appropriation will
defray the cost of this new construction.
Silver dispensaries, La Boca and Red Tank.-This appropriation
is to cover the cost of constructing and equipping silver dispensaries
in the towns of La Boca and Red Tank, thereby providing for the
relief of congestion in the dispensaries now in joint use and for needed
nwdient facilities for the residents of these silver communities.















SECTION IV

GOVERNMENT

The civil government of the Canal Zone is conducted as prescribed
in the Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912, and subsequent acts and
ExecutivPe orders applicable to the Canal Zone. Whenever prac-
ticable, governental functions have been assigned to departments in
thze organization established for the operation anrd maintenance of the
Canal. Complete cooperation and increased efficiencyT are derived
from such coordination of functions.
Data on expenses and revenues of various features of Canal opera-
tion a~nd government are contained inl the financial and statistical
statement in Section V of this report.

AREA OF THE C~NAL ZONE

The total area of the Canal rZone,' with areas segregated for various
purposes, is shown as of June 30, 1945:
LAND AREA

1Vilitary and naval reservations (inclusive of revocable license
areas) : Square malea
BVMilitary reservations .____________ 87. 73
Naval reservations. . ... .-_-_--__ 12. 08


Total_______ ..._______ . ......,,_,.
Canal Z2one towntsites and areas in active use .. ____,,,,
Miscellaneous assigned land areas:
Barro Colorado Island ___,_- ..._____L__-, 5. 71
Forest preser~ve---.-,.---.... --... .--,.. 5. 47
Cattle pastures.... .. ... .._,------- 41. 80
Commercial leases.... ..._____,___,_ 23
Third locks project- .. .---__---_ ..--,-_- 72


99. 76
16. 12


Total_,_,-,_ ....__ __ __ .. ..... .... . 53. 93
Remaaining usable3 land. ......_ -,_ .. .. ... ...,,--- 177. 21
Swamps,,,,,, .,------ __ . . ., . ... ... 15. 16

Total land area of the Canal Z~one _______ .._,,,-- 362. 18
WV~ater area (inclusive of Mladden Lake to the 2609G-foo t contour) .... ... 190. 94

Total arena of the! Canaal Zone... ......... ..... ......., 553. 12

I Not inclusive of noncontiguous areas, with the exception of Pail illa Point lIfilitary Revsevtion.
80







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF` T`HE PANAM~A CANAL 8f.

POPULATION

A house-to-house canvass of the civil populatnionl of the Canal Zonec
wPas made by the police force during the month of March 1945. TPhis
canv~ass included civilian employees of the AIrmy and Navy, and mem-
bers of families of Army and N~avy personnel, but omitted commis-
sioned, warrant, and enlisted personnel.
The following is a summary of the population by districts.:

Americans All others
Total
Men Women Children 1Men Women Children

Balbos district ~~-. ..-~ 5, 608 4, 959 3, 226 7, 990 3, 625 4, 239 29, 647
Cristobal district_-. . .. .. 1, 529 978 814 5, 019 2, 766 3, 748 14, 854
Prisoners ___ __--~~-.. . . . 3 __ . 167 7 ............ 187
Total 1945 ..........~- 7, 150 5, 937 4, 040 13, 176 6, 398 7, 987 44, 688
Total 1944 ..... ...~- 8, 251 5, 771 3, 710 16, 073 6, 466 7, 504 47, 775
Total 1943 ........-~- 11, 159 5, 462 3, 585 23, 543 6, 239 7, 402 57, 390


The population in Mlarch 1945 was 6.5 pe~r~cent lower than, that
indicated by the canvass taken in Mfarch~ 1944. The Canal Zlone
population has been at abnormal levels in the past 5 years because of
the large number of persons broughtt to the Isthm~us to work on con-
struction projects of the Army, Navyg, and Panama Canal. The peak
population of this wartime period was reached in 1943, when the total
population was 57,390. The decrease in 1944 and 1945 from this
peak figure of 1943 reflects the repatriation of a considerable number
of thle persons brought to the Isthmus in r~ccnt, years.
In addition to the population shown above, in March 1945, a total
of 1,395 Amrericans (453 men, 446 women, and 496 children) was
residing in United States Governmenlt quarters in Newi Cristobal,
R~epublic of Panama.
PUBLIC REABLTH
HIealth conditions in the Canal Zone imlprovedt c~onsiderabal ly durlinlg
1945. Reportable diseases from thle Canal Zlone avecrangc ed 57 per
month (malaria. a~nd venereal dlistonses excluded), as compall~redc with
125 per month during the previous fiscal yeatr and 115 per mnonthl
during the fiscal year 1943.
Thle over-all malaria rate. for em~nployees of Tihe Panama Carnal and
Panama ]Railroad Co. was likew~is improved. T~he rate for the
6-mont~h period January through June 1945 w~as 11.6, in comlparisoln
wypith 12.,7 and 17.9 in, similar periods in 1944 and 1943.

VITAL STATISTICS
The mlorbidity and mno~t~ality rates from dlisea~se and inljur~ies,
together with other vital statistics relatinge to the popullationls of the
Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, are. set forthn in detail








82 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OFi THIE PANAMA CANiAL

in the calendar year report of the health department, which is published
annually in booklet form. For this reason, the data herein pertaining
to vital stat ist ics are limit ed to a brief resume of the most important
in form a t lon .
Gelreral death rate.-The death rate for the Canal Zone is artificially
low because employees greneratlly leave the Isthmus after retirement.
MoreoverI prior to 1941 a large number of relatively young soldiers
wer-le includedc~ in the population figures on which the rates were
computed. Below atre shown death rates by yearly periods for the
past 5 years:
Death rate per 1,000 population---all causes

Calendar year

1944 1943 1942 1941 1940

Canal Zone .___ _________ .. ______ I 6. 13 1 6. 24 1 6. 24 I 8. 75 6.43
Panama City------____ ------------__ _------------- ] 0. 57 10. 49 10. 62 11. 43 11. 50
Colon_----- -------------~ __ ...._ __. ........... __ 11. 55 12. 11 12 13 15.00 11. 04

1 Omits Army and Navy personnel.

P~r;incpl causes of death.-The principal causes of decathl in each of
the groups of population were as follows:

Number of deaths and annual rate per 1,000 population---calendar year 1944

Canal Zone Panama City Colon

N~um- Ratte per Num- Rate per Num- Rate per
h er 1,000 ber 1,000 ber 1,000

Cancer of various organs~~~~.....~ _______ 47 0.4 75 0. 60 41 0. 87
Diseases of the arteries._ ._ _____. _. 26 .54 1 46 .37 I 19 .40
Or:1i* ico e fth e t 22 .46 98 .78 55 1. 17
Tubre1s( 1 l11 .. .. 15 .31 277 2. 21 40 1.04
9lpnplory~~..~ ~..~~~~~~~_____ 14 .29 61 .49 39 .83
11pris actean croic 14 .29 80 .64 31 .66
Pneumonia._. ___. __._.__..... --- _.. _. 11 .23 102 .82 47 1.00
Diarrhea and enteritis. ._. __~.... ._ .._._... 2 .04 69 .55 33 .70

I Includes following deaths due to diseases of the coronary~arteries and angina pectoria: Canal Zone, 17;
Panama City, 23; Colon, 11.

Birth ~rat.--Prior to thle last 4 years the Csanal Zonle birth rate for
whites as shlown in the stattistics was artificially lo~w since a large
number of Army and Navy clnlistcted men were included d in. the popula-
tion figures(~ usedC inl th~e compultatio~n of thec rate. The colored birth
rate is lowi bllenuse~ only c~olored employees~ who haLve mlore .thanl the
avecraige length of serv\ierc, and hence are in the olderl~ age group, can
obtainz quarters inl the Canal Zone11. The birth raltes for both~ classes in
the cnlendor~l yearsl 1944, 1943, and 1942 a~nd 1941 are not directly
comparable with thlosl! shown inl the table- be~lo\\- for ear~lierI years
because the populantionl base for white births has om~ittedl Army and














Nav~ty per~sonneltl since 1940, and b-ecause the colored population has
been1 infated by the influx of laborers ~without their famnilies, imported
for construction work.

T'he following table shows the birth rates in the Canal rZone and

the terminal cities of Panamna and Colon. for the past 5 years:


Birth rate per 1,000 population


I Population base excludes Army and Naval personnel.


DPeath rates amonicg chF~;dren under~~f 1 year of age.---The following~ table

shows the infant mortality rates per 1,000 births for the past 5 years:


Death of infants under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births

Calendar year

1944 1943 1942 1941 1940

Canal Zone:
W hite ... .._ _ .... ... .... ...... ..... 17 24 22 51 40
Colored..~ .. -._-- _____. _ _. . ~. .. ... 43 51 53 61 69

Combined ... .... ..... ........ ...... 30 38 38 56 56
Panama City.........__ ....... --------------__ 70 73 79 89 94
Colon..... ... . ... .. ....... *...... 84 65 79 97 98



MALARIA

The rates for malaria among employees only for the past 10 years
are shown below:


calendar year thuadCalendar year ehosn


1935_~.. ~~. __........_.__.... .... 15 1940 ~ __._ ~__~ ___ _ .. ... 17
1936........ ...... ......... ~ __~_ 12 1941__ . . ... .. .. .. ._____ 14
1937 ... ......... ............~ ___ 12 1942. ..................... ~~__ 25
1938 1 93.................. ....... 1 93 ....... . .. .. .. 15
1939. .. ..... .. 14 194 4 .... . . ....... . 13



There was one death from malaria, among employees during the
calendar year 1944.
HOSPITALS


The number of patient days in Panama Canal hospitals for the past

three fiscal years wats as follows:


RIEPORNT OF GOVERNOR OF TI-TE PANAM[A CANAL


Calendar year

1944 193 1942 1941


1940


8. 98
19. 24

12. 56
28. 09
25. 41


Canal Zone:
White _~____ _ .... ___ _ .
Colored . .... .. .. ~_~~~_

Combined .. _ .. .. .. ... . ~_
Panama City_. __. . ... .. ~~~~~
C o lo n . ... ... ... ... .. .... .. .. ...... -


I 32. 65
19. 07

24. 11
34. 03
37. 45


1 27. 21
15. 25

19. 48
34. 06
34. 42


1 23. 08
13. 07

16. 65
30. 38
27. 38


1 24. 75
15. 80

19. 10
29. 60
27. 20












Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Gorgas Hospittal.. ______ __. ____ ___~__.......... 337, 683 365, 429 427, 455
Corozal Hospital:
Insane ._____. ~ __________ 94, 621 98, 198 107, 886
Cripples and chronlic medical and surgical cases. __~.... ...... 35, 317 36, 029 3474
Colon H~ospital. -___~~___________ _________ 53, 109 47, 048 4,04
Margarita Hospital_____ ___. __ ________~ ~__~_ 28, 406 2,348 18, 269
Palo Seco Le per Colony_ .L__ ________ _____ ___ 43, 159 2,426 42, 288
Total -.____.. .... __ ____ . __ .......__ ....... .. 592, 295 611, 478 676, 691


QUTARANTINE AND IM1VIIG;RATION

There wa$s a decided increase both in ship and airplane traffic in the,
Canal Zone as compared with 1944. The number of persons admitted
and det ai ned at the quarantined st a tion on account of jimmntigraio was
almost double that of 1944.
Th~kere wa~s a 63 per~centl increase in the number of ships fumigated
during the year.
Little ch~llange has occurred in the sanitaryy conditions of South
American. ports and there should be no relaxation of control measures
to prevent introduction of such quarantinlable diseases as bubonic
plague, typhus, and jungle yellow fever.
No quarantinable diseases were reported on arriving ships and
planes during the year although sevPeral cases of serious communicatble
diseases were receiv-ed. These were isolated either on the ships or in
h~ospitnls ashore and no further cases developed.
The following is a summary- of transactions for the fiscal year 1945,
togepthe~r with t~he figuresPf for t~he t~wo prrrreceinr yealrs:

Fiscal year

1945 1944 1943

Vessels insplc te-.1 and~ Ilssed... _~_. ___.__ ___~~__ 5, 190 3, 568 2, 844
Vessels tgrranted~ IIrolique by radio ___~ __________.__~._
Total._____~ .. .. .~.__~_._ ..___._~ _. ___. .... 5, 190 3, 568 2, 844
Crew passed by qluarantine~. ~~_. __.__. _._. _~___ 288, 503 184, 946 146t, 537
Crew passed by radio, ~._._.. .. .._________
P'assernger passed at quarantine. _.___~____._~_.~.. 65, 322 53, 134 50,823
I'( L -neers. T passed by radio ..,_. __. ...___~~_~ ...__ .. _.. ._.. ._..... ........__
T1' 11 II353, 825 238, 080 197, 360
Airplanes inspected and passed ......_ __.._.._ ___. 3, 512 2,656 2, 525
('rcew f irplarlll 11~ill n inspec~1 tlld l andpssed.... ~ ~~. ~ ____ ~ 13, 487 11, 345 11, 090
P'assIengerr of ailrlplanr j InspectedVI and passes... ____~. ....... 47, 473 36, 012 33, 623
Total...~...~.__. __. _.-_.----_--_- ---_----......--_ 60, 960 48, 257 44, 713
Vessels detained in quramusenlll 2 3 2
Crew detained in quarantine! on board of ship.l. _...~ ...... _....... 412 175 '105
Pase~x ng~r s detained in luaranrntm- on board ship.._.... __ ............ 744 55 ...........
PI79selngers admitted to Ma~r Icn o~n account of quarantine law~s__. _l... _... ___ .... .. ........ 1
Numbe~~r r of detention days at station on account of qluarani n ell laws.. .l._. __._... .. ........ 1
Irn lieaton ass a mitedtostaio ............. 5, 455 2, 946 5, 331
N lInnhelr o1 aInmigration detention days. __ __._.... ..... __......... 40, 156 35, 399 73, 751
Persons held~l for Ir lrlnves lparn and released .~.~. _~~ ~. _.... __........ 124 114 96
Persons deported undelrr Immellraiion laws_.._.._._._..._.._.__.........383 3,533 4, 819
Sup~plemlcntary~ ftnitary inspeasL~on ofT tessls 6,12 695 3, 500
vess is*p ]f um lCpsetil 175 10; 68


REPORTS OF GOVERNOR OF THIE PANIAMA CANAL(























Municipl workcarrie on duing th year nclude the nsruio

and maintenance 822 of7 rods stress and sieals the, mantna




United ~ ~ ~ ~ 12 Staesav, Govrnen cotrcrs and the divisionsof






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE: PANAMA CANAL


Work was completed at the end of the~ year on the installation of
at 10-inch wa~ter line through ]La Bo0ca to increase the water supply~ for
domestic consumption and for better fire protection.

REW\ER SYSTEMI\

In. addition to the reg~ular maintenna~ce work performed on th~e sewer
system, the work of recpair~ing existing concrcte? box culverts in the
Balboa district was started during the year. App ro xi m a t y one-lhalf
of this workr was completed.

ROADS, STREETS, AN(D SIDEWALKS
Regular maintenance work wFpas performed on roads, streets, and
sidewalks in the Canal Zone.
The Gaillard H~ighway improvement proj ect, consisting of rebuilding
or widening portions of Gaillard H~ighwiay to provide a m-inimumn width
of 24 feet over a section exte~ndinlg from Tivoli crossing to Paraiso
junction, and a minimum width of 22 feet from the Pa1Irriso junction. to
Madden junction (newi Gamboa Road), wias completed during the year.
A detailed dscripItion. of this project was contained in the annual
report for the fiscal year 1944.
The access roads to Balboa tank farm, the main roads of the Balboa
shops arnlc1, and the Palo Seco road from IFarfan to the leper colony,
were resurfaced and otherwise improved.

OTHER HEAVY CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
D5rcdg;lng division dock, DTiablo H1Feights.-WoS7rk was started during
1945 on a newt reinforced concrete dock for the dredgclging division on. thae
east bank, of the Canlal nea~r Dliablo HEeighlts. The dockr, which, will
have a delck 50 feet wide by 494 feet l0ng, will be supporters on 14 bent~s
foundecd on reinforced cocncre~te piles grouted in holes drilled into solid
rock. Thie main dock will be served byr a re~inforcedl concrete approach
tres~tle 260 feet long by 21 feet wide. Work alccom~plished during the
fiscal youPr 1945 consistedc- of the assembly of plant and other prepara-
tory wvorkl, foundation investigations, the dr~illing of p~ile holes for the
foulndation, and the construliiction of approimatelntc y 50 percent of the
appr"Onehl trestle. Thle p~rolj~ct was:1 appro~imlntcly 20 percent complete
at thle, end of the fised~ ;year.
A lte:ratio n 1 4 to Jarcks Nu. 18T, I an 1/,r Crl ~ ~ifitabal.-Ex tenISivTe altera8tionls
wcrc- madeli to the timnb~r docksi N\os. 13 and 14, Cristabanl, inr order to
imlprovel thel deck~ls, to provide ru;mp's over the~ t ralck~, and to st~rengt~hen
the docks aga~if nst laral movemelcnt. Fort;y-threeC 85-foot treated piles
were driveni and 120,600 boardl feet of treated~ lumbelr wrcie used.
Nary furling be h~rths, llres~1to bank, Blboa.--Dur Iing the yearsl t.w\o fueling
berths werelt c~onstrluc~ted for the NJavy at the naval operating base on






REPORTOF OENRO HEPNM AA


the west bank, Balboa. Each berth included a pier 40 by 106 feet,
with an access trestle carrying the pipe lines, and two 30-foot diameter
breast.ing-off dolphins, the la t ter consisting of steel pile coffeedn ms
filled with gravel. The material used included 288 steel sheet piles
and 6,200 cubic yards of gravel for the dolphins, and 480 piles and
approximately 97,000 board feet of timber for the piers. Work was
started on February 28, 1945, and the project was estimated to be 97
percent complete at the end of the fiscal year.
TEST OF CUCARACHA ROCK FORMATION
A test, for the third locks project initiated during 1944 to determine
the safe bearing pressures on Cucaracha rock of the type found north
of the existing Miraflores locks, was continued throughout t, 1945.
This test involved excavation to rock, construction of a 40-by 50-by
10-foot concrete block, and loading the latter with armor plate. The
program has been extended to include partial unloading and long-time
observation of the rebound and the effect of vibration on the structure.
CITIES OF PANAMA AND COLON
Regular maintenance work was performed on the water and sewer
systems and on the streets during the year. Several improvement
projects were completed, the principal ones being the paying of Calle
26 E, between Avenida Cuba and Avenida Peru, and of Calle P,
between Avenida Nacional and Calle Higinio Durantthe widening of
Calle 23 E, Calle 24 E, and Calle 21 de Enero, from Avenida Central
to Calle 25 E; the installation of water and solver lines in the La
Iseca area; and enlargement of the water and sewer system in the
Barraza district. In connection with the extension of Avenida
Balboa, Panama City, which was incomplete at the end of the year,
a fill involving 142,000 cubic yards was made and two concrete cul-
verts constructed during the year. This filled portion, which is to be
used for building purposes, has an area of approximately 200 by 700
feet.
MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
Sosa Hill Quarry and rock crushing plant.-Rock crushed during the
fiscal year 1945 and sold to various departments and divisions of The
Panama Canal, Panama Railroad Co., United States Army and Navy,
Republic of Panama, and United States Government, contrnetors and
individuals totaled 136,712 cubic yards. This plant also produced
7,889 tons of asphaltic mixtures for resurfacing old roads and for the
construction of new roads and streets.
Central mizing plant.-During the year 23,671 cubic yards of ready-
mixed concrete and 1,988 cubic yards of dry-batch (sand and rock)
were produced and sold.











PlUBLIC ORDER

There was a decrease of 60, or about 19 percent, in the force of the
Canal Zone police during the past year, due mainly to the induction

of personnel into the armed forces. Diablo Heights police substation
was closed during the month of July and the personnel thereof re-

assigned to the Balboa central police station.
Canal Zone Police Radio Stations WVPI at Balboa and WVPI---2
at Cristabal were placed in service in July and 50-watt central station
transmitters and receivers installed in each police district. Thirteen
cars were equipped with mobile transmitter and receiver units for use
of radio car patrolmen. Similar radio equipment was installed in the

police boats at Balboa, Gamboa, and Gatun.
During the fiscal year 7,735 persons were arrested, a decrease of 9.3

percent as compared with the previous year. Statistics covering
these arrests, with corresponding figures for the previous year, are

given in the following table:

Fiscal Year

1945 1944


There were 8,289 charges filed against persons arrested during the
fiscal year 1945, of which 8,009 were misdemeanors and 280 were
felonies, the latter being 3.4 percent of the total offenses charged.
The following were the principal causes of arrest:


Cause of arrest 1945 1944

Violation of vehicle traffic regulations---............... ............... ...... 4,145 3,723
Lrnitoring ____..... __ .__ ___... 532 794
Petit larcency........................ - - - - - - - -........................ 399 609
Intoxication. ......................................... ..................... 351 507
Disturbing the peace..................--................ ... _ _. .... 296 453
Battery. .. ... ... ... ...... ... .... ............ ....................... 206 352
Tn-spassing ....................................... .... ....... ........... 277 786
Fucatin fr..In justice--.......................--.............. ............... 197 202
Vagrancy-------------------------------------------------................... 109 110
Enemy alien .-nh-ring ranal Zone- --.....................------.............. 3 7
Violation of tradme w lth enemy act..................... ......... ... ...... 2 5
AH others.................................................................... 1, 682 1, 576
Total....................... ... ....................................... 8, 289 9, 214


HEPOrT FGOENR FTE AAA AA


Persons


7, 735
032
6, 803
7, 785
2,308
4 878
540


Persons


8,525
&84
7,677
8, 525
3,188
4, 935
402


Male------------------------------------------------------- ---....
Female--------------------------------------------- ------
Total------------------------------------------------------------.......
Arrests made with warrants----------------- ...........--- .... ...
Arrestsmadewithoutwarrants --------------------------------------------
Total---------------------------------------------------------------....
Residents of the Canal Zone..--- ---- ------------- ................
Residents of Panama------------ -----------------------------....
Transients---------------------------------------------------------.........
Total-------------------------------------------------------------......







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


H~omicides.--Seven cases of homicide were invetstigated~ by the
coroner during the year, 2 of which were the result of motor-vehicle
accidents and I the result of a train collision on the Pa ~lnoma Railroad.
Of the 7 defendants, 2 w\ere chat~rged with involuntary nu: rInlaurghnter; 3
wi~th murder; 1 wc~ith murderctl, second degree; and I with causing at rail-
road collision resulting in death. Disposition. of the cases was malde
as follows: 2 defe~llralutsj were given penit.centinry3 sentences of 20 and
15j years, respectively; 1 wvas setenltcedlcl to pay a, fine of $200 and, costs;
1 had his se~ntencce suspendedcc and wavs placedc on pr~obaztion for 1 yearLI;
and 1 wvas turned over to thle NavTy for handl(ling~ in ncorcldance with
naval laws and regulations. Two casets were still pending at the
end of thre fiscal year.
Suicides and other incedisigatfions4 by the colronellr.-- T he coroner in-
vestigated 2 cases of suicide during the past year, of which 1 was by
drowning and the other by poisoning. Coroner's investigations wyere
mader in a total of 69 cases of deaths during the year, of which 13
were from vehicle injuries, 12 from accidental drowning, 20 from
natural causes, and the remainder from other enu~se~s.
Prisoners.-A daily average of 85 prisoners ser~vt.d sentences in the
jails of thae Canal IZone during the year, and those physically able were
employed on municipal workr. In July 1944 there was;r a daily average
of 90 prisoners as compared with 78 in June 1945.
Sixty-sev~en c~on\ict~s were committed to the Canal Zone peni-
tent.iarly, a decrease of 11 as comnparled with the pr~ecedinlg year.
Sentences imposed on these convicts totaled 155 years and 11 months.
Nint~y-eightl convicts were d~iSChal~rged, leaving 91 in custody at the
end of the year. Computedc at stalndarld rates of pay for common
labor the value of the labor performed by convicts during the year
amounted to $48,106. Of this 24 percent represented the value of
w~ork performed in the operation, .maintenacellc and improvement of
thie penitrent.iary buildings and grounds; 57 percent on the peniten-
tiary farm, snd the remaining 19 percent on o-ut~side municipal work.
Deport~ationsd.--By order of the Governor, 43 pe~rsonls were deported
from the Canal Zone during thre fiscal year, of whbom 24 werel~t convicts
w~ho hadl served senltncci s inr the penitentiary and 19 wer~le persons
whose continued recsidnclle in the Canal Zone w1as regrb~rded as un-
desira.ble.
TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS~ AND CONTROL

There wer~e 638 traffic a~ccidenlts :retported dur~ingb the year, or anl
average of 53 per mlont~h, compared wvih an ilvera~ge of 64 per month
during thie prev-ious year. These acciden~t~s resulted in thne deaths of


683509--46----








































Cristabal Balboa, Total

1945 1944 1945 1944 1945 1944


2, 384 3, 004 5, 091 5, 216 7, 475 8, 220
14 9 10 11 24 20
2, 398 3, 013 5, 101 5, 227 7, 499 8, 240

2, 171 2, 751 4, 704 4, 762 6,875 7, 513
79 95 172 200 2511 295
54 83 87 97 141 180
80 75 128 157 208 232
2, 384 3, 004 5, 091 5, 216 7, 475 8, 220


90 .REPORT' 1 OF G;O\'ENN(OR OF THE PANAMAI CANAL


8 pe~lr onsand injuries to 225 other persons. Following is a classifi-
enltionl of the C:II(Ss of these neccidel~nts for the panst three fiscal years:

Cause 1945 1944 1943

N..-uli..-ut =1rb itle ._.._._ _.. ._. .. ... 404 4681 604
Rteckless drIi' ng .. .__. __ .._.._.._..... .~. 92 127 206
C u:.-si l-- in .. . . . 47 70 95
Inul~r.; l-.1.=. lrin-~r .. ._. .. ..... ......~..~.~~. 29 35 45
10 ..-0. .-..* ~ ____ ... ....~.~~...~ 24 18 32
Cfi r-le-c' I'n-el~ll C-I . 4 12 23
In..-il.*-rn-n-ed~irite-r ... .~~..... 9 11 18
11] oth e rs .. .. ....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-~ 20 23 26
Total __.. _~~~ .~~.~ ~~~~.~ ..~~~.~. .. ~ ~ 638 764 1, 049


MAGIST[RATES' COURTS

The follow -ing is a summary of business transacted at the magis-
trates' courtsl for the subdivisions of Cristobal and Balboa for thze
fiscal year11 1945, together with comparative figures for the fiscal year
1944:


Cases handled:
Criminal __~.__..__._~_~... ...
CaI:Il... ... . .
Total ~~_________... ~ ~


Acquittal. . __~~_~_~~-~
Dismissal__. . . __~____~
H~eld for district court-.~~.~. ~~-_-
T otal ... ... ..... ..... ~~~
Convictions inl which execution of sen-
tences was su-l..unds:.1.~ and defendants


placed on probation__.:..... ... ... 95 96 120 129 215 225
Rearrested for violating terms of probation_/ 10 3 7 15 17 18
Revenues_. .~................. ~ -.......... $21, 042 $24, 058 1"$27, 855 $39, 018 $48, 897 $63, 076


PARDONS AND REPRIEV'ES

TChe parIdon hoflrd, consisting of five members appointed by the
GovI'rnorI, actts in an. advisory capaicitiy in the consider tion of requests
submitted byT prisoners for executive c~leniecy.~ Dur~inga tle, past

Yt'ar' th~e h~oneId submitted rcconunendatntions to the Gover~nor on 68
applien;tionls for exc\ccutivec e~~lemency, i~c~ludingb commullttatio of penli-
tetnt~iary andlt jail senztences and rev\ocationn of orders of depo~t~ation.
Thec Governor extendedl clemencyic in. 29 of these cases. No changes
in, the mremnbership of the board were maade during the year.




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