• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Introduction
 Section I: Canal operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Administration
 Section IV: Government
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Index
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00028
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1943
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00028
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Section I: Canal operation and trade via the Panama Canal
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Section III: Administration
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Section IV: Government
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
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        Page 125
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        Page 131
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        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Index
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
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        Page 160
    Back Cover
        Page 161
        Page 162
Full Text



















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY


L










ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL

FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR


ENDED JUNE 30

1943


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1946


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25. D. C. Price 30 cents


._ __I















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction-- --------------- --------------------------- 2
Operation and maintenance of the Canal ----------------__-_-___ 2
Operation of auxiliary enterprises-business operations -------- --__ 3
Government-administration ----------------------------------- 3
Services rendered by the Canal to shipping -_--.._-------------___- 3
Net revenues------------------------------------------------- 4
Replacements----------------------------------------------- 5

SECTION I-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL

Statistics on Canal traffic-----------------------------------------___ __ 6
Canal traffic by fiscal years 1915 to 1943-----.---------------------___ 9
Traffic by fiscal years 1943 and 1942----------------------------- 10
Nationality of vessels transiting Canal ------------- -------------- 10
Vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage -------------------- 11
Small commercial vessels transiting Canal ----------------- -------11
Vessels entitled to free transit--- --------------------------_ 11
Cargo shipments by trade routes------------------------------- 12
Total cargo shipments-Atlantic to Pacific-------------------- 12
Total cargo shipments-Pacific to Atlantic-------------------- 13
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes,
Atlantic to Pacific-------------------------------_______----- 15
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes,
Pacific to Atlantic _------------------------------------- 18
Origin and destination of cargo --------------------------------- 21
Classification of vessels between laden and ballast traffic- ----------_ 24
Laden and ballast traffic by nationality---------------------- 26
Average tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per cargo-carrying vessel - 26
Steam, motor, and other vessels-------------------------------- 26
Frequency of transits of vessels through the Panama Canal--------- 27
Gross tonnage of vessels ----------------------------__---------- 28
Canal operation and maintenance----- ------------- --------------- 30
Hours of operation---------------___-------------------------- 30
Normal operating schedule of locks --------------- ---------- 30
Lockages and lock maintenance- ------------------------------- 30
Lockages------------------ ---------------------------- 30
Delays to shipping-------------------------------- ------ 31
Maintenance and construction ------- --------------_---------31
Power for Canal operation--------------------------- -------- 32
Water supply and general weather conditions ---------------------_ 33
Water supply------------------------------------------33
Air temperature -----------------------------_---------- 35
Winds and humidity- ------------------------------------ 35
Tides----------------------------------- -------------- 36
Seismology--------------------- -------------------------- .. 36
II






Iv CONTENTS

Canal operation and maintenance-Continued Page
Marine activities--------------------------------------------- 37
Harbor activities..---------------------------------------___ 37
Aids to navigation. ------------.--------------------------- 37
Accidents to shipping ---------------------------- ---------. 38
Inspection --------------------------------_------------.. 38
Admeasiirenent --------.------------------.---- -------___ 38
Salvage and towing --------------------------------------.. 38
Damage to the U. S. Alhnjuela -..-.-. -----.__. ..----------. 39
Maintenance of channel-other dredging activities ---------------- 39
Ordinary channel maintenance-Canal prism dredging-------........ --- 41
Auxiliary dredging-special maintenance projects -----------. 41
Auxiliary dredging-other projects--------------------------- 42
Thirr Locks dredging-------------------------------------- 44
Slides-------- ----------------------------------------------- 45
Subsidiary dredging division activities ----------------------- 45
Equipment. _-------------- --- --- --------46
Ferry service -------------------------------------------------- 47
Third locks project------------------------------------------- ----------- 47
Authorization --- ------------------------------------ ------- ___ 47
Appropriations------------------------------------------------ 48
Organization ------------------------------------------------- 48
Modification -------------------------------------------------- 49
De-signs-plans-specifications.. ------------ ------------_-----, 49
Construction. -------------------------------------------------- 50

SECTION II-BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Panama Canal business operations -- ------------------------------- 52
Mechanical and marine work ----------------------------------------- 53
Gross revenue-class and source---------------------------- 53
Drydocks.. ---------------------------------------------- 54
Plant improvement---------------------------------------- 54
Salvage section------------------------------------------ 54
Operations------------------------------------------------ 55
Electrical installation and repair work --------------------------- 55
Purchases and inspections in the United States ------------------- 56
Storehouses and ships chandlery-------------------------------- 56
Obsolete and unserviceable property and equipment --------------- 57
Fuel oil, Diesel oil, gasoline, and kerosene- ----------------------- 57
Building construction and maintenance -------------------------- 58
Quarters for employees------------------------------------------ 59
Motor transportation division ------------------------------- 60
Appointment of mileage administrator----------------------- 60
Panama Canal press ------------------------------------------- 60
Subsistence--------------------------------------------------- 61
Revenues derived from the rental of lands in the Canal Zone-_- -_.__ 61
Business operations under the Panama RIailroadl Co-------------------- 61
Trans-Isthmian railroad -- _.-------------------------------- 62
'Receiving and forwarding agency ------------------------------- 63
(Coaling plants.---- ------------------------------------------ 63
Telephones and telegraphs. -------------- ------------------- 63
Real estate operations..--------------------------------------- 64







CONTENTS V

Business operations under the Panama Railroad Co.- Continued. Page
Commissary division -------- -------------------------------- 64
Sales ------------ --------------------------------------- 64
Purchases----------------------------------------- 65
Hotels ------------------------------------------------------ 65
Mindi Dairy--__-__-------------------------------------------- 65

SECTION III-ADMINISTRATION
Departments ------------------------------------------------------ 66
Operation and maintenance----------------------------------- 66
Supply-------------------------------------------------------- 66
Accounting ------- ----------------------------------------- 66
Executive------------------------------ 67
Health------------------------------------------------------ 67
Panama Railroad Co---------- ------------------------------ 67
Changes in administrative personnel -------------------------------- 67
Changes in administrative organization ------------------------------- 69
Section of Civilian Defense------------------------------------- 69
Employees ----------------------------------------------------- -- 69
Gold employees ------------------------------------------------- 70
Recruiting and turnover of force-gold employees ----------------- 71
Adjustment in wages and hours of work --------------------------__ 73
Silver employees--------------------------------------------------- 73
Silver wages _----------- ------------------------------ 75
Sick and rest leave--------------------------------------------- 75
Cash relief for disabled silver employees -------------------------- 75
Repatriations ----------------------------------------------- 76
Central labor office ----------------------------------------------- 76
Purchase of war savings bonds by employees ------ ------------------- 77
Experiment gardens------------------------------------------------ 78
Clubhouses------------------------------------------------------- 79
Legislation- -------------------------------------------------- 80
Capital allotments, fiscal year 1944 -_--------------------------------- 81

SECTION IV-GOVERNMENT
Area of the Canal Zone--------------------------------------------- 83
Population ---- _--------------------------------------------------- 84
Public health ------------------------------------------------ -----84
Vital statistics ----------------------------------------------- 85
Malaria------------------- ---------------------------------- 87
Hospitals ----------------------------------------------------- 87
Quarantine and immigration- ----------------------------------- 87
Municipal engineering___ ------------------------------------------- 89
Testing laboratory --------------------------------------------- 89
Water system -------------------------------------------------- 89
Expansion of water supply facilities------------------------------ 90
Sewer system---_------- ----------------------------------- 91
Roads, streets, and sidewalks ----------------------------------- 91
Townsite development ---------------- ----------------- ---------92
Other heavy construction activities------------------------------ 93
Cities of Panama and Colon------------------------- ----------__ 93
Miscellaneous projects-------_---------------------------------- 94
Right-hand drive established on Isthmus... -- ----------------------- 94
Isthmian highways officially opened---------------------------------- 94






CONTENTS


Public order.---------------- -------------
Fire protection- t ti---------. -.......-....


Bagi biIra -s cuur .- - ------- ---. -.- ----. ...---.-. -- .. ----

Cristobal- -.-- --..--.-.. .....--. .--...--.- .....---
Pardons and reprieves -. ----- .---.---.---------- .. -- ... -
Public school asystemn --- ....... . -. ....... . ........
Pla ygrotunds section.--.. -. ...... ...
Po t.tal syst ------ ---- ---ern-- ----- -.. .--.. -.-..--....--..- .
Air mail -------------- ---- ---- ---------- -.. .
Relations with Panamna---- .... .. ...---.-- -
Iiiiirii ralion visas --- ---- ... .. . ... .
Customs--------------. ------.--- ---- .. ... ... .
Shipping comrnissioner--.- .- .-------- --------------.. .
Administration of estates --------------------------_---.----- ,.
Foreign corporations --------------- ------------------------ ---
Insurance-------------.-. ---------------- --------------- ----
Licenses- -------------- ---------------------...----- --------
Rationing program._------- ------.-------------------- ----------
Commercial aviation---------------------------------------------------


Page
.... 95
. .-- 97


98
98
98
98
99
100
101
103
103
104
104
105
105
100


SECTION V-FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS

Accounting systemrn ---.-------------------------------------------- 109
Operations of the Panama Railroad Co ------------------------------ 110
Panama Canal operations------------------------------..------------ 110
Index to tables-------------------------------------------------- --111
Financial tables------------------------------------------------ 112-142















REPORTS OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND DIVISIONS

APPENDIXES NOT PRINTED

The material in the annual report of the Governor of The Panama Canal,
published in this volume, is to a large extent a summary of the data presented
in the annual reports from the heads of departments and divisions in the Canal
organization; the latter, regarded as appendixes to the report of the Governor,
are not printed. The annual reports of the Panama Railroad Co. and the health
department are published separately; the latter is compiled for calendar years
only. The reports of the heads of departments and divisions, as listed below,
are on file at the Washington office of The Panama Canal and at the office of the
Governor at Balboa Heights, C. Z.
Engineer of maintenance, report of.
Special engineering division, report of supervising engineer.
Dredging division, report of superintendent.
Plans section, report of chief.
Assistant engineer of maintenance, report of.
Electrical division, report of electrical engineer.
Municipal engineering division, report of acting municipal engineer.
Locks division, report of superintendent.
Office engineering division, report of office engineer.
Section of meteorology and hydrography, report of chief hydrographer.
Civilian defense corps, report of director.
Marine division, report of marine superintendent.
Mechanical division, report of superintendent.
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Accounting department, report of comptroller.
Executive department:
Division of civil affairs, report of acting chief.
Police and fire division, report of chief.
Division of schools, report of acting superintendent.
Panama Canal clubhouses, report of director.
Division of personnel supervision and management, report of director
of personnel.
Surveying officer (acting), report of.
General counsel, report of.
Real-estate section, report of chief.
License bureau, report of chief.
Public defender, report of.
Paymaster (acting), report of.
Collector, report of.
Magistrates' courts:
Magistrate, Cristobal, report of.
Magistrate, Balboa, report of.
Washington office, report of chief of office and general purchasing officer.
Pardon board, report of chairman.
Senior aeronautical inspector, report of.












































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from Lyrasis and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofgol943cana








ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE

GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE,
October 22, 1943.
THE SECRETARY OF WAR,
Washington, D. C.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the report of the Governor of The
Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1943. This report
covers the first full fiscal year of the war.
In normal years the tolls collected by The Panama Canal are
sufficient not only to cover all expenses of operation and maintenance
of the Canal but also to provide an income to the United States
amounting approximately to 3 percent of the capital investment in
the Canal. During the past fiscal year the tolls receipts from commer-
cial vessels using the Canal were only about one-third of the receipts in
normal years, and were sufficient to cover only about two-thirds of the
costs of operation. This unfavorable financial showing is attributed
chiefly to the (list tiurbance to world shipping resulting from the war,
but also in considerable measure to the great increase in the number
of ships enjoying tolls-free status. The financial features of the
operations are regnirded as of slight importance in comparison with the
vital service rendered by the Panama Canal in the prosecution of the
war. The expeditious transfer between the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans of war and commercial vessels of the United States and its
allies has been effected as required during the entire war period, and
1,814 ocean-going commercial vessels transited the Canal during the
past year. Although the total number of vessels, including both
tolls-paying and tolls-free traffic, using the Canal was much less this
year than in the years before the war, it has been impossible to curtail
the operating force in proportion to the decline in traffic because of the
imperative necessity of mainatia inning the Canal in constant readiness to
meet any denliind within its maximum capacity.
Last year it was deemed advisable to withhold printing and public
distribution of the report until after the war because of the confidential
nature of the statistics and other information included in the report.
This year, with your approval, it is proposed to follow the same course.
Respectfully,
GLEN E. EDGERTON, Governor.





REPORT 01- cOVERNUR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


INTRODUCTION
Admilistrationl of tiie affairs of The Pnanama Canaul enterprises
iiivolves t1lIree m11il elmenlllts: (a) Operation and maintenance of the
Canal itself; (b) operation of the auxiliary enterprises necessary to
provide adequately for the needs of shipping a'nd of the Canal operat-
ing forces; and (c) government of the Canal Zone, populated by Amneri-
canl civilians, native or tropical workers and their families, and by the
United States Army a1ntd N avy defense forces.
In addition to these nornial elements, during the past 4 years the
Camal organization las performed very iniporta nt fun actions as a supply
and service agency for tlhe greatly expanded activities of the Army
and Navy, particularly in their extensive construction program.
While the Canal organization al(nd equipment were not designed for
this duty and are by no means fully adLquate, tilhe services rendered
are regarded as very creditable. These services have contributed
Illateriflily to tlme efficiency and economy of the Army and Navy
operations, and N\ill continue to do so for the duration of the war.
The immediate supervision of the ladminist ration of these various
activities rests with the heads of the nine major departments and
divisions. Responsibility and control of the entire, organization are
centered in the Governor of Tlie Panania Canal who is also the presi-
dent of the Panama Railroad Co., an adjunct of the Canal enterprise,
organized as a Goverlunent-owned corporation.
By Executive order of September 5, 19:39, the provisions of section
13 of the Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912, were invoked
as an emergency measure and since that date the Commanding Gen-
eral, Panama Canal Department, United States Army, has exercised
final authority and jurisdiction over the operation of tlie Pan;nia
Canal and all its adjuncts, appendants, and appurtenances, including
control and government of the Canal Zone; and the Governor of The
Panama Canal has been subject to that authority and the orders
issued under it.

OPERATION AND -MAIN'TI.NANCE OF THE CANAL
The primary function of the Paniama Canal is to provide and
maintain a waterway by means of which vessels may make the transit
from one ocean to the other, and to handle such traffic as presents
itself for transit. with a maximum of safety and a minimum of delay.
Essentially this involves the maintenance. of the waterway, tlhe
operation of the locks, and the control of traffic tlhroughl the Canal.
Throughout the year tlhe Canal force manitained its Ihiglh standard of
expeditious service not only in the actual transiting of ships but in
providing em ergenrcy repairs, fuel, supplies, and thle various supple-
nmentary services incidental to shipping. There were no interruptions
of ship traffic during the year.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


OPERATION OF AUXILIARY ENTERPRISES-BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Secondary only to the operation of the Canal is the function of
supplying various services to shipping. Commerce requires at the
Canal certain adjuncts of shipping, such as fuel oil and coaling plants,
storehouses for foodstuffs, ship chandlery, and other essential supplies,
marine and railway repair shops, terminal facilities for the transship-
ment of cargo and passengers, a railroad line across the Isthmus and
a steamship line between New York and Panama, quarters and com-
missaries for the operating force, and other services essential to the
economical and efficient operation of the Canal. These services,
under coordinated and centralized control, are provided by the various
business units of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co. The
coordination of such services with the transit of ships through the
Canal assists materially in the efficient and economical operation of
the waterway. Moreover, in providing marine repair facilities, fuel,
and other supplies, the operation of these business units promotes
traffic through the Canal.
GOVERNMENT-ADMINISTRATION
The usual functions of government, such as schools, police and fire
protection, quarantine, public health, immigration service, posts,
customs, aids to navigation, steamboat inspection, hydrographic and
meteorological work, water supply, sewers, construction and main-
tenance of streets, and similar activities, which, in the United States
are directed by various officers of the national, State, and municipal
governments, are entrusted in the Canal Zone to the Governor, and
are executed under his authority and responsibility. This centraliza-
tion of all governmental activities under one head is essential to eco-
nomical and efficient administration.
SERVICES RENDERED BY THE CANAL TO SHIPPING
The more important items of the business of the Canal and its
adjuncts covering principal services to shipping are shown in the
following table, which presents a comparison of the activities during
the fiscal year 1943 with those of the 2 years immediately preceding.

Fiscal year

1943 1942 1941


Transits of Canal by ocean-going vessels paying tolls -.
Transits of small commercial traffic not counted in
ocean-going traffic ------------------------------------
Free transits of public vessels of the United States and
Panama, war vessels of Colombia, and vessels for re-
pairs etc------------------------------------------
Total transits--------..... ---....---....-----------
Number of lockages during the year:
Gatun locks -----------.. --------------------
Pedro Miguel locks.--.............-------......-----------------------
Miraflores locks-.----..------------------------


1,822 2,688 4,727
177 439 929

2,373 1,516 955
4,372 4,643 6,611

2,796 4,669 5, 103
3,661 4,445 5,018
3,395 3,775 4,943






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fiscal year

194|1 -12 1941

1 .11l -' 1 .' I. i n oc 'an vt Is $7. 3.1i. x-1 94 $'I, 7!''. 2' 1 C ih 'I'iilln. n siiiIll ll 3 l i i s.< ls 12.0'. 301 1 I'lf. '1 (19 S
Tu nl li.ll . .. *. 1liL. 'T. 21 $9. 772. Il .42' $' K. '1. 3179 3
Caurgp prIsini: thrui hli ('anal (Ion'd . 10, .'9.r., ,. 13. ii"7. 411 24. 9,' 7'91l
N. I lonnagc liiiitriiui Canal ivwu-ur mi III ni f Iran.il
iong ioa1 *- % I.; ...- 8. -23I999 11,010, *00 21. ,rl, 273 6
('urgi per Panama Canal ton of ocean vessels, laden
vessels only ... ... r V 1. 435 1.381 1.369
. w r Ie- ill.k per ton of cargo, laden vessels only. ..... $0. 633 $0. 615 $0.
':illI- ii (':Inl /uiiIu ports by ships not 1trjl'iiine the
Ca.in:l 483 948 1,035
Carg'i>i h knilledi and transferred at ports itrnso 2,(1 3't77 2, M58.421 2. 30, 6l18
'Coal. sales and isus, in... ... 77. 906 127, 644 1 7, 446
(' iI. number of uniirwr, ml ships bunkered. .... .. 294 305 211
Fuel oil purnirI" it bl.rril'i I.. .. .. .21,:-1, 1 .0t3 i 12,644, 217 12, 'F7. im
Fu.l rIi. number I I hiiips served other hlun %i.srli
1 1 rat% 1 1. Th. I'nn:ni : Canl . .. 3, 057 2,.59 2, 62
rhi us r Iarl 1 Ither than PI'in-init ('ain:il I inih11ITI f .t 2,318 1,023 742
lipN drir lt. k, .i other than l'.in.uini 'uni1.i n ii 11r i t 1332 185 122
P'rilt'-iuiu~ '"I to commercial ships iuonuiitiuiiuuiirv ailrl-1 .. 717. 01 $1.' Ik 96 $1U01.270
I'handll ry sold to ships (storehouse -uiu l' S liZ.b l! $77, 325 $76, 554


NET REVENUES

During the fiscal year the revenues from tolls charged commercial
shipping using the Canal were $7,368,680.74 1 and net civil revenues
amounted to $10,843.90. The net appropriation expenses were
$11,208,564.39, resulting in a net deficit from Canal operations proper
of $3,88S9,039.75. The business operations under The Panama. Canal
produced a net revenue of $1,492,542.70. The combined net deficit
accruing from the Canal and its business units during the fiscal year
1943 was thus $2,396,497.05 as compared to a net revenue of
$1,304,074.35 in fiscal year 1942. As may be seen from table No. 21
on page 132 of this report this was tle first time that Thle Panama Canal
has shown a deficit for any fiscal year period since its official opening
in 1920.
This deficit resulted from the sharp decline in commercial tolls-
paying traffic, after thie entrance of the United States into the war in
December 1941. Since that time the tolls collections have been at a
rate sufficient, to cover only about two-tlirds of thle expenses of operat-
ing the Canal. However, the Panama Canal is rendering such
important service that there is no way in whicli it can reduce its
expenditures in proportion to the reduction in tlie transit of tolls-
paving vessels through the Canal.
The gross capital investment as of the beginning of tihe fiscal year
wias $1.47,722,440.89 and thie nvt investment, $514,407,363.78. Opera-
tions for the year incurred a loss of 0.47 percent on tilis net iiivest-

1 hi- Is the amount reported to o ntIh U. S. Trreninry and irli-li'- billing for tolls rendered against certain
vesels on which the 1 1 I paying status was in doubt at the end of the year, and which accordingly are not
included in all the other operating statistics on shipping through the Canal.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ment as against a return of 0.21 for the previous year. The foregoing
figures do not include operations carried on by the Panama Railroad
Co.
REPLACEMENTS
The past fiscal year marked the close of 29 years of successful
operation of the Panama Canal; its dependable and efficient services
are now taken for granted.
A very important factor which has contributed to this creditable
record is the care that has been taken to maintain all parts of the
Canal structures and equipment in good operable condition. Of the
total capital value of The Panama Canal there are approximately
$100,000,000 of general structural values pertaining to nonbusiness
units of the organization, which are subject to deterioration and require
regular repair and periodical replacement.
Some of these structures, such as dams and concrete buildings, are
still in excellent condition and require but little expenditure for upkeep;
but on others deterioration has reached a point where replacement
should not longer be deferred. These necessary replacements include
not only the frame buildings originally erected to serve during the
period of construction of the Canal but also docks, highways, and other
features which, on account of ordinary deterioration or exceptional
circumstances, have become unserviceable for present requirements or
uneconomical to maintain.
Funds for the replacement of worn-out plant and equipment of
nonbusiness units (with the exception of floating plant) must be
appropriated by Congress from the general funds of the Treasury,
beca use no funded replacement reserves for these operations are
maiintainied by The Panama Canal. Although in the Canal accounts
depreciation charges are made on all depreciable property, the funds
representing the depreciation charges for nonbusiness units are
turned in to the general fund of the Treasury each year and are not
available for expenditure without appropriation. Thus, for this part
of the organization, The Panama Canal depends on Congress to
provide from these funds (which have been deposited annually in the
Treasury in prior years) appropriations for the replacement of worn-
out, obsolete, and uneconomical plant necessary to maintain the
high standards of operation that have been established.
Not only is there necessity for the replacement of some of the
cxisfting facilities but the need also develops for facilities of new kinds.
Funds for new facilities must also be obtained by direct appropriation.
Now that the United States is at war The Panama Canal has sus-
pended its normal policy of replacement and expansion in its plant
as a means of serving world shipping. At present all proposed new
facilities are judged primarily upon the basis of their importance to
the prosecution of the war.













SECTION I


CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL
STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC

Ocean-going I conilrciill transits through the Panalma Cannal in
the fiscal year 1943 numbered 1,822, the lowest year's traffic since
1917, when the number was 1,738. The following figures show the
principal features of ocean-going commercial traffic through the
Canal for the past three fiscal years:

Fiscnl year

1943 1942 1941

Number of transits........--- --.- .......... 1.822 2,688 4.727
Net tonnage (Panama Canal mensuremeni .. 8,233.999 11,0i10.004 20,.-12. 736
Car,. carried-long tons (2,240 pounds).-....--. ....---- 10, 59, 96 13, 107. 444 24, l50. 791
T ll.; collected.----..---....--- ....---.----------------... -----...... $7, 35, 5 $9,752, 207 $18, 1i7. 740


Ocean-going traffic in 1943 was lower by 866 transits, or 32.2
percent, than in the preceding year. Monthly transits in 1943 varied
from a low of 113 in August 1942 to a high of 196 transits in June 1943.
In the fiscal year 1939, which immediately preceded the outbreak
of hostilities in Europe, Canal transits numbered 5,903, falling but a
little short of equalling the peak years of 1928 through 1930, when
transits averaged 6,190 per year. The outbreak of war in Europe
early in the fiscal year 1940 had an immediate adverse effect on traffic,
particularly in the normally important Europe-North America and
Europe-South America trades. Traffic over thle other main channels
of trade continued for some time at about the prewar levels, but
beginning with January 1941 (which approximately conincided with
the discontinuance of heavy shipments to Japan) traffic declined
sharply and at the time of the entry of United States into the war was
about two-thirds of normal. After the entry of the United States
into the war there was a further decline and during the last 4 months
of fiscal year 1942 and the early months of fiscal year 1943 traffic
was down to levels prevailing during the first few years immediately
following the opening of the Canal. There was a slight increase in

I Incluildes all tolls paying vessels having a measurement of 300 or more net tons (Panama Canal measure-
ment) or 500 or more displacement tons.
6






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


traffic in the last half of 1943, with 146 more transits than in the
first half of the year, resulting chiefly from increased shipments to
India, the Persian Gulf, Suez, and other territories in Africa.
One of the interesting developments in war-time Canal traffic has
been the routing through the Canal of certain cargoes which would
have used other routes (because of the distances involved) had time
and shipping economies been the only consideration. The principal
new routes in this category were as follows: Between the east coast
North America and certain Asiatic and African areas (including
India, the Persian Gulf, the Suez Canal, and British South Africa)
via the Panama Canal and the Pacific Ocean; and between Europe
and east coast North America and the east coast South America, via
the Panama Canal and the Straits of Magellan. The shipping of
cargoes over these long routes, which was presumably influenced by
safety considerations, accounted for the transit through the Canal
of 3,783,297 tons of cargo, or over one-third of the total cargo routed
through the Canal during the year. This cargo was segregated as
follows: Between the east coast North America and Asia (excluding
direct shipments to Russia), 2,141,795 tons; between the east coast
North America and Africa, 1,274,276 tons; and between the east coast
North America and Europe and the east coast South America, 367,226
tons. While a large amount of cargo passed through the Canal
between eastern North America and Asia in prewar years, the bulk
of this cargo was shipped to and from Japan and China, wherein the
Panama Canal offers the shortest route.
Another feature of traffic through the Canal during the fiscal year
1943 was the practical disappearance of the United States intercoastal
trade, which, in normal times, is the most important trade in Canal
traffic. Traffic between the east coast United States and the Philip-
pine Islands, which also constituted an important element in Canal
traffic prior to the outbreak of war in the Pacific, was nonexistent in
1943. With regard to other normally important trade routes served
by the Canal, there has been a sharp reduction in the east coast
United States-west coast South America trade and in the east coast
United States-Australasia trade since the entry of the United States
into the war, while, as stated previously, traffic in the Europe-west
coast North America and Europe-west coast South America trades
has been greatly reduced from levels prevailing before the outbreak
of war in Europe. The Europe-Australasia traffic has continued at
levels approximating those existing prior to the outbreak of war.
The preceding figures and discussions have reference to the cargo
passing through the Canal in 1943 on which definite information was
furnished regarding the destination of the shipments. With respect






REPORT OF (;OVEHNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


to tihe following toiuiage of cargo durinIg ti- same period, til' ultimate
destination was unknown by tiile ship's rniaster at time of transit, or,
if act ually known, was not disclosed to the Piirannma Canal authorities:
Tons
From Athlaint i to Pacific-.....- -- --............ 78.S, 6:3-1
From P'cific to A.tl Inic --------- ------......_ ... 100, S51
Although it is not possible to distribute this cargo among thel various
t radie routes, it is likely that m uchl of this cargo passed( over ti(he east
coast United States-Asia an111d east. cost Unit(ed States-Africa. routes;
lhence, the tonnage for these routes was probably somewhat higher
than figures shown in tlhe cargo statistics.
II 11u111111erou11s cas durill the past year t lhe masters of commercial
vessels traveling inl convoys (did not know tiel actual destiulations of
tluiir voyages, all in manlliy caises where tlihey did lihav this information
they could not properly divulge it to The Panama Canal for statistical
purposes. Effective July 1, 1943, The Painama Canal discontinued
for the duration of thlie war the use of its standard cargo (declaration
form on which tlie masters of commercial l vessels were required to
make detailed statements as to the individual c lloodit ies carried
and their origins and ultimate destinations.
Thlie COliined (i1a1' rgo IllIOvement in both directions in 1043, amuounit-
ing to 10,59900,9t0 long tons, showed a decrease of 3,007,478 tons (22.1
percent) from that in 1942. This decrease was all in the Pacific to
Atlantic movement, si nce cargo moving in the opposite direction
actually showed a small increase compared with 1942. Tlie Atlantic
to Pacific cargo movement in 1943 totaled 4,945,267 long tons, which
WaS an increase of 260(,345 tons, or 5.6 percent, over tlie similar
movement in 1942. Although the united States intercoasta :l trade
amounted to some 950,000 tons of cargo in this direction in 1942 as
compared with no shipments in 1943, a heavy ca rgo movement to
411destinatiomns in Asia and Africa was of sufficient volume to (cause an
increase in thle over-all mIovement. Tie movement of crgo from the
Pacific to the Atlanitic dropped from 8,922.522 long tons in 1042 to
5,54,(in69 long tons in 1943, a decrease of 3,267,823 tons, or 36.6
percelit. rfle reductiiin ill cargo shipmelnitS roited from the west
coast South America to thel United Stateis aud the practical disappear-
ance of cargo in the United States intercoastl trade ad I in that from
the Philippiin Islaindls to the United States, were the principal causes
of the large decrease in tilie Pacific to Atlanltic cargo rnovemenit.
Further details of individual trade routes andr comml (odities are
presented on pages 12 through 20 of this report.
In the liseal year 1943, transit.s of local vessels under 300 net tons,
Paiama. Cannl Ieasuiremeint, or umilder 300 displaceemient tons, jinum-l-
he-red 177, on which tolls of $12,05-4.30 wereT paid. Transits of vessels
owned, operated, or under charter of the United States and Panama-







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


nian Governments, war vessels of the Colombia Government, and ves-
sels transiting solely for repairs, none of which paid tolls, numbered
2,373 as against 1,516 for 1942. The total of all tolls-paying and
free transits combined was 4,372 in the fiscal year 1943 as compared
with 4,643 in 1942 and 6,611 in 1941, equivalent to averages of 11.98,
12.72 and 18.11 transits per day, respectively.
The receipts from tolls as reported to the United States Treasury
for the fiscal year 1943 were $7,368,680.74. This figure includes tolls
on local commercial traffic amounting to $12,054.30, which are not
included in the Canal statistics covering ocean-going commercial
traffic. The tolls receipts reported to the United States Treasury
moreover reflect. minor adjustments for overcharges and under-
collections which in 1943 amounted to $58.50. These two items ac-
count for the difference of $11,995.80 between the tolls receipts
reported to the Treasury and the figure for tolls levied on ocean-going
commercial traffic as reported in the following studies of traffic which
are based on tolls levied at the time of transit.

CANAL TRAFFIC BY FISCAL YEARS 1915 TO 1943

Comparative traffic stntisties covering ocean-going vessels for each
fiscal year since the Canal was opened to navigation are shown in the
following table:


Fiscal year ended June 30- Number of Panama Canal Tolls Tons of cargo
transits net tonnage I

1915 2.................................... 1,058 3, 507, 000 $4, 366, 747. 13 4,888,400
1916 3-------------------------------------- 724 2,212,000 2,403,089.40 3,093, 335
1917 ----------_--------------------- 1,738 5,357,000 5,620,799.83 7,054,720
1918------------------------------------ 1,989 6,072,000 6,428,780.26 7,525,768
1919 .---------------- ----- ---------- 1,948 5,658,000 6,164,290.79 6,910.097
1920---------------------------------------- 2,393 7,898,000 8,507,938.68 9,372,374
1921------------------_--------------- 2,791 10,550,000 11,268,681.46 11,595.971
1922------------------------------------ 2,665 10,556,000 11,191,828.56 10,882,607
1923---------------------------------------- 3,908 1 17,206,000 17,504,027.19 19,566,429
1924--- ----------------- 5,158 24,181,000 24,284,659.92 26,993,167
1925_----------------------------------- 4,592 21,134, 000 21,393,718.01 23,956,549
1926 -------- ------------ -------- 5,087 22,906,000 22,919,931.89 26,030,016
1927 .....-------- ------- 5,293 24,245,000 24,212,250.61 27,733,555
1928 ------------------_----- ----------- 6,253 27, 229,000 26,922,200.75 29,615,651
1929 --------------------------------------- 6, 289 27, 585, 000 27,111,125.47 30, 647, 768
1930---------------------------------------- 6,027 27,716,000 27,059,998.94 30,018,429
1931------------------------------------ 5,370 25,690,000 24,624,599.76 25,065,283
1932---------------------------------------- 4,362 21,842,000 20,694,704.61 19,798,986
1933 .-------.----- --------------- 4, 162 21,094,000 19,601,077. 17 18,161,165
1934 ......._ ----_--------_--- 5,234 26,410,000 24,047,183.44 24,704,009
1935--------------------------------------- 5,180 25, 720, 000 23,307,062.93 25,309,527
1936--------------------.... --.-----. .. 5,382 25,923,000 23, 479,114.21 26,505,943
1937 ----------- ..-.---..........------ 5,387 25,430,000 23,102,137.12 28,108,375
1938 ---.------------------.---. ---...-- 5,524 25,950,383 23,169,888. 70 27,385,924
1939---------------------------------------- 5,903 27, 170,007 23, 661, 021. 08 27,866, 627
1940 -------------------------_-........ 5,370 24, 144, 366 21,144,675.36 27,299,016
1941..... ---------------------------------------- 4,727 20, 642, 736 18, 157,739.68 24, 950,791
1942 -------------------------- -------------- 2,688 11,010,004 9,752,207.38 13,607,444
1943 -- -----------------_-----_--.. --- 1,822 8,233,999 7,356,684.94 10, 599, 966
Total --------------------------------..... 119,024 533,272,495 509,458,165.27 575, 247,892

I Panama Canal net tonnage prior to 1939 are estimated figures based on revised measurement rules
which became effective Mar. 1, 1938.
2 Canal opened to i.urlic Aug. 15, 1914.
3 Canal closed to traffic approximately 7 months of fiscal year by slides.


679129-46---2








REPORT OF GCOVEHNOI OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TRAFFIC BY MONTHs-FISCAL YEARS 1943 AND 1942

Thli occiui-going coiiiriic iiil trnfic during ench month of the fiscal

VyOr 1943 is suinintarizi-d in the following table, in which are inserted

for compIrison, corrcspoinling figures for the preceding year:



Nuirit-r of 'Panfiirn iuinal T.ons of cargo Toll
tranats net tonnage o crgo Tolla
.Month

1l.1'-1-3 lU4 --1. 1142--43 i l l-4 1l4.' 43 1 _l-_42 1942-43 1941-42


July. ... 4 .52 3 1.? 2 1.2 62, 3i1 .4', 1 : I'x fi' 1 $4.3 0 '70 f l. 121. 213 R4
A.ueus . ... 113 263 460. 66 1, 062.138 567,302 1, 36; 266 411. 7011 So '. fl'l63 46
SIpilrnit-ir 120 295 .'.1.941 1, 17x. 373 721.421 14M. 453 .5.5., 64.44 1 ,0511, 40.1 46
(Iclt-.-r 162 335 757. 410 1, .7.', 137 1,005,486 1, 714 f 13 f.7.1 3 j 78 1. 21 r KM 70
Nr.\ lr ..... 116 318 .519. 273 1," '. 202 MIr, 89 1.5164 526 *1. 734.14 1 143 RIN 9
'111, .*r-111l.r. 168 260 7il, 032 1. 21 N .' 1, fll 333 1, 282,641 685,880. 40 115 n 10
Jintr...----......-.. 151 208 733, 60 M". 117 !if.. .677 1,w1 61 4 fL4.032.52 7.' R.S" R V
hINbruary 150 175 710, 943 17. 0414. 635 856 6914 50, 633. 26 618. 727. 14
M'l arch 125 150 .S.'A 891 fi2* 11.1' 7i7, 679 7M 106 524-. 161. 96 5S1. 810. 40
April.... .. 183 120 '1. 835 516,.061 1,080,943 607. 17 7n20 445 60 4. 699,.34
Miny 179 142 '.1 676 .rn. 783 l,rir6 .577 7nri 772 70, 599 78 492. 239. 58
June.............. 196 120 848,436 543, 985 u.', 749 510, 548 74l. 912. 66 470. 828 8

T.t.l I. .-'2 2, N .. 2.33, '.1 i 11, 1`1 0, ill ll. 'J, 6l 1r. 11.3, A 7, 111 7. 3 i6 M 94 H. 79 2, 7 07. 3.3
A% irnri' [-Ir
rnir ii . 152 224 686, 187 '.117. 500 4. 331 1, 1.33. 954 613, .5i'7 .7 812, 683 95


NATION .1.ITY OF VESEI.SE TRANSITING CANAL


Sec'regation of the occaln-going traffic thiroughli the Cnainl during the

fiscal year 1943, by intionnlity, is prisespnted in the following table

which shows transits, measurement tonnl ge, tolls, and tons of cargo:

Ocean-going commercial tra .lc i through the Panama Canal during the fiscal year 19.;S,
by nationality of vessels


Number i d
l r iii l!.


Arrentine..
Br-lrinn ...
B relish ......
Chilean.... -....--.
Oreek.....-- --------
Honduran .......
Netherlandi
Nnrnr"iOan
Panaman inn
Pru vian.. .
Philippinr-
Prrtucutse ...
S.nvirt .. .
Swedish .
United Stat'is
T'Iruuiifyan ..
Yugoslav . .

Totanlv

I'l41
1'12 .
1941 I


T' ll-


I'aTI:ina
i':iI. l nii'l


Rr i-ir1 l -


18,012 21,439
14,990 21,136
2,752, 998 3, 677,018
251.237 332,382
34.522 :i-. 351
31, 986 .'1 949
398. 919 475,304
F. I 203 .'7., 104
151,091 194, 638
2,161 1. 090
11.455 1.S l51
12; :2
73,639 104.719
1.. 009 17 018
3,910. 928 5. 273 716
in .66i II 20
3.5. 1 3 40 615


I s22 8 2.1.3 ('MI
2. 4S 11. 1 1104n
4.727 22n.G12.736


12, 167
11,114
2. 247.781
1'.9 029
22,406
28, 581
"-I8 920


$16.210.80
1? 141.90
2, 5;3 266 90
226' 113 30
:i31 10' 80
286. 509. 50
s39 760 i1n


'I'n of
eari"


31).980
1.5. 055
3,468.555
273,. 756
.%.1. 4111
17 297
40 Wfi6


3.7.. 279 457. 528. 8 671. 929
114, 777 130. AT:I 30 17.5 254
1, 865 1,944.90 3.746
9.698 13,009.50 20,331
Ir B602.00
60,019 CM 675.10 1n7..sRI
11,712 11 508.10 21,iJM
8, 196 477 3,411.210 78 5, 210, 340
7 n7 ,599.40 15. 592
24. 'I2 31 664.70 56.064


10. R3. 71.0 fl.78 1 0I 7 1fi6 GRI 94 10 5 D'. r9.
14 "7'9 *. .? 712 1112 H 75.'2 2117 Vi 1.1 917. 44
26, S.52. .31 16. 019. 0.5 1 15.7, 739 68 21 9511..791


I Ocean-going commercial Irailn- includes only tolls-paying vessels of 300 or more net tons, Pannnin Canal
7n1 ,iiiiirariil. ior 500 or more 'I hipcurinm. nT tons.
2 I'iI-plt nhint tonnage.


Ml."Mi rTIl I. nncrii1






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 11

VESSELS PAYING TOLLS ON DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE

In the Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as trans-
ports, supply ships, tankers, etc., with a measurement of 300 net tons
(Panama Canal measurement) or more, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a dispIzlCnmefnt. of 500 tons or more, are classified as ocean-
going conillneiciil vessels. Statistics on these vessels, except as relate
to displncenlent tonnage, have been included in the traffic summaries
shlo\wn on the pre-cedilng pages. Displacement tonnage cannot be
combined with net tonnage, and the following table shows statistics
covering 28 vessels which transited the Canal during the fiscal year
1943 and paid tolls on displacement tonnage.

Number Displace-
Type of vessel of ment Tolls
transits tonnage

Dredges ----- ----- ---------------- ----- ------- 1 1,296 $648.00
Sloops ---------------------------------------------------------- 1 1,204 602.00
Warships ------------------------------------------------ ----- 26 171,736 85,868.00
Total -- ------------- ---------------- 28 174,236 87,118.00

SMALL COMMERCIAL VESSELS TRANSITING CANAL

Transits of small cargo-carrying vessels, and other small craft
such as yachts, tugs, etc., of less than 300 net tons (Panama Canal
measurement), or 500 displacement tons are excluded from statistics
on ocean-going commercial traffic, although they are not exempt
from the payment of tolls. The number of these small vessels transit-
ing the Ci nal during the year, together with the tonnage, tolls, and
amount of cargo carried, is shown in the following table:

Atlantic to Pacific to
Pacific Atlantic Total

Number of transits:
Rated on net tonnage --------------------------- 89 68 157
Rated on displacement tonnage-.------------ --------- 20 20
Total transits ------------------------------- 89 88 177
Panama Canal net tonnage-------------------------- 6,354 5,389 11, 743
Displacement tonnage---------------------------------------------- 5,007 5,007
Tolls--------------------------------------------.. $5,472.00 $6,582.30 $12,054.30
Cargo (tons) ----------------------------------- 10,420 639 11,059

VESSELS ENTITLED TO FREE TRANSIT

Naval and other vessels owned and operated in the Government
service of the United States and Panama, war vessels of Colombia,
and vessels transiting solely for the purpose of having repairs made
at the Canal shops, are exempt from the payment of tolls, and such
vessels are not included in the general transit statistics pertaining to
Canal traffic.
Prior to the outbreak of the war on December 7, 1941, there had
been kept, as a matter of record, the number of vessels by group,







12 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

the niiirisured tolliiage, thle imll it lll f tolls to which they would have
billn subject to at til- pir' irbd rait.s if tills liidl been charged against
tiII I), and tli l crgo I c;rild by su511ch vesels in occal i-to-occaln l move-
Inllit. Sil1e the beIi lltrinL of l Iifilitites iliforriintioii Of this nature
lits lot )bee I re1 'std aid only thle totl1 11111116'r of vessels tralsitilln
free of cliirge s b1'in rI'coinlrd fo r routili statisitcal purposes.
For the fiscilI year 1943 thern were a total of 2,373 vessels transiting
the Cainil free of tolls.

C.%i:O SlI1I I IM:NTS BY "RADR D ROrTES

TrlIl following f;ill through lihe CaiiinIl over vxirious routes of traide, torgetlher with the
Iipilflripll (olllillnditirs Illahlinl up thelise shlipniits, for tllr fisc:ll year
1943 ii ld, for con 1941 mid l'Ys. The purpose of preseiiting figurres for 1941 is to give
a picl tire of C'iirr it traffic tn- r is in compIIi iI \\I i tll thl iinnidiatiitly
prece'diiig the entry of the United States into the war, wluir;. s the
1939 figures are given to show the presriit. flow of traffic in coin-
purison \\ith that of the ear which iiniediately prccedid the out-
brkiik of hostilities in Europe.
Tliesc tabl)les include onlyy enrgo carried by ocenin-goiig conii-nrcian
vessels, that is hirge vessels pa!yiing tolls. During the past year innny
vessels owned or opieral'Ilted by the Unit od States Govrrniment transited
the Canl d ciarryilnrg ('enr;IIo WIichl is not included in any of tlhe following
figures. This would inuik important. differences only in shipmelits
to war areas.

TOTAL C.\lt.;0 SIPN'M ENTS-ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC
[Tons of 2.-'40 1- .iini6]

Fiscal year

1';-13 19141 1939

la.si coast 1.iirltd States to--
VWest coast I I i ;.1.- ..... .................. .......... 2, .. 649 2,, ;-1. 523
W wst coast Central A .11m r.i .... ....... .. i. 'ii .2. 423 31,710
W est coast South .\. ril. .. . . ....... 14........ 45, 335 192,732
Fast (oflst Souiith ~lWine i-- --------------------------------------------- 5-1. 2N I I I
Hawaiian I ii' . 7 i. 141. ill
Australasia .----....----.--- ..--..-----....----------------------------- 41"' 4. 4
Africa ......----..----..----- ---.........-- -----....... ... 976
I'IllippI.I i ii . ... .... .. 2.7. 42' 277. 3J99
i.i I i l 'ing Ja urii l, .. .. ..... .......... ..... 1,493, 388 3, 2. '7. 2,5J. 808
Inllxoa. i Z .. . ... .. .. ... ............ 4. 7. 77. .'. b, 514
Ifich seas.-------... ----------------------------...--.. 670,580 ..... .
O her i ..r r ril. -r ....... .......... . .... ... ... 20 292
'r[al from east coast I'iiir I States..-----------...-... . 2.4 7. ..3. l '.. '134. 3G
inR.' coast ('iiri'Ia to-
We st cot ('niiiii.a .. ....... .. 11. .94 4'. i
Australasia. ..... ....-.. ..-------- ............. 1 .147 142. 22'2. 7211
1A IvIi In I ll, l-u .I 1 1 1ll .:1 .47 1Ill 71111 .11l. 9-1.i
lir rri ri s ... 2 ..-1 13. .2127. i8.54
Itall from east coast 'iiada ............. . ........ 7.s 17 711 348. 411
_- 1: I. - - --








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL Ij


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year


East coast Central America-Mexico to-
West coast Central America-Mexico ----------------------
Asia (including Japan) ---------------------
Other territories- ------------------------------------

Total from east coast Central America-Mexico ----------

East coast South America to-
West coast United States ------------------------
West coast South America -------------------------
Asia (including Japan)_---------------------------------
Other territories----------------------------------------

Total from east coast South America-------------------

Cristobal, C. Z., to-
West coast Central America-Mexico... ------------..
West coast South America .-----------------------------
Other territories -----------------------------------------

Total from Cristobal.---- --------------------------

West Indies to-
West coast South America_----------------.---------------
Balboa, C. Z ----------------------------------------
Australasia---------------------------------------------
Africa---------------------------------------------------
Asia (including Japan) ---------------------------------
High seas ------------------------------------------------
Other territories------------------------------------------

Total from West Indies---------------------------------

Europe to-
West coast United States_-- _-_.----------------------
West coast Canada------------------------------------
West coast Central America-Mexico----------------------
West coast South America-----------------------------
Australasia -..-----------------------------
Asia 'inri'.lhinei Japan).. ---------_ -------.-.. -----
Other trrrriljr s ..----_-- ..-.----.---.--.....--------.

Total from Europe.------------------------------------
Asia and Africa to other territories--------------------------

Total cargo-Atlantic to Pacific ------------------------


1943


2, 979

1,119

4,098


750

10,060

10, 810

8,842
6,608
31,039

46, 489

11, 897
459,083
21, 488
135, 254
13,368
86,004
18, 881


1941 1939
- - I 93


29,431
115, 565
20,486

165, 482

152, 603
51, 917
222,759
12, 719

439,998

5.1,,804
139, 500
25,383

216, 687

255,884
130,823
20, 219

64, 374

31, 745


74..975 503,045 318,934


42,834
316, 548
26, 188
14,488

400,058
- - - - - - -


4,945,267


23, 354
47, 607

102,694
219,657
48,625

441,937
3,692


9, 488,446


337, 401
78,789
91, 873
415, 697
542,770
35. 419
23, 849

1,525,798
44,461


9,011,267


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


West coast United States to-
East coast United States------------. ---------.---.-
Cristobal, C. Z------.-----..--..------. .----- .-.-- -
West Indies.------ -.- ----------- ...-- .---.-.-
Europe.----.----.-....--.-.-...... ------------.-.--.-.
Other territories.---.----------.... ----------
High seas...--- ..----....-.-..---- ..-----

Total from west coast United States-.------------------.

West coast Canada to-
East coast United States-..-.------.--.---
Europe.-----..-. .....-..---.-...- ..--- -_..........--- --.-
Africa-------------------------------....-- .----.---.--
Other territories --.-..-.----......--------...-..-.--...-

Total from west coast Canada -.------.-------.---


Fiscal year


1943 1941


17, 103
142,287
81,388
163,899

20, 169

424,846


718,468

5, 060

723,528


3, 933, 753
107,856
147,498
433,660
167,712

4,790,479

50, 962
1,114,069
137,812
64,030

1,366, 873


74,857
21,757
21,938

118, 552

110, 521
152, 649
124,724
19,145

407, 039

50,907
135, 986
26,854

213,747

177, 714
65, 307
21,942
--------------
19,892
-------34, 079
34, 079


1939


4, 493, 203
55, 073
487, 189
2, 349, 888
136,232
`--------------

7, 521, 585

201, 619
2,539,436
26,910
105,487

2,873,452








14 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued

jTons of 2.240 pounds]


Fiscal year

1943 1941 1939


West coast Ce'ntral America and Mexico to-
EILt coast 'n11ted *tall's...................................
Other territories--..-------------------..----.-------------

Total from west coast Central America.-,............. .

\e'cst coast South America to-
Enl[ coast United States...................................
East coast Canada .......................................
Cristi.ul l. C Z........ ............ ........... .... .......
H e ol In les...............................................
Europe .................................................
(OtI Iher terrltorlcs .........................................
High seas----.............-----------------............----............--

Total rrorn west coast South America....--.........--.--
From Balboa. C. Z.-Tutal................................

Hawaiian Islands to-
East coast United States..............----.----.--------
E urope............. .................................... .

Total from flawanian Islands.......------...- ..........

Australasia to-
EHst coast United Stales.............................. .
Eati coast Canada.......................... .................
E urupe ..................................................
U tier erritoris. .................................... ......

Total from Australasia..-..-....--......-..............----

Philippine Islands to-
East coast United States...... ........ ..............
Other tirrituries......................................

Total from Philippinu Islhnds..........................

Asia includinge Japan) to-
Ea-Lt coast United States....----...-....-....---- .......
E urope. .................................................
Other territories..........................................

Total from Asia...............---------------.............-------...-----------

East coast South America to-
East coast United States.........-------...........--.-----.--.----...--
E urope .................. ................ .......... ......
bEur territories----------------- ------------------
O1er territories....... ...... .......... .........

Total from east coast South America-..-.---...-......

Africa to-
East coast United States-..--..-..-................----------
Enurope. ...................................................
High seas and other territories ................... .....

Tolal from Africa -....- ...............-...........
From high seas to high seas............----- -- ...............---

Total cargo- Pacific to Atlantic.-........- ....-...-.


7., i66
7,962


126.119
32,6 45


30.649
92.941


15,328 1'.764 121. 590


1,304,65 2,9 I.992 2,447.257
.......... .30 13.2,. 36-
7.2.2'1 1 A. u92 143. I86
64,y692 55. 19 103.903
9.1.226 429.064 2,4M1..M"1
10. 255 12.514 jG, bA
62. 521 .............. ..............

1,602, 48R 3,639, 34 5.345, 115
3 2.813 ..............


93,428 581.355 361,857
-.-..--..... 12.651 7W, 174

93,428 594,006 441,031


230,019 266,592 86.999
9,128 150,939 87. 46
1,163,24- 1,162.5N3 759.794
1,427 12,.377 12,001

1, 401). 17 1. .592, 41I 946. 340


.............. 1,612,890 918,937
.............. 11,905 2,525

.............. 1,524,795 921,462


671. C.5 1, r40, 278 280, 593
99,735 --------......-- 363,048
11,480 152,392 39,144

7.j2, 880 1, 792. 670 6h2, 785


170,738
119,228
10, 542

3uf6. .I1


237,956
33.224
10, u7sT

281. 258
5 0,615

5, 654, 699


---- -------- -
.............. ..............
.............. ..............



-------------- --------------

----- -- --- -- --- -- --
......... .. .. .. .. .. .



15, 462,345 18,855,360







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Fiscal year

1943 1941 1939


East coast United States to west coast United States:
Iron and steel manufactures------------------------------
Tinplate ----------- -------------------------------
Mineral oils--------------------------------------------
Sulphur.-.----- ---------------------------------------
Chemicals, unclassified--..-----------------------------
Canned goods, various..---- --------------------
Paper and paper products ------------------. ------------
All other commodities.-....-- --..-................-----------------

Total this trade route ---.--.-------- -----.---.-.--

East coast United States to west coast Central America (no
single outstanding commodity in this trade).
East coast United States to west coast South America:
Iron and steel manufactures------------------------------
Machinery ---.-------------- ----------------------
Coal--.--.----------------------------------------
Lubricating oils and greases...................--------------------------
Paper and paper products.--- -------------------------
All other commodities .-...........-------------------

Total this trade route ----- ---------------

East coast United States to east coast South America:
Coal ---------------------------.-- ----------
All other commodities .------- -----------------------

Total this trade route- ------- ------- ----. ---------

East coast United States to Ba%, aiinu Islands:
Tinplate------- ----------------------- ---------
All other commodities------------------------------------

Total this trade route..- -------------.................--

East coast United States to Australasia:
Iron and steel manufactures- -------------------- ---
Tinplate--------------------------------------------------
Machinery.----------------------------------------------
Sulphur----..--- -------------- --- .-------
Automobiles---------------------------------------
Mineral oils------- ----------------..- .-
All other commodities------------------.----- -.--

Total this trade route- --------------------------.-...--

East coast United States to Africa:
War materials, unclassified-------------------------------
Ammunition---.. --------.--------...---------
Ordnance, except ammunition -------------
Iron and steel manufactures -----------
Machinery..------.------------------ .._.. -----..__-_--
Railroad material. ..-------------..... .....
Automobiles-.------------.-----..--..----- ----
Automobile accessories..--. ---........... .....
lMinreral oils----------------... -.... __......
Canned goods, various -----. -- --------------
All other commodities----.-- ----..----------...

Total this trade route--- --- ----..--

East coast United States to 'llidi-iii. Islands:
Iron and steel manufactures-
All other commodities----------.-- ----------.-

Total this trade route-------....-----------------------...

East coast, Unit, d States to Asia (inlriling Japan):
War materials, unclassified------------------------------
Government stores--- -------.------------
Ordnance, except ammunition.------.. -----------.........
Ammunition ...................... -.... .....
Explosives------------------- ---------------------
Iron and steel manufactures.--- ----. ---._-.--


32,303
12,191
36, 592
12,000
13,732
119,366
--------------
......-.------
.-- .-.-......













119,366


1, 237, 651
50,025
140, 281
146,396
53,537
119,461
125,027
1,075,171

2,947, 549


108, 207
22, 125
90,434
15, 526
15,416
204,627


784, 485
67, 839
138, 689
133,017
48,743
94, 119
129,607
995,024

2,391, 523


63,719
16,473
2,023
13,975
905
95,637


226,184 456,335 192,732

14,717 .............. ... ..... .....-
39,567 ----...- -. -- .. ------..- ....

54,284 .-.- .. ....- ... ------ ..- ....

-----------.. 55,970 37,916
---- ----- 171,825 103,888

------------- 227,795 141,804

31,703 26,047 15,805
17,046 719 383
10,658 11,893 9,856
21, 665 123,754 95,637
10,302 15,432 37,570
38,652 79,950 67,844
129, 264 158,497 147,449

259,290 416,292 374, 544

156,090 ----------- --...........
52,779 ..-..-.--.... ..............
14, 513 ---- ----- ...- .....--
105,560 ......................
14,214 _-------------- .- .- -
11,591 ----- - - .. ............
30,883 .-.....--.............
14,654 ...--.-......-... .......
275,565 ..... ........
17,701 --- ------- -------------.
190, 426 .- -----. ---- -------------

883,976 -. ---_. --------------

-------- ... 74,696 96,497
------------- 182,729 180,902

-----......... 257,425 277.399


420,413
87, 794
40, 231

20i, 311
201, 361


3,044
501,256


2,20
208,562








16 IEPOlRT OF GUoVEHNOK OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHLPI'MENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-

ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-ContinlluIl

['(T.iis of 2.241) i.urIIl]


Fiscal year


19 13: I9 I


l0dIJ


EtaSt r:LVSl t'IlllL'II 'tilt. S II) A -i-l (C'lllllUr.luI
.1 ll n'ry.I. .. .
iiin r n i ii l ri. . . .
I I I .' . .. . . . . . .



-k ni i ii ..il
N i i l r i ll 1. r 1 . . . . .


('11 n 1111.I ; till. I I & l: n. 1 i . d
I bu r. . .. . . .. .. ..
N1 Ill al -

ii-v ,. *--llhl- ..... ........... ......................
1':,, r niud ipai|'r products-----------------------------
i inn. raw.. --- -------------------------------
All iltwr colmmodities.--------..-.---------------------


4., :i ei





t l ilt
31. r'.






1i. I I'
12 .. I

13.026
12.'2So

.. .. : :
i1ri. ::( i


l.i. 18 38. 520
1 ,'. .l7 111. 34.1
5>".MIN'I 3.1.27
2.". 1.'i I.. :!3
l!1. 2l2 21. -.:37
77.41 197,S72*
I'l. 112 411, l1.1.
.'. I 721 I1 1. 772
*'ii. FIN I 1 l?2


1.. 3 .I I 71
17. 4.1. 71
2. Ill.17


i..9iH 175.v14
I.ILI. < 222:. aiof


Toi.il this trade route --.......------................ .4 --------- i.i 1. '

FNlt coast I'rzietd States to Balboa:
Mineral oils.-- ----.--------.-------.--... 4.1.062 25,59 3,051
All other commodities...---------------...-------.------ 4,722 .*. l 5, 1463

Total this trade route. --...- ...-..-- ------. ..4....-- 47 7N 1 77. '14

East coast CI nillI to west coast (an ia .1 No.l s1inkl outstand-
ing cuiinranlily in this trade.)
Easi coast Cau:ada to Australbsia:
Paper ........... ..........------------- 5,231 85.842 139.836
All ull rcomn oditi- ........ .......r... 27,816 56,938 22. bs4

Total this I rani.' route..-...------.----------------------- --- 3 5. n17 I 2. N -2. 72

E.I.st coast CanaliL to Asia: (No single outstanding commodity
in this trado )
EaLI ciLLst C.intral America-Mexico to west coast Central

1 iu-r:il i .---------..---------------------------------------- 27,119 (3..27
All other commodities---------------------------------- 2,979 2,312 11,570

Total this trade route .. .. .. .... 2. '.' -.. 431 74. .7

East coast Cen Iral Ai i.ric- e-r O co to Asial I Ld Japan: 21, 75
Mineral oils- --- .....---.-------------------------------------- ---------- 79. 2 21, 757
All other commodities---..--------..--. .--------------.--- -------------- 3, '.i -.-....---....

'I u al this trade route--------... -----------------------.. -------- S.i. 21. 75.7

ELISt coast South America to west coast 'uilcid States:
C All other commodities ..................... . . 97. 733 5 41"s

TI'l l this trade route ....... ................ 1 '.i.l 11. :.21

East coast South America to west coast South America:
Mineral .il,. ........ ...----.---- 112 2'.. *.I )l".
All other .urunriJdiJt ........ ......--------------.---2.......... 2 '"l 9 21.41

Total this trade route....--------------.-- -------- 1 .i1.1il7 H152. I4Y

Eual coast "-iirI America to Asia Iiii IlluliL' Jwiiopi-i6
Cotton.. ---. ......- ----------- ---- --7 545
All other commodities --.-...--.--.--....-- .--. --------- --- 1

Total this trade route- ......--... ...- ---- -....... 222,759 1.4. 724

(rin-'l' il to west coast Central America. (No .iiilriit!tl- i
1i! I ninmnolity in this trade.)
Crv-tl.lil to west coast South America. kNou single outstand-
ing couinmodlty in this trade.)








REPORT OF GOVERNOR ,OF THE PANAMA CANAL 17


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1943 1941 1939

West Indies to west coast South America:
Mineral oils-------------------------------------------- 10,554 251,113 165,573
All other commodities --------------------- -------------- 1,343 4,771 12, 141
Total this trade route -------------------------------- 11,897 255,884 177,714
West Indies to Balboa:
Mineral oils----- ------------------------------------ 446,811 130,823 65,307
All other commodities ------ ---------------- 12,272 --------- -------
Total this trade route -------------------------------- 459,083 130,823 65,307
West Indies to Australasia:
Asphalt -------------------------------------------- 21,484 9,955 3,453
All other commodities----------------------------------- 4 10,264 18,489
Total this trade route. ---------------------------------- 21,488 20,219 21.942
West Indies to Africa:
Mineral oils --------------------------- ---------------- 135,254 -------- -----------
(No other commodities in this trade.)
West Indies to Asia (including Japan):
Salt--------------------------------------------------- -------------- 59,323 ----------
Sugar ---------------. ..--.. ..--.----- ------------- 13,298 -------------- --------
All other commodities.-------------------------.-------- 70 5,051 19, 892
Total this trade route ------ --------------------- 13, 368 64. 374 19,892
Europe to west coast United States. (No single outstanding
commodity in this trade.)
Europe to west coast Canada. (No single outstanding com-
modity in this trade.)
Europe to west coast Central America. (No single outstand-
ing commodity in this trade.)
Europe to west coast South America:
Cement.-------------------.------ ----------------- 592 8,070 54,337
Chemicals, unclassified--------------------------------- 14,997 9,567 16,004
Iron and steel manufactures ------------------------- 61 8,552 72,989
All other commodities--. -------------------------- 27, 184 76, 505 272, 367
Total this trade route --------------------------------- 42,834 102, 694 415,697
Europe to Australasia:
Ammunition---------------------- 28,127 -
Government stores -- ------------ -------- 21,106
Ordnance, except ammunition ---------- ..---- 14,641
War materials, unclassified.---- ------------ 15, 073 -------------- --..-------
Iron and steel manufactures..------------------- ------. 23, 191 30,255 101. 345
Machinery.------------------------- ---- ---------- 19,785 16,508 26,060
Soda and sodium compounds --------------------------- 27,922 9,836 1,628
Chemicals, unclassified---------------------------------- 15, 806 9,191 11, 897
Salt --.--------- ---- ------------- 27,563 17,603 31,149
All other commodities. -------------------------------- 123, 334 136, 264 370,691
Total this trade route --------------------------------- 316,548 219,657 542,770
Europe to Asia:
Machinery ------------------------------------------- 11, 150 --_... 4,923
All other commodities ---------------------------------- 15,038 48,625 30,496
Total this trade route -------------------------------- 26, 188 48, 625 35, 419







18 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

[Tons of 2.2-11 pounds]


Fiscal year


1943 1941


From west coast I'nitarl States to cast coast I'nlted States;
Ca nel food. riis. . . . . . . ............. . . . . .
Fruit. dried ..... .... .... ............. ............
Siar.... ......................... .... ............
F lou r. h e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ilumn. dlrieil...... ............ .. ..... .. ............

W'oodi pulp ......... .. ........ ......... ......
l'I 'prr ilad paper pru i ; ...... ........
%l irler l oil ............. .................. 17.
Asllp alt and tar------------------------.... ..
All OLher comiiour titie ........ ...............


Toral this trarul roiirC.


.. 17. 10i1


742. 595
131.021
101.195
97,627
5. 261
1, 452,871
99, Mw
69'. 7:18
7516,1 (41
42, 784
3M. 877

:3. U.1.75


From west cot.- I1 niterl States to Crn-tohal, C. Z..
M iriaril ils ....... ......... .. ... .. .. .. ..2i.ll 58458
A llU In r o inloi l .*s....... ....... . .. .... 12 456 49, .198

Total this trade route.............................. 142. 2-s7 | 117. iS

From west coast United States to West Ind. .


Hi . ................................. .....
M inn-il 01ol.................. ...
A ll other iii m oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Totlail this trade route-..----..-...-....................

Frnni west coast I.'nilte States to Europe:
('. ii'a11i f1oo's, variou ........... .......... .
F ruit, d riel .............. .......................... .
Fruit, frrstli............... .....................
11Whirr................... .....................
l oirley ........... .................... ...... .. ... ......

Wood pulp. .....
Cotton, raw ----------------------------------------------

nr ral..................................... ..........

All ot her commodities................................... ..

Total this trade route......-...........................-

From west coast Canada to east coast I' niled Sit..'v:
iLumber ......... .............. ... ......
All other conmodities................... .. .......

Total this trade route......... . .


From west coast Canada to Europe:
Wheat----------------------------------------------.... 3.14
Barley, oats and other grains............----------------......--------........ 697
(rnnnrrl foods, various.................................... 1. 979
Lumber.................................................. --------------------------------------------397, 29
Wood pulp... -------------------------------------------......................................... 0n. 572
Lead, metal-..---..---........................................ ----------------------------------89. 626
Zinc, mrtal ... ..... .......3. 131
Phosphates--------- ---------------------------------- 131 II1
Phosphates.............................................. 1.911 11
All other commodities............-----...------------........----------------- 5.722

Total this trade route.....------............--------------..............------ 7. 4

From west coast Cani'l't to Africa:
Lumber........
All other commodities.................... ... ... .. .


Total this trade route........-............... ... ..- .

From west coast Central America to east coast I'tmirn 'I.inri
n ar .. . . .. .
All othpr e mrr rnirtl .I .. ..

Total this rrnlo roulp


7.:11


25, 458
2.1 302
UN, I:.i


28, i615

'2. 723


81, 388 147,498 487. 189


3,379 46, 764
3, 183 8,432
.............. 1,841
S64.466
. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... . .. ...
.4qW18I8 (IAIRI
31,577 32, 25
20, 429 2,768
18,339 2.5.217
13.127 6.782
... .... .. 2 .109
35, 277 1, 775

Ii3., h9O 433. 660


35,313 167, 856
... ........ 15,649 33.763

............ 50, 962 201, 619


M10.100 972. 84
2.010 109. 545
43, 221 26, 269
8lfi. kSi 1, 1.16. 276
II. 454 5, 825
82.614 117, 875
87, 666 67, 827

10, 178 103, 235

1.114. 06 2. 539. 436


122, 132
15. 180


.--------- .. 137. 12 26 ,010


41. AfiA
9.259

126.119


1939



73, 122
157.016
140.044
115. 597
68.922
1,.521,200
188, 777
RI. 3Si2
bliJ.l.051
64. 1[I'
fi10.t7'

4. 493. 32


.32, 955
22. 1R

55, 173


17.30R
41 i,3'3
68. 53.i


225.723
161, 102
319.176
528.454
136.713
159.535
22.478
17. 647
66,.598
4. 471
605.776
102, 216

2. 349, 8.58


21.283
5. 6f27


25. ROl
4. 848

30. 649


--"


I


I









REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1943 1941 1939


From west coast South America to east coast United States:
Coffee.---.--------.-------------------------
Cocoa and cocoa beans.-.--------- -------------
Sugar--------------------------------------
Wool-..--------- ------------------------
Copper, metal------------- ---------------------
Lead, metal-------- --------------------------
Iron ore__------- ----------------------
All other ores--- --------------------------
Mineral oils ------------------------------------
Nitrates----------- ----------------------
All other commodities------------------------------

Total this trade route --------------------------------

From west coast South America to east coast Canada:
Mineral oils ------------- --_ ...---------------------
All other commodities -----------------------
Total this trade route-- -- -----------------

From west coast South America to Cristobal, C. Z.:
Coffee -----------------------
All other commodities --------------.---...-------

Total this trade route__-- ------------------

From west coast South America to West Indies:
Rice-- ----------------------------------------------
Mineral oils ---------------------------------------
Nitrates --------------------------------------------
All other commodities------- ----------- ---------

Total this trade route ------- --------------------

From west coast South America to Europe:
Sugar------ ---------------------------------
Beans, dried-------- ---------------------- -
Barley ----- _- __------- - ----------
Oilseeds -.--- --------------------
Copper, metal. -- __ -------------
Ores, various --------------------- -------------
Mineral oils ------------- --------------------
Nitrates-.. .__-------- ------------- --
All other commodities --------_ ----------------

Total this trade route ------------------ -.----

From Hawaiian Islands to east coast United States:
Sugar --- -- --- --- ------------ - - - -
Canned fruit ------.--. ----------------------
All other commodities.--------- ------------ ----

Total this trade route -----------------------------
From Hawaiian Islands to Europe:
Molasses and sirups ---------- -- ----------- -----------
(No other commodities this trade route.)
From Australasia to east coast United States:
Sugar.-----------------------------
Wheat. ---------------------------------
Wool..-------------------------.--- ..-...-
Lead, metal.... ------.-------.-. ---------------
Ores, various .- --------------.- -----. -------
All other commodities.------ -------.. .. ---------

Total this trade route -------.-------------------------
From Australasia to east coast Canada:
Sugar------------------------------ -----
All other commodities....------ ...---------------

Total this trade route -------------


90, 628
10,312
1, 541
11,568
261,989
16, 764
44,760
149,319
46, 298
607, 496
63,880

1, 304, 555


29,811
7,406
79, 606
7, 120
290,091
28,184
1, 687, 070
150,956
41,867
535, 776
104, 105

2, 961,992


24, 242
5, 181
42, 117
767
82,959
2,139
1,612,801
59,176

546, 352
71,523

2,447, 257


-. ------ 30,360 126,461
------------- 3 5,903

------------ 30, 363 132, 364

25,493 110,985 93,785
41,746 39,107 49,401

67,239 150,092 143,186

19,662 732 ----------
12, 400 17,660 79,249
11,969 10,714 447
20, 661 26, 403 24, 207

64,692 55,509 103,903

------.- 29,985 132,563
------.-- 21,167 52,663
------------- -------------- 55,329
96 220 65,013
------ -------------- 235,363
24,033 41,819 166,100
47, 532 79,998 679, 000
6,526 213,326 864,384
15,039 42,549 231,126

93, 226 429.064 2,481, 541

93,428 307,849 208, 208
------ 239,322 129,683
--.-. 34, 184 23,966

93,428 581,355 361,857

---.-- 12,651 79,174


15,638 ---.-------- 15
.-- ...-- 76,302 ----.--------
77,337 65, 135 13,375
16,086 13,206 .....------------
80, 505 62,691 41,357
40,451 49,258 32,252

230,018 266,592 86,999

--...-.--- 95,709 63,816
9, 128 55,230 23,730

9, 128 150,939 87,546









20 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


T.MPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVERPRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-

PACIFIC TO A TLANTIC-Conltinued
|Toiiq of 2,240 iounils]


1943

l'rsi'i .1iutr.il-a'I:L I F.Lriis' -:
I Inir I l .. ......... ... 9. 47!
(C Ii *l wr i i ..... .......... .. 2 .*.' 7' |

Fruit, ri .. ....... ............................ 34. 521
C anni i iil .... .............. ......... ..... ...i l
FloI r, h % tn .l .... ........................... ..... I 24. Ui.. W
S ic.i r ........ ........................... ............. .' 14 :V "
W.irn ..... ..........................................................


.111i, met................ .......... ..................... .. 456
T otal this trade r........................................ It M
I a ) ll l ............................. ....... ,,.3. 621;

All oihrr commodities ...-----.....--.....----...-.-..- ..- 7 128

T'I dl this trade route.-..-- .---.-----..-..----. ........ 1. ]-. 244

Yrun li'lippin*l][. Islands to east coast United States:


llriij . n.n............ d ................................ ...... ........
Ores, various. ...-.----------.......-.-.... ...-- --------- ..............-
.Al other commodities. -..--------.-----.-----.--.-------- .----.----.-.-

T otal this trade r ut ........... .... ......... .... ....


Frv.niT Asia to east coast United Siatv':
T > .
Fkalur, wile-t . .......-..-....--.
lic.L m:h rrl rav ing ... .....- .-- .. .......---



Ilt' ii nsi .... ...n ..fured ............ ..
H iubb raw . . . .
T I'r ilesl .. .. ... .. . .. .
Skiis and hides. .---...-.. ..--... -- .-
IInip, iinnriianiifactiiril. ... .
ir s, v rious. ..... ... .
Tiii, metal....- .........----........ ..-- .--------.. .-
All other commodities---....------ -----

'I IJUl this trade route------..-----.. .-.-.----..---..- -
From Asia tn. Europe:
N uts, edible ..-- ......- .....-- ..-- .-- ..--.....---.--

(';inno'l fish............................ .... ............
al -re .. --.. .... .. ..-. -.....- ...... ...-...... ......
r.ins.............................. .........
.1I other commodities ...........---..---. .--...

Tot:l this trade route...--------. -..-------...---
I-r.rii east coast Siuth America to east coast I.'nitedi lair.
(Irs. various---.......................-------------------------...-... ...
W ocd~, -- -- - - -- - - -- - - -



ri I ....................I ats............................
skinsand hides.---............................-------. ..--

All other cirln' litis . i. .

'1 ntal this trade route.-.-....---....... -.... ----
From Africa to east coast Soh America to iri'..r:
aibei r- --nts.- --..--.-----------..--------........................-

All other curnmoilities.. .. .

Tutal this trade route .. -.... ....-


Toala this trade route . .


Fiscal year


1941 19:19


210, tlli
21,'1.772
113, 159 1
13. 174
7. h24
8, NhI
172.t.7y
1I.S 7,,j
26. 14f1
13. 140
23. 773
i, 1511

I1.. lio
*I) 453.

1. I.2. .)03


.'55, 191
7o. 312
49,415
214. 442
212J. 530

i..12. hill


14'. Y13
his.720
5, 321;
311
2. 15I
400
h3 07i
G4, Nkt,

x2..147
13. 107%
750
3, 551
n7. 160
47. 158

759.794


570.B 61
|;.S. ',l
15. 5.3>
'i. f.'if
231, 477

9l'1. 937


2]. 413 27. il, .
134 ,7 .111

11., %i. #Ji. 32
2'.,.i) 2 :35
211. N4l I l1,9. %11 :tll'
211. ''. 743. h.'7 2II. 6.I1
12.2 1i 21.35:S I i1.x43
11. !4Y.l i. 14 l llUN7
3. 21in I*l. '.w" l, 5'.S
271,. 492 16i. 112 6, 198
.... 145 2.002
I.4. 931 2'1, 026 19Y1.758

1.71. i.. i r411, 27m 2 11, 5143

2., '113 -..--. ..- .-- 1, 138
I..I;!. ......... ... 870
.. ... .. . 50,364
16,647 ....- ... .... 2,752
. .. .. . 224. h21
43, 626 .3. 303

l:. 7315 3i3. INS


41. I'. ;

22. 2771
21. 4$i


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11'. 22>

1.. 247
1:1. 7011......
171,7 3. 0
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237.956 .... .. .... ...... .......
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2( HIPOIHf 01- <;O1ERNUR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


LADEN A.N) BALLAST TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY

In Ili In ilco hblf>w- lII1 ships of lch 11unti2onality have been seg-
ri*ilt lis'd to ?1iI \\ rwjilIite s t(utist(ics on vessels whliicli were carrying

.irgo inild 'Ir t Illll>(]ilgers iit lie tinime or trisitin ii the Canal and those

\\ lil I riil i1 ed ill blialst:


ILadcn


L .1111ll K
Iran-i I iiis iioI


IunllLge


1)I ILi .i ..

I'h i -l ......
S.r.i .
londturan ....
Netlrland......

1'111\ r11 IIIn
nrainu
l' il][ .] .*i .....1
Swotiih .. .


Y\II.**-l- \.

Total, 1943 .
I'. il. 1P42
i tdta. I'41 .


.... 412

....11
179
103
54
1

S37
4
64
3

117

**. 17ul
.- l I s


1% ill- ,
7,495
2,709.113
251.237
11. 522
19'. 331
('.I 9209
469015


$I''.. '1 o ?-
ft 745. 0
2, 1:3. 201. 70
"'.. 113.30
:(l. In.'i 80
31. 1.9 NO0
17. *'111-. BO1
I27.S'2 10 |
122.113 50
lIii. 2 90 9


2 t, 1 1.1144 W
14.455 ill It. 650
'1.639 iHl 27, 10
15, 009 11. ),' 10
3,308,995 2. 77, 171.02
i 6 6 f ''. '.9'.* 40
3:;. 183 l1, CG.4 70

7 46.r..23 6.70V,. 1.3i 22
9. **'4. I7,. i. M s. i..67 5 I
IN. 2'2 1 N2 li,4113, &6l3. H-1


I 7,495 .5.A39fi.40
8 4._1. 4 W 31, 5U7 2)

ti:.."55 29 l l. 60
414 14, .1 4. 9-1i4 W
IiI 49. 1%% 35, 415. 36
II 2., 5,70 20,570. 40
------- --------- --------------. ........
---------- --------- --------------.......


..-..... .----------- ------------..


I | 77k.J7T 5SM0.430 72
J12 1. 155.929 832.,2i68 h
1. ; 41 2, 1ini5 4 1.739. 1 I .s


A.VElRAC I TONN GE, TOLLS, AND TONS OF CAR-GO PERl

CARGO-CARRtYING VEssEL

The avlige ic(IsIlrein llelit llilla gce, tolls, and tons of cargiiper cargo-

lii "1 i ni vcssi 1 of 300 net Ionis illl over, Pannimn Ciinil niI surement,

tr;in-istinig iie Plnainn Camiinl during the past 3 years anir shown in the

following tabulation:

Fiscal year


Measured tloin.rn
P.mn:iii.i I 'l.r.l net ...---......--....----..........--....------......-----------
Hi il-['t r'-.l Rross ..---.......- ...-.-....-- -..--------------------
lii VI I r- l net .---.. ..---- -.. -- -------.----...-..-----...----------
T i oll. ... . i h l h i . .................... ....... 1
l'Ton, of cargo in lidri c sels In ll. .. . ... .. .. .
Ton of cargo iln'l. II \i -i- only) .. -----------


1943


4, 590
6. n", I

4. 52
5, 909
6,604


1942 1941


4,142 4.385
5. 553 5, 703
3. 29 3.402
$3.650 $3.854
5,119 5.304
5,798 6,090


S'l.A.1M, IUTlOR. AND OTHER VESSELS

Thei following 1iJll si mws occnl-goingl co.nllmcrcil vessels tranBit-

img Il h Canal during each of the past 4 fiscal yenrs, segregated accord-

ing to the iethtd of propulsion:


1942


141


l*ATrTi' r-
(ill iriir ..... ........ 878 1,254 2,601
I .11] I ninr ... .............. ... .... 301 3.12 326
M .l .r-l l s ... ... .. .... 1fi 3 1,086 1,777
us .. . .. . .. ...... ....... 80 37 24

T uotal ..... ...... .... .............................. 1,822 2,6M 4, 727


2.,567
637
2, 135
31

5,370


_I_


"\ l [ i .I l : I I







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


FREQUENCY OF TRANSITS OF VESSELS THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL

During the fiscal year 1943, 1,175 individual ocean-going commercial
vessels, representing 17 nationalities, passed through the Panama
Canal. In the aggregate these vessels made a total of 1,822 transits.
The number of transits made by individual ships varied from 1 to 39
and averaged 1.55. The greatest number, 39, was made by the
Netherland stennie-r Karpo, plying between Cristobal and the west
coast of South America.
The United States was first in the number of individual vessels
during the year with 578, as well as in the number of transits-755;
Great Britain was second in both individual vessels and transits with
360 and 491, respectively.
The following table shows the number of individual ships, the

frequency of transits per ship, the total number transits for the year,
and the average number of transits per individual ship, segregai td by
nationality:
Vessels making indicated number of transits during fiscal year 1943


Nationality

Argentine----------------
Belgian --------------------
British-...-----------------
Chilean.-----------------
Greek.------------------
Honduran. --------------
Netherland----------------
Norwegian-.---------------
Panamanian --------------
Peruvian------------------
Philippine -----------------
Portuguese----------------
Soviet --------------------
Swedish ..---------------
United States --------------
Uruguayan ----------------
Yugoslav..-----------------
Total, 1943 ----...
Total, 1942 .--------
Total, 1941---------


Nationality


Argentine ------ --------
Belgian----------------------
British -------------.------
Chilean--------------------
Greek. --------------------
Honduran --------..- ---.-
Netherland -----------..-
Norwegian ---------
Panamanian..------ ..------
Peruvian ....----------------
Philipii in . ----
Portllugur- .---------- .---
Soviet...-- ------------------
Swedish ---.. ..
United States..------------..
Uruguayan -.. ---------
Yugoslav-... .- -...------


Total, 1943 -...
Total, 1942.----.
Total, 1941- ....


1 2 3 4


19 21 124 25 2I 127 28


..
.. 3


6 17


29 32 33 34


11 12 13 14 15 16 17


36 37 39 44 Total


-.. ... -. .. J .

3 ... 1 .2 2 1
1- 1 2 1 1 1. 11


5
1
360
10
8
11
45
67
30
1
2
1
42
3
578
2
9

967
1,263


Tran-
Total Tran-
tran-
sits shiper


5 1.00
2 2.00
491 1.36
81 8.10
9 1.12
13 1.18
223 4. 96
113 1.69
65 2.17
1 1.00)
3 1.50
1 1.00
42 1.00
4 1.33
755 1.31
3 1.50
11 1.22
I, *'X'! 1 i
2, 688 2.78
4,727 3.74


1 Includes also 2 vessels making 43 and 89 transits, respectively.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Tihe following (titail n ii Ilklil froni lle pt)ret'clill I1iml d slows for
thie fis il y lir 194"3 lti1 iilulbri (Jf v.sisils iiimil aki iig i ll -1 111111nil. of
tr nill ts i iluroli0 li thie I'21i1111111: C.ialll (fri ll 1 to ,:i9), tllir a r crre iatcl
111ii1rili of tli silit, iin'i their percenrIt. of tl'I total I ocet Il-gOl oiM 1r-
ciil tranisits (1S22):


I I r, ?IT f
Iu :1 *11 ; 111
I l *r l | i ',


.I 1ri I

15 .
18 i.
14 .8
48 2. f>
27 1 .5
:30 1.6


N uiiril "l r n[I iiiilrr i~ r if '
I11.1I 1 1 \ ... 11 "
I r l ll

1.' I 11 -
II I II
'II I .I
27........... 1 20
Sh ~~.... .. I 21
29 ... ....~..~ I z'
".3 1 : 1
:I I -

39a.... tI 11 ;.
TIotal.. l I-'. *.-


Guioss TONNA.GE OF VESSELS

The 1,822 ocean-going coiinmmercial vessels which t ran lsited the Ca nal
1i1 the fiscal year 1043 included 1,702 mierchInt vess'ls, {anl 2 caileh
repair ships. paying tolls on the Ls-;is of net tonnliiice, and 2.s vrssikl

paying tolls on the basis of dlispliicineiit tonuIe. Of the 1,704
vessels paying on net tIonnlage, S.22 were vess-els of from 1i,(10(0 to 8,)(0ii)
register gross tonlls, this retIpresntiiting the most g'rii'ral size of vessel
to transit, the Cniial. The average registered gross tin;age of all
vessels paying tolls on a basis of P;iii;inia Can111 net toulinge in the
fiscal year 1943) was 6,061 as comp1iaredl with 5,555 for the fiscal yealr
1942, representing an illncrease in size of 9.1 pen lit.
The following tahulation shows the w:neIn-going c( mlercial vessels.
excluding those paying tolls on displacernt to1iige, in groups
accordingl to registei4red gross tonnage, stegrega I ted by nation lity, with
average tonnliages for 1943 and 1942 anrd group percentages for tlie
fiscal year 1943:


II,
3
2
3
3


I fr. i Ti! (if
. I'rri Iil (if
t i r:ni i


.7
I 3
1.5
1.5
1.9
2.1
IIII ii


N. iilii r nl \ ii l-. r ..(
tI r. ll -I I











REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


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IEPKil'( 01- O GOVERHNI1 OF THE PANAMA CANAL


CANAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

IHouir OF OPERA.\TION

Di-~ipatiniiii4r li' i of hip- tirou.I the (aiunal is conducted on schedules.
N.e-I*l nwa l iiW t raniit h'gin moving tliromighi (lie Canal from the
tPriiillill sports 2I 6 i. Ill. alld dispitlh(.les are imade thereafter from
(i'dl. teT riiui lit iriterva- Iliof 1 hliour. 'Ile f1ollOwinf is a summary of
iriiriall ilTa;im Ivrlrilrs iI I fec t e i ofe tle I o te fiscal year.
From ( 'ri-iiiibl Harbor, first ]ii(p at 6 ia. In., last at about 3 p. m.;
frol. ii l hl b i cli a l lri1ir first lhip at 6 a. m., last at 2:30 p. i. uriu-
1lii ; i r< irtell r iln I li se sriivlilirs due to warltime CIulergciCies.
Ta iloirs Jilild Ve-;vls < iFrlii z lia/.uirloils clrgos' arfe dispatched at
tli' li-r'i*ll. r l of the port cniptiiii iIji Ilm-rially iare not permlitted to
prli(- 1 ii .nls th 1iv c(-ii ]ciar the locks before dark. Numerous ex-
cipti Ins ;11i 111111iinil in thels cases in ordcr to avoid delaying war cargoes.
Spiriinl pritioii)iis anid regullaitioniis for iandling slips in the locks
WOre conil iillued t Ull0ro1ihout the year.

NORtMAL OPERATING SCHEDULE OF LOCKS

7 a. In. to 3 p. m.--8 -Sluoniuut ives.
9:30 a. i. to 5:30 p. m.-6 locomotives.
3 p. ni. to 11 p. im.-8 locomotives.
Pedro) Migiuel--July 1 to August 2:
8 a. m. to 4 p. m.-8 locomotives.
4 p. m. to 12 m. n.-8 locomotives.
12 m. n. to 8 a. m.-6 locomotives.
Pudro Migouel- August 3 to June 30:
8 a. Il. to 4 p. m1.- 8 locomotives.
4 p. m. to 12 m. n.-8 locomotives.

7 a. nm. to 3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
9 a. m. to 5 p. m11.-8 locomllotives.
5 p. im. to 1 11. m.-S locomotives.
At timniis it is nLic'eiSry to extend thli schedules by overtime work
at Iunlit on IccuLollUt of war requirements.

LoCK.\GLS AND LOCK MAINTENANCEE
BLOCKAGES
I rikigrs a 111 1 ti' lli n1111 r Of vessels hi handled (including Panama
Calnal eq uiIpmen t) are slihow in the following table by months for the
pist fIiscal year, with corresponding totals for the past 5 years:

1 IT. I t? o.- February 7, 1' 1;. two M-locomotve crews only were sch'duleil to work on Sundays and holi-
day s- No. I cre(w fromi 7 a. In to 3 p. Im., and No. 2 crew from 3 p. m. to 11 p. m.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Gatun Pedro Miguel Miraflores Total
Month
Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels

194S
July -------------- 205 362 393 868 266 413 864 1,643
August------------- 205 375 271 449 252 399 728 1,223
September..--------- 206 351 270 451 255 419 731 1,221
October----.-------- 229 429 301 521 286 495 816 1,445
November -------- --- 225 455 281 460 274 425 780 1,340
December ---------- 263 497 321 542 308 533 892 1,572
1943
Janunrry ------------ 247 463 274 496 274 505 795 1,464
Febrnar -.--. - 226 448 -262 496 252 508 740 1,452
March--.------------ 220 448 295 534 291 523 806 1,505
April -------- -- 247 426 343 664 300 507 890 1,597
May---------------- 264 500 327 625 322 633 913 1,758
June.--.------------- 259 482 323 566 315 574 897 1,622
Total--------- 2,796 5,236 3,661 6,672 3,395 5,934 9,852 17,842
Fiscal year:
1942--.---------- 4,669 10,986 4,445 8,084 3,775 5,806 12,889 24,876
1941------------- 5,103 8,018 5,018 7,489 4,943 7,410 15,064 22,917
1940------------- 5,302 7,713 5,392 7,643 5,286 7,570 15,980 22,926
1939..------------ 6,054 7,929 6,283 8,064 6,221 7,988 18,558 23,931
1938 ------------- 5,651 7,385 5,870 7,420 5,813 7,316 17,334 22,121


The average number of lockages made daily, and the average num-
ber of vessels handled per lockage, during each of the pti-t 5 fiscal
years, are shown in the following table.


Average number of lock- Average number of ves-
ages per day sels per lockage
Fiscal year
Gatun Pedro Mira- Gatun Pedro Mira-
:li.u. I flores Miguel flores

1943.... -- ----------------------------- 7.7 10.0 9.3 1.87 1.82 1.75
1942---.------------------------ --------- ..... 12.8 12.1 10.3 2.35 1.82 1.54
1941 .----------..---------- ----------. 14.0 13.7 13.6 1.57 1.49 1.50
1940.------.---------------------------------- 14.5 14.8 14.5 1.45 1.41 1.42
1939.... ---------- ---------------.... ...- 16.6 17.2 17.0 1.31 1.28 1.28


I)ELAYS TO SHIPPING

The lock-operating machinery functioned smoothly thro ugihout the
year except for a few incidents due to faulty operation or minor failure
of equipment. The following summary includes all delays to ves:euls
while transiting the locks due to the incidents meniitioin d:


Gatun----------.-------.---....----..-
Pedro M iguel ---------- -.......--.............................. ..-.
M iraflores-------------------------- --......... ...
Total...-----........------------. -------


Number of
]nekqnefs
d I 1:i, d

12
22
28
62


.hLr. 'at.* delay
caiiJ.'l all
vessels

7 hours 01 minute
11 hours 18 minutes
7 hours 05 minutes
25 hours 24 minutes


MAINTENANCE AND CONSTRUCTION

Locks machinery and equipment1 were kept in good operating con-
dition throughout the year by a rigid program of regular maintenance.
The partial overhaul of valves, gates, and other underwa teir machinery






Hl- PfiT( IF (O.(\ li F THE PANA .MA CANAL


\1II1 W IIs 1.11 s n l tI I \ irI inaeI s 1 lcks iii April 194 2 w\\as coin-
pil .Id ill S* r ztiIllTr. W ilik m ai -.;hirti'i inll OrtoI'l i *111( iomplctld(
ill Jnnill ifryf mnl I p:'lltirad (Ir 1ii 'lil (if wI lli-Kill I iI Ii(|lfpirill i IIIIt (if Ill lll e- \ hicI 1 illd(
dtlie t'lld 11 iti Dn1 pjul i (' t. iiil., oIII llenliv t rPeIjlirs Ito siX rilliii s Iten l

P -iidron, .1 i'n*rl rIok s. lpcii l cMitlvirlirn \\< irk on iill 1 k) \\ts
(*1ii ifrld I f r\ lird
i 61ri :il1 divi -i ill, I,\ iinc tto l ii t n Ip ii Ii1nLf :i 1 ill Jofi I r I ll iti i l ,-
841,4:3l kIIh,", w1 I-)Pin thell" operitili 1942. From lie aqumipm

PO'Ei ait FORi C\\ L OPri Wii)rl l

Till- powi\t % f vopill was oppfilled ll]iuH1ioiltallihv f ifi r Pf 1 l 11l will th






ae1it fon i'd r i I'M r II ( of 2'2r( >,I li i 20,5;4,,12' l i>\\w;l -i ris, ors 1.ol'''' i' r
(ie0111 I llvd i Ivi e iar.ll T eIil of i l 220, 1l ki I iollr -II' on iesy stll-
pyild H\i(i the i oil ll icl d !.d'll iril r o tp1 t l o 19( 1,'li rl, k iln\il (-
I~li f.ors die p 1 rfore r lm fi<-wil yv r. Dul i]1.' le t vill llS1,4:;1,2l4
kii>W (nt-lmiii--l W\\"i di-4tributcd to m\iselrs as (*iipirc l with 170.-
841,4.3i> kilr\;ifl-liurs4 mt the -4ril \--;ir 1`142. F'rot i i l I ihio tlre
riT-;ilfrd a tran-miiioii mi in lnis of 21,670,147 Ikilowt:itt-hours. or 9.8 l)'ri-
cr(illi co i pll irrlfd wit 120,." 40,125 Lil\m;ilt-liK'II'S, or 10.7 firr ill, fo
lthe pirrrc diln y V ir. T icl ni1iixiiiiii p'ilk Ii:id c11 i 6 ,4ld o iln..' systuri
diirii L Ilie fise;il year 1914: was ')',800 kiloiwnlts. niccirrirL on June 14
and onJ iie 21.
The Miuldedii hydroelectric station a il t -he uiltn hydro-lc'rice
sl i it inll operit t throughout lie year, geIrIII iic iil iO .6 and u :1.5.8 pl crvil,
res"ieriively, of the nt(ol power output, while stinml-by Dii'rIl-olect!rie
slillfis 1( 20ilerated the reiiaiiiiiii 0.6 1)cn tt d(Irini fl the yetr. TIi v
NMintflorf;e I)ie-wl-(lectric station furnished more t112n ordiiiiry stAnnl-
by service dliirini the year on arrount of outin-evs of hydIiriilic .qiulip-
inieit, at both c(Itli anfd MIaddeln pi\l\r stations, thlle tiitil lhiirs of
'ine oM r i(ioin bni ini l 1,.J'5, (mili);ariil to 418 hours- for list year. The
Gutin., \hu(llt Hope, .iii BIlli)n Di'-1.1-'le iiined ius staind-by cilirgelii*,v stations dliriiiLi the eil. A r..Tliivi1.y
iloi11 oli il tli \ as Lrl'Jll nllht' li a 1 st iltliS.) i ( IllIill il "alrt" < n'iiditiolls,
hilt. lic irfltf*r piltioill of their iiitpit A\; for 1111initial :11ii11 Siil P llc ilt
I-;t l1nds.
rThe i l\ Gatun thvi i-ni ii i v' T)iesl-eI-ctr iv station w; IS 11ihi cd in
operaitiii on Ai Irust 21, 1942. Work was <-:irrired fr\\ a:ir d diiiri (lie
v 2ri oi1 the instiillitiml of thei fourth Imit for ilie M ir. iflres Diesil-
*li*ctit staitiili. tiil conlract frl Itle l iiiiuiificliire Of whieh was
lIeroti;Ied during the laItteir p)mrt of 1942. Al. the ud of 194: Ithis
j)iujhci was 70 porPe'iit ciii)1plete. Work in nimneleion \ with Ilie in-
st.ill itimiI of 1dI t liird 10,000 kilovolt-niiipere turbin'-driveii gei-







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 33


rating unit for Madden hydroelectric station was completed
during the year, the initial operation of which occurred on Decem-
ber 15, 1942.
There were 43 interruptions to transmission line service during the
year. Of these 43 interruptions, 15 were caused by barrage balloon
cables contacting line, 4 were from construction equipment contacting
line, 4 were from insulator flashover caused by lightning, 2 were from ani-
mal contacts, and 1 each was from falling aerial barrage curtain, deterio-
rated ground wire contact, auto-transformer failure, personnel contact,
and operating error; the causes of the other 13 were undetermined.

WATER SUPPLY AND GENERAL WEATHER CONDITIONS

WATER SUPPLY

The water requirements of the Panama Canal for hydroelectric
power, lockluge water, and municipal use are supplied by Madden and
Gatun Lakes which together drain an area of 1,289 square miles.
Water spilled from Madden Lake or drawn for use of Madden hydro-
electric station flows into Gatun Lake and remains available for Gatun
Lake uses. The total inflow of water from Madden and Gatun drain-
age basins during the year ended June 30, 1943, and the expenditure of
this water are itemized in the following table. Similar values for the
preceding year are also given:


Million cubi eeyear Percent of available
Million cubic feet year30 water supply year
ended June 30

1943 1942 1943 1942

WATER SUPPLY
Inflow from Madden basin -....---...--- -- ..-_------ -- 81,880 90,940
Evaporation from Madden Lake ----------------------- 2,280 2,270 ------------ --
Net yield available for Madden Lake uses ---- 79, 600 88, 670 -
Inflow downstream from Madden Dam .-------------- 144, 962 103, 405
Subtotal --------------------- 224.562 192,075 -
Evaporation from Gatun Lake------------------------- 17, 702 18, 629 ---
Net yield available for Gatun Lake uses---------- 206, 860 173, 446 ---- --
MADDEN LAKE-WATER USES AND EXPENDITURES
Madden hydroelectric power --------------------------- 52, 663 51, 214 66.2 57.8
Madden Dam -jiljbce and leakage --------------------- 28, 106 34,177 35.3 38.5
Charinr in Madden Lake storage----------------------- -1,169 3,279 -1.5 3.7


Total Madden Dam expenditures --------
GATUN LAKE-WATER USES AND EXPENDITURES
Gatun hydroelectric power -------------..----------
Gatun Lake lk.- ------------------------
Municipal, leakage, and miscellaneous -.----.--.--
Total Gatun Lake uses ..----------------
Gatun l i, dlithar . ----------------
Increas, in al.imi'l.n inil I itui Lake storage -------


79, 600 88,670 100. 0 100.0


57,752 53,422 27.9 30.8
22,729 32,587 11.0 18.8
3,689 2,594 1.8 1.5
84, 170 88, 603 40.7 51. 1
124,590 77,145 60.2 44.5
--1,900 7,698 -.9 4.4


Total Gatun Lake uses and expenditures--------- 206,860 173, 446 100.0


100.0






REP'luI' (In- (lHERNOl oiF THE PANAMA CANAL


Tihe 1943 yielhI was 226.,S4 billion ciubik fiet, representing an average
inflow or 7,19 3 'eill iic fcrt per second, aind is 9 peirccint below the 29-
Vf*i1 iwiaiiin averiiP.
FLOODS

The only aippruich to a girii'ral storm (during the 12-month period
ended Jiine 3:?, 1943, was tihe heavy ruin of Decembcr 17-22. Most
of tlhe riu-oll' -cuil fromlli the lower part of CaGitin drainagetm basin near
the At ii itic c const, i nid the storm did not ext end upst reami with equal
iintisl'ity. T'ie storill preselntid Inlo iod prolv iiis. Six gates were
opened at the Gaitimi spillway on December 18 miid 19 witli a maxi-
mum dliscrliare of 74,400 4cubic fet per. secol(nd, ilthe greiitest d(Iiring the
VIir. Tie i mixiliiium di'uliIrge at Mlduii Dam ti (iring ill' fiscal
year 19-13 was 21,400 cubic feet per seciid oil Jiune 19tli.

Din SEASON, 1943

Tlih period( of the 1943 dry .seson in \liichi the flow into iddlen aiil
(: 11111 Likes was s not sufficient to supply Painanmi Camnail water require-
ments extended from January 16 to April 30, a period of 105 days.
This was one of (lie shortest dry season periods in the pI1st 30 yarirs.
The tot;l yield of Gatutn Basin (during this 103-dlay period amiouunted
to 17,118 million cubic feet. Of this aimoinmit 7,3S2 million ciillic feet.
wcre I st liy evaporation from MNaddii and t Gitin Likl surfaces,
leavinil a net yield of 9,53`6 million cubic feet ava ilaible for Pannma
C.:1 uses. It was inecess;ry to draw 15,091 million cubic feet of
\\itier from reserve storage in Maddtlen anIl Gatun Lilksc to meet dry
sensiii wei 1ir requirements. Mlaleni Lake suappliedl 6,097 million
cubic feet i in was lowered 12.17 feet. Gatun Lake suIpplied ,S994
million cubic feet additional water and was lowered 1.96 feet.

LAIKE ELEVATIONS

Duriiing the fiscal year eiiidccl June 30, 1943, NM\itdden Llke, varied in
elevation itcr.ween a imnxiinuii of 231.40 feet on December 22 and a
minimum of 2:37.81 feet oni May 29, a range of 13.59 feet. Gatun
LakL viari d in levat ion I(-w cii a mixinxmu n of >si.65 feet on Decem-
her 29 acnd 30) andl a minimum of 84.51 feet on April 2.3 tand 26, a range
of 2.14 fe PI!;| 'IPITATION

luiiinfuill in the Canal Zone during the ciIliiilIar yvar 1942 averaged
abTove iiirma 1 ut on accou nt of the local cluirat er of most of the rains
there is considerable variation in thlie ianal totals. Along the line of
their Camil inninal totals raIned from 699.9) inches at Balbon, the Pacific
termiinnl of tile Canal to 159.019 iclies at Cristoic l, tlie Atlantic ter-
minail. Less tlin one-tenti of tlieyenr's total fell during the 4-month







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


dry season January to April, inclusive, and more than nine-tenths fell
during the 8-month rainy season May to December, inclusive. Febru-
ary was the month of the least rainfall with monthly totals ranging
from 0.10 to 2.80 inclihs. October was the month of the greatest rain-
fall with monthly totals ranging from 7.90 to 34.03 inches. The
greatest 24-hour rainfall during the year was 10.28 inches at Gatun on
December 18 and 19.
AIR TEMPERATURE

Air temperatures in the Canal Zone for the calendar year 1942
averaged slightly above normal but the excess was not as great as in the
preceding year. Monthly means at Balboa on the Pacific coast ranged
from 77.60 F. in November to 81.30 F. in March, with an annual mean
of 79.40 F. Monthly means at Cristobal on the Atlantic coast ranged
from 78.90 F. in October to 82.00 F. in March, with an annual mean of
80.80 F. The annual means and extremes at Canal Zone stations are
given in the following table:

1942 maximum 1942 minimum 1942 Depar-
Station mean ture
(OF.) (oF.)
OF. Date OF. Date

Balboa Heights ----------------------------------- 95 Feb. 26 70 Jan. 7 79.4 +0.6
Madden Dam-------... ----- ------------------ 96 Feb. 24 66 Feb. 24 78.3 +.8
Cristobal ------------------------------------ 93 Aug. 25 72 Sept. 27 80.8 +.7


It is of interest that the maximum and minimum temperatures for
the year at Madden Dam occurred on the same day-February 24.
The weather that day was characterized by a break in the trade winds,
a cloudless sky and low humidity. The absolute maximum and
minimum temperatures on record at the above stations and the long
period annual averages are as follows:

Absolute maximum Absolute minimum Annual
Station e d me-n
(years) mean
F. Date 0 F. Date (0 F.)

Balboa Heights ..--------.. --.. -....-. 37 97 Apr. 7,1912 63 Jan. 27,1910 78.8
Madden Dam -------------.---...-.. 32 98 Apr. 13, 1920 59 Feb. 4,1924 77.5
Cristobal-----. ------------------------- 35 95 1c 66 Dec. 3,1909 80.1


WINDS AND HUMIDITY

Wind velocities in the Canal Zone for the calendar year 1942 were
somewhat lower than normal. During the 4-month dry season period
January to April, inclusive, the northeast, trade winds averaged 12 miles
per hour on the Atlantic coast and 8 miles per hour on the Pacific
coast. The variable winds of the 8-month rainy season May to






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


December, inclusive, averageId G miles per hour along the Atlantic
c(Hist iand 5 rifles per hour along tihe Pacific coast.. Maximum wind
vealcitiis for .8-miiiiit e p'eriods were 3( ) miles peir hour from the
1rirli on11 .: uiIry 23 it ('rilI l Dll ()irn te A.thitic cosllt and 26 miles
plrr Iriir foiroi telir irt (II (n Mairch1 6 at Bidboi Heights on the Pocific
Nn1Oi. N e.l1 Wrly wilnds prldoliliinited (oi 1)0oth coasts with the witds
uit Cristobil blaming irll lfi te l n iIs percent of the time and those at
Bilboan Heiglhts blowing off the land 71 pJercent of the time. Tlhe
rcbl4tivi- hiiilli4hit y dullilg tll. ce 11( indiir yeir 1942 avenriged 83 percent
on tiwI A1tliinlic c111t ;and S. percent orn the Pacific cost. Monthly
rnvlllis on thle Alt.\lic0ir eoa(' ringed froin 76 )i'rceint in Jailiiary to
s7 pierientt in Octold'r. \Moithl y mnn's on the Pacific coast rainged
from 75 percent in Taniinnary to 91 percent in October.


Absolucte tilnl rangs during the calendar year 1942 were 2.2 feet
on the Atlantic coast and 20.3 feet on the Pacific coast. At Cristohal,
tlie Atlantic termnial of the Canal, the following extremes occurred:
llighe4t high %water 1.A6 feet above mean sea level on January 14,
lowest low water 0.S7 foot blriw mean sea level on December 9, and
llhe greatest range between consecutive tides 1.72 feet (liion May 31.
.At Balhoai. the Pacific terminal of the Canal, the following extremes
occurred: Highest high water 9.6 feet above mean sea level, lowest low
water 10.7 feet below mean sea level, and the greatest raninge between
consecutive tides 19.8 feet on May 31.

SEISMOLOGY
Eight, earthquake shocks were felt in the Canal Zone during tilhe
cnalrnda r year 1042, all of which were light with no damage incurred
locally. The intensities of these quakes as felt in tihe C'anal Zone were
rated at I to III, Modifiled Mercali Scale. Distances of the epicenters
from BalIboa Ieighits, based on local seismnograph records, ranged from
40 to 300 miles. The only shock attaflining intensity III occurred at
1:25 a. mn., December 22. Two more shocks were felt on the same day.
'lie seisnmographi records indicated aill three shocks as originating abo) ut
110 miles from Balboa ITeighlts, but no damage was reported from any
part of the Repub ilic of Panama. Only one of thile eight shocks felt in
Hlie Candl Zone was of sufficient absolute intensity to be included in
the United States C(Inst and Geodeltic Survey list of 4picenter locations.
This shock occurred at about 7:31W a. mi.. Deecembe(1i r 26, andd was lo-
ented in litiiide 9d north aind longitude 750 west, hboult 300 miles east
of thlie C'annl Zorne. Press reports stated 11int more than 10 persons
were killed all collsidleralble property dallnage (done Ina rI Lorica on the
Atlantic coast of Colonmbia, south of Cart genr. This shock was felt
by only a few in the Canal Zone and w as rated at intensity I.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


MARINE ACTIVITIES

Although there was a further decline from 1942 in the transit of
ocean-going commercial vessels, the passage of vessels free of tolls
(not reflected in our traffic statistics) increased, result ing in the over-all
traffic figure in 1943 being approximately equal to that in 1942. Tran-
sit operations continued throughout the year on the basis in effect
since 1939, i. e., of having only one of each pair of locks in use at any
one time. War time precautions for safeguarding the Canal and
vessels in transit continued throughout the year.
Radiotelephone installations on division tugs and launches, which
service was augmented during the year, have materially improved
operating efficiency in that it eliminates the necessity of the craft
returning to base for orders. New loud speaker installations on the
three signal stations in Gaillard Cut have facilitated the control of
traffic. A fog signal consisting of a light mounted on a mast 178 feet
above lake level with fog horn at lower level, being installed at Darien,
was 75 percent complete at the end of the year.
HARBOR ACTIVITIES
The table following shows the number of vessels han;Idled at docks
of the terminal ports of Cristobal and Balboa for the fiscal year 1943
as compared with the two previous fiscal years:

Cristobal, fiscal years Balboa, fiscal years

1943 1942 1941 1943 1942 1941

Number of vessels docked:
Handling passengers and/or cargo ------------------- 639 1, 558 2,326 693 646 619
For all other purposes------ --------------------- 1,404 941 860 1,230 959 737
Total.__ _--------------------------.-------.--- 2,043 2,499 3,186 1,923 1,605 1,356

AIDS TO NAVIGATION
On June 30, 1943, there were 742 aids to navigation in service in
the Panama Canal and its approaches, maintained by the lighthouse
subdivision and classified as follows: Acetylene gas, 107; electric, 326;
unlighted, 309. The U. S. S. Faci'i ldr continued the inspection and
servicing, under arranrgemellt with the United States Coast Guard,
of the acetylene gas operated lighthouses at Morro Puercos and
Jicarita Island in the Pacific approach to the Canal. This vessel
also engaged in the establishment of a series of aids to navigation
off the Caribbean coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua March 22 to
29, 1943.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ACCIDENTS TO SHIIr'PNs

Thie iboarnd of local insrrpectiors invest igated and reported on 35
lcvcidient in criinlEction with h lippiing iii Canal Zone waters luring
til rkisedi yenr 1114:;, a summary of whlicl follows with a comparison
of accidents ill le two previous years:

FiLei year
'I ni uf nccint -- - --
1943 1942 1941

----- - -- 14 7 1
Shii struck k all .. 7 2 9
Ship ri nll .1...... 5 6 1
Slhil' Atiru k itl.k I 4
Ship struck Canal 0 u ilk 1 1 4
.hipn) damaged by ug.... ...... ................... ........ 1 1 8
ir hr causes. 6 7
Total ........... . . 35 34

INSPECTIONS

Inspection wHs made prior to unloading or transit of all vessels
carrying hazardous cargoes. Inspection was made of all floating
equipment, of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co., and report
submitted. Complete inspection was made of tlihe hulls, power plants,
and equipment, of 11 American and 15 foreign vessels and certificates
of seaworthiness issued. Forty-nine bulls of commercial vessels and
of Canal and Railroad plant, were inspected in dry-dock. Fifty-six
steam boilers were given annual inspection and hydrostatic tests.
Annual inspection was made. and certificate of seaworthiness issued
to 220 motorboats.
ADMEASUREMENT

The principal features of interest in Ulnilasurenientc work during
the ye'ar were the prelpolderance of newly constructed ships-Liberty
aird other types-arriving for initial nmesurement; excessive peak
loads iiin meiiasrement, due to the number of new ships arriving in
large convoys; uand the large number of corrections and revisions
required in Panama Cainal tonnage certificate s already issued due
to structural alterations occasioned by gun crew and magazine
installations.
SALVAGE AND TOWING

The U. S. 6. Feirlter % as engaged from November 27 to December 2,
1942, in salvage operations which resulted in thli floating of the S. S.
Ri;chuiriI D. S'paiglit aground in Limon Bay. The Far'irile also went
to title assistance of the S. S. Daititl 11ill7ard aground off thle west






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


coast of Colombia, proceeding to the stranded vessel, on May 12, 1943,
refloating her, and towing her to Balboa, arriving May 18, 1943.
On May 5, 1943, the Favorite proceeded to the assistance of the S. S.
Abner Doubleday disabled at sea, returning May 10 with the disabled
vessel in tow. The Farorite was also engaged from June 4 to 18 in
the handling of a tow of barges from the Canal to Costa Rican ports
for the Pan American Highway Commission. The Tavernilla was
dispatched to sea on June 21, 1943, to locate and assist to Cristobal
a tug with barges in to 1v reported as being in distress, and returned to
Cristobal with the barges in tow. The Gorgona was dispatched
to sea on May 14, 1943, to pick up and bring to Balboa the S. S.
Peter E. Crowley, reported as being disabled about 40 miles from
Balboa; the Gorgona left Balboa May 14 and returned the following
day without sighting the vessel; it later developed that the vessel was
able to effect its own repairs and proceed to port without assistance.
The Gorgona also was engaged from July 16, 1942, to August 3, 1942,
in outside towing, including visits to Ecuadorean ports.

DAMAGE TO U. S. "ALHAJUELA"
A very serious marine accident occurred on August 19, 1942,
when the Diesel tug Alhajuela, operated by the Marine Division
of The Panama Canal, was struck by a United States Navy seaplane
in Manzanillo Bay. The accident resulted in the death of six marine
division employees and of eight Navy personnel. The seaplane was
completely demolished, but repairs have been accomplished on the
tug and it was returned to service on May 16, 1943.

MAINTENANCE OF CHANNEL--OTHER DREDc(ING ACTIVITIES

Dredges worked throughout the year dredging and maintaining
the Canal channel and terminal harbors from deep water of the At-
lantic entrance to deep N a t or in the Pacific, as well as on various specia-i1
maintenance projects. An important part of the work performed
by the dredging equipment of The Panama Canal during the past year
was on special improvement projects for the United States Navy.
In addition, dredging operations on the wet excavation of the third
locks project were continued, although on a lower priority basis.








4(0 REPORT OIF (,OVERNOi OF THE PANAMA CANAL


1.\lviv iltn (lill ig ill" ii' must vY i Pr is suillaiiiirizi'd in tlle follow-ing

t b1l.-:


Local tion







I I I I I H I- L H E I .II '.
i stiluu LtIi, IuulrlthstIitce.." ..-. ...



S ll r III I. Il r ii llr
I ll. if .. .
I r j. Ii I ] N t) - -.. -.- -





Ni a ll a1 r. llil IrI' I 1\' 1 I .L. ..
ArNN V .L-Ik 111,
I p' ~-hIiii Ir- ii- I
i fl--. i f f -r i b. I -.i i *IIi',iI i i ... I











I i ft I l. lI I L II prism 1 11 ... i I. I .-.I.
I' IIIt i I Ii REDGING
I'll,. ( u locksr, Ii ho. IS Ill- -
N l 1 h1 l It li ..- i. l. ... ... ...- .
NaTal oaut Iypais *lh[ m' s Il l itlss



D rrny itark fica y-ar19
I'll -r 11d oa f i Ii a y
I'll r 111 li,. rl riL 1 ili ll i| ll m I -

) il. I r 1 lr I I, .. '. ii l i ln en r trance . .....
N i% dl -1 0 Pni a I'. tii t ritratuc . -..c
I 'l I.r. RivN gravel service .......



TIIltD LOCKS DREDGING

l.. |'.r Ichannels:
\1 G l Oatun locks, north il-ri.-il 1
New 1Iir ulh.r, locks, Iit.rrlv I ,iLl r.i I lih
N\w .Mirafltores locks, -"nIwli ilp.r. nt I

Total bypass chan nels ...-..- ---.

Grand total, fiscal year 1943 .. ... .

Randd total, fiscal year 1942,.. - -


uirlli


t ';l'.ll i ]flll


lii', 050
L1II 850
117, 200





li.. 500



5,7( )


115, 00

41, 1 10

5, 1 400


440, 100

1 iii I


- ------ 711. 200
201,700

-577,700

-. -i-. 40

:. '.HI. i


RM.ck


Total


i( i yurdi. ('ihiler yurdmr
S46. IM
*'. I . 1.-10


73. 1t* ,I.. .1,133)

246.41 ( I 1. l19.(j)


.. .. . I









I




:: : :; -


4Is. 500
l,i.A. 600

.*.-W. 700

37,000

1I" 400

II.700
716, 100
16, 400
5,tosi.il600
137, 500
I4ii. 100





367, 700
)1I0 Off)
528, 100

1.056, 100

S10, 4*<. 900


I In :I-Iil ii1o. 191,320 cubic yards of (.'ChainIt sand were produced by cranehoat Alas h in fiscal year 1943
and .-l.. vii m iu i-ii year 1942.


Dredigii'.r operationIs are divided into three niiijor disi rifts-- tiir

Atlantic section, from contour 42 feet below Illnii)n sI a lIevil inl thl

Atl:inItic Ocea;ii to (G.ilii Locks and Dam; the central s-(ch1ion, from

(;I i(n Illv ] to PBiilu' Miguel locks; and the Pilcific cltionl, froin Pedro

1iggllll locks to contour 50 fiet luloW mean sea level in the Pacific

Occii. Total e.:\rivaii in Iliese three areas, cxuclisive of third

loh-ks exclivation, su iiil 111 ri/Z((e as follow s:


2, 0(X)





4,'5010
20,(i00


131, 20









326. 400

172. 001)

- .I ; l' I







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Section
-_-------- ---------- ----- Total
Atlantic Central Pacific

Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards
Canal prism:
Earth------------------------------- ------------- 293,300 659,300 952,600
Rock--------------------- ------------ 237, 100 9,300 246,400
Total -------------------------------- ----------- 530,400 668,600 1,199,000
Auxiliary:
Earth _------------------------- 469,200 129,900 6,769,900 7,369,000
Rock- ---------------------------------- 181, 700 4,500 238, 500 424, 700
Total--------------------------------- 650,900 134,400 7,008,400 7,793,700
Total (exclusive of third locks):
Earth---------------------------------- 469,200 423, 200 7,429,200 8,321,600
Rock----------------------------------- 181,700 241,600 247,800 671,100
Grand totals:
Fiscal year 1943 ---------------------- 650,900 664,800 7,677,000 18,992,700
Fiscal year 1942 --------------------- 14,600 ------------- 1,206,650 11,221,250

1 Does not include Chagres River gravel or Chame sand service.

ORDINARY CHANNEL MAINTENANCE-CANAL PRISM DREDGING

Atlantic section (Atlantic entrance and Cristobal Harbor).--There
was no dredging in these areas during the fiscal year 1943.
Central section (Gatun Lake and Gaillard Cut).-Maintenance
dredging in the Gatun Lake section of the Canal channel was in
progress for a total of 12 days during the year, with the pipe line
suction dredge inii'i which excavated 46,100 cubic yards of earth.
Maintenance dredging in Gaillard Cut (exclusive of slide excavation)
was in progress for a total of 58Y days during the year, with the
dipper dredge Gvan,,uI dredging 162,950 cubic yards.
Pacific section (Pacific entrance, Balboa harbor and Miraflores
L:ike).-Maintenance dredging in the Pacific entrance of the Canal
challnnel was carried forward a total of 60 days during 1943, with the
total mniaterzlil dredged amounting to 668,600 cubic yards. Of this
631,300 cubic yards were dredgted by the pipe-line suction dredge
Las Cruces, working 47 days; the dipper dredge Cascadas, working
8 days, excavated a total of 35,800 cubic yards; the dipper dredge
Paraiso working two-thirds of a day, excavated 1,200 cubic yards
in the east ferry slip; and Derrick Barge No. 157, equipped with clam-
shell bucket, working 4 days, removed 300 cubic yards along the east
side of Miraflores locks south approach wall.

AUXILIARY DREDGING-SPECIAL MAINTENANCE PROJECTS

Project No. 1.-Project No. 1 in total was started in 1924 and
consists of deepening the Balboa inner harbor and the Pacific entrance
channel from Miraflores locks to the sea buoys. Various additions
known as projects 1-A and 1-B, Pacific entrance, and extensions


0791U9 46 4A






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Nos. 1, 2, and 3 to project No. 1, Balboa Ha Irbor, have been sulb-
Sril-. li u lly iu i'(ld.
Pr'j- cl Ni. I ( ', Iaific ( lntrlfncef.-This project wias approved
August 26, 1942, urad involves the excavition to elevntion-50 feet.
preeli.- 'l (1111 ii tImt (ringuliir l rei lyingl 1 Ctw eew I n lie Canlal and
1lih Nw\v Mirli 1ores locks hypass cliiirniui1l, soutli approach, and
exhtrulinglii from their illtersection northwiird a distance of 4,220 feet
to liirllriris .south plug on the bypass channel and 4,230 feet along
the ('i;il to station 2125; also that aren between tihe Cannil and a
linii priiillcl to tind 500 fret west of the CaInal Ixis extending north-
W\ird fr'oii ('anail Sitaioun 2125 (junct ioni of this liitter arena with the
(riiaila.'hir arena) a disthiinc of 2,413 feet. Tlic estinimi ed total
qiin llitly of a 111,1ri6il involved in project. 1-C is 6.634,000 cubic yards,
which when ( 'nmplcited will provide 'iin-lhoragi for 11 iidditionli h berths.
During 19A.i; slire iniiriniig on this project wais in progress a total of
2(01 dnys dinriiiL wlichi tinic 295.,400 cubic yiirds of rock weree broken,
btilt no1it of this iIlliterilil wals removed.
PrjiAje o. 1, fit isiwin No. 3, Balbio'a Harbor.-This project is
Inc*tlId 1,044 to 3.603 feet ciist of the Canal axis nortlthwiird from pier
18 in BIllbon i Hirbor, mind provides suflicivit. space for an additional
pier with slip, as well as providing arena availal)le for iddiltionmiil
ii ulioii.;e. A.\t111l work on this project was ill;iinulrated during
Aiigumt 1942. Two dredges were employed on this work during the
year-the dipper dredgLe Casciadflv. working 6 days exeavatIling 60,400
cuiili- ya rdl. and the dipper dredge Paraisuo, working 143% days ex-
c;iVll inij: 1.003,200 cubic yards.
Proje cd No. 18., Orllard Out.-This project, which consists of widen-
ing Culelirai Re;chl by 200 feet to the westward, was started in Janu-
ary 19.35. During 1943 dredging and shore mining were performed on
thi-; project uis follows: The dipper dredge GamibOa worked 59 days,
excN; va;1 inlg a. total of 227,050 cvbic yards; three tractors worked a total
of SS2LT d:y-q, moving 111,600 cubic yards of enirth to the top of the
hank for sluicing into the Canal prism. Grader No. 4 was stationed
at this project. for the entire year, being in actual operation 53 days
for furnishing water for sluicing operations; a total of 160,400 cubic
yards of niiterial were sluiiced into the Cani( during t(lie year. Shore
miniing wai in progri ss for lie last 41' mont1is of thie year, during which
(inie 832.000 cubic yards o(f rock were broken.
AuxILIARY DREDGING-OTHER PROJECTS
Details of l lie mnir important projects in this category are given
helow:
Outr ancurhrnice, Pr'(fic C ntrance.-Dred going operations were carried
forward on this project. ia total of 297 days by the dipper dredges
('asc(wIi.hs and Puri;sxo and the two pipe-line dreldgc Las as ruces and






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Mindi, with total excavation amounting to 5,604,600 cubic yards.
Work accomplished by dredging equipment employed on this work was
as follows: The Cascadas worked 178 days, removing 1,705,800 cubic
yards; the Paraiso worked 37% days, removing 443,500 cubic yards;
the Las Cruces worked 202 days, removing 3,163,300 cubic yards;
and the Mindi worked 16 days dredging 292,000 cubic yards. Sub-
aqueous mining was cn;rried forward a total of 87 days by the drillboat
Thor, during which 46,400 cubic yards of rock were broken.
Naval dock facilities, Cristobal: Derrick Barge No. 157, equipped with
a clamshell bucket, worked 7% days on a launch landing slip, removing
a total of 400 cubic yards, and 112 days in removing sunken and
abandoned wrecks from the dredging area near the proposed dock.
The drillboat Thor worked 8 days on subaqueous mining in the area
fronting the proposed dock, and broke 6,100 cubic yards of rock.
The pipe-line suction dredge Mindi was employed 46 days during the
year at the dock area, removing 592,300 cubic yards.
Naval station, Balboa: The pipe-line suction dredge Las Cruces
worked 7 days on this project-removing a total of 137,500 cubic yards.
A rotary drill mounted on the Panama Railroad Pile Driver No. 201
worked 93 days on this project drilling and blasting to facilitate driving
of piles.
Trans-Isthmian Pipe Line and Pipe Unloading Basin, Gatun Lake.-
Dredging on the United States Navy's pipe-line trenches and pipe
unloading basin in Gatun Lake was performed a total of 1111% days
during the year, employing the dipper dredge Gamboa for 33 days,
Derrick Barge No. 157 for 16 days, and Excavator No. 5 for 63, the
latter two pieces of equipment being equipped with clamshell buckets.
The total material dredged amounted to 134,400 cubic yards of which
104,500 cubic yards were removed from the pipe-line trench east of
Monte Lirio, 15,900 cubic yards from the pipe-line trench at Gamboa
and 14,000 cubic yards from the pipe unloading basin at Gamboa.
Subaqueous mining by the drillboat Terrier No. 2 was in progress 2
days during which time 1,400 cubic yards of rock were broken.
Naval operating base, Balboa.-The dipper dredge Paraiso worked
23% days on this project removing 76,100 cubic yards of material.
Pipe-line trench, Balboa Harbor.-Dredging on this project was
carried forward during the year by the dipper dredge, Cascadas
working 16 days and the dipper dredge Paraiso working 20 days, with
material dredged totaling 61,700 cubic yards. Subaqueous mining
by the drillboat Vulcan was in progress on this trench for a total of
103% days, breaking 19,600 cubic yards of rock. This project required
special dredging and mining to a depth of minus 63 feet precise level
datum, which permitted low tide work only.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMlA CANAL


THIRD LOCKs DicElDJIN
The dredging division is charged wit h thlIe perform ncec of practically
l)l of (lie wet exclivaition in conjnectionl with the construction of the
third locks project. Durillg the year co nst 1ruction dredging was per-
folrilied ill (II' vaurioUS LNbyp is.s ('1iillel anllld iiuxiliary Thii(rd Locks
work las follows:
\ ir (frolln lurks bYp/ts. chliannel, iorti (IppriV irli.-Dr!edliivg on this
pro jct WIas in pWogress for 43 l. days (dri-illiy i year by the dipper
dredge frtimibiiii and tlIh pipeline slition dredge Mimfv. Thn Mnn/i
worked 21 diy vs and rrI'iov'd 31.5,100 Ilinatriial. The dipper drdcge frainiWa. lurked 17d dfiiys rrllovni
52,600 ciubili yN.irds of which : 1,000) %vis constrctnlon 11111iteriail iand
13,6000 n liiitti l:i11c. otal c riitiriillOll (xcHivltitinl to the nrid
of (tli yvelr on li .ew (diiii locis bypaiss clhiii inl, norli iipproaich,
was4.3ii,7() 7 cubic yvirds. which represents .7) p'rclnt, of Itlie total
to be I'rioved. SNublqueous niiiiig by the dril'out Thur was in
progress on this 1iypaiss< cliha linl for' 9 days, during \\lii'lh time
7,:'(100 ciubic yirds of rock \\ere broken. There \was no sliore ininig
on hllis bypI;iss chliinniil diurilln the year.
A'ew 11 it1 ryfluw.'/a..s clianinel, north aippruacli.-Driedgin in the
New Mira llows locks lypas-ss ulIain i1, inorith approach, tottiled 100,300
cu(lic yards and wzis pcrforiiicdl by the dipper dirrilges C~fscd anmbva, working i 24 iind 16 days respect ively. The total roustruction
excN\ atlion to tlie eiid of the year on the New \Miraflores locks bypass
(cliniiiiel,. north appi)roa;-li, was 1,534,800 cubic yaiirds, which represents
41.4 percent of the total to be removed from this project. Tli drill-
boat Vulcan working 132 days in this bypass clinneul on shibiquir'ous
riniiiln broke 240.700 cubic ya-rds of rock. Shlore mining with star
well and rotary drills w;as in progress for 162 days during which 340,600
cubic vnids of rock were brokeiI.
.Vew 1;irflirit lrc.s h ibyp/ss clhaiiil1, fuMh approachi.-In lthe new
Mirallores locks yiipass cinn,11111. south api)roach(, the dipper dredges
n('asculaa. a(nd( Palains, working 54 and 70 days respectively, sexcilanted
528,100 cubic yards. Total vexc.avation to the Iend of tlie yeIar in this
cliinnnel was 3,241,400 cI1ic yardss, which represeInts 26.2 percent of
thie total to be dredged. Subaqueous mining by thie drillont.
Tirr;ir Yo. 2 was in progress 100 dnys, by the 77or 127% days, and
lihe Vulcan 127 days, lthe total operations of which resulted in (lie
breaking of 155,800 cubic 3'yards of rock. Operations of the star vwell
anlld rotary drills was in progress oil thi Iyi')iipass cliannel 290 dayss
during the year, diiriing which timnie 5'.1:)00 cubic yards of rock were
broken. Exrcara/ir .o. 1 and Excuraubr An. 4 worked 1471. and 51!
days respectively, in Victoria I)urip airea, building dike and excavat-
ing drainage ditches, during which time a total of 9,040 lineal feet of






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


dike was constructed and 1,785 lineal feet of drainage ditch was
excavated.
SLIDES
The total excavation from slides in Gaillard Cut from June 30,
1913, to June 30, 1942, amounted to 51,644,300 cubic yards. During
the past fiscal year 94,300 cubic yards were excavated bringing the
total slide excavation to 51,738,600 cubic yards as of June 30, 1943.
Slide activity throughout the cut was generally much less than in
previous years. Culebra slide (west), although very inactive with
comparison with previous years, was the only slide to show movement
throughout the year. Small movements were observed in eight slide
areas during the year including small breaks in Culebra slide (east),
Culebra slide extension (east), Lirio slide (east) and Contractor's Hill
slide (north), the Intter being the only one from which nmteriial
entered the Canal prism. The dipper dredge Gamboa worked 29 days
during the year excavating a total of 94,300 cubic yards of material
from slide areas, of which 87,100 were from Culebra slide (west),
3,300 from Las Cascadas slide (east), and 3,900 from Contractor's
Hill slide (north). Numerous bank breaks occurred which were all
limited to small movements of no consequence.

SUBSIDIARY DREDGIVG DIVISION AC'TI\ ITIEs
SAND AND GRAVEL
During the fiscal year 545,591 cubic yards of sand and gravel of
all classes were shipped from the Gamboa gravel stock pile, as com-
pared with 675,376 cubic yards in the previous fiscal year. The dredge
Las Cruces worked 77 days producing 440,100 cubic yards of run-of-
bank gravel, which was pumped to the stock pile. The craneboat
Atlas worked 137 days producing 191,320 cubic yards of Chame sand
which wer(e pumped into barges at Chame Point, Republic of Panama,
and delivered to Balboa.

HYACINTH CONTROL AND OTHER ACTIVITIES
The Canal and adjacent waters through Gaillard Cut, Miraflores
Lake, and Gatun Lake (including all dump areas) were patrolled and
the growth of hyacinths kept. under control. Log booms at the mouths
of the Chagres and Mandinga Rivers were maintained to prevent
hyacinths, logs, floating islands, and other obstructions from entering
the Canal channel during freshets or spilling at Madden Dam. During
the year periodical inspection trips were made in the Chagres, Man-
dinga, Frijoles, and Azules Rivers, and along the shores of Barro
Colorado Island, Pena Blanca. and Gigante Bays, dumps Nos. 1 to
14, and Mirniflores, Pedro Miguel, and Red Tank Lakes. Weekly








46 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

inspection trips were also made of the Canal channel between Gamboa
Itid C-t un.
It is estimrit4lted tIhat 1S,56(6,500 lhyacinth plants were destroyed
during thei year anid of tliesv 5,944,500 were sprayed, 8,187,000 were
pIIll d, aiin1 4,43:511,(i00 w\cre rremoved by cal)leway. Seventy-six cords
of diri(ftwool were also rerImoved by Ith cnibleway during the year and
an ndilitioiial 2719 (1ordis oif driftwood were picked up along the banks of
the Cluiares River, Mandinga River, C'hilibre River, Cocoli River,
GCillird Cut, nid itn Lake, Mirlos Lik, urnos Luke, Pedro \Miguel Lake,
and Red Tank Like.
IE uI'IPMENT

Main itemins of dredging equipment were operated during the year
as shown in the following tabulation:


I nit annd nmnnir


1 I- .


Out of service
In sPrt ire


Repairs Rcscrve or
stand-by

Drri-d. I Months Mfonths Monthl
Fr -r,-.--.. -.... ...................... 1"i- irpl dipper ---------- 9.4 2 ............
Gam h V .... .. .. .. .......... 7. 6 1. 2 5
Pa. ... .. ............ 10.5 1.6 --.......
LaIs ( C i . . . . . . . 24-inch . . . . 11.0 1.0 ..
Mindi _......................... 28-inch suction..----..------- 3.3 1.3 .... .......
C ranchoa t: l r .. . .. 7'-i-n ................... 9.5 .5 2 0
Derrick ... .. ... . 40-n ----..------- ---------................. 8.6 3. 0 .4
Grader ir N. 4-.....----....--... ------------14-inclih purip .-.. --- 1.7 ------....-- 10.3
Relay i'Lrf -.
No. 4 .............. .. 2.n h.. ............................ .. .......... 12.0
Ar. 24 ----- ------------------- 24-mth -------------------- .7 .1 11.2
Drillboats:
Terrier No. ....................... Steam--------------------- 3.4 .6 18.0
Vulcan ----------------------Air ------------------------ 11.9 .1 -
tr........ ............. .. ll d .........................7.9 112.
7redu .\ f ....... ............. Srn ............ ....... '12.0
Air..'t.mr.--r .. *' ....... 2,00CFM ... .............. .3 1.7 10.0
Fli.ilin: cranes:
T . 250-trn ... ... ......... 6.2 .2 5.6
Sr i ... . ..In ............. .. 2.2 ............ 9.8
Fcrrv ot' ifb- i
P'r.e. Im .r --------.. ------ 22-car...------------------ 7.6 2 7 1.7
President Hngrc icle ...... . d. ...... .... .... 9.9 1.1 1.0
si f .rrj .. .... .. .. . . ......... ........ 2.3 2.0 .

I Trruer .v.o 2 out of commission 8 months; Teredo No. L out of commission 12 months.


In addition to the above equipment, the dredging division also
operated during the vear 9 large and 5 smallugs, 20 launches, 5
quarterbiiats, 7 excavators, 11 tractors, :10 star well drills, 10 Bucyrus
traetor-mouintied well drills, 4 Sullivan truck-mounted rotary drills, 10
diumlnd core drills, and a miscellaneous fleet of sand barges, dump
scows, and service lighters in dredging or mining operations or in
auxiliInIry service.
During the past year thie dredging division of The Panama Canal
acquired -;several units of additional equipment which are included in
the above listing. The most important one was the new 28-inch pipe
line suct ion dredge .Alinrl which arrived on the Isthmus on January 10,
1943, and was placed in service on February 22, 1943. The new drill-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


boat Thor had arrived on January 15, 1942, but was not actually
placed in service until October 30, 1942. The second-hand Diesel
electric ferryboat Nassau purchased in the United States was received
on the Isthmus November 22, 1942. It was renamed the President
Porras and after undergoing reconditioning in local shops it was put
into service at Thatcher Ferry on February 20, 1943.

FERRY SERVICE

As stated in last year's report, the new bridge at Miraflores was
opened May 20, 1942, which provided highway connection across the
Canal for the first time. Prior to the opening of the bridge, ferries had
been the only means of crossing the Canal, and for some time these
services had been operated to capacity. Following the opening of the
bridge, there was a natural decrease in ferry traffic, and the auxiliary
service across Miraflores Lake was not operated during the fiscal year
1943.
The Thatcher Ferry service, connecting Balboa on the eastbank,
with Thatcher Highway on the west bank, was in continuous operation
throughout the year, except for 17 days when alterations were being
made to the ferry slips.
In the following table are shown the more important statistics
relative to operation of the Thatcher Ferry for the past 2 fiscal years:

1943 1942

Single trips made by 3 ferries------------------------------------------------ 41,158 61,218
Vehicles carried:
Panama Canal vehicles --_-----..------------------- 23,118 33, 617
U. S. Army vehicles------ --------------------------------------- 122, 780 148, 210
Commercial trucks------------ ---------------------------------- 101, 795 206,184
Commercial passenger cars-------------- --------------------------- 63,991 137,366
Private cars.. --------------- -----------------. -------------------- 167, 659 466, 821
Total vehicles carried-----------.-------. ------------------------- 479, 343 992, 198
Total passengers carried-------.--------------------------------3,208,626 5,943,845


It will be noted that the number of vehicles carried on Thatcher
Ferry in 1943 was less than half the number carried in 1942. In
comparison with the number carried on both the Thatcher and Mira-
flores Ferries, vehicular traffic carried on the ferries in 1943 was about
one-third as much as in 1942.

THIRD LOCKS PROJECT
AUTHORIZATION

The third locks project, providing for the improvement and en-
largement of the capacity of the Panama Canal in the interest, of
defense and interoceanic commerce at a cost not to exceed $277,000,000
was authorized by act of Congress, Public No. 391, Sevlenty-sixth


47-






REHMI i '1W 4;(OllHNIII o(F 'lIlE PANAMA1. CANAL


o rss. lirst session, [ )rl August 11, 1939. Tln project in-
volv t is c ii dIeiiii :iiil n .citroitio of ii iFlw set of locks i( s iome
d iltlicrl frlo11 the tri'\ ili lo ks. tl l i e CitVi l (io f f ilppjioliclh e n11111 els

toh ll('. cvlricilI of i 11 ppill lIiillt iworks.I 'I


Tin- Wilr D)pmrliniit'[- Civil Appropriition .l(t for 1941 provided
$15,010.000 fo tilt- third lo ks proj1-1-t a11e, ill :1dditiont. i- [)o\m red
tiln G ov iflor Iof h Pllili lli C ,i1il- I\\ ll' ill 1Ii Z/.1i 1 Ny lli S( 1 rri-ril iy
of Wur, to enltepr into i oiari ts prior to TiJlly 1, 1941, for or on acouilrit
of the coiistiicltioull of the proj-el to an imioiit nmot in I .\<-<'ss of
$l,(00I(,0I(10. ITh War Dpairtimienit (Civil AIpproqwitiio. Ac. t for
1942, iipprovedl May 28., 1941, provided 8:14.9:12.000 for the mostru-
tion of adldiionil rocilitiis to incrieii-e tlim ciapiit y of thiw Pu1ninit11
CaHinl, .iul. iiill dulit1ol. fIIfPoWHV1' d llir t oic iior \, H Ini ;iltIori/.zd
1hy the Secretnry of War, to enniir into contract ts prior to July 1, 1942,
to n1 iiiiioiint not in exci-s of $79,000,000. i'iiir iinlit thireto, a tolli r-
ity to vnitvr into contracts to the extent of $79,000.(ti00 \\as irr'quested
1by tlt, Gov'ernor on June 2, 1941, and was bipprovd 1e y thli Srrretiiry
of War, June 13, 1941.
Tile Third Siippluiinen ial National Defense Appropriiliolns ct.
1942, approved Decmnilier 17, 1941, making sn ippleninviitl appropria.-
tions fnor* the niat ional Irlefenise for the fiscal Vyezirs ending June 30, 1942,
and June (30, 1943, provide ain ubddlitionnil contract aiuntoriiza;tion of
$104,000,000 for lliiise fisu;l years. Pursuant lliereto, aulitJority to
enter into cont li (ls to the extent of $104,000,000 was requested by
11lie Chief of Office of The Painnia; Ca;nal on Ja;ina ry 24, 1942. aidl was
approved by the Secreta;iry of War, January 27, 1942. The War
Depairtineiit Civil Appropria;iion Act, approved April 2S, 1042, pro-
vided $(,.s2).800 for the eonsi'tction of a1dlditionii fIacilities foir tlhe
improvement -iild (IiI iLirllPieiit of the C;p)aicity of the Pa llinumi CImIl.
The total expend itlures to the end of the fiscal yea;Ir Iainointed to
$G7,45c,974.
ORGANIZATION

TfI' tl( esigil and constrillcici of Ie t lird locks project wer' ;issii(ned
to tilie pJei'ial eiinernig division whicii wa;s establIlished iiugust 15,
1940, by tlie conllsolid'ition of the lornier special cofinst riiclion division
and the special engineering division. The division develops designs aind
oil INicts i iives li tiolis 'ind rescu i'ch u'el live lireto; pri'iiifr'es plans
and spe'cifivi il ls for the work ; prepilres collit i ts aliid supervises
their prosecution; anId pIii us for, supcrv ises, and coord in; ies the work
of nil PinnllIuim C(2n1i inmi contract forces ciigaged on the third locks
project and iappurtenIn it works.


111 48






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


At the start of the fiscal year, the gold personnel of the special
engineering division numbered 884. This number was reduced during
the fiscal year and on June 30, 1943, a total of 367 employees were on
the gold roll. This reduction in force was due to the modification of
the construction program of the third locks in ccorldance with a
directive of the Secretary of War, dated May 23, 1942.

MODIFICATION
On May 23, 1942, the Secretary of War issued a directive to the
Governor that certain modification be made in the third locks con-
struction program with a view to bringing the construction of the
project into closer conformity with the over-all war program. On
May 25, 1942, the Governor, pursuant to the directive of the Secre-
tary of War, issued instructions that the const ruetion of the third
locks project be modified. In accordance with the above instructions
the following modificdatioins covering major features of the project
were made: Contrcet. for the new\\- Gatun locks structure, which hiad
been awarded in February 1942, was leiniiilaed; bids for the con-
struction of the new Miraflores and Pedro Miguel locks, which were
being studied at the time of the issuance of the directive, were rejected;
contract for processing concrete agIr-'egiAtes was ttrmiiiated upon the
completion of the Chligres and MIiraflores processing plants; contracts
for furnishing cement, were terminal ted; contract for furnishing miter
gates, valves, and bulkheads, was terminated; and the excavation of
the new Pedro Miguel lock and north approach channel, was deleted
from the contru act of the Pacific excavation contractor. Work di-
rect ced to be c rried forward under the modified program included the
completion of the exc.ivation for the new Gatun locks; the excavation
for the new Mirnifllores locks; and the manufacture and temporary
installation of the emergency power plant units and auxiliary eqiuip-
metnt. Other items ordered continued under the modified program
included the dredging work (by Canal forces) of the bypass channels
on a modified -scle and low priority basis, and the design of all major
features of the third locks project, including the preparation of con-
tract plaiins and specific t ions in readiness for resumption of the con-
struction sch-edule.

DESIGNS-PLANS-SPECIFICATIONS
Dcsigins previously begun were vigorously prosecuted and many
were completed during the year. Contract drawings for emlergelncy
dam operating machinery, miter gates, valves and bulklheadls, motors
and brakes, comUpreosed air system, lock ventilating system, towing
locomotives, lock ca isson, and processing concrete aggreates w\\ere
completed. Work on remaining procurement and construction con-






REPORT 01F GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


tract drawings continued. Other work during the year included
completion of designs and plans for transmission line relocations, high-
v otage switching stIlationS i11(d metlchaical equipment installations in
the temporary cI instruction power plants. Design of tlhe bridges over
Inewu (tiii locks 1i1d liew firaInores locks was completed under con-
ftractl y Svtdru iip & Parcel., conisultilg elgieellPerS.
Tests, investigations, and studies continued on various types and
kinds of equipment and nhichinery to determine those most suitable
for use il the new locks. Prelimini1ary investigation and development
waIs initial ted oin a long-term nmetal-corrosion test which will continue
over a period of 15 years. Construction and testing of a third lock
niodel coniforming to present designs for thle third locks Iwas completed
iind ni final report submitted. Comprehensive reports on the design
of tlie several feI tures aId the construction completed were in progress.

C('INTRI CTION

Atlantic anr a.-'lThroiughout the cmrreint fiscal vear lthe Martin
\\unlderlich Co. iind Okes Construction Co. continued tlie prosecution
of their contract and by the end of thie year excavation for the new
(atiin locks struct ure, south approach channel. and appu'irt(enant
works was brought to a practical completion with only minor items
of clean-up reinnining to be done. Total excavation under this con-
tract amounted to 13,096S,951 cubic yards of material and )payments
in tlhe sum of $10,961,918 had been made up to the end of the year.
Constructionl of the building for the emergency power plaIntL was
coiipleted during thei year by the building division of The Panama
Canal and11111 installation of equ(Iipment was stiiartIed by tlihe Martin
Wunderlichl Co. and Okes Construction Co. in January 104.3 and at
tlhe end of tile fiscal year was estimated to be approximately 92 percent.
complete.
Dredging of the approach channel which was begun by forces of the
dredging division, Panamla Canal, in October 1940, continued through-
out the year. As of June 30, 1943, a total of 4,396,700 cubic yards of
material Ihad been removed; this represents 53 percent of the total
Vyardalgei to be excavIte ld.
Panrefir ara.-The xcai nation of thle new Pacific locks and appurte-
nant. wo rks under contract to Panama Constructors, nllc.. was carried
to completion with the exception of a few days' work on railroad
excavation and release of equipment. Total excavation under the
contract at the end of the yeallr was 8,514,469 cubic yards and total
payments amounted to $12,766,075.
The construction of thle aggregate processing plants, under contract
to Nevada Constructors, Inc., was completed as directed and
accepted on October 27, 1942. Total payment under this contract
was $2,443,943.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Construction of the building for the emergency power plant was
begun and virtually completed during the year by the building divi-
sion of The Panama Canal. Installation of equipment by the Martin
Wunderlich Co. and Okes Construction Co. in May 1|943 was 27
percent complete at the end of the year.
Dredging of the new Miraflores locks south and north approach
channels was continued by forces of the Panama Canal's dredging
division and at the end of the year totaled 3,241,400 cubic yards and
1,534,800 cubic yards, respectively. In the south approach to the
new Pedro Miguel lock a total of 377,600 cubic yards have been dredged
up to the end of the fiscal year.
General.-The relocation and construction of miscellaneous struc-
tures appurtenant to the third locks were virtually completed by
various divisions of the Panama Canal. This work consisted of the
relocation of railroads, highways, streets, power transmission lines,
etc., and the construction of employee housing projects, Mindi Dock,
and other smaller projects.













SE( TION 11


BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Thr bIu'if--l lenITprisvsz carried flOfw rd by Thi Pan.ia Caml 2114 and
1yv Iti P2111. Ima ilnlild 0 1o. ri.lllIIr r1 r II IInIu II aif ;o l vilfic- Wllir1 l l
til l. Stiirs would inill In- 0 ried Uill by print itia tive.
Tlic.'e arltiviiv- I;\c benit devel( p)pd1 to 1114*( 0 iv nleeds of Ship-
i'iw p i. -.iiz I I lr j til ( 'aluil aill of tll' Caiiii;il-riiilr"l 'r.r-z iiiai tiii
;iii( its iiip(I -yer<. D iiii tII l):It yv inr, as in 1ilie 2 '*r%;I pl-v rs dini ,
t.illi' I vl'ilir. i [ ltii O 'liu i v e;\ 1 ; I IV rl (v e v i ll iit ;fnt lli ll.tIs of tile
Ariny aIld Navy. ;Ili: itl rli iriiiis ofl the Il iiiis i c ivIl li(l have een
vN.\p ii>h Itl 1i1(I aldjuIste(d to litii t the se 11a(d (Ithler re'uirlnelmIts of till

eiiZ Li'd II thl iiiiipply of fuel, proviiinill,, ship hI114ndlery, ;ad r( pairs to
n-.l; the proivisionl of pibliie utility servi'". the iiiriiiinnance of
living <|a urters aild the sale of food., ulIhinig. and other 'denit iail to
Cmanil and Railroad imnployee.s; the Ol:lTlii2 of 1ar ai1 ii ;lied opera-
tiolns and the opi' r; Wilm l ; i1dniagenieent of a r-ail1n';id line. A striain-
ship line between New York and the Isthiiiii ; also %I opeir;ited prlior
to the out Ir i]ak of war, but since the steaiiimers of the line iiave been
requisite ioniil for direct iiemploymieiit in the war effort, this function was
largely iiinaItive during 1043.
Tlil Caniiil and the Railruiid are sep5() itr ora;iz/.atiiOii. but the
idiullIillibI1iniioll of lidlli orgaizii l lt i lns is vested ill the Gove'iiIr of '1The
Piai1iiiiii C1ii1.l), vlio is also president of the Paniini Riiliinil Co.

PANAMA CANAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS

1Bulsin opertil ilis of The Pn1ri;illii Canal are coin ucted Sptifal(ielv
from opirntiiig :i vis.*-14, alli the IgVpril1rnnPelt of the( Canal Zone. TlI., airnmlll appro-
pjiiitii acts for The 'P;i111i11 C(anal aulliorize for expelnitiure and
rein\'tll nciit :;ill niiie%- received from tlev c ndullict of ;.\i11iIary llisi-
III'-- r1t ivities with tile provi.-o that any I-t profII it dlirivid1 frrom such
bu-ini.-'-; .* n'tivitio-; sinill be covered .i IInnia2ly into the Treasury of the
United States.
It i- tihe aimi to operate the Iliil*ig s I(li\vilcies a1s a \\ i(ll' oIl at sl'f-
supportinll:. i-i- anda to inicliude as a linUrUe ;'iiiist 1iiiii4ss operations
a fi.\er <. l ill 4-Il irfe of 3 p e rilit (l t ( \ dl '111 1e illor valriltli s.) us
intllii*sI o011 tlie invest ilillt. In thew aroillili of iprof its ( hle covered
intO ilthe Tleasiilry, thle amount nrepreslllting clrg'fes for illtrest 011
52






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


investment is a part of the net profits covered into the Treasury and
is in effect a reimbuirsLmeiit to the United States Treasury for interest
paid by it to holders of United States bonds.. The investment in
business activities total-id $44,027,783.60 at the beginning and
$46,448,530.57 at the end of the fiscal year (tables 4 and 5, sec. V).
The capital clhirge for the fiscal year 1943 was $1,035,105.07 (table
20, sec. V). The net revenues of $1,492,542.70 ex.\cc led this amount
by $457,437.63.

MECHANICAL AND MARINE WORK

During the past fiscal year, there wAis further expansion in the work
performed by the nimichi iinica.l division, the output for 1943, amounting
to $16,448,347, being more than double that of the previous fiscal year.
Following the outbreak of war in December 1941, the facilities of the
division were geared, insofar as possible, to meet the demands placed
upon them by the war effort, with the result that in contrast with
openitioins in nlormiial times (when the majority of the work is per-
formed for units of The Panama Canal), the division's major effort
in 1943 was expended in the repair, alteration, and conversionI of
vessels for the United States Navy. Work performed for The Panama
Canal in 1943, while showing a substantial gain in dollar value,
represented but 30 percent of the total output, compared with 35
percent of the total last year and 58 percent of the total in 1941.
The following table shows the source and class of work performed
during the past two fiscal years:

Gross revenue-Class and source

Fiscal year 1943 Fiscal year 1942

Gross revenue Percent Gross revenue Percent
Class:
M arine ----------------_ _.-- ------------- $10, 460, 410 63.6 $4, 695, 585 57. 8
R railroad --------- ------ ------- ------ --- 1,387,273 8.4 1,165,533 14.3
Fabricated stock. ------.-- -- _-- .-- ----- 596, 927 3.6 402,173 5. 0
Sundries -------- ---- --------- .........-- ... 4,003,737 24.4 1,860,931 22.9
Total-_ ----------------------------------. 16,448,347 100.0 8,124,222 100.0
Or-bi-.
I li IPariani Canal.---..---- ----------------- 4,959,330 30.2 2,854,599 35.1
Panam a 1; Ii..1 Co ----. ------------------- 1,485,459 9.0 1,251,931 15. 4
U. S. Army...------- -------------------- 1,554, 893 9.5 496,254 6.1
U. S. Navy --------------------------------- 7,079,926 43.0 2, '-N1.712 31.8
Commercial and other interests ---- ---. -.. 1, 368, 739 8.3 l:*., 726 11.6
Total ----------------------------------- 16,448,347 100.0 8,124,222 100.0


Operating e\pensi s for the fiscal year totaled $16,343,646, leaving
a net revenue from operations of $104,701.






REPORT O0 GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


DRYTOCKS

During the year :i63: drydockings were made at the Balhoa and
C ristcohnil drydocks, further details (if which are given below:



P A ra l .I- .. 4 31
i 8i. \ i m. ..... ................ ....... ........... 1 32
C ? .\rin> ...... ... . . ... .. I *t's Il m1
S'litt i iilr'l 1ri.i iilr '.. . . .I. ... .. .... . ....1 1
Ouiltside....... i.. .... .......... ...... ......I 13 25 IS
Total....4 .......... -.. .. .. .......... .......... I.' 363


Thei Balbou dirydock was unoccupied 20 days during the Nyear, while
tnl- Crist ohnil drydock was unoccupied 16 days. In the fiscal yeur 1942
the Balboan drydock was unoccupied 10 days n rd the Cristobal drydock
22 dayis.
PLANT IMPROVEMENT

During the fisenl year 1942 the Navy Department authorized the
construction of two marine railways, two dry docks, and several other
improv-lencnts within the mechanical division urea. During the fiscal
year 1943 work on these improvements wais undertaken and has
progressed in a very satisfactory manner. Machine tools worth
approximately three-quarters of a million dollars were furnished by the
Navy and installed in the shops during the past year. In addition to
this The Panama Canal expended about, 1 million dollars for various
improvements and betterments as well as for the purchase of machine
tools, making a total of some $1,750,000 expended during tlihe year o
cnpitnil improvements., exclusive of tlie drydocks and marine railways.
In addlition to this the Navy authorized an additional s50..000 for the
purchase of more machine tools to be installed during the coming yea r,
while The Panama Canal is continuing to finance an important part, of
the expansion in local marine repair facilities.

SALVAGE SECTION

During the fiscal y'ar 1943 a salvage section was organized as a
unit of the ncaln iiical division of The Panama Canal. A nucleus of
trainnrd divers was available within the organization of Thle Panama
Camiul nd two additional divers were obtain ad and were given a
course of special t racing. A site on Gatun Lake was chosen and the
construction of a salvage station was underway at the end of the year.
In addition, a salvage hnbarge was outfitted and equipped with necessary
decompression chamber, air compressors, pumps, etc. During the
year the salvage section successfully righted, raised, and delivered,
two iuvnil vessels which were sunk by accidents within the waters of
the Pa1nima Canal.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


OPERATIONS
During the year the mechanical division was principally engaged in
marine work. The preceding statistical data show that on a dollar
basis the output of the division was approximately double that of 1942
even though the increase in personnel was only 42.6 percent. However,
during the fiscal year 1943, the United States Navy initiated the pro-
cedure of furnishing practically all of the material used in the prosecu-
tion of naval work. The cost of that material, which is not included
in the preceding financial figures, is unknown but is conservatively
estimated at $6,000,000. To the total shown in the preceding table for
the year 1943, the value of naval material should be added to make
same comparable with other years. It will then be seen that the out-
put for 1943 was approximately 150 percent grctiterr than that of the
best previous year.
During the fiscal year under consideration, the division's greatest
effort was expended in the repair, alteration, and conversion of naval
vessels. In previous years this work was only approximately 10 per-
cent of the output of the division. During the present year, on a labor
and material basis, it was nearer 60 percent. During the same period
the work for the Army increased from 6 percent to approximately 10
percent. While work for divisions of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. was of less relative importance with respect to the total
work load of this division, the total cost of such work was greater than
in any year since 1920.
Because of military restrictions the scope, character, and type of
work undertaken by the division are not set forth in detail. The
records of the division show that many large, complicated, and
intricate jobs were undertaken successfully and completed, which
formerly could have been done only in the United States. While it has
been necessary to refuse work not directly connected with the war
effort, or work classified merely as desirable, the division has accom-
plished every item that was sufficiently urgent to be accorded a war
priority status.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION AND REPAIR WORK

The principal activities of the electrical division are: The operation
and maintenance of the power system; the operation and nimaintelnance
of telephone, telegraph, electric clock, fire alarm, printing telegraph,
and railway signal systems; the operation and maintenance of the
street-lighting system; and the installation and maintenance of elec-
trical equipment as required by the Panama Canal and other govern-
ment agencies, or by vessels undergoing repairs at the Canal terminals.









F'IllII ilg is il I*(rilpill-isiti of the 1iw11i- priiiniid Iiisscs of ixpe. dit ures
of the Ili(riiril (1divi-iiil for Iim fi-ri 1.%ril 1942 1lld 1-1 3:

I 1 r i i i I' ll

\l n tmlnantiwc rinl oul-ation of pot' r -.r. I .. i. 182.3415 *\ .I'.: m1riV
'in ilru tio i n i ni 1 runawe' of ii i k 4, 'il. 604 i;'7. ;
M a(rt ell t hrel illre l i"* l oi l 's of I a lt l i*..* .~ . .. . . .s,
NIIHe litrll) 1111 of (I 1 11r i n 1 of1 li p w r Sy- i l e I' 4i p11Ie




32 'lf i i l- rri rt*(, iii i ir t l c gi'l'ii:i1 Iii il ig- of Ciliiiil O)pe)li ri1i whil
I(i'liill r t;ilitic < of thoi te'll'IlilIn syst"lem :11* I \vrr'Il on11 pa) .' i.1
11ii11(1' the op1itliiIls of the Paiu1iiiii RililiI (1 CD. llf vXpitiililIrI"
8sIHn>\i above, ilm-ule int rlleJltpiiliiil il t i'ii II'rlis. AS an vi (llllpc,
iifiiiillin;ii'e :;iil rC1 pii):1S ol111le p1)1iI system mi-l1 prrf1iiiiirdl )y the
rlrc ii* \\nil unit i; ill 16.i (vxpuIi-n- of billi theO pi'wer system and the el(ic fie wo.i.
It niily be iio(,t' from the alnime tatlilrltilinl 1l1.tt ilecrtoi l iciristrui*-
liln anld illinitii ilciie< aN1.i)P iggiY.;IIl 1 little over s4.0)()i),(00() for
194:1 which is sunni > If0I0OO 1( 111111n the E\plidtii-rr for the preVIeld-
Illg 1rar, w iili Wais t(i pid i'i; of the hli irg p.'l'nin of exti'in f
the poiW\\er. tinl to pro<> ide l rl( l ir ( cons(it-rit llii andt irinstlnltioil of the el cri neal fati tires of the projicut .

PUR( I A.\1i. AND INSPI.( TIONX IN THE INITI:1) STA.I'L.1

The principal plir-liiavss of supplies fom The Pa liminii C(ainil w\er-
JIIIlid', as lirrl ofore, l1ir!'IluI the \\'; liirt iin Oflice of The Paniiinia
Canal; the volume of the puri ulo;i-. is illica i;itd 1y the foll in ig table:

1'i 1i year




\ir' c1. i, of Ifpurhass Sie C 1904 mi Idi through r I-.
iiirsi'.n i>licc... .--.- .. ~__.. .- .- .- >l1.023,732 < .. 44I (a40, irW 918
N iminxcr of I i ourlcnilr t voullr prepare ......... 2 .703 25, 35 1633
Vaine of aIIoV- VIoIIeChr' $30, 'I. 054 $315,011,6 .'*..<*" 15
tuinw tr of II' 1r1 i uch jrs |>r<41ar$ed. 44 I 41"
* Valuc of ablve vouchers. .... $3, 22,1tKi \l..I. I l '. I.1
i r l. discount ks .l:en. '..... .. $u. .. .......U.. .. ..ri .i S :12
Hcalizte from sni Is of s 1urilus na aeriall '.11. .426 1'i '.1.7%


SrlTOI.liorl:-' A N D) SHIPS ('111 NL):i1Y

111 iiiliti o1 ti the II miiii fi ict lo o1f 1eiIsoniiig I stlorilig, 111(nd
issuing ciril suiippliis for the (Cnil inal Ri;ii lron (exclusive of tilhe
iiiv t'Flclll iin ( I )irili)lo of 1Ir4 (I*(IIIllssiiry divi'ionI) ti' CaIiatl
Zone stoire'lhiiss 'I'll shij)S' (h11: liidlerVy 11Id other supplies to commniCr-


]il--Ptl; I iI ;D\,) HNoil; (l] THi -: P.AN.AMA. CANAL







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


cial shipping as well as to units of the United States Army and Navy.
The following statistics cover the more important features of the
storehouse operations during the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1943 1942 1941

Gross revenues-sales and issues ------------------- $21,316,977 $31, 395, 349 $24, 474, 368
Cost of materials, plus operating expenses -------------- 21, 297, 328 31, 357, 714 24, 227,094
Net revenues .------------------------------- 19,649 37,635 247,274
Inventory as of June 30 ------------------------------ 13, 434, 960 8,110,409 5,382,212
Scrap and obsolete stock on hand, June 30-------------- 24, 185 16, 795 23, 025


OBSOLETE AND UNSERVICEABLE PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

During the year disposition was made by sale, or by destruction
where the items had no money value, of obsolete or unserviceable
property and equipment which had an original value of $660,580.
Replacements were made as necessary.

FUEL OIL, DIESEL OIL, GASOLINE, AND KEROSENE

All deliveries of products of these classifications, to and from
storage tanks for private companies, as well as for The Panama Canal
and the United States Navy, are made through pipe lines and pumping
plants of The Panama Canal.
The following table summarizes the operation of the fuel oil han-
dling plants for the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1943 1942 1941

Fuel and Diesel oil: Barrels Barrels Barrels
Received by The Panama Canal -------------- 450,846 530,759 511, 579
Used by The Panama Canal .--------------------_ 471, 366 463,443 359, 150
Sold by The Panama Canal _. ---------------------- 34, 706 47, 544 54, 225
Miscellaneous transfers on tank farms ------------- 34, 240 29, 102 39, 551
Pumped for outside interests -------------------- 20, 512,062 11, 573, 369 11,992, 503
Total barrels handled -------------------- 21, 503, 220 12,644, 217 12, 957,008
Handled at Mount Hope (Atlantic side) ----------- 13, 767, 378 7, 510,902 7,195,492
Handled at Balboa (Pacific side). ------------------ 7,735,842 5, 133, 315 5, 761, 516
Total barrels handled ------------------------ 21, 503, 220 12, 644, 217 12, 957,008
Number of ships discharging or receiving fuel and
Diesel oil:
Panama Canal craft ---------------- ---------------- 171 187 95
All others------------..-. .. -------. ..--. 3,057 2, 596 2,620
T otal... ..- ....--- - -- - -_ _----- ---- -------- 3,228 2,783 2,715
Gasoline and kerosene:
Bulk gasoline rtn .'i' *d-ri I n -ll-n 13,007,076 12,583,934 8,286,375
Bulk kerosene ric.i rvd-gailloin 3,219,988 2,066,378 1,742,921
Financial results of operations:
Total revenues. --.------------- -- -. $1,617,781 $1, 181,822 $1,009,932
Total exi -nrl it uris (including cost of sales). -------. 1,129,620 1,070,164 966,408
Net revenues-...-----....--.-.-. --------------- 488, 161 111, 658 43, 524

679129-46----5





REPORT OF GOVERNOR R OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE

Tihe program of construction under way at the end of the 1942
fiscal yeaIr waS continueId in 1943. Ma inte cnance w\as continued on
tie existing buildings in use, with minor repairs and replacements
being. lde th roligh Iout tin I yealr.
TI'he irincipil projects of building .const ruction for The Panama
Ca nal and Paii1na R1auilroacd Co. completed by the building division
of 'The P2aitlnlli Call nl dinillnie nlscdl yeu-r IllP43 were as follows:
.I-(in Italbo / .-Ceinsorshi) hunildin; 29 quarters buildings for
gold e0niip)loyees; 2 wards alnd vlenereal clinic at Gorgas Hospital;
anmd 2 storehouses for the imeclhnicail division.
( #idi- ll ff.- lilehrrily elv etrical l s listttiii; a1ddit iionll wards iand
venaeral l v liilir at Colon 'l hospital; tire storiholjuse; and marine electric
S i4 ).
Dialbio IffI fi.s.-G ynmnasiuill; one quarters building for gold em-
ployies; and tire storehouse.
IPhfIr il/i[que l. Extension to filter and pIIIump station, Miirallores;
eiergeicy sIubstatiion, Miraflores; and dynamite magazine at Summit.
7(iI,,lbri .-Twenty-\two quarters buildings for gold employees; and

Ci/u:if.-iStorage shied; and five quarters buildings for gold

.addln Dam.n --Instafllation of mass concrete, columns, bears and
floors for the third genera tilng unit at the Madden Daini power plant.
(itan .-EEmergency power plant; and(l gold comninis.sary building.
.1 10rnarrit .-Six quarters biuildirings for gold employees.
In addition to the principal projects listed above. which were coim-
pleted during the year for The Painama Canal and Panimna Railroad
Co., several la rge projects were coImplet ed for the United States Army
and1 Navy.
Expiriidlitires for main teinance and repair work during tlie past year
aggregaited $1,024,647, of whiich $582,595 was expended n maninite-
nance of quarters occupied by gold 'Iemp)loye.es and $121,745 on main-
tleinrince of quarters occupied by silver employees; the balance of
$920,307 was spent on all other maintena ce work performed by ihe
building division.
TIr total volume of construction andl maiintenanrce work for the
past 3 years is srmirillriZe(d below






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


For Canal divisions:
Repair and maintenance work ---------.----------_
Construction work... --------------------------------
For the Panama Railroad Co.:
Repair and maintenance work ---------------------
Construction work --- -----------------------------
For other departments of the Government, employees,
and others-------------------------------------------
Total.-------------------------------------------


Fiscal year

1943 1942 1941

$954,373 $981,559 $894,035
5,145,956 8, 249, 126 7,181,052
238,741 195,656 255,148
157,604 611,277 355,616
2,467,049 628, 721 308, 793
8,963,723 10,666,339 8,994,644


Total maintenance -------------------------------- ---- 1,624,647 1,342,613 1,318, 361
Total construction-------------- ----------------------- 7,339,076 9, 323, 726 7,676,283
Total--------------------------------------------- 8,963,723 10,666,339 8,994,644


QUARTERS FOR EMPLOYEES

Gold ,(inpJdiyE (.K.-With the practical completion in 1942 of a large
program of quarters construction to provide housing for the large
influx of employees to work on the third locks and other construction
projects, no quarters construction program had been planned for
1943. During the year, however, The Panama Canal relinquished to
the United States Navy a section known as the quarantine area in
which were located a number of houses, occupied by Panumna Canal
employees, and to replace this loss 21 new quarters buildings, contain-
ing 45 apartments, were constructed.
The demand for quarters in 1943 was not as acute as it had been in
the two or three preceding years and vacancies in family quarters are
accumulating. With this eased situation quarters are now available
for a number of employees who had not established residence here for
their families prior to December 7, 1941, and who have hlertofore
been unable to bring them to the Isthmus.
On June 30, 1942, there were on file in all districts 467 applications
for family quarters from regular employees, and on June 30, 1943,
there were 316, a decrease of 151 from the previous year. The de-
crease in the waiting lists is the result of a decline in the work on the
third locks and special item projects and the failure of regular em-
ployees to apply for quarters on account of the passport restrictions
preventing their families from coming to the Isthmus.
It is intended to continue the replacement of old quarters, although
additional construction will be suspended until such time as na terills
become more readily obtainable than at present. The old quarters
constructed prior to 1909 show increased deterioration each year,
which necessitates increased maintenance expense. Several con-
demned quarters, the maintenance of which is paid by the occupants.
are still in use.
No changes were made in the general regulations governing assing-
ment and rental of quarters to American employees.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


NS'/ oi thlie s1 1111ii li.is Is in previous vyars. There were Iio new silver
(uart ers constructeudI dill ng 1943 a1111 no new construction is contem-
phi(ted in lle n 1iir ftifuiei, except ) that aliterations to certain existing
building, are planned to provide additional family quarters. The
(dIrli t (I 1lIiterI frout silver eipVloyees is still fair iln excesS of
suJpply. As of Junv 30, 1943. There were 2,732 applications on file
ofil in lllilY qIll rs aiird S.:3 1 tplit lliallns for ach 1 lor quarters, as
compared with a total of 3.935 aipplia Itions on file June 30, 1942.

MOTOR TI?.\NS'01POTATION
Tin o Ji'tor t insportitioii division is ch11irged with the operation
iiiil Iniilitrinlleo of fitr (traiiisporflti on for th(e departmentss and
divisions of Tli Paiai [niam Canal irnd PNanr1n Ritilroaid Co. The
1enI lrliZllf ion oF rainlsporti tlion facilities in this division nd tilhe
require icunt Ithat it bec operated on a self-sustaining al sis have been
primarily for the puiirpose of supplying needed trnisportalion at a
inlilliullll cost to Thin Pamiina Canal aindl Panama Railroad Co.
Div to gpsioline and tire rationing and 1 lie resllti lit Ciurtailimelit in
tiie op rnition of private veh icles, it was necessary during 1943 to
initiuiuraite under supervision a(nd control of the motor transportation
division a public transportation system of privately owned busses to
ca Irry employees anil their families in and between the various town-
sites in thlie Canail Zone.
RevIenues of the division during the past year totaled $2,606,696
a ld the expenses $2.589,SSO, which left a net revenue of $16,816. A
Large amount of hIiavy ha uliig in connection with various building
anMI highway construction projects was performed during the year.
In the fiscal year 1943 there re were 143 cars and trucks purchased,
a1nd 17 cars and trucks were retired. At the close of the fiscal year,
1033: cars and trucks, 22 trailers, and 6 motorcycles were on hand.
APPOINTMENT OF MILEAGE ADMINISTRATOR
In line with the President's order calling for a reduction of at least
40 percent in the use of motor vehicles operated by departments and
agencies of tlie Federal Government, tlihe superintendent, motor trans-
port nation division, \was a pointed Government A mileage Admini rstrator
for The Panauma Canal and Panama Railroad Co., and has been charged
with installing a1nd administering tlie Government, mileage conser-
vation program.
PANAMA C.\N.\L PRESS
The operations of tlie Pananin Canal Press were continued under
the same policy as heretofore. The printing plant carries stocks of
materials, and prints such forms, stationery, etc., as are required on
the Isthmus in connection with the operation of The Panama Canal






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 61

and Panama Railroad Co. The following is a summary of the
financial operations of this plant during the past 2 years:

Fiscal year
1943 1942

Gross revenues -----------------.----------------------------------------- $569,780 $531,024
Total output expense (including supplies not processed in the printing plant) 561,896 520, 697
Net revenue--------------------.------------.------------ ---------- 7,884 10,327

SUBSISTENCE
The subsistence section, which was set up May 1, 1941, to pro-
vide meals for contract laborers brought to the Isthmus in connection
with the large construction program, continued under the same
policy as in the previous year. In 1943, a total of 9,506,976 meals or
3,168,992 rations were served by this unit, an increase of 20 percent
over the 2,613,719 rations served in fiscal year 1942. In spite of
higher costs of raw food this section has consistently been able to
reduce its ration costs; the ration cost was $0.416 in fiscal year 1943
compared to $0.456 in fiscal year 1942.
REVENUES DERIVED FROM THE RENTAL OF LANDS IN THE CANAL ZONE
Rentals on building sites and oil tank sites in the Canal Zone
totaled $32,517 for the year as compared with revenues of $46,992
for the fiscal year 1942. Rentals from agricultural land in the Canal
Zone totaled $8,207 as compared with $9,058 for the preceding year.
At the close of the fiscal year 791 licenses were in effect, covering 1,557
hectares of agricultural land within the Canal Zone. This is a re-
duction of 57 in the number of licenses under the previous fiscal year
and a reduction in the area held under licenses of 88 hectares. This
reduction is largely the result of the policy adopted in May 1935, as
a health measure that no more licenses for agricultural land be issued
and that holdings under licenses previously granted shall not be sold
or transferred.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS UNDER THE PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY
The Panama Railroad Co. was incorporated in 1849 under the laws
of the State of New York for the purpose of constructing and operating
a railroad across the Isthmus. When the concession, rights, and
property of the New French Canal Co. were purchased in 1904, the
stock of the Panama Railroad Co. became the property of the United
States Government. Since the acquisition of the railroad by the
United States, its corporate status has been preserved and the railroad
has continued to function as a common ctirrier.
At the beginning of Canal construction work, by Executive order of
the President of the United States, the PunaIma Railrowid Co. was made
an adjunct to The Panama Canal. Its operations are supervised by a







Kll-'DItIl (IT il(,\V:(N) Il OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Inir l of d(liilc tiia-l 111li1 t11 e idircii*i(i(iln of tihe SecretarllV of W ar. A\ the
.rll" Itiil) fir tl I lt ii lIfd Ir tlll Ill tr ll*Ill (O SC r 1 the ( tCll ltl ti 4' *oil v

( '2111 11 ii" n **--id.ll of the hiiiiiii iinilr* id ('o. iImsl lthe governorr

1fif Tll, ( 111. 1ii11 f( )riliti(' 1O iill iIis ('O l)1tiv l' (Utihe of t11 lit ) l O anli
u1n ilT (. Ijt i' prc t it e 1li-i ill/n d compt ifllit c.t io of thie'=
t\s ilr ~I I1 Il]'l t I t 0 mn l li/ il y If oi
A, t11 l- n I i ill o f I<* .d iii l inCi Il C1o p111 M I !11 j illol < fl)i1(il i t it ilo 1

ito ( of 1111 c4 liii jII -1 II tii. 1 )1 Ir 1 i)\ r r l IIi, (r'c ioil l.


In .'*; lf xli ii>! to e el' llptO nlial so iie't of l (r ei unI '-ll iiip line lbo twee.Ih
l 1" l1 tl 1,n 1d h l l PIt I Ilas the < of tIis line Iid Co. i ,1I(1
tn fl \ iiiL'011! 'I'll1' llsn l if iiilid Y ii s lriinr, ; idl it iisfI.r.-of Hi11YO
fur. -L' i ii ile' i i ti ll- it 'Ow1 1 1 liiIt Ihis fuporlk; ti (I (j) (Citilllo f of fl*ll'lg
111u 11* Iii loii'*. rct nil shIr -. anid siubsidi rv iilia f ti lirinm p|l at (s f itisi '
in tl< -pply oIf 11rl. -i4otin n1di ot her I- in]ial conunoditivs to
'" tI.l'f ilinit l li" ill ili-. r ilo' ) <'st. d Ilti'r 'cloi the f 1ld ntidl t n- opera-
(1111iif -. W1 1o tl, 5 a il, ii, tle ific ai Iiildry. Prior to ies.

Ntw York md thti(* 1-ialliai ii. but as the vitSieo of Illis line havve bivio
--eiiii-ii iirid lby the Gtoveriminvft this function mus i(nictive (1rinig

TH.AN.S-ISTHNIIi.A V AILROA.D

Ti I-nilir.lid lifne <)]PraIites betwvvii Cnlon. the Atlantic terminus,
111l P:1;111111 City, the Pacific terminms. In addition to those cities,
tine rEil'is:Id ***rr-< tall ieal1)v activities of Tle Panama Canal. Gross
r *Iflir- I frni ll I II' opfrtilimls of t f- railo01d proper (no t. inlclud ing
-i-lui:dinry lviii-iri-. nctlivities) during the fiscal year 1943 amounted
to 1it,7.:..i 14. R i-'icn frciglit totaled 1,312,1 8 tons, as conIpIreld
%ithi 1.77..0917 liii- during 1942, a decrease of 461,75S tons.
( '.11 ii; native tili-tif covering tlie sig ificant features of railroad
opr.Iilimi-. dii -illL" the 1pi-4 3 years are presented inll thle following
I I I.l.


A n(Ce !tdlrs jer ihil. Cl'tld tn I r rii :i 47.61 47.61 47 61
Ii i i I r .* evenu j .I1.738,54) $-I.915,925 St. 1541. 72
.r I .. r .1 f eLr c4Trn irrl i'
I- .r l. .14.f ue Ii 31l&, 1. 5 J '. IIS
. .. I. . 4..1..357
I . . . . .. I 7. s I i:. 31.2
V't I u l 1 **. I 'I . I $7 'i $.S5 pi
I .'...r il er Ir *l r r i | 1,1. i1.. I r -2 $v1:1 42 $11 '1
I 1s -. I w r 'r I. . .* ... .I... .1:1 141. .'40 112. 77
Ir:.r r r' r .'. . vlie '.45 .11 i:17 2.'h. 775
\ 'rki h t. 0-j 8it117 3.(11A 3. V14
T l tri. ........1.. . I S 7. e. -lil.1.N4 3'4. :Wr
Sw ltch l rrwinet I. r **- U. I. .'.js 7 1y.,(i'y






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 63

RECEIVING AND FORWARDING AGENCY

This division handles the dock and harbor activities of the Panama
Railroad Co. at the two terminals of the Canal. The following sta-
tistics summarize the results of operations for the past 3 years:

1943 1942 1941

Total revenue ..-------------------------------------. $4, 388,212 $3,934, 304 $2,999, 118
Tonw Tons Tons
Total cargo handled and transferred across docks ------- 2, 018, 377 2, 508, 421 2, 390, 618
Cargo stevedored by Panama Railroad Co. ------------ 854, 110 1, 145, 186 1, 135, 280
Cargo ships handled ----------------- ------------------ 2,381 3,345 3,720
Banana schooners handled_-------_ __-------------- -------------- 449 1,211
Agency service furnished vessels----------------------------- 36 42 83


COALING PLANTS

The volume of coaling plant operations at Cristobal and Balboa
for the past three fiscal years is shown on the following table:

1943 1942 1941

Gross revenues ---- ----------__ -------------------. $1,875,602 $1,414,120 $782,412

Tons Tons Tons
Coal sold _-----....---..... -- --.....- - ------ 77,906 127,644 87,446
Coal purchased ----------...-----------------.. ..---- -------- 59,030 126,839 62,319


TELEPHONES AND TELEGRAPHS

The gross revenues from the operation of telephones, electric clocks,
and electric printing telegraph machines were $349,105.
During the year 1,424 telephones were installed and 915 were dis-
continued or removed, resulting in a net increase of 509 telephones for
the year. At the end of the fiscal year there were 50 electric clocks
and 29 automatic printing telegraph typewriters, in addition to the
5,482 telephones in service. Local and long-distance telephone calls
handled through the automatic exchanges averaged 155,690 per day
in 1943, and 152,038 in 1942 during the sample days tested. This
represents an average number of calls per telephone per day of 28.4
in 1943 and 30.5 in 1942.
Considerable expansion of the underground distribution telephone
system was made during 1943 to provide additional service for the
existing towns. Contracts for the new 100-pair trans-Istlminli
telephone cable and its accessories were awarded, and delivery on
the Isthmus of the last few items of equipment was being made as
the year ended.






HEPOiT F01 GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


R EA I.-ESTATE OrPEnTIONS
Real-estate operations of the Panamia Railroad Co. are devoted
to tlie management of the property owned by the company in the
ci ies of Colon niid Pwannama anid build ings erected by the company
in the Canai Zone. At the close of the fiscal yvear, 1,623 leases and
14 liciiieS Were in effect covering tli occiipnnacy i1id use of Panama
Railroad Co. pi'peprties in the cities of Panima and Colon. Transfer
of certlii nlas authorized by joint resolution (Public Law No. 48,
7Sthl Cong ), ap)provcd May 3, 1943, wans pending at the close of the
fiscal yell I'.
During the fiscal year 10e railronld allowed a discount of 10 percent
on riit hil accounts for properties wlhichil are leased at rentals based on
reevaltltioiis Imade in 1937, provided the accounts were paid within
the first five working days of the month. A discount. of 10 percent
was also allowed on all accounts on which rental rates are based on the
commercial valuation of properties in effect prior to lthe reappraisal,
provided the accounts were paid within tihe period for which the bills
were reer lered. Tliose accounts covering all other -properties rented
at low rules under old leases were not allowed the reduction.
During the year S9 square meters of Panama Railroad land in
Paniimna City not required for business purposes were sold.

COMMIss.itRY DivisioN
Thie primary function of the commissary division of the Panama
Railroad is to supply at reas.1onalble prices food, clothiiig, iind house-
hold supplies to meet the needs of United St rates Government person-
nel and the various United Statves Government departments on the
Isthmus. In canrrying out this function the division operates whole-
sale warehouses and cold-storage plants as well as retail stores in
each of the Canil Zone towns. Sales a re restricted to agencies and
personnel of tlihe United States Government, except that. ice, cold-
storage food, and other essentials may he purchased by commercial
steamships transiting the Canal or calling at its terminal ports.

SALES
Net sales fur Ilte year lotiled $46,948,042, compared with $35,421,-
764 for the previous fiscal year. Tlihe value of merchandise on hand
June 30, 1943, was $6.168,745, compared with $4,198,365 at the close
of tlie fiscal yvear 1942. 'Ihe ratio of sales to inventory indicates a
theoretical stock t urn-over of approximately once every 7 weeks.
Tlie distributionn of sales for the past three fiscal years is shown in
Itlie following iablle,






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


1943 1942 1941

U. S. Government (Army and Navy) ---------------- $19,379, 638 $12. 245, 622 $5, 480, 257
The Panama Canal -------------------------- 4, 932, 976 4, 303, 862 2, 269, 830
The Panama Railroad Co---------------------------- 593, 510 779, 143 473, 511
Individuals and companies----------------------------- 1.771,385 1,552, 484 692, 302
Commercial ships ------------------------------------- 737, 061 543, 996 361, 276
Employees ------------------------------------------- 22,486,611 1. .2':7,702 11,775,824
Gross sales. ..-. ----------------- -------- 49,901,181 37,722,809 21,053,000
Less discounts, credits, etc .-- ------------------- 2, 953,139 2,301,045 1,297,812
Net sales.----------- ----------------------- 46,948,042 35,421,764 19,755,188

PURCHASES

Purchases during the year aggregated $42,600,910, an increase of
$10,730,233 over the previous year. The following tabulation shows
the value of the various classes of merchandise purchased for the past
3 years:

1943 1942 1941

Groceries --------------- $8,716,892 $8.769,410 $4, 0b8, 968
Candy and tobacco------------------------------------- 1, 135, 739 1,090.298 619, 563
Housewares ------------------- 1,513,607 1,489, 100 943,995
Drygoods ------ 5,591,027 3,000,521 1,997,314
Shoes ------------------------- 2,006,714 1, 149,913 624,453
Cold storage. ---_--------------------------------- 13,815, 161 8,865,456 4,225, 880
Raw materials ----------------.-- ----- 2,642,347 2,517,275 1,080,770
Cattle and hogs. -- ---------- -- -------- 1, 140,892 892, 131 370,457
Milk and cream ----- -------- 324, 032 426, 524 362, 687
Dairy products _------------ _----------- 5,714,499 3,670,049 1,810,211
Total ---------------------- ----------------- 42, 600, 910 31, 870, 677 16, 104, 298


HOTELS


The Hotels Tivoli and Washington were operated by the Panama
Railroad Co. without change of policy during the year. These hotels
are an essential adjunct to the Canal, providing necessary accommoda-
tions for foreign visitors, American tourists, visiting Governimeit
officials, and others.
The gross revenue from hotels was $843,478, compared with
$712,445 in 1942, and the number of guest-days was 91,058, compared
with 89,278 in 1942.
MIND DAIRY

The operation of the Mindi Dairy continued as in the previous
years. Milk production for the year was 425,077 gallons, compared
with 540,758 gallons in the preceding year, a decrease of 115,681
gallons. Fresh milk is furnished the hospitals and, on doctors' pre-
scriptions, to persons having preference, such as invalids, infants, and
nursing mothers. The surplus remaining after these i'eds are met is
supplied employees, units of the Canal and Railroad organizations and
Army and Navy units stationed on the Isthmus.












SECTION III


ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENTS
T'Ii (orgiiii/.i iti(l of T1ic Piiinliiii Canal oil the IstIhmnus embraces
five pjriniipil d1epr' iint, nts. lmiely, operation arid maintenance,
supply, Nl(eniitiinLr, executive, and health. In addlition to this, an
ollice of 'Tlie Panama Canal is maintained in lWasliinigton, D. C.
'IThe Panam Railroad Co., a Governiment-owned corporation con-
duciitinpg biiness enterprise(' on the Istlimus, is a distinct unit, yet it
is El-Oly affiliated with tie Cmi12il organization.

OPEIR.\TION .AND MAI N-rE:.\.C'
Thn d inrtment of operation an1d iflintellnaince eLmbracCs functions
rlehited to the actual use of thel Canal as a waterway, including the
dredged c(li1ain1t. locks, locks, dams, aids to navigation, accessory activities
such as fhlops (aid dry(ocks, vessel inspection, electrical and water
supply, sow.ler systems, roads anmd st rets, IhydrographIic observations,
Simrveys aind( estimates, and miscellan eous construction other than the
erection of buildings.
SUPPLY
Thli supply department is charged with the Iccumiiulation, storage,
and distribution of materials and supplies for Tlie Panama Canal and
Railroad; the maintena-nce and1( construction of buildings; thle assign-
ment of living quarters to employees and care of grounds; the opera-
tion (if storliehouse(.s, fuel-oil plants, an experiment garden, and a
printing philn t; the supplying of motor transport nation facilities to the
vair ious departments and divisions of the Canal an d Railroad organ-
izations; and thle operation of messes for silver-roll contract labor.

Acco U NTrI N ;
T'Ile iaceiinting department is responsible for the correct recording
of finiancial transactions of the Canal and Railroad; the administrative
auditing of vouchers covering the receipt and disbursement of funds
prehlimiuiry to the liiild audit by tlie GeneI'ra Accounting Office; cost
keeping of the C(a nal anid railroad; the checking of tinekeeping; the
pripniration of o'tima tis for appropriations and the allotment of ap-
propri.ilion. to the varioulls d(lepartments and divisions; antid thie exam-
imitioiln f ) lf iii.<.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


EXECUTIVE
The Executive department embraces the office of the Governor and
all general administrative activities. In this department are included
the administration of police and fire protection, postal service, cus-
toms, shipping-commissioner duties, estates, schools, playgrounds,
general correspondence and records for the Canal and Pa nIi inm.Rail-
road, personnel records and management, wage adjustments, general
information, relations with Panama, and the operation of club-
houses, restaurants, and moving-picture theaters.

HEALTH
The health department has jurisdiction over all matters pert;iiniing
to sanitation and public health within the Canal Zone and the cities of
Panama and Colon, the operation of hospitals and dispensaries, and
the enforcement of quarantine regulations.

PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
The operations of the Panama Railroad Co. on the Isthmus are
related closely to the work of the Canal. As the Governor of The
Panama Canal is president of the Panama Railroad Co., the heads of
all departments, both of the Canal and Railroad organizations, report
to him. The general administration of the composite organization is
centered in the executive office, and the accounting work in the
accounting department. The Panama Railroad and the business
divisions of the Canal organization are billed for their proper shares
of the general overhead expense.
CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
Appointments in official positions during the fiscal year 1943 were
as follows:
Mr. Arnold Bruckner was appointed comptroller, The Panama Canal
on October 1, 1942, vice Mr. Wilson H. Kromer, retired.
Mr. Ira L. Wright was promoted to assistant comptroller on the
Isthmus on October 1, 1942, vice Mr. Arnold Bruckner, promoted to
comptroller, The Panama Canal.
Mr. Carl F. Chase was appointed assistant comptroller and chief
accountant on October 1, 1942.
Surgeon Henry A. Holle was appointed chief quarantine officer
on December 1, 1942, vice Surgeon Gregory J. VanBeck, relieved
from duty with The Panama Canal.
Lt. Col. William Kraus, Medical Corps, United States Army,
was appointed superintendent, Colon Hospital, on October 8, 1942,
vice Col. A. R. Gaines, Medical Corps, United States Army, relieved
from duty with The Panama Canal.






KEPOiHT OF GOVERNOR R OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Col. ('hrlvs G. TTolle, Corps of Engineers, United States Army,
SIl)4Uppo)inteld wsisitanlt erlngieer of iaiiiiteniiiane on August 1, 1942,
vii-c Col. Doiiglni L. Weart, ('orps of Engineers, United States Army,
relieved fro (hIty with The Panama Canal.
Lt. Co1. ailph H. Salrtor, 'Transportation Corps, Army of the United
Stait. ~Wl ppoited senior pIllanning engineer in lte Exec1utive
idlicr ill J1Jumi 2., 1943.
Lt. Col. Hugh A. Kelly, Corps of Engineiers, Arimy of tdine United
St %%ls, \ipi appoiint (l military aissistiiint to thli Governor on March 15,
1943.
Mr. Eilward I. Traftniiian was appointed directorr of civilian
dIfviic on Septleiiir 16, 1942, and riJ)ppointiid magistrat., Cristohal,
on May Nr 1904i, lwhen Lt. Col. Huigh A. Kelly, corps of engineers,
ArmIy of t(hi United States, wais appointed director of civilian defense
in udilition to hii othlir duties.
MIr. MI-rrviir B. Huff wiis iippointcid piayinaster, Tlhe Panama Canal,
on Sept'imniir 1. 1942. vice Mr. Clareci' L. Bryan, retired.
NMIr. Riciiard G. Taylor \\as appointed director of cllbb)houses on
August 16, 1942.
MIaj. Joseph H. Burgess. Jr., Air Corps. Army of the United States,
was Iappointved Iailiniristrative assistant in tlie Executive oflce oil
February 23, 1943.
Lt. C(ontlr. AlexanIler W. Weir, Unit ed States Naval Reserve,
wais jijpp)oinlted assititant to marine siupirinitendlcnt on airchl 13, 1943,
vice Lt. Con(rll. Robiert, L. Morris, United States Navy, relieved from
(duity with Tlihe Punimnni Cianal.
Caipt. Forrest M. O'Le.airy, United States Navy, %vas appointed
eillptiiin of the port (Cristohil) on April 6, 1943, vice Capt. Charles
E. Coi0v-y, Unit ed Sites Navy, rvlieve(d from duty with Tlihe Panama
Canl.
Capt. Joseplh 11. Kieriian. United States Navy, was appointed
sprintltendeit, mechalnical division, on Jiuly 13, 1942, vice Capt. Isaac
1. Yals, lUnit~ed Snt el s Navy, relieved from duty with Thie Panama
Cnnal.
\Ir. Irer1)ert II. Evans, assista nt superint enmden t, mechanical
division, was retired(l on April 30, 1943.
Mr. Ed ward F. Welch was appointed production superintendentt,
mIIechainicaiil division, (oni December 1, 1942, vice Mr. William H.
Stone. retired.
Col. Charles II. Barth, Jr., Corps of Engineers, United States Army,
\IIS appointed s1upervising engineer oni Septemibl)er 10, 1942, vice
( 'ol. lHians Kramer, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, relieved
from dliut v with Tie Panniia Canal.
Mr. Edwin E. Abbott was appointed supervising engineer on
November 24, 1942, vice Col. Charles H. Barth, Jr., Corps of Engi-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


neers, United States Army, relieved from duty with The Panama
Canal.
Lt. Col. LeRoy A. Kane, Corps of Engineers, Army of the United
States, was appointed assistant to general manager, Panama Railroad
Co., on July 17, 1942.
CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
SECTION OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE
Effective December 1, 1942, a section of civilian defense was
established, comprising all full-time employees whose principal duty is
civilian defense work. The enrolled volunteer members of the civilian
defense organization comprise the Civilian Defense Corps. This
section has supervision of the organization, training, equipping
and functioning of the Civilian Defense Corps, as well as generally
preparing the civilian population of the Canal Zone to meet the
emergencies that might be expected to arise in the event of an enemy
attack.
EMPLOYEES
The force employed by The Panama Canal and the Panama Rail-
road Co. is composed of two classes which for local convenience have
been designated "gold" and "silver" employees. The terms "gold"
employees and "silver" employees originated during the construc-
tion period of the Canal from the practice of paying common laborers
and other unskilled or semiskilled workers employed in the Tropics in
silver coin, while skilled craftsmen and those occupying cxeciitive,
professional, and similar positions were paid in gold coin, the latter
group being recruited largely from the United States. Although
all employees are now paid in United States currency, the original
terms used to designate the two classes of employees have been
retained for convenience. The terms "gold" and "silver" are applied
also to quarters, commissary clubhouse, and other public facilities.
The gold employees-that is, those carried on the gold pay roll-
are, with a few exceptions, citizens of the United States and comprise
those employees who are engaged in the skilled trades, and in the ex-
ecutive, supervisory, professional, subprofessional, clerical, and other
positions where education, training, and special qualification are
required. The force of silver employees is composed almost entirely
of natives of the Tropics, a considerable number of whom are Pana-
manians. The force of silver employees is composed principa)lly of
laborers, helpers, and semiskilled workers who perform work which
does not require the services of specially trained or qualified persons.
Panama Canal employees are divided, therefore, into two geniiial
classes, one of which comprises United States citizens, and the other
principally native tropical labor. These two classes are carried on








70 HEIPORlT OF GOVERNORR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


-spairnite pay rolls I11i1 the conrlitions of employment applicable to
encli differ matiiirially. The division of labor between the two classes
of Iemplpoyees is a matter of long custom in tropical countries, and
PNr12IIIII Ciiimul pnI) tice conforms to this general custom.
RT-mpoiniibility for personnel administration in The Panama Canal
is vElstvd in 1the division of personnel supervision and management,
Exciiulive dpirtmernt. The division's activities are separated into
"gold" and "silver" in ucrcordance with the customary classification
of employees of Thl Paiinamn Canal.

GOLD EMPLOYEES

The distribution of the gold personnel on June 2, 1943, and June 3,

1942, is shown in the following tabulation:


32, JuIW Increase Decrease


TIlE PANAMA CAN A L
.l.*. n inellii i1 p-:irtinent. .......- ..... .. --...... ... 304 322 ............ 18
lin elfieii n i=.i ........ ... ....... ............... 477 469 8 .---........
Assistant rivirtnPr of mainten'inee-
I-.l. In.- l In 11.i 419 439 ............ 20
Locks division ... ..-... ... ... ..... ...---- 278 287 ............ 9
M\hiii ipIIl en iiiseiii rini: *li\ ision .....---..-- ..------- 581 845 ----..--. ...---- 264
O h r IIc. .rII tnIq rini n 1 it\ 1- I ..... I ,. .....I- -- --- 176 264 ............ 88
MN11 -lr..I -- ...... .-...... .............. 10 12 ........ 2
IIrl I |[ I I IIrl i i t i
F. 'k, 1 nn ..1.7.s .... ... .... .. ........... ... 311 349 .... 38
Iurirr'ni of posts) -.-. I.. .. ..--...-- -.... 177 162 15 ............
( il iil.AIr and customs ....w.--- ....-- .... ....59 50 9 . .
Panama canal clubhousess. .. .....--... 182 201 ... 19
i i r 1 20 ........ 1
Fire protection ....-.. ........-.. .....--.. 119 87 52 .......
l fU LI rjiIIL courts ....... ..... .......... ...... 7 9 ..----- ---- 2
PaF m I:II lLr ... ........... ..................... 18 19 ............ 1
I'.I. .iil prisons ..------......-..-.. --- ---------- 3688 311 57 .-...- ..-
Schools .........- ....-......-. ........- --------. 170 211 ............ 41
Forl i It l t lrin ... ....... ..... ..... ..... .....-..-..- 3 3 .........- ..- ..--.-
Health department. --.. .....-- ... -... ..-. 6 55 575 80 .----..
M:iiiiIr. .- it.r ... 208 221 .......... 13
\111' liiiiii il division -..... ..-... -- .....----- 1, 755 1,015 740 ----....--.-
I.-p :l r:r1rinr .-uniiii;' I ,I I 38) 905 --.-..- ..... 25
S1111 11%'l\ 1 1'I.IIrl ino It
IIII .. Iliiil. linr ... .. 28 31 ....... ..... 3
li r illiri' . 235 311 ............ 78
T ik ril qjuarl,-rrmI t.lr -..z................ 46 47 ............ 1
I.:11riq enr V.ririin .......----- ...-. .. 27 33 ............ 6
Flrl-nl l;as -.....------------ 41 38 3 .---..-..-
Motorcar repair shop .........---------------------- 105 103 2 --...-.---.
\!r1lir Ir:,nm a rkitr.r l-ii rI 2..-....-.---- -- 192 223 31
I'n-im .lni.q' l ir. ........ .... 170 117 53..------ 2
l ... ... 17 20 .--..-- .. 83
TnI. the nill Canal--------.... ----..---.. -...-...-- 7,554 7,698 1,019 1,163
PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
I.ailr.i4-l r1 r .1.. ... .. . .... ....... ....- 186 235 ............ 49
R i rci iii.n :iii| f.r iir iarliu ?I IIIn .....- ....- 172 184 ............ 12
S*rniiiiir -.r I..--.. ------ 412 399 13 ...---...-
I uir i] f arr...... .. 6 6 ..........------------.
II..I- I- I. ........... 19 19 .----..-- ... .- -- -- -..-- -
Real estate -..--..-.-....................... - 8 9 I
'I. l, I'riiiiia I lr,I Co .....---------.......------------....... 803 852 13 62
FI.i.l force.......--------..--------------.. ------...- 8,357 8,550 1,032 1.225






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The fiscal year was characterized by a peak of employment, reached
in August 1942 at which time 8,775 employees were on the gold-rolls.
In general, peak employment continued over a period of several
months, but by the close of the fiscal year the long anticipJated
downward trend in employment had begun as indicated by a total
force of 8,357. This was occasioned partially by the completion of
a number of projects, a heavy decrease in the special engineering
division forces, and a reduction in force ordered by the Bureau of
the Budget as a result of an extension of the work-week to 48 hours
for virtually all classified and noncraft employees who for the greater
part previously had worked 42 hours weekly. The principal decreases
have been in those divisions dealing with construction projects as
follows: Special engineering division, decrease of 525 employees or
58 percent; municipal engineering division, decrease of 264 employees
or 31 percent; office engineering division, decrease of 88 employees
or 33 percent; and building division, decrease of 76 employees or 24
percent. More moderate curtailment occurred in other divisions,
reflecting the general trend toward reduction of activity on the Canal
Zone which came with cessation of work on the third locks and
completion of other construction projects.
The large decreases mentioned above were very nearly neutralized
by a sharp increase in the number of employees of the mechanical
division. Increased demands for marine repair and other work
involving skilled craftsmen account for the addition to that division
of 740 employees during the fiscal year 1943. The increase is approx-
imately 73 percent of the number employed in June 1942. Increases
on the rolls of the health department are accounted for by the opening
of new hospital wards, staffing a new hospital, and the inauguration
of an intensive program for the control of venernal disease. The
80 new employees added to the health department during the fiscal
year 1943, represent 14 percent of the 1942 roll.' The police section
was increased by 57 employees, most of whom were added to the
force for the purpose of providing police protection to newly created
civilian towns and camps under the jurisdiction of the United States
Army. The increase of 52 employees for fire protection was for the
purpose of providing a skeleton force to man 11 additional fire
stations opened in the regular towns. The increase of 53 employees
in the storehouses reflects a replacement of alien clerks with Amncrirc.n
citizens on the gold roll.

RECRUITING AND TURNOVER OF FORCE-GOLD EMPLOYEES
The following table shows additions to and separa tiouns from the
gold force in the fiscal year from July 1, 1942, to June 30, 1943.








HEPOHT 01W (;OVEHN(lOH OF THE PANAMA CANAL


'limploymiient s are classified as made in the United States or on the
I t hil Inus, n11I( scpa rntliins i re classified by cause:



ll fowre nn r to d I. 1 111a1h Account- Panama T al
i;olnl rrli iv I Ra lroad

m o r I r _
II. I ilr I I 34I '11 17%a 2.1 112 1.961
h insil d or r.. inlIn r Ol on I'
ihM. ii i: 241 (12 i 71 9 U34
1 ItolsIil- lit in. .'9.2 '."A 2'1 2711 Il 42 1 i 2.89.5
H. rl I .111 :! "' 2 211)
I I r I
\L- 4 4 2 6 3 3
l 'z': il:rl . 17 5 . 3 2 27
\olnir ......... 5 2 2 3 1 13
S .... ...........25 2 2 2 2 2 34
1 A .-.r..... 4I
k. .1111n lon of forcr 436 14 25 8 .7. . ...
'l'rilio in of lii | oir:4irT
4nployn0 ent..... I 19) 2S- 52 13 .......... 3 112
28 8 .......... 22 211
Oth r rtasongs 72 l00 3 42 2 7 18B
'oIorni s|.!irmnori- 1. .I 3 it mlB 232 9 !22 3.319

NOTEE.- Th. nhnovC flrM" dn not include I 'fi nil llI nislril made ion a part-time basis and 137 terminations
of part-tims in rTilir.'' %. ii ilh r i li's it include 6t16 i illl.n11rts of citizens of the I Vni'tIi Sr ale on the silver
roll and I1 Ti rliinnll i .',ll fi if (I1 1 Iif- of the I fiII *1 :l- .* .nn i tire ili r roll.
The Panama C(': lI The Iiuinnii li:ir;nnil Co.:
s\ll ..r- ... 2.712 Additions .. ............. .............. 183
Si.r. ........ . 3. 87 i.rnl n ....... .. .... 232
N1 r separations. ............ ... . .... 375 Net sl irii .. . . .. ........ 49

Based on an averanrge aggregate pold force of 8,487 for the year, the
3,319 sIparationis froni all (uniscs. shown in the foregoing table, repre-
sent, a turn-over of 39.11 percent. This is higher than that of fiscal
year 1942 by 6.46 percent nand is believed to be the highest rate of
turn-over experienced by The Panama Canal organization since tihe
original construction p)eriodl. When dischargesby reason of expiration
iof trimporary eniploynient are excluded t he turn-over rate is 37.78
percent for 1943 as cli spared with 31.16 percent for 1942; and when
the separations due to reduction of force are also excluded, the rate
for 1943 is 32.(19 percent; 1942 rate was 30.23 percent.
Employment of 3,(0189 new employees was effected by appointments
1Ilndered through tlie Washingtonii office or made locally on the Isth-
11111m. I11111sm1111 as only tlie IllecIli nlicl division showed a slIb)stanltial
incrii-se inl n11111ber of illpli*yeves. the major 1employmelt activity was
t(tMe of ri(eplnc'iitit Ilecessilititd by thie ligih rate of terminations
throughout tilie iscal ear. All employees appointed in the States
during lie yr % w ere t (rill l)sprtted to the Isthmus via airplane. In the
first h1lf of the period congest ion of nirline facilities occasioned much
delay in lepartu lre from thile I'nitil States, but by the end of the year
the situation hadi improved to t lie extent that little delay was expe-
ri'enced on tlhatl account. Durig .Tune several employees arrived by






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


plane from New Orleans on the newly inaugurated run. No diffi-
culties are anticipated in the transportation of employees to the
Isthmus during the next year.

ADJUSTMENTS IN WAGES AND HOURS OF WORK
Effective July 8, 1942, an adjustment was made in the rates of pay
for positions in The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co. which
are based on rates of pay for similar and related positions in the United
States navy yards. Adjustments in rates of pay for more than 200
occupational groups were authorized which increased the compensa-
tion of approximately 3,000 employees of The Panama Canal and Pana-
ma Railroad Co. Two overtime compensation laws were enacted
during the fiscal year which affected the compensation of Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad Co. employees. All classified and monthly
craft employees, as well as many noncraft (but unclassified) employees
were affected thereby. The mandatory provisions of the law required
the establishment of appropriate rates of pay for a 40-hour work
week with overtime compensation for hours worked in excess of that,
or compensatory time off in lieu of overtime pay. Appropriate rates
of pay, based upon recommendations made by the wage board, were
approved for various groups of employees of The Panama Canal and
the Panama Railroad Co.
On January 1, 1943, the workweek was extended to 48 hours per
week for virtually all classified and nonclassified employees. On
that date a total of 2,897 Panama Canal and Panama Railroad em-
ployees, principally classified, were working an authorized workweek
of not more than 42 hours. As a result of the increase in hours of
work all but approximately 155 employees are now working at least
a 48-hour workweek. The average \ork\-week for the entire Panama
Canal service at the close of the fiscal year is well above 48 hours
per week.
SILVER EMPLOYEES
The numbers of employees on the silver roll by departments and
divisions of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co. as shown
on force reports for June 1942 and June 1943, are given in the follow-
ing tabulation, These summaries generally cover the number of
employees on the specific days on which the force reports were compiled
(the first Wednesday of the month), and are fairly representative,
although in some divisions the number of employees at work may
change by several hundred within a short time, aIccording to varia-
tions in the demand for hourly rnt od labor. The summary shows
only those at work on June 3, 1942, and June 2, 1943.


679129-46--6









REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


June 2, 1943


lirir 3, 1942 Ilnervcn4' I crease


\. I nlin T l I T.l rf Ilillll i ll lt
I II*ii .'lllli I*It ulull .i
. N!l.lil i influ.* r of i'intr nil C



1Iiir.- i of posts
Ilrs dii lisionr.. an s....to s

11 IIIn 1- *I] L'Inr. r .....u .. .
M i .r.r .l . . . . . ..
Exec lltiv *l r|irtnl -ll t

Ilr e*I ill illin s .






Meehnnirt1 .It i inrl
S lpul- c l Q'inviririL division w .
I 11u1r.n chifl of pO rtcr.. .. ..
I itilli n ils and customs ......





lusi i n t r .r .........
l'itir I i l prisons... . .









n stl -il l .ari,.

NI l nri n-r t ranl n rinl division. ..ill
I'llllni]tln a 11 'anal j -rv-
orulvhoiP----
l inste. che..f quartermaster..





IToal., l h division' rn-llar



Fleneral inarnt'r n
leceI, irisi and forwr.-Iiiig nicy
Mfll, rrr rreair hnIi

e'a terna <'nni prr!
SComm issa s ...
Subsisten.e.....,,,






Total, the. Panma Rairia1l .o.






Total force-- -... ----


2. '.111


815

119
24

T78
42
4
1,723
2

62
234

613
2, 26k
78

6
-. ..
692
455
67
137
512
1i54

408

201, 40s


699
1.419
3.415I
107:
242
3


.-- 2 I,..'.


2.504

709
792
4,771
146
25

83
40
2
1,698
2
3
.57
194
1,712
502
1,742
187

6
3.801

494
65
134
524
166
731
G17


2
2
2S

25

40
168
111
526
............-





3

............7


134

1, 363
27
1

5
..............






.............

109



-----------"j
1.066

39


12
12

239


22.431 9i.5 3.008


798 ... 99
1,796 377
3.314 101
121' 14
223 I'l
3

S210 490

2K. 6116 1. 105 3. 408


A net decrease of 2,39.: silver employees in 1943 from those on the

rolls in 1942 is indicated in the table; this represents a drop of 8.34 per-

cent of the 1942 total. Lending factors in this decline were decreases

in (th numbers of emnpjloyees carried in tlihe municipal division, building

division, the subkistaoce section, and in the electrical division, which

can be attributed entirely to the completion of important features of

the construction programs on the Isthmus. Partly offsetting these

reductions are increases to be found in the mechanical division,

increased by 521i or 30 percent, of total 1942 employees, and in the

1iealtli department, increased by 168 or 10 percent. The increase in

the mechanical division follows the increase in gold employees in the

general expansion of that division. The opening of new wards in

Canal Zone hospitals al(nd inrtei'-ificlntion of sanitation and health


'il. P41411.A I %% %






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


programs in the zone and in Panama accounts for the necessity of the
health department increase in employees. The decrease of 377
employees in the receiving and forwarding agency of the Panama
Railroad Co. and the increase of 111 employees in the marine division
both represent merely fluctuations in the day-by-day demands for
hourly labor.
SILVER WAGES
Wages of employees on the silver roll bear no direct relationship
to wages of corresponding classes of workers in the United States.
As silver-roll employees are for the most part natives of the Tropics,
their wage scales are established at levels based on wages prevailing
for tropical labor in the Caribbean area.
The maximum authorized rates of pay for employees in each occupa-
tional group were increased by $7.50 per month, $0.30 per diem or
$0.03 per hour, effective January 1, 1943, for the duration of the
present emergency. The number of Executive order positions
permitting the payment of wages in excess of $960 per year or
$0.40 per hour was increased from 200 to 400 on October 1, 1942, for
the period the Executive order remains in effect.
SICK AND REST LEAVE
Rest leave for silver employees was authorized by Circular 602-33
issued June 12, 1942, which revised the regulations pertaining to sick
leave and authorized rest leave for alien employees not otherwise
entitled to vacation leave privileges providing they have 5 years or
more of continuous service and an excess of 30 days sick leave to their
credit. Sick leave is earned at the rate of 1\} days per month. A
total of 25,050 sick leave payments were authorized during the fiscal
year, as compared with 25,979 during the previous year. A total of
1,783 rest leave payments were authorized under the new rest leave
program.
CASH RELIEF FOR DISABLED SILVER EMPLOYEES
Applications for relief under the act of Congress of July 8, 1937,
were received during the fiscal year 1943 at an average rate of 9 per
month. The original system established during the latter part of the
fiscal year 1938 for administering this program remains basically
without change. A few minor rest rictive regulations have been
adopted, however, to insure adherence to the intent, of the act in its
strictest sense.
The tables below show the disposition of all applications from em-
ployees of both The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co.








76 iEPOUT rl-' (;OVERNOIt OF THE PANAMA CANAL

during. fiscidl yveair 1943. Tlhe gross iand nt aumoiints of theli pay rolls
Ilre ilso indlifated:


\1. ln t; i l r-TIii I l 1. Jl\ll ll 1, I2. J.il . ... .... .. ...

1 -I.l-iriI i..I ,i Ill -I I It for pI yuiw nt .. .
1\ l1.1cI. -.11i1.. i-ii. .I for various reasons .
A ,ill! .Ii 1 In 11 .r relief approval. . ... ...
1 *InIiiiar.1 ri ,. (t* I for various reai.ons. -.....
\l ii riliiii- IIIl Ilkll- becZalS of 1-a uliiiiialluiiiii ii thcaCt .. ...
\ -lii..Ir~ii a..t complete but in various stas of progrss...


I'iin iiia I'sria iiB
C Xiinl lijllar.,il

8 4
75 35

-1


ti .1
yT .3


Total

12
110
88
-1
-I
4
1
IN
12
122


\N IT -Rcnmovil from the r.Ill on account of the death or suhbsquent r.iii[ Il,]. ili-ni of cash-relief r'cip-
f tr1-1 Panam a 1 3 iI. l I 'ILiin.:%IIIA Ir;Ilr..i.i l .

Total il and av rage costs

Monthly av- !nthly ,
N.ImIri. r of era pa- rl y ay
ases ment June 30, 1943


I1. $1. ri $7, 604
160 19. 22 3.075
.'1., is 77. 1 (j, 67YU


Exp-riilitures on bel nif of the P11a1111ii Canal cash-relief program are
paid from narlIilI allot imeilts for that purpose, while those of the Pan-
niima Rlilroa(d Co. conistit te a coint iinuatioln of the former system of
grinmlting enslh relief to the superatinunmild (enIiployees of tllt company
Wni tare made from Pauminam Railroad funds.

REPATRIATIONS

Uiithr an act approved in 19:34, an appropriation of $150,000 was
provided for the purpose of reputrinititig uivneiployed West Indians
IHii] lthirir fimilics whlio have riiiicItd at lesit 3 years service' with the
uiritiedi Stlatcs Government or thei Puninma Railroad Co. oin the Isth-
ius1. Duirin tie fiscal year 1943 uppro.imiaitely $1,733 was expended
for rII)It riiatioii and rehiibilit tioni of 2G former employees, accom-
puinird 1by 19 members of their families, a total of 45 persons. To date
a grainll total of $38,147 has beeiin expendled for repatriation of 789
employees i uc(iIImpanied by 707 members of family, a grainnd total of
1,496 inldividuals. Tile average cost per person for repatriation has
hbin $3:S..s7, ind the average cost per employee $73.70.


CENTRAL L.AB\no OFFICE

Tilt C'ntriil Libor Office program of The Panamna Canal provides
foir Ieligibility vonitrol over applieniits seeking employment with govern-
liltnlit iiicies liid private coi trators operating 0on the Isthmus. The


I' ir:in1: I '. nil roll .... ...
Panam a K:LilrrIr'1 I rolls.. ...... . ...i.i.. . .. .. .. .
'1.0 II . .







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


general tapering off of employment activities is delionstriatec by the
comparative figures presented below, showing the total numbers of
silver employees carried on the rolls of the various organizations as
of June 1942 and June 1943.


June 1943 June 1942
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad.---------------------------------- -- 28,339 32,018
Panama Canal contractors -------------------------------------------------- 158 966
Panama Canal Department (Army)-------------------------------- ------ 5,248 3,891
Army Service Exchanges ------------------------------- ---------- 985 688
Division Engineer (Army)--------------- ------------------------------ 11,410 11,918
Division Engineer contractors ----.------- ----------------------------- 2,235 4, 175
U. S. Navy------------------------------------------------------------ 3,026 1, 669
U. S. Navy contractors -------------------------------------------------- 7,432 9,410
Public Roads Administration ------------------------------------ ------ 124 1,051
Total ----------------- ---------------------------------------- 58.957 65. 786


Because of the insufficient supply of qualified labor on the Isthmus,
recruitment of contract workers from foreign countries continued
throughout the fiscal year 1943, chiefly for the purpose of replace-
ments. El Salvador was again the principal source of recruited
workers this year, and the recruiting office there was the only foreign
recruiting office of The Panama Canal still operating at the close of
the fiscal year. The Jamaican office was closed during the last
quarter of the year.
From the inception of the foreign recruiting program in 1940, a
total of 18,327 contract workers have been brought to the Isthmus.
Of this number, 9,434 have been repatriated, leaving, as of June 30,
1943, a total of 8,893 still on the Isthmus. The following table shows
figures for the different areas from which the workers were recruited:

Number
Number Number i-nli i'rinr
recruited repatriated on Isthmus
June 30, 1943
Colombia ----------------------- -- ..-...-- .- -------- 2,244 1,783 461
Costa Rica -----. ------------ --- 2,248 1,777 471
El Salvador---- ..---------- --- -- -- .. -- 8,835 3,754 5,081
Jamaica ---..------- ----.------ ----- --- 5,000 2,120 2,880
Total ------- ---- -------- ---- --- -- -- .. 18,327 9,434 8,893


PURCHASE OF WAR SAVINGS BONDS BY EMPLOYEES

A plan for the purchase of United States War Savings bonds by
pay-roll deduction was approved by the Treasury Department on May
23, 1942, and was put into effect on July 1, 1942. As of June 30, 1943,
7,436 employees were purchasing bonds inler this plan. Ninet y-two
percent of the eligible employees were participating in this pay-roll
deduction purchase plan, and subscriptions were equivalent to 14.58
percent of the gross pay roll. To meet an insistent demand by em-






REPORT OF GOVERNORR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ployees for over-the-counter sales of bonds, facilities were also provided
for mnakling cash sale-s of bonds in the Administration Building, Balboa
Heights, and iat Gorgas I hospital, Ancon. In addition, a procedure has
lwcrin estuhli-hid whereby such purchase s can also be made at the
villioull. 0(1nl I Zone post offices with delivery% within 2 or 3 days. Actual
C'ish prdlchases, hio 1Oever, ha vte not been1 (oinlVicIsurate with tlhe antic-
ipated d1riin11al, and the pay-roll deduction plan continues to be the
most coniveniient. and practicable plan yet devised.
EXPERIMENT GARDENS
The Cutriiil Zonei plaint int reduction gardens and experimental sta-
tion were staiblis'id in June 1923. The gardens, which include green-
houses, nillirsere, allnd ( xperiiinlital plantings, embrace approximately
125 acres of Irnd,. aid iare devoted to the propagation and cultivation
of a wide val icty of useful and ornamental plants from all parts of the
world, primlii rily for the purpose of detcirmining their adaptability and
value under local soil and 'limlaticr conditions, for general propagation
on the Isthmus.
During Il hl year t (li regular long ra nge c expcnriniri tal work at the
garllrdis N as onitilnued. Furthle tests were carrid 1on during tIhe
railnv saisoiri with varivties of vegetasii s wliicli Ia d proved successful
inll ti previous year's I.Xprinlients, imlst of which were inade d Lring
(lie (dry sPiason. Nornullhly, it is very difflicuill to grow ImatiNy (.ypes of
Vi*getbls3 dS (I ilJg-lie 1i lily si siil awliii le w i- ting rains, occurring
almost daily, crush the tender plants to the grounil. Once the plants
ptiss the juvenile stage (lie rains are usuiily not as injurious but tihe
hrnidlity anld arpiness milke a perfect setting for tlie growth of the
niiriads of fungi spores which are waiting to a attack the plants.
Good results were obtained with several varieties of toniatoes, ap-
proxiriatfely 90 percent of 1lhe plants reaching maturity. Good
sucCcess also was obiainrl from a variety of string bean (Striped
Crenasebualek), several valritiles of raIdisies, eggplant, okra, and sum-
mner squash. Experinmnltil plants were made of four varieties of
siovMabin, with one variety (Sciiniiole) proving superior to the others
in both vigor iand productiveness. A variety of lhybrid field corn
was tested against ie native field c-rn of Puuanma, with the former
proving sullpirior ilt lliou)gli growth of the stalks was not. equal to the
nlative corn.
Ex Inisiv illvestigli ionlls were 111a11e duringg tlie year oin tle papapya
(Caricn P1ipiaya) wlhichl is native to tropical Amnerica although the
excet location of (lie origin is niot known. A report covering an
in vestigation of pa sture blight was received during tlie year from the
pa thologist, Division of Sugar Plant Investigations, Bureau of Plant
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. This inves-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


tigation was conducted in the pastures near Puerto Armuelles,
Republic of Panama.
During the year a small sales store to handle fruits and house
plants was opened in Balboa by the experiment gardens. This was
done as a convenience to the public since tire and gasoline rationing
presented a difficult transportation problem to and from the gardens
which are located some miles from the centers of population. The
store was opened just prior to Christmas, and orders were takeni for
artificial Christmas trees and wreaths for delivery during Christmas
week. Emphasis was placed on these items as it was felt that they
would most nearly supplement items which recently arrived employees
would miss at that season of the year, and which, due to transporta-
tion difficulties, could not be brought in from the United States.
Large 6 to 12-foot trees were made to meet the needs of civic units
such as churches, U. S. 0. clubs, post exchanges, and hospitals.
Camouflage and landscape work was performed in connection with
the United States Army construction program. Landscape work
also was carried forward in the new towns of Diablo Heights, Cocoli,
and Margarita.
CLUBHOUSES
The Panama Canal clubhouses, which are operated on a self-
supporting basis, comprise activities designed to provide at reason-
able rates restaurant and ieirevtitional facilities for Govern meant
personnel and their families. These activities, particularly the res-
taurants, have undergone considerable expansion during the current
period of construction and war activity on the Isthmus. Since a
large percentage of the personnel brought to the Isthmus to engage
in construction activities have necessarily come without their families
the problem of feeding them has devolved largely upon the club-
houses. Further, the clubhouse facilities are used extensively by
members of the armed forces stationed on the Isthmus.
All of these factors have resulted in much overcrowding in all the
clubhouses, particularly in the larger ones loctited in the terminal
areas of Balboa and Cristobal. To meet the situation it has been
necessary to enlarge the restaurants in a number of clubhouse
buildings.
Although it is possible that the present increased deiiiund has made
it necessary to expand the restaurant favilitiis beyond normal ineds
in some cases, these can at relatively small cost be altered to permit
of economical operation with reduced patroiniig after the current
expansion program has subsided. In the event that surplus space is
thereby made available it will be utilized for otlier purposes.
During the fiscal year 1943 the total revenues of the clubhouses
increased about 44 percent over the preceding year and were about
seven times those of recent years which may be taken as normal.






REPORT (IF' GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Ov.r (i;( percent of the bnisiiri'ess was inll tlie restaurants, the balance
I'illl"il from Ill fIl hed1i1ise sa lu*S (tobi*co, candy, etc.), from motion
pictrll es, InI1dI fitroml illi('sCellit leo1lls ot Iher seivICeS Of the1 cl) houses,
**iirli ais Silliming Iouls, b)OwHIlig, 111id iilliards. EFfrective 'March 1,
-1943, the iitliriiiiistrationi of clulboll)ii built for the third locks con-
strilctioll mlis tiisfT'rr dI from the special enilgillfcrinig division to the
P11ln11a1l ( limIIl ClIubhIose"s.
LEGISLATION
A111iln g tl las circled bl the C congresss duiirig the fiscal year 1943
Liirl*i rITi to or l)l)l.ipp Y lli the Canl Zolln, or affect The Plianama
Ci2ll in. iiid Hi bli ire of iii)ort iine oif iltvcrest, are those d( scribed
below.
An ilct aippI[rIUv Corigirs., liIIldcd ti ( '2111iml Zone Coide retiremntiit provisions so as
to aIdopt aippropria tce provisions of Publicd Law 411, Seveciit-seventh
('oilgress, approved Jluiamiry 24, 1942, W1hich amelnd11 d t lie Civil
Serviri Re tirellieclt Act.
Ali jiet iipproved October 1, 1942. Public Law 72.5, Seveity-scventi
Coiriirnss, aiiintlet I li Calina Zone C'ode in relation to tlhe control
of ll riliull tiilii.
A.ll alt approved Decenmber 2, 1942, Puilic Laiw 784, Sevevinth-
ev''rllntlli Congress, ((I) iimended the Defense Base Act of A ugust 16,
1941, so as to extend the provisions of the IiongshorninIen's and
Harbor Workers' Compensation Acti to contractors' einplo.yLes and
employees in military or naval areas in tlhe Canal Zone, and (b)
provided compensation benefits for contractors' empl yves in the case
of inj lry, dLentll, or detniition resultinll frolll war-risk hazards or
ene il An iit aip)prvm-vd December 11, 1942, Public Law 797, seventy-
rventh Conigriss, cited as (lthe Opium Poppy Control Act of 1942,
provided for the control of the production and distribution of the
opiu)ll t poppy d11( its proiIdulcts, and was Iliade expressly applicable to
the C1l ii2l Zone.
An act 1appr-oved December 22. 1942, Public Law 821, seventy-
.*n iit ? Congress, extended to April 30, 1943, the then existing au-
1114t11iy to piy overtime compIlllsaitionll to -ertain employees and also
extiritidld said til authority so as to cover gelneralIly aill civilian em-
[)tl yv hUziii, including aiibistiintially all gold-roll employees of the Canal-
Railroad orluiiziltioll who were not prvioiisly entitled to overtillme
r(1ilIimtiSiltion sulujt'l ct tao l proviSiolls tlit such overtime should
be COmlpuijed oi that portion of the e1ilplovee's basic pay not
ext dining $2,9010) or that tlt basic compensation plus overtime of the
iililV yc 10 slioild 110tot xecetd $.5,000 per ainliui .






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


An act approved May 7, 1943, Public Law 49, seventy-eighth
Congress, effective May 1, 1943, authorized the payment of over-
time compensation to Government employees on substantially the
same basis as the act of December 22, 1943, to which reference is
made above, with the exception that the $5,000 limitation contained
in the act of December 22, 1943, was eliminated and some changes
were made in the computation of overtime and additional compensa-
tion in the cases of part-time, intermittent, and irregular employees.
This act will terminate on June 30, 1945, or such earlier date as
Congress may prescribe.

CAPITAL ALLOTMENTS, FISCAL YEAR 1944

The appropriations for 1944 carried $517,800 for improvements
and betterments and for the replacement of worn-out or excessively
deteriorated facilities as follows:
Improvements and additions, Corozal Hospital $109, 800
Launches for Marine Division 43, 000
Filling area between Panama Railroad tracks and Gaillard Highway,
Balboa roundhouse to Curundu River .----------- ----____---- 90, 000
Field office, distribution shop, and storage area, electrical division,
Cristobal----- ---- ---- ----------- ----- --- ----------------- 75, 000
Quarters for interns and residents, Gorgas Hospital ------------ 80, 000
Additional oil lines on piers, Cristobal -----_--------__------ --__ 120, 000

Total ------------_ ----- --------- ----------_ --- --_- $517, 8C0
ImIrpr rmenti /s and aCiiff;ftII., Cf -r al Hospital.-The two boilers
which supplied steam necessary for kitchen, laundry, and other
hospital operations at Corozal Hospital have been declared unfit for
service and must be replaced. The old frame structure in which the
boilers are now housed would require extensive rebuilding before it
could be used to house the new boilers, and so it has been considered
more economical to build a new structure than to attempt to remodel
the existing one. Of the funds appropriated in this item, $48,300
will be used for purchase and installation of replnicenment boilers and
construction of a new boiler house.
As a result of the encroachment on dining-room space the past few
years, some 200 patients must be fed in wards; this condition is
extremely unsatisfactory, inasmuch as the hospital is not equipped to
serve meals there. Of this appropriation $39,500 is to be used for
construction of a new building for office and related activities of the
hospital, thereby restoring the dliining room to its original e;ipacity of
312 seats.
It is necessary to house the attendants on the hospital grounds in
order to have the hospital force inmediaitely available in the event, of
an emergency. As present facilities are inadequate, some of the male






REPORT 01' GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


iaf inttIts I ian v e bI ten houtisel in wards wit II ti patients, while some of
fi(e feiale Ii a tedrida nts must live way firn l the hIospital. In order to
correct these conditions, new (quarters building to cost $22,000 will
hII provided fur the fr e fnle aiteritlidants a1nd tihe spnce relinquished by
Ohem will be assigned If t lhe nmale attendants presently living in the
hospital wards.
Lmuichu.v'f fur M.lrin Diri.ion.-This appropriation provides for
the rplipiceinent of two Mnarlln Division launclhes wlihich are now so
dclie-rieonlted f Ill Ic i vlillot )te removed from Llie \vwIer for routine
blt (oin cl.afiilir lbnccnuse their hullks ire too weak to withstand support.
iisliore. Iicrcsd Ivartinie activity in CanlI waters, in addition to
reiir I ulill lr niilsportatiot for Ilie ilaunmliire, postal, customs, and(
ilher personnel involved in shipping activities, requires that (lithe
Mairiii Division flict li' kept working 24 hours a day, with minimum
intrlerrplion for nrcssiilly service annId upkeep.
Fill (Iref hfiMi, I'tr Pn, m, Ro1ri1oal tfraek.s and Gaillard Iqithluway,
Bfithiml ri/nihliIu.sI to C'urnuniu RIrf r.-Suiitnlale ground for necessary
vxtenisiion of lbothli closed and open storiig' niiaille necessary for the
mantveriiils iind supplies required by .rmy, Navy, und Canal units on
the Pacific side is to be provided by tlie contilinlition of this recliima-
t ion program, I-begun in 1937.
Fieldl office, d (',r.sfivhl.-In order to provide buildings iiand yard spice of such size
llhat tlie various units of the electrical division at Crist.obil may per-
form their several functions adequatt.- cly, this appropriation provides
for the construction of a plant at Mount Hope at a graded area where
waiter and sewer lines have already been installed.
Quarters fir internris amnd r(.sidfint.s, Gorgas Ilospital.-With ithe
renlargement, of military giarrisonu and tlie expansion of Army, Navy,
1111d Ca nail activities, it bciinme necessary to re-occupy, for tleir origi-
Ial purpose, the rserv( wirds which had been usd been to house internes
iind rcsidn lt attend nIs of the hIospitail. This appropriaition provides
for tlie construction of hioiising facilities for these employees immedi-
ately ai(djilciit to the liospi(il, thus insuring their availability in the
even t of emergency sitluat ions.
1ddfi'i,,nil oil ;lines on piers, (r.'sfiai.-The importance of adequate
hiiunkering fruiilities at CaInial Zone docks hns grvntily increased since
the dcclAiir itin of war, just as has tlie necessity for ma king tlhe fullest
possibhleI use of all vessels l)v obviat ing avoidable delays. Funds in this
approprintion i re to bv used to provide outlets for bunkering both
fuel oil and Diesel nil at all berths, thus nimaking available these vitally
inportan t, flicilitics.














SECTION IV

GOVERNMENT

The civil government of the Canal Zone is conducted as prescribed
in the Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912, and subsequent acts
and Executive orders made applicable to the Canal Zone. Whenever
practicable, governmental functions have been assigned to depart-
ments in the organization established for the operation and mainte-
nance of the Canal. Complete cooperation and increased efficiency
are derived from such coordination of functions.
Data on expenses and revenues of various features of the Canal
operation and Government are contained in the financial and statisti-
cal statement in section V of this report.

AREA OF THE CANAL ZONE

The total area of the Canal Zone,' with areas segregated for various
purposes, is shown as of June 30, 1943:
Square
miles
Land area of the Canal Zone ------------------------------------ 362. 01
Water area of the Canal Zone (inclusive of Madden Lake to -- 260-foot
contour) -----------------..---------------- -------------------- 190. 94

Total area of the Canal Zone --------------------------------- 552. 95

Land areas, military and naval reservations (inclusive of revocable-
license area):
Military reservations_ --------------------------------- --- 87. 20
Naval reservations_-----_--_-- _-_- __-__------ -- 11. 80
Land areas, Canal Zone townsites, and areas in active use (exclusive of
Army and Navy posts)< ----------------__----------- 15. 26
Barro Colorado Island- ---------------------------------------- 5. 71
Forest preserve------------------------------------------------ 5. 47
Swamps ---------------------__------___---- __ ------ --------- 15. 16
Cattle pastures -------------------------------------------------- 41. 80
Commercial leases----------------------------------------------- 51
Third locks project- ----------------------------------------- 72
Usable land _----------------------- --------------------------- 178. 38

Total land area as above------------------------------------ 362. 01
I Not inclusive of noncontiguous areas, with the exception of Paitilla Point military reer' action.
83






S-4 IEPIOIT 1- ( ;cOV\-:NOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

POPULATION

A.\ Ilire-lio-i ise ailivlss of (r civil populll ion of thle Callial Zone
% l-- riiilt lbv the piiig f(oive (luring Ii 1mIonthi of June 1943. Tilhis
'-niaii n-'.. i14li'irdi riniplyioy*s of 111e Arkiii' 1111a Navy, at(i nimnibers of
f1ililic f- Arii y and Nll v )ily )ri-ilsoilll, hult omlliltl the commissioned,
\\ trlhlIII 11i111nld i.td *I -Joli4111111. The following is ii siluliafry of the
piipluila ion by di-lt n .:

Americans All nII hlerr
All w T tal
I .-n 'S.Inerii childreni .1 n MaI.n1 Iun Chlildlrren

li ill : ii...! i rir i ._' x. t.i 14. '.9 K.I 3 41 37. 9921
I n l.. l dl. r l0 I *.*n ll 7 4, ll I. : 4 l 19.21
I ...I.r 24 1 21 1 I 2 251
'I =:51 ilnhiabllants June
114 3. 11. VI'.i 46 .'.. r,1 21. WA .. 4v. 1. 7. 4n2 5., 3m1
Totl i lilit l.]ii*i i JIIM-
1 2........... 11.34 5, 07 3. 379 21. .. 81

The li todil of 57.3901 inilhabi1it nfts for Jiuni 1943 rvprer;cnted an
1iiinrise of 1.'91)M, or 3.4 pi'ircnt, over the 1942 figure. The civil
polipillIa Ioil l at at varNv .lhig level iat the present Iimle. lniing about
hiliile t. hli t of 4 y grs o. Tie present high figur results from the
lii rg. i flux of p-rsoi ill- to work on Plli'rgi riy proj cts of tle Army,
Nity and Piairii i Cilialm. Tilt- iicrlliise has h111 plartiuhicarly
11111 i'k il il mlen ill the all other" 'groIp in tihe thle above; these mn(n
illiiipr.l e1noiltnact 11iir1'es imll)port(I from vouiltrit.s in Lice (ijaccent
('2auriblirii airvai. As livr- Iaini rrs will he repaltriiitdl to their Ilnative
lind< t(lt Olwi .\)irlitioll of tleir colitriics and as in2iny of thlt Amer-
1'0i1i; \% Ill ll lr;ve t1 IsIIllt iii at the or' ipletion of tile work for which
Ira W per giijie erg,. lie Ilfr''P incrieaisr iIn population is of a I ilcpor'iry
1111 t l ire.
fIi mli itili to I li aihove, 1,4I) Aincricaniin plovyees (475 mniin,
,514 woiirii indil 477 dihildreii) werv residing in Gover lnment quarters
ii N\w ( Cri-1tabil in the Repuiiic of Panami in June 1943.

PUBLIC HEALTH

(C iirl II 1ii-miti omiilltgiiis Il tlqe C(-inal Zone and in the terminal
v1ii-; (if PRfiiinin?]i 2rid Colon i lt eli Repuibli of Paniamia have ireninined
iliiri 11111cu for the ipast few years. TheIe v were tio epidemics of com-
iiiiiifliiill gIi-'1111 excvpi ing aii outbreak of mumps, principally in
lie iV ofi Pliiiiiilnia allld, 1o a lesser extent, il tihe Canal Zone.
11irgarilii hospital wl iichli was opened in June 1942 gradually in-
'riiisd its lidtivilirs (liuring llia Veiir. Two Hi a(I(itionril 25-bed wards
w vri' onstruigcth ait. set ion E, Corgils Hospital, and two additional
2.-5'.-il wan l at (olon ihlospital. At Corozal Hospital an 80-bed
ward biildin.g was toist rueI id. All of these additions were occupied
dlrinig l lire elir.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Although four first-aid stations were closed due to cessation or
completion of work on various construction projects, two new sta-
tions were placed in operation-one in the mechanical division area,
Balboa, in October, and the other at Mount Hope, in April, to pro-
vide first-aid treatment for the large number of employees working
in these areas.
During the period October 1942 to April 1943, 30,356 persons were
given a complete series of typhoid inoculations. In July the sum of
$19,050 was advanced by the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs
and in October the sum of $108,100 was advanced by the Federal
Works Agency, for the purpose of establishing a venereal disease
control program in the Canal Zone and Panama. In addition, two
clinic buildings-one at Colon Hospital and one at Gorgas Hospital-
were constructed from funds provided by the Federal Works Agency
in connection with the Venereal Disease Control Program.
During June 1943, the quarantine station at the port of Balboa was
moved from its former location in vicinity of Fort Amador to the
new buildings which had been constructed in the vicinity of Corozal
Hospital.
A program for the control of Aedes aegypti in Panama City was
initiated in November and the progress being made warrants the
establishment of similar programs for the Canal Zone and the city
of Colon.
VITAL STATISTICS

The morbidity and mortality rates from diseases and injuries and
other vital statistics relating to the population of the Canal Zone
and the cities of Panama and Colon, are set forth in detail in the
calendar year report of the health department, which is published
annually in booklet form. For this reason, only a few tables are
included in this report, and the data pertaining to vital statistics are
limited to a brief resume of death rates, birth rates, and infant mor-
tality rates. Statistics relating to military personnel are omit ted in
the tables following.
General death rate.-The death rate for the Canal Zone is artificially
low because employees generally leave the Isthmus after retirement,
and prior to 1941 a large number of relatively young soldiers were
included in the population figures on which the r Ltes were computed.
Below are shown death rates by yearly periods for the past 5 years:

Death rate per 1,000 population-all causes
Calendar year
1942 1941 1940 1939 1938

Canal Zone ---------------- ---- ---- 6.24 18.57 6.43 6.32 5.79
Panama City ------------------------------------- 10.62 11.43 11.50 11.93 12.36
Colon-------- ------------------------------------ 12.13 15.00 U1.04 11.57 16.03
1 Omits Army and Navy personnel.






Si) I'EPORT Ol- (. VEKNOIRI OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Prin'l pq1l cu-ii I f Ii 'I ixti. t Th1 e eight principal cii uses of deia th in
i*i*li rif tIe grnilip-, af pupit ifill \vIer IIS fiillWS:

Numibwr of deaths and annual ratn i> r I. IMI population-
calhndar yeur I'A 1.

1 *.iiml l / r l':i]LIL :i ( 1f I I** i

LI III IINN ) 0 er ( n r .1114 e

I'try 1 r thIt I* r. r, ii .11 I 1i I .
fl IIIli .. '
1i l*1 !I' .- (atrti ntl chronlitt' .. ,i11 11.* 1 1

I l, rr l..- II 71 I 1 14
*-. 1t.. I-' i" HI l .h
I *ir l.. nnl sa tivie ti . I ;i I.7 1 1 .(11


Birth nlfi. Prior to tli' Inlst 2 yvilrs the Cllianl Zone white birth
il ( ii ;II(\' ill tlit .stliltistics was if ici tillv l( \v, si letn la crge i mber
Of A. i-'y IliI .' IVy ciilibstied Inli wer iilclui'dedl iil tlir popu laltionf
fi1rir I* i u-(*d ill voillpilttillil of theI riitI. A tOi, lHe color'ld pii))iiliioil
ilKi'llid a hlig I iof)(rt)lilo of ill.nloyrI'. in the oltdier 11a1g gfro i, aS
011vl c(ll0 freil ('1 1JI IViv.; with illorn llui ll iiv a'eraget' Ilgtlih Of sern ie'
firi1 ;Ib1b to -wm*Il re s-i-ii4lliilnt to (quarters ill til'i Calil1 Zonre. Ti11.
lWil1 i rit' for bot1i 11t Ilireclly oiprll m1I'le \Itli tliost. foli pflio)r yir1s 11 s s '141IW l in lie
1inl. hel> w. For the white popilatl ioni a; prv\'iolusly e\ili.iii Is dii to the raict tiihat till. pipiitioin figuirs for til- cilciiuaiir y*ars
V I42 Iaiild I 141 do not inlt'ude Arimy anl Navy Ther*1lll. Tf1n Cll(Ced
p)upiiliilio( 1ii i1 N1-ii iiflaitid 1)v the influx of lorers without their
faI1ilitiIs, imporit*d for coiish iietilon work. The following g table shows
the hi th l itc rlt inI te Caliil Zoilne iiain the terminill citlics of P.Tiri1nnin
mlid ('o11 for tle p.it 5 Y'aiirs:


Live birth rate pr I.1ii0 I o;piular ion

S lena ilir yr r . . . . . ..'l ll 11511 li

Ianal 10-1.i
hi l I- 3 '' 21' 7-. 7 .I 7 t,
. . . . . . . ....... II7 i 1 11 1 4
(Jon bjlt- --. .'X... ... ... .. .......... ii. i..'' 111 7D. In -84
1 1i iT I I I I.. "- A 1 "1.1 I I-N :II r4
S'don ....... 7 ..I ..". II .. ri.......

i '..piill if 1ini bh e eXCludies Army and 1n\ .u ri inni I.

Of tli/ raih Irt ii I/ I'lel ;1/1 1 1 in 1 fi r I/ Ill fy f a iir. 0-Th following
ItIilr '.li -m the inifi it lil 1t Ilily lltes p -r 1,01)) Itirtls for tile past.
5 y i -ir's:







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Death of infants under 1 year of age
per 1,000 live births

Calendar year---------- -----------------------1942 1941 1940 1939 1938

Canal Zone:
White ------ ------------------------------- 22 51 40 31 5
Colored----------------------------------- 53 61 69 87 58
Combined--------------------------------- 38 56 56 65 37
Panama City------------------------------------- 79 89 94 91 78
Colon--------------------------------. -------- 79 97 98 77 99


MALARIA

The rates for malaria among employees only for the past 10 years
are shown below:


Calendar year Rate per Calendar year Rate per

1933 -- ---------------------- 27 1938------------------------------------ 10
1934--------------- --------------------- 16 1939------------------------------------ 14
1935 -------------- ---------------- 15 1940.------------- -------------- 17
1936 ------------------------------------ 12 1941------------------- .. ---- 14
1937 ------------------ ---------------- 12 1942--------------- ---------- ..- 25


There were three deaths from malaria among employees -during the
past year.
HOSPITALS

The number of patient days in Panama Canal hospitals for the past
three fiscal yeanI' has been as follows:


Fiscal year


Gorgas Hospital. -------------------- -...----
Corozal Hospital:
Insane-- --------------. -...--.... -- --
Cripples and chronic medical and surgical cases ---------
Colon Hospital- -.-----------. -----------.-
Margarita Hospital.-------- --- --------------------
Palo Seco Leper Colony---------------... ---. ---
Total-------- ------------- ------- -..- ..-


1

4
1



6


943 1942 1941

27,455 386,563 299,815
07, 886 9Q6, 050 84, 796
34, 744 33, 212 33,326
46, 049 44,019 42, 647
18, 269 495
42, 288 43, 529 46, 103
76,691 603,868 506,687


QUARANTINE AND IMMIGRATION

The increase in air traffic from all directions during the past year
necessitated continued vigilance to prevent the introduction into the
Canal Zone of yellow fever, typhus fever, and other dangerous quaran-
tinable diseases. No cases of these diseases were encountered among
air passengers although the voyage of one pa1sseiiger was intIlrrlupted
on account of typhoid fever and several others were detained until a
determination could be made of the iiaturti of their infections.
Quarantine procedure in connection with aircraft will be carried out







l1HEP'iCT (IF (\0VEI\OI ()F THE PANAMA CANAL


A illt Il ill .JIlV of Itli l y *ar.
'112 t*, ii ..i of (*1re roh ) I Fill! I11iIIIgis i ri e reol lOved from vessels
ji-sii thi111ii.1 1h ll CI1111il. No other (1ase( of qliarllitiilable diseases
1IIl? r~cll tll n *lldt illrii i ll' fi c Ii.
'Ii [ jiifi I Vi)c of I'ullow fl *r Il-coil iniics to Ie 1(eiid nilc in several
riiiiti of Silolid Aiiieiliii. All paiiluis arriviiig from suchl areas
\Ht l.\ 1111i1ilit .'11111 I i. i d i I I d tile I t i1pei ratii s of i)asseigers aind


A. n III -ili elI -' ill t1w ill 11eiil iie of iphus feCve r ill fertlain parts of
MI. \Io uini (Mid %%iniIh ii I ol-i'e(1 ed duiiriiig tile past several months.
Wihlil thl pi'ro i ilrnII. of thli. disi'iise ill the Western IfHemisphere does
not aIrIInImiti tlhe prilOillIl wliilic exists ill Eurasia amnd Africa, The
P iiiiiIIIIi ( 2211i1 IN ent iiil i illinel to prevent its introduction he1re.
In spit of thle dIcrelii in shdippilng, a sizablel illcrease occu rred in
ti1t iliIl1h1),r of fiillii'lltioits or vessels in the Calinl Zone.
In111111iiill )[lrtlio ol ) ii dIIl Ill i the past yeiur w ere revised to
ilmplilove ou0 p)'liillaillt recoIrds. On Jiune 1, 1943, the Balboa Quar-
alintill' Stilt iiI \l i wl- nline1l-d to its 11iew location at Corozal. Thle old
loritimill tit, (tlte cifr:il- t'c to he Claia was leased to tlhe Fifteenllth
N\ivaul Di-strict for the duranition of the war. Persoinnel of the armed
mIT\ illv Were VxcIIIded fromi civililln immigraltion rcconds and d fill- IotIriol clianliii's for such personnel were discontinued .March
13, 1943.
TIen follow iiig is a sirninairy of transactions for the fiscal year 1943,
tofr'i110Ir lit ll the Ifigliles for tlie two precedillg years:


1 1 11 1 r.-1 0 1.1 Ill .. .1
\V. .* I* i'I .*I Irt.lI'L 1,. ra' liu .-.-. .... -.-..--. ---
Total ...... ........... ..
I r. w p`:I- d at *11 i' 1 i iii . .. .. .. . . . .
(ITow -Ilias by r .II. i
I' -.r. *i1 .'.r pnssi'd t i|'i ri r ii il iin. . . . ,
i' II. r --i-is s--l h- r r- -.. . . . . . .
Tt tal.......... . .. . ...... .. ...


:,Ill. .1 irl Ili ir Rtt I[ ill-~t
IfAlr.|Ia i i r Ins te >< I and ipass .i r I i .. ...... . ......
I r. V o .irl 1 ,.r- i -cI and k N'1 it I l .... .... -.. ........ .....
V~ o r -ul | ,ir]ld I* Uin s t ed ani p.assed .. .... .-- ..- -.. .....
T otal. .. .. .... ... .. ..... . . . . . . . .
I * 1- d i.thill .- l I n i i i I t . I . . .. .. .
I re 14 d it1iil *I irn il r ll? 11 ..n hartid shlip .... .. ............ .

11 I1i11 r i f d tention '1 1\ I It tt io n ,11 .wimI tl -( II ii.>IrII III I.I.Ii
r lll l it i l III r L-. 1- I Il l l s *I 1.1 *I- r*I Ill. i - . .
I'. r-.n.rl I I .r I i\ i i iI II.n i 'i. lr. 1. i" *1 .. . . .... . ...
I' r- il *I ]-.rt. *I iln r 1i fii ri l .11 law s ... .
ui -I d.1.' i Ii i iii 'i 1 11t< n ..( \. i-r % .
Vw.ill ,s f-ra illl -I .- ... .-


FI IIIl year

1943 194 1V41

.'., 4 I 3.9i21 ...i.5
-----. --.... I J 165
2. 44 3.9.50 rW.018
141..'d .5. Jit. 27. 6i40
I 7.251 4-2.873
..s.. | 11 1 ', 11:1. Il J4
... J7' 332
197,3006 324. 98 446, 79
2, '..2 1,619 1,164
1I. i'.iI *.. nil 5. 021
3.1.. i2 *i .31 Ili. 749
44,713 27.43 1i..120

10 .... .....
5 .~......... ............
I --..----- --- .-- .---- ---
5. 331 25, 1,792
7,:. 751 F16". 739 2). 00
W96 655 815
4,819 5,798 2.369
3, 5BI 3, 33:17 4,0s7
68 45 42






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 89

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING

Municipal work carried on during the year included the construction
and imaiiiteinace of roads, streets, sidewalks, and the maintenance
and operation of water and sewer systems, and miscellaneous construc-
tion jobs. In the past few years, there has been a large increase in the
amount of construction work performed by the municipal enginetiring
division of The Panama Canal for the Army and Navy, private con-
tractors, and for The divisions of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. Only the major items of this work are covered in this
report, although the aggregate value of the large number of smaller
items runs into many hundreds of thousands of dollars.

TESTING LABORATORY

A well-equipped labon-itoiry was maintained for the making of
chemical and bacteriological analyses of water, chemical analyses of
different materials, concrete tests for selection of suitable aggregates
for coincrctr, tests to determine the stability of different materials and
supplies for Canal uses, the issuance of permits for work in the holds
of ships and oil tanks, soil and pirme;ibility tests, etc.
During the year the testing laboratory carried on a variety of work,
making a total of 10,156 tests in connection with 8,618 varied samples.
This included 927 tests on water and 5,923 on concrete for various
purposes. Other tests were made on building materials, petroleum
products, various metals, etc., while inspections were made of swim-
ming pools, ships, tanks, etc.

WATER SYSTEM

Consumption of water for municipal uses during the past 3 fiscal
years was as follows:

1943 1942 1941

Gallons Gallons Gallons
Canal Zone ---------------------------------------- 7, 980, 664, 000 6,568, 125, 550 4, 696, 732, 000
City of Panana ---------------------------------------- 2,666, 519,000 2,432,916,000 2,133, 841, 000
City of Colon ------------------------------------------ 1, 191, 134, 000 1,014,392, 000 '7'., O(.. 00
Sales to vessels---------------------------------- ------ 201,627,298 193, 650,000 208, 407, 000
Total -------------------------- ---------- 12,039,944,298 10,209,083,550 8, 009, 056,000


679129-46---7






IPolufl ilM. (.liVEHNol O)F THE PANAMA CANAL


The foll witm Iil' ffntelirrlit hii\\%s the quantity of water pumped at
i-'i 1 o 1 lir* pllulill I Ill%6lll% durillng the year, average per Imonth,



I 'I i r i*r minl i I( valllhnin fur
llr pumping
1*In1l. 1. 1. ii.! 4.. 4, 771. l i.l l ,j !%:I." I linn 4)l ImjUgA
M1 r ill*r. r. I t 3, 147, .1.:! InI i x. .2 .131M0
I %ll.> r. 4, 1iI I. l IId. imii .44;. i71 a (mI.340
I ir n b.. ni ,Lk. .. I1ll 7. A .4 0*X) 2.r7. ."*.. (mn 1153W1)
I- ir i .. . .s l.. u.i 77 000 u1 4.mm .02800
I u r tl- I. I. !,I 77.1 16, 14. IN I i 28(UT
3, 4C mI(I WI l
A1 :i < : A ir k. ?. ..'..7'.'H llin N),7N. (Wn!( .l7KCM49
M ..]|t. I r I.. n Lk . ..... L. Ilih A ill 7.IIH .5042X
I rij I i ... ...... 3, 'U(-. 1itm I94 Ii1 .537240
..... .'. ... I 1 J I, i. ..,ji.. .......................


A -uiii1 lilltiatioli pinlt %\%-it ojp-ntcted at MalddceJ Dami to supply
\\;iatr for users iill that lo:lity. A total of 19,9(0,000 gallons were
lilt rcld nil dlistriluedil. RIalw water for this plirnt is pumiiiped from
Mitlileii Like.
Omitliiin thic waterwhih wiich \\s repumped from the total listed above,
12.137,0(14 22.1 nI irilltoii i of raw wit Ir, an average (of 33,252,000 gallons
per dtiy, Were pPlinieil by the 1IiIl tistal year. All pumpl are elect rically driven except those at Frijoles,
loiite Lirio, 111ii AgiI Clar\\la ichl ;i're driven by gasoline e1iigileS.
'Ihr ii-1i il lilli iiii:iltice w\Iork wais p)erlforllIedl 011o the pipe lilies,
i-n- \oir-, filtraktion plants, ii1nd J)uIm|)ing stations during tihe year.
In addition, Ircziilir niiiiiiteIImilei \Work lwas performIed on ii numberr of
'sp ecil prIoj ct S.

EXP1\\1ION OF w.T'ER SUiPPLY FACILITIES

Wi1 l on the expiii iiiii of water sui )])1y Incilitiest as described in
tle :Illnial rel) (mI)lpl iiti d-liii 1043. Th-e total expIedltitvre ofi this expansion
of the tuitr r iirilitir*s will be approximately $4,170,000, which is
hv-iln liinin-1rd by Tilie. PainnIna Canal, Army, and Navy. The en-
li 1rcld wai ter I ,t v in i ncr.iis the ni rated water capacity from 15,500,000
IDlInIIi-, per day to 2:;.000,000 gallons per tliday onl the Pacific side, and
frnomi 10,."ii IIO.( 1 giilhI1 iper day to 14,500,000 gallons per day oin the
.\tlanritic Hide.
()n the P"cific -il.e of the Isthlmus thli principal work accomplished
luriill' t.h1 year on this I111r .iipply priograml1 included the completion
rf tile (linhiij raiw Wli*I'I pmIIIp slalitllti; i new iiitake structure at
( I lirii I pIrlli ill.' I- n-l e- riH(iCtllt 1e Of t1le new pumps; anid com-
jilIl'l1 of tllhe Mili [1re'. filliratinll pllait and pumlip station, including
tlir ll, "iltl i'iid iistmilhiiliu of piutinmps, sitcliear, flucculators, and




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