• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the governor of the Panama...
 Section I: Canal operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Administration
 Section IV: Government
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00015
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Binder13 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
    Report of the governor of the Panama Canal
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Section I: Canal operation and trade via Panama
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 34b
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 36b
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 54b
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Section III: Administration
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Section IV: Government
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 88b
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Back Cover
        Page 159
        Page 160
Full Text









































































7 IIII7*kl












UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY











































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from Lyrasis and the Sloan Foundation


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofgol930cana












z
a









40
z
w
Im



w
f-.
2)



z
<







z








ow






UZ
J-L















U
0I
W


z-








l Ul
0 <



















z
U)
0 0




0 M
;: zi
0 i




u

0



Sz
X r









ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE


GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL

FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30


1930


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1930


For sale by the Superintendent of Do' umpnits. Wnsihington, D. C. - - Price 20 centa














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Summary -------------------------------------------------------- 2
Business operations ------------------------------------------ 2
Net revenue of the canal and its auxiliaries ---------------------- 3
Services rendered by the canal to shipping------- ---------------- 4

SECTION I.-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA PANAMA
Traffic in 1930------------------------------------------------------ 5
Proportion of tanker traffic------------------------------------- 7
Proportion of tank ships to total traffic --------------------- 8
Proportion of tanker tonnage to total tonnage --------------- 8
Proportion of tolls from tank ships to tolls from all vessels- 8
Tanker cargoes----------------------------------------------- 9
Nationality of vessels------------------------------------------ 9
Tons of cargo carried -------------------------------------- 10
Commercial traffic through the Panama Canal, by nationality of
vessels------------------------------------------------- 11
Net tonnage of vessels----------------------------------------- 11
Vessels entitled to free transit and launches of less than 20 tons net
measurement---------------------------------------------_ 12
Trade routes and cargo ---------------------------------------- 12
Cargo shipments through the Panama Canal during the past four
fiscal years, segregated by principal trade routes------------ 13
Principal commodities----------------------------------------- 14
Commodity movement:
Atlantic to Pacific--------------------------------------- 15
Pacific to Atlantic--------------------------------------- 15
Classification of vessels------------------------- ------------- 18
Laden and ballast shliips ---------------------------- 18
Miscellaneous high records------------------- ------------------ 20
Data in statistical section (Sec. V)-------------------------- 21
Dual measurement system ---------------------. -------------------- 21
Hours of operation ----------------------___...--------------------------- 24
Operating hours for complete transit-----------------------. ------ 24
Limits for starting on partial transit----------------------------- ...._ 25
Lockages and lock maintenance------------------------------------- 25
Gatun locks...... -------------------..... -----------------------------25
Pacific locks-------------------------------------------------- 26
Power for canal operation ------------------------------------------...... 27
Water supply_-----------_-__ 28
Dry season--------------------------------------------------- .....29
Additional water storage at Alhajuiiela (Madden Dam) ..-------------..... 29
Seismiology -------------------------------------------------------- .... 31
Maintenance of channel and improvement projects-------------------- 32
Improvement. project No. 1--.---.-------------------------------........ 33
Improvement project No. 2 ------------_..............------------------------ 34
II
6 7/73






IV TABLE OF CONTENTS

Maintenance of channel and improvement projects-Continued. Page
Improvement project No. 3-------------------------------------- 34
Improvement project No. 9-----------------------------------... 35
Future improvement projects----------------------------------.. 35
Project. No.4-------------------------------------------- 35
Project No. 5--------------------------------------------- 35
Project No. 6--------------------------------------------- 36
Disposition of excavated material ---------------------------... 36
Equipment.. --- -------------------------------------------- 36
Ferry service----------------------------------------------------- 37
Slides----------------------------------------------------------- 37
West Culebra slide-------------------------------------------- 37
East. Culebra slide------------------------------------------37
Cucaracha slide.. ---------------------------------------------- 38
South Cucaracha slide ----------------------------------------- 38
Cucaracha village slide----------------------------------------- 38
Cuearacha signal station slide----------------------------------- 38
West Lirio slide----------------------------------------------- 38
East Lirio slide ---------------------------------------------- 38
East barge repair slide----------------------------------------- 38
Southwest La Pita slide --------------------------------------- 38
West Whiteliouse slide ---------------------------------------- 39
Aidsto navigation ---___------------------------------------------- 39
Accidents------------------------------------------------------- 40
Salvage operations--____-------------------------------------------- 41
Rules and regulations---------------------------------------------- 42

SECTION II.-BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Mechanical and marine work-------------------------------------- 43
Amount of work completed------------------------------------- 43
Origin of work completed ------------------------------------ 43
Dry docks and marine work------- ----------------------------- ----- 44
Other w ork ------------------------------------------------ 45
Plant-----......-------------------------------------------------- 47
Financial _------------------------------------------------ 48
Coal--- -------------------------------------------------------- 49
Fuel oil, Diesel oil, gasoline, kerosene -------------------------------- 49
General comment------------------------------------------- 49
Fuel oil------------------------------------------------------ 50
Diesel oil---------------------------------------------------------------- 50
Gasoline--------------------------------------------------- 50
Kerosene----------------------------------------------------------- 50
Ship chandlery and other storehouse supplies ------------------------- 50
Purchases and sales in the United States----------------------------- 51
Harbor terminals-...---------------------------------------------- 52
Commissary division _-------_------------------------------------- 53
Sales------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
Purchases- ------------------------------------------------- 54
Place of purchase ---------------------------------------- 54
Manufacturing plants, etc ------------------ ------------------ 54
Bakery--_---------------------------------------------- 54
Coffee-roastingplant- ------------------------------------ 54
Ice-cream and milk-bottling plant ------------------------------- 54






TABLE OF CONTENTS V

Commissary division-Continued.
Manufacturing plants, etc-Continued. Page
Ice plant------------------------------------------------- 54
Sausage factory and pickling department- -------------------- 54
Industrial laboratory ------------------------------------- 55
Abattoir------------------------------------------------- 55
Laundry ------------------------------------------------- 55
Hotels and restaurants--------------------------------------------- 55
Building construction and maintenance------------------------------ 55
Quarters for employees --------- ----------------_-__---_------ 56
Cold employees ----------------------------------------- ----- 56
Silver employees -..--------------------------------------------- 56
Lands and buildings.----------------------------------------------- 56
Panama Railroad Co. lands and leases--------------------------- 56
Licensed agricultural lands in the Canal Zone--------------------- 57
Motor and animal transportation -.-----_--------------------------- 57
Panama Canal press----------------------------------------------- 58
Farm industries------------------------------------------------- 58
Plantations -------_------------------------------------------- 58
Dairy farm ----------------------------------------------- --- 58
Cattle------------------------------------------------------- 58
Canal Zone experiment, gardens--------------------------------- 59
Telephones and telegraphs ----------------------------------------- 60
Operations with Panama Railroad funds ---------------------------- 60
Panama Railroad Co---------------------------------------------- 61
Canal Zone for orders------------------------------------------ 61
Panama Railroad Steamship Line------------------------------- 62

SECTION III.-ADMINISTRATION
Departments ----------------------------------------------------- 63
Operation and maintenance------------------------------------ 63
Supply-----------------..-------------------------------------... 63
Accounting-------------------------------------------------- 63
Executive ---------------------------------------------------- 63
Health----------------------------------------------.-------..-... 64
Changes in organization and personnel------------------------------- 64
Force employed--....------------------------------------------------- .. 65
Department of operation and maintenance----------------------- 66
Office -..-------------------.... ----_--..--------- 06
Electrical division---------------------------------------- -------..--66
Municipal engineering division.. -------__------- ..------_--_. 66
Lock operation ------------------------------------------- 67
Dredging divisi-on.---------------__----....... --------------- 67
Mechanical division--------------------------------------- 67
Marine division ---------_--_-----------.-_------------. 67
Fortifications division-----------------------..--------------- 67
Supply department --------- -------------------..----------- 67
Quiarternanster-----------------------......--------------------- 67
Motor transportation division- ----------------------------- 67
Health department---------------------------------------------............. 67
ExCcutive department----------------------------------------- 67
Panama Railroad Co, -- ..---- ------ _- --.-- ----------------- 67
Transportation --------------------------...-----........ 67
Receiving and forwarding agency----------.---------------- 67
Coaling stations ------------------------------------------- 67






VI TABLE OF CONTENTS

Force employed-Continued. Page
General --------------------------__--___________----------------------- 68
Recruiting and turnover of force. ---------------__--________-------------- ____ 68
Gold employees ------------------------__________----------------- 68
Silver employees-----..--------------------__---------------__. 69
Wage adjustmients..____------------------------------___----------------__________ 69
Gold employees.- ---------------------_---------_--____-----------__. 69
Alien employees on the silver roll ------------------- _------------_ 71
Complaints board-----------------..._-----------------------------_____ 72
Public amusements and recreation ----------------------------__- 72
Astronomical observatory-...-.-------------------------------- 74
Administrativeproblems- ---------------- -------___----------------- 74
Madden Dam and Reservoir- --------------------------------- 74
Highway and ferry across canal ----------------------------- 75
Quarters for employees-------------------------- -_ 75
Other structures --------------- ------- 76
Retirement and superannuation---------- -------------_ 76
Capacity of the canal-----------.----------_ 77
Basis of levy of tolls-------- ---------------------------------.. 77
Equity of present tolls-------------- ----_ 78

SECTION IV.-GOVERNMENT
Population. ------------------------------------------------------79
Public health --------------------------------------------------81
Malaria.. ---------------------------------------------------81
Canal Zone --------------------------------------------...--. 83
Panama City ---------------------------------------- ----------83
Colon----------------------------------------------------__. 84
Canal hospitals --------------------------------------------- 84
Quarantine and immigration service--------------------------------- 85
Municipal engineering-------------------------------------------. 86
Water system------------------------------------------ --- 87
Sewer system --------------------------------------..-------- 87
Roads, streets, and sidewalks, maintenance and construction of-- 88
Canal Zone---------------------------------------------- 88
Panama and Colon---------------------------------------- 88
Madden Road------------------------------------------------ 88
Arraijan Road---...---------------- ---------------------------- 90
Trans-Isthmian highway survey-------------------------------- 91
Water purification plants and testing laboratory-.------------------ 91
Public order--------------------------------------------------- 91
District, attorney,oie office ----------------------------------------93
District court----------------------------------------------------- 93
Marshal ----------------------------------------------------- 94
Magistrates' courts------------------------------------------------ 84
Balboa.--..------------------------------------------------- 94
Cristobal---------------------------------------------------- 94
Fire protection---------------------------------------------------- 94
Public-school system---------------------------------------------- 95
School survey------------------------------------------------ 96
White schools------------------------------------------------ 96
Colored schools --.-------------------------------------------- 97
Postal system---------------------------------------------------- 97
Air mail service--------------------------------------------98






TABLE OF CONTENTS VII

Page
Customs-------------------------------------------------------------------- 100
Prohibited aliens -------------------------------------------------- 101
Shipping commissioner-seamen -...------------------------------------ 101
Administration of estates- ----------------------------------------- 102
Licenses and taxes----------------------------------------------- 102
Immigration visas------------------------------------------------ 102
Relations with Panama-------------------------------------------- 102
Commercial aviation ---------------------------------------------- 103
Codification of laws of the Canal Zone----------------------------- 103

SECTION V.-FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS

For list. of tables, see page -- ---------------------------------------- 105













LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Frontispiece.
Madden Dam project. View looking down Chagres River from site of gravel
plant. Dam site is at bend in distance, where bluff on right bank has been
cleared.
Plate 1. Improvement project No. 2, Gaillard Cut. View looking southward
from station B, east bank, showing completed project, May 15,
1930. Gold Hill.in background, left center.
2. Improvement project No. 3, Gaillard Cut and Chagres crossing.
View looking northward from east bank, station No. 3 (1514),
December 3, 1929.
3. Albrook Field. View looking northward from Sosa Hill, showing
completed hydraulic fill, February 26, 1930.
4. Tug Indio, constructed in Panama Canal shops. Diesel engine
shipped from United States and installed at Balboa.
5. Administration Building at Cristobal. Houses governmental offices
at Atlantic end of canal.
6. Bachelor apartment building, Balboa. This and twin building at
Ancon are first apartments ever built in Canal Zone for single
people.
7. Organization chart, Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co.
8. Madden Road. Looking north from station 170. The land on both
sides of the road through this section has been set aside as a forest
preserve.
9. Chilibre Bridge, Madden Road.
10. Graph of principal commodities shipped through Panama Canal,
fiscal year 1930.
11. Graph of origin and destination of Pacific-bound cargo, 1930.
12. Graph of origin and destination of Atlantic-bound cargo, 1930.
13. Graph of tonnage of cargo over principal trade routes, fiscal year
1930.
14. Graph of tonnage of cargo passing through the Panama Canal, by
fiscal years.
16. Graph of percentage of cargo carried by ships of United States and
foreign registry.
16. Graph of percentage of net tonnage, Panama Canal measurement, of
ships of United States and foreign registry, by fiscal years. (This
graph also indicates approximately the proportions of tolls paid by
United States and foreign vessels.)
17. Graph of number of commercial vessels transiting Panama Canal, by
fiscal years.
18. Graph of tolls collected, by fiscal years.














REPORTS OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND DIVISIONS

APPENDIXES NOT PRINTED
The material in the annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal,
published in this volume, is to a large extent a summary of data presented in
annual reports from the heads of departments and divisions in the canal or-
ganization. The latter, regarded as appendixes to the report. of the governor,
are not printed; the annual report of the Panama Railroad is published separately.
The reports of the heads of departments and divisions, as listed below, may be
consulted at the Washington office of the Panama Canal or the office of the
governor at Balboa Heights, Canal Zone:
Engineer of maintenance-
Dredging division, report of superintendent.
Assistant engineer of maintenance--
Madden Dam investigations, report of designing engineer.
Electrical division, report of electrical engineer.
Division of lock operation-
Atlantic locks, report of superintendent.
Pacific locks, report of superintendent.
Municipal engineering division, report of municipal engineer.
Office engineer, report of.
Section of surveys, report of chief of section.
Gatun Dam and backfills, report of supervisor.
Marine division, report of superintendent.
Mechanical division, report of superintendent..
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Executive department--
Division of civil affairs, report of chief.
Police and fire division, report of chief.
Division of schools, report of superintendent.
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds, report of general secretary.
Surveying officer, report of.
Magistrate courts-
Magistrate, Cristobal, report of.
Magistrate, Balboa, report of.
District attorney, report of assistant.
District court, report of clerk.
Marshal, report of.
Accounting department, report of acting auditor.
Land agent, the Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co., report of.
Purchasing department, report of the general purchasing officer and chief
of Washington office.










ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE

GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BALBOA HF.IGHTS, CANAL ZONE,
Septnbfr 12, 1930.
The SECRETARY OF WAR,
1}'i.hiiigton, D. C.
SiR: I have the honor to submit the report of the Governor of the
Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930.
In transmitting the report I wish to stress the necessity for action
by Congress at the earliest, possible date to provide for the con-
tinued operation and maintenance of the canal at the creditable
standards which have prevailed in the past. This necessity arises
with conditions in the Tropics and the advancing years of the canal-
the Anierican occupation has existed over 26 years, since May 4,
1904-and is a matter fundamentally of replacement of worn-out
equipment and secondarily of adjustment to an increased population.
Precisely, the canal needs certain replacement and expansion of
quarters for employees, schools, post offices, fire stations, police
stations, and community clubhouses, for the simple reason that old
structures have reached or are reaching a condition in which their
maintenance in usable condition is uneconomical and that additional
buildings are necessary to serve the greater population. Similarly
it needs retirement laws to take care of old or disabled( employees who
have passed beyond productive efficiency, necessitating replacement
in order that an effective force may be minaintainedl without undue
expense. We find( it cheaper to build new houses than to keep
patching thlie obsolete. With the force it is inefficient to retain worn-
out individuals in the guise of workers; they should he removed to
pension rolls, leaving only on the working rolls workers from whom
full service is demanded and received.
These matters have been explained to you by direct correspondence
and the recommendations of the governor of the canal ha ve receivedil
your approval. I emphasize them here as factors vital to the con-
tin1e1d successful operation of this great national project.
R respectfully,
H. But(l-;ss, dOvrfnor.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


SUMMARY
Traffic through the Panama Canal, which had had an upward trend
for years, fell off somewhat in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930, and
was less than that in the preceding year in all respects except the
aggregate net tonnage, Panama Canal measurement, of the commercial
vessels using the canal. The net tonnage showed an increase of 4.8
per cent, but the number of commercial transits, the tolls levied, and
the quantity of cargo carried all decreased in comparison with the
traffic in the fiscal year 1929. Counting also the noncommercial traffic
(United States Government vessels, a few public vessels of Panama
and Colombia, and ships transiting the canal solely for the purpose of
receiving repairs at Balboa, none of which paid tolls) the total of
transits was 6,785, or 3.5 per cent below the high record of 7,029
established in the previous year. The gain in Panama Canal net
tonnage in the face of a decline in other features of traffic was due to
an increase in the size of the ships. The average net tonnage of
commercial vessels using the canal in 1929 was 4,653 tons and in
1930 it was 4,847 tons.
Considering commercial ocean-going traffic only, the number of
transits was 6,185, as compared with 6,413 in the preceding year, a
decrease of slightly less than 3.6 per cent.
Tolls amounted to $27,076,890.01, as compared with $27,127,376.91
in the fiscal year 1929, a decrease of $50,486.90, or two-tenths of 1
per cent. Including launches, which paid $517.77 in 1930 and
$1,512.39 in 1929, the grand total of tolls was $27,077,407.78 in 1930
and $27,128,889.30 in 1929, a difference of $51,481.52.
Cargo carried through the canal in the fiscal year 1930 amounted to
30,030,232 tons. This was less than the 30,663,006 tons in the fiscal
year 1929 by 632,774 tons, or 2 per cent.
While the traffic declined, as noted, from the levels of the preceding
year it was higher in all respects except number of transits than in the
fiscal year 1928, and higher in all respects than in any of the years
prior to 1928. The years 1928, 1929, and 1930 form a group higher
than the previous years, with transits exceeding 6,000, canal net
tonnage in excess of 29,000,000 tons, tolls approximately $27,000,000
and cargo in excess of 29,600,000 tons in each of the three years.
The slight decline in the past year has not affected the need for
continuing with the work of building the Madden Dam to increase the
storage of water available for use in Gatun Lake, and that work was
continued in accordance with plans.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS
The Panama Canal, working in conjunction with the Panama Rail-
road Co., carries on extensive business operations accessory to the
operation of the canal. These include repair facilities; bunker





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


stations; the sale of foodstuffs, ships' chandlery, and miscellaneous
supplies; the operation of hotels; the service of a railroad across the
Isthmus; and of a steamship line plying between the United States
and the Canal Zone for the purpose of bringing supplies and transport-
ing employees. All of these services are under coordinated centralized
control, which tends to economy and smooth and reliable service to
ships. Other important functions of administration and government
are all embraced under the single organization of the Panama Canal
and under the direct control of the governor, namely, public health;
quarantine; immigration service, customs, post offices; schools;
police and fire protection; construction and maintenance of roads,
streets, and water-supply service; hydrographic and meteorological
observations and steamship inspections, aids to navigation, control
of aircraft, etc.
NET REVENUE OF THE CANAL AND ITS AUXILIARIES
The net income from tolls and other miscellaneous receipts known
as "canal revenue" was $18,082,451.78. This was less than in the
fiscal year 1928 but greater than in any other year of the canal's
history. These revenues for the past five years have been: $15,151,-
668.06 in 1926, $15,611,093.80 in 1927, $18,224,844.86 in 1928,
$17,729,775.01 in 1929, and $18,082,451.78 in 1930. Based on an
interest-bearing capital indebtedness of $535,743,840.33 at the end of
the fiscal year 1930 the revenue in 1930 was equivalent to 38 per cent.
The net profits of auxiliary business operations conducted directly
by the Panama Canal, the most important of which are the mechanical
shops, material storehouses, and fuel-oil plants, totaled $760,971.66 as
compared with $737,850.26 in 1929, $736,719.43 in 1928, $876,536.80
in 1927, and $841,310.29 in 1926.
The net profits of operations of the Panama Railroad Co., exclusive
of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line, but including commissaries,
docks, coaling plants, cattle industry, and cold-storage plants, were
$1,523,874.28, as compared with $1,693,873.17 for 1929, $1,600,283.61
for 1928, $1,644,189.37 for 1927, and $1,347,887.33 for 1926.
Total net revenue for the year 1930 from all sources, exclusive of
the Panama Railroad Steamship Line, was $20,367,297.72 as compared
with $20,161,498.44 in 1929, $20,561,847.90 in 1928, $18,131,819.97
in 1927, and $17,340,865.68 in 1926.
The aggregate net revenue from all sources (exclusive of the
Panama Railroad Steamship Line) was greater in the fiscal year 1930
by $205,799.28 or 1.02 per cent than in the preceding year. Canal
revenues and profits from business operations increased slightly but
were offset in part by a decrease of about $170,000 in net profits of
the Panama Railroad Co. This decrease occurred in the operations
of the railroad proper, the harbor terminals, and the commissaries.







4 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Considering the capital invested and accunimblated interest on the
investment, the present total capital liability is such that the canal
is not as yet earning the annual interest charge at 4 per cent, the cur-
rent borrowing rate of the Treasury of the United States. For this
reason and others, including the necessity of extensive additional
expenditures in order to bring the canal to its highest efficiency, it
would appear that at present there is no occasion to consider a reduc-
tion in tolls.

SERVICES RENDERED BY THE CANAL TO SHIPPING

The most important items of the business of the canal and its
adjuncts, covering principal services to shipping, are expressed numeri-
cally in the following table, which presents a comparison of the activi-
ties during the fiscal year 1930 with the two years immediately
preceding:


Transits of the canal by ships paying tolls-------------
Free transits -----------------------------------------
Total transits of ocean vessels.....................I
A average daily transits:
Commercial traffic.--------------------------------
Free traffic--------------------------------------.
Total.......... .. ..........................
Transits of launches not counted in commercial traffic--
Number of lockages during year.
G atun Locks.............................. .........
Pedro Miguel Locks............................
Mirafores Locks............ ....................
Average lockages per day:
G atu n ........................................... .. .
Pedro M iguel......................................
M iraflores.....--..- ....--.........................-


Fiscal year
1928

6,456
503
6,959


17 639
1.374


Tolls levied on ocean vessels............................ $26,944,499.77
Tolls on launches riot included above................... 1, 109.34
T total tolls ........................................ 26, 945,609. 11


Cargo passing through canal, tons......................
Net tonnage ( Panama Canal measurement; of transiting
com mniercial vessels;....................................
Cargo per net ton of ocean vessels, including those in
ballast. ... ... . .. ... ...........................
Average lolls per ton of cargo, including vessels in ballast.
Calls at canal ports by ships not transiting canal- --........
Cargo handled and transferred at ports (tons)............
Coal, sale. and issues (tons)................. .... .....
Coal, nu.iher of ships served other than vessels operated
by the Panam a Canal................................
Fuel oil pum ped barrels) ..............................
Fuel oil, number of ships served other than vessels oper-
ated by the Panama Canal....... ................. .
Ships repaired, other lithan Panama Canal equipment...
Ships dry-docked, other than Panama Canal equipment.
Provisions sold to ships commissaryy sales).............
Chandlery sold to ships storehousee sales)..............


29,630,709
29,458,634
1.0058
$0.90934
1,123
1,336,511
340,774
964
15,977,648
2,678
1,093
131
$1,429,647.35
149,055.47


Fiscal year Fiscal year
1929 1930

6,413 6,185
616 600
7,029 I 6,785

17. 570 16.945
1. 688 1.644


19.013 1Y. 258 18.589
155 167 91
6,314 6,289 6,135
6,642 6,473 6.436
6,577 6,325 6,338
17.3 17.2 16.8
18. 1 17.7 17.6
18.0 17.3 17.4


$27,127,376.91 $27,076,890.01
1,512.39 517.77
27, 128,889.30 27,077,407.78
30,663,006 30,030,232
29,837,794 29,980,614
1.0276 1.0017
$0.88469 $0.90165
1,0b9 1,136
1,559,311 1.347,264
305,434 282,569
935 760
12,951,710 13,593,907
2,358 2,431
1,087 960
156 148
$1,703,986.72 $1,570,485.07
144,937.36 78.911.16


~--------------- --------------------











SECTION I


CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA PANAMA
TRAFFIC IN 1980
Commercial traffic through the Panama Cainal during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1930, was slightly lower with respect, to the
amount of tolls collected and tonnage of vessels (with the exception of
net tonnage, Panama Canal measurement) than for the fiscal year
1929. The amount of cargo carried decreased over 600,000 tons, over
400,000 of which was in the movement from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The number of commercial vessels passing through the waterway in
the fiscal year 1930 was 6,185. This was 228 less than the number
making the transit. in 1929. The average daily number of transits in
1930 was 16.95, as compared with 17.57 in 1929. Transits of naval
vessels and other public vessels of the United States, public vessels of
the Republics of Panama and Colombia, and vessels transiting solely
for repairs, none of which paid tolls, numbered 600 during 1930, as
compared with 616 in 1929. Combining the two, there were 6,785
transits of seagoing vessels during 1930, as compared with 7,029 in
1929, or daily averages of 18.59 and 19.26, respectively.
The net tonnage, Panama Canal measurement, of the 6,185 comnmer-
cial vessels transiting in 1930 was 29,980,614. Tolls levied amounted to
$27,076,890.01, and the cargo carried aggregated 30,030,232 long tons.
The decrease in the number of transits for the year as compared
with the preceding fiscal year was principally in the trade routes
between Europe and the west coast of North and South America and
between the east coast of the United States and Australasia. An
increase in the number of transits occurred in the United States inter-
coastal trade, between the east coast of the United States and the Far
East, and between Europe and Austranhisia. The decrease in the
cargo tonnage was distributed among the principal trade routes, with
only the trade between the east coast of the United States and the
Far East (including the Philippine Islands) showing an increase.
The receipts from tolls reported by the accounting department, for
the fiscal year 1930 were $27,077,177.36. This figure includes tolls on
launches, which are not included in "commercial traffic" of ocean-
going ships, and has been adjusted in accordance with refunds for over-
charges and sunplemnental collections in case of undercharges. Those
items account for the difference of $287.35 between the accounting







O REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


figure and the figure for tolls levied on commercial traffic as reported
in the following studies of traffic, which are based on the tolls levied
at time of transit.
Commercial traffic figures for each fiscal year since the canal was
opened to navigation are shown in the table below:


Number
of tran-
sits


Fiscal year ending June 30-
1915 i..........--- ......... ---..................... .
1916 .........................................
1917........-................................
1918........... --------------------------------
1919.................. .................... .. --
1920--.............-..--.................-
1921.................. .... --------------------------------
1922...................................... ..
1923...-.....................................
1924.........................-......-.......-
1925..- ..- - - --..- --- .- .- .- ..- .- .... .... .
1926.................. .....................
1927... .......................................
1928..........................................
1929..-......-.................................
ls-30........................................ .


1,075
758
1.803
2,069
2,024
2, 478
2, 892
2,736
3, 967
5, 230
4,673
5, 197
5,475
6,456
6,413
6.,185


Panama
Canal nei
tonnage


3,792,572
2,396,162
5,798,557
6,574,073
f6,124,990
8, 546, 044
11,415, 876
11,417,459
18, 605, 786
26,148,878
22,855, 151
24,774,591
26,227.815
29,458,634
29,837,794
29.980.614


Total.-.................................. 59,.431 263,954,996

i Canal opened to traffic Aug. 15, 1914.
' Canal closed to traffic approximately 7 months of fiscal year by slides.


Tolls



$4, 367,550. 19
2,408,089.62
5,627,463.05
6,438,853.15
6,172,828, 59
8,513,933.15
11,276,889.91
11,197,832.41
17,508,414.85
24,290,963.54
21,400,523.51
22,931,055.98
24, 228, 830.11
26,944,499.77
27, 127,376.91
27,076,890.01


Tons of
cargo


4.888,454
3,094,114
7,058,563
7,532,031
6,916,621
9,374,499
11,599,214
10,884,910
19, 567,875
26,994,710
23,958,836
26,037,448
27,748,215
29,630,709
30,663,006
30,030,232


247,511,994.75 275,979,437


Commercial traffic was fairly uniform throughout the year. By
months the number of transits ranged between 478 in June and 564
in October, a difference of 86 vessels. The daily average number of
transits ranged between 15.45 in May and 18.19 in October, a differ-
ence of 2.74. The monthly average of transits was 515, as compared
with- 534 for the previous year. Monthly transits and tolls, with
daily averages, for commercial vessels only, were:


Total for month


Month


Transits


July................................... ..............
August.................................. ..............
September...........................................
October......... -....................................
November............................................
D ecember...........................................
1930
January---.---------........--........-----------........... ........-------
February..--......-.............................. .....
March......------------------------------------.........................................i
April.................................................-
May.------------------------...............--...---------...-------...-
June------.......................--......---.-.........


Tolls


$2,259,582.37
2,327,437.86
2,201,789.40
2,485,897.71
2,244,895.94
2, 3G9,030.88

2,360,211.24
2,131,386.12
2,260,002.36
2,232,763.00
2,162,898.CO60
2,100,994.53


Daily averages


Transits


17.00
17.45
17.43
18.19
17.50
16.84


17.13
17.54
16.61
16.30
15.45
15.93


Total........................................... 6,185 27,076,890.01 16.95


Tolls


$72,889.75
75,078.64
73,392.98
80,190.25
74,829.86
74,484.87

76,135.84
76,120.93
72,903.30
74,425.43
69,770.92
70,033.15
74,183.26


I







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Comparison by months with traffic in the preceding fiscal year is
shown as follows:


Month



July........--..-
August.......------.
September.....
October..----..
November......
December-......
January..... ...
February.......
March..........
April...........
May............
June--------............


Total......


Num,
ves

1928-29

500I
520
4S7
557
527
579
603
522
536
540
524
503
fi,413


ber of
sels

1929-30

527
541
523


Panama Canal net
tonnage


1928-29

2, 318, 39';
2, 437, 241;
2 29.5 0)53


1929-30

2, 46A, 2S1O
2, 55S, 730
2 425. 261


Tons of cargo


1928-29

2, 291, 9 'I.
2.42'., 331;
2.31.3.UI I


S1929-30

' 2, 59.S, 162
2, t.8, 730
2.432.783


564 2,515,380 2,747,949 2,5 ',2477 2,845,643
525 2,468,297 2,498,906 2,501, 6:30 2,534,631
522 2, 1.9S, 140 2, 54,771 2,714,987 2,524,934
531 2,771,280 2, .01,628 2,858,835 2,611,632
491 2,428,530 2,369,255 2,. 550,498 2,377,900
515 2,567,961 2,505,859 2, 743.768 2,558,238
489 2,488,176 2,479,096 2,719,668 2,456,782
479 2,496,905 2,418,633 2, 5.36, 39 2,261,616
478 2,352,431 2,358,237 2,424,002 2,147, 181
6,218, 09, 837, 794 29, 980, 614 30, (.V3, OUl; 30, 0.30, 2:32


Tolls


1928-29 1929-30

$2, 109,083.19 $2, 279, 582 37
2,190,069.31 2, 327.437. S6
2,111,230.56 2,2U1.7<9.40
2. 271.945.30 2, Vi,' .71
2' ,22.,937.48 2, 244. Y5. 94
2, 441,029.39 2,301,1131).te
2,502,815.12 '.' 1. .11,211.24
2. 21 1 (16l -< -. I.I :<14(.. 12
2, 34.1, V' 2'. 21 1).2 J02 3if
2.2 1.ul.%7 27 2,-'.;', 713 00
2, 246. I 7 2, It'., %4.5' 6
'. 127..10'. 97 2,100,994. 53
27, 1-:7, 37i.. 91 27. O76 ?, J 01


PROPORTION OF TANKER TRAFFIC

Tanker transits in 1930 totaled 1,218, as compared with 1,0S3 for
the previous fiscal year, an increase of 135, or 12.5 per cent. This
class of traffic comprised 19.7 per cent of the total commercial transits
during the year, made up 21.9 per cent of the total Panama Canal
net tonnage, paid 21.3 per cent of the tolls collected, and carried 20.2
per cent of the cargo which passed through the canal.
Transits of ships engaged in general traffic were 303 fewer than the
number transiting in 1929. With respect to Panama Canal net ton-
nage, tank ships increased 719,875, while general cargo vessels de-
creased 577,055 tons, a net increase on all traffic of 142,820 tons.
Tolls collected from tank ships increased $623,331.09, while tolls
collected from general cargo carriers decreased $673,817.99, a net
decrease on all classes of traffic of $50,486.90.
Omitting transits of public vessels of the United States and other
vessels exempt from the payment of tolls, the number of ocean-going
vessels transiting the canal averaged 16.95 throughout the year. Of
this number tank ships averaged 3.34 transits daily, the balance of
13.61 being made up of general cargo carriers, passenger ships, war-
ships of foreign nations, etc.
In the tables below the commercial traffic has been segregated to
show the proportion of tanker transits, tonnage, and tolls as com-
pared with the corresponding figures embracing all other classes of
traffic. The figures are for the fiscal years 1923 to 1930, inclusive,
15740-30--2


-----~--~


--


I







8 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


covering the era during which tanker traffic has been a very large part

of the total movement:


Proportion of tank ships to total traffic


Total commercial transits


Fiqral year - ----
Tankers General


1923................ .. ................... 913 3,054
1924............. ... ................... 1 704 3.,52
1925...................................... 1,079 3,59-1
1926....................................... 1, 090 4. 107
1927........... ........ ................ .. 1,324 4, 151
1928........... ........................... 1, 121 5.335
1929. . .......................... . . 1, 083 5, 330
1930:
July.......... ...... ........... ... 111 416
August. ............. . ...... .. 109 432
Septem b'r. ......................... 101 422
O ctober..... ......................... 11' 4-17
N ovem ber . . ................... 102 423
Decerm b r........... ............... Iu0 4122
January ............ ............... 112 419
February ......................... 93 3'j8
March............ ........... a7 428
A pril............. . ............ Mi 404
MAlay............. . ....... 92 3 7
June............. . .............. 109 3r9

Total, 1930........ ............... ... 1,218 4,907


Total


3, 91.7
4,.t,73
5,197
5,475
6,4.5
6.413
527
541
523
5(4
5.5
5252
531
491
515
4890
479
478

6. 185


Average daily transits


Tankers General Total


2.5 8.4 10.9
4.7 9.6 14.3
3.0 9.8 12.8
3.0 11 .2 14.2
3.6 11.4 I 15.0
3.0 14.6 17.6
3.0 14.6 17.6

3.6 13 4 17.0
3 5 13.9 17.4
3 4 14.0 17.4
3 8 14.4 18.2
3.4 11. 1 17.5
3 2 13.6 16.8
3 6 13.5 17.1
3 3 14.2 17.5
2 8 13.8 16.6
2.8 13.5 16.3
3.0 12.5 15.5
3.6 12.3 15.9

3 3 13.6 16.9


Proportion of tanker tonnage to total lonnage


Panama Canal net tonnage


1923......................... I
19245.......................... .
1925................... .....
1926...........................
1927...........................
1928............... .. .. ......
1929........... ............ .
1930 ...........................


Tankers General


5,374,3S4 13.231,402
10,212,04- 19,936,831
6,424, 622 16,430,529


6, 43, 240
7.624. 112
6.243,969
5,844, 263
6.564. 138


18,431,351
1. 603,703
23. 214, 665
23.993.531
23,416,476


Total


18,605,786
26. 14.878
22,855. 151
24,774.591
26,227,815
29,45.5, 634
29, .37,794
29, 9u0, 614


Percentage of total net tonnage


Tankers General


28.9 71.1
39.1 60.9
28.1 71.9
25. 5 74.5
29.I 70.9
21.2 78.8
19.6 80.4
21.9 78. 1


Proportion of tolls from tank ships to tolls from all i'essels


Fiscal year


1923....................
1924.....................
1925.....................
1926.. . . . . . . . . . .
1927.....................
1928.....................
1929....................
1930.....................


Tolls paid by shipping using canal


Tankers


$4,769. 324. 63
9.071,.S35.65
5,728,302. 26
5. 626. 167.93
6,658, 06.90
5,436,437.16
5,145.632. 19
5,768,963.28


General Total


$12,739,874.94 $17,508,199.57
15. 219. 127.89 24.290.9W3.54
15.672,221 25 21,400,52.1.51
17,304,S 88.05 22, 931.055. 98
17,5 70. 023.21 24. 228, 83). 11
21,508,062.61 26.944. 499.77
21,981.744.72 27, 127,376.91
21,307,926. 73 27. U76, 890.01


Percentage of total tolls


Tankers General Total


27.2 72.8 100.00
37.3 62.7 100.00
26.8 73.2 100.00
34.4 75.6 100.00
27.5 72.5 100.00
20.1 79.9 100.00
18.9 81.1 100.00
21 3 78.7 100.00


Total


100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00


.1L


V l .





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TANKER CARGOES

Cargo carried through the canal in tank ships increased from
5,512,481 tons in 1929 to 6,071,37S tons in 1930, a gain of 558,897
tons, or 10.1 per cent. Of the 6,071,378 tons, 283,243 tons were
from the Atlantic to the Pacific and 5,788,135 tons from the Pacific
to the Atlantic. The 283,243 ton, from the Atlantic included 9,200
tons of coal-tar products from the east to the west coast of the United
States, 67,098 tons of creosote and creosote oil from Europe to the
west coast of the United States, and 20t,345 tons of mineral oils
from the West Indies, the east coast of South America, and Gulf of
Mexico ports, destined to the west coast of the United States, Canada,
and South America, and to Auiistralasia and the Far East. The
5,788,135 tons from the Pacific included 72,430 tons of coconut oil
from the Philippine Islands and 14,250 tons of molasses from the
Hawaiian Islands to the east coast of the United States, and 30,238
tons of whale oil, of which 10,238 tons went to the United States and
the balance to Europe. Mineral oils from the Pacific aggregated
5,671,717 tons. Approximately 85 per cent of this originated in
California and 15 per cent in Peru and Ecuador. The cargo was
destined as follows: 64 per cent to the east coast of the United States,
27 per cent to Europe, 6 per cent to the east coast of Canada, and the
balance to the West Indies and the east coast. of South America.
Of the total mineral-oil tonnage carried in tankers through the
canal during the fiscal year 1930 approximately 68 per cent was
gasoline, benzine, or naphtha; 14 per cent crude oil; 10 per cent gas
and fuel oils; and the remainder lubricating oils and kerosene.
NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

Twenty-four nationalities were represented in the commercial
traffic passing through the canal during the fiscal year 1930, the same
number as in the preceding year. Vessels of United States registry
led in the number of transits, as had been the case during the pre-
ceding 11 years; from 1915 to 1918, inclusive, transits of British
vessels exceeded those of any other count 1ry. In all years the greatest
numbers have been either British or United States. There were 185
more transits of United States vessels in 193o than in 1929, due to
an increase of 99 in the passages of tankers flying the Amierican ingl
and 86 in the transits of United States general cargo carriers.
Transits of British vessels decreased in number, there heingl,. 1',7t
in 1930 as compared with 1,783 in 1929, a loss of 247. British t rillic
in 1930 was affected largely by the continued greatly lessened w heat
movement, the heavy shipments of which in preceding years were
responsible for considerable British tnrunip ton age being routed
through thle canal.





10 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

German transits, which had been increasing distinctly from 1926&
to 1929, inclusive, showed a decrease of 25 in the fiscal year 1930;.
they numbered 377 as compared with 402 in 1929.
Norwegian shipping, ranking fourth, increased from 340 to 371
transits. The tonnage of cargo carried by vessels of this registry
was somewhat higher than that carried by German vessels.
United States vessels made 46.6 per cent of the total transits,
British vessels 24.8 per cent, the two together comprising 71.4 per
cent. The nationalities next in order, German and Norwegian,
formed 6.1 per cent and 6 per cent, respectively, of the total transits.
With respect to cargo carried through the canal, vessels of United
States registry carried 48.3 per cent of the total; British vessels, 25.2
per cent; Norwegian vessels, 6 per cent; German vessels, 4.6 per cent;
Japanese vessels, 3.4 per cent; Swedish vessels, 2.8 per cent; Dutch
vessels, 2.1 per cent; and French vessels, 1.9 per cent. Combined,
the vessels of these eight nations carried 28,305,981 tons, over 94
per cent of all cargo that passed through the canal during the past
fiscal year.
Cargo tonnage carried under the United States flag was greater
in 1930 than in 1929. Vessels of Great Britain showed a decrease
in cargo tonnage carried. Increases were made by vessels of Nor-
wegian, Japanese, and French registry, while those of German,
Swedish, and Dutch registry showed decreases.
The cargo tonnage carried under the principal flags contributing
to canal traffic during the past five years is shown in the following
tabulation:
Tons of cargo carried

1926 I 1927 192S 1929 1930

United States-----..-------------- 13. 710,.956 15, 242, 156 14,248,735 14,075, 731 14, 499,233
British........................... 6,750,S43 6, 436,785 8,075,022 I 8,331,221 7,572,969
Norwegian....................... 1 1,051,276 1,052,453 1.268,124 I 1,505,366 1,808,278
Germann .......................... 883,007 973,741 1,185,421 1,482,279 1,388,022
Japanese. ....................... -6 7.962 1,036,786 1,011i, 166 980.041 1,009,735
Swedish.....-..................... 636, 26F. 652, 173 705, 154 845,664 832,273
Dutch--....----------------.......---------- 552,741 571, 700 ,37,178 i 695,956 618,718
French .......................... i 398,393 530,026 (00, 421 530,763 576,753
Remaining combined............. 1,383,984 1,252,395 1,869,488 2,215,985 1,724,251
Total.-------....---...----------... 26,037, 148 27.748,213 29,630,709 30,663,006 30,030,232


Segregation of the traffic through the canal during the fiscal year
1930, by nationality, is presented in the following table, showing
transits, measurement, tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo:





g1O

REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 11

Commercial traffic through the Panama Canal, by nationality of vessels


I I Tonnage


Nationality


Num-
ber
of
ships


Argentine........... 2
Belgian........ 2.1
British............. 1,536
Chilean........... :.. -46
Colornhinn.......... 74
Costa Hican..... ... 2
Danish..-..------------- 91
Danzig.......... .. 36
D utch............... 141
Finnish.. . ...... . .2
French........ ...... 124
'German.... -------- 377
Creek.-------------- 22
Italian............. 66
Japanes'..... . 163
Mexican....... 1
Nicaraguan...... .. 1
Norwegian ......... 371
Panamanian......... 60
Peruvian............ 2
Spanish............. 2
Swedilish. .... .... .. 125
U1niltd States..------- 2,885
Yugosla.-..-.------- 33
Total, 1B30..... ,185
Totl. Ial,1 29.. . f., 411
Total, 1928. ---- 6, 4563


Panama United IRegistirtd RrgisTredd
Canal net rt oss net

a ,81al 3.n 5,51g r .n14


1 1., 4W9
8,006,962
161,152
33,026
0-2
381,766
221,382
671,250
3.R10
.27. 71.)
1, 4-13, 071
s91,221
42'9.i1.O
8113, 1,'2
2,159
140
1,660,101
87,826
8.959
4. 209
571.535
14, 534, 4l5
142,537
29.98wi.6H14
2J.S37. 794
2'". 15s, 63 4


10-1, t.15
5,956,033
124,006
12,556
666
292,501
188,995
41.2.224
.3.774
490.3 20
09'8.'41
62,291
312,421
671,105
1,569
151
1, 211, 2 t,.
St,. 72j
7,848
3,658
415,854
11,192,317
109,830
22. 68 0 11'.
22. 7,13, 4 7'
22, r,3,7Q)96


1 17, 7.,5
9, -41. 1.50
244. S3.4
S20,114
971
460,016
319,530
S774,225
4,159
785,888
1, 660, 701
1., 14
552,721
1. u13. 9 4 4
2,876
270
1,990,102
96,983
11. fW |
5, 5.j I
1.040.789
IS, 1')'2. 776
1 73, ^71;

37,4.T,*r,;,?7
37. If4.0. 7,2
37. 202,87 1


42 .751
6,010.792
12,560
581
292,989
171, 950
462,418
3,497
481,648
999,680
61, 2711,
r12, i,27
#32,6. 1.2
1,892
237
1,207,188
58,307
7,462
3,613
II7, i914
11, 17 I-6.
11'., 7'.uJ


Tolls




$4.015.52
122, 440. 19
7,197,979 13
1>1.998.86
15,371.33
646.95
.19 2.7S.' 65
.'1',1.43 92
571. I 62
4,572,00
583,153.10
1. 23. 213 16
77, 11.3.75
385,290.89
851,013.31
1,961.25
113.25
1,410,130.81
68,027.22
9,724.50
6,264.00
473.27' 45
13. 2201, ,6:2 70
133,886.25


Tons of
cargo




l.........
I M. 4A4
7,572.969
Jill. 1I
12.543
e.00
505, 914
192,734
618,718
5,450
*7., 753
1. 3-. 022
100. 219
"'t.. 223
1,1iI;". 735
1,140
-----------
1, MIP, 2'~S
7.3, <21
13,1117
4250
S32,273
14. 4.9, 25i3
225.255


22.797,1,19 27.07u,W.0.01 30.0 0,232
22, 10, .117 27. 127.376. 9 i 3f,. 6Ci1. .106
22, S47, ljU 26, 944, 4949 77 2, 610, 709


NET TONNAGE OF VESSELS


During the year there were 6,185 transits of the Panama Canal by
commercial vessels, composed of 19 of foreign naval vessels paying
tolls on the basis of displacement tonnage, and 6,166 of merchant
vessels, yachts, etc. Of the 6,166 commercial transits on which tolls
were levied on net tonnage, 53.3 per cent were made by vessels of
from 4,000 to 6,000 net tons, Panma Canal measurement, 5.8 per
cent by vessels under 1,000 net tons, and 5.6 per cent by vessels over
8,000 net tons; the latter included 102 transits by vessels of over
10,000 net. tons, as compared with 86 such transits during the fiscal
year 1929. The average tonnage of all transits was 4,862 net tons,
as compared with 4,666 net tons for the preceding year, an increase
of 196 tons, or 4.2 per cent.
Vessels of Italian registry averaged the highest net tonnage, 6,501,
with those of Danzig second, 6,150 net tons, and British ships third,
averaging 5,244 net tons. The lowest recorded average by nation-
ality was Nicaragua, one transit of a vessel of 140 tons, the next
lowest 176 net tons for 74 transits of Colombian vessels, the third, 331
for 2 transits of a Costa Rican vessel.
The German liner Columbus of 20,079 net tons, Panama Canal
measurement, was the largest commercial vessel transiting during
the year.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


VESSELS ENTITLED TO FREE TRANSIT AND LAUNCHES OF LESS THAN 20
TONS NET MEASUREMENT
Naval and other vessels owned and operated in the Government
service of the United States, Panama, and Colomibia, and vessels
transmitting the canal solely for repairs at the Balboa shops, are
exempt from the payment of tolls, and such vessels are not included
in the transit statistics in the preceding sections. They accounted
for the following additional transits in the fiscal year 1930: Public
vessels of the United States, 545; public vessels of Panama, 21;
vessels transiting for repairs, 34; or a total of 600. These vessels
carried a total of 134,232 tons of cargo.
If charges at commercial rates had been made against the 545 public
vessels of the United States that transited the canal without payment
of tolls, the revenue from tolls would have been increased by approx-
imately $1,134,545.06 during the year. Tolls on the 21 Panaman
Government vessels and the 34 ships transiting for repairs would
have amounted to approximately $44,636.37.
Launches of less than 20 tons measurement are also excluded from
the statistics of commercial traffic, although they are not exempt
from the payment of tolls. The number of these transiting the
canal during the year was 91, and tolls aggregating $517.77 were
collected for their passage.
TRADE ROUTES AND CARGO
The trade routes over which were moving the greater part of the
cargo shipped through the Panama Canal during the fiscal year 1930
were, in order of quantity of cargo, between the Atlantic and Pacific
coasts of the United States intercoastall); between Europe and the
west coast of the United States and Canada; between the east coast
of the United States and the west coast of South America; between
the Atlantic coast, of the United States and the Far East; between
Europe and the west coast. of South America; between Europe and
Australasia; between the United States and Australasia; and between
the east coast of the United States and the west coast of Canada.
In the past year the cargo moving over these routes through the
canal aggregated 27,514,871 tons and was 91.6 per cent of the total
cargo.
The following tabulation shows the aggregate movement of cargo
over these eight principal routes, the sumni of miscellaneous routings,
and the total during the past four years:







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Cargo shipments Ithrough the Panama Canal during the past four fiscal years,
segregated by principal Iradie routc.s


Tons of cargo
Trade route i-
1. I 7 1I'92h 192j


United States intercoastal:
Atlantic to Pacific ..- ..-...---------------------------- 2,822, 598 2,576,399 3,184,141
Pat fic to Aluitic......... .... ..... 8. 039.804 7. t.."7. 300 6,992,632
Total--..---------..-------------. . . . . i. .'. t2 l. t : 10,176, 773
Europe and west coast of United States and Canada:
At lantic to Pacific ----------------------------- 634,375 725,304 77, 856
Pacific to Atlantic.... ------- --------------------- 3, t1. 991 5,113,788 5,172,286
Total----------------.------------------------ 4,306,366 5,839,092 142
East coast United States and v est eni01 S.utli America:
Atlantic to Pacific ----------------------------- 391,422 356,929 404,928
Pacific to Atlantic.----.---- -------------------- 2,498,535 2,822,886 2,994,043
Total------------------------------------- 2,889,957 3, 17.4. 1. 3,398,971
United States and Far East, including Plilpin'e
Islands:
Atlantic to Pacific--------- ---- ------------ ---1,545,206 1, ; 1. ou 1,911.663
PauLific to Atlantic ------------------------------ 317,896 49.. :.1 *.., 618
Total.-------------------------------------- 1, slt. 102 2. 1. *' 2. 5.52, **8I
Europe and west coast South America:
Atlantic to Pacihc. 605,241 7X1.567 845,760
Pacific to Atlinnic............... ... ... 1,313,170 2, 12,. 737 2,382.',935


Total---.. -...------ -- ----- -----------.


Europe aindl Australasia:
At lantic to PJ.IfiL .... ............... ....... 499,109 549,959
Pat ific to Atlantic.. ----------------------------- 475,898 552,563
Total---...------.. ----------------------------- 975,007 1,102,522
United States and Australasia:
Atlantic to Pacifir....................... ....-- 809,672 637,703
Patific to Atlantic------------ --------------- -- SO, 2n9 106,678
Total....----------------- -----.--...-------------- 889,941 744, .isI
East coast United St ites and west coast Canada:
Atlantic to lneinfii -------.................--......-- ...... 29,251 44,420
Pacific to Atlantnic.......... ..... .......----- 435,423 481,689
T otal............ ............... .. -4-- 4 1.1,7 1 ', I1
Miscellainenus routes and ,ilIinp.gs-
tlantic to P[ ..i..... ..... ......---- 1,246,453 1,(04.. 955
Pa' ific to Atlantic. ---------------- ...... ----.-------- 2, i3 1. 902 1,91'1,584


T ot:i ... .. ... .
Total trInffic, all routes:
Atlantie to Pacitf ......
Pacific to A. lntl ......


.1, ^ i. '(i' .<.no."., --i;'. i

1, ..1-7 8, 8310,13-1
19, 16 1. 21,3 0575
27,74..'l-i 29,630,709


Tfol ...........


3. 112., (.45

5i, 977
.17, 212

1, 1'7 189

641,269
164, 746


3,161,530
7,32w,.534
10,490,064

838,226
4,710,214
5, 'A-.440

378, 101
3, 144,475
3, 522, 576


2,072,511
818,184
2. Y. 09.i

881,666
1,934,744
2. 16, 410

604,265
594,930
1,199,195

422,839
238,803


806,015 661,642

38,220 :32.132
377,881 3:-3.717
4111,11 WI W..4i

1,4-172.'706 1,054.,455
1,484,133 1, 430,906
'i-i. '%..9 2. .1, 361

0. A2. 520 9,475,725
2". 7.41. 486 554.507

30, C6.1, 006 30,0 0. 232


The Ulnited States intercoJst)al cnr I movement iini-r si-ld 313,391
tons iS compiHred with the preceding fiscal year mid1 256,3(65 tuns as
comipHnred with 192S, but was lower by 372.33.8 tons than the inter-
co(sti1 sliipinents in 1927. The average for the four years was 10,-
440,735 tions arid the iiioveient in l93 exceeed this by approximately
50,000 tions, slightly less than one-half of 1 per cent The incretise
over 1920 was 3 per cenlt.


I.4Is. 4II 1 2, u-. A -M


. . . . . . . .


i





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The greatest increase over any of the trade routes in the fiscal year
1930 as compared with 1929 was 338,414 tons, in the trade between
the Atlantic coast of the United States and the Far East, including
the Philippine Islands. This amounted to 13.3 per cent. This trade
moved from fifth to fourth place in importance among the trade
routes.
Between the east coast of the United States and the west coast of
South America the cargo movement increased 123,605 tons, or 3.6
per cent.
The trade between Europe and Australia and New Zealand via the
Panama Canal increased 42,006 tons; this was also 3.6 per cent.
The four trades named above registered increases. Over the four
other principal routes there were decreases.
Between Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada
the cargo movement lessened by 421,702 tons, or 7.1 per cent. Be-
tween Europe and the west coast of South America there was a
decrease of 412,285 tons, or 12.8 per cent. Between the United States
and Australasia, via the Panama Canal, the movement decreased
144,373 tons, or 17.9 per cent. Between the east coast of the United
States and the west coast of Canada the decrease was 30,252 tons,
or 7.3 per cent.
Shipments classified as over miscellaneous routes decreased from
2,956,839 to 2,515,361 tons, a decrease of 441,478 tons, or 14.9 per cent.
PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES
Statistics of commodities passing through the canal are not precise
because it is not required that complete manifests of cargo carried by
vessels be submitted at the canal. In lieu of a manifest the master of
each vessel is required to file a "cargo declaration," which is a briefly
itemized statement, listing the principal items of cargo carried, and
showing their ports of origin and destination. These cargo declara-
tions are the basis of the commodity statistics. There is a natural
tendency not to list small miscellaneous shipments but to include
them under the head of "General cargo"; not infrequently no other
classification is made of entire cargoes carried by vessels. Hence,
except in the case of commodities commonly shipped in bulk, such as
mineral oils carried in tank ships, wheat, lumber, nitrate, etc., ship-
ments of various goods are likely to be in excess of the aggregate
tonnage of those reported during the year and shown in the annual
summary. Subject to errors arising from this source, the tonnage of
the principal commodities shipped through the canal during the past
four years is shown in the following table:







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Commodity movement

ATLA.NTIC TO PACIFIC


Fiscal year ended June 30-


Commodity


1928


Lona tons Long tons
Manufactures of iron and steel-----------------------I. 71, 964| 1, -').'. 532
Mineral oils ....................... ... . ... .7 717,080
Phosplmt. ... ... . .... ...... .... ......... . 1 .. '.21 198. 826
C nicnt .................................... .. ... . 222. 7 I 280,032
Tin plate--.--..------------------------------..----. I. 111 143, 610
Paper............................. ... ...... ....... 1 .0.722 I1 .1. '
C o tto n ............ ............... . ...... . . :. 1. 241 2' 2' .
Coal and coke..-----................................-------------------------------.... 186. 522 2'2. 740
Sulphur....................... .. . . 211,625 2117,257
Automobiles exclusivee of accessorIF*............ .. 127,882 121. 553
Scrap miet l........ ... ... ........... ...... .. 23,354 11. 168
Railroad material.-------------..----------------- --- 's.'.s 188,561
M achinery...................... .......... ..... . 172,150 21 .334
Ammonia............................ ............. 134,977 ''1.776
T e Ltiles....................... ...... .. ..... . . 91, 967 124,658
Cannedl goods fish. fruil, veget:ihl s, ir i i . . . . .. 44, 192 87, 136
T ob cco ........ .. .. ...... . .............. ... 81,457 78, 943
Sup:ar ............ .. .. ... ............. ... 282,912 44,951
Asphalt.................................. . .. 0, 586 ? 350
Automobile accessories----- -----------------------. 53.04 M.052
Chemicals---..---.--.------------------------------- 48, 479 52,493
Iron (i et .ll.................................. . . 216 40, 109
Olnss and glnssware ............. ....... .... 53, 119 i.. 434
Slac.................... .................... ....... 30,064 81,797
C reosote ................ . .... .. ........... . ..... 38, 911 ..,682
Coffee............ .......... .. .... 54,018 *. 135
Salt....... ........... ...... . .. .... ..... .. 34, 122 35.374
Agrioultur.il iniplc iieniits.............................. .. 438 "nf S .
Flour.......... ... . .............. ...... 18,702 24.n0111n
Lumril.r........................ .. .. ...... ........ .. 14,608 1 33,402
Hosin. .... ... ...... .. ................ 28,079 36,456
B:in.innis....................... .............. . ....... 7,835 44,616
All otlir. ................................ .... ..... 2.74s. 435 2,478,684

Total...---------.----- ----...-....---------------- ..3, ;27 310. 13


1929


Long tons
2. l1'. 566
806,744
281,168
17i. 968
26 1. 159
2.21, 276i
331, 6'2
227, 883
238,231
250,688
83,829
239,074
188,442
1IX.. At'.2
I137. Ki6
121,472
129,433
150,402
93.806
90,577
77,286
92,992
73,757
96,894
56,636
V.. 002
'. .643
57,195
79,351
.0.448
45,129
.1. 979
2, 3o.. 350
,. "o. .'-M


PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC


Mineral oils......................... ........................
Lumber............................. ..........
O res (principally iron).................................
Nitrate.--...-- ..--- --.......---..-- ....----.-
W heat..----------.. .---.----------------
Sugar.. --------.....--.. -....-.-........-............-
Canned goods (fish, fruit, vegetables, etc.).-----------
Metals. various--------- -----------------------.-
Food products in cold storage I ------------------..
Barley..... ............-....-....--....--......---
Fruit, dried.... ......................... .......
Wool...... ...................... ...........
F ruit, fresh ....... ..................... ...........
Beans............. .. ........................ .
Copra................ ................... ...
P ulp............... ..... .. ..
Flour................... ...................
Cotton........................
Coffee............... ...........................
Paper ...............................................
Coconut oil.... ..............................
B orax ....... ............... ... ..................... .
R ice........................... ................. ..... ..
Skins and hides........ ............ ...................
O ats ..................................................
A ll other..................... ..........................


7,143,165
3,139,113
1,648,862
1,174,384
1,477,376
427,035
714.69r
5ft, '07
24:5. -520
314,341
200.433
129.90B
97. 06(
73, 569
81,685
3,0991
90, 98'
107,311
113.313
213. 59
25. 595
F.F..091
71.870
58.976
73,515
1,133.720


5,619,076
3, r.7.1.832
1, '.00.483
2, W1, 572
3,0.1-. 'S-1
-.7, 7.7 l
771.793
62i.1.r (
2,N. 952
237. 2A2
272, A-44
167.931
93.457
127. 1i.,
83,143
14.734
112,191
95.724
112.862
49,657
29.862
$'.. 933
47. 756
73. 587
14. 388
871,220


Total............................... ...... .. 19, 14. ks 21, 320, .75


5,197,813 5,700,587
3,311,875 3. 530. 79
1, 70. 548 2.229.470
2,554,565 1.910.793
2,365, 555 1, .03, 035
717,931 920,399
921, 217 806,365
6 1.500 C-66,057
:i1". 675 2335.061
2.0. 142 27:1. 064
304.956 206.384
1 '.0,712 145,071
211,854 144,880
154,782 112,679
119,86 109,172
49.623 10lt.tl
110,183 103.486
101.,825 101. *109
136i,369 102,64-14
Q2.191 1111.422
CM. 206 9.. 0.134
74.089 91.921
113.606 S9,795
6I. 158 4,449
44.115 21.123
11:17. 410 1,076.466

20, 7,so,486 20. ,M.507


I Does not Include fresh fruit.


1930


Long tons
2. 12x..712
'.Q2,742
4 1.i, 994
412.347
291. 312
2,59,314
248,345
224,439
215,831
203. 089
1'h .,676
194,578
:'II. MISI
:...', 43*
120,750
120,373
118,322
101,150
97,712
84,213
92, 417
7t 703
08.062
wri, 945
64,844
60,103
91,327
'1.217'
49 t. 14
IK.M'J
Is. h 11.
.l'i. r,'.43
29,502
2. .09. '9 8

9. I:.5. 25


--


I


I





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


While the total cargo movement through the canal in the fiscal
year 1930 was less by 632,774 tons than that in 1929, a decrease of
2.1 per cent, it exceeded the shipments in 1928 by 399,523 tons (1.3
per cent) and those of 1927 by 2,282,017 tons (8.2 per cent).
As in previous years, the quantity of cargo shipped from Pacific
to Atlantic was over twice that from Atlantic to Pacific. This is
due primarily to a preponderance of bulk cargoes in the shipments
from the Pacific areas, as compared with a preponderance of manu-
factured goods in the movement from the Atlantic.
The six commodities passing through the canal in greatest quantity
during the year were, in order, mineral oils, lumber, ores, manufac-
tures of iron and steel, nitrate, and wheat. In each of these the ship-
ments were in excess of 1,500,000 tons. No other commodities
totaled as much as 1,000,000 tons. Among the six principal commodi-
ties, with the exception of manufactures of iron and steel, the move-
ment was preponderantly from Pacific to Atlantic.
The number of commodities showing shipments of over 100,000
tons during the fiscal year 1930 was IS from Atlantic to Pacific,
20 from Pacific to Atlantic.
Atlantic to Pacific: In the shipments from Atlantic to Pacific the
principal commodity was, as for a number of years past, manufac-
tures of iron and steel. Shipments so classified totaled 2,128,712
tons and formed slightly over 22 per cent of the total shipments
from the Atlantic. This item decreased 220,854 tons, or 9.4 per cent,
as compared with 1929. The major decreases were in the United
States intercoastal trade (157,671 tons) and in shipments from the
United States to the Far East (46,162 tons). Shipments from Europe
to the west coast. of South America increased 23,195 tons.
Mineral oils from Atlantic to Pacific totaled 682,742 tons, a decrease
of 124,002 tons, or 15.4 per cent. Shipments of crude oil, kerosene,
and lubricating oils increased somewhat but were offset by decreases
in shipments of gas and fuel oils and of gasoline and benzine. The
most marked decrease was in gasoline shipments; they amounted to
44,727 tons as compared with 157,692 tons in the preceding year.
The drop occurred principally in shipments from the United States
to Australasia and from the United States to the Far East; these
were, respectively, 51,231, tons and 42,923 tons lower than in the
fiscal year 1929.
Cement shipments from Atlantic to the Pacific, amounting to
379,968 tons in 1929, increased by 32,379 tons to 412,347 in 1930.
The increases were in shipments from Europe, of which there were
14,056 tons more to the west coast of the United States and 20,327
more to the west coast. of South America than in 1929.
Pacific to Atlantic: In the movement from Pacific to Atlantic in
the fiscal year 1922 wheat was the principal commodity with 804,730





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


tons, with mineral oils amounting to 187,491 tons. In the fiscal year
1923 mineral oils moved distinctly to first place, with 4,334,664 tons,
and in the fiscal year 1924 reached a peak of 9,721,446 tons. In 1925
the shipments declined to 5,989,622 tons and in 1926 they were
slightly lower, with 5,930,716 tons. The year 1927 saw an increase
to 7,143,165 tons, followed by decreases in 1928 and 1929. In the
fiscal year 1930 there was an increase of 502,774 tons, or 9.7 per cent
over 1929. Throughout the period beginning with the fiscal year
1923 the mineral oils have been the principal commodity. The
increase in the past year was due to greater shipments of gas and fuel
oil and of gasoline, benzine, naphtha, etc., principally in the United
States intercoastal trade and from the west coast of the United States
to Europe in both instances. Shipments of crude oil from the Pacific
to the Atlantic decreased about 165,000 tons, due primarily to a drop
of 167,949 tons in the United States intercoastal trade.
Lumber, which had second place in 1922 with 720,622 tons but
went to third in 1923, with nitrate in second place, resumed second
place in 1924 and has retained it since. Shipments increased steadily
until a peak of 3,673,832 tons was reachdied in 1928. In 1929 they
decreased to 3,311,875 tons, followed by a rise in 1930 of 219,004 tons,
or 6.6 per cent. About two-thirds of the lumber shipments are in the
United States intercoastal trade, and practically all of the lumber
originates on the west coast of the United States and Canada.
Ores, principally iron, went from fifth to third place in 1930, having
for the first time a total of over 2,000,000 tons. The total was
2,229,470 tons, an increase of 478,922 tons, or 27.4 per cent over 1929.
Iron ore shipments from the west, coast of South America to the United
States increased 420,718 tons, to a total of 1,901,564 tons. There
was also a marked increase in iron ore from Australia to the east
coast of the United States, from 9,667 tons in 1929 to 76,912 tons in
1930.
Nitrate occupied fourth place in 1930, the same as in 1928, though
it was third in 1929 and in 1926 and fifth in 1927. Shipments in 1930
were 1,910,793 tons, a decrease from 1929 of 643,772 tons, or 25.2 per
cent. Nitrate shipments came from the west coast of South America
and those destined to the United States were 275,841 tons, those for
Europe 377,742 tons, less than in 1929.
Wheat, in fifth place in 1930 and fourth in 1920, showed the largest,
decrease of any of the major coinmnodities. Shipments in 1920 were
2,305,555 tons and in 1930 they were 1,503,035 tons, less by 862,520,
or 36.5 per cent.. Wheat shipminents have shown a notable fluctuation.
In 1922 they were in first place with 804,736 tonns. The next year
they were at approximately the same level, 816,392 they increased over 50 per cent to 1,352,388 tons. Tl1in they fell off
to 1,078,844 tons in 1925 and 1,1S7,384 tons in 1926. Again they






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


increased to 1,477,376 tons in 1927 and a peak of 3,035,884 in 1928,
to be followed by a drop to 2,365,555 tons in 1929 and 1,503,035 tons
in 1930. The bulk of the decrease from 1929 to 1930 was in the trade
to Europe. Shipments to Europe from the west coast of Canada
decreased 738,059 tons (41.6 per cent) and from the west coast of the
United States to Europe the decrease was 138,550 tons, or 23.9 per
cent. Other trade routes showed minor increases in wheat shipments.

CLASSIFICATION OF VESSELS

Of the 6,185 commercial vessels transiting the canal during the
fiscal year, 4,752 were steamers, 1,411 were motor ships, and the
remaining 22 were motor schooners, sailing ships, barges, etc. For
the past four years the proportion of each class has been as follows:

1927 1928 1929 1930

Per cent Per cent Per cent I Per cent
Steam ers-... ......... ........ ................................. 85.3 84.8 0.2 76.8
M otor ships-................ .... .. .... ..... ......... ....... 11.9 13.8 19.3 22.8
M iscellaneous.................... ................. ... ......... 2.8 1.4 .5 .4
T otal.................. ......... ......... .......... ..... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


As will be noted in the above table, the proportion of motor ships
in the traffic through the canal has been increasing from year to year,
the actual number of transits for the past four fiscal years has been
as follows: Fiscal year 1927, 654; 1928, 890; 1929, 1,240; 1930,
1,411.
Of the 4,752 steamers transiting the canal during the past fiscal
year, 3,429 burned oil, 1,257 burned coal, and 66 were reported as
fitted for either fuel. For the past four fiscal years the proportion
of each class has been as follows:

1927 1928 1929 1930

Per cent I Per cent Per cent Per cent
O il burning .................. ............................. 70.8 63.8 64.0 72.2
Coal burning.. . . . . .....- ... .. .... ................. 28.3 35.7 34.7 26.4
E either oil or coal....... ..................................... ... .9 5 1.3 1.4
Total..................................................... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

LADEN AND BALLAST SHIPS

A classification of the traffic during the fiscal year 1930 by laden
ships, those in ballast and tolls-paying vessel which are not of the
cargo type, is presented below:







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


('lass




Tank ships:
Laden.................... ..
B alli- ............ .............
General cargo 'hips
L.aijen..........................
B allast.........................
Noncargo-carrying -hips;
Passenger......................
Naval..........................
Y achts .........................
W halers........................
Dredges .... ..... ..............
Tugp ..... ........ ..............
T h11nin


Atlantic to Pacific


Num-
ber of
ships



45
568

2,260
212

1
9
17
12
2
8
1


Panama
Canal net
tonnage



202,132
3,100,188

11,114,409
971. 725

18,874

4,287
821
1,365
989
A7


Num-
Tolls her of
ships



211. 159.34 .91
2,23.1,549.44 14

10,049,705.25 2,361
706,174.03 42


16,412.50
21,869.00
3,245.34
221.25
982.80
812.99
K9 AA


P'acilic to Atlantic


Panama
Canal net
tonnage



3,186,578
75,240

11,168,255
73,940

47,290

4,245
276
1,900
959
0A


Tolls


$3, 270,081.70
54,172.80

10,386,686.55
53,178.11

35,876.25
27,320.50
3,145.20
100.00
1,368.00
680.91
01 6C


..n .. ....... .......... .
Toial............ .......... 3, 135 15, 421. S37 13. 244. 1 .31 3,. .0 14, 7. 777 13,832,701 67



A classification of the commercial traffle during the fiscal year 1930

by laden ships and those in balliist, divided between tankers and

general cargo vessels, and showing the ships not designed to carry

cargo, is presented below:


Classification

Tank hip l, laden:
Number of transit ........... ........ .. .. ....
Panama (Camil neit ionnage...............
T u lls . . .... .. . ........ .. . ..... .. ...
Cargo, linn: ...................................
Trink l-hi| ballt.i -
Number of transits ------------------------.......
Panama Canal net tonnage-..-----------.- -....
'1Tos11115....................................... .
General cargo Iinips, Ilrn-
Nurnbt'r of transits------...--......................
Punaiima (C'anil net tonnage-------....-...
i l t; ................. ......... ..... ..... .....
('arvn to n s. .. . ... ... .......................
General cargo ships, balluIt:
N umrnher of train it< .. ........................ .. ...
Panama Canail net tonnage.-------...-...-----
Tnll ..... .. .. ............... ...... ....
NomnargRr-. arriN i .n l i 1s
Pa:i'nger %f-ssel--
Nuimber iof transils. ....... ---------.................
Panama Canal net tonnage.....--.......-..- -
'I. 1, ....................................
Tol ls .
Natal vf--fls-
N um ber of trRnsIt ............................
1Diml.acernent, tonnage--.....................
Tolls.............. ..................
Yachts-
N um ber of transit ... .........................
P:'inraB Canal neit inn e................
T'A.l ................ .............
Whalers-
Number of trnnsits.......... . .......
I'annnia C.inal net Lunnage.....................
Tolls....... .........................
Dre iges-
Nuniher of trannits................. ....
Pananma Canal net tonnage----.....------------
Tolls......................... .......... .
Tugs-
Nuinber of transitS. ...................
Panama Canal net (onnago..... .........
T.ll ............... ...... ..........
Launches-
Numin ter of Iransits........................
Panama Canal not tonnage.-- -....... ..- -
'rTolls................. ....... .......

I Includes supplemental bill of .$475


Atlantic to Pacific to At-
Pacific lantic


i..
202, 132
$211,159.34
283,243

568
3,100,188
$2, 2 41, :4! 44

2,260
11,114,409
$10,049,705.25
9,192,482

212
978, 725
$706,174.03

1
18,874
$16,412.50
9
41.738
$'21, M9 00

17
4,287
$3,245.34
12
821
S221 25
2
1,365
$982.80

8
989
$812.99

1
47
$56.40


r~j
1. l' ;, ;
$3, 270,081.70
5,788,135

14
7.'.. 241b
$54,172.80

2,361
11,168, 255
$10,386,686.55
14, i. 372

42
73,940
$53,178.11

3
-47. 290
$35,876.25

10
54,641
$27,320.50

10
4,245
$3,145.20

4
276
$100.00

2
1,900
$1,368.00

11
959
$680.91
2
94
9.05 j


Total


i:3fi
3, 1-*, 710
$3,481,241.04
6,071,378

582
3, 17.. 428
$2,287,722.24

4,621
?3. ?.2. 664
$20,-l4lil.:M .70
23,958,854

254
1, 0.52. 6fi5
V.*.,. .2.14

4
l., 164
$2.'N2 75

19
9, 379
i$49., IM'.50

27
R. 532
$6, 190. 54
16
1,097
$321. 25

4
3, 265
$2. 350.80
19
1,948
$1,493.90

3
141
$148.05







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL]

SUMMARY


Classification AtPancic to


Total cargo ships laden:
Number of transits................................. 2,305
Panama Canal net tonnage......................... 11.316,541
T olls...... ........ ....... ............ .. ..... .. $10,260, 864. .9 I
Car no, tons.... .. ... ........ ..... ................ 9,475,725
Total cargo ships, ballast.
Num ber of transits................................. 780
Panamna Canal net tonnage......................... 4.078.913
T olls.. .. ..................................... ... $2,939,723.47
Total tank ships- I
Num ber of ships.................................... 613
Panama Canal net tonnage......................... 3.302,.320
T olls............................................... $2,444. 708. 78
Cargo, tons ......-. .. .............. ............ 283.243
Total general cargo ships:
Num ber of transits ............................. ... 2,472
Panama Canal net tonnage....................... 12.093, 134
T olls............. . ....... ....... ............. $10,755,879.28
C argo, tons....... .................... ............. 9, 192,482
Total noncargo-cirrying ships.
N um ber of transits.....................- ............ 50
Panama Canal not tonnage......................... 26.383
Displacement tonnage........................... ... 43,738
T olls .......................... ............ ......... $43, 600.28
Grand totals:
N um ber of transit ................................. 3,135
Panama Canal net tonnage......--.......---............ 15,421. 837
Displacement tonnage.............................. 43,738
T olls- ................................ .......... .. $13,244, 188 34
Cargo, tons......................................... 9,475,725


MISCELLANEOUS HIGH RECORDS

The German steamship Columbus transited the canal from Pacific
to Atlantic on May 3, 1930, with 393 passengers nearing the end of a
trip around the world. The Columbus is the largest vessel in point
of length, registered gross and net, and Panama Canal net tonnage
to transit the canal to date. The vessel is 778 feet long and of 32,565
and 15,988 tons registered gross and net, respectively, and 20,079 net
tons, Panama Canal measurement. Tolls, limited to $1.25 per net
ton on a tonnage of 12,793 as determined utinder United States registry
measurement, amounted to $15,991.25. This was less than the tolls
paid by the Empress of Scotland, the America and the Belgenland,
ships of less length and gross tonnage than the Columbus.
The Swedish motor ship Srealand, transiting on January 2, 1930,
with a cargo of iron ore, bound from Cruz Grande, Chile, to Sparrows
Point, Md., set new records for tonnage of cargo in a single transit
and for low cost of tolls per ton of cargo. The cargo amounted to
22,244 tons and the tolls, $4,678.75, were equivalent to $0.2103 per
ton of cargo carried. The previous records, set by the Scealand on
June 29, 1929, were 22,146 tons of cargo, on which the tolls of 54,678.75
were equivalent to $0.2113 per ton. The draft of the vessel at time
of transit on January 2, 1930, was 34 feet, 1 inch, as compared with
34 feet on June 29, 1929. The Srealand is 550.1 feet long by 72 feet
beamni, of 15,339 gross and 4,377 net tons national registry measure-
ment, 4,421 net tons, Panama Canal measurement, and 3,743 net


Pacific to At-
lantic


2,952
14,.354, 833
$13,656.768. 25
20,554,507
56
149, 180
$107,350.91
005
3,261,818
$3,324, 254.50
5,788,135
2,403
11.242, 195 |
$10,439. 864.66 1
14,766,372
42
54,764
54,641
$68, 582. 51
3,050
14,558,777
54,641
$13,832,701.67
20,554,507


Total


5,257
25,671,374
$23,017,632.84
30,030,232
836
4.228,093
$3,047,074.3a
1,218
6,564,138
$5,768.963.28
6,071,378
4,875
23, 335,329
$21,195,743.94
23,058,854
92
81,147
98,379
$112,.182.79
6,185
29,980,614
98,379
$27,076,890.01
30,030,232





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


tons as determined under the rules for measurement for registry in
the United States.
A record for cargo carried through the canal in one day was set on
April 22, 1930, by the transit, that day of a total of 174,247 tons of
cargo. The previoutis record, 163,202 tons, had been made on Janu-
ary 14, 1924.
On April 22, 1930, there was also established a new record for conm-
mercial traffic in one direction in a day, in point of Panama Canal
net tonnage of vessels, tolls, and tons of cargo carried, but not with
respect to transits. Vessels having total net toiuage, Panaima
Canal measurement, of 116,618 tons, carrying 149,894 tons of cargo,
and paying tolls of $104,687.50, transited the canal fromii the Pa.-ific to
the Atlantic on April 22, 1930. The previous record for Pimnam
Canal net tonnage was 103,531 tons, for traffic from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, on December 8, 1928.
A record for tolls levied on traffic in one direction in one day of
$86,665 had been established on January 28, 1930, on traiin-its from
the Pacific to the Atlantic, exceeding the previous high mark of
$86,224.78 made on December 8, 192S, on traffic from the Atlantic
to the Pacific. The record of $s6,i65 was exceeded on February
25, 1930, when the tolls on transits from the Pacific to the Atlantic
amounted to $92,056.48, which in turn was exceeded by the collection
of $104,687.50 on April 22, 1930. The previous record for cargo in
one direction in a day was established on May 2, 1924, when 133,757
tons were carried from the Pacifice to the Atlantic.
DATA IN STATISTICAL SECTION
Further particulars of the traffic through the canal are presented
in section V of this report in the form of tables and graphs.
DUAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Under present provisions of law, tolls are levied on commercial
vessels using the canal on the basis of $1.20 per net (on on laden
ships and $0.72 per net ton on ships in ballast, on net tonnage as de-
termined under the Panama Canal rules of measiureiiient, with the
limitation that the niamount collectible shall not exceed $1.25 per net
ton or be less than $0.75 per net ton as determined under the rules
for measurement for registry on the Li'nited States. The effllect of this
is, generally, that tolls on laden vessels are usually paid on the basis
of $1.25 times the United States net tonnage and tolls on ballast
vessels at $0.72 times the Panama Canal net tonnage. In a few
cases the product of $1.20 times the canal net is slightly less than
$1.25 times the United States net, and tolls are paid on the canal basis;
there are other cases of ships in ballast in which the Panama Canal
net tonnage times $0.72 is in excess of $1.25 times the United States





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


net, in which case the latter figure is the amount collectible. Such
vessels pay less than $0.72 per net ton, canal measurement, for transit
either in ballast or laden. On small vessels such as tugs the United
State rules sometimes indicate negative net tonnage, and such
vessels make the transit without payment of tolls.
The dual basis now in use is confusing, at times annoying and unjust,
and the canal administration has advocated consistently the adoption
of the Panama Canal rules as the sole basis for the levy of tolls. The
use of rates of $1.20 for laden ships, and 72 cents for ships in ballast,
times the net tonnage as determined under the Panama Canal rules,
would have the effect of increasing heavily the charges on traffic;
and in order that approximately equal revenue might be obtained,
the canal administration has proposed that if the canal rules be
adopted the rates should be set at approximately $1 per net ton for
laden ships and $0.60 for vessels in ballast. However, the plan has
met opposition from American operators of general cargo vessels for
the reason that it would in most cases increase the charges against
general cargo ships when laden. On the other hand, the proposed
basis would reduce the charges on vessels making the transit in ballast.
Hence, as applied to the total traffic using the canal the effect of adopt-
ing the canal rules and proposed rates, in comparison with revenues
now derived, may vary according to the composition of the traffic.
An important factor affecting the tolls levied at. the canal is that of
changes in the rules of measurement, of vessels for registry in the United
States. These are changed from time to time by rulings of the Com-
missioner of Navigation, and in proportion as they affect the net
tonnage as determined under United States rules they increase or
decrease the tolls collectible at the canal. For example, a ruling with
respect to exemption from gross tonnage of certain spaces devoted to
passengers has resulted in decreasing the net tonnage, under United
States registry rules, of certain passenger vessels. This, in turn,
decreased the tolls on such ships. In effect, the charges which may be
levied at the canal on ships of all nations depend on rulings as to
United States registry measurement.
The Panama Canal rules of measurement were prepared scientifi-
cally to provide for the levy of tolls on the basis of interior spaces
which may be used for the transportation of cargo or passengers.
That they are accurate and equitable has not been questioned. They
may be assumed, therefore, to afford a proper basis of measurement.
It is possible that the proposed rates of $1 per ton for laden ships and
60 cents for those in ballast should be modified. However, they may
be used as a norm to measure how the collection of tolls under the
present dual basis is a matter of variance. In the fiscal year 1927, if
the proposed Panama Canal basis had been applied, the change would
have increased the tolls on all traffic combined by $93,409.79. This






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 23

was 0.39 of 1 per cent of the tolls actually levied. In 1028S the tolls
actually collected were $300,973.23 or 1.12 per cent, less than those
which were indicated by the canal basis. In 1929 this difference
amouiinted to $'i): 057.tW), or 3.18 per cent of the tolls actually levied.
For the- fiscal y'ear 1930 the difference was $1,255,801.59, or 4.64 per
cent of the tolls collected. It is evident, that factors have operated
to reduce the tolls, relative to the norm established by the canal basis,
during the successive years.
In the discussions of the proposed adoption of the Panama Canal
basis there have been statements to the effect that the change would
impose undue burdens on United States vessels. The following is a
comparison of the increases in tolls which would have been paid by
United States vessels and by all other vessels than those of United
States registry in the past four fiscal years:
UNITED STATES VF.-8ELS ONLY

Tolls which Increase
i rTolls actually boule have
Fij,,il year c dlleceedcollected
on I .i1 Actual Per cent
basis

1927........ .......... . ..... 12.72".447.95 $12.601,622.60 1 1' 1 .S825.35 10.93
S . . . ..... . . ........ . . . . . . . 645.880.20 12, 662, 378.60 16,498.40 .13
'.29................. ....... ... ... ... .. . 12,299,584.70 12, 471.487.00 171,902.30 1.40
1930..----------------------------------------- I .220, 662.70 13,537,324. 60 316,661.90 2.40

ALL VESSELS OTIl IlI THAN UNITED STATES

1927........................................ ---------------------------------------$11,508.382.16 $11,720,617.30 $212,235.14 1.84
192 .. ---------------------------------------- 14, 2"'r, 619. 57 14, s,% 1.04.40 284, 474.83 1.99
1929... --------------------------- -------------- 14,827,792.21 15, .7.I'. 1 7. 60 '1l. 155.39 4.66
13U.................... ........... ... ... .. 13,856,227.31 14, 7 "., 317. 00 *:t ,139.69 6.78

I Decrease.

In the following table are shown, for the fiscal year 1930, the tolls
paid by the vessels of various nationalities using the canal, in com-
parison with the tolls which they would have paid on the proposed
basis. There is also shown an item which has not been included in
earlier annual reports-namely, the pro rnta per net ton, Panama
Canal measurement, of the actuaiil tolls on laden and lallast vessels.
For example, the laden Belgian ships paid tolls equivalent to an
average of $1.09 per net ton of capacity as determined under Panama
Canal rules and oni ballast traffic paid the equivalent of 72 cents per
Panama Canal net ton. The British ships, while paying the same
ballast equivalent, averaged 91.8 cents per canal net ton on laden
ships. It will be noted that for vessels in ballast the prevailing charge
was clo-se to 72 cents per Panaima Canal net ton, but that there were
some variations. The wider variations occurred with respect to the
laden vessels. On the assumption that tlie Panmmmia Canal rules for
15710-30- 3






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


the determination of net tonnage are an accurate basis for the just
levy of canal dues, it becomes obvious that the present use of the
United States rules is resulting in inequities and injustices, since
the ships are not, paying at equal rates on net tonnage as determined
utinder the canal rules of measurement. The Belgian average, for
example, is 17.5 cents, or 19 per cent higher than the British. The
United States average is 8.7 cents under the Japanese but higher than
the British by 3.1 cents than the German by 8.1 cents, etc. The
table follows:


Tolls that
would have
been collected Pro rata per Panama
STolls actually under pro- Difference Canal net ton of tolls
collected posed rates of actually collected
Nationality undor present $1 laden and
dual system 60 cents bal-
dual sstem lasi on3 basis
of Panama ___________
Canal net
tonnage Increase Decrease Laden Ballast Total

Argentine...------------........ $4.015.52 $3,557.60 -------------..............- $-157.92 .--.------ $0.720 $0.720
Belgian............... ---------------122,440.19 110,606. 20 ..............---1 11,743.99 $1.093 .720 1.025
British-------------- 7,197,979.33 7,683,910. 10 $485,930. 77 .------------. .918 .720 .896
Chilean--------------- 153.998.8S 162. 744.90 8,746. 04 ------------..... -.. .936 .715 .924
Colombian----------- 15,371.33 12,976. 40 ...---------------...... 394.93 1. 184 .720 1. ISO
Costa Rican----------. 646.95 529.60 .............. 117.35 1.200 .755 .977
Danish.--------------- 352,7. 65 31.4,491. 20 11,702.55 ...........------------ 950 .721 924
Danzig--------------- 195, 633.92 174,707.60 ...--------------.... 20,926.32 1.066 .720 .884
Dutch--------.-------- 571, P60..2 663.975.60 92,114.98 ............ .856 .714 852
Finnish.--------------- 4. 572.00 3,810.00 ..............-------------- 762.00 1.200 ........ 1.200
French--------------- 583 1. -.3 10 597,472.44) 14,319.30 ............ 956 .721 .929
German------------- 1,236,213. 16 1,404.712 50 168, 499.34 ...------------ 868 .726 .861
Greek---------------- 77,863.75 S9,221.00 11,357.25 ............ ------------.873 --------........ .873
Italian--------------- 385.20O S9 424,317.00 39,026.11 1............ ------------.903 .731 .898
Japanese-..------------ S51.013.31 821, 195 00 ..............------------I 29,818.31 1.036 .734 1.034
Mexican-------------- 1,961. 2.5 2,159.00 197.75 ............ ------------.90S ---...-----.. .908
Nicarauan........... 113 25 84.00 -----..--...-------. 29.25 ---..-----. .809 .809
Norwegian---------...........-- 1,410,130.81 1,528,61. 20 118,487.39 ............ .882 .718 .849
Panaman-------------- 8,027.22 84,558.80 16,531.58 ............ .70 .723 .775
Peruvian------------- 9, 724.50 8,959.00 ----. --..--- 765.50 1. 085 -..----- 1.085
Spanish.------------.............-- 6,264.00 5,900.50 ..............-------------- 363.50 1.066 ........-------- 1.086
Swedish----------.............. 473.27s.45 512,033.40 3897.54.95 ............ .866 .719 .828
United States-------- 13,220,662.70 13, 537. 324.60 316,661. 90 ------------.949 .721 .910
Yugoslavian.---------- 133,886.25 134,737.00 850 75 .------------ 974 .720 .939
Total.......... ---------27,076, 690.01 2S, 332,691.60 1,323, ISO. 66 67,379.07 .931 .7205 .9015
Total difference, in-
crease of---------- --------- --------------.......... 1,255,801.59 --- ----- ---


A bill to remedy these inequalities has been introduced in Congress.

HOURS OF OPERATION

Dispatching of ships through the canal is conducted on schedules.
Vessels ready to leave for transit, begin moving through the canal
from each end at 6 o'clock in the morning, and dispatches are made
thereafter from each end at intervals of about half an hour. The
following is a summary of the arrangements in effect at the end of the
fiscal year.
Operating hours for complete transit.-From Cristobal Harbor, first
ship at 6 a. m., last at 2.30 p. mi.; from Balboa anchorage, first ship at
6 a. mn., last at 2 p. mi. This applies to vessels averaging 10 to 12 knots;





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


in case of a vessel capable of 15 knots, departure may be made up to
3 p. m. from Cristobal or Balboa.
Limits Jor iafa tini on paitial tran4it.-After the last through ships
have been dispatched, and provided there is no interference with
approaching traffic, ships are started on partial transit from Cristobal
Harbor up to 9 p. m. or fromni Balboa anchorage up to 7 p. m. Partial-
transit ships tie up on reaching the summit level and continue the
following morning, the first leaving Gatun for the Pacific. at 3.45 a.m.,
and the first of those bound for the Atlantic leaving Pedro Miguel
at 3.30 a. m., providing the air is sufficiently free of fog or rain to
allow safe navigation.
Tankers with inflammable cargoes are dispatched at the discretion
of the captain of the port and are not permitted to proceed unless
they can clear Gaillard Cut before dark. Overloaded tankers
carrying gasoline cargo are restricted to schedules leaving at 7, 7.30,
and 8 a. m.
Two ships usually, sometimes three, each way, can be given the
benefit of partial transit each day, and under ordinary conditions
they gain from two to three hours. When traffic is heavy it is imprac-
ticable to use partial transits, as they would then interfere with the
regular schedule.
The volume of traffic at present is not such as to make advisable
continuous operation throughout the 24 hours of the day, or even
extensive night operation. Such operation would not only involve
greater expense and increase the difficulties of maintenance of locks
and channel but it is somewhat objection ble from the shipminasters'
point of view on account of the hazards of navigation in restricted
channels under conditions of darkness, made worse by rains and
fogs. Fogs over the cut and hike usually fall before midnight and are
dissipated by 8'oclock in the morning.
LOCKAGES AND LOCK MAINTENANCE
The average number of lockages per day wias 16.81 at Gatun Locks,
17.63 at Pedro Miguel, and 17.30 at Miraflores. The total number
of lockages at all lock..s was 18,909, as compared with 22,197 during
the fiscal year 1929 and 19,533 during the fiscal year 192S. The
decrease in (he past year was 3,2,SS, or 14.8 per cent.
Gatun Locks.-Both lock chambers were in service and used for lock-
ages each day during the year. Elfective January 2, 1930, the hours
of the No. 2 operating shift were changed from 11.45 a. mn.-7.45
p. in. to 3 p. m.-11 p. m. This provides for double-chamber opera-
tion from 7 a. mn. to 11 p. m. and wms necessary in order to avoid
overtime or delay ships overnight. The longest delay to any s:liip
resulting from machine failure or improper operation was 16 minutes.
Twenty-seven delays were recorded due to the locks, averagingm 6
minutes each.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


For the purpose of conserving the water supply in Gatiin Lake,
shiort-chaiimber blockages and cross filling were made during the dry
season; the estimated water saving resulting from such operations
iamnounted to approximately 2,300,000,000 cubic feet. Routine
maintenance and repairs were performed on all machines and equip-
ment as required, and there were no serious breakdowns during the
year. Two of the four new towing locomotives ordered from the
mechanical division were received. Electrical installation was ap-
proximately 50 per cent complete at end of year. Extensive repairs
were made to center wall crane No. 79. A new boiler was installed,
also new traveling gears; side channels were straightened; new rear
channels were installed; all piping was replaced where necessary;
and general repairs were made. The boiler on west. wall crane No. 81
was removed for replacement of broken side and rear channels;
worn gears were replaced and general repairs were made. All cranes
are now in good condition for the lock overhaul in 1931. A new
toilet was constructed under west emergency damn, and one for
tourists on the east wall, upper level, in the back-fill between the tow-
ing and return tracks.
A considerable amount of preliminary work for the overhaul of
1931 has been done. Materials, supplies, and equipment were ordered
and were arriving at the end of the fiscal year. All the equipment
for handling the gates which was used at the Pacific locks was received,
sorted, painted, arid stored.
Pacific locks.-Operation of the Pacific locks continued on the
same basis as heretofore, except during the periods when the United
States Fleet was being locked through, when it was necessaiv to
operate on a 24-hour basis for a few days. There were no serious
instances of faulty operation or serious accidents to ships during the
year.
Routine maintenance and repairs were performed on all machines
and equipment, the most important being as follows: At Pedro
Miguel, in August, the control cable for chain fender machine No. 840
failed, due to water eating away lead sheathing; this was replaced.
Four hundred and fifty feet of 8-conductor lead cable was renewed in
middle cross under, 45 new towing cables were installed on towing
locomotives, 199 eyes were spliced in cables, and 31 cables were turned
end for end. The bulkheads on the bull-wheel openings at. all miter
gate machines were removed, cleaned, and painted. In this connec-
tion 330 studs were renewed. Locomotive crane No. 76, which was
wrecked while loaned for work on wharf at Balboa, was rebuilt by
Balboa shops and returned to Miraflores for service. At Miraflores
the six regulating valves at the south end were removed and rebuilt.
The timbers at the bottom of these valves were replaced with con-
crete beams. A cable-greasing tank was completed and installed on







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL ZY


the north approach wall at Miraflores for applying hot grease to
locomotive cables. The caisson was put in drydock at Balboai. for a
complete overhaiiling and renewal if sution arid dischIlarge piping,
at which time one pllumping unit was equipped with electric valve
operator .. On completion of this overlhauil the icaion was given
a running test at Mirniflores on March 18, 193(), for which purpose it
\vas stiunk in position at the lower \v-et entrrinre. IUptin completion
of the test it was shipped to Gatun Lucks on MNirch 20, 9l2W.
Lockages and vessels handled, by months, during thie pini:t fi-val
year are shown in the following table, to which is appended for com-
parison a statement of the totals during the past five fiscal years:


Month and fiscal year



1929
July .. ----------
A ugust..............
;epieriiher..........
October--------------
November... --------
December..... .....
1930
January.-------------
Feliru:ir ... ......
lanir h ... . ..
A p ril... ... . .. ..
M ay . . . . .
June .... .. . .
T o l. . .... .
Fi 192 i ............
1927 . . . . .
192s ... . ... .
1929 ...........
19341"....... ....


Gatun

T. rjk :g' Vessels


516
507
563
516
509


Pedro Miiu-1l

Lockages Vessels


534 614 558 641
490 596 515 619
511 592 534 607
487 563 505 570
492 581 510 596
499 590 523 598
I. I 7. 16i-4 ;, l:i. 7, 1..


2.. 3 ] I, A" .('1
It 1 .7 11.r i '.. 7,1.4
i1. 11 7. II f .. .;12
.,,- i 7. 42-% ', 1(
r,1 li 7. if. l I,. lA ',


1., 4.31
t.. Il'.
7. ,11
7. 1 011


M1 irallores

Lockages Vessels


534
550
530
574
539
533

551
500
511
498
499
519
I., .< 1'


.*. . "'
,'. v. l..


Total


Lockages


1,587
1, 625
1,572
1,713
1,596
1,580

1, 643
1, 505
1,556
1,490
1,501
1,541


Vessels


1,860
1,914
1,824
1,950
1,859
1,817

1,897
1,831
1,809
1,701
1,773
1,790


1. 1.51 i f 1nr..) 2J 2.10

.411 I 15,970 19,223
S" f; 16,941 20,550
SUI 19,533 23,021
.'*,1 19,087 23,356
I. 1. ,909 22.025


The number of vessels locked per lockage in the fisedal year 1930
averaged(l as follows: Gatun, 1.168; Pedro Miguel, 1.154; Miraflores,
1.172. The average for the total of 18,909 lockages wias 1.165 vessels.
For the four previous years, from 1926 to 1929, inclusive, the corre-
sponding ratios have been, respectively, 1.204, 1.213, 1.17-, and 1.224.

POWER FOR CANAL OPERATION

The Gatun hydroelectric station operated throughout thie year,
carrying the full land of the power system except at times of peak
load when the Mirafdlores Diesel electric plant canie on the line and
dutiring the dry-season months when the water-il riven generators at
the Gatin plant were restricted in operation to conserve wNiter in
Gatinn Lake, at which time the Mirallcres plant aii.unird a consid-
erable portion of the load on thle system.
The power system was operated throughout the year with a coim-
bined generator output averaging 5,442,50Ms killwvtt-htlirs per






28 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

month, as compared with an average of 5,143,542 kilowatt-hours
during the preceding year. An average of 4,937,522 kilowatt-hours
per month was distributed from substations, as compared with a corre-
sponding figure of 4,751,950 kilowatt-hours per month last year, an
increase of 185,572 kilowatt-hours, or 3.8 per cent. Transmission and
distribution loss was 9.27 per cent this year, as compared with a corre-
sponding loss during 1929 of 7.61 per cent.
There were 17 interruptions on the transmission line during the
year from the following causes: Lightning, 12; animals, 2; tree drop-
ping on line, 1; operating error, 1; equipment failure, 1. As com-
pared with the fiscal year 1929, interruptions due to lightning increased
100 per cent and those due to other causes decreased 44 per cent.
This decrease is attributed in large part to the duplicate service over
the two transmission lines, placed in operation at the beginning of the
fiscal year 1930.
Telechron synchronous time clocks were installed in all generating
stations and substations, including the necessary master clocks and
radio time signal receiving equipment in the generating stations, to
provide a unified system of time in all power plants and substations.
This installation, incidentally, makes it practicable to connect an
electric clock for synchronized time in any buildings or quarters
supplied with Panama Canal power circuit.
Operation and maintenance of the spillway of Gatun Lake are
performed by the electrical division. During the year there were 308
spillway gate operations, of which 182 were for lake regulation, 28
were for exhibitions, 54 for sanitation, 4 for photographs, and 40 were
for maintenance purposes.

WATER SUPPLY
Comparative data, showing the inflow of water in Gatun Lake from
all sources, utilization, and losses for the fiscal years 1929 and 1930
are presented in the following table:

Per cent of lotal, Billion cubic feet,
fiscal year fiscal year

W29 1930 1929 1930

Run-off above Alhojnela.... ...................................------------- 38. 3 40. I 80.2 63.52
Yield from land area below Alhajuela--.......................... 41. i 38. 87..5 61.24
Dire(- rainfall on lake surialie................................... 2. 1 21.3 42.0i6 33.78
rTotal yield.1 -.----------... ......................... i 0 11)1.1 209 I39 158. .54
Evapjrauian from lakesurface.---------- ............-------------------.... ... 1.3 13. 1 21.R0 20.72
Gat un Lake lock es-........................................... 20 2 25 2 42 2. 40.04
Ifyilrnelecirie power.........-------------.................................. 21.0 2 7 43.87 45.45
Siillwaiy w iste----------------- ... ............................ 5u.f. 33 9 106.04 53.83
M 'iin *il al.leakage, e ; ................................... S 1 0 1 73 1.60
Decreaseio i t'rage ............................................ -2.9 1.9 -i. 11 -3. 10
Toi al uses and losses-.--.........--.......- ................... 100.0 10)0.0 209.39 158.54





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


DRY SEASON
The 1930 dry season was somewhat longer and d(lryer than usual
but. did not approach the unusiial dry years of 1920 and 1926. During
the last 17 years there have been 11 years with water supply greater
than 1930 and 5 years with less.
From the standpoint of water supply, the 1930 dry season began
December 13, 1929, and ended May 1, 1930. During this period of
140 days the consumption of water was at the rate of 3,'19 cuibi feet
per second, as follows: Evaporation from lake, 800; Gatun Lake
lockages, 1,025; hydroelectric power, 1,287; municipal uses and leak-
age, 57. The total yield of the watershed (of which the Chagres
River watershed above Alhajuela supplied 59 per cent) was equivalent
to 1,524 cubic feet. per second. Hence, it was necessary to draw on
the storage at the rate of 1,645 cubic feet per second, or 4.36 feet of
depth on the lake surface. The yield of the watershed during this
period was equivalent to 4.04 feet depth. The elevation of Gatun
Lake was lowered from 87 feet on December 13 to 82.64 feet on May 1,
1930, although a imomientary minimum at Gatun of 82.57 feet occurred
on April 30. The water saved by use of the Miraflores Diesel plant
for power amounted to 2,200,000,000 cubic feet, and that saved by
special measures at the locks to 4,000,000,000 cubic feet, a total of
6,200,000,000 cubic feet., or the equivalent of 1.36 feet depth on
Gatiin Lake. Had there been no saving of water the minimumii
elevation of Gatun Lake would have bIeen 81.28 feet instead of 82.64
feet.
ADDITIONAL WATER STORAGE AT ALHAJUELA
MADDEN DAM PROJECT
To meet the increasing demand for water for lockages and power,
and municipal uses, the construction of a dam, reservoir, and hydro-
electric power plant at Alhajuela, on the Chagres River, was author-
ized. The necessity for the dam has already been outlined in the
annual report for 1928. The appropriations to the close of the fiscal
year 1030 amounted to $1,250,000, which was expended in the
construction of a road to the dam site, known as Madden Road, and
field and office investigations for th(e Madden Dam.
It was tentatively concludedi4l that the reservoir working level
would 1(e elevation +240 above mean sen level (which is 149 feet above
the low-water line of the river), the extreme high-water level +200,
total height of damin above bedrock 200 feet, length, 1,200 feet. Tlihe
quantity of water to be iimpounded at elevation +240is22,0.'),000,000
cubic. feet (50i,000 acre-feet); the quantity which could be impoiundled
between elevations +240 and +260 is 10,612,000,000 cubic feet (242,000
acre-feet). The latter volume is for control of floods so that navi-
gation in the canrunl need seldom be interrupted duie to e\resive currents





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


being caused at the junction with the Charges River. The tentative
program includes the construction of 12 saddle danims to close off the
low points in the ridges which form the reservoir walls. Tentative
studies for a hydroelectric power station, in conjunction with the
dam, show that, considerable power can be developed there when
required.
The flow to be expected once in 1,000 years was estimated, by
probability methods, to be 280,000 second-feet, and spillway capacity
is being made to meet such a flood.
The determination of the type of main dami will be made after
completion of all tests and exploration.
Although all possible sites for the main dam have been investigated,
only one area of the gorge has rock foundation which is suitable for a
dam foundation. The foundation rock is a calcareous sandstone
which merges with, and is underlain by, a stratum of soluble limestone.
Organization.-On July 16, 1929, all work on field investigations,
surveys, and designs was concentrated within one division, known as
the designing engineer division, under E. S. Randolph, designing
engineer, and the program of field investigations outlined by geologists
Frank Reeves and Clyde P. Ross of the United States Geological
Survey, in their report of March 16, 1929, was vigorously prosecuted.
It became apparent that engineering consultant services should be
called in at an early date, and R. F. Walter, chief engineer, and J. L.
Savage, chief designing engineer, of the Bureau of Reclamation,
United States Department of the Interior, were appointed consulting
engineers, and visited the Isthmus from January 1 to January 5,1930.
They submitted a report in March, 1930, containing a review of all
data available at that date, a recommended course of procedure for
design and for continuing the field investigations. A second visit
from geologist Clyde P. Ross, from February 28 to March 16, resulted
in concentrating the program of field investigation to the most vital
points.
Geological ii-estigations..-Intensive geological investiga t ions were
required over an area of about 5 square miles adjacent to the dam site.
Possibility of leakage through the limestone stratum which underlies
the dam site and outcrops on each side was mentioned in the original
geological report. At the dam site the geologists mentioned a
possibility of leaching of the foundation stone, due to percolation of
water under pressure created by the reservoir.
In order to ascertain the extent of these dangers and to thoroughly
map the geological formations many diamond and wash drill holes
were bored, cores from the drill holes were classified, test pits were
sunk, many cores and cubes of stone were tested, excavations into
caverns in the limestone in the reservoir walls were begun, and con-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


struction of weirs for measuring the flow of streams on the dry side of
these walls before and after filling the reservoir was begun.
There were 22 ,S79.4 linear feet of diamond drill holes, 109 linear
feet. of shot drill holes,- and 2,168.8 linear feet of wash drill holes
completed at the end of the year. Chemiical alnd physical tests were
mande on stone ciiubes from different fornmiations at the dain site by
the Bureau of Standards. Niumeirous tests were m)ide on stone
chies and cores by the testing Jiloratory on the Canal Zone to deter-
mine compressive strength, porosity, perimenability, etc., of the

Dye tests to determine the direction and extent of underground
flow of water were made. Soiundings were made in drill holes to
determine depth to ground water at different seasons.
Sairrt'y.-All surveys, except a small area for camp locntioni and
tiransmiission line location, were completed. The total arena surveyed
andl nipped during the yeftr wai 3,475 acres.
EJgiiy i itnI(.-Field work consisted in completion of the mapping
at and near the dam site, iisuriveys and soundings to determine the
quantity of gravel in the river near the dam, ~iiiihping and testing
gravel to determine its suitability for use in concrete, the operation
and 1iiiiinten since of 'anmps and ineses, the locutiions and elevations
of drill holes, test pits, and trenches, the obtaining each day and
testing of river wilier for silt content, the location and constriction
of weirs for streaim gaging, the\ water-pressure testing of drill holes
to obtain ditla on the water tightness of the rock fouirindatLions, the
furnishing and mni iiitaiining of equiipmeniit for carrying on the work,
the construction of flood warning and river gaging stitioni- at and
above t ie dam site, the daily observiition of river gages-, and the
constriiction and maintenance of telephone e line.
Ollie work incluiled the recording of all field data, coimpilini: of
Iiil)s, cross sections, etc., propEirition of prelliiiiiiiiry designs and
estillii e-l, preparation of reports, purchase of equipment, and
adiini'. ii til e work.
EI'qipHII(nt.-Three mhlitionnl dininpndl drills were purchww(l], which
numdei a total of five, aind for piart of the ye.ir all were in active opera-
tion. For e\'cavnition into ca erns (here wre ordered I hoist, 4 mine
cars, 4 blower-, I air Coliipressor, aild trick, nIuniers limilps, and pipe.
SEISMOLOGY
TWinty-eig -hlit -i i (ist iii ilioinccsi were re 1.oded o1 ) thle Balboa
Heiights .V'isimogriphs during llie fiscal yvnr 1:W0. Of these, 13 were
clnssifled as of ner-liy origin, 10 of distant origin, and 5 as very ^li'liht
anld iincert.1in1. Only two win felt lonilly; a shock on November 27,
1929, which w)s sli it (nd noticed by a few residents, and a shock on
March 7, 1930, which was- felt generally throiighiiout the ('zinal Zone.






32 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

The latter was the most intense since 1914 and about equal to the
major shocks of 1913 and 1914. It was rated 6 on the Rossi-Forrel
scale of I to 10. Small cracks were reported in the walls of a few
buildings, but no material local damage was reported. In the pre-
ceding fiscal year 64 disturbances were recorded, with no damage
resulting locally.
Follow ing the earthquake of March 7, 1930, the office engineer was
charged with the duty of making settlement and earthquake surveys
of permanent structures in the Canal Zone and maintaining a record
thereof. Inspections will be made after earthquake disturbances of
intensity 5 or more, and annually in March.

MAINTENANCE OF CHANNEL AND IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS

Dredges were at work throughout the year on maintenance and
improvement work in the Pacific entrance, Gaillard Cutit and Balboa
Inner Harbor. Auxiliary dredging was done in No. 1 Island borrow
pit, Balboa Harbor; borrow pit "X," Folks River; Dock No. 4,
Pacific entrance; and in the Chagres River gravel beds. The total
excavation was 7,277,754 cubic yards, composed of 4,900,300 cubic
yards excavated from the canal prism; S66,100 cubic yards from the
Balboa Inner Harbor; 1,195,600 cubic yards from No. 1 Island
borrow pit, Balboa Inner Harbor, for the United States Army fill at
Albrook Field; 29,000 cubic yards from borrow pit, "X," Folks River,
for the United States Army fill at France Field; 3,200 cubic yards at
Dock No. 4, Balboa; and 283,554 cubic yards from the Chagres River
gravel beds to replenish the Gamboa stock pile. The excavation in
the past year is summarized in this table:

Earth Rock Total

From the c:imn:i prisinm- I
Athint ic entrance (ni-iuntenance i ................................ 0 0 0
(G .iiun Lake .............................................. ..... 5,500 5,50) 11,000
(uill.ird Cut, project No. 2..................................... 6.--500 257,950 304,450
(iaillurd Cur, project No 3..................................... 2 ,8110 63,550 92,350
U.(illard cut, ni.mainteniance ..................................... 2119,250 5 2, 150 861,400
Pa ific entrance, project No 1 .................................. 1,492, 100 893,550 2,375,650
Pacilicentrance (maintenance)................................. l,20?,U0O) 47,450 1,25.5,450
Tota.il, canal prism ............................................ 3,050, 150 1, 50, 150 4,900.300
Aumiliir.y
Hall i.i Inner Harbor. project No 1 .....- -- .. ..-- ..---. ......-- 0 0 0
.illoi Inner 1Iirbor (rnm untenance.i................ ............ 866, 100 0 866,100
Rilico-i Inner II.irhor:ind ternin:il, project No. I im:iintnnten tei. 0 0 0
('ris olh.al H1irhor Ind term innal ............................... .. 0 0 0
Borrow nir. blind No. 1. 1.ilbo.i IH rbor (Z- G161)............... 1955, 00 0 1,195,600
Franme Field fill, L'. S. Army (Z-10 ,i .. ........................ 29,000 0 29,000
Dock No.4, Pacific entrance (W. H. M E-781.................. 1,500 1,700 3,200
Tota.il, harbors and terminals. -....- ..----.-.-...- .......- .... 2,092,200 1,700 2,093,900
Chagres Tiver sand and gravel service.............................. 283. 554 0 283,554
G rand total................................................. 5,425,904 1,851,850 7,277,754






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Dredging operations at the canal are recorded by three nijor dis-
ricts: The northern district, from the contmouri 42 feet below miion sea
level in the Atliiantic Ocean to Gamboa; the centred district, Ciilliird
Cut, from Giambon! to Pedro Migiuel Lock; thesouthern district,fromi
Pedro Migiiel Lock to the contour A0 feet below mean sea level in the
Plciitic Ocean. Exciavation in these thiee districts is siinman-ized as
follows:

Canal prism I\IIM|I.' Total

E.1i1 Hurk TolAil irtli rh H T .il J. I li I:., k Total

Noillr tw -. *.'ni II(1110 2^, 000 ....... 29,000 34, 50 500 40,000
CO itr.il :i 11.:..( .11 t.i. .11 1. 2' 2 I .. ...... .. .- .ni 5 0 913, tiO 1, 258, 200
Soul tli 0 2'. (II1. I, 93. 1.1i R 3 '1. '|l. [ii 2. 1i.. 21) I l, TJll I 2. i'.. '(" 4,763,300 *'.*. 700 4,691, 000
'Tul i . :1 '.'. I 1-0 .U.i I l.um, 'U.I J 2.i',200 1,700 2,093,900 5,142,350 1.851,850 (t***'. **il

The above does not include the 2S3,554 cubic yards excavated from
the Chiagre- River aboe its junction with the canal, as this nativity
is for the recliniation of gravel rather than excavation.
InlprorHntiit( project No. 1.-The work of delpening thie Pacific
entrance channel from Mirnflores Locks to the sea buoys ii nd Balboa
Inner Harbor from 45 feet to a ruling depth of 50 feet, mean sea level
dat 11111m, known as improvement project No. 1 and begun in July, 1924,
was conrtirinuied throughout the year as equipment uw available.
Work \i as carried on by the pipe line suction dreides No. 86 aind Las
Cruce's, handling the softer materials, and by the dipper dredges
Gnmboa and C.cfa(i excavating rock and lihard earth. The section
dredges excavated 1,357,650 cubic yards from the chuinnel, charged
to this project; and the dipper dredges excavated 664,550 cubic yards
from the harbor, classified as work on the improvement. In addition
to this tot ;d of 2,022,200 cubic yards on the project, the dredges did
considernihble excavation as maintenance. Two drill bonts, Til'o
No. 2 and Tf rrier Ao. 2, were employed 8 and 11 niiinths, respectively,
on this work during the year, brioiking up 3115,170 cubic yards of rock
and using 2.1,257 pouitinds of dynamite. The total exIrv.-itioiii to the
end of the fisciil yeiar on this project wrr! 6,588,900 cubic yards.
The above figures do not include 353,450 cubic yards in the exten-
sion to improvement project. No. 1, which WSf tlie e\ctavation of a
strip appro1xiimately 150 feet wide long the east prismn line of tfie
Pacific sea level section for a distance of anout i 4,300 feet, from edition
2265 to station 2308, to provide easier access to tlie oil berthii. In
November, 1929, on account, of decision to cluinnge tlie site of thIe oil
berth tlie extension was modified to provide for extending the ex.- va-
tion of soft material from thie northern end of thlie original strip toward
Dock No. 4. Including the 322,700) cubic yards ex(ivatmed in the





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


fiscal year 1929 the total excavation on the extension to the end of the
fiscal year 1930 was 676,150 cubic yards.
At the end of the fiscal year 1930 the Pacific entrance portion of
improvement project No. 1 was 58 per cent completed, the harbor
portion was 92 per cent completed, and the degree of completion of
the entire project was about 78 per cent.
Improvement project No. 2.-This project, begun in September, 1927,
entailed the widening of the channel at Lirio curve, so as to enable all
classes of vessels to pass this sharp turn with ease and at the same time
provide a better range of visibility. Work was completed on May 23,
1930. The dipper dredges Cascadas, Gamnboa, and Paraiso removed
a total of 304,450 cubic yards of material during the year. In the
shore mining work, 87,431 cubic yards of rock were broken, using
72,650 pounds of dynamite. Drill boat Teredo No. 2 worked 65 days
on subaqueous mining, breaking 58,957 cubic yards of rock and using
38,420 pounds of dynamite. A hydraulic grader worked two months
on this project, sluicing 36,800 cubic yards of material to the dredges,
and air compressor No. 27 was employed for six months furnishing air
for the shore mining. The total excavation on project No. 2 was
1,927,700 cubic yards, of which 458,500 cubic yards were classified as
slide material.
Inprorenient project No. 3.-This project was begun in September,
1929, and consists of widening the channel at the north entrance to
Gaillard Cut and extending northward, terminating at the south end
of Gamboa Reach; it also provides a tie-up station opposite Gamboa,
as an extension of the original plan. This project. is considered neces-
sary on account of the narrow and awkward turn from the lake section
into Gaillard Cut at the north end of Bas Obispo Reach, it being
especially hazardous for ships to pass one another at. this point. The
increased width through the Chagres crossing is desirable on account
of cross currents set, up by freshet. discharges from the Chagres
River, and a long approach is desirable as a consequence in order that
the entire additional width may he easily accessible to navigation.
Base lines and bench marks were established; topographic and
hydrographic surveys were made and plotted. A transmission line
was erected to sutipply power to the air compressor for the shore drill-
ing and to grader No. 3 for sluicing and grading. Air compressor No.
29, grader No. 3, and the wagon and tripod drills were placed on the'
project in January, 1930.
Grader No. 3 worked six months sluicing 40,685 cubic yards
of material from between the 95 and 150 foot elevations to the
dredge cut. Air compressor No. 29 worked five and one-half months
furnishing air for the shore mining. The wagon, tripod, and jack-
hammer drills worked four months breaking 42,600 cubic yards of















z

0
I
()

z

I-.
UJ (
w 111
w

mz
w
*u

Z




0 0
z
00



( n
Iz





Sj
0
od



00


-0
C;


Sin







-F--
D <




ow

0


US0
u0

a-
W U
I
Lii
0
0c
a.

Z

O
15

0
x


















0
z
m


w

0
X








JL
u-



0

z







Z
O-



zm
0












az
Z
0
0 )
u.








0
w


CD-











0:
06
aZ
z
Z










0







I-
0
-1 o
U -J
















z
I-















w
0
0t



I-
z
UJ
w
0d


___~1___1__





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


rock, and using 23,193 pounds of dynamite. Dredge Parasio worked
one month on this project, excavating 77,650 cubic yards of miiattriail;
and the dredge 07anboa worked three and one-half days excaviting
14,700 cubic yards.
The total excavation on this project was 92,350 cubic yards to the
end of the fiscal year. It was then less than 1 per cent completed.
Improrentent project Vo. 9.-This project, which was begun in Jiune,
1928, consists of widening the channel fronting West Culiebra -lide so
as to minimize danger to ships entering Cilebra Rearlh, besides pro-
viding a safety basin for retaining slide material in case of a push from
West Culebra slide area. The basin is also designed to miinimize the
tendency of the material in this area to push up in the channel. This
project has been given priority over other projects of lower number for
the reason that excavation in this area can be done in conjunction
with periodical clean-up work along the prism line and at such other
times as the dipper dredge regularly assigned to Gaillard Cut can be
spared from routine maintenance work in the vicinity. There was
no excavation from this project during the fiscal year, and the total
excavation remains at 233,200 cubic yards, or about 47 per cent com-
pleted.
FUTURE IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS

In addition to the projects completed or under way, three others,
numbered 4, 5, and 6, have been scheduled definitely for priority in
t.he order named. A summary of their principal features follows.
Project No. 4-Gatin Lake, Chafi/re-s cro.iqmg (efit .,dt).-This is to
widen the channel opposite Gamboa Bridge on the east side, starting
at the south end with an easement approach curve, station 14's3 t-00,
joining up with a reverse curve 120 feet from and paralleling center
line of Gamboa Bridge at station 1479+00, terminating oni the north
end with an easement approach to the project between stations
1469+50 and 1465+50, at which point the new prismi line runs tan-
gent, to the old.
Project No. 5-Gallard Cut, approach to Pedrfo lb; v Loa k .-This
has two features, widening the approachli and increasing the field of
vision. The project starts oni south end at station 1920+50 and is
projected northward paralleling center approach will of locks to
station 1910+00, at which point an eni-weient approach curve is
provided running tangent to original prism line at station 1904+- 511,
south tangent. This will remove a point diungeroui. to vessels in king
the west chamber going south or in straightening up vesels leaving
the west chamber of locks in making Paraiso Reach going g north. The
project al'o proposes the removal of a ridge on the w est bank to an
elevation of + 12S feet men sen level. This will permit a clear r view





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


of Paraiso and Cucaracha Reaches as well as Cucaracha signal station
from the bridge of a ship immediately on leaving the west chamber of
the locks.
Project No. 6-1liroflores Lake Channel.-This project involves
widening the channel through Miraflores Lake, between Pedro Miguel
and Miraflores Locks, from its present width of 500 feet to one of 750
feet, with suitable approaches to the wing walls of the locks, and
straightening the channel to run directly between the south approach
wall of Pedro Miguel Locks and the north approach wall of Mira-
flores Locks. The object of this project is to do away with the turn
in this short reach and at the same time give additional maneuvering
room for ships in transit lying off approaches to either lock while
other ships are being locked through.

DISPOSITION OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL
Material dredged during the year was disposed of as follows:
1,269,200 cubic yards on dumps in Gatun Lake; 2,969,750 cubic yards
on Pacific sea dumps; 866,100 cubic yards in area "C," Corozal;
1,195,600 cubic yards on Albrook Field; 664,550 cubic yards on
Barraza fill, Panama; 29,000 cubic yards on France Field. In addi-
tion to the foregoing, 283,554 rubic yards of gravel were delivered to
the bins atGamboa and 28,487 cubic yards of sand fromChame Beach,
Panama, were delivered to the unloading plant at Balboa.
In the filling on Albrook aviation field, the hydraulic fill on the small
field, which was started on April 19, 1929, was completed on July 17,
1929. Pumping on the large field was begun on July 17, 1929, and
was completed on January 11, 1930. The Barraza fill in Panama City,
begun April 9, 1929, was completed on December 15, 1929. Prelimi-
nary work at France Field on an extension to the southward of hydrau-
lic fill made previously was begun on March 26, 1930, and pipe-line
suction dredge No. 86 began placing spoil on June 23. By the end
of the fiscal year the filling of approximately 8 of the 92 acres in the
area had been d(lone.
EQUIPMENT
Service of excavating equipment during the year was as follows:
Three 15-yard dipper dredges were operated, respectively, 6, 8, and
9 months; one 20-inch pipe-line suction dredge was operated 11
months, and during 10 months a relay pump barge was operating in
connection with this dredge; a 24-inch pipe-line suction dredge was
operated during 11 months; 1 hydraulic grader was operated 9%
months; 2. drill boats, 11 months each; and 2 air compressors for
4 and 6 months, respectively. The following craft were also in com-
mission throughout the year, except as withdrawn for repairs or














IL
ww


L0


U.


u






















Oi
-J



Li.
0
O




in
O1

0










0
O








9









w1
-J














.e







<
S in












W
i'in










O



z

-j0


(nJ
w





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


overhaul: Two 2.i0-ton floating cranes, 1 mobile crane hoat, 5 large
and 3 small tugs, and 10 lautinches. One gasolinetug, property of the
United States Armiiiy, was operated for 4 months in connection with
ferry service.
The )iesel-driven tug I %lio was completed by the miechlianicnal
division on December 2S, 1l'.29, and placed in service as tender to the
suction dredge Lui, Crce.. The Diesel-eletric tug Tr'ni1aid was
transferred from the marine division to the dredging division on
June 30, 1930. The lihull of the launch Tunai, to replace the Margaret,
was completed by the mechanical division in March, the engine was
installed at Paraiso and the launch placed in commission in May.
Electrically driven air compressor barge No. 2.9 was placed in com-
mission January 24, 1930. The house from the old dredge IMarmot
was installed on the hull of barge No. 171 to provide emergency quar-
ters for men working at isolated places. An old crane was installed
on the bow of t his hull for miscellaneous rigging. This work was conm-
pleted and the barge placed in service on August. 28, 1929.
FERRY SERVICE
The vehicular ferry across the canal at the upper end of Pedro
Miguel Locks was operated 365 days during the year, making a total
of 10,246 trips and carrying 60,287 vehicles, as compared with 40,86S
vehicles in 1929 and 26,452 in 1928. By months the number of vehicles
transported ranged from 3,424 in August to 7,910 in April, with an
average of 5,024. Effective November 3, 1929, service was amplified
by three add(litional round trips on Suindays and holidays. Additional
ferry service was inaugurated February 9, 1930, when the gasoline tug
was replaced by a steam tug. Under the new schedule, continuous
ferry service was started between the hours of 6 a. min. and 9 a. m. and
from 5 p. min. to 9 p. min., and hourly round trips were made between
the hours of 9 a. m. and 5 p. inm.
SLIDES
Slides caused no interference with shipping (during the year. A
summary of the mii're important slide activities is presented below;
in addition to the slides named there were many small breaks at
various points through Gaillard Cut.
I e.st Ciulebra .4ile.-There wais a continual movement of this slide
during the year. A miaximiium movement of 15.6 feet was recorded
on Reference Point No. 1, and an average monthly movemnient of 2.2
feet toward the canal on the base line between stations 1770+00 and
1797+00 W. The dipper dredges COiscwla Para l.o, and G amnboa
excanvated 140,300 cubic yards of material.
1,svt C(hebra lide.--No movement of this slide took place during the
year. The dipper dredge Parai.,o excaviited 21,7.30 cubic yards of
material front this area between stations 1791+25 and 1795+25 E.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The total excavation to the end of the fiscal year from east and
west ('ulebra slides was 29,378,260 cubic yards.
Cucarachia slide.-There was no movement of Cucaracha slide
during the year. The north face of Purple Rock broke down in
November, 1929, due to disintegration. The total excavation to
date from this slide is 9,299,752 cubic yards.
South Cucametach lide.-A general movement of this slide occurred
from July to December, 1929. On August 11, 1929, the 95-foot
berm broke at station 1819+00 E., carrying 20,000 cubic yards of
material into the canal. The dipper dredges Cuscoadaos and Paraiso
excavated 69,950 cubic yards of material. The total excavation to
date from this slide is 128,050 cubic yards.
Cucaracha rillage slide.-In 1May, 1930, this slide showed move-
ment between stations 1840+00 and 1842+00 E., with a settlement
of 5 feet 175 feet east of the east prism line at station 1841 + 00.
No material entered the canal prism. The total excavation to date
on this slide is 106,800 cubic yards.
Cucaracha Signal Station slide.-There was some surface move-
ment of this slide throughout the year and some breaking up of
the hard rock in the lower portions during September, 1929. The
dipper dredge Paraiso excavated 62,300 cubic yards of material.
The total excavation to date on this slide is 191,350 cubic yards.
West Lirio slide.-This slide was involved in a continuous move-
ment during the year. The dipper dredges Cascadas, Ganmboa, and
Paraiso excavated 95,050 cubic yards of material. The total exca-
vation to the end of the fiscal year was 2,237,520 cubic yards.
East Lirio slide.-On October 29, 1929, this slide showed move-
ment between stations 1723+00 and 1725+50 E. The dipper
dredge Paraiso removed 3,700 cubic yards of material. The total
excavation to the end of the fiscal year was 399,912 cubic yards
(including the east Empire slide).
East batiye repair slide.-There was no movement of this slide
during the year. The dipper dredge Cascadas excavated 52,150
cubic yards of material remaining in this area from slide in previous
fiscal year. Excavation on this slide to the end of the fiscal year
totaled 503,300 cubic yards.
Southirest La Pita slide.-On July 30, 1929, a break occurred
between stations 1673+00 and 1674 +00 W. On August 7, 1929, an
additional break occurred from station 1671+00 to 1675+00 W.
Approximately 200,000 cubic yards of material were in motion but
only 20,000 cubic yards entered the canal prism, the toe extending
to 75 feet east. of the west prism line. This area continued to move
throughout the entire year. Large boulders on the berm were





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


broken up by drilling and blahsting, air for the drills being furnished
by the crane boat La Valley. The drill boat Teredo No. 2 broke
up large bowlders which had entered the canal. The dipper dredges
Cusadh.s, Puarai.so, and Ganabo( excavated 31,s00 cubic yards of
material during the year. The total excavation to the end of the
fiscal year was 33,450 cubic yards.
'e.,st i \'itehouse sl;de.-In February a rock point at station
1617 + 00 W. moved over into the west prism line about 5 feet at
the water's edge, the 45-foot contour moving out to 40 feet east of
the west prism line. On the 1st of March this slide broke back to
the east bank of the Comacho diversion, 285 feet west of the west
prism line. Two large bowlders were pushed 60 feet out into the
channel. In May the Camacho diversion broke through into this
slide at station 1616+00 W. Soft material washed down cniused
a slight shoaling on the west prism line at station 1618+00 W. The
drill boat Teredo No. 2 broke up 11,200 cubic yards of rock and the
dredge Gumboa excavated 80,650 cubic yards of material during the
fiscal year.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
The lighthouse subdivision continued the care and maintenance
of 695 aids to navigation in the cnnal and adjacent waters. Of
these aids, 302 are lighted by electricity, 126 by acetylene gas and
267 are unlighted.
Two radioheacons were installed during the fiscal year, one near
the west end of Cristobal mole, in the Atlantic entrance, and the
other at Cape Mala, in the Pacific entrance. These radiobeacons
consist of two triangular 80-foot towers and a small frame building
housing the operating apparatus. The Cristobal mole radiobeacon
was placed in operation on July 20, 1929. The two towers of this
beacon are approximately 92 feet above the sea, are painted hori-
zontally in successive colors of yellow; black, and white and are
surmounted by a fixed red light consisting of a cluster of three
50-watt electric linmps. The Cape Mala radiobeacon was pIlaced
in operation on September 11, 1929. The tops of the towers at
this beacon are approximately 125 feet above the sea and are un-
lighted. Construction work on these beacons was performed by
the constructing quarterniaster of the Panamma Canal under super-
vision of representatives from the Lightihouse Bureau of the Depart-
ment of Commerce, who ha ndled the installation of machinery aInd
apparatus, assisted by the canitil lighthouse subdivision lpersonnel.
A new reinforced concrete tower, 100 feet high, was erected on tihe
bank of the Cocoli River, 12,744.1 feet in rear of old range tower No. 2,
in the Pacific entrance. This new tower was designated Balboa sea
range tower No. 2; the old Balboa sea range tower No. 1 was le-t roved
15740-30---4





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


by dynamiting on December 7, 1929, and old Balboa sea range tower
No. 2 was remodeled and designated Balboa sea range tower No. 1.
Thlie gas al(nd whistling buoy, known as the fairway buoy, located 6.2
miles frori the eiitrance to ('ristobal Harbor, was struck and sunk by
i ptI oii utbound ship on the night of October 29, 1929. The spar
1)11oN iiarker located near by was also lost at the same time. A new
buoy was 11(used to reestablish this aid in a position Si miles off the
entrance to Cristobal Harbor and a first-class spar-buoy marker
placed near )by on November 15, 1929.
An unwatched, automatic gas lighthouse was established on South
Fraile Island, to the south of Cape MIIala, in the Pacific approach, on
February 19, 1930, replacing the sea buoy formerly located near that
position. The new lighthouse is located on the small island, about
100 feet northwest of the main island, and consists of a 375-millimeter
acetylene-gas lantern surmounting a 13-foot steel tower set on al
11-foot concrete pedestal. The tower and pedestal are painted white;
thlie light is approximately 00 feet above mean high water and is visible
for 15 nautical miles.
On June 1, 1930, the red sectors were removed from the lantern in
the Isla Grande Lighthouse in the Atlantic approach to the Panama
Canmil. This changed the characteristic of this aid to a white flash,
making the present characteristic 12 white flashes per minute.
Plans and materials for two lighthouses, one at Morro Puercos and
one at Jicarita Island in the Pacific approach to the canal, which the
Department of Commerce plans to erect, have been received from the
Bureau of Lighthouses in the United States and are at present stored
at the lighthouse depot pending commencement of the actual
construction.
ACCIDENTS
The board of local inspectors conducted investigations and sub-
mitted reports on 93 accidents to vessels in transit through the canal
or in its terminal ports. The number of accidents in which the esti-
mated damages amounted to $1,000 or more was 17, as compared
with 21 in the preceding fiscal year. A classification of the 93 acci-
dents shows the following: Struck lock walls or fenders, 25; struck
wharves or wharf piling, 25; collision between ships, 10; broke chocks
in locks, 7; struck canal bank, 7; incidental to assistance by tugs, 6;
struck buoys, 4; grounded, 2; and miscellaneous, 7.
Following is a brief summary of the more serious accidents, in
chronological order:






REPORT OF GOVERNOi OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Abraham Lincoln... ----

Betterton-------.........-
A. iguini .... ......
\oli nt r ......... ..



Tsuyama \. 1......
Ilp Bill-...---------
San D iog' ....... ..
U. S S I' diflu Iia .

Australia...-----......---
California.--...--.....--
Silver Yew........

Arana--....----..- -
A. -rnI i:,! I ......... .
'.in V I l enlte .......

Innesmoor.....------


Vessel


Se? tl 4 ..t i- I .ii .. .. I ..
() [ 4 -~\ .JI- l ..............


-i


Under the established practic-e of requiring overdraft vessels to
have the assistance of a tug in transit through the canal, tug service
for this reason was furnished to 114 vessels bound from the Pacific
to the Atlantic and to 2 bound from the Atlantic to the Pacific, a
total of 116.
SALVAGE OPERATIONS

Coninercial salvage companies have been operating in the areas
adjacent to the canal since 1926, and upon the establishment of this
arrangement the Panama Canal adopted a policy of not undertaking
salvage operations in other than canal waters except where lives are
endangered or great emergnery exists. The only salvage operation
with canal equipmentit during the fiscal year 1930 was the recovery of
two barges reported adrift in the Caribbean Sea. Thliese barges were
picked up by the Panama Cainal tug Farorite oni May 27, 1929, about
65 miles off Cristolial and towed into port. On September 22, 1929,
the Faorite cleared Cristobal bound for Puerto Colombia to assist
the Ml. S. Annie Johin.-onr, which was aground off that port; while
the tug was en route on the morning of Septenmber 23, it was ordered
by radio to return to Cristobiln as the vessel had been floated.


Nature of accident d m oe



Struck east bank, G till I.1 reach........ $15,500.00
Stemi struck port side of ..rI 1I tuc % II I It
i .1 :iiletiiii..l to cross bow:
I Liuine to %essel-----.---.---.------- 4,800.00 1
I > i in te "i tu .. . ........... -I, 1oN OO J
( U'dliiledt w i .''- l-in 1l0-1 .1
1.1111ii.n e Ri tobin l1 .10l ............ 3,800.00 1
I I. I i.1 0e 1o .) brah.ii liii I ln . 5,400.00 1
Tiocl'ed inin tender at i; run Locks 1,000.00
center %ill.
Struck : i.< l.iiy, Cristobal Harbor...... 1,070.00
Struck ind .- iuk iPll. .ii.-iliii buoy
outside -tub il II ., ir
P Lirl iL.' to vessel---.- ..---------. 4, 1 ). 000 1
lienew rip buoy -----.-..-..---..... 10,000.00 j
Collided with Steamship I I.anill
1) ill I.'e i -I rii'lii lill.. ..... 2, 500.00
Fire 01 1v'.ii,[-i'ri I Ie t[.ikinI on gaso- 3,000.00
line fuel. a
Struck lock approach Ill .............. 1,500.00
Collided with .1 ..k, Bil, i.
T) ni iL e t o.-ir k ... . ........... 1.124.97 |
11 LiI WLt to U. 8. S. California...--- 2,500.00
I) t u i k ~ tons I'k......... . ...... ..1 124. .17
Mi it k --iri Il bank -------------------- 8,50 00
Struck lok 4. i a l... ---------------...... 1,400.00
Collided % tit .-Ite.itishill General M II.
Sherman:
Damage to General N1. II. Sherman. 3,600.00
Struck cluster i iil-.. ... . ... .. ...... 1, 560.00
Struck lock %i% i i ll. . . ....... 1,700.00
Struck buoy in Ii itjn L-ike
Damage to vessel------------------- 130.00
To j';.l u e buoy ----------------- 2,120.23 J
Struck oil crib, Balboa:
P Lii let' to vessel----- ------------- 1,150.00 1i
I i li to oil i if........................ 687.00 )


Do.


Oct. 8.--

4 ct. 18..-
Oct. 23..-
Ort 29..


1930
Jan. i...
Jan. 5-...--
Feb. 21
Mar, 5...

Mlir. 10.
Mar. 14.-
Do...----

MI n. 18-
A.pr 9..
Dn...

May 5.--.


\'e-s l.


iR l 'l lil i I.11 V



Vessel.


I'.An IIIn I '.n ll

l'ssqel *
Do.
Do.


Do.


Do.
Do.
Do.


Do.
Panama Canal.


Vessel.
Panama Canal.






42 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL
RULES AND REGULATIONS

Thfi rules and regulations for the navigation of the Panama Canal
and iidjnicent waters effective January 1, 1926, issued under Executive
order of September 25, 1925, were supplemented or amended during
the yeavr by four supplements referring to the following subjects:
Transit of passenger steamers; vessel inspection service; unloading
of small arms, ammunition, etc.; documents required of vessels
transiting and from those not transiting.









SECTION II

BUSINESS OPERATIONS

A detailed statement of the expenses (including depreciation),
revenues, and profit or loss on the various subsidiary business opera-
tions condic-ted by the Panama Canal will be found in Table No. 23,
Section V, of this report. The total net profit on these operations
was $760,071.66, as compared with $737,850.26 in the preceding year
and $736,719.43 in 1928.
The business operations of the Panama Railroad Co. on the Isth-
mus yielded an additional profit of $1,523,874.82. In 1929 this reve-
nue was $1,69003,873.17, and in 1928 it was $1,600,2S:3.61. Details
pertaining to the major business units of both the Panama Canal and
the Panama Railroad are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs:
MECHANICAL AND MARINE WORK

During the past fiscal year the volume of marine repair work per-
formed for outside agencies and particilarly such work performiled
for commercial steamships transiting the canal has shown a consider-
able decline. Work for other interests, however, increased, and
there have been no violent fluctuations in the force employed, the
month-to-mnionth variation never exceeding 1% per cent of the total
force. At the end of the year 1,428 men were employ-ed as com-
pared within 1,447 men at the end of the previous fiscal year. The
recent world-wide economic depression has been felt severely by
shipping and is reflected by it in lower standards of maintenance
and a rather close policy toward( repairs and bet termnentk. This
condition is transitory, but for the time being the effects are being
felt distinctly. Marine repair work constitutes one of the largest
sources of revenue to the mechanical division, and its temporary loss
is a seriously matter.
The value and ciaiss of work done, and the soiiurce of the -annie, for
1930, as compared with the two preceding years, are shown in the
following table:

1928 1929 1930
AMOUNT OF WORK COMPLETED
M marine ....--....- ...- --.-.-......... ... --- .--- .. $2,.A2'n. 712.23 $1,768,321.50 $1, 34. 47
Iilron. .. .. . .. ...... .. ..4. 711.38 1 -'11. 390.50 64,. 139.44
Qiirrle 420. 165.1 387,578.91 45i. 4 I8.14
Stock materials.............. ........... ........... .2Il. 596. 27 4| 4. 449. 51 30, 803. 58s
T o ln i .. . . ... .1 .J ..' l ". 11' .1. Ji.ll. 7 111 "il .. 7'i. _'I". ii
ORIGIN OF WORK COMPLETED
In'lividinil' anli (i'rii nnies I I .24.09 1 810,:335.67 1i. .458.01
Theo I'iit.imn 'iriU:1i 1, 771. 184.85 1, 350., 375.87 1.4 4 778. 89
The Panama Railroad ('o-. 1 8-- -32.40 6| B3,010.21 758. 2293.85
O other 'dep..irliV iLPI1 o 1' IT **'I .1:ikes (.l C Ci i IIe I ..a.. 17. l1 '.1 iQ'. lli 7'. .* 11* 7 7
I.l i. .. . ...I... tI l1 71 stea1. 1 !1ip '. ne.
1likirlii-le.. l'nimnin i~i Kilrin'i steaniship line.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


DRY DOCKS AND MARINE WORK

A total i of 191 vessels were dry-docked during the year, 89 at
Billion and 102 at. Cristobal. A classification of these vessels
follows:

Balhoa Cristobal Total

12T1iin11 n (C ial1 eiiii[>u enlt .. .......-- ....-... ...............---- ------- ----- . -- ---30 13 43
U S N \ c .se .. .......- .............. .................-. --------------8 7 15
U. S .\rni. % e. .el .... ............................................2 3 5
t01heri U ited Siies ( iivernient vesseLs-.......... ..- ............. .... .... 0 2 2
I'ani.n :i ilrir: ii vesseh ................................................. 1 6 7
C'oriniereiil ibrine esse ............ .............................. 48 71 119
T o al............................. ..... ................. 89 102 191

The average gross tonnage of commercial vessels docked at Balboa
was 2,SSG and at Cristobal 432. The days in which there were no
vessels in dry dock at Cristobal numbered 79, at Balboa 1.
The United States Navy has adopted a new policy of undertaking
general repairs only once each 18 months instead of annually, as
heretofore, dry-docking its ships every 9 months for cleaning, painting,
and minor repairs. As a result, all submarines now based at Coco
Solo, with the exception of the U. S. S. S-20, which is too large for
the Cristobal Dry Dock, will hereafter be overhauled at the Cristobal
shops. Arrangements have been made with the naval authorities
to so space the overhauls of naval ships that the Cristobal shops will
always have one ship undergoing overhaul.
Ships of the Special Service Squadron, transient Navy ships, and
various ships of the Battle Fleet and Control Force in these waters
during the first months of the calendar year were given running repairs.
Modified propeller guards for light cruisers were fitted on the
U. S. S. Ilimnphis, and tried out during a run through Gatun Locks,
south and north bound. The guards, as at present designed, will
give satisfactory service against all locations, except the north
approach wall to Gatun Locks, where the arch construction renders
the guards useless. The problem of fitting portable guards to light
cruisers for passage through the Panama Canal is still being studied.
Operating repairs to United States Army tugs and mine planters
and miscellaneous repairs to Army launches were carried out during
the year.
The usual run of emergency and voyage repairs was carried out for
conimiercial vessels during the fiscal year. There were no partic-
ularly noteworthy repairs of this kind with the possible exception
of the renewal of the stern tube of the AM. S. Caliche. This repair
was accomplished at a cost and time equal to the best bids received
by the owners from the ship repair plants at New York City. Only
10 Maracaibo oil tankers were overhauled during the year, as against






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


17 during each of the two preceding fiscal years. The marine railway
on Lake Maracaibo and the dry dock at Curacao, both owned by oil
companies, are attracting most of this business away from the
Panama Canal due to the saving of the time necessary for the run
from Alraracibo to Panama and return. The oil tank steamship
Cmdeiicn of the United Fruit Co. was overhauiiled by the Balboa shops
during the fiscal year. The superintending engineer expressed
himself as being satisfied that the tinm of overhaul was as short as it
would have been in Mobile (the usual place of overhaul); that the
cost was as low as could have been obtained by competitive bidding;
that the quality of the work was better, and that the company had
saved 10 transit. days between Curncao and New Orleain-;. All of
the tanks of this tank ship were cleaned by the chemical process
introduced by the mechanical division two years ago, and so exten-
sively used by it for fuel-tank cleaning on submarines. The Oimden
was the first commercial oil carrier on which the division used the
process for general tank cleaning. This 75,000-barrel tanker was
cleaned, gas free, in four days, at a cost of $3,300. It is estimated
that both time and cost were cut in half by the method used.
Besides the routine overhauls and repairs to the dredging division
fleet, the remodeling of 3,000-yard barge No. 140 was completed.
Barge No. 136 was fitted with the altered dropped stroigharks. The
60-foot, 120 horsepower Diesel tender Indl/ was completed and
proved to be a very successful type. Old co;ial barge No. Jl was
converted to an air compressor barge during the fiscal Pyear.
The U. S. Tiu, a 35-foot all-steel Lnilvainized launch, was built
for the dredging division. This wais built partly to develop the pos-
sibilities of steel hulls as agaiiinst wooden ones. The templates for
this boat have been kept and permit (duplicitiion at a lower cost.
Besides operating repairs to the laiiunches of the fortifivation divi-
sion, the U. S. Witioi'ow, a 30-foot motor launch was built at the
Balboa shops for that, division.
Co.nsideriable drafting mand pbinnming work for the two Diesel ferries
for the Panama Canal has beeni done during the yeair iand the general;
plans are complete; the Diesel engine specifications havebeen written
and tenders invited; the steel hull material is on order; and final
specifications for auxiliaries are in course of preparation. Construc-
tion of the ferries will be begun ininmediately after the appropriation
becomes available.
OTIII-. WORK
Two new towing locomotives were completed d1urin1 the year and
delivered to the Atlinti locksiI on Junei 1. Two other IoIiiilives
are under construction and are scheduled for delivery A'uguist 1, 19:11.
Production wns begun of nineteen 76-inch cylindrical val is for re-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


plli(inent purposes on the Gatun Locks. These are of the new
pattern fitted with renewable bronze seats and wearing shoes. They
are for plicenient during the 1931 overhaul and will complete the
rcplarenient of nil cylindrical valves (120 in number) on the various
locks. At the Balboa shops manufacture was begun of 3,200 man-
gane'se bronze rollers for the roller trains which form a bearing to
relieve the travel of the main flooding valves at the locks. They
will be produced for about $8,000 less than if purchased in the United
States. These particular rollers are for installation at Gatun during
the 1931 overhaul. Two sets of apparatus are being made for re-
moving and replacing lock gnites, duplicating the single set furnished
the locks orginiizationi in 1929. This will enable the locks force to
remove threIe pairs of gates at a time during the 1931 overhaul.
A considerable variety of valve seals, wearing strips, seals, and other
repair parts amounting to a large volume, is being manufactured at
flthe ihops from -special material for use in the overhaul of Gatun
Locks.
Two 10,000-birrel capacity gasoline storage tanks were fabricated
iand erected at the Balboa tank farm for the general storekeeper and
two 5,000-airrel tanks at Mount Hope. Electric welding was used
throughout in putting the tanks together, there being not a single
rivet either in the tanks or their appurtenances. The mile and a half
dredge pipe line, with its pontoons and specials, which was under
construction during the last fiscal year, was completed during the
ciirly part of the fiscal year. A further lot of miscellaneous dredge
pipe aiind a number of pontoons were subsequently made at the Balboa
shops and a considerable supplemental order of shore pipe at Cristobal.
In adflition to spud repairs, a new steel spud of special design was
built for the Diesel dredge Lrs Cruces. Due to the difficulty of
olbt :iniii; the very larve timbers used for the 1-piece wooden spuds
of drcul'ze No. Sf;, an experimental sectionally built spud, made tiup
of mill dimen'sioin timbers, was built and proved successful. It is
expected to nmodify the design and build others. It costs less in
niaterit l iiuind more in labor than the single-piece spud. The total
costs ippiin*r -noai'iiat close to each other, butt at the same price
there aire several collateral advantages in favor of the built-up spud.
Thie repiir facilities of the shops were several times able to prevent
a shutdown of work on the Madden Road when equipment broke
doIwn. An alteIr.Ition was devised and carried out which made the
power sreed, for surfIcitg this road, readily adjustable with a
gritdciil tiranisiti1n, to 1the Varying width of the road at curves. It
functioned very well, although it was reported from the United States
that this feature could not be arranged.
The third of the four new passenger coaches, utinder construction
for the Paninian Railroad, was completed and delivered during the





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


year and the fourth begun. At the instance of the sanitary author-
ities a new form of drinking-wntecr cooler was developed and success-
fully tried for use in passenger coaches. This is a type to obviate
placing the ice directly in the drinking water by pns ing the writer
through a coil surrounded by ice. It has been adopted as standard
and its substitutiion authorized in all passenger cars.
PLANT
The equipment and buildings at the Balboa and Pristobal shops
have been maintained in satisfactory condition. The actual amount
spent, for repairs and maintenance thererf diiuring the year was
$122,598.53, compared with $07,172.17, expended during the previous
fiscal year. The amount in reserve for repairs at the end of the
fiscal year 1930 was $14,619.81 less than at the beginning of the year.
The new roof reported in the last annual report as having been
applied to the instrument repair shop at Balboa developed numerous
leaks over the corrugated asbestos portion; the skylights, however,
being entirely tight. This deficiency is individual and not inherent
in the material. The leaks have been stopped for the time being with
roofing putty, and probably a special paint can be applied over the
whole roof to seal them. A study of the situation with regard to
corrosion of the metal parts of freight cars, and particularly to the
trucks and the underneath portions of the frames, indicated that
more attention is required in the way of paint protection. To obtain
adequate protection, it is necessary to remiiove the old paint before
applying the new, and it was decided, after various experiments, that
the cheapest and most effective means of cleaning was by the sand
blast. Accordingly, a sand-blahist house, large enough to contain one
car and confine the dust during sand blasting, was built noeir the car
shop at Balboa, and the sand-blast, cleaning of cars is now a regular
procedure. The fraiiimework of this shed was nuide of scrap strict ural
steel and the roof and sides of salvaged car siding.
It was foreseen several years ago that the air lines outside of the
mechanical division premises would have to be abandoned and sub-
stitution made of small autoninticially operated electrically driven air
compressors at various points supplied by these lines. On June 30,
1930, the abandonment, of these corroded and badly leaking outside
air mains was effected at Balbon, the various divisions concerned
having meanwhile supplied themselves with compressors of the garage
type. The air mains of the mechanicidl division from Mfount Hope
to the Cristohal docks and various points in the Mount Hope-Colon
area have developed a similar condition and will shortly require
abandonment. For its own use outside the Cristobal shops, the
mnechanical division has acquired two porthible air coil mpressors
mounted on auitonobile chassis with pnellila tir wheels a nd steelrigl






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


gear. A gasoline-driven electric welding-outfit has also been acquired
andl this is similarly mounted with pneumatic tires, but without
springs, steering gear, or other refinements.
In rebuilding the machine shop and the sheet-metal shop at Cris-
tobnIl, a number of new machine tools have been acquired to replace
obsolete or worn-out tools in the old shops, and many of the larger
old tools have been rebuilt and motorized. Roughly, the new shops
will have about one-third new tools, one-third rebuilt tools, and one-
third old tools, most of the latter, the more recent acquisitions. One
important new tool was acquired for the new Cristobal machine shop.
This is a planer to tackle work up to 5 feet in width and 5 feet in height
with a 24-foot stroke. The length of the new planer is somewhat
unusual but was chosen to take the guide strips in use at the locks.
Owing to the millwork for building construction now performed at
the Balboa shops, modern equipment for dressing, mortising, and
sanding planing-mill products was acquired and installed. This
equipment, both speeds up the work and reduces the unit, cost. Dur-
ing the year a new 25-ton saddle tank locomotive was acquired and
put in service at the Balboa shops for switching within the shop
area, and the 20-ton locomotive, No. 401, originally acquired in 1883,
was retired.
The building for the new machine shop at Cristobal was completed
during the year except for one corner and is now partly equipped and
in use. In a short while it will be possible to move the remaining
machine tools from the old machine shop and demolish the remaining
portion of that structure. The building for the new forge shop, pipe
shop, and sheet-metal shop was erected except for the bays at the
end where the old machine shop interferes. Tools are now being set
in the blacksmith end of this shop. The structural steel has been
fabricated for the combined air compressor, pump house, and power
plant, and this structure will be erected and the machinery moved
into it during the corning dry season.
When the air compressor building is completed, most of the diffi-
culties of re'constructing the Cristobal shops will be over, as the present
group of buildings constitute a self-contained group. They have had
to be built on the sites occupied by other buildings while maintaining
the service of the latter. The remaining buildings may be taken in
hand separately; they occupy different sites, and the old buildings
can be retained intact until the new ones are ready in each instance.

FINANCIAL
The iiiechanical division earned net revenues of $50,111.63 during
the year, after withholding a reserve of $100,908.11 for improve-
ments at Cristolal. Local reserves as of June 30, 1930, for replace-
ments of machinery and equipment, Cristobal Dry Dock, repairs to





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


equipment and buildings, improvements to Cristobal shops, and
gratuity for employees' leave totaled $531,818.46, as compared with
$628,381.60 at the end of the fiscal year 1929.
COAL
The sales of coal from the plants at Cristobal and Balboa totaled
282,509 tons during the year, as compared with 305,434 tons during
the year 1929 and 340,774 tons during 1928. In continuation of the
policy of filling Navy coal requirements from the dry-coal stock of
the Panama Railroad on the Isthmuns, 30,000 tons were transferred to
the Navy during the year at the cost, in pile to the railroad. The
selling prices of coal, $8 per ton at Cristobal and $11 per ton at Balboa,
were continued without change throughout the year.
FUEL OIL, DIESEL OIL, GASOLINE, KEROSENE
General conineiit.-The handling of mineral-oil products restiulted in
net profits of $146,998.81 after deduction of operating expenses and
fixed capital charges. All deliveries to and from tanks, for pIivate
companies as well as for the Panama Canal and the United States
Navy, continued to be handled during the year through the pipe lines
and pumping plants of the Panajinia Canal at Balboa and Mount
Hope (Cri tobul).
At the Balboa oil-tank farm two electric-welded 10,000-Ianrrel steel
tanks with floating roofs for gasoline were erected and numberedl 123
and 124, and 1,900 feet of 6-inch pipe were installed to connect these
two tanks. Dock No. 4 was converted to a discharging station by
relocating one 10-inch fuel-oil line to Diesel oil and connecting it to
Dock No. 6 Diesel-oil line. Two 12-inch fuel-oil lines from plant to
Dock No. 4 with lateral lines on dock and cross connections were
constructed. An 8-inch gasoline line from main line on tank farm
was constructed to Dock No. 4 and a 6-inch kerosene line from tank
No. 113.
At Mount Hope two electric-welded 5,000-barrel steel tanks for
gilsoline were erected and numbered 156 and 157, and one 6(-in ch
gasoline pipe line was inisi-illed from Dock No. 13 to connect with
these two tainnkl. A 12-inch fuel-oil line wIts instilled fromni the plant
to the coaling plint, iind a 10-inch fuel-oil line to the coaling plant
was repaiired and buried and converted to a Dieel-oil line. A new
80,000-harrel fuel-oil ilink is being erected on site No. 4. for the
Asiaitiv Petroleuiimi Storage Co., and it is expected that this tiank will
he completed tihoit the middle of tIIe i(ning fiscal Year.
At lie close of the yenr the total storage capacity on the Isthmus
for gilsoline was InS.00 ha]rrel; and for fuel and Diesel oil the sto 'I'et
cpalit y rmiliii ed as reported last year; that i-. 2,31,040 uirriel-
1,246,540 barrels at Bnlboi anid 1,114,500 n rrelk at Mount HIope.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fi/ 1 oil.-The volume of fuel oil handled, including receipts, issues,
and miscellaineoius transfers, is shown by the following tabulation:

lnibos N li1int Total
[lope

BrBarl arrels Barrels
Hl j%.-.1 1.1 th.- r mr i I anial .. . .. r. ... i. . 5 .7, 105 142.754 499,859
I s-. I1 .. ill 1' r1ii. 1 ( i .l ..... . . . . .. 42 402 72. 100 326,502
tinmpl. .1 f.r ilri.fi i.Ii.il- 01i. ,-1 ... .. 5,125 ., .57 7, 05G. 7.5 12.682.252
1.1 1h. I. Hi. r' .u .i a :Lr.1l ........ .1. i 1' 7.007 13,935
1i-...II n. rr fr .. . .. .... ...... 55.225 I Il.134 71.359
] .. .. . .. . .. . .. ...... J 2.i7 7. 2'4, 670 13,593,907


The nmiher of ships handled in connection with receipts and issues
of fuel oil. Diesel oil, and gasoline totaled 2,487, of which 56 were
Pani au (' Cnaml craft. Diesel oil was sutipplied to 598 ships.
fr-rl. vdl.- Sales of Diesel oil to vessels hy the Panama Canal
totaled 2.133 balrrels, and sales made by the various private companies
aggregated 1,410,3,(0 hutirrels.
Ccixoi.e.-During thle fiscal year 2,717,447 gallons of gasoline were
received hy thlie Panaima Canal for bulk storage; of this 921,307 gallons
were stored in tanks at Mount Hope and 1,796,140 gallons were stored
in tanks at Balboi. Bulk gasoline was not sold to vessels during the
year. Storage space available for gasoline is 83,000 barrels at Balboa
and 2.,00(0 at Mount Hope, a total of 108,000 barrels.
Kii Oenec.- Kerosene shipments received in bulk aggregated 824,455
gallons; of this amount. 297,677 gallons were stored at Mount, Hope
and .2(i,778 gallons at Balboa.

SHIP CHANDLERY AND OTHER STOREHOUSE SUPPLIES

The operation of the sto houses was continued utinder the same
policy as durlingLr preceding years, and inventory values were held
down toi the lowest pract icidble figure. The value of stock on hand at
all storeihomj-es at thlie end of the year, exclusive of scrap and obsolete
ma teriils, waw 8.P,116,669,02, and in the hands of canal and business
divisions $1iS,i621.76, or a total of $5,315,295.78. The total value of
all material received on req(uisition from the United States during
the year w\a $5,.5s9,72S.93; of that amount. $4,708,675.23 worth was
placed in strehousic for witlhdrawal as needed and $881,053.70 worth
was deliveredI direct to divisions. Local purchases were made to the
value of $74-0.784.1i3. Siup mind obsolete stock remaining on hand at
tlie end of tlie yar were valued at. $84,006.07, and during the year
76 net tons of Amnerican scrnip iron were sold and delivered locally.
Thle general storehouse at. Balboa (including the medical store-
house), and thei branch storehouiises at Paraiso and Cristobal handled
a total of lfs,.493 reqoiiisitions and foreman's orders during the year.
Thie value of all issues ]or the year was 86,301,608.15. Material and





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


supplies sold to steamshlips, eniplo'yees, and otlheri' iiLgreTgat4ed $1,VN9,-
999.69 and in %olved 02,360 separate sales.
Native hardwoolod lumber operations wNere continu-dil as duirirg the
preceding year, and 32i,0i0 aboard feet of logs were piurclused, as
compared with 99,939 board feet during 1929. In addit ion, 125 hard-
wood crossties and 207.310 boinird feet of native lumber were purchlsied
fromn local contractors.
PURCHASES AND SALES IN THE UNITED STATES
As in the past, the principal purchases of supplies during the year
were made by the Washington office. Branch offices in charge of
assistant purchasing agents were continued at New York, New Orleans,
and San Francisco, and the personnel at these offices also acted as
receiving and forwarding agents for materials forwarded to the
Isthmus from their respective ports.
The large majority of purchases are made for delivery on the
Isthmus, in accordance with the long-established policy of pern-lit tilng
competition for the canal's requirements on even terms in all sections
of the country. Inspection of materials has been continued, as here-
tofore, by a corps of inspectors in the field, assisted as occasion requires
by officials of teclhnicail branches of the Governnient. The number of
orders pinced, 8,003, w'as greater by 514, or 6.86 per cent, than in lie
fiscal year 1920. The total value of orders placed during the year
\as r$5,522,614.83, as compared with $5,010,001.04, for the fiscal
year 1929, an increase of $512,613.79 in value. Included in this total
were requisitions for medical and hospital supplies handled, as in the
past, by the Washington office through the medical section, New
York general depot, United States Army, Brooklyn, and punrhaises
by assistant purchasing agents in New York and New Orleans. The
grand total for the purchases of materials and supplies by orders placed
in the United States by and under the direction of the Washington
office since 1904 aggregates $209,S67,989.9S, of which $205,864,547.35
represents orders placed by the Washington office direct and
$4,003,442.63 orders placed by branch agencies, which latter amiou Inted
to $105,295.50 in the fiscald year 1930. The force of the purchasing
organization in the United States was not increnscd during the year
and at times was taxed to capacity to take care of the volume of work,
with considerable overtime required.
In the assistant auditor's office 13,157 claimnis were handled and
correspondence was conducted relative thereto, including 154 which
remained over from the preceding year. This indicantes an increase
over 1929 of 49S claims received, while there were eX\nnined aind pi ed
for payment 414 more claims than during the preceding yNi r.
During the year 11,714 disbursement vouchers, aiimiunfting to
36,147,517.99, and 527 collection vouchers, amounting to -S34 34,2 01.49,






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


were prepiiredl. In addition to the collection vouchers 19 collections,
niamounting to $40,207, were made by transfer of appropriations
tiriiugh ti (ernerail Accounting Office, making the total amount
colllqed l$3813,4nxs.49 on 540 accounts. There was an increase of 234
in the numbein r of disbursement. vouchers, with an increase in disburse-
niints of S726,592.3S, as compared with the last fiscal year. There
was i deicreise if six in the number of collections with an increase of
$SSu,26is.25' in the amount. collected.
During the year SO contracts were prepared, amounting to $2,600,-
091.33. This is an increase of 9 contracts and an increase of $284,-
151.66 in amount, as compared with the fiscal year ended June 30,
1929.
The sale of surplus canal material by the purchasing department in
Washington during the fiscal year 1930 amounted to $33,566.82,
based on 10 sile orders, as compared with $102,556.84 during the
fiscal year 1929, based on 13 sale orders.
In representing the Panama Canal in the United States, the Wash-
ington office handled extensive correspondence and maintained repre-
sentation on various Government boards and coordinating commit-
tees, in addition to contacts with other governmental departments
and business interests with reference to canal activities.

HARBOR TERMINALS

The total revenue from harbor terminal operations during the
fiscIl year amounted to $1,666,743.81; the operating expenses were
$1,334,806.36, leaving a net. revenue of $331,937.45, as compared with
$404,793.16 last year, a decrease of $72,855.71 for the year. There
were 1,0860,464 tons of cargo stevedored and transferred this year, as
compared with 1,936,270 tons in 1929, a decrease of 249,806 tons for
the y ear; 3,n801 cargo ships and 995 banana schooners were handled,
and agency service was furnished to 278 commercial vessels.
A c.miparisoin of cargo tonnage handled, gross and net revenue
from terminal activities, etc., for the past three years is given in the
tabulalltion below:

1l28 1929 1930

Tons of cargo steve l.1r...l . . ........... 3.30. 3u2 3?i7, 9.'i 339,200
Rev nuei per ton -ti 1 i I.r. I.... ................. 0) 3775 *0.3070 $0.2775
( .-. 1 r ton stevedo r. .1 . . .. . .. . ........... $0. 2623 .-.0. 202S $0. 2582
1 'n-s >i cargo Ii.i 11. i I .ii.1 Ir r ...........r .. ...... ..... 1. 511 1. 55'.311 I 347, 264
tor. pt 1. r tOn hail .... .0. 'I313 .r0. %CUs $0. 9595
(', i per .n IIll .-i ...... . .. ... .... ........ $0. 7801 .0. 7618 $0.7080
I r ...M iT.. i 2ra r- r-- i .- ... . ........ .......... . ?. $ 2 Ii. S $1,.S59, 551. 5s $1, 666,743.81
Gross er ni ..li ** 1. i ...... ......... . ............ ... l.271,. i. 34 $1.454, 758. -12 $1,334, 806.36
\,- revenue - . .. .. .1331, 4 .1.404, 73. 11 $331,937.45
Per cent of expense I' cr..-. r. i. rine ..... .. ......... .. 9.31 78.23 80.0&






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 53

COMMISSARY DIVISION

The operations of the coimmissariiiy div-iii iion were continued al ong
the saiine lines as in previous yras, anld ti1 gem. rld (iigiaiizaItiou re-
111ailled the same.
The shitbli-hed policy of confining purchases to the L'liitied Stlt( s
Wais continurid as far 11- priltiible. Due to locnl conditin-iis and the
fact that a Inhuge percentage of IIthe silver employer-, are West Indiiin
negroes, it is ncressary for the conimi uiiir, i i-iin to stock a certain
quantity of foreign products for which t'be people .xpl -, a definite
pr'fen11ce. In addition to this, a great. many foeiigni vessels trinmitingj
the cnud and making purchases while cn route dic iiudl certain well-
known and widely advertised commodity s of foreign manufacture.
Most of the beef is purchliesed locally from cattle raisers in Panama
who depend on the 2ale of their stock to the canal, as has been done
for a n onbil't.r of years. Supplemental supplies of beef were purchased
from Cuit. Beef obtained from these sources is sold at much lower
prices than those prevailing in the United States. It would be prac-
tically impossible to import be1 f from the United States and sell
it here at the prices which would neecssurily have to be charged.
SALES

Every effort was made to restrict sales in the coujiI-aries to indi-
viduals or orgaiiautioi-s regularly entitled to biiuy in the stores. The
imaijority of the infiartiotis were more or less of a minor nature and
promptly corrected. Total co muiiissary sales and services during the
yeIr amounted to $10,791,4S0.55, -i compared with $10,479,571.21
during the preceding year, an increase of $311,918.34, and representing
an increase of $1,109,248.77 above the fiscal year 102s. Sales to
ve-sels amounted to $1,570,485.07, a deceenase of $133,501.65 under
the previous fiscal year, $82,171.47 of which was in sales to Navy
vessels. The total sales to Navy vessels amounted to ?4.59,172.71
as compared with $5.i 1,344.18 duringg the fisc-il year 1929.
The distribution of sales as compared with the leo pireedinglil years
was as follows:

1928 1929 1930
United Si:mfs (lu ernritic riniv .inI N.v .... ....... $1, I (1.333.77 $1,515,100.29 $1, 1., 118. 26
Tie Panama inii ............... .. .. ... ... .. '-. 124.03 *.2. .5 25 1I I 113. 30
('iiniiir -11t ii s..in l ... . . .... ...... .... .... .' i. 513. 2 1, 131., 6.75 I1,* .971.12
I',,Ai,n1ni: I lrui l .-I'i .i iish i L.in .. .... ............ .... 411.321.77 4-1, 390.17 .l '. 616.30
Individuals and companies-...- ..----------------------I 1. 7i 2.45 I I t.04.23 '';. 724.76
Sirp s- ales. ..... -........... ...... .... .......... ... 5 J. 2. 6, I i.'1.I I7 5.11,232, 122. 47
i~o, sales ------- -------------------------------h- .17-I ~ '-.. 11,2 2,142, 1$2
L1ss. dlis isi cro.li,. etc-------------------------*----- .. 146.7 | I.1. 14.33 44110,692.58
lie rloll from s;i1s... ................. ... .. 210.7$ 10,179.571.21 10, .'l 489.91
Suil'I-i' for Iv IPeIIn.nt, l e'i-2ii| i51r l
ker.uil cuiiniius,.ir,"e %n ir lil ........... .. .. 170.2 i. 467.4 1 4 i. 123.67
General..-....------------------------------------................................. 1,257.7 1,669.27 i 4, 152. 8
P liint ............ ............................ ... 1' 43 1 33, 5.1 1 30,570.70
Total----------...... --... .. ................. ------------------------15.47 -2 12
Loss by condemnation, pilferage, shrinkage, etc..----------. '. i.' :r. I-'.i. I .''. 7.
Grand total........------------------------..-----..1 1.............. ..i i 1n, 7.. ..'. 1 12.'.. I im .







54 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IPURCHASES


I1i(-ch.1l- t rinii the y';ir t'1 arirelvat.ed $SS,194,720.36, an increase

iif S.91,7 2.i! a- o.iinpa|red with the preceding year. Supplies to the

i lhi of s2.333,4(01.78 were on hndl at the close of the year. The

l'01lin'il tilIbulti11on slho\Ws the value of the. various items purchased

)s 4i,0lII d 11- l \vit i the p)rece(11ig verti-s:


I ; r- I lt -

& 1 1 4 %1' I I- -I
Hnrdware.... ........
I> 1 goods.


t I,
iil'I1 storage .
*I t.I1 i.
.>tt11 and hogs...--------
Milk and erean ..i....i
F in>. ......-.--
Hi i rier . ......---
It:t mnat'rial..--... ...
T~nts. .......... ....
lDr. -'.-. bee.. ..-..-------
T.T .1


N1 i -.* '' I' Hi If \.L
ri l nit n- I .-- w i. n . . . .
Eniru;..*':i nd l iiril.*n .
< '-n 1r l 1i'i Aorli 1 1-r' .
C iv .Iri Il: tl r l . . . . .
I'imnarri.i I :1*4 ii . .
I''uis r~ al : i i .. . . . .
TI ;i l .. . . . . . . . . .


I ('anii vs ir irI 11j I'' II gr)nri ir-s irior ir I r I, I' 2'.


I 12 I 1929 1930


1. C. 1S, .59 U 9 11 fl.-A. 2T 4s I $1, 690. 2;5. 72
'. ... .. 30 131.49 9 6,2,363.08
4111.412 21 4-1 12S fi., 494. .5-16 27
1. I11. il 1 ,..1 1. 2.-2. 37 x N 1. 378, 259. 34
."4n.3) 73, 3M'.7t.0 31 379.509.00
1. #01,. IN] 53 1. 7:s. FIl 20 V 7. 4,I A5. 41
.46., li,5! x2 11. 9.:95. 94 441), 278. 68
.fit. 417 07 37h. 411; 9) ,01. 100.36
124. w.1 ril 111'4 Xi 110 170,243.06
2!2, '2. 2 1.8 '.1. .127. 01 31, 811. 28
2 ;1. 03- ', 3113. 2-33 1; 166. 747.96
.2. 112 'i. :,21. r.. 42 AS 427. 37
J .. 41 2' .11. 12.. 43.049.80
S-.2 04. .44 I Is. 041),. % 176t, 12-1. 05

7. 3i l. 114i 9 S. 00 1. 107. (17 S. 191,720.36


.5 283. 4112 2.
17, .31 P 11 )
.123. A.l l lil
4 \ '.' :1-2
11. '32

1 4. 3 93 5;
7.,0] .311 400 Y


5, t13. 2115. 70 .5, 727, 118. 66
I 10.4. 0112.78 96). I16.5 i
3N. 743. 13 5.12, 79O. 51
P20. 5.7 40 1i ',071. 21
101.415. 7- 110 470.94
173 733 07 181.322.42

8.004.007 '17 I 8. 194, 720. 36


1MAN FACTlRiNC PLANT!r, ETC.

The output of the various; manufacturing plants and laundry had

a total value of $2,31S8,030.)55 a compared with $2,215,966.64 in the

preceding sear, an increase of $102,063.01. The principal products

of the major plants and their value are summarized as follows:

I7akery.--The output of the leading items banked includes 5,180,361

loaves of bread, 2,329,OS2 rolls, and 280,512 pounds of soda crackers,

with cakes, pies, and doughnuts: the total value was $323,717.01.

Onffu-rousitin piln#.-Among the products handled were 306,233

pounds of coffee, corn liliel, peannuts, and almonds, with a combined

value of $103,300.16.

Ic(-cieam l al iiilk-boltling plant.- T1he principal output. consisted

of 39,80O gallons of ice cream, 558,029 (qurt s of milk, 22,021 quarts
of cream, and 16,97.3 Eskimo pies, with a combined value of

$210,948.S.O

Ire plahin.-Ice manufactured totaled 34,275 tons, valued at

S304,7941.50.
Sa uxiay.1 factory 'iirl p]ick eliity ilepainrtmn1t.-An anggregate of 1,181,359

pounds of imelit products was turned out, valued at $270,007.78.


- - - - - - - - -- - -
- - - - - - -
~ ~ ~ ----- -..... ......
-- -- ---- -- ---

------------------- 1--_.
---- -- -- -- ---- ---- ---
----------------------------
.---------------------------
- - - -- - - -- -- -
- - 1 - - - -- - - -_.. .





"g, /Y












z
H

-J
cr
uii
w

U)
H
Z
w
H
4:
a.
H

lz
IL

iZ

z
0
0
Z J

< W
L






ZN
-iZ


0 0
LL
W

Z N
<

ZFz




5
0




m
4:
J

Z


im




z

ui



0.
-J
w
H
Z
U'
H
4:
a-


C,





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Industrial laboritot y.--Products manufictured totaled 824q,239.91
ill valie.
.ibttoii. --The al atir turned out 4,165,48S pounds of dressed
beef, withl a tothil valueni of $S501,ill.61. By-proiducts, consist ing of
hides, horns, tankage, etc., to the value of .%55,97.58, were shipped]
to thle L'lnitedi States.
Launnhy.--The number of pieces of Imindnr handled was 6,0191,128.
and receipts aiggregated `'.26.5,32 1.81.
HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS
The Hotel Tiv oli at Ancon aind the Hotel Washiington at Colon are
essential rdjuncts to the canal in affording suitable neaccoininodations
to persons lhivin' liusiness to triansact with the canal, foreign visitors,
tourists, visiting Governanent officials, and others. Diirinug the
tourist senLson1 the capacity of both hotels is frequently taxed to the
limit.
The cost. of operating the Hotel Tivoli during the year was $251,-
736.54, which w as $37,285.91 more than the revenue derived. The
cost of operating the Hotel Washington was 8S210,273.36, or 6,698. 16
in excess of revenue. In the fiscal year 1929 both hotels showed a
profit on operations. The comparatively heavy loss at the Tivoli
was due primarily to a d(lecline in thie tourist business and to charging
against operations approximately $22,00 expended for necessary
replacement of equipment anId other unusual items.
The restaurants and silver messes continued to be operated(l und(ler
contract during thie year, except in construction camps, etc.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
The principal projects of construction consisted of the following:
Completion of new administration building, Cristobal; printing plant,
Mount Hope; 13 gold family apartments, Cristobal; radio station and
quarters, United( States Navy, Fort Davis; two 20-apartment concrete
bachelor quarters, Ancon and Balboa; 40 type 101 gold family quarters,
Balboa; ten 12-family silver quarters, La Boca; and 29 post ordinance
magazines, United States Ariny. At the close of the year the follow-
ing were the principal projects on which construction work was in-
complete: Silver conunissary, Silver City, Cristohal; supply depart-
ment. storehouse, Cristobal; 4 gold family quarters, Cristobal; 12
officers' quarter, UInitedl States Navy, Cristohal; radio harracks,
United States Navy, Balboa; 71 gold family quarters, Balboa: ten
12-family silver qu arters, La Boca.
Maintenance of existing structures was conti nued as heretofore.
Plans outlined for 1931 include the commencement of construction
of a new electrical storehouse at Balboa, at an estimnated cost of $200,-
15740-30--5





56 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

000, and the construction of a new ward at Corozal Hospital, at an
estinmited cost of $200.000.
QUARTERS FOR EMPLOYEES
C II phyloee.s.-The demand for family quarters continued to be
greliter thin the supply. At the close of the fiscal year 1929 there
were 165 iiccepted applications for family quarters on file in all dis-
tricts, and on June 30, 1930, there were 146 applications on file. The
jpplications on file at the close of this fiscal year were distributed as
follows: Ancon-Balbon district, 98; Pedro Miguel, 27; and Cristobal,
21. There is no prospect that the demand for quarters will decrease,
in view of the increasing business of the canal, with accompanying
expansion of necessary operations, and particularly in view of the
force increase which will be necessary for the construction work to
be undertaken on the Madden Damn project.
The available funds for the maintenance of quarters were used to
best advantage and most of the buildings are in good condition. A
number of old frame quarters buildings have been disposed of by
sale, after advertising, to make room for new houses on the same sites,
and there are still a large number of these that should be abandoned
and disposed of. However, the demand for additional quarters has
made it necessary to continue many old buildings in service. Main-
tenance expense on such buildings has been held down to the minimum.
The program for replacing quarters no longer fit for repairs contem-
plates an annual expenditure of $500,000 for buildings and furniture,
until completed.
Siber employees.-The demand for silver quarters has always been
in excess of the supply, and at the close of the year 1,749 colored
families were on the waiting list for vacancies which may occur from
time to time in silver quarters. These applications were filed by dis-
tricts as follows: Ancon-Balboa, 900; Pedro Miguel, 148; Gatun, 48;
and Cristobal, 653. Over 60 per cent of the silver employees are
required to live in the cities of Panama and Colon where rental rates
are considerably higher than charged by the canal for Government
quarters in the Canal Zone. The construction of additional quarters
for silver employees should be continued to enable these men to live
nearer their work and to place them on a more equal economic basis.
The cost of maintaining and operating silver quarters during the
year exceeded the rents collected, this deficit being covered, as in
previous years, by an appropriation of $95,000.
LANDS AND BUILDINGS
Panamnia Railroad lands in the cities of Panama and Colon and public
lands in the ('anal Zone are administered by a joint land office.
Panama Raillroad Co. lands and leases.-During the fiscal year
2,S02.57 square meters of Panama Railroad land in the city of Panama





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


were sold for $113,890.58, making a total revenue fromin land sales
since the Panama Railroad Co. adopted the policy of selling its real
estate holdings of $0SS,070.74.
There were in effect at the close of the fiscal year 1,442 leases aind
6 licenses covering the use of Panama Railroad properties in the
cities of Panuma and Colon. The income derived by the railroad
company from these during the past ficnl year was S274,303.78.
This represents an increase in revenue over the year 1928-29 of
$53,728.41, which was due to the issuance of 40 new leases and the
increased rentals charged on lease renewals, as a considerable number
of leases expired during the year and were renewed at increased rentals.
All of the improved property of the company is now held under lease.
Business conditions in the cities of Panama and Colon continued good
throughout the year, and a great many new buildings were erected
by lessees of lands previously not occupied by improvements, and
a considerable number of old wooden buildings have been demolished
and replaced by modern buildings of fireproof construction.
Licensed agricultural lands in the Canal Zone.-A total of 2,102
licenses, covering 5,802 hectares (14,337.32 acres) of agricultural land
in the Canal Zone, were in effect on June 30, 1930. The rental from
these lands for thle year aggregated 831,328.14, of which amount
$1,972 was outstanding at the close of the fiscal year. The average
holding under these licenses was 2.76 hectares (6.82 acres) per license.
The area held under license shliows a reduction of 280 hectares (691.91
acres) from the preceding year, while the niumbler of licenses was a
decrease of 23.
The gross income from all real-estate operations handled by the
land office during the fiscal year was $451,251, made up as follows:
Rentals on property in the cities of Panama and Colon, $274,393.78;
rentals of agricultural lands in the Canal Zone, $'31,32s.14; rentals
of building sites and oil-tank sites, $31,038.50; sale of property in
the city of Panama, $114,490.58.
MOTOR AND ANIMAL TRANSPORTATION
Motor and animal transportation for all department and divisions
continued to be supplied by the transportation division under a
plan of centralizing these activities. This diviLion is rIequired to
operate on a self-tsustaining basis. Its work increased con-ideraibly
during the year on account of additional hauling required in connec-
tion within the Madden Road construction, thlie heavy hauling for new
building projects, and work on the extension of streets done by the
municipal engineering division in Panama iind Colon.
Fifty-four cars and trucks were pulrchased and 33 \ crc relired
during thlie year. Equipment. on hanrd at thlie close of thle fiscal y3enr
consisted of 319 cars and trucks, 7 trailers, 19 motor cycle.s, 9 mowing





58 HEPOI'T OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

m11c)iincs anrid rike<, :irld 13 mules. Revenues exceeded expenditures
fir heIiI lieial year by $53,372.:33, as compared with an excess of
1:1.';;37.19 for t ihe -iil year 1929.
PANAMA CANAL PRESS
T'I'l printing plant cirrices in stock and manufactures such necessary
l tionrerv, forms, etc., as are required on the Isthmus in connection
with caiiil and railroad operations. It is the established policy to
cilirliil all clsses of printing work as much as possible so as to avoid
the printing of excessive (Iquantities of any item, and to keep the
working forces and inventory stock down to the minimum. The
iimniifnctiiring output of the plant was valued at $189,834.25, which
includile- anm item of $24,500 worth of labor and material expended
on comnuniszary hooks practically completed late in 1929 but not
inrchlided in the 1929 output. Issues and sales from the stationery
section ;amoiinted to $136,542.34, making a combined total of $326,-
376.59, as compared with a total of $279,835.66 during the preceding
year. The inventory value of all stock on hand at the close of the
Yvar was $83,512.33.
7The new printing plant building at Mount Hope was completed
early in the fiscal year. Transfer of equipment and stock from the
old plant was begun in August and was completed in October, 1929.
The moving was planned so as to cause minimum interference with
production. The new plant. affords greatly improved facilities for
the important work of printing and stationery supply.
FARM INDUSTRIES
PIlttiEni .--All plantations aie now being operated under con-
1ract, the citrus-fruit farm at Juan Mina having been rented to a
former employee on a cash rental basis effective October 1, 1929.
For several years this farm had been operated at a loss of approxi-
imately S2,500 annually; under the new arrangement the canal will
receive $600 per annum from the lessee.
Dairy fin-i.-The operation of this unit continued along the lines
of previous years, and milk production exceeded that of any other
year since its inception. The total milk production was 135,168
gallons, a gain of 30,971 gallons over last year. Three purebred
Holstein bulls were purchased in the United States and added to
the herd; 11 Holstein bulls and I grade bull were sold to individuals.
OtffIh.-At the beginning of the fiscal year the cattle in pastures
amounted to 1,422 head. Owing to the ravages of the grub known
as Derintobio hominids, which had caused most of the 398 deaths
nmongz the cattle in the previous year and in the fiscal year 1928
had killed 900 lead and rendered approximately 3,000 more unfit for
laughter, use of lthe pastures was abandoned to a large extent and





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


the practice adopted of purchasing fat cattle for slaughter shortly
after delivery. During the past year 1,979 head of fat cattle pilr-
chased in Cuba and 5,949 pu-rchiiedil in Panmiiw;i were delivered and
slaughtered. Including the foregoing aind 314 s( ers, s6 cows, and
1 bull from the pastures, sides to the commissary division amouniited
to ,320 head. Seventy head of lean cattle werTl plircliiied afnd
placed in Canal Zone pastures for the purpote of deteriiining hlio
stat us of the Derinia (obhio honminis. Stock on hiind ion June 30, 1930,
was 24q fat steers, 0S feeders, anid 2s breeders-a total of 356 head.
C i/l1 Zone erpe !nt f JiI vnnhii.-The work being done in tho-ze
gardlcns may be regarded as the forindiition for an out-of-door laborli-
tory for research in the problems coniicerninig tropical plants in reli tion
to their environment of climate, soil, and other plant and animal life.
Such research is esseniiiil to the progress of agriculture. In addition
to the local results of the gardens, they serve to supply tiopical plant
miateriHl to reseairchli centers and to experimienters in azl-iculiiurll in the
most nearly tiopicil portions of the United Stfi(e<'.
The irrigation system was enlarged and extended during the past
year, with notable improvement. Under an arraniigeimnit with the
United State. National Miuseum an heriharinii11 collection of 1,137
species of plants collected from this locality and identified by Paul C.
Standley was placed in the c(istody of the experiment gairdein- during
the year. Six insect-proof mnetal cases for the care of this c,-11.-clion
were donated by Dr. Thominas Barbour. The United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture has contriibuted a number of publications and a
working library is beinii' de% vioped.
Sainmples of the Meyer lemon groin iat the e\pcriiment gairdens \ rce
suiibmit ted to the c(ntinanry ilivi ion and on analysis Iby the chemist
were found to be (equal 11and possibly superior to leimon-, imported for
Canal Zone consumption. Scveranl varieties of pomelo or grapefruit
have produced well and yielded fruit of excellent quality. lMo-t of
the tr'ee in thie citrus orchtird were plamited out as 1-your-oMOld Iudled
Itrlees abol:( May, l1112.l, Inid have, naccordiiigly, b( rn planted4 about
five years. Among the species of grapefruit especially to be mientioined
are McCarthy's, Marsh's seedless, thie Foster, and the Diuncan.
Punmmelos, related to piomielos, have given evidence of suitability for
cultivation in the Ciinal Zonie. Scvenral varieties of oniiiris have
yielded heavily, for trees so young, iil prodm ed a !nood quality of
fruit. 'The "pineapple" from Florid, lithe Valrcn-ii fiour C(osta Ricai.
anrd tilt Tenple are species mrentionied by the director of I le fLicili.
Experiments were conducted with ethylene gas for fruit rii'cning on
bananas tind Imianigoes.
Experiiiments \ithi rice were continued aid -erd was dli-tributed
without cIlrge to all vwlo Jrequest1id it. T\c i were planted in triiil plots, with good iretul Mo\ t of lie v valiei',





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


if sown the last week in August, will mature the last of December or
early in January and secure the best effects of the first part of the dry
season.
Suiar cane of introduced varieties was grown for distribution
among planters. Encouraging reports have been received, especially
concerning the varieties known as P. 0. J. 2725 and P. 0. J. 2714.
A revolving fund is maintained for the operation of the nurseries,
with the object of nimaking this branch of the work self-supporting so
fur as it pertains to all plants other than those that are yet in a purely
experimental stage. This has been working satisfactorily and the
demand for trees and plants is constantly increasing. There is a
large demand for orange, grapefruit., mandarin, mango, avocado, and
various shade and ornamental trees, and a considerable one for palms,
crotons, hibiscus, bougainvilleas, coffe-roses, acalypha, and other
ornii iml ent als.
TELEPHONES AND TELEGRAPHS
The gross revenue from the operation of telephones, electric clocks,
and electric-printing telegraph machines amounted to $238,366.88,
and the operating expenses were $ 199,024.47, leaving a net revenue of
$39,342.41 as compared with $31,639.14 for the preceding year.
During the year 1,174 telephones were installed and 1,044 were
removed, making a net increase of 130 telephones for the year. A
total of 22 automatic typewriters, or electric-printing machines, were
in use at the end of the year; 14 are in use by Panama Canal depart-
nments, 2 by the Panania Government, and 6 by commercial enter-
prises. Five machines of the tape type were ordered for the Tropical
Radio Telegraph Co., 4 of which were installed and 1 held for spare.
There were 81 electric clocks in use at the end of the year, as compared
with 84 during the previous year.
OPERATIONS WITH PANAMA RAILROAD FUNDS
Many of the business activities on the Isthmus connected with the
operation of the canal are conducted with funds of the Panama
Railroad Co. Included in these are the wharves and piers at the
htaror termiiinrls, the commissary system, coaling plants, hotels, and
viiriouis minor activities, as well as the Panama Railroad itself. In
this report only the major features of these operations are noted in
their rielationii to the canal administration as a whole. Details are
given in the annual report of the Panama Railroad, which is published
sepirnitely.
IThe operate lions of the j'rnilrond proper, harbor terminals, coaling
plant-, stiibles, and baggage transfer were continued throughout the
year under the direction of the superintendent of the railroad; the
telephone system under the electrical engineer of the Panama Canal;
renting of land and bhiildings under the land agent; and the commis-






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


series, Hotels Washington and Tivoli, plantations, dairy farm, and
cattle industry under the chief quarteriiimaster of the Panamia Canal.

PANAMA RAILROAD CO.

The gross revenues during the fiscal year 1930 from the operations
of the Panama Railroad proper (not including subsidiary business
activities) amounted to $1,766,478.92; the gross operating expenses
were $1,404,123.19, resulting in a net revenue of $302,355.73, as com-
pared( with $:338,668.72 last year, a decrease of $3G,312.99 for the year.
During the fiscal year 2 new first-class passenger coaches, 8 pas-
senger service box cars, ;dl 5 combination refrigerator cars were
constructed and put into service.
Tonniiage of commercial freight transported during the year aggre-
gated 441,461 tons, as compared with 383,323 tons during 1929, an
increase of 58,138 tuns for the year.
The following table presents statistics covering various phases of
operations during the past three years:


Average miles operated, Colon to I'r:,:.i ..............
G ross opI-ratinrig reL'iu ................................
O prir:ling (\pensrs.....................................
Net i'corating r1venue-----------------------------..--
Per 'ent of 'xi'nsr to revenue..-------------------------
Gross revenue per mile of road------------------...---
Ci.-raTiinie v'peiss per nld' of road--.-....--...-...- -
Nrt revenu hper iiile of road---------..--...-....--....
Nunitirr of passengers carried:
First-class ..................------------------...---....----......
Second-class----------------------...............................--------------
T total .......................... ..................
R evenuo lit.r p:Lsisi.ru t r .i r in-r ili ........................
Revenue icp r fr.-iiht II.in-1n1 ..................... ......
T'otl r; trI n l lh .. ... ... ................
RailrnaiI revenue per train-mile-... .....
Rai'ro:rl operating expenses per revenue ir.uii-iili'....
NOt r:ijlrni. l revenue wper revenue train-mile.-----------
FrLIl ,; iIL nu T, :n1 1l iii lieuriutive iii!i'-e ......
W rk-l.u r i n i . .................... ....... ...
S i -tri 111 nl: e.. ..... ..........................
F rejl]it-train im i M 1l. *. .......... .. ................. ..


1928

47.61
$1,709,095.79
11,37:,..3 2 05
.$32', 76s 74
80.71
$3i. 897 83
12.,.I71 :37
9 .. '.'-':. i;


1929

47.61
$ 1,S 32, 21-1)..67
S1. 41.3. 1.1 95
$33?. i.. 72
'1. 51
3A.4S1 79
$31,371.39
$7. I H 40


47.61
$1,766,478.92
$1,464,123.19
30.',3 ... 73
1%2 88
i37, 113. 11
$A)., 7'2.43
Si,.1.j.068


188,796 208,503 210,024
328,460 437,379 392,818


*-. 34
$11.99
183,858
$9.29
$7.50
$1.79
303,496
2,392
105,697
78,161


645,882
I **4
$11.47
201.774
.il 08
$7.40
$1.68
332,419
112,343
112,488
89,286


602,842
.*'1 .'iU
fil 611
$10.92
205,770
-i 58
$7.12
$1.47
338,401
5, 9OK)
14,668
91,102


I The lari- ic rvi:sI in work-train illil.i-C hlininig l '1?9 was occasioned by the necessity for iu iiirii 3
r1unli1-trip work trnans i iiily fri-ni 'ain, mm. to M itr illiies during the extended overhaul period of tli I':ii i C
lucks.

CANAL ZONE FOR ORDERS

As ian aid to the distribution of goods to areas served by st'1111ship
lines using the Painuina Canal or its ternninal ports, there was estaib-
lished, under a circular issued Mlarch 17, 1925, the arrangez enn, known
as Canal Zone for orders. Under this sy-stem i1Ter1li madi.-e is
shipped to Canal Zone ports (Cristobhnl or Balboa) to be elid there ini
warehouses of the Panama Railroad Co. for orders. Suii-h cargo, or
integral parts of it, may be withdrawn and delivered I'ciilly or for-
wnrdcd as the consignor or consignee may dcsi.-re, CMept i that goods






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


for use in the Canal Zone or the Republic of Panama, by others than
those entitled to the free-entry privileges, are released only upon the
prsentilation of satisfactory evidence of the payment of the proper
duty to the Republic of Panama. Many different commodities were
handled in this way during the past fiscal year. and the total of this
(LI,'uro received was 38,136 tons. The total business was approxi-
iniately equal to that in the preceding fiscal year and considerably
gret(r than that in the fiscal year 1928. The business for the past
three enars is suinuminrized in this table, in which that for 1930 is
sho\n for t lie two terminal ports, with the total.

11)30
I..s 1929 -- -- --------
Cristohal llalhna Total

N uijiltr -f rev v'iIi i-iine .- .. .. .71, .'. 1. 303 1. 13.1 3r1 ,1 1.495
Numbii er i.f % IlI r.1 L is -. -. ... .. - 1.. :3 9 8.359 6. 1 91 .3, lfi62 10.053
TI.il ritri\ll . . .. ... .. .............. 26, 'Si4 'J. 9.'33 3, 271 4.S65 38. 136
"..-ri illi.lr.ii i ..... .. . . .... .. . 2.. 2 7 : ,33 f00 32. 153 4.646 36, 799
ParIck. r- re Paick I ndr;i n .. ....... . ... .. .. . 92, 207 13:. 783 9 ,536 57. 30 156,366

PANAMA RAILROAD STEAMSHIP LINE

The gross operating revenue of the steamship line for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1930, amounted to $1,857,077.24, and the gross operat-
ing expenses mounted to $2,010,045.06, resulting in a net deficit
jroni operation of $152,967.82. The operating deficit compared with
the net revenue for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1929, of $46,856.38,
shows a decrease in the net. revenue of $199,824.20.
For the year ended June 30, 1930, the tonnage carried by the steam-
ship line amounted to 217,263 tons, as compared with 253,682 for
the previous year, a decrease of 36,419 tons.
The steaniiship line carried all freight and passengers for account
of the Pananma Canal and other departments of the Government of the
United States at material reductions Irom tariff rates, which amounted
to the important. sum of $525,297.06. Had regular tariff rates been
received by the steamship line for such freight and passenger service
performed for tihe Panama Canal and other Government departments,
its operations for the year would have resulted in a profit of $372,-
329.24.










SECTION III


ADMINISTRATION

The organization of the Panama Canal on the Isthmus embraces
five principal d(lepartments, namely, operation and maintenance,
supply, accounting, executive, and health.
DEPARTMENTS
Operation and maintenance.-The department of operation and(l
maintenance embraces functions related to the actuLial use of the canal
as a waterway, including the dredged channel, locks, and( aids to
navigation; and accessory activities, such as shops and dry docks,
vessel inspection, electrical and water supply, sewer systems, roads
and streets, hydrographic observations, surveys and estimates, and
miscellaneous construction, other than the erection of buildings.
Suipply.-The supply department is charged with the neciumula-
tion, storage, and distribution of materials and supplies for the canal
and Panama Railroad; the operation of conmmnissaries, hotels, cattle
pastures, and dairy; the maintenance and construction of buildings;
the assignment of quarters and care of grounds; and the sale of provi-
sions and other sutipplies, except coal and water, to ships. It also
operates corrals and motor transportation, manuiifactiuring plants,
bakeries, ice plants, abattoirs, printing plant, and other related activi-
ties.
Accounting.-The counting (ldepartminent is responsible for the
correct. recording of financial transactions of the canal and railroad,
the administrative audi(iting of vouchers covering the receipt and dis-
bursemnient of funds preliminary to the final audit by the general
accounting office, cost keeping of the canal and railroad, the check-
ing of timnekeepj)ing, the preparation of estimates for appropriations
and the allotment of appropriations to the various depart mients and
divisions, and the examination of claims. The collector and paynimaster
are attached to the accounting department.
Aiccutire.-The executive ldepj)artment embraces the general office
business of the governor, administrative activities invested by Execu-ti-
tive ord(ler within the auth irity of the executive secret Iry, and, for
purposes of administration of material business needs only, the courts,
nimarshal of the Canal Zone, and office of the district attorney. IU'nder
this department come ithe administration of police and fire protec-
tion, postal service, Vcustomsi, shipping-commissioner work, estates,
schools, general correspondence, and records for the oriu-ini/zation





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


of the cannal and the Panama Railroad, personnel records, time-
keeping, wage ndjustnients, statistics of navigation, information and
publicity, relations with Panama, and the operation of clubs and
playgrounds.
I/ialth.-The health department is charged with all sanitary mat-
ters within the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, the
operation of the hospitals and dispensaries, the enforcement of
quarantine regulahitions, and the compilation of vital statistics in the
Canal Zone and in the cities of Panama and Colon.
The operations of the Panama Railroad Co. on the Isthmus are
generally related closely to the work of the canal, and the railroad
organization is in effect a part of the canal organization. The gov-
ernor is president of the Panama Railroad; the heads of departments
in the canal organization and the superintendent of the railroad
report to him. The general administration of the composite organiza-
tion is centered in the executive office, and the accounting work in
the accounting department; the Panama Railroad and other divi-
sions of the general organization being billed for their proper share
of the general overhead work.
CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL
There were no important changes in organization during the fiscal
year, and the few changes in supervisory personnel are covered in
the following paragraphs.
Col. A. M. Whaley, United States Army, was appointed superin-
tendent, Gorgas Hospital, Ancon, on April 13, 1930; vice Col. George
M. Ekwirzel, United States Army, relieved from duty with the
Panama Canal.
Maj. S. L. Chappell, United States Army, was appointed superin-
tendent, Corozal Hospital, Corozal, August 19, 1929; vice Capt. C. C.
Odom, United States Army, relieved from duty with the Panama
Canal.
Mr. C. J. Riley, district attorney, resigned his position on April 15,
1930, and up to the close of the fiscal year his successor had not been
appointed.
Commander W. R. Smith, jr., United States Navy, was appointed
captain of the port, Cristobal, June 7, 1930; vice Commander I. C.
Kidd, United States Navy, relieved from duty with the Panama Canal.
Mr. 0. E. Malsbury was transferred August 1, 1929, from assistant
engineer in charge of the trans-Isthmian highway survey to the
designing engineer division as civil engineer and placed in charge of
field operations of the division.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 65
FORCE EMPLOYED
The supervisiory, technical, higher clerical, and highly skilled
mechanical employees, consisting primarily of American citizens but
including a few aliens, are employed on what is known at, the "gold"




_T ---I
I ____I

___ -- II
.......,.., ...i | a
Ui1


i.. 5 i




SI 0


....... . .
hi 'I
L - --i jL .
Ln i l --- z

Vt: i
j1 ^ ijL j i1
ci a _
^ ^St _L_ _1_
^ ?.?.** ; ^ i


roll; the rest of the force, principally aliens but including a few
American citizens on low-paid work, are designated "silver" employ-
ees. These terms are a heritage from the tropii-il prnctie of paying
Americans and Europeans in gold because of its stability, while the
native or tropical labor was paid in the local currency, based on silver.






00 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Duiringi the fiscal year the gold force increased 119, or 3.69 per cent.
Thi' silver force decreased 707, or 5.66 per cent. The combined force
decreased 58S, or 3.74 per cent. These figures are based on the last
force reports for each year, as of the third Wednesday in June. The
following tnbuilation shows the distribution of the gold personnel on
Ihose days:


Gold force 1 Gold force
Department on June 19, on June 18S. Increase
1929 1930


I'|'i]i mil .mil l 1ii lT1 flTen i e
I fr .-e .. .. .... .................................................. 45
I. et're I I q a I di is o - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
l-.lesr is ;l division..-..-- ... -----.........--.. --............-...- 154
01unlii ijil engiiieerinig mli isionf.-..-..-.-...-.-......- .-...-.-..-.-. .-. -.....- -.. 108
Li i k i Pri II on. .. .. . ...................... .............. 253
1 )IV nl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
MIi iiie divisiun.......... ........................................ 213
1-n l T Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 28
;a.i'iden project--........-- .......--------.................................. .. ........
Sul'-l .1 'I.ar0 i.ent.
Q :II;rrl ri 1 ni sler ............ .................... ... .............. 205
('*ilr l L.1S:t ili\ isiin ............................................. 230
Cattl e indtistry---------------------------------------------- 4
i ne T ivO li (snth .isten. e). .... ..................................... 8
Hotel W\!il.liiltJ-----------------------------------------------------------8. .8
.4criiimitil le d ;ii tnmenl t .1203
]A c il l lii I i l i. en t .... .. .............. ................. ........ 2773
Kx1 i I ine department--..--....-.......- ................................... 522
Panama li.inr...i
iiirri i i --er leiit............................................... .... 49
Transportation--------..-------------... .--.....................---------------------------- 66
Ker vi nc in. I for"w:irdiniri: agent.................................. 97
ilii t -I I t. n ........... .................................... 49
Total--..-----------------------------------------............................... 3,225

I Denotes decrease.


3,344 119


The fore employed varies from day to day, according to the work
to be performed, seasonal opportunities for construction, etc. In-
vcireses in one class of work may be offset, in part or wholly, by
decri-eies in the force engaged on other kinds of work. The following
is a sumnimary of the more important. changes in the gold force:

DI-.PARTM.iENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

OfFri.-An increase of seven gold employees in the section of the
A(irhc (,nineer wN a;s necessary due to the fact that the former force was
too small to perform adequately the volume of work handled. Ex-
tenliv i exaimitttioji of hydrology of the Madronal and Chilibrillo
ridge, ii, ininection with construction of the Madden Dam necessi-
titted employment of a hydraulic engineer and two gold assistants by
the selioln of Surveys.
Ek-r*ical dri., on.-The increase of four employees was due to the
na iuril increase of work handled by the division.
Aaniicipail rng'in;ring dirision.-The decrease of 20 men was due
primiarily to the -omiiipletion of Madden Road and to the transferring
of vmious men to the designing engineer division (Madden Dam
project).






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Lock operation.-The decrease of 14 gold employees was due to the
termination of temporary positions authorized( during the lock
overhaul.
Dredqing di't.sion.-The plucingin service of a Diesel tug as a dredge
tender necessitated a slight increase in thle gold force of the dredging
division.
Aleci n nical diri.vion.-The increase in the mnechainical division gold
force is due to a large extent to the manufacture of repair parts to be
used in connection with the overhaul of Gatun Locks in 1931.
AMarine diri'ion.-The decrease in the gold force of the marine
division was due to the laying up of one small tug and transfer of one
large tug to another division.
Fort ification division.-The decrease of four employees was due
to the completion of certain projects.
SUPPLY DEPARTMENT
Quartermiaster.-Increased building construction was responsible
for the increase of 20 gold employees.
Motor transportation d'ision.-Additional nmen were required
during the fiscal year to take care of increased work due to the
construction of Madden Road.
HEALTH DEPARTMENT
Increased office work and an increase in the work performed at
Colon Hospital neressitated(l a nithcr large increase in the gold force
of the health department.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTM ENT
THE increase of 15 gold employtes over the total employed during
the previous fiscal year was caused to a great extent by temporary
emnplioymeints to afford relief during the vacation period; to the
nece-sity of employing additional school-enachers to tike care of the
increased enrollment ; and aNdditional postal clerks to handle 1le
increase in air mail and othlier mail matter.
PANAMA HAILOAD COMPANY
Triiiflotiltlutl/I.-Two loomwiotdive engineers who had b)en employVed
temporarily were relea.sedl from service during 1the year.
lecfirini ai d foriur(/Uuqf (njihc)/.-Thle d(ecriese of nine l e-
ployeCs was caused by a falling off in the amouniit of work to be
performed.
Coalitj sfttfw} .\.-A iecr(ase 1n gencritl 1bll-iile-S cnvll Itd a 'iiTe--
ponding (decrease of six in the gold force.







SRlEPORTW OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


GENERAL


The tuninver in gold personnel results in large measure from
teinmipoiryv positions, created to cover special work or necessary
iliiring ibsenries on leave of permanently employed personnel. The
following table llows additions and separations from July 1, 1929,
to June 30, 19030. Separations are classified by causes. This table
covers a slightly different period from that covered by the force
reports of June 10, 1929, and June 18, 1930.


Opera-
tion
and
mainte-
nance

minploed1 or reemplnoyed in lthe United States. -.. 88
Einl-l.%e'd iir reemrnployed on the Isthmus.------.... 1-70
rTotal additions.. .......... .............. 258


R designed ...........................- ............ -
Rptired... ..-----------------... .--..........----------.
D iied ............................-- ................
Reduction of force ..............................
Epirat ion of temrnprorary employment.....------
Discharged for cause............................
Insane....... ... .. ...........................
PD isabilit y...........-- ............................
Failure toi repo-rt back from leave...............
T ranm ferrtd to -il er ri11........................
N t Quialified h l r Iposition ...................... .
W it tl r.iw in k request f-r | .tsaifin...........
lo-fusal of Civil -Price ('oiiiin.-ion to reinstate.


Exec' Supply


38
51
89


106 53
9 2
14 5
10 1
43 14
18 3
I I
. ....-I I
I ........
. . .' . .
-I___


Total soparations......................... 204 sO


Health


Ac-
count-
ing


Pana-
ma
Rail-
road


IU 72 ........ 4
39 36 14 53
54 108 14 57
22 75 14 38
.-----.- 2 ........ 4
2 1 4 5
--....-- .-..... 1 1
3 14 2 17
1 1 ....... 6
. .... ...I I . .. . . .. .. .
........ 1 ........ .......

.\. ....1... ....... 1
-......... .........-........-
-.. .I . .


30 95


22 73


Additions, Panama Canal------------------ 523 Separations. Panama Railroad............... ---------------73
Separations, Panama Canal----------------- 431 Additions, Panama Railroad..............-- ... 57
Net additions-------.-------- --------92 Net separations........................ ----------------------16

RECRUITING AND TURNOVER OF FORCE

GOLD EMPLOYEES

The number of persons above the grade of laborer tendered em-
ployment through the Washington office of the Panama Canal during
the year was 455, of whom 217 accepted and were appointed, covering
63 different, kinds of positions. Acceptances and appointments
were 47.7 per cent of the tenders. In the previous year the tenders
numbered 388 and appointments 213, making the percentage of
acceptances 54.8, and in the fiscal year 1928 the corresponding
figures were 455 and 213, or a percentage of 46.8. In addition to
the 217 employment in the United States there were 363 on the
Isthmus, making a total addition to the gold roll during the year of
580. Separations numbered 514, of which 17 were due to retirement.
Based on a force of 3,331 gold employees at the beginning of the year,
514 separations make a turnover of 15.43 per cent from all causes,
as compared with 15 per cent during the previous year.


Total



S217
363
580
308
17
31
13
93
29
3
2
3
2
1
1
1
504


I





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


When an additional etnipinyee is needed efforts are made to fill
the position by promotion from the force already employed or by
transfer to it of an employee whose work in another department is
about to terminiiite. Thii- tends to reduce employment, of people
utinused to Canal Zone conditions, to reduce recruiting costs, and to
give the organization the benefit of the employee's accrued experience
in local conditions. It has a further value in strengthening the
morale of the force through giving the employees a reasonable expec-
tation of continued employment as long as their services are satis-
factory, which builds up loyalty to the canal. Of the 580 gold-roll
niemploymnents during the past year, practically one-third were re-
employments.
Two thousand seven hundred and eighty persons (2,523 from
New York, 146 from New Orleans, and 111 from Pacific coast ports),
including new appoint ees, employees returning from leaves of absences,
and members of their families, were provided transportation from
the United States to the Isthmus. The total was a decrease of 242
under the previous year's total.
SILVER EMPLOYEES
No figures are available concerning the number of separations
and employment among the alien personnel composing the silver
roll, but no serious difficulty wais experienced in maintaining an
adequate force, and the percent age of turnover was low for this class
of labor. At the end of the year there was a surplus of labor avail-
able for the ordinary grades of work.
WAGE ADJUSTMENTS
GOLD EMPLOYEES
The Painaina Canal act provides that salaries or compensation
fixed thereunder by the President, or by his authority, "shall in no
instance exceed by more than 25 per cent the salary or compensation
paid for the same or similar services to persons employed by the
Government in continental United States." Concurrently with this
limitation it has been the policy to pay generally to United States
citizens employed on the gold roll the full 25 per cent above pay for
similar work in the United States, within the limitations of approprin-
tions and subject to the preservation of coordination within the or-
ganization. For a number of years appropriations for civil govern-
niment were insufficient to allow payment of the full 25 per cent over
rates for similar services in the United States, but for the fiscal year
1930 the eimpj)loyees in civil government were for the ir4t time allowed
the entire 25 per cent incremlent.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Work wis continued during the year on bringing the grades of em-
plovyees coming under the classification act. of 1923, as amended by the
Welch Act of 112S, into conformity with the class specifications. In
October, 1 92.s, in iccordance with the Welch Act, the Panama Canal
forwardold (1c!tmionnaires covering some 1,500 positions coming within
the 'cope o(if thle survey being carried out by the Personnel Classifica-
tion Boiird. At. the time of submitting questionnaires, a. committee
from (he Isthmus was detailed for duty in Washington to assist the
Pcrsoinnel Clissilication Board in drawing up tentative specifications
1iinl in the iillociition of Panama Canal positions to services and grades
in conformity with the specifications. The tentative allocation of
Pniiraii ('Ciniil positions made during the latter months of 1928,
except for the nomenclature and the grading in a few cases, was made
effective in Mny, 1920.
During the first half of the fiscal year 1930 a committee from the
Isthmus visited Washington again to confer further with the Person-
nel Chissification Board regarding the allocation of Panama Canal
positions and to make a study of the classification as applied to po-
sitions in the District of Columbia. As a result of the committee's
study of the classification in the departmental services and of con-
ferences with members of the Personnel Classification Board, the
board assented to a number of changes from the original allocation
that had been made immediately following the forwarding of question-
naires to Washington. These changes tended to reestablish the local
coordination that had existed for a long time among closely related
positions, and in a number of instances prevented the transfer or
resignation of specially qualified employees whose positions had been
reduced in grade under the original allocation. The Personnel
Classification Board has cooperated fully with the canal organization
and the former excellent coordination in salaries has, for the greater
part, been preserved. In some instances, however, due to the
specialized or unique duties performed by canal employees, and the
difficulty of transmitting adequate descriptions and analyses of their
tasks, responsibilities, educational requirements, etc., through the
mediiium of organizational charts, functional statements, and question-
niires, there remain some inconsistencies and these will be taken up
with lthe Personnel Classification Board in connection with the criti-
cisli and comnimentt on the preliminary class specifications, which the
honrd lins invited.
A survey was made of the rates of pay of employees in supervisory
positions whose rates are adjusted in harmony with rates paid to
employees in mechanical trades in the navy yards. Adjustments
were made of the rates for employees on suction dredges, dipper
dredges, drill boats, and of other employees whose rates are
coordinated with those of the suction-dredge employees.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANA MA CANAL


The wage'board, consisting of the assistant engineer of maintenance
and a representative selected by organizations of employees, held
13 meetings during the year.
The salary board, composed of the heads of the nine major depIirt-
ments and divisions of the Pannnia Canal and Panama Railroad,
held a number of meetings during the year, chiefly in connection
with the grading of classified positions referred to above. Both the
wage and tlhe salary boards are merely advisory to the governor, who
is charged with the fixing of all rates of pay.

ALIEN EMPLOYEES ON THE SILVlI- IULL

The silver wage board, consisting of the heads of 13 dpaurt inents
and divisions of the Panama Canal and Panama Railroad, held
meetings in November and June. As with the boards on gold rates
of pay, this board acts in an advisory capacity to the governor.
The basic rate of 20 cents per hour for unskilled labor, with the
proviso that 21 or 22 cents may be used as the entrance rate if desired
by the foreman in charge, remained in effect during the year. There
were no considerable changes in the schedule of rates of pay, though
a few changes were authorized for designated crafts.
The average rates paid to alien employees as of October 1, 1920,
when the last general survey was made, as compared with preceding
years, were as follows:

Air.ap. r.i t. Average rates

M-111nil I Hourly Monthly ITourl
C11 i|.1"% emiipili Nei employees eliii pbi '-
i0'r (per I (I',r (per
nii hour) munithl Ii .'uri

Nov 1, 192 .. .. ..... . 2.$ 27 $0) 2312 'iM 1, 192 ... .. ... f.l .... i 2111
Nuv. 1, 1924. -- ...- -..-- 54.74 .2323 Oct. 1, 1928.-----.. --..-------- 56.44 246
Nov 1, 192 ............ .1 55. 2r 2385 Oct. 1, 1929-..----.-.-.-- 55.37 .2450
Nov. 1, 9'.2 ............ 55.40 .2395


Variations in the average pay of the silver employees, now niumiber-
ing about 12,000, have been slight. Individuals of lung employment
advance to the top of the pay schedule of the craft, and nev eim-
pIloees enter service at lower rates. The vriantioin bet weei minni-
u1111111 and a11111xiiiini a1eralgZ piay for mIonthl y emiployees in the six
years covered by thle foregoing tabulatioin lihas been $1.70 and for
hourly employees 1.84 cents; with reference to lthe iiniiim, thelicse
variations have been 3.1 per cent for moniithly, 8 per cent for hourly
employIees. During this sitiin period the index of the ci' of living.
based on weighted prices in the conmnissary stores, with 1illy, 1914,
as 100, declined from 14(.69 as of October 1, 1923. to 137 i.90 as of
15740-30--6





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


M\av 1, 1930. This index advanced 2.10 points during the past

Piiiiiiiit to a recominiendation of the silver wage board at its
iimctii r n1i Noveimber 24. 1928, the governor appointed, on Jan-
iiirv s, 1929, a coillIiittee to recommend a plan for discharging the
(tvcrrniiienl's responsibility for infirm or superannuated alien
emplyecs. This coininittee made a preliminary survey and has
cont inued to handle numieroulls cases referred to it. With respect
to a pension plan to be provided by legislation, the committee has
collhborated with the silver wage board. Steps were taken during
the past year toward submitting the subject. to Congress, and a
system of m.iniithiining more precise personnel records of alien em-
ployees was developed. The need for relief in many cases is urgent..
COMPLAINTS BOARD
Thle complaints board is for the purpose of investigating and
reporting on complaints of employees about working conditions and
adminiistrative actions, etc., referred to it, and is composed of the
assistant engineer of maintenance, the head of the department or
division in which the specific complaint originates, and two rep-
resentatives of the employees who are nominated by the central
body of the employees' associations and approved by the governor.
Two cases were handled by this board, as compared with three in
the fiscal year 1929 and two in 1928.
PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS AND RECREATION
There has been no material change in the activities conducted
under the auspices of the bureau of clubs and playgrounds. This
bureau operates 6 clubhouses for white employees and 5 club-
houses and 1 clubroom for colored employees. These provide
moving pictures, bowling, pool, reading rooms, and limited refresh-
ment and restaurant service and are centers for community enter-
tainments and athletic enterprises. They are open daily from
7 a. m. to 11 p. m. Included in the six clubhouses for gold em-
ployees is one in New Cristobal, opened May 17, 1930, and operated
as an annex to the old Cristobal clubhouse.
In addition to the clubhouses, 16 concrete and 5 grass tennis
courts are maintained, as well as various athletic fields and ball
parks, mnd for the small children playgrounds are operated where
kindergarten activities and supervised play may be carried on. Two
swimming pools tre maintained and a boathouse is also kept open
neaiir Fort Anmador, where transportation is available to visit Farfan
Heiich on the opposite side of the canal. This beach is a favorite
spot for swilmniming a11d picnic parties and is provided with all necessary
facilities, including dressing rooms for men and women, cookhouse,






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


toilets, etc. During the year about 140 coconut pualms were planted
on the grounds by common jail bIbor, ind in a few y eurs tlhece trees
will provide shade for persons holding picnics at the beach.
The clubhouse auditoriums continued in uise during the Near for
concerts or vaudeville perftormaincs by trailing trouilpes, dIramitic
and other entertainments given by high-school students or other
local talent, school commencement exercises, etc. Card parties con-
tinued to be popular at most of the clubhouses and d(lid noich to
4engender a social atminosphere. Milit.try bands from various garrison
posts gave concerts regiularly at clubhouses of the larger towns;
and the )bo(Is' bands of Balboa, Cristobal, and Gatun were active in
furnishing concerts.
Transient visitors to the Canal Zone have the privileges of the
Canal Zone clubhouses as do also the personnel of the Armiiy and
Navy stationed in the Canal Zone, in addition to the entertainment
needs provided for the latter by the t wo services and by the Army
and Navy Y. M. C. A.'s. The clubs and playgrounds at the terminal
towns are used extensively by Navy personnel during the visits of
vessels, nl(d ihis is especially the case at times of fleet concentrations
at the canal.
Motion pictures were shown in all the clubhouses, daily in the
larger towns and several times a week in the smaller towns, averaging
about 215 shows per month. Due to the fact that talking-pictures
were exhibited in Panamina and Colon (during the year, the receipts
at the motion-pictu ire shows were reduced at the clubhouses in the
terminal towns and at some of the smaller towns. Talking-picture
equipment was being installed at Ancon, Balboa, and Cristobal
clulbhouses at the end of the fiscal year, and it is possible that such
equipment will be placed in some of the silver clubhouses in the near
future. The sound equipment purchased is considered the be4t on
the market.
At the colored clubhouses a special effort was made to offer helpful
*educational attractions and to foster interest in classes covering
health, social, comunercial, industrial, and other self-help features,
both for adults and for children. Selected films were furnished to
the silver clibhiouses for reg~ilar picture programs, and once a month
a free educational picture show wns given to children at the various
colored schools.
As in previous years, films were furnished free of charge for weekly
picture shows at Palo Seco leper colony, Corozal Hlospitil for the
insane, and the Canal Zone Peniten(iary at Gaibona.
The clubhouse buildings, as a whole, are in very iad condiltion
Ibphysically. They are all old, and extensive repairs are necessary
to keep Ihemi in a usnble condition. Balboa clubhouse is not only
old, but is too small for the purpose( for which it is ieIed and will have






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


to be replaced before very long. The Pedro Miguel and Gatun
clubhouses are in fair shape, while Cristobal clubhouse is in very bad
coalitionn. Only such temporary repairs as are absolutely necessary
are made, owinm to the fact that most of the buildings presumably
will be replaced in a few years. New clubhouses are needed at
Ancon, Balboa, New Cristobal, and La Boca. A swimming pool
ait Gatun for white employees is one of the most urgent needs, and
sw iniimirn facilities at all colored communities are also needed urgently,
as well as playsheds for the small children. The playshed for small
white children at Balboa was extended to a. length of 130 feet during
the fiscal year, but the playshed at Cristobal is too small, and the
congestion can not. be relieved until a new clubhouse is constructed.
Small playgrounds equipped with some apparatus, such as swings,
baseball back stops, volley-ball courts, but without immediate super-
vision, are needed at various points in Ancon and Balboa where
children can play when it is not convenient to go to the larger play-
grounds. New playground equipment is needed at all playgrounds.
A new grandstand will be built. at Pedro Miguel, while band stands
are needed at Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miguel, and New Cristobal.
ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY
Clubhouse funds in the amount of approximately $1,750 were
expended on the erection of a concrete and steel observatory to house
a 5-inch equatorial telescope transferred to the Panama Canal by the
Navy. The observatory was erected on a hill a short distance to the
northwest of the Miraflores filtration plant, and the position of the
center point of the pier supporting the telescope is latitude 90 00'
15" north, longitude 790 35' 51" west. The building is a circular
structure, 14 feet in diameter, with a 6-inch concrete wall, topped
with a mobile steel dome traveling on a circular track. Ground was
broken on April 11, 1930, and it was almost completed at the end of
the fiscal year.
The observatory was established through the initiative of the Canal
Zone Astronomical Society. It is used for the instruction of students
in the high schools and by canal employees and others interested in
astronomy.
ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS
In connection with the operation of the canal it is necessary, of
course, to consider future needs and questions of policy which may
affect operations. Brief discussions of some of the more important
of such matters are presented herewith.
MADDEN DAM AND RESERVOIR
Work on this project, has gone forward during the fiscal year, as
explained elsewhere in this report. It was the original plan when
the project. was adopted by Congress to complete all preliminary






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


operations by July 1, 1930, so that actual construction of the dam
could begin on that date. However, the estimate of $3,000,000
for the fiscal year 1930 was cut to $1,000,000 by the Bureau of the
Budget. This amount was wholly insufficient. for building the high-
way, construction camp, power line, and for the other preliminary
work, and consequently the date for beginning of work on the struc-
tures at the dami site has been postponed until July 1, 1931. For
the fiscal Near 1931 the appropriation for the dam is $2,000,000.
In succeeding years funds should be provided at a rate of approxi-
mately $3,000,000 per year until the entire estimate of $12,000,000
has been appropriated. It would not be economical to carry on this
work with smaller appropriations.

HIGHWAY AND FERRY ACROSS CANAL
An act of Congress approved May 27, 1930, authorized the expen'di-
ture of $500,000 toward the construction of a ferry across the canal
and a highway to extend from the ferry landing opposite Balboa to
the Canal Zone boundary near Arraijan. The estimated entire coit
of the project is $1,000,000 and funds for its completion are included
in the estimates. Construction of this highway will dischairge a
moral obligation to the Republic of Panama by providing connection
with the system of highways in the western portion of the Republic.
It will also be a link in the eventual Pan American Highway.
This is a separate matter from the proposed Trans-Isthmian High-
way to connect Panamia, Colon, iand Porto Bello, all of which lie on
the east side of the canid and are not separated as a result of its
construction.
QUARTERS FOR EMPLOYEES
Additional quarters are needed for the families of employees. This
is due in part to the deterioration of existing quarters, somie of whirh
date back to the time of the French canal undertaking and under
the effects of weather and th(e attacks of white ants have reiiched a
state practically unfit for human habitation; and in part to the
increase in the number of families. During the construction days
and the earlier years of operation the greater part of the emiiiploiyees
were unimariried, duiie to the fact that the work at that time attracted
a transitory type of employee. Under the ltcadier conditions of
operation employees have adopted service with the canal is thlieir
life work, hence they inarry and set (i1e here definitely. It is extrelmecly
desirable to house all of the Ainerienan employees within tihe Canal
Zone, not siiiiply as a matter of econom'icdal vintage to them but
for (te better preservation of loyally, morale, and inllistructed
attention to the work. Tlihe sumi of $500,IIii1) per year is being
included in tlihe estimates tor thlie next. live years forI the constriieutiolln





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


of quarters for gold employees, and even this amount will not be
adequ(iate as it would take about, 10 years of building at this rate to
nil'ord q Iarters for all of the American employees.
The situation with respect to quarters for alien employees is even
worse. At present, about 4,000 of the 12,000 alien employees are in
quarters in the Canal Zone. Of the other 8,000 a few ace squatters
on lircnsed lnd in the rural areas, but the great, hulk live in the
cities of Panamia and Colon where they are charged high rents for
inadequate accommodations. It, is not the intent to attempt to
house the entire alien force in canal quarters, but it is believed that
accomlInmodations should he provided for at least 50 per cent of them.
Among the alien employees, as well as the Americans, there have
evolved perniianent employees, people who year after year carry on
important work. It is only reasonable and good administration to
provide domestic surroundings for these employees which are fairly
adequate and tend to foster their contentment and adherence to the
canal work.
OTHER STRUCTURES
Due both to the obsolescence of old buildings and increase in
population, additional building is required at Colon Hospital, Corozal
Hospital for the Insane, and the leper colony at, Palo Seco; for exten-
sion of schools for both American and alien children; replacement of
clubhouses, maintained in part by appropriations from Congress but
deriving the greater part of their income from revenue for services
rendered; replacement and extension of old wooden buildings used for
post offices, police stations, and fire stations.
Another important improvement, which will be deferred for several
years until more pressing needs have been met, is the proposed
transfer of the dredging organization's repair plant, and mooring
station from Paraiso to Gamboa. In the construction days there
were repair shops at Paraiso and this plant, because it was already
in existence, was adopted for the use of the dredging division. The
tying up of vessels at this station endangers both them and ships
going past in the canal; furthermore, the section of slides, in the cut
lies between Pacaiso and the areas for dumping badges in Gatun
Lake, so it. is possible that a severe slide might cut off the dredging
equipment from the dumping area.

RETIREMENT AND SUPERANNUATION
The present national law for the retirement of employees who are
American citizens neither provides annuities sufficient to care for old
people who have to seek new homes on their forced departure from
the Canal Zone nor allows employees to retire at an age whi-h would
be advantageous to themselves or to the canal. In consequence,





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


employees remain in the service past. the time of their greatest
usefulness and when they should be replaced by younger personnel
better fitted tor doing work with the speed and reliability required
in the handling of commerce. A bill has been drafted to provide
special conditions of contributions and retirement to be applied to
employees of the canal and it is extremely desirable that legislation
to this end be passed by Congress.
At present, the Panama, Canal is without legislative provision for
taking care of superannuated or physically incapacitated employees
who are not citizens of the United States. The large group of alien
employees should be provided with some means of pension when
they can no longer render useful service. Due to the varied nature
of the force of aliens and the lack of personnel records covel in- their
individual employment in the past, it is not desired to secure at this
time legislation setting up definite provisions as to age, length of
service, maximumii and minimum annuities, etc., but for the present
to secure authority for the gov-ernor to pay pensions as determiined
by the needs of each case, subject, of course, to a limitation with
respect to maximum payable. The latter would be relatively low
because these employees, living under tropical standards, have not
been accustomed to high rates of pay.

CAPACITY OF THE CANAL
In the annual report for 1929 was presented a resum6 of factors
affecting the capacity of the canal. In this it was stated that when
traffic reaches an average of 27 commercial lockages per day a third
flight of locks should be available for use. This means when the
traffic is about 100 per cent greater than at present. None of the
factors in that study has been modified and the conclusions presented
in it are still valid.
BASIS OF LEVY OF TOLLS
The canal administration has continued to advocate the adoption
of the Panama Canal rules only as the basis of tolls and a bill provid-
ing this was the subject of hearings before committees of Congress
during the past year. Opposition was expressed by American opera-
tors of general cargo vessels, particularly those engaged in the inter-
coastal trade of the United States, for the reason that adoption of the
canal rules of measuremient with rates of tolls of $1 per net ton for
laden ships and 60 cents for ships in ballast would result in increa-ed
charges on a number of their vessels. The point of view of the canal
admniinistration is that the present basis is unscientific and at times
unfair, while the canal rules afford an accurate and equitable imeasu1re-
ment of capacity for ships carrying cargo or pfs-sernL-eer-, which is the
basis for the levy of tolls. At, present tolls are levied at .91.20 per net





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


ton on laden ships and( 72 cents on vessels with ballast, on the basis of
tonnage determined by the Panama Canal rules of measurement, with
the proviso that the amount collectible shall not exceed $1.25 per
net tun nor lie less than 75 cents per net ton as determined under the
rules for registry in the United States. This makes it necessary for
tonnage to be determined and tolls arrived at on two bases, and as
the rules of imensuremnent for registry were not designed as a basis
for the levy of canal tolls and are considered somewhat arbitrary, and
are subject to changes, the dual system occasions confusion and
annoyance and at times injustice. Small vessels, such as tugs, some-
times inmke the transit without payment of tolls because the United
States rules indicate for them a negative net tonnage. The trouble
resulting front this dual system is one of long standing and it is hoped
that it will be remedied shortly.

EQUITY OF PRESENT TOLLS
This was discussed at some length in the report for last year.
Nothing that has developed during the fiscal year 1930 affects the
conclusion that there is no occasion for a reduction in tolls. In con-
nection with the occasional recommendations of United States opera-
tors that tolls be reduced, it. is claimed that such reduction would be
an aid to American shipping. In the fiscal year 1930 tolls paid by
foreign ships were 51 per cent of the total tolls, those by United States
ships in the intercoastal trade 36 per cent, and those by United
States ships in foreign trade, 13 per cent. A lowering of canal tolls
below the value of the service rendered should be considered in the
nature of a subsidy to shipping, and each million dollars of tolls
reduction would represent a subsidy of $510,000 to foreign shipping,
of $3011n,000 to United States shipping not in competition with foreign
shipping, and of $130,000 to those ships of the United States which
are in competition with foreign flags. It is seen that as far as United
States shipping is concerned the greatest reduction would be to vessels
engaged in the intercoastal trade of the United States. These vessels
are protected against the competition of foreign lines and their com-
petition is with the railroads of the United States. As a matter of
national policy the effect of lower canal tolls on the railroads should be
given careful consideration. Tolls revenues are not now on the in-
trea-e hut expenses of operation and maintenance are, on account
of the necessity of replacements and betterments. It appears in line
with sound business practice to retain the rates of tolls at the present
levels. ,











SECTION IV

GOVERNMENT

Civil gov-ernmient, of the Ca il Zonie is crndin-t cid IIs prescribed by
the Paniiia Canal act of Auigust 24, 1912, andii other ickts and Ee ii-
tive orders appl)icnbl to the Canal Zone. The1 us-i-iiuenct of royern-
mental.duties wherever practicable to department orc'inized pri-
marily for the operation and maintenance of the canal has effected
a coordination of functions which results in (revatcr economy and
efficiency.
Data on the expenses and revenues of various featiiure-c of canal
operation and government, are shown in the finiiiiili and stfli tical
statements in Section V.
POPULATION

An act of Ciiongress approved July 18, 1929 (Public No. 13), provid-
ing for the fifteenth d(lecenni;il census of population, agriculture,
irrigation, drainage, distribution, unemployment, and mines con-
tained a proviso that the census of the Panamiia Cini.l Zone should be
taken by the Governor of the C(inl Zone in accordance with plans
prescribed or approved by the Director of the Census. In ac with this law the census of the Canal Zone was taken as of April 1,
1930. The total population was 39,469. Of thes.', 22,199 were in the
Balboa division uand 17,270 in the Cristobal division. The arc:n, of
these divisions are those of the court divisions or miiagisterial di.t rict.
.The bouiindiries of oich town or village and military or naval rscrvi-
tion were defined precisely arind remaining, sparsely inhabit ed sec-
tionis were defined and designated rural areas. The enumerition
areas in the Balboa d(livision were numbered 1 to 24, inclusive. and
those in the Cristobal division from 25 to 47, inclusive. By enumera-
tion areas the population of whites, blacks, and all others, male -Inid
female, was as follows:

W l1- 11.1-1k All other
iTotal

I a nane -------------------------------- -- lI74:- i- 1
2h s M million .11ivht .. 171al 1sh I.II l

4 Baltic'it.............................. 65S 11 311 111 3 1. "4i
2 Illnlbon Ilnig t< .. . .. . 171 1814 8 1-1 ........ ..-... .*;
3 Quarrv Hir htl s.. .. . ..... ... ... ... 280i 11 2 IN . 1 421
4 Halltiin. ..... .. ,(58 1,311 l14 :* I 3. 1W
5 La B (-w a ............ .................. 36 I 1,4. I. i 1 .'.
6 Pain S ro . . .. ........... 2 1 .' "
7 BitlR ia Naivmal H] i tiniiii ........... 34 13 .... 47
8 Forl Arnador. ------.................. 1,258 1 2 .-'f. .. .. 1,123
oS a ------n---------------------------12142
10 1 orc''l I Iispilil for iii-S-1in-- 79 WI 1. 3 712
I I I-r1 1*ILIi(I0...................... ..... .. I1 G4TS Il 1' 1. 71J
129 CX or alr............................. 1,436 17 i .2 46
10 I'oro.'il Ilnspitail fur lInsanr. ... .... 78 82 ir1* **II. I 712
11 Iorl Ci'iay on .. .. ... .. ... .... ... i 1,fM 8. 11I 4 *-'*. l ,7l
12 .11irillo wr s. ....... ...................I 14 2 I .s .4 .
13 Red T.mk. . ... . .... .. .. 12 3 -. 1i I.ni' .*- I .' *7
14 Pedro M.l igu-1 ......................... 412 i1 *.' . .. "21'I
15 Riurill, Kast Sisli ................ .i 3 .i-- 24 1 II l11 i 82
79






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Nost District name



16 Paraiso ...............................
Id l';ir~iisii .......
17 Suinnil.. .........................--------------------
IN i < inaI lr! in .r .......................
19 South I 1 iii1 iu--........................
21n IUurI. Ea'st Sile......................
"I .01mh j11r1i Area ........................
2 2 I.us Cwk-sadws .........................
Z: Iturml, \W st Sile .....................
24 ....' ---------....... -- -.--..-..---.-
.'". North ariua ..--------....-.............-...
21 tiral. East Si ................---------------------.....

EU Ituri l. ..... S.. ......................
2 Itural, \E st Side.-...................-
30. ..... i10 ................................
.5 1 Rurajl. E---- 1(-----------------------
.32 Rural, East Side --------------------
J.1 .. ..III .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... .. .
34 .. . Ilo .......................... ......
:r Furt -lhernian........................
3 A ( hat un ................................
37 Fr.rl D :vis............................
38 ('ulnn Ha'lin Station...........--.......--
:'s i Hural, Easti Side......................
40 'M mount ri-pe..........................
41 Silver Ci... .................--------------------------.-- ....-..
42 Camp eir--.!-.......................
45 Cristl bjll...............................
44 Franm > Fi.ld..........................
45 Coco lo........................-------------------------.....
4i Fort -riiuilrh........ .. ..............
-7 Fort De Lvuseps......................
Totals.....................------------------------......


White Black All other
Total
_-__-- -- -- -------- popula-
Male !Female Male Female Male Female tion

37 1 4 692 597 6 2 1,338
4 ........ 28 20 21 9 82
46 6 42 ........ 7 --------........ 101
I ........ 91 88 11 11 202
84 4 220 64 208 23 603
34 ........ 93 7 170 33 337
8 8 124 130 3 ........ 273
1 ........ 103 84 ................ 188
8 2 271 221 2 2 506
14 8 8 1 11 6 -3 50
3 ..--------..... 162 82 95 | 62 404
2. 10 13 10 ........I........ 58
1 1 70 52 3 ........ 127
3 2 197 149 2 1 354
3 ..-------- 13 9 ................ 25
3 ........ 57 39 1 1 101
2 2 59 50 .--- 113
13 6 337 212 2 .....--------. 570
10 2 373 139 ................ 24
6-49 90) 14 12 1 ........ 766
284-1 2.9 941 829 14 1 2,338
2,321 225 29 z8 17 3 2,653
11 3 ....--..-....... ........- ........ 14
S 3 183 91 6 |........ -------- 291
10 7 ---....- 2 7 2 28
1 ........ 2,335 2,123 1 -.------- 4,460
28 2 430 264 59 ........ 783
450 163 17 11 3 ........ 644
801 108 1 32 --......-----..... 942
1.077 7? 10 3 28 - 1,196
599 4S 4 19 ........------------........--1 670
134 23 .-------------.....---.... -------- 2 159
14,431 4,352 10,817 8,675 907 | 287 39,469


Of the 39,469 persons comprising the total population, 22,865 were
living in civil towns and villages, 4,819 in rural areas, 10,470 in Army
reservations, and 1,315 in Navy reservations. The figures include
Army and Navy personnel stationed in the Canal Zone and civilians,
in short, all persons who were then living in the Canal Zone, as res-
dence is defined for census purposes. American and other employees
of the United States, living in territory of the Republic of Panama,
are not included in the census of the Canal Zone. The personnel of
the Army and Navy, exclusive of civilian residents attached to them,
was as follows: Army, 8,686; Navy, 1,194; total, 9,880.
The house-to-house canvass by the Canal Zone police in June, 1929,
showed a total civil population at, that time of 33,300, to which the
addition of 9,837 persons in the Army and 1,249 in the Navy made a
total of 39,137. The total in June, 1928, was 37,512; in 1927, 36,600;
in 1920, 30,998.
There we-re no marked demographic changes in the fiscal year 1930.
The building of more quarters in some of the canal towns has tended
slightly toi increase their populations, and there has been some lessen-
ing if the rural population, from abandonment of licensed agricul-
tuiral ares, either permanently or temporarily as employment else-
where was attractive.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs