• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Section I: Canal operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Government
 Section IV: Administration
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00006
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1921
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Section I: Canal operation and trade via Panama
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Section III: Government
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Section IV: Administration
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
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        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
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    Back Cover
        Page 121
        Page 122
Full Text












UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY
L I BS~ r A R










ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL


FOR THE


FISCAL YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30


1921


,vi S -
'k: k
i .ri
j


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1921





L~ "


- 4


%ON












TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page.
Introduction ...... ....................................................... 1
Money turnover in 1921......................... ............... ........ 2
In terms of service........................ ........................... 2
SECTION I.-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA PANAMA.

The canal in competition with other water routes......................... 3
The canal and the railroads ............................................... 6
United States Government vessels free-..................................... 6,
Rapid growth of commercial traffic.......................................... 7
Traffic fluctuations in 1921............................................... 7
Ships of various nations in canal traffic .................................... 8
Leading trade routes ......................................... ......... 9
Commercial traffic through The Panama Canal during the fiscal year 1921,
classified by leading trade routes..................................... ... 10
Principal commodities................................................ 11
United States coastwise trade ............................ ......... 11
Effect on revenue of exempting vessels in the United States coastwise trade
from payment of tolls .............. .... ............................... 12
Loss of revenue by continuing double standard of collecting tolls............. 13
Motor ships........................................................... 13
Details of the trade........................ .................. ........... 13
Lockages................................................................. 14
Lock maintenance. ............... ..................................... 15
Power for canal operation ................................................ 16
Water supply for Gatun Lake.............................................. 17
Maintenance of channel................................................... 17
Aids to navigation............ ......................................... 18
Accidents....................... ........................................ 18
Salvage work............ .............. ........ ................... 19
SECTION II.-BUSINEss OPERATIONS.

Repairs to vessels-Mechanical work....................................... 22
Commercial business.................................................. 22
Work for the Navy............................................... 23
Work for The Panama Canal............................... .......... 23
Dry docking.... ..................................................... 23
Work for Panama Railrbad ........................................... 23
Decrease in commercial business...................................... 23
Coal ................................... .. .............................. 24
Fuel oil, Diesel oil, gasoline.................................................... 26
Diesel oil................ ........................................... 27
Gasoline.............................................................. 27
Ship chandlery and other supplies, storehouse operations................... 27
Cargo handling at piers.............................................. 28

^Kin






TABLE OF CONTENTS.


;ii ~aPage.
Commissary system ....................................................... 29
Purchases. ................... ......................................... 29
Sales................................................................. 30
M eat industry.................................... 30
Plantations ............ .... ......... ........... ... 0 ... ..... 31
Other factors in commissary business......................................... 32
Hotels and restaurants..................................................... 32
Building and other construction work.................................... '3as
United States Army ............................... ........ ......... .. 33
Community house at Balboa.......................... ........ 34
Royal Mail Building. ..................... ........................... 34
Cable company.................................................. 34
Printing plant...................................................... 35
Railroad ...................... .................... ....,....... .
Panama Railroad stables at Colon .............................. .., 3688
Railroad station at Fort Davis......................... .............I. 87
Telephones...................................... ................. .3
Land and buildings................................... .......... ... :37
Clubhouses.......... ................................ .. ......... ... .. .37
Operations with Panama Railroad Co.'s funds ....................... ..... 38
Panama Railroad Steamship Line......................................... 38

SECTION III.-GOVERNMENT.
Population......................................................... ...... 39
Public health................................................................. 39
Canal Zone..... ......... ..... .................. ............. .40
Panam a.............................................. ............ .... .40
Colon...................................................... .. .. 4
Hospitals...................................... .... ..... ................ 41
Quarantine................. ................... ........ ........ .. ., 42
Municipal engineering...................................................... 43
Water................... ................................ .. ......... 43
Highways......................................................... .44
Sewers.................. .................................... .44
Garbage disposal............................................ ....... ,44
Public order........................... ..................................... 44
Office of district attorney................................................... 45
The courts.... ............................ ................. ........... 46
District court ..................... ................. ... ............. 46
Marshal ...................................... ................. .46'
Magistrates courts. .................. .................. !........... 47
Balboa ................... ................. ............. .47
Cristobal................ ................... ............... ..... 47
Fire prevention......................................................... 47
School system.......................................................... 47
Postal system................................... ....... ............... 49,
Customs............................................................,, 50
Shipping commissioner-Seamen ......................................... 51
Administration of estates. ............................................... 51
Relations with Panama...............................................
The Taft agreement.................................................. ...
Laws and Executive orders.......................................... 2..






TrA O CON1TEhNTS.

SECTION IV.-ADMINISTRATION.
[Organlistlon charts aedompany this Aection.]
Paget
Ihanges in organization.. ...................-- .........................*. 53
Administrative policy. ............ ..........---------... 55
judget and economies. ..........-..-- ...- -..-..-....-.----------------- 57
Accounting......................... ----. -- --............... 57
The working force..........................-.- -.........-... --- -- --....... 57
)Wage adjustments, gold employees.................................................. 67
IS Recruting in the United States........................ '-................ 67
Q Living costs and wage increases....................................6-7---- 87
Rates of pay, silver employees......................................--- - 71
ir living costs..................................... ..................... 71
SComplaints of American employees...................................... 71
R:, Yublic amusement and recreation.......................................... 73
| Quarters for employees...................................................- 75
SSpecial Panama Canal Commission........................................ 75

SECTION V.-FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS.
No.
:-1. General balance sheet, June 30, 1921................................... 82
2. Statement of appropriations by Congress............................... 83
3. Status of authorized bond issue.......................................... 84
;i4. Canal and auxiliary works, fiscal year 1921............................. 85
'5. Canal and auxiliary works, total to June 30, 1921......................... 86
6. Detail of assets received from the Canal Zone Government................ 88
7. Detail of property received from the United States Army at Las Cascadas. 88
8. Detail of Panama Railroad equipment and property operated by Panama
Canal ................. ..... ........................-- ... 88
9. Detail of Panama Canal equipment operated by the Panama Railroad.... 88
10. Detail of assets transferred to other departments of the United States Gov-
ernment ..................................................................--------------...----------- 88
11. Detail of equipment........--........................ .....------------- --..-------- 88
12. Detail of material and supplies...................................... - - - 88
13. Detail of reserves for gratuity, depreciation, and repairs................. 88
14. Detail of work in progress.......... ..................................------- - -- 88
I&. Statement of overhead expenses ............ ......................- .. - - - 89
: 16. Panama Canal operation and maintenance to June 30, 1921.................. 91
17. Statement of profit and loss on business operations for fiscal year 1921-...... 92
18: Detail of miscellaneous receipts, United States funds................... 93
19. Comparison of expenses and revenues directly applicable to transiting
vessels.................... ..............................- --------------------- 94
20. Detailed cost power producing and transmitting system, fiscal year 1921
and to June 30, 1921.......................................... .... 95
21. Detail of cost of production and distribution of electric current for fiscal
years 1920 and 1921 ....... .. .................. .........--... ........ 96
22. Detailed cost of production of water per 1,000 gallons..................... 96
23. Cost of housing employees, fiscal years 1920 and 1921 .................... 97
24. Dredging excavation fiscal year 1921, construction..................... 97
25. Dredging excavation fiscal year 1921, maintenance....................- - 99
26. Statement of Chagres River sand and gravel production, issues, and sales.. 101
;27. Receipts, issues and transfers of stores and purchases charged to divisions
during fiscal year 1921....... .................................---.---- ---- 101
28. Comparative statement of store balance, July 1, 1920, and July 1, 1921.... 101






TABLE Of CONTENTS.


Table
No. Page.
29. Statement of appropriation receipts and disbursements for fiscal year 1921.. 102
30. Payments made by fiscal officers (paymaster and collector), fiscal year 1921.. 1046
31. Detail of collections and disbursements for fiscal year 1921............ ..- :
32. Statement of audited pay rolls on Isthmus, fiscal year 1921............. '104
33. Statement of accounts receivable registered during fiscal year 1921........' 1
34. Statement of collections repaid to appropriations and to individuals aridd
companies, and collections deposited to miscellaneous receipts, fiscal
year 1921............................................................ 106
35. Statement of transactions in the collector's special deposit account,: fiscal
year 1921 .......................................................... 108
36. Balances of miscellaneous trust funds on deposit with collector, June 30,
1921 ..................................... 106
37. Statement of money orders issued and paid by Canal Zone, and Canal Zone
orders paid by other administrations, fiscal years 1907 to 1921, inclusive.. 106
38. Statement showing monthly money order business of Canal Zone Postal
Service....... ................................................. 106 .
39. Statement of audited revenues, postal service, fiscal years 1907 to 1921,
inclusive........... ..................................... 108
40. Statement of postal revenues, fiscal year 1921......................... 106
41. Statement of postal savings and deposit money-order transactions, fiscal
year 1921............................ ..................... 106
42. Statement of income, bureau of clubs and playgrounds, fiscal year 1921... 106
43. Statement of expenses, bureau of clubs and playgrounds, fiscal year 1921.. 106
44. Summary of income and expenses, bureau of clubs and playgrounds, fiscal
year 1921 .................................... 106
45. Balance sheet, bureau of clubs and playgrounds, June 30, 1921........... 106
46. Memorandum showing coupon books issued on pay roll deduction, sold for
cash, honored at commissaries, hotels, messes; coupons honored, cash
sales to steamships, and refund notes accepted at commissaries, fiscal
year 1921............................................... 107
47. Set of seven tables pertaining to injuries and deaths, injury compensa-
tion, etc...................................... ..................... 107
48. Statement. of operations with Panama Railroad funds, with statements of
commissary operations for fiscal year 1921............................. 107
49. Summary of commercial traffic, 1915-1921............................ 109
50. Commercial vessels by nationality, 1915-1921........................... 110
51. Commercial cargo, origin and destination, Pacific to Atlantic, fiscal year
1921.... ... ... ........... .............................. 112
52. Commercial cargo, origin and destination, Atlantic to Pacific, fiscal year
1921.. ...................... .......................... ............ 113
53-A-B-C. Commercial vessels by nationality, number, tonnage, cargo, 1915-
1921.......... .................................. 114-115
5-. Commercial vessels by nationality, tolls, 1915-1921..................... 115





















APPENDIXES NOT PRINTED.

REPORTS OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS &ND DivisIONs.
Reports for the fiscal year 1921 have been made as follows, and may be consulted
at the Washington office of The Panama Canal, or at the office of the Governor, Balboa
Heights, Canal Zone:
Engineer of maintenance:
Pacific locks, report of superintendent.
Atlantic locks, report of superintendent.
Electrical division, report of electrical engineer.
Municipal division, report of resident engineer.
Dredging division, report of superintendent.
Office engineer.
Meteorology and hydrography, report of chief hydrographer.
Surveys, report of assistant engineer.
Gatun dam, report of general foreman.
Marine division, report of superintendent.
Mechanical division, report of superintendent.
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Executive department, report of executive secretary.
Accounting department, report of the auditor.
Health department, report of the chief health officer.
Purchasing department, report of the general purchasing officer and chief of
Washington office.










S.e1 .' 4NN AL REPORT
fir; I i''' OF TtE








Washington.
S& : Herewith is the report of the Governor of The Panaia Canal
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1921.
INTRODUCTION.
Heretofore the report has consisted of detailed reports by heads of
departments and divisions, preceded by a summary made by the
Governor. This year the detailed reports are placed on file (two copies
of each at .the Washington office of The Panama Canal, and two at
Balboa Heights) where they will be available for public use, and only
the summary by the Governor is submitted for printing. Anyone
who wishes more elaborate information than is contained herein is
requested to, write to The Panama Canal, Washington, D. C., or
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.
In the new form of report, instead of considering the work by the
departments and divisions that have done it, the organization units
are disregarded and the division is made by classes of work. A
summary of the work of the Panama Railroad Co. is also included in
this report, which has not been done heretofore. The two organiza-
tinh-ceanal and railroad-are so interdependent that a complete
summary must include both.
:Broadly speaking, the Governor; who is also president of the
Panama Railroad Co., is charged with carrying on the following work:
1. Cbnal operation.-All work that involves putting ships through
the canal, and .maintenance of the waterway.
2. Busiess enterprises.-Work of providing fuel, provisions, chan-
dlery, and repairs to vessels; food and clothing to the working force;
handling of cargo, and like business operations; and operation of the
steamship line 'and the Panama Railroad; in fact, all work that in the
United ,States is commonly carried on by private enterprise.
i'i d 1





2 THE PANAMA CANAL.

3. Government.-Functions that correspond in measure to manj of
those of National, State, and municipal Governments in the United
States, such as diplomatic relations, posts, customs; police functions
in the broad sense of the word; education, health, water supply, and
like public services commonly assumed 9'y'"iunicipalities.
The administration of this work is discussed in Section IV, and
Section V contains financial and statistical statements.
I F i
MONEY TURNOVER IN 1921:
In terms of money, The Panama Canal had gross revenues of more
than twenty-seven million dollars; increased investment in capital
additions, stock, etc., of eight millions; gross operating expenses of
twenty-four and one-half millions. The excess of revenues over
operating expenses was two and three-fourths million dollars.: ,p
interest on capital cost of the canal is included in this.
The Panama Railroad Company in its operations on the astfuins
had a gross revenue of approximately twenty-two millions; ,ina4eQse
in investments in capital additions, stock, etc., of one and one-half
millions; gross operating expenses of twenty-two millions.
The Panama Railroad Steamship Line had gross revenues of
$5,156,446.84; increase in capital investments, 3417,005.67; oper-
ating expenses, $5,857,257.06.
The money turnover of the joint business of the Panama 1Rilroad
Company's operations on the Isthmus and the Panama Railroad
Steamship Line was, therefore, approximately $27,100,000 gross
revenue; $2,000,000 increase in capital investments; and $27,800,000
in operating expenses.
The money turnover of the joint business of The Panama Canal
and all operations of the Panama Railroad Company, including its
steamship line, was, therefore, approximately $54,000,000 gross
revenue; $10,000,000 increase in capital investments; and $52,000,000
in operating expenses.
IN TERMS OF SERVICE.
In terms of service, the following are the main items of work
accomplished:
Transit of the canal by ships paying tolls................. number.. 2,892
Transit by United States Government ships, free..............do.... .426
Calls at canal ports by ships not transiting canal.................. do.... 842
Cargo handled at ports..........................................tons.. 1,109,726
Coal delivered.............................. ....... ......-- do.... 468,815
Coal, number of ships served other than Panama Canal................. 1, 845
Fuel oil pumped......................................... -barrels.. 4, 565;784
Fuel oil, number of ships served other than Panama Canal.............. ,175
Ships repaired, other than Panama Canal equipment........ number.. 671
Ships dry-docked, other than Panama Canal equipment......... do.... 104
Provisions sold to ships........................................value.. $949,380.20
Chandlery sold to ships................ .......................do.... $290,466.82











SECTION I.

S A2CANAL -OPERATION AND TRADE VIA PANAMA.

The policy of expediting the passage of ships through the canal
was continued under the plan that if a vessel arrives at either entrance
at an hour which will permit her dispatch through the last lock
before dark, there is no obstacle to a continuous passage. If she
needs fuel, supplies, or repairs, these are furnished with least possible
loss of time. The system operates on the principle of causing as
little delay as practicable to ships. It is believed this policy should
-*continued, if not indefinitely at least until the present uncertainty
in shipping business is ended and until the Panama route has so
solidly established itself in trade that a slight let down will not be
likely to throw trade from this to a competitive route.
Almost one-third of the total tonnage handled in 1921 was so
strongly competitive that prompt and complete service may have
been the determining factor in the choice of the Panama route.
The fact that much of the trade is competitive seems to be so little
understood that the experience of the year just closed is worth
recounting in this respect. Figures referred to in the following will
be found in the section on traffic by "Leading trade routes."

THE CANAL IN COMPETITION WITH OTHER WATER ROUTES.

In many of the trades served by The Panama Canal, the saving of
distance, and hence of time, by the use of the canal is so great that
shipping could hardly afford to use any other route, assuming that
even reasonable efficiency and fair charges prevail at the canal.
Such trades, conspicuously, are the coast-to-coast trade of the
United States; the traffic between the west coast of North and Central
America and the Atlantic coast of North and South America, Europe
and Africa as far as 20 degrees south latitude; and the trade of the
Atlantic coast of North America and Europe with the west coast of
South America, excepting the lower part of the coast of Chile.
There are other trades, however, in which routing through The
Panama Canal may or may not be an advantage. Such, naturally,
are those in which the saving of distance as between this and an alter-
Snative route is not great, while other conditions, such as trade con-
Sne:tions along the route, fueling costs, currents, and weather condi-
tidns, national interests, etc., may form the deciding factors when the
3




4 THE PANAMA CANAL.

operator chooses his routing. The two great trades in whi AN%#
Panama Canal is in distinct competition with other water.:.
are those between Europe and Australia and New Zealand,
tween the Atlantic coast of the United States and the Far Eas%1 -
cipally that area lying between-Singapore and Japan.
A ship from the United Kingdom with cargo for both Austrai itind
New Zealand might go through Suez, or around thebOape of Good
Hope, or through The Panama Canal without gaining a very great
advantage in distance and time through the choice; aid fot the bine-
ward journey would have, in addition, a-choice of the comurdS toiiegh
the Strait of Magellan and up the Atlantic coast of South Amerida.
If the vessel went out through one canal and returned through'the
other it would serve the area with the least possible traverlb'hut it
that it would save only about 1,400 miles over a course going out
by way of the Cape of Good Hope and returning through'thie'Strit
of Magellan. By not using either canal it would avoid pafig
approximately $1.25 per net ton in tolls on each leg of the ii6yage.
(Tolls for cargo vessels at Suez are substantially the same as at
Panama.) The greater distance of 1,400 miles by the cape and. strait
route would mean about five additional days at sea for a 12-knot
vessel. Such saving of itself alone would not compensate for the
canal tolls. The deciding factors would be fueling costs and the
possibilities of additional traffic to be handled along the way.
Normally the Panama route has an advantage in coal costs. 'Until
March of 1921 the prices at Panama were appreciably lower than at
competing coaling stations. Since then the comparison has been:

Year. Panama. Buenos Gib- Port Cape-
Aires. raltar. Said. town.
Apr. 1, 1921.......................................... 112.00 18.00 '510.80 2516.12 sa 11.02
uly 1, 1921.................................... 114.00 18.00 13.68 15.12 '10.03
1 Trimmed in bunkers. s Alongside.
All quotations except Panama on basis of 18 cents to a shilling.
Norfolk, at which vessels may call en route between Europ9 iad
Panama, is one of the cheapest coaling ports in the world. .
The distance between bunkering stations is, of course, a further
factor. Coal costs along the east coast of South America are heavy,
but there is additional trade to be had there, especially in passenger
traffic; in the future, the development of oil fields of Patagoniaw py
insure cheap fuel in that area. The increasing use of oil fuel in st-am-
ships and of motorships will reduce the inequalities in bunkering, 9pps
over the world, besides making it possible for many ships, to builser
at a cheap station for the round voyage. Lloyd's Register for 1p921
shows only 20.6 per cent of ocean-going vessels using oil fuel, but of




C;w


REPORMS OF 'THE GOVERNOR.


!*
\
I


4,160 transits of the canal or calls by ships et Panama Canal ports in
S1921. oil was supplied in 1,175 instances. This indicates a larger
portion of oil-burning ships to the total in the canal trade than is
shown by joyd s for the total of world shipping. I
In the trade between the Atlantic coast of the United States and
tn iFar East the competition is practically .restricted to the choice
between Suez and Panama. Manila is equidistant from New York
by ith'er route, and Hongkong is practically so. The Chinese, Japa-
nees arid Siberian ports are nearer by Panama; to the remainder of
the L.ar East, exclusive of the Philippines, New Guinea, and other
iqlwa4siwest of Celebes, the Suez route is varyingly shorter.
teamersers loading in the United States with full cargoes for the Far
East normally proceed to their destination by the shorter route. The
retiiin voyage is governed by cargo offerings. A steamer out from
$ 4ew York via The Panama Canal for Yokohama might have to con-
iue. to Singapore or Batavia for a cargo which is offered for Europe
or te United States; and in such case the return would be by way
of Suez. This appears to be the actual drift of the trade, as shown
by the statistics of 1920 and 1921. Twice as many vessels go out
frym the United States to the Far East by The Panama Canal as
return by this route.
'Before the World War it. was customary to figure roughly that the
cost of operating a steamer over the average route was equivalent to
10 cents per net ton a day, including capitalization, insurance, etc.
On the same basis, it would probably be equally accurate to use 20
cents per net ton as the average daily operating cost at present.
With this assumption, the canal tolls of $1.25 per net ton, United
States equivalent measurement, on laden vessels, would equal the
cost of six and one-fourth days at sea. In other words, with other
factors equal, a ship would have to save about six days and six hours
on a voyage to offset the canal tolls. For a ship in ballast, with tolls
at 75 cents a net ton, three and three-fourths days' saving would pay
for the tolls. This is a rough-hewn calculation at best, and only in-
diatijve, as the actual cost of operation varies with each ship and
routing,
Srompt and cheap handling of ships at the canal, in transiting,
fueling, provisioning, etc., is an attraction to traffic from alternative
routes. Such service would seem to be warranted purely as a means
of. increasing the. revenue of the canal; while, on the other hand, dq-
IsU and losses to shipping as the result of less than efficient handling,
aWe inescapably a burden on commerce and consumption,.whaich should
not be imposed.
*1 11 .
v e*'il "''' i * 'IA: .:**'*





THE PANAMA CANAL.


I;


THE CANAL AND THE RAILROADS. 4. fI
A different type of competition, not with alternative water roites
but with transportation overland, results from the use of the canbMal
vessels plying between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of &orth
America, primarily of the United States, and thus competing. with
the transcontinental railroads.
Vessels in this trade use the canal inevitably, and could pay higher
charges.for its use and still continue in the trade. The competition
is between them and the railroads, on a basis of rates and promptness
of dispatch, with the canal, administratively, simply an interested
bystander. At present every increase in coastwise shipping through
the canal increases its revenues. If legislation now being considered
is made law and coastwise vessels are passed through without pay-
ment of tolls, the canal's revenues will drop. In either case the use
of the canal in facilitating transportation between the two sea-
boards and reducing its cost will be an important economic factor in
the industrial and commercial life of the nation.
Observation of rates published in 1921 has indicated that as be-
tween seaports on the two coasts the vessels can handle goods at about
half the cost of rail transportation, and generally in less time. On
either seaboard there is an area extending inward, over which the rail
and water costs approach equality. In actual practice the situation
is complicated by the arbitrary establishment of rail rates intended
to counteract the competition of water transportation.
The situation is referred to as competition," which it is in its
present state. In time, however, there will probably be a status of
cooperation, in which vessels and railroads will work together in the
most economical transportation of goods, the service of the one sup-
plementing that of the other. Such an arrangement is foreshadowed
in the joint handling of cargoes by the coastwise lines and a few river
steamship lines now in effect.
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT VESSELS FREE.
Vessels of the United States Government, engaged on purely Gov-
ernment business, do not pay tolls. In the tonnage figures here
shown, Panama Canal net tonnage is given on colliers, tankers, trans-'
ports, cargo, and supply ships, etc., and displacement tonnage on
battleships, cruisers, destroyers, mine layers, etc., on which measure-
ment is in displacement rather than net tonnage. There has been no
duplication in tonnage figures. In computing the amount of tolls
these vessels would have paid if commercial rates had been assessed,
the following method was used:
Panama Canal net tonnage, laden, $1.20 per ton, providing this
did not exceed the amount obtained by -multiplying the United States
equivalent tonnage by $1.25.


I


I






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


S'tPanama Canal net toinage, ballast, 72 cents, providing this did not
fall below the amount obtained by multiplying the United States
equivalent tonnage by $0.75.
Displacement tonnage, 50 cents per ton.
A summary of this traffic for the fiscal year 1921 is as follows:


Item. Atlantic to Pacific to Total.
SPacific. Atlantic.

Nmbe o vessels............................................. 274 152 426
Panama Canal net tonnage.................................329,381 138,122 467,503
Displacement tonnage........................................ 464,904 433,759 898,663
af.ried, tons............................................ 443,033 10 736 453,769
To Collectible at commercial rates........................... $588,886.49 $336,01 480 8924,901.29

RAPID GROWTH OF COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC.

The term "commercial traffic" includes all vessels subject to tolls,
and the only ships not subject to tolls are public vessels of the United
States and Panaman Governments.
.During the fiscal year 1921 a total of 2,892 commercial vessels
made the transit of the canal. Their aggregate net tonnage, measured
according to Panama Canal rules, was 11,415,876, and they carried
11,599,214 tons of cargo. As compared with the fiscal year 1920
this was an increase of 16.7 per cent in the number of ships, an increase
of 33.5 per cent in net tonnage, and an increase of 23.7 per cent in
cargo. As compared with the fiscal year 1919 the increase in the
number of ships was 42.6 per cent, in net tonnage 85.7 per cent, and
in cargo 67 per cent. A statement of the traffic, 1915-1921, follows:

Panama Tonsof Panama Tons of
Fiscal year. Ships. Canal net cargo. Fiscal year. Ships. Canal net cargo.
tonnage. cargo. tonnage. cargo.

19151............. 1,072 3,772,167 4,926, 145 1919. ........ 2,028 6,145,094 6,946,540
1916............. 760 2,38,284 3,063, 371 1920............ 2,478 8,66,044 9,374,499
1917.............. 1,806 5,817,607 7,083,045 1921............. 2,892 11,415,876 11,599,214
1918.............. 2,068 6,584,073 7,533,031

The canal was opened to commercial traffic Aug. 15, 1914.
The canal was closed to traffic from Sept. 18, 1915, to Apr. 15, 1916.

TRAFFIC FLUCTUATIONS IN 1921.

Traffic increased consistently during the first nine months of the
*fiscal: year 1921. New monthly records either for the number of
ships, net tonnage, or cargo were established in August, 1920, Septem-
ber, 1920, January, 1921, and March, 1921. In April the canal
began to experience the effects of the general slump in shipping.
In May this was still more marked, and June, the final month of the





8" E *H B/BASTMiA CANALS I

year; showed the Joasth business 6f My. !The ma dnthlry atias
follow: *. i utd J Jlt


Month. ff s 3& Tb a
o .sh ips. 4quivs-pt. 7 I

1920.
July.................................. 225 705,643 856,798 (842,312.05 S6814
August.............................. 266 782,415 951,345 936 209.44 1, 70
September.............'................. 256 832,742 1,008,785 1,010,18063 1,0 L5T5
October................................. 238 762 013 935,57 911,825.58 991,
November .............................. 238 76817 929 875 933912.11 9,10
Debmber ............................... 265 832,407 1,07918 1,007,84a. 1,
1991. I::4fttJ *
Janubty................................. 279 894,680 1,094,323 1,05 8% 46 I? fWlB
February................................ 241 763, 925 916;838 091 41WOW
March................................... 255 924,309 -1,112,818 1,105 536.55 1,084 5
April.................................. 227 771,116 955 53 927,977.09 907 613
ay........................... 210 694,896 86617 864617 35,882.77 79273
June............... ................. 192 61894 76,477 751,964.12 694,720
Total.............................. 2,892 9,343,866 11,415,876 11,276,880.61 11,699,214

SHMPS OF VARIOUS NATIONS IN COANAL' TBAPFICJi 'P 10;!V-

Vessels of the United States had a larger shard thri of
other nation in canal traffic, and vessels of' the BritihshIin e fol-
lowed. Japanese and Norwegian .ships held third and foutbli j$i1& ,
respectively. In cargo tons, American vessels carried approxni4y
45 per cent of the total; British vessels, 32 per cent; Japaneis vedsseI
7 per cent; and Norwegian vessels, a little less than 6 perc'eh.L "' th
vessels of these four countries carried, between them, 89 pe'rd ezt of
all the cargo that passed through the canal. Of the iatinalinies
which shared the remaining 11 per cent, the most imp6rtaiinf'6W6i'
Denmark, Holland, Spain, Sweden, France, and Peru in the rder
named. A series of articles analyzing the trade by flags has been
published in The Panama Canal Record since the close of the Oiscal
year. The complete figures appear in the table below:

Number United States Panama Tron '
of ships. equivalent Canal net Tolls. cargo
of ships. tonnage. tonnage. argo.

British............................... 972 3,241,13 3,974809 3,o989,281.8 .,%738,257
Belgian............................... 2 6,309 8,092 7,86& .. 1,
Brazilian............................. 1 3,511 4,566 4,388.75 6,700
Chilean............................... 63 104,727 159,727 147,023.75 61,737
Chinese................................ 4 10,564 12,008 13,187.10 14400
Costa Rican........................... 16 2,606 2,784 2,952.78 112
Cuban................................. 1 578 702 722.50 12'
Danish...............................60 197 504 236,512 241, 411. ,,
Dutch............................... 50 1851 248 861 5229,4&M ''S
Finnish................................... 4,93 4,281 51 .
French............................... 143,113 15588 57
German..................5............ 11,561 7,334 6 95
Italian................................. 2 82,610 i-0B,T8 I as.fo
apane........ ................ 61245 655
Jgo......................... 902 '458 ,W
Mecan..... ...........4 4,133 ,032 35
Norwegian................ 140 462890 548 22t
Psasan.aa........................... 8 1,382 15370., 163. a
Peravian............................. 60 8678 15493 I(W-I.' I6ln
Russian............................... 4 9,725 11,279 12,156.25 1,843
Sp sh.............................. 44 10141 113,661400 113,3354.41 919
Swnedish............................... 25 74,66514 11,661 318,31.2 5 919
United Stats........................ 1,210 4,026,961 4,861,761 4,784,577.35 5,i3OB5
Total............................ 2,892 9, 343,866 11,415,876 11,276,888.91 11, 899, 214


-2,





REPORT OF: THE GOVERNOR.


C d LEADING TRADE ROUTES,

The most important trade served by the canal, rated on the basis
obtf'btgo tonnage, was that. between the east coast of the United
States and the west coast of South America. More than 900,000
tons of cargo moved in each direction in this trade. The total of
1,908,858 tons was 16.46 per cent of all the cargo passing through
the canal.
The tonnage of cargo handled between the east coast of the United
States and the Far East was nearly as great, in the aggregate 1,641,950
tons, or 14.15 per cent of the total. In this trade there was a great
preponderance of westbound vessels and cargo over eastbound. The
vessels going out to the Orient numbered 187 and those returning
only 74. Apparently vessels that go out to the Far East through
The Panama Canal commonly return via Suez. From points beyond
Manila and Hongkong the Suez route is shorter, and the area beyond
the geographical dividing line contains many ports of call which
offer cargo to Europe and to the United States.
In the United States coastwise trade 1,641,950 tons of cargo were
handled, which represents 11.83 per cent of the total traffic.
The trade between the west coast of the United States and Europe
accounted for 1,165,145 tons, and the eastbound vessels and cargo
were approximately double the westbound. The cargo handled in
this trade was 11.21 per cent of the total.
Particulars of other important trades will be found in the table
below. It will be noted that in several of them there is a marked.
preponderance of traffic in one direction. For instance, in the trade
between Europe and the west coast of South America 178 vessels
passed from Pacific to Atlantic and only 136 from Atlantic to Pacific.
This is accounted for in large part by outward passages via Magellan,
although a few vessels reach the west coast from other points in the
Pacific, and then load for Europe via Panama. In the trade between
Europe and Australia some vessels go out by way of the Cape of
Good Hope and return by Panama. In the trade between the east
coast of the United States and Australia some ships which go out
by Panama return either by the Cape of Good Hope or Suez. The
vessels sailing from the east coast of Mexico to Pacific ports north
and south of the canal are oil tankers, which return in ballast.
68844-21-2






THE PANAMA CANAL. :


Commercial traffic through The Panama Canal during the fiscal year 1921, caatfid by
leading trade routes.


Between east coast of United States and west coast of South
America:
Atlantic to Pacific.....................................
Pacific to Atlantic.....................................
Total ..............................................
Between east coast of United States and Far East:
Atlantic to Pacific...................................
Pacific to Atlantic.....................................
Total.....................................
United States coastwise:
Atlantic to Pacific...................................
Pacific to Atlantic...................................
Total.....................................
Between west soast of United States and Europe:
Atlantic to Pacific..................................
Pacific to Atlantic...........................
Total...............................................
Between west coast of South America and Europe:
Atlantic to Pacific..................................
Pacific to Atlantic.....................................
Total .................. ................ ..........
Between Australasia and Europe:
Atlantic to Pacific...................................
Pacific to Atlantic...................................
Total.........................................
Between east coast of United States and Australasia:
Atlantic to Pacific...................................
Pacific to Atlantic...................................
Total....................................
Between east coast of Mexico and west coast of South
America:
Atlantic to Pacific ...................................
Pacific to Atlantic....................................
Total...........................................
Between east coast of Mexico and west coast of United
States:
Atlantic to Pacific....................................
Pacific to Atlantic.. .................................
Total..................................
Between Cristobal, Canal Zone, and west coast of South
America:
Atlantic to Pacific. ..................................
Pacific to Atlantic...................................
Total.........................................
Miscellaneous trade routes and sailings:
Atlantic to Pacific...................................
Pacific to Atlantic....................................
Total ....................................
Battle ships, cruisers etc.:
Atlantic to Pacific.....................................
Pacific to Atlantic....................................
Total.....................................
Grand total:
Atlantic to Pacific.....................................
Pacific to Atlantic...................................
Total................................ .........


Num-
her or
ships.


Panama
Canal net
tonnage.


Tons of
cargo.


I-1-I I I-


837,254
778,968


983,261
9745597


ea .,



8.05
&41


492 1,616,122 1, 08,858 16.46

187 915,720 1,213,908 110.46
74 351,904 428,014 3.69
261 1,267,624 1,641,950 14.15

177 783,420 698,429 6.02
145 647,557 673, 59 5.81
322 1, 430,977 1,372,388 11.83

80 383,028 144,591 1.25
158 782,117 1,154,840 9.06
238 1,165,145 1,299,431 11.21

136 533,323 297,166 2.56
178 743,148 92,499 7.95
314 1,276,471 1,219,665 10.51

72 489,763 391, 848 338
100 701,530 579,745 5.00
172 1,191,293 971,593 &38

90 476,951 620,428 5.35
27 156,283 147,877 1.28
117 633.137 768,305 6.63


77 3S3, 466 654,659 5.64
79 400. 155 230 ............
156 7-1,921 654,889 5.64


27 143,016 261,205 2.25
40 201,977 8,155 .07
67 348,023 2.,9,330 2.32


151 228. 108 85.190 .74
155 237,486 139,547 1.20
306 465, 59 224,737 1.94

207 566,920 591,395 .10
224 670,649 676,643 5.83
431 1,237,569 1,268,038 10.93

14 (1) ............ ............
2 (1) ............ ............
16 (') ............ ............


1,471
1,421
2,892


5,740,902
5,674,974
11,415,876


5,892,078
5,707,1836
11,599,204


50.80
49.20
100.00


;; Ii


;<


4


I Panama Canal net tonnage unavailable; displacement tonnage of 87,473.
' Panama Canal net tonnage unavailable; displacement tonnage of 36,888.
' Total displacement tonnage of 124,361.


,'1


--





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


:i ;PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES.
'The principal commodities shipped through the canal during the
fiscal year 1921' were:
FROM ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC. FROM PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC.
Tons. Tons.
Crude oil................... 1,182,905 Nitrate..................... 1,530,592
Coal and coke............... 767,876 Wheat .................... 697,168
Steel and iron............... 518, 269 Food products in cold storage. 408,364
Refined oil................... 454, 837 Lumber..................... 356,024
Sugar-....................... 223,315
i Flour.......------------------................. 221,027
Chilean nitrate furnished the heaviest tonnage of any one com-
modity. In the latter part of the year, owing to the accumulation
of.unsalable stocks in Europe and the competition of artificial ferti-
lizers, the bottom dropped out of the nitrate market, and shipments
were reduced to less than one-third of the usual monthly average.
The wheat shipments from the Pacific coast included a cargo of
Canadian wheat from Vancouver to London. The wheat of the
prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta usually
reaches tidewater for export via the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence
River. This cargo is said to have been the first shipment via Van-
couver, the Pacific, and Panama; but it is probable that an important
fraction of the Canadian crop will be handled in future over this
route.
UNITED STATES COASTWISE TRADE.

It is difficult to determine exactly the volume of the United States
coastwise trade through The Panama Canal. Many of the vessels
engaging in this trade also call at one or more foreign ports, for
example, at Havana and Kingston on the Atlantic side and at Central
American and Mexican ports on the west coast. Freight steamers
trading between the Atlantic coast and the Orient commonly make
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, or Seattle a port of call.
Steamers trading from the Atlantic to the Pacific ports of the United
States call also at the foreign port of Vancouver. In other words,
the domestic trade through the canal is so inextricably bound up
with closely related foreign trade that statistical segregation is
almost impossible. As nearly as can be determined from data sub-
ject to many possibilities of error the coastwise trade during the
fiscal year 1921 was as follows:

S Panama Percent-
Direction. Ships. Canal net Cargo tons. age o
tonnage. oa,
_cargo.
A latto-Paic............................................ 177 783,420 698,429 6.02
?adflle-Atlantie............................................ 145 647,557 673,959 5.81
Total................................................ 322 1,430,977 1,372,388 11.83





12 TE PANAMA CANALI; *

The total number of vessels engaged in the coastwise tiu"d ini
previous fiscal years was: 1915, 335; 1916, 93; 1917,,35;,A.ly-8l;
1919, 212; 1920, 248. The coastwise traffic was heaviest 41J A ,
the first year the canal was open to navigation. The 335 vessels of
that year had an aggregate net tonnage of 1,305,291, and carried
1,846,658 tons of cargo. The war resulted in the withdrawal ;pf
nearly all vessels from the coastwise trade to war trades in the North
Atlantic. Since the armistice the coastwise trade has gradually
recovered. However, the figures for 1919 and 1920 are misleading,
since. they include a large number of wooden and steel steamers
built on the west coast, which took one cargo through the canal to
the Atlantic coast when they left the shipyards, but never rettirned
to the Pacific. If this fortuitous one-way traffic were disregaihdedd,
the totals for 1919 and 1920 would be greatly reduced, and 'the
increase in 1921 would appear more conspicuous.
In any event, there has been a notable increase in the coastwise
business during the past fiscal year. New services have been, estab-
lished, and lines already in the trade have increased the niiimber of
their sailings. An increasing volume of cargo is offering. For extam-
pie, lumber shipments from the Pacific northwest to the Atlantic 4
coast during the first quarter of the calendar year 1921 were 42,495,579
feet, as compared with 1,202,229 feet during the same period of the
preceding year. California oranges and Washington apples have
been shipped successfully through the canal to eastern markets, and
the growers' associations have entered into contracts with steamship
companies which will result in the diversion of heavy tonnage of
fruit shipments from the rail to the water route. Shipments from
Atlantic to Pacific have increased in like manner. The competition
of the coast-to-coast steamship lines has been felt by the transcon-
tinental railroads, which are reducing freight rates in an effort to
hold business. Rapid as the development of the past year hasabeen,
it represents a deferred growth. The coastwise trade of 1921 is still .
below that of 1915, and presumably far short of what it would have
been had its normal expansion not been checked by the war.

EFFECT ON REVENUE OF EXEMPTING VESSELS IN THE UNITED STATES
COASTWISE TRADE FROM THE PAYMENT OF TOLLS.
The effect on canal revenues of the exemption of American vessels
engaged in the coastwise trade of the United States from the pay-
ment of tolls would depend on the definition of coastwise trades in
the act of exemption. If only those vessels were exempted which
traded from one American port to another without calling at any
foreign port to load or discharge cargo, the loss of revenue would be
less than if the exemption extended to vessels trading from ofit to



*b -. *





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 13

coast,9 but calling at intermediate foreign ports or proceeding to a
foreign port. after first calling at an American port. Serious admin-
istrative difficulties would arise in determining the right of exemption
unless the meaning of the term coastwisee" were clearly defined in
the act. The maximum loss of revenue on the basis of the business
.f the fiscal year 1921 would be approximately 12.5 per cent of the
total receipts from tolls. Data of this trade were furnished to Con-
gress during the year for consideration in connection with legislation
looking to the exemption of coastwise vessels from payment of
tolls.

LIOS OF' REVENUE BY CONTINUING DOUBLE STANDARD OF COLLECTING
TOLLS.

'he request made in previous years, that legislation be effected
which will make the Panama Canal rules of measurement the sole
Csi8s for assessing tolls, was reiterated during the past fiscal year.
the present system is to assess tolls, on the basis of $1.20 a net ton
according to Panama Canal measurement, unless this would result in
a rate of more than $1.25 a net ton according to United States rules of
measurement. Under this dual system tolls collected amounted to
$1.1,276,889.61; which is $1,937,029.04 less than would have been
collected if Panama Canal rules only were used. Speedy enactment
of a law establishing the single standard is urged.

MOTOR SHIPS.

The number of motor ships using the canal is gradually increasing.
During the first six months of the fiscal year 61 were reported, with an
aggregate net tonnage of 125,909, and during the second half of the
year 74, with an aggregate net tonnage of 202,298. These figures
include 36 transits made by a small vessel of 69 net tons trading from
Cristobal to Buenaventura in Colombia. Exclusive of this local
coastwise traffic, 99 motorships passed through the canal during the
year.* The majority of them were under the Danish, Swedish, and
Norwegian flags.
DETAILS OF THE TRADE.

Further details of the trade through the canal will be found in the
following tables in Section V of this report:
; Table 49. Summary of Commercial Traffic, 1915-1921.
Table 50. Commercial Traffic by Nationality, 1915-1921.
Tables 53-A, B, and C. Commercial Traffic by Nationality, Ton-
i ge, and Cargo, 1915-1921.
Table 54. By nationality, ships, tonnage, tolls, and cargo, 1915-
S1921.
Tables 51 and 52. Origin and Destination of Cargo, 1921.





14 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Analyses of various features of the trade are printed from time to
time in The Panama Canal Record, published weekly at the Canal
Zone.
LOCKAGES.
It is at the locks that the test comes of the capacity of the canal to.
handle ships. At no time, as yet, has this capacity been seriously
tried (see paragraphs on Water Supply), but during the fiscal year
there were several days when such conditions were simulated.
On January 19 and 20, 1921, the Atlantic Fleet of the United
States Navy made the transit. The first of the ships, a destroyer,
entered the canal at 6.18 a. m. on the 19th and the battleship Okla-
itoma., last of the ships for the 19th, entered at 5.20 p. m. Thirteen
naval vessels completed the transit that day, and six, which were
the battleships, remained in Gatun Lake overnight. On the 20th,
at 7.25 p. m., the last of the fleet completed the transit. In those
two days a total of 32 naval vessels and 9 commercial vessels made
the complete transit from Atlantic to Pacific, and 2 commercial
vessels from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The crux of the situation
was at Gatun locks, which made 18 lockages in 14 hours 50 minutes
on January 19, handling 20 naval vessels, 8 commercial ships, 1
commercial launch, and 1 tug. Among the naval vessels were the
battleships Arizona and Pennsylvania, with a beam of 97 feet, only
13 feet less than the usable width of the locks.
On the return north of the Atlantic Fleet, February 23, the crux
was again at Gatun locks, where the west chamber had been
unwatered while repairs were being made. Working one chamber
only, 17 lockages were made in 20 hours, with a waiting interval of
2 hours and 20 minutes, or actual operating time of 17 hours 40
minutes. During this time 24 naval vessels and 4 commercial ships
passed through the locks.
On her return from Australia the British battle cruiser Renown,
bearing the Prince of Wales, passed through the canal on September
13, 1920. This is the longest vessel that has made the tramnitr-
dimensions, 795 feet by 31 feet draught in salt water.
The U. S. battleship Tennessee made the transit on June 8, 1921,
entering the Atlantic entrance of the canal at 8 a. m. and passing
out the Pacific entrance at 5.55 p. m. This is the ship of greatest
beam that passed through the canal in the fiscal year-dimensions,
624 feet by 97 feet 34 inches by 34 feet draught in salt water. 'The
battleships Mississippi and New Mexico are 1 inch greater in' beam
than the Tennessee, but their transit was made in the previous year.
A statement of the lockages and vessels handled each month of 'he
fiscal year follows:
*. I j i; i:






REPORT OF .THE GOVERNOR.


Month.


Gatun. Pedro Miguel.


Lock-
ages.


i. 1920.
J ly................................. 235
A g t ............................... 268
epmber...........................I 257
Octber............................... 250
November........................... 246
Deoanber.......................... 278
f 1921.
January.............................. 313
February............................ 258
March................................! 250
AprilT............................... 229
May................................. 206
June:................................. 205
Total.......................... 2,995
.s .


Ves-
sels.


285
335
296
296
292
320

392
371
321
283
262
256
3,709


------~------I


Lock-
ages.


253
292
283
263
266
265

334
325
296
271
238
230
3,316


Mirafores.


----[---;-- I~----


Lock-
ages.


248
294
278
266
266
2909

328
308
282
260
237
225
3,291


Ves-
sels.


300
358
321
310
288
343

389
408
335
312
290
269
3,923


Total.


Lock- i Ves-
ages. sels.


736 882
854 1,048
798 933
779 911
778 873
842 1,008


Ves-
sels.


297
355
316
305
293
345

413
419
367
336
284
273
4,003


1,194
1,198
1,023
931
836
798
11,635


The total number of lockages in the years 1915-1921 is as follows:
Fiscal year: Fiscal year:
.119 5-........................ 3,676 1919 ...... ................. 6,938
1916. 1.......................... 2, 876 1920. ...................... 8,149
1917........................ 5,994 1921 ........................ 9,602
1918........................ 7,034

It will be noted that in the case of the larger battleships the beam
of vessel is approaching the maximum allowable lock space. Antici-
.p.ting future needs, studies have been made for the construction of
lpqkls that will accommodate vessels of greater beam than can pass
the present locks. The construction of such locks without disturbing
the functioning of the present locks is entirely feasible.

LOCK MAINTENANCE.

The plan of operating in two shifts was continued at all locks, the
hours of work being so arranged that the whole force is available
for the "peak load" of putting vessels through the locks, and that
each shift will work full eight hours on operation or maintenance.
In addition to current maintenance work, the chambers at Gatun
and one of those at Pedro Miguel locks were unwatered and repairs
and painting were done. The work at Pedro Miguel required from
November 29 to January 13; at Gatun, from January 30 to May 10.
All of the 44 towing locomotives in use at the locks gave excellent
service during the year. Five new locomotives are being built at
Balboa shops, and the electrical equipment for them has been pur-
chaaed in the United States.
There has been no repetition of the eating away of lead sheaths of
cables by leakage water, as reported in the 1918 annual report, but
a &nimque case of trouble developed .at Pedro Miguel locks in May
the control cable for cylindrical valve No. 609 was found in'

*Tihaulopened to cqmmercial traffic Aug. 15, 1914.
I Canal closed account of slides, Sept. 18, 1915, to Apr. 15, 1916.


975
891
828
760
681
660
9,602





1* THE PANAMA CANAL. '

bad condition. Upon investigation the trouble was located 459 feet
from the valve and was caused by ants eating through -the cable
insulation.
The chain fenders were called upon to operate in one emergency
during the year, this accident occurring at Gatun when. the United
States destroyer Satterlee was rammed by the destroyer Mason, partgi. |
all lines on the former and pushing her ahead about 300 feet and
against the chain fender. The fender functioned properly, stopping
both ships, although the bow of the Satterlee was opened up at the
point of contact with the chain.
POWER FOR CANAL OPERATION.
The generator output of the hydroelectric plant at Gatun was
70,883,000 kilowatt hours, and of the auxiliary steam plant at Mira-
flores 620,930 kilowatt hours.
The power system was operated throughout the year with an aver-
age combined generator output of 5,958,660 kilowatt hours per
month, as compared with an average combined generator output of
5,382,750 kilowatt hours per month last year. An average of 4,991,677
kilowatt hours per month was transmitted and distributed to all power
consumers this year as compared with a corresponding average of
4,608,341 kilowatt hours per month for last year. From the above
there results a power system transmission and distribution loss of
16.23 per cent this year as compared with a corresponding loss of 14.4
per cent last year.
The steam plant at Miraflores was maintained and operated on the
basis of stand-by service, for which the average fuel consumption
was 2,313 barrels per month, compared with the corresponding rate
of 2,311 barrels per month last year. Incidental to the stand-by
service, the two units kept "floating upon the line perform a valu-
able function as synchronous condensers for power factor improve-
ment and voltage regulation.
The average cost of distributed power for the year was 8.886 mills 2
a kilowatt hour as compared with a corresponding cost of 9.421 mills
last year. The average cost of distributed lighting current, including
lamp renewals, was 13.023 mills a kilowatt hour this year, as com-
pared with a corresponding cost of 13.277 mills last year. The de-
creases in the unit costs of power and lighting current have been
caused largely by the fact that it was not necessary to assume part
of the hydro station load by the Miraflores steam plant during the :
past dry season.
The percentage distribution of power was approximately as
follows: Locks, 8; Panama Railroad, 17; municipal water puinmpihg,
17; lighting quarters, 13; mechanical division shops, 14; d'edgi
and sluicing, 5; Army and Navy, 10; health, 2; building rental, 4;
general and miscellaneous, 10.
I





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


.* WATER SUPPLY FOR GATUN LAKE.
The question of water supply for Gatun Lake has at no time been
lost sight of; and at the close of the dry season of 1920, when new low
records in the lake were made, former studies were revised on the
basis of the new data. These studies were continued during the past
fiscal year along three lines-(a) water for lockages, (b) water for elec-
tric power, (c) development of further sources of supply. All these
studies are available but are of technical nature and too extensive for
an administrative report.
So far as water for lockages is concerned, there is no immediate
prospect of lack of sufficient water to handle all traffic that may de-
velop within 10 years under any dry-season conditions that can be
expected. Theoretically, we plan to have not less than 40 feet of
water over the lock sills and through Gaillard Cut at the lowest stage
of the lake; but actually traffic can move without so much; in fact,
we could handle any ships that have offered themselves thus far with
considerably less depth of water.
On January 1, 1921, Gatun Lake was at elevation plus 86.98.
The dry season began about December 8, 1920, and the lake gradually
fell to a minimum elevation of plus 82 on May 22, 1921. The con-
sumption of water from Gatun Lake, the greatest of record, in the
calendar year 1920, was due to causes with percentages as follows:
Spillway discharge, 47; hydroelectric power, 26; evaporation, 13:
lockages, 12; municipal and miscellaneous, 2. Spillway discharge
represents the amount necessary to waste to keep the lake level to
prescribed height. No transfer of power generation from the hydro-
electric to the steam plant was necessary in the dry season of 1921.
With present facilities the canal can take care of 30 lockages a day
(approximately 45 vessels), or four times our present traffic, provided
a steam plant be provided sufficient to carry the power demand during
the entire dry season; or it can carry 24 lockages a day (about 36
vessels) with the hydroelectric plant operating through the dry
season to 14 per cent of its capacity. The above figures are based
on a repetition of the driest dry season of record and on keeping the
lake not lower than minimum level of plus 80.
MAINTENANCE OF CHANNEL.
Channel maintenance involves dredging on account of silting and
on account of slides from the banks. A minor item is keeping, the
channel in the lake free from water plants, which grow rapidly and
in a short time would impede navigation if the growth were not
checked. No delays to vessels were caused by slides during the
year.
.. Slides in Gaillard Cut were active during the year, but not so as
seriously .to menace freedom of navigation. At Cucaracha, on the





THE PANAMA CANAL.


south side of Gold Hill, a general movement continued oval the
entire area but varying from month to month. A basin of 3.5 aces
in extent was dredged to a depth of from 30 to 35 feet outside the
east prism line, thus providing space outside the canal for about
one-quarter of a million cubic yards. of sliding material. Dredges
removed from this basin 1,299,500 cubic yards of rock and earth.
Culebra slides were -fairly quiescent, but the dredges removed
489,800 cubic yards of earth and rock from in front of them.
A statement of all the maintenance dredging for the canal prism
follows:
Location: Cubic yards.
Atlantic entrance........................--- ............. 596,400
Gatun Lake.......................................... 111;900
Gaillard Cut............................ ............... 2,076,600
Miraflores Lake............................................ 586,300
Pacific entrance....................................... 664,700
Total.....-............................-..-..... 4,035,,900
The maintenance of channel work requires a readiness that can be
likened to that of a fire department. Ordinary silting could be cared
for in routine manner, but the slides are always a potential menace
to brief closures, and only the most prompt measures are a guaranty
that we can keep the channel open at all times. An instance of this
occurred on July 14, 1921, the new fiscal year, when .the b.nuk of
the Cut half a mile north of East Culebra gave way, and 185,000
cubic yards of rock and earth moved into the prism, causing shoaling,
entirely across the channel. Two dipper dredges were immediately
set at work, with the result that there was a delay of only a few
hours on July 15, and on July 16 three of our largest battleships
passed through.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION.


* The work of maintaining lights along the canal channel and' in
waters near the canal was continued. The lighthouses maintained
are at Roncador, Serrana Bank, and Quita Sueno, off the Atlantic
entrance; Toro Point and East Breakwater, at the Atlantic entrance;
and at the Pacific entrance at Taboguilla, San Jose, and Bona Islands,
and at Cape Mala. Two additional lights were added to those main-
tained and operated by the canal during the year-the East Break-
water upper and lower lights. The upper light consists of a com-
plex flasher, giving two short and a long flash. This light can not
be mistaken for any other and is visible 16 miles at sea. In the canal
proper, maintenance included 85 beacons, 73 gas buoys, 76 spar
buoys, and, in addition, 108 electric lights in Gaillard Cut.


ACCIDENTS.


No accident of serious moment occurred to any ship in the canal.
during the year. Investigations were made in 39 cases, as folld*s:
Struck banks, 5; accidents at locks or in approaches thereto, 1:2;eel-'


IB


i
..;: II


;
..





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


*lision with other ships, 3; damage from tugs while maneuvering in
deose waters, 8; struck pier or landing stage, 8; struck dredge in
Gaillard Cut, 1; unclassified, 2. The total damages were estimated
at about $80,000. The canal assumed responsibility for repairs in
20 cases, and the total cost thereof was $11,385.57. Among the
cases in which the canal did not assume responsibility the greatest
single damage was to a ship that struck the west bank of the canal
just south of Miraflores locks on February 21, 1921, with estimated
damage of $17,000. The second greatest was for $16,000, caused by
a collision in Gatun Lake, when one of two northbound ships bumped
another, having started to pass it but being forced to drop astern
on account of a vessel approaching southbound. Accidents at the
locks were confined to damages of so slight a nature that no claim
was made to repairs costing $500, except in one case. This was the
accident to the Orteric, southbound, August 3, 1920, at Pedro Miguel
lock. The ship had proceeded a short distance into the east cham-
ber under control of the towing locomotives, when the gates began
to close, striking the ship on both sides. The accident was due to
misinterpretation of signals given by the lock supervisor to the con-
trol house. The repairs were made by The Panama Canal at a cost
of $1,571.06, with $4,191.05 additional payment to owners in settle-
ment of other expenses due to the accident.
In every case of accident a thorough investigation is made both
to place responsibility and to provide against recurrence. It is
believed that the handling of 4,160 vessels in close quarters with
only the accidents enumerated above is a high tribute to the effec-
tiveness of the canal operation force. On the other hand, the
money damage that can be caused to a ship by an accident that may
not even impede her voyage is an indication of the need for great
care in handling vessels at the canal.
SALVAGE WORK.
A salvage section was organized during the year. The wrecking
tug Favorite (500 deadweight tons), obtained from the Navy at the
close of the fiscal year 1920, and all of the salvage equipment at the
canal of value in this class of work were turned over to the new
section. Its headquarters are at Gatun, in the lake, from which
place calls can be answered expeditiously from either ocean. A
skeleton organization of experienced salvors is maintained, and men
are drawn from other parts of the work as emergencies demand. A
schedule of rates for salvage work was in preparation at the close
of this fiscal year.
The Favorite was dispatched on June 29, 1920, to assist the
steamship JKoyo Maru, which had run upon Serrana Bank, about
300 miles north of the Atlantic entrance to the canal. A Lloyd's





20 THE PANAMA CANAL. "

tug had the work in charge, but the greater capacity of the: *vo ite ?
made her work of greater value. The ship was lightened, pulled
off the bank, and brought to Balboa shops, where repairs mwre r
made. The owners expressed their satisfaction with the work done
by the Favorite and with the low salvage charges.
The steamship Sussex stranded on the West Breakwater at tIhe
Atlantic entrance of the canal on the night of January 3, 1921, and
the Favorite was sent to her assistance. After continuous efforts
in sloppy weather, with a heavy ground swell impeding the wor,
the ship was pulled off on January 11 and taken to Balboa dry
dock for repairs.
On November 9, 1920, the Favorite accompanied the Navy tug
Sciota to Cartagena, Colombia, to assist in pulling the U. S. S.
Cleveland off the bank at the entrance of that harbor. She worked
from the morning of November 10 until noon of the 11th, when
the Cleveland slid into deep water. The captain of the Cleveland
expressed great satisfaction with the work of the Favorite and
her crew.
The Governor had issued a circular on June 20, 1920, requesting
employees engaged on salvage work not to institute libel proceed-
ings before consulting with him. This was in connection with claims
against the Olockson, which burned at sea off the Pacific entrance
of the canal in March, 1920. The case is pending in the Canal Zone
District Court.
On February 21, 1921, the Governor directed that employees be
advised as follows regarding salvage of vessels in canal waters:
Quite recently the Governor has had a, request from an employee for permission
to libel a vessel which caught fire while lying at a pier in the harbor of Balboa. This
employee was on duty at the time he proceeded to the assistance of the vessel, although
not on duty with reference to that vessel.
It is the belief of the Governor that all employees of The Panama Canal should
be considered available for such emergency work and is involved in rendering assist-
ance to a vessel on fire within the confines of the port of Balboa without laying the
vessel liable to libel for salvage. The Governor considers that all shipping within
the canal prism, or, to be exact, within the limits marked by the sea buoys at Balboa
and the breakwater at Cristobal, have a right to expect any assistance from the
equipment and personnel of The Panama Canal which is necessary for their proper
care, preservation, and handling in Canal Zone waters.
He believes that the equipment of the Canal Zone is maintained for the above
purpose; and that the reputation of the canal for fair dealing requires that the above
viewpoint be insisted upon and maintained. In view of the above, the Governor
will not approve in future any proposal to libel vessels for assistance in emergencies
within the canal waters; and if any such libel is placed by a canal employee it will
be considered that such employee has taken action which is inimical to.the best
interests of the canal, even though such action technically be within the law.
The case in point was that of the steamship Azeus, carrying
nitrate, which caught fire on January 19, 1921, while the ship was
in dock at Balboa. The damage was $90,000.!











o :1 ..
*irfr'i fJ . El


SECTION II.


3SINESS OPERATIONS.


The policy of supplying vessels using the canal or its ports and
employees of the United States Government on the Isthmus with all
articles necessary or convenient for their use was continued throughout
tith year. This is a necessary corollary of the canal operation so far
as maintenance of force is concerned, and is a great convenience to
shipping. It involves the operation of various enterprises that in
the United States would commonly be carried on by private persons.
In fact, all the business operations of a small-sized industrial com-
m'umity in the United States are here carried on by the Government.
Considered from a money standpoint, these operations are divided
into two classes: (1) Work done for The Panama Canal, which is
paid for from appropriations and other revenues and on which no
profit is made; (2) work done for the Panama Railroad, other
departments of the United States Government, and individuals and
companies. In this section the figures of value of work done apply
to the whole volume of work. Operations on a strictly commercial
basis, where it is planned to make a nominal profit, are carried on
in two main divisions-(a) operations under The Panama Canal,
and (b) operations under the Panama Railroad. The detail for these
commercial operations of The Panama Canal will be found in Table 17
of Section V, and a summary for the Panama Railroad on the Isthmus
in Table 48 of Section V. The business by divisions was as follows:

Business operations.


Pankma Canal:
Mechanical division.................................................
Other operation and maintenance, divisions.........................
Supyd t-
1111 ence. .........................-------------
Quartermasterr................................................
Accounting department .............................................
Health department...............................I...................
Civil government....................................................
Executive department .............................................
Miscellaneous.......................................................
STotal..............................................................
Panama Railroad-
RaOiroad proper.....................................................
Commissr..m......................................................
Coalingplants......................................................
Harbor terminal operations........................................
mental of lands...................................................
oTat sanhs......................................................
Cattle steamerngton..................................................
Motor nduop.st...................................................
: 'ltanitrians.........................................................
Cattle industry......................................................
Poultry farm........................................................
D farm..........................................................
islaneous.....................................................
Steamship line ........................................................
Total..............................................................


Gross revenue.


84,900,228.20
4,113,335.26
1,093,709.89
3,923,208.21
285,262.37
680,355.40
65,187.91
121,036.91
49,992.93
15,232,317.08

2,242,021.69
11,112,334.29
7,400,758.15
1,505 ,810.95
120,865.42
193, 920. 80
231, 805.89
86,960.45
67,448.66
289,353.85
1,221,229.54
10,649.57
109,755.33
64,975.29
69,930.63
5,156,446.84
29,884,267.35


Net revenue.


$146,768.47
S103,764.82
193,423.46
585,154.19
975.67
13,123.34
47. 56
128. 92
15,201.33
564,211.20

1156,713.28
1 216,992.59
373, 323.63
122,878& 56
107, 823.04
1 5393.74
14, 778.08
3,778.75
19,408. 18
15,023.82
117,939.00
1 11 845.92
5,418.26
14,858.75
1700,810.22
1606,982.11


'LoNs. 21





22 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The losses under The Panama Canal are shown in detail in Table 17
of Section V. The losses under commissary are due to liquidation on
a falling market; those of the railroad and of the steamship line to
the general business depression aggravated by the strike of marine
engineers.
REPAIRS TO VESSELS-MECHANICAL WORK.

The mechanical shops were operated during the fiscal year for the
dual purpose of upkeep of canal equipment and plant and of serving
shipping. This is the only point within 1,800 miles where large ships
can dry dock and be repaired. The work of the year was as follows:

Class. Amount. ent
of total.

Marine.................. .......................................... $4,051,475.82 59.3
Railroad.................. ................................................. 1,068,160.43 15
Miscellaneous ............................................................. 952,911.07 1397
Manufacture................ ..................................... ........ 750,7O1.10 11.00

Of this amount $2,687,536.36 worth was done for individuals and
companies; $2,354,519.46 for The Panama Canal; $1,387,178.45 foi
the Panama Railroad; and $394,014.15 for other departments of the
Government. Attention is called to the fact that work for The
Panama Canal amounted to one-third of the whole.
Commercial business.-The rebuilding and reconditioning of the
steamship Marne, owned and operated by the United States Shipping
Board, was the largest single job of the year. The ship had been
damaged by several fires and explosions in the cargo of benzine and
had been sunk by shell fire to extinguish the fire. The damage con-
sisted of that from fire, explosion, shell fire, and submergence in salt
water, and to repair this it was necessary to perform work on practi-
cally every part of the vessel. Work was begun on the ship on July
5, 1920, and she was turned over to the Shipping Board representative
on the Isthmus, ready for operation, on February 16,1921. The cost '
of repairs was $740,887.85.
Other big repair jobs were as follows: Repairs to the bottom of the
Koyo Maru, where she had run upon Serrana Bank; extensive repairs
to the General H. F. Hodges; dry docking and repair of the Chilean:
battleship Almirante Latorre, 32,000 tons displacement; repairs to
the bottom of the steamship Sussex, which ran upon Cristobal Break-
water; extensive repairs to the Spanish battleship Espana, which ran
upon the rocks off the coast of Chile; repairs to tail shaft and stem
tube of the Bonham, use of a cofferdam being necessary; extensive
repairs to the steamship North American, which ran upon the rocks
off the coast of Ecuador.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 23

The total number of vessels other than tugs, barges, and dredges
f -The Panama Canal upon which work was done during the past
year was, at Balboa, 252; at Cristobal, 419; total, 671.
- Work f6r the Navy.-The more important work done for the Navy
was: Repairing damage suffered by the Tacoma in collision with a
tug and also repairing main engine and auxiliaries: dry-docking of the
superdreadnaught New Mexico; extensive boiler repairs on the Neches;
repairing damage sustained in collision by the Mason and the Sat-
terlee; dry docking and miscellaneous work to submarines stationed
at the Isthmus; overhaul of main turbines and reduction gears of
the Eagle; repairs to the S. P. 2235 required for permitting that
vessel to be towed to Puget Sound.
W: ork Jefor The Panama Canal.-Restoration of Culebra from cattle
.ship to seagoing suction dredge; repairs and alterations, including
conversion to oil burner of tug Bohio; repairs to steamship Caribbean,
including hull and machinery work; overhaul of the dipper dredge
Cascadas; overhaul of various dredges, scows, and barges.
Dry docking.-Twenty-four pieces of Panama Canal equipment
were handled in the dry dock at Balboa and 25 in the dry dock at
Jristobal. Vessels other than canal equipment dry-docked at
Balboa numbered 62, at Cristobal 42.
Work for Panama Railroad.-In 'addition to the routine work of
operating the Balboa and Cristobal roundhouses, the following
important items of work were done for the Panama Railroad on the
Isthmus: Retirement of 23 of the 201 class locomotives and storing
of the same; retirement and storage of 933 pieces of freight rolling
stock on account of reduced business; construction of 3 new parlor
cars; retirement and scrapping of 7 of the old 45-foot passenger cars,
in accordance with a policy looking to the retirement of 17 of these
coaches in a period of three years; car inspection and repair service
for all rolling stock.
Decrease in commercial business.-The general depression in the
shipping world and reductions of appropriations to Government
departments, limiting the .amount of repair work which may be done
to Government vessels, resulted in a falling off of business during
the second half of the fiscal year. The following comparative state-
ment of revenues from commercial business (not including work for
The Panama Canal) for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1920 and
1921, indicates the trend:

Fiscal year Fiscal year Fiscal year Fiscal year
1921. 1920. 1921.

' July.............. $435,270.60 $391,010.01 February.............. 5391,638.65 $325,459.40
.... 44,630.70 488,567.07 March................. 634,290.68 668,534.65
be2........... 275,522.01 446,263.68 April.................. 405,46&71 252,572.59
O ober-.............. 480, 510.03 476,357.07 May............... 277,660.35 395,769.22
a6ember............. 525,179.53 364,957.82 June................... 455,732.25 387,720.96
IaHrlUber....... ... 458988.75 321,897.26
na Wzu'y........ ..... 45,30.80 381,618.47 Total............ 5,210,623.06 4,900,228.20




24 :mTO PANAMAOIM CANAI* 4

The force was reduced from 2$856 in' July, 1920,' to. 1,8:3& k.iit e
1921: At the beginning of.the fiscal year .there were. 1,i00o3'gAdratoll,
or American,. employees, and at the end of the fiscal year, 644,; OThe 4
present volume of business is insufficient properlyito support aitne-
chanical plant the size of that on the Isthums, and the decaresse has
resulted in a reduction of personnel beyond the point whickh.is proper
for a permanent force. In normal times the business from :oommWer-
cial shipping will carry the operating and maintenance charges. o these
shops, but under conditions existing at present this is not true.. So
far as possible, the routine repair work of The Panama Carinaland the
Panama Railroad has been distributed so as to come at timeaswhen
other work was slack, and this has helped materially to hold the force
together. A shop plant is necessary for handling repair work 1for the
canal organization; and shops of the present magnitude are essential
for a proper handling of repairs to commercial shipping and the
vessels of the Navy that may call here. So far as is possible this
business is made self-supporting and it has been so up to the present,
but the necessity for maintaining here proper facilities for naval
vessels should be considered in connection with a study of the work
done in past years and of the conditions that confront this, in:common
with all marine repair establishments, during the coming year. The
maintenance of adequate repair facilities at the Isthmus is a well-
established part of the policy that has guided our Government from
the beginning with relation to The Panama Canal; namely,. to make
the canal not only a waterway, but also a maritime service station.
It is believed that this policy is wise, both from a purely commercial
point of view and from the standpoint of the value of such a service
station to both the Navy and Army, and the continuance of this
policy is earnestly recommended.

COAL.

Coal was supplied to commercial vessels at the coaling plants at
Cristobal and Balboa; a total of 424,680 tons. The total coaling
business was as follows:

1921 1920 1921 120

Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons.
Commercial vessels........... 424,680 479,488 United States Navy ................. 173
Panama Railroad............ 9,622 24,519 Miscellaneous............... 5,278 5,084
Panama Canal............... 20,817 19,409 -------
United States Army.......... 8,418 10,960 468,815 814l
1 Navy maintains its own supply; from which 76,129 tons were delivered.

The total coal on hand June 30, 1920, was 58,652 tons; received
during the year, 554,846 tons; sold, 468,815 tons. Receipts from
sales, including charges for handling Navy coal, were S7,400,7584.15;



.i'




REPOBT OF THE GOVERNOR.


cost of repairs and depreciation of plant, and of handling coal was
$1,883,828.32; and the profits amounted to $373,323.63.
The policy of bunkering vessels as rapidly as possible was continued,
'aid 'among the records made were the following:

Name of ship. Amount. Date. Time. Name of ship. Amount. Date. Time.
Tons. H. in. Ton. H. m.
Wiltshire....... 1,102 Nov. 25,1920 1 25 Antillian........ 77 May 11,1921 0 10
Miimae......... 66 May 10,1921 45 Cape Henry..... 285 May 17,1921 20
Athentic........ 2,005 .....do....... 10 20 Transvaal...... 53 June 1,1921 5

The sales fell from a monthly average of 43,000 tons during the
first seven months of the year to an average of 34,000 tons during the
Jat ,five months, because of the general shipping depression. The
plax:of handling in three 8-hour shifts was discontinued in March, in
4pror of P. 2-shift plan with overtime in case of vessels that have not
completed loading before 11 p. m.
The price of coal trimmed in bunkers at Cristobal on July 1, 1920,
was $13.50 per ton of 2,240 pounds; September 15, $15; October 26,
$18; March 12, 1921, $12; June 1, $14.
Changes were made in the plant during the year in keeping with
the general program for improving the service. The wharf bunker,
originally designed for coaling barges and tugs through long chutes,
was redesigned and two 30-foot bboms operating on swing circles
were installed, making an additional berth at which ships may be
coaled. Barges 15 and 21 were reconstructed along lines of the latest
type of De Mayo barges with steel superstructure substituted for
wood and each barge equipped with two 40-foot conveyors, the
capacity of each barge being thereby increased from 75 to 200 tons
an hour. Studies were made of a project for affixing a reloader
attachment to one of the unloaders for the purpose of making an
additional berth for bunkering ships. At present three large ships
can take bunkers at berths at the coaling plant while two colliers are
unloading. Under the new plan, one of the unloading berths would
become available for bunkering or for unloading. Four De Mayo
barges of improved type are available for bunkering work at the
cargo docks or in the bay. Improvements made in the unloading
machinery, together with installation of oil-burning equipment,
increased the unloading capacity. The plant recently unloaded the
tgQamship Oristobal carrying 9,611 gross tons, in 29 working hours;
and: this ship was not built as a, collier. The colliers Ulysses and
AA;jiges, carrying 12,000 tons, have been discharged in 15 hours.
,he general subject of coaling at the canal is touched upon in
SSection I, under the caption "The canal in competition with other

68844--21----3





THE PANAMA CANAI .a:


FUEL OIL, DIESEL OIL, GASOLINE.

At both entrances of the canal fuel oil is piped from tanks of The
Panama Canal and tanks owned by various private companies to the
docks. The canal organization does the pumping for both its own
and private supplies. The tank farm at the Atlantic entrance con-
sists of 3 tanks of The Panama Canal, capacity 140,633 barrels, and
12 tanks of private companies, capacity 664,108 barrels; at the
Pacific entrance, 4 tanks of The Panama Canal, capacity 195,743
barrels; and 9 tanks of private companies, capacity 369,672 barrels.
This includes two 55,000-barrel concrete tanks erected during the
year by the canal, and four of the same capacity erected by private
companies. The canal began construction of two 12-inch pipe lines
for crude oil, each 14,000 feet in length, from the tank farm to the
piers at Cristobal, with the purpose of improving the service of
delivery to ships. A statement of the fuel oil handled during the
year follows:

Balboa. Cristobal. Total.

Number of barrels received by Panama Canal...................... 547,801 314,625 862,425
Number of barrels used by Panama Canal..................... 2686,477 93,322 359,799
Number of barrels pumped for individuals and companies.......... 1,954,393 2,611,391 4,565,784


The service to ships was as follows:

Cristobal Balboa. Total.
Item sold by-
Ships. Barrels.' Ships. Barrels.' Ships. Barrels.

FUEL OIL.
Panama Canal............................ 60 156,977 76 135,366 138 292,343
Privatecompanies.................... 621 1,110,764 316 713,495 987. 1,824,259
DIESEL OIL.
Panama Canal............................ 9 1,719 ........ ............ 9 1,719
Private companies..................... ........... ......... 93 132,090 93 132,090
GASOLINE.3
Panama Canal.............................. 20 26,795 17 8 16,390 37 43,185

1 Barrel of 42 gallons.
' Bulk sales to ships only.
Gallons.

The above does not include sales to Panama Canal vessels.
The price of oil from Panama Canal tanks, per barrel of 42 gallons,
on July 1, 1920, was $3.50; on March 10, 1921, $2.75; at which
price it continued to the end of the year. The policy of the canal
is to fix a price which will permit a fair profit to the private com-
panies in the business, yet beyond which they can not go and re-
tain business. Private companies frequently quote lower pries


"i'
I:; ;
: ;;
'"
; ;





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


than those quoted by the canal. The commercial fuel oil, Diesel oil,
and gasoline business of the canal amounted to $1,076,925.43, with
a net profit of $559,104.72. The plants operated on a three-shift
or continuous basis, until June 1, 1921, when a two-shift system,
with an extra charge for overtime in case of fueling during the 11 to
7 shift was instituted.
Diesel oil.-A cargo of Diesel oil was purchased and stored at the
Atlantic entrance tank farm. It consisted of 53,919 barrels. The
storage capacity of the canal is 55,954 barrels at Atlantic entrance,
4,038 barrels at Pacific entrance, price 84 a barrel of 42 gallons.
Diesel oil is also carried by private companies with storage tanks
at the canal. A new 6-inch pipe line from the tank farm to the
harbor at Cristobal, 14,000 feet, was begun during the year, as an
addition to present facilities for handling Diesel.
Gasoline.--S-torage of gasoline at both entrances of the canal was
continued. The receipts for the year were 427,953 gallons.
SHIP CHANDLERY AND OTHER SUPPLIES-STOREHOUSE OPERATIONS.

The storehouses of The Panama Canal, situated at both termini
of the canal, and at Paraiso, were continued as the agency through
which materials were issued to all parts of the canal and railroad
work, and were sold to the Army and Navy and steamships and
other non-Goverment interests. The value of material received
during the year at the storehouses was $14,025,216.21. This repre-
sents material received from the United States and material for-
warded to the storehouses by other departments and divisions .of
the canal. The following statement indicates the status of material
on hand, received, issued, etc., during the year:
On hand June 30, 1920............................................ $5, 280,367. 24
Received during year............................................. 14,025, 216.21

Total............. ................. ....................... 19, 305,583.45
eIsued during year................................................ 10,790, 198.46

bn hand June 30, 1921 ...................................... 8,515,384.99
The value of sales to steamships was $290,466.32, which does not
include stock issued to the mechanical shops for use in repairs to
steamships. Sales to the Army and Navy and private companies
operating at the canal amounted to $1,750,010.80. This makes
the total value of sales from the storehouses, to other than The
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad, $2,040,477.12. The value of
issues to The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad was $8,749,-
721.34. Toward the end of the year steps were taken to reduce the





28 .THE PANAMA CANAL. ,:

amount of stock in storehouses, especially items on which t ysgWr .'-Y
is slow, in order that the capital tied up in this way may be rqetapa.
The concentration of obsolete and scrap material and equipment
for sale was continued. There were 8,366 tons of American scrap ,
material and 2,412 tons of French scrap material sold during the j
year. Arrangements have also been made at Cristobal for storage
of equipment held in reserve for future use.

CARGO HANDLING AT PIERS.

The work of loading, discharging, and interchanging cargoes bo-
tween various vessels at the Atlantic and Pacific terminals of the
canal was continued without serious interruption or damage to
locks, floating equipment, or other property. The system of con-
tinuous operation, where ship demands, was'continued. ; ;- .
The following table shows work performed during the fiscal years ,
1921 and 1920:


Item.


1921 1920


068,295
92.4SM
50.3949


1,875195
$74180 U76
S3,718& 19
ank


I I


Tons of cargo stevedored...................................................
Revenue per ton stevedored, average.......................................
Cost per ton stevedored...................................----..-----........--...--....
Tons of cargo handled and transferred....................................
Revenue per ton handled, average. ................. ....................
Cost per ton handled...................................................--
Gross operating revenue................. ................................
Gross operating expenses. ..................................................
Net revenue... .............................-.....-........- - - I---
Per cent of expenses to revenue...........................................

I Loss.


442,756
30.4SSS2
$05327
1, 10 MTs
$1. 0095
30.85890
1, 505,814 95
$1,528,689.51:
1 $22. 87& 56
101. 52


The distribution of cargo handled for the fiscal year 1921 is as
follows:


Number of ships discharging cargo.......................................
Tons of cargo received (ex cargo)..........................................
Number of ships taking cargo............................................
Tons of cargo delivered (per cargo)........................................
Total number of tons stevedored by Panama R. R. Co.....................
Total number of tons rehandled by Panama R. R. Co.....................


Balboa.


368
50,080
277 :
40,279
16,288
10,802


Cristobal.



t(
426,4
38,4.


Xl
Ka
p9


[I


Cargoes of nine vessels which were in distress due to accidents were
also unloaded to enable the ships to have necessary repairs made at
the shops.
Due to various causes, the volume of cargo transshipped at th6
Isthmus materially decreased during the year. A noticeable decli4
commenced with the month of April, 1920, and the downward ttbnd
continued until May, 1921, since which time a gradual increase ha
been shown.


*4




ii




I
1
*'


---





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 29

The revenue this year was $1,505,810.95, a decrease of $372,708
as compared with last year. The cost of operation was $1,528,689.51,
a decrease of $213,111.25 over lastyear, resulting in a loss of $22,878.56
as compared with a profit of $136,718.19 last year.

COMMISSARY SYSTEM.

The commissary system, consisting of purchasing agencies, 7 manu-
facturing plants, wholesale departments, and 12 retail stores, was
oantqued as a branch of the Panama Railroad Co. The receipts
from the sale of commissary supplies amounted to $11,112,334.29,
a decrease of $1,115,137.78, as compared with the previous year.
The business lost was $216,992.59, as compared with a profit of $276,-
093.40 last year. The loss on sales was approximately 2 per cent.
This loss is due to the shrinkage of value of goods on hand and the
tIduction in business because of decrease in force and general busi-
ness depression.
SPurchases.-Most of the stock, except meats, is purchased in the
United States, and therefore the business on the Isthmus reflects the
varying phases of business in the States. The system is self-sustain-
ing in fullest sense, receiving no financial aid from sources outside
* itself. Goods are sold at a price that represents cost laid down on
the Isthmus plus a surcharge based on the cost of handling and
retailing on the Isthmus. A general idea of the trend of commissary
prices can be obtained from the discussion of cost of living in Section
IV of this report. The following statement summarizes the business:

Cost by class of commodities purchased and sold, fiscal year 1921, together with surcharge
added to cost to make sale prices.

On hand June Puase. On hand June old. Per cent
30,1920. Purchases. old surcharge.

rper. i y........................ $597,464.26 51,976,383.51 5190,251.19 $2,383,596.58 9.82
a S ....................... 139,747.80 370,911.75 116,845.47 393,814.08 21.82
Dipgoods -...... .... 982,720.41 1,261,461.47 735,553.47 1,508,628. 41 2832
teaand-oe............... 318, S960.85 78s,236.96 289,828.50 307,369.31 2& 82
Cold storage..................... 152,461.37 2,114,724.31 118,681.08 2,148,504.60 20.44
:Tobsea.C3................ ... 38,752.85 348,389.41 27,134.74 360,007.52 55.83
Baw material............. 408,608. 18 11,745,931.94 503, 299. 42 1,651,240.70 .09
Total...................... 2,638,715.72 8,096,039.35 1,981,593.87 8,753,161.20 ..........
I Includes cattle, hogs, poultry, and milk in amount of $1,386,319.35.

Purchases were made as follows: United States, $5,381,279.20;
foreign, $526,412.03; Central and South America, $185,963.98; cattle
industry, $1,489,431.90; local purchases, $394,716.96; Panama Canal,
$118,235.28; total, $8,096,039.35.





30 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Sales.--Sales were made as follows:


1920 1921 Deese121
under 10M.

To United States Government........................... 2,161,118.44 1,736,682.50 424,435.96
PanamaCanal.................................. 1,558,588.17 1,568,167.5R8 9,579.41
Steamships........................................... 1,119,852.93 049, 350.29 70,472.604-
Pananda R. R. Co.................................. 411,480.95 348,485.5S 62,995.37
Individuals and companies........................... 272, 8%6. 75 313,845.66 1 40,978.91
Sales to empldyees................................... 6,83, 513.80 6,414,818.91 468,699.89
Gross revenue from sale................................. 12, 407,421.06 1 11,331,875.52 1,T071,045.54
Less discounts and crerir, notes......................... 179,943.99 219,041.23 139,092.24
Total ............................................... 12,227,472.07 i11112,334.29 1,115, 137. 7t
Supplies for expense andi equipment:
Commissaries....................................... 191, P49.4 1 149, 69. 23 32,1 '50.
General................................................ 1,023.09 705.60 317.49
Plants.............. ................................ 131,108.20 110,836.57 20,771.63
Total....................................... ...313,980.33 25), 740. 40 53,239.93
Loss bv condemnation. shrinkage, etc.................... 166,282.50 145,624.71 20,657.79
Loss, clerical errors, pilfering etc............... .... ..... 63,344. 9 21, 31. O 42,202.91
Total............... ......... .................. 229, 827.09 16,9r6. 39 62,900.70
Grand tufal........................................ 12,771,279.49 11,540,041.0S 1,23),338.41

I Increase.

The gross revenue from sales represents c. i. f. cost of articles sold
($8,753,161.20), plus surcharge ($1,471,557.75), plus cost of manufac-
turing ($1,106,656.57), a total of $11,331,375.52.
The severest test to which the system was put during the year was
at the time of the visits of the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets of the Navy
in January and February. In one week in February 158 carloads of
supplies were shipped to the fleets at Balboa. The total value of sales
was $176,201.57.
The commissary investment proper (exclusive of plantations, cattle
industry, dairy and hog industries) amounts to $5,950,514.71, as fol-
lows: Commissary plants and stores, $2,913,605.61; equipment,
$131,732.17; supplies onjhand,[$1,981,593.87; floating capital,"ap-
proximately $850,000; and uncompleted improvements,j$73,583.06.
The amount of accrued depreciation set up is $334,423.47, and. the
total profits from August,! 1905, to June 30, 1921, amount to
$1,497,637.86. The loss this year amounted to 3.6 per cent on the
investment.'
Meat industry.-The policy was continued of fattening cattle in the
pastures on the Canal Zone during the wet season, when grazing is
best, and killing them during the dry months. In all, there were
handled in the pastures 38,448 head of cattle with only 768 deaths.
Anthrax caused 326 deaths, and 175 other deaths were probably from
this cause. The area in pastures is about 44,000 acres. No new areas
were cleared during the year, but 21,553 acres were recleared.
The importation of beef cattle from Colombia was discontinued
during the month of February this year. Up to that time there had





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR


been 15,833 head of fat and 222 head of lean cattle purchased at a
dost of $902,257.39 f. o. b. Colombia, an average per head for fat
cattle of $56.27 and $50.90 per head for lean cattle. The purchasing
expenses amounted to $4,213.45 and the cost of transportation and
pasturing during the year was $447,787.30. The loss of $93,664.08 in
cattle steamer operations and the amortization of improvements to
pasture lands, amounting to $135,770.86, were written off against
cattle profit for the year.
The cost of operating cattle steamers, including refitting and main-
tenance expenses, amounted to $289,353.85 as compared with
$706,826.07 for the previous year.
There were 13,587 head sold and turned over to the commissary
department, for which the cattle industry 'received a credit of $1,-
221,229.54, resulting in a gross profit for the year of $234,458.76;
deducted from this was $229,434.94 from steamer operating loss and
amortization of pastures, leaving a net profit of $5,032.82, as com-
pared with a loss of $189,973.09 for the previous year. On June 30,
1921, there remained on hand 15,506 head, valued at $1,172,086.60.
During the month of May the operations of the steamship Caribbean
were extended to include the service previously furnished by regular
.Panama Railroad steamers to East Colombian ports.
Following is the present investment in the beef cattle industry:
Steamship Caribbean, including equipment, $167,255.73; the value
of 43,960 acres of pasture lands, including buildings, fences, etc.,
$903,606.85; equipment, $12,312.49; other material, $2,632.45.
The value of cattle on hand June 30, 1921, was $1,172,086.60.
There were killed at the abattoir 13,659 head of beef, 4,929 hogs,
2,168 poultry. The dressed beef produced was 5,499,682 pounds;
dressed pork, 492,285. pounds. The value of the abbatoir output was
$1,005,060.81. Cancellations of contracts for supplying beef to the
Army in the United States and Porto Rico, and decreased consump-
tion on the Isthmus due to reduction in force, caused a falling off
in this business. The production of beef is an index, and it is there-
fore shown for the past five fiscal years:
I Pounds.
1917................................................................... 7,118,803
1918 -........ ........................................................ 10,788,446
1919.................. .. ..................................... 15,974,950
1920'... ---................ ........................ 11,335,120
1921.................................................................. 5,499,682
'Other products of the meat industry were sausage, bacon, ham,
&orned beef, tongue, smoked beef, etc., valued at $291,669.26. Sales
of hides amounted to $75,185.94, and of other by-products to $41,-
543.37.
Plantations.-The contract system of running the plantations was
continued with success, and three new contracts were entered into,







making nine plantations now under contract. Frijoleds W ad
(alligator pear) orchard continued in excellent condition..: :& tard
crop was harvested at Juan Mina citrus. grove, and 2,600 adtditidokab
trees were planted at Summit. 'Over 1,000,000. pouds ofafruit ail
vegetables were supplied by the plantations, and the same amount 1
by the gardens which Chinese are operating under contract with the
commissary. These supplies, together with others purchased in -the
Colon and Panama markets have so increased that we discontinued
purchases in Costa Rica toward the end of the fiscal year. The
expense of starting the plantations and gardens was met by profits
from the commissary business and that business is now receiving-the
benefits.
Other factors in commissary business.-Among the many hundreds
of purchases made during the year were the following:
Butter.............pounds.. 535,523 Apples..............-ponds.. 68132'
Eggs.................dozen.. 653,244 Coffee................ do.-.- 308, 627
Flour..............pounds.. 4,869.326 Fish, canned...........do.... 151,043 1
Milk: Rice ..................do.... 1,191,970
Tins...............do.... 1,956,485 Sugar................do.... 2,709, 304 1
Fresh..........gallons.. 146,032 Cabbage ..............do.... 1,421,111
Tomatoes.......... pounds.. 188,844 Potatoes ............dd.... 6, 860, 46
Onions......... .....do.... 1,057,291
The bakery made 4,140,035 loaves of bread, 44,710 pounds of soda&
biscuits, 35,066 pies, 9,634 dozen doughnuts, 166,866 pounds of cake,
283,345 rolls; a total value of $463,015.91. The ice plant made
53,705 tons of ice, value $375,475.74. The laundries handled 8,746,-
622 pieces, revenue $376,294.99. The milk-bottling and ice cream
plant did a business of $353,794.12. The dairy farm produced
69,597 gallons of milk and 5,020 gallons of cream, and its profit for the
year was $5,418.26. The poultry farm at Summit has not been suc-
cessful; losses incurred are charged against profits in other parts of
the system, and the poultry business has been discontinued. Business:
in the tailor shops has fallen so low that one shop has been closed
and the other will be closed soon.

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS.

The hotel and restaurant business included the operation of the
Hotel Washington at Colon and Hotel Tivoli at Ancon, both of which
are maintained for convenience of visitors at the canal; restaurants
for American employees were operated at ten different places and
messes for laborers at three places. The finances of this branch are
summarized as follows:






4 :: ?" . **
:: p14-3





iEPOBT OF THE GO'




I, _________________________________----------______
SteBi Wl.ilngton ........................................
ot i .............................................
Hbtel Aspinwall, Taboga 2........... .... ..............
RIttatranta, Americans '.................................. .
Meases, laborers' ...................................... ......


VERBNOR. 33

Expend- Revenue. Profit (+)
natures. or loss -).

6217,027.81 8231,805.89 +614,778.08
222, 207.41 231,096.73 + 8,889.32
82,987.48 68,873.36 14,114.12
780,672.14 701,794.48 78,877.66
101,256.79 88,772.00 12,484.79


Depreciation charges are made on these hotels.
*Discontinued July 5, 1921.
*No charge is made for building maintenance, fuel, or lights.

In the above statement no interest charge on capital investment is
made in any case. In the case of the restaurants run for the bene-
fit of American employees, the maintenance, fuel, and light bills
are charged against the general appropriation for quarters, because
no charge is made for these items in the case of employees who are
occupying family quarters. If the recommendation made by me
that rent be charged for quarters for American employees is approved,
the restaurants will be charged for repairs, fuel, and lights, and these
. additional charges will be reflected in the service charges.
The Hotel Aspinwall, which is the old French sanitarium, at
Taboga, was operated during the year with the idea that employees
would benefit by occasional trips to the island for themselves and
families. Inasmuch as it was run at a loss it has been discontinued.
In the laborers' messes during the year a change was made from
the system of serving meals to the cafeteria plan, because the patrons
of the messes had shown a unanimous preference for the cafeteria
system.
BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORK.

The majority of the building forces of The Panama Canal worked
during the year on construction jobs for the Army and Navy and for
various companies that operate in connection with the canal. The
building work done for the canal is referred to elsewhere. It con-
sisted principally of construction of 49 buildings for silver-roll
employees, construction of two concrete tanks for fuel oil, and
building of stables at Colon for the Panama Railroad. Work referred
to in this place is that for which the canal was reimbursed on the
basis of cost for Army and Navy, and for outsiders on the "cos.t-plus"
basis. On account of continually rising costs of materials and of
labor, the cost of most of this work exceeded estimates.
United States Army.-The barracks and quarters for accommo-
dating one infantry regiment at Fort Clayton on the Pacific side
and one at Fort Davis on the Atlantic side, jobs involving an expen-
diture of $3,962,849, were completed during the year, so far as funds
available would permit. Certain finishing work was left undone,
but the posts were brought to the point where occupancy was prac-
ticable, and they have been occupied. Construction of quarters for





THE PANAMA CANAL.


the commanding officer at each post and of certain quarters for
servants was deferred on account of a legal limitation as to cost in
the former case and on account of lack of funds in the latter case.
The water, sewer, and drainage systems at Fort Clayton and Fort
Davis and necessary grading and similar work were completed;
Under a special appropriation of $40,000, construction of an ord-
nance machine shop and a signal storehouse at Fort Randclph and
a fire-engine house at Fort Amador was begun and carried practically
to completion before the end of the year. A small locomotive shed
and storehouse and a landing for small boats were constructed at
Fort Sherman. Grading and making of a fill for the aeroplane
landing at France Field were almost completed at the close of the
year. Other grading, road, and similar work was done for the Army
at various points.
Work of a similar nature done for the Navy Department consisted
of a prison at the submarine base at Coco Solo, a cottage at the
Colon radio station, a boathouse at Darien radio station, and mis-
ccellaneous work.
Community house at Balboa.-Work was begun in March, 1920, and
the building was opened to occupancy in November, 1920. It is a
2-story concrete structure, 50 by 100 feet, with space on the ground
floor for lounge, writing tables, game and class rooms, restaurant and
secretary's office. On the second floor are an entertainment hall,
motion-picture booth, and quarters for the staff. The work was
done by contract with the National Catholic Welfare Council, which
is conducting the community house. The cost was $92,583.62.
Royal Mail Building.-Construction of this building was begun in
February, 1920, and, with the exception of a small amount of marble
installation, was completed in June, 1921. The building is situated
at Cristobal in the reservation for offices of steamship companies.
It is of reinforced concrete and three stories high. The offices are
on the ground floor and they are finished in marble, mahogany, and
bronze; the second floor contains offices, and the third floor contains
an apartment for the manager, and both these floors are finished in
tile and mahogany. The cost of this building up to the end of the
fiscal year was $356,003.59.
Cable company.-Construction of a 2-story concrete building for
the office of the All America Cables, at Balboa, was begun in'
September, 1920, and was practically completed in June, 1921. On
the ground floor are the operating rooms and on the second floor are
quarters for the manager and staff. The cost of this building' to
June 30 was $91,885.77.


IL


71I


* 2





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


PRINTING.

The product of the printing plant and the stationery store, which
is run in connection with it, is valued at $400,377.51, which includes
the manufacture of 832,000 commissary coupon books of various
denominations, with an exchange value of 57,000,000. The printing
of these books on the Isthmus has continued to be an economy as
well as a great convenience, and in the past year a saving of
$19,650.88 over the cost of these books in the United States was
effected by printing them at our own plant. This plant is run for
the convenience of the work and, as nearly as possible, it does work
at cost. Report is made each quarter to the Joint Committee on
Printing, and all of the plans of that committee to promote economy
in public printing are being followed here.
RAILROAD.

The railroad business proper was less than in 15 years, due to the
general depression in commerce and to the fact that certain con-
struction work on the Isthmus which had required extra trains was
completed. The low point was reached in December, and there
was no marked improvement until May, when an increase in the
amount of freight handled between terminals became noticeable.
Part of this increase is due to the fact that the railroad, which ceased
to be a cocarrier on August. 14, 1914, entered the transshipment
business again on June 10, 1921. The policy of refusing to transship
cargo from terminal to terminal, except in unusual cases, was based
on the desire to divert all traffic possible to the canal. It has been
found in several cases. however, that this exposed cargo to con-
siderable delay, because of the unwillingness of vessels transiting
the canal to lift this cargo for the transfer only. The object of
reentering the cocarrier business is not to increase the freight traffic
on the railroad but to facilitate the transfer of cargo at the Isthmus.
The railroad maintained 233.46 miles of track, of which 127.52 was
in main line and sidings; 60.31 in Panama Canal tracks; and 15.63
in tracks of the United States Army. The pontoon bridge across the
canal at Paraiso, which was opened for traffic on May 15, 1914,
had deteriorated to such an extent that it was no longer safe for
trains and it was, therefore, put out of commission January 1, 1921,
and later was demolished. A new station was erected at Fort Davis,
between Gatun and Colon, at a cost of 533,*100. The bridge which
carried the traffic of Central Avenue, in Panama City, across the
tracks was torn down and a grade crossing was substituted.
'-The total freight carried both ways was 321,031 tons of 2,000
pounds or of 40 cubic feet, as compared with 544,244 tons in the
previous year; and the average revenue per ton was $3.24, as com-






36 THTE PANAMA CANAL.

pared with $1.84 in the previous year. Revenue freight amoppted to
316,236 tons, a decrease of 185,082 tons as compared with-1920.
Local commercial freight decreased 25,000 tons; Patnama Canal
freight, 173,000 tons; and transit freight increased 10,000 tdfisi sk'id
Army, and Navy freight 5,000 tons. :
The following statement shows the number of passengers carried I
and the passenger revenue for the fiscal year 1921, as compared with
the year ended June 30, 1920:-


Number of passengers Pse revenue.
Classification.
1921 1920 1921 1020

First-lass passengers ............................... 169,033 503,266 3S32,012.33 63, M7.WL
Second-class passengers.......................... 775,802 903,984 301,451.33 256,9140.66
Total....................................... 1,244,835 1,407,250 683,463.66 720,615.45


-\
2
41

,1
j


The average revenue per passenger per mile for 1921 was $0.0329
and for 1920, $0.0274. The gross revenue from transportation of
passengers shows a decrease of $37,152.79 and the number of pas-
sengers carried shows a decrease of 162,415.
The following table contains a summary of the operating statistics'
of the railroad for the fiscal years 1921 and 1920:


Average miles operated................................................
Gross operating revenue...................................................
Operating expenses....................................................
Net operating revenue.....................................................
Per cent of expenses to revenue.........................................
Gross revenue per mile of road.........................................
Operating expenses per mile of road......................................
Net revenue per mile of road..............................................
Revenue per passenger train-mile......................................
Revenue per freight train-mile..........................................
Total revenue train mileage............................................I
Railroad revenue per train-mile..........................................
Railroad operating expenses per revenue train-mile.......................
Net railroad revenue per revenue train-mile-...............................
Tons per loaded ear........................................................
Tons per train............................................................ i
Freight, passenger, and switch locomotive mileage.....................
Wor-train mileage........................................................
Passenger-train mileage....................................................
Freight-train mileage................................................


51.45
52,242,021.69
82,398,734.92
1156,713.23
105.99
143,576.71
$46,622.64
1 3,045.93
$4.84
110.03
$260 428
(8.61
19.21
130.60
10.02
129.39
369,066
110,050
158,188
102,240


12,24,745.78
2, 63,877.01
99.046
M,3J.65
40 38.&28
b377.3T
"St

064
57.57
12.17
127,56
110, 68
163 324
180,1 17
119,013


I Loss.

Panama Railroad stables at Colon.-These stables'were completed
during the year. They-are described in the report for 1920. They
provide accommodations for 432 horses and 240 vehicles, with neces-
sary repair shops, feed rooms, latrines, compost pits, storerooms, amn
quarters for employees. The work was estimated at $144,300 and
was completed well within the estimate.


'4. t.' . -




REPORT OF THB *GOVERNOR. 37

Railroad station at Fort Davis.-When Fort Davis, between Gatun
' and Cristobal, was ready for occupancy, a concrete railway station,
similar to that at Corozal, was erected. In effect, this is a concrete
platform over part of which is erected a roof, affording shelter for
first and second class passengers. Office, baggage room, and toilet
rooms occupy the center of the platform.
TELEPHONES.
The telephone -system was conducted along routine lines, with a
total of 2,992 telephones in use at the end of the year, a decrease of
338 since the last fiscal year. The average number of calls during
the 8-hour business day was 28,809, as compared with 29,744 for the
previous year. An automatic exchange, with capacity of 26 lines,
4 rural lines, and 4 trunk circuits, was installed at Gamboa. The
telephone system at the end of the fiscal year included 36 miles of
pole line, 249 miles of conduit, 135 miles of cable, 13,780 miles of
wire, 960 miles of phantom circuits, 180 miles of simplex circuits, 28
ekebanges, and 6,109 telephones.
LAND AND BUILDINGS.
Thlhe revenue credited to rentals from lands of the Panama Railroad
Co."anounted to $120,865.42. The expenses in connection with land
leais were 813,042.38, leaving a net revenue of $107,823.04, which is
%;,634.64 increase over the previous year. Rentals from buildings
hot used in operation of the railroad amounted to $19,472.44 and the
expenses amounted to $12,245.37, leaving a net revenue of $7,227.07,
as compared with $4,093.90 last year. The capital investment in
railroad real estate up to June 30, 1921, amounted to $2,111,981.07,
'with no uncompleted improvements under construction.
The Panama Canal grants revocable licenses to permit companies
whose business is pertinent to the operation of the canal to erect oil
tanks, office buildings and similar structures, and to permit public
welfare organizations to build churches, lodge halls, and clubhouses.
Seventy-six such licenses, covering the use of lots in the Canal Zone
are in effect. Collections from this source aggregated $16,990.02.
No rental is collected on lots occupied by churches.
CLUBHOUSES.
In Section IV is a briefreference to the clubhouses maintained as
part of the system of keeping up the morale of the force. In these
are sold light lunches, cigars, confections, and novelties, and charges
are made for such special services as use of bowling alleys and billiard
tables. These clubhouses are almost self-sustaining, if no charge be
made against capital cost, and steps have been taken to place them
on a basis of paying all expenses of operation and maintenance in
the fiscal year 1922.




~~~~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~-~----- -^i-II~~
88 THE PANAMA CANAL. I

OPERATIONS WITH PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY' 8 FUNDS.
A recapitulation of financial transactions on the Isthmus under
this head will be found in Section V, statement No. 48.

PANAMA RAILROAD STEAMSHIP LINE.
The gross revenue of the steamship line for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1921, was $5,156,446.84, and the operating expenses were
$5,857,257.06, leaving a net deficit of $700,810.22. This deficit, as
compared with that for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1920, of $278,-
521.70, shows an increase in deficit of $422,288.52.
Briefly, the principal causes contributing to the deficit were:
The strike of the marine engineers, which closed the -line for a
month.
The tonnage carried fell off 33 per cent as compared with the pre-
vious year, due to depression in business throughout the world and
the stoppage of credit to South American merchants, the unfortunate
situating regarding rates of exchange contributing to this depression.
The costs of all supplies and wages were maintained at high marks.
Heavy expenses incurred for repairs that under agreements in
force would not be undertaken by the crews.
Operation of the steamship Caribbean.-This steamer was operated
by the cattle industry of the Panama Railroad between Cartagena
in Colombia and Cristobal, serving as a carrier for cattle purchased
in Colombia for use on the Isthmus and as a feeder for general cargo
to be picked up by the ships in the New York service. The Caribbean
made 35 round trips between Colombia and the Canal Zone and car-
ried 16,457 head of cattle, 3,929.79 tons of general cargo, specie
valued at $584,287.96, and 630 passengers. The revenue from all
business except the cattle business was $42,337.92, divided as fol-
lows: General cargo, $18,624.63; specie, $1,475.36; mail, $94.43;
passengers, $12,143.50.










SECTION III.

GOVERNMENT.

The usual functions of government are carried out in the Canal
Zone through the health, municipal, and executive departments, but
in addition all of the accounting work is done in the accounting de-
partment, while aids to navigation, steamboat inspection, and hydro-
graphic and meteorologic work, commonly considered government
duties, are here associated with canal operation. The cost of gov-
ernment is merged with that of administration, and as close a division
as can be made is found in the statement of working force by canal
operation, business operation, and Government in Section IV of this
report. From the general financial statements may be obtained the
data of cost and revenue of various branches.

POPULATION.

A census of the Canal Zone was made by the police force during
the month of June, and a summary of its result follows:

Americans. All others.

Total Em- Total Em- Chil- Total Em- Total Em- Ch- Total.
men. ploy- wo- ploy- dren men. ploy- wo- ploy-dren.
ees. men. ees. ees. men. ees.

Balboa district................... 2,022 1,851 2,065 279 2,048 3,105 2,227 2,071 44 3,16918,881
Cristobal district................ 768 748 607 44 613 3,036 2,866 1,480 22 2,60812,792
Prisoners......................... 35 ...... ...... ...... ...... 128 9 2 ...... ...... 174
Total employees............. ...... 2,599...... 323 ...... ...... 5,102 ...... 66......8,0S0
Total persons............... 2,825 ...... 2,672 ...... 2,661 6,269...... 3,53 ...... 5,777 23,757
I Includes 256 civilian employees of United States Army.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

Health work has in view lessening of the tropical hazard, which
can be reduced but not eliminated: lessening of disease hazard by
strict cleanliness and antimosquito and antirodent work; curative
work in public dispensaries and hospitals; and quarantine at canal
ports. The jurisdiction of the chief health officer extends to the
cities of Panama and Colon, in addition to the Canal Zone. In the
two cities, however, there are physicians in private practice and a
private hospital in each, and the chief health officer's jurisdiction in
them is comparable to that of a municipal health officer in the
United States. In the Canal Zone there are no private practitioners
39






or hospitals, and the health department is in direct chargetf. al
health work. This work was carried on during the yearAwithout
marked change from past years, except in the improvements that
are the result of experience.
Canal Zone.-The population (civil and military) at the beginning
of the fiscal year (July, 1920) was 29,323, and this has been used as.
the base for vital statistics.
From this population 233 deaths occurred during the year, 206 of
which were from disease, giving a rate of 7.03 for disease alone, as
compared with 7.08 for 1920.
The death rate from tuberculosis was 0.78, as compared with 0.81
for the year 1920. Deaths from tuberculosis this year were 10 per
cent of all deaths.
The birth rate for the year was 23.84. The infant mortality rate,
based on the number of births reported for the year, was 41.24. for
white and 132.36 for black children, with a general average of 94.42.
Of the total births reported, 5 per cent were stillbirths. Of -the total
deaths reported, 39 per cent occurred among children under 5 years
of age. The maternal mortality rate (from conditions due to the
puerperal state) was 9.51 per 1,000 births, stillbirths included.
Panama.-The average population of the city for the year was
60,500, as compared with 61,369 for the last year. From this pop-
ulation 1,245 deaths occurred during the year, of which 1,181 were
from disease, giving a rate of 19.52 for disease alone, as compared
with 20.11 for the preceding year. Tuberculosis gave a death rate
of 3.26, as compared with 3.80 for 1920 and 4.30 for 1919; this was
16 per cent of the total deaths, as compared with 18 per cent for last
year.
The principal causes of death, compared with last year, were as
follows:

191W-Do 192e-21 ,

Tuberculosis (various organs)............... ...................... ............... 23.3 197
Diarrhea and enteritis............................................... 159 178
Pn.*umonia (broncho and lobar).................................................... 193 162

There were 2,257 live births reported for the year, giving a rate ..f
37.30. The infant mortality rate, based on the above. nuztber of
births was 157.28. Of the total number of births reported, q per peat
were stillbirths. Of the total deaths reported 42 per cent. oc9cuMrpd
among children under 5 years of age. The maternal mcrtality rate
(from conditions due to the puerpural state) was 5.85 per 1,000 ?irt is,
stillbirths included. ,




A}





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 41

; Colon.-The average population of the city for the year was 26,078,
a new census not having been taken. From this population, 521
deaths occurred during the year, of which 491 were from disease,
giving a rate of 18.63 for disease alone, as compared with 20.21 for the
preceding year.
The principal causes of death, as compared with last year, were:

1919-20 1920-21

Tuberculosis (various organ)......... ....... ....................................... 101 91
epbritis (a teand chronic ......................... .... .................. 6-- 42
Pneumonia (broncho and lobar)................................................. 47 36

There were 939 live births reported for the year, giving a rate of
36.01. The infant mortality rate, based on the number of births, was
143.66. Of the total births reported, 5 per cent were stillbirths. Of
the total deaths, 37 per cent occurred among children under 5 years
of age. The maternal mortality rate (from conditions due to the
puerpural state) was 12.70 per 1,000 births, stillbirths included.
Hospilals.-All hospitals are under the health department of The
Panama Canal, but report is made here only on those directly ad-
ministered by the canal. The Panama City Hospital (Santo Tomas)
and two private hospitals (one each in Panama and Colon) are not
included.

Patients treated at Panaran Canal hospitals, fiscal year 1921.

Trsns- Remaining
July 1,1920. Admitted. Died. Dlscharged. June 30,
Location.
S d a 9I d c ;


Ancon................. 169 232 4,977 4,428 53 176 4,882 4,207 45 108 166 169
Colon.................. 2 35 1,257 1,539 27 92 961 863 271 601 24 18
Cofozal, insane......... 81 263 87 135 7 26 63 77 2 11 96 284
Corozal, farm,cripples.. 4 27 18 52 ...... 2 17 37 1 14 4 26
Coro chronie......... .... 26 1 10 ...... 4 ....... 3 ...... 4 1 25
Palo Beco, leper........ 5 69 1 9 1 3 21 4 ...... ...... 3 71
Total............ 285 652 6,341 6,173 88 303 5,925 5,191 319 738 294 593

In the surgical clinic at Ancon Hospital 1,600 major operations and
4,952 minor operations were performed and 301 obstetrical cases
were delivered. EIn the eye and ear clinic 1,294 refractions were
done and 1,459 operations performed, in addition to which 7,970
cases not in the hospital were treated. In the X-ray clinic 2,653
cases were handled, 5,886 plates and 57 films were made, and 1,49'5
dental films were made. In the medical clinic, in addition to the
hospital work, 1,370 cases not in the hospital were treated; 199 cases
68844--21----4







of smallpox were treated, from which there was 1 death; 4,i4M I
and 354 school children were vaccinated. -.. !" ?
Quarantine.-The basic policy on which the quarantineitd'tt1
Panama Canal has been operated during the fiscal year has btEito
facilitate to the utmost the movement of ships consistent M-iir g,,
safeguarding of the health of the Canal Zone and thed "prsbnel of
arriving vessels. To this end the detention of passengers and ships
has been reduced to the lowest margin of safety; vessels have been
boarded from speed launches; passengers have been inspected while
the ship was under way; the hours of boarding have been lengthened
to 10 p. m., so that ships arriving after sundown would 'be ready to:.
begin their transit of the canal at sunrise; shipmasters have been
encouraged to have the passengers and crew mustered andiready for
inspection as soon as the vessel arrived at the quarantine 'area; the
number of places quarantined against has beedt'iteduced to thise '
known to be infected with quarantinable disease; a system of granting
pratique by wireless to naval ships has been instituted; and the
principle has been followed that as a rule disease is carried by th'ts
living things aboard arriving craft rather than by the inaminiate
vessel itself. i
The extent to which this principle has been carried into practice is
evidenced by the fact that at Cristobal during the year three ships
were detained a total of three days, as against six ships for a total of i
seven days in the fiscal year 1920. At Balboa the results were even
more striking, 19 ships being held a total of 66T days, as against 91
ships for 198 days in the previous fiscal year. These reductions in I
delays to commercial ships and passengers translate themselves into
financial savings of considerable magnitude.
While there has been a marked reduction in the average length of
delay to ships, there has been a coincident increase in the total opera-
tions. In spite of the falling off it shipping because of marine labor.
troubles, the quarantine officers at the terminal ports inspected 4,153. 1
vessels in the fiscal year just ended as against 3,440 in the previous fiscal
year, an increase of over 20 per cent. In the same period the total
number of persons inspected on arrival increased from 324,263 in..
the fiscal year 1920 to 403,823 in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1921,
an increase of 24.5 per cent.
The presence of alastrim in Caribbean ports and the outbreaks bf
true smallpox in Cuba and Hayti were a menace, but there was'no
infection from these sources. Smallpox on the United States batti6-
ship Mississippi, probably contracted in California, resulted im.'28
cases, but no fatalities. Yellow fever has not been a menace, andit 1is
believed that the present efforts in Yucatan and Peru to eradicate
this disease will result in its complete disappearance from the WeMtern

i> :: ' r
a' *' ;* -







*w jellnf-ceseary precautions againfstifectiol' in
ra p trpbstbystriashiquarantinand by keeping
Sfr leteegotiyisa mosquitoes. Typhus was reported
) Mexicb and Bolivia, but no' ease was found at canal ports. No
hi ofbubonio c plague was handled at canal ports, but this disease is
M eVI-present -menace and precautions are taken against its gaining
a Foothold here. The danger lies in the infection of rats in the ports
a -r thesaubsequent spread of the disease to jungle rats and other
hil&odeits... In this way an enaootic residual focus would be created,
A" ih radiation of which would be well-nigh impossible. In order to
M!olltW.any such contingency, all vessels in canal ports are required
reast off and otherwise rat guard, and ships from infected ports
uigated for the. destruction of rats and other vermin. In
a circular is given to the master of each arriving vessel,
upon him the necessity for maintaining antirodent precau-
4~mtik 1all ports and advising the frequent fumigation of his vessel,
0aftter whether it has touched at known infected ports or not.
It*imrrndts of the periodic fumigation of ships have been most
ig. Frequently vessels on their first fumigation are found to
av harbored large numbers of rats, but on subsequent fumigations
w*p (ound practically-rodent free.
MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING.

SThe work of maintaining a water supply, highways, walks, and
; sewers in the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon was
'i utiaued -along routine lines.
'Water.-The supplying of pure water, an essential to good health
bi the tropics, was continued from three sources: Brazos Brook
Reservoir for Cristobal, Colon, and Army and Navy garrisons to the
C east of Colon; Agua- Clara Reservoir for Gatun and Fort Sherman;
ih ad by pumping from the Chagres River for the southern section of
htbe Isthmus. The system comprises the two reservoirs mentioned,
S10 pimping stations, 3 purification plants, 131.8 miles of mains, and
: i4.t:miles of branch mains. The cost of delivering water (not includ-
Sidg capital cost) was from 4 to 13 cents a thousand gallons, the greater
' part costing from 7 to 8 cents a thousand gallons. The water is con-
tinally under test by physiologists, and each of the three purification
plants is in charge of a chemist. The consumption was as follows:
Gallons.
al Zone......................... ............... ................... 7,582,672,652
........................................................... 1,080,412,000
ilo .......................................................... 708,429,750
*aBie at cuiial ports............................................. 165, 688, 188
4j 1A I ,
li~~f :rtA ;.* '. <* *. *" :**





44 THE PANAMA CANAL. .

The collections from Colon were $148,554.16; frhgamfal B
$176,736.95; sales to steamships, other departments e& akGui s
ment, Panama Railroad, and all except Panama Canal, f 5S$6.2(L
Highways.-The roads and streets in the terminal cities and theJi
Canal Zone, a total of 1,183,842 square yards, were swept and maiun-
tained, including renewals of wearing surfaces, cutting grass along the '
roads, and the clearing of ditches and drains.
Sewers.-The sewers in the Canal Zone and the terminal cities were.
flushed weekly and otherwise maintained. Work was continued on
the construction of a new sewer in the city of Panama parallel to the A
cast water front. It consists of a reinforced concrete box with |
necessary laterals.
Garbage disposal.-Garbage from the city of Panama: and the 4
Ancon-Balboa district was incinerated during the first half of the
year, when the incinerator was closed for repairs. Since then thie
garbage has been buried at places where the filling will be of valued
It is covered lightly with clean earth and sprinkled with disinfectant
to prevent insect breeding. In August, 1920, the new incinerator at :'
Cristobal was placed in service, and since that time all garbage from
the Colon-Cristobal district has been burned. :
During the first half of the year a large amount of municipal
engineering construction work was done for the Army at the.new
posts, and this is referred to under business operations.
PUBLIC ORDER.
For purposes of public order the Canal Zone may be likened to a
great port because of the cosmopolitan nature of the floating popula-
tion and the character of the cases that it is necessary to handle. So
far as the canal villages themselves are concerned, little policing is
necessary, and this is usually of a routine character. The police force
at the end of the year numbered 178, of whom colored policemen
numbered 44. This compares with a force of 183 on July 1, 1920, '
The force at the penitentiary consists of 19 men; on duty with the .
Panama Railroad, 27 men; on duty at the locks, 9 men; acting as
boarding officers, 2 men; in launch service, 8; guards on road work,
4; on detective service, 6; on regular police duty, 91.
The arrests made were 4,941, of whom 261 were females. Ariets
were made on warrant in 566 cases. Of the total cases, 1,057 'were ;
disposed of without action by the court. In the courts 3,210 were
convicted, 622 dismissed, and 52 were unsettled at the end of the year.
The largest number of arrests was made under the general classifica- .:
tion of disorderly conduct, 793; violation of motor vehicle regulations,
659; violation of national prohibition act, 267; petit larceny, 262;
loitering, 312; alien enemies detained in transit across the Canal Zone,
331; assault and battery, 132; held for naval authorities, 147; held

'1|





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 45

f1i military authorities, 59; grand larceny, 121; gambling, 82;
fighting, 58. The people arrested represented 44 distinct national-
iiesi. British subjects arrested numbered 1,692, which includes
representatives of the West Indies 1,455, and of the balance of the
empire 237. (In the list of nationalities represented the British
Empire is considered as one.) American citizens numbered 1,348;
Panaman citizens, 590; citizens of Germany (alien enemies), 321;
I Colombia, 225. By occupation, the largest number of arrests was
that of chauffeurs, 900; laborers, 786; sailors and seamen, 546;
soldiers, 448; firemen, 312; no occupation, 603.
SSeven cases of homicide were handled. Three West Indian Negroes
held over from the previous year were hanged for murder on Decem-
ber 1, 1920.
An average of 117 prisoners a month served sentences in the com-
mon jails, and all physically able to work were employed on road and
clearing work or at the police and fire stations. The labor performed
[by these prisoners, on the basis of rates for common labor, was
valued at $36,501.69.
Eight arrests were made in the opium traffic and this traffic was
practically suppressed.
Deportations were made of 45 persons, of whom 38 were convicts
,whohad completed terms of imprisonment, and 7 were persons who
had been convicted of misdemeanor charges or were deemed unde-
sirable inhabitants of the Canal Zone.
At the penitentiary at Gamboa 91 new convicts were entered, 51
:completed terms and were discharged, and 3 were executed. Most
of the convicts were employed on the construction of the Paraiso-
Gamnboa road and on other municipal work. A few were employed
on the penitentiary farm and in the maintenance of prison buildings
and grounds. On the farm a considerable quantity of produce was
-raised, and this was used in supplementing the regular food ration.
Oi. n the basis of standard rates of pay, the value of work performed by
the convicts was $22,827.19. The total cost of subsisting, guarding,
andl clothing convicts was $34,837.45, of which $16,355.07 was paid
out as salary of officers and guards at the penitentiary, and $8,909.44
for salaries of officers and guards on road work. The total amount
expended for subsistence of convicts was only $6,714.59, and this
small expenditure was due to the fact that the convicts themselves
Raised a considerable amount of the food they ate.
OFFICE OF DISTRICT ATTORNEY.
The office of the district attorney handled 500 criminal cases before
.thfe district court, in which a verdict of guilty was rendered in 359
cases; of not guilty in 35; 35 were dismissed and 80 were otherwise
.'disposed of. In the 80 "otherwise disposed of" the majority were







found guilty on other charges. .Of the 500 caoes, 97 werei M p
from the magistrates' courts, in which 65 were found guftpa-.
guilty, and 8 were dismissed by the court. Of -the criaelsM
pending at the beginning of the fiscal year, all were disposed ;of except
two charges against a bank manager, arising out of the failureoethlo
Continental Banking & Trust Co. of Panama, warrants for-:,oxtAl
edition of whom are still in the hands of the Department, o Juati"O
At the close of the fiscal year 42 other cases were pending, this large j
number being accounted for by the fact that there were no sittings
of the court during the month of June. Civil cases in; whio1hite
district attorney represented The Panama Canal, numbered .,47.4
Details of these cases will be found in the report of the district attorney .)
THE COURTS.
The courts utilized the organization of The Panama Canal for adminii-
istrative purposes during the year, but except for this they are mnt,|
under the jurisdiction of the executive power on the.Canal Zone.
DISTRICT COURT.
The district court held sessions at Ancon and Oristobael nMd trans-:
acted the following business:
Cases pending first of fiscal year: Civil, 126; probate,) 180; criminals ;
26; total, 282. Cases filed during fiscal year: Civil, 145; probate, i
263; criminal, 397; total, 805. Cases settled during fiscal year: .
Civil, decided, 92; transfererd, 6; dismissed, 72; total, 170; 'probate,
243; criminal, acquitted, 26; transferred, 3; convicted, '280;i diis- 4
missed, 28; nolle prosequi, 32; total, 379; grand'total, 792. Cases k
pending last of fiscal year: Civil, 101 (forfeits and dismissed; .10;i a
probate, 150; criminal, 44; total, 295. Number of sessions of court, ?
168; number of marriage licenses issued, 865; number of deeds re-
corded, 10; collections, $503.42. Items bearing upon the work .f the:
courts will be found, also, in the annual report of the districtattomeprn
and the chief of police and fire division.
The district judge, John W. Hnaan, resigned toward the end of the
fiscal year, and Judge Charles Kerr of Kentucky was appointed to
succeed him. Judge Kerr assumed the duties of the office ah JulYr
16, 1921. I
MARSHAL. *
Writs of process received, 392; served, 341; not served&, artf iesbtI
found, 51; fees collected, $1,161.62; paid witnesses, 5100; paid jurors,
$50; paid interpreters, $20; trust funds received, $131,123.60; dis-|
bursed, $131.123.60; attendance at court, 119 days at &Aidd 4091
days at Cristobal. .n








ahoa-Cases pending first of year: Civil, 1; criminal, 4; total, 5.
i#iikes docketed during year: Civil, 71; criminal, 2,175; total, 2,246.
I: hese disposed of during year: Civil, 70 (appeals 14); criminal, 2,178;
" acquitted, 130; convicted, 1,664 (appeals, 70); dismissed, 197; held
I' district "court, 187; total, 2,248. Cases pending at end of year:
*1ci wr; criminal, 1; total, 3. Total collections, $13,941.53. During
tik "ie, and as provided for in executive order of May 10, 1911,
il~8its were made to the district judge for the commitment of 85
jY"tdnt (of whom 26 were soldiers) to the Insane Asylum for obser-
*ktawtas follows: Whites, male, 41; female, 4; total, 45; negroes,
i ale, 25; female, 15.; total, 40.
:i? b stobal.--Ca~ses pending first of year: Civil, 2; criminal, 7; total,
tir Cases docketed during year: Civil, 32; criminal, 2,005; total,
I' 7B07. All cases were settled, except one criminal case pending on
Stifj 1, 1921. Of the total criminal cases settled there were 1,430
; convictions, 331 acquittals, 46 dismissals, and 205 committed to the
district court. Total collections, $14,834.20.
FIRE PREVENTION.
Fire stations were maintained at eight places and also fire equip-
!i ent on four tugs. The paid fire force numbered 44 men, of whom
17 were stationed at Balboa, 4 at Pedro Miguel, 19 at Cristobal, and
IG atin. 'One hundred and sixty-eight volunteer firemen served
Ii ii'stationus other than those at which paid forces were maintained.
t'e dcrews of the four tugs mentioned acted, also, as volunteer fire-
men. The total force consists of 212 men. Fires numbered 103 and
thete were 13 false alarms. Fires in ships numbered 13, and the
ligiest single loss was in a ship in the harbor at Balboa, amounting
tid'90OO0. The total fire loss was $115,735.22. It is estimated that
the property eiidangered by fires during the year had a value of $10,-

SCHOOL SYSTEM.

D luringzthe past school year, October 1, 1920, to June 30, 1921, five
v elementary and 'two high schools for white American children and
Sseten elementary schools for colored West Indian children were
maintained. .The- school organization is comparable with a city
t, tihool system in continental United States, with a superintendent and
| I4I assistants in charge and a principal at each school; the towns of
C.tQ Canal Zone, although more scattered, being comparable with the
[.g iioh 1of a city where schools are located. All elementary schools
E'l]sjfeBaaed and the high schools offer the usual courses. There are
4Bt pupil transfers t6 and from the States, and the high school
Me enter the' various institutions of.higher learning.

.t......' .;





48 THE PANAMA CANAL.
A high-grade teaching personnel is maintained. The teaching
corps in the white schools is composed of well-qualified and e.ple-
rienced American teachers appointed from the States. The teachers
in the colored schools are men from the West Indies, trained and
experienced in teaching in their homeland.
The net enrollment was 2,082 and 1,454, and the average daily
attendance 1,633.2 and 1012.9, in the white and colored schools,.
respectively. There was a teaching force of 85 white and 24.colored
employees. The average number of pupils per classroom teacher
was about 30 and 50 in the white and colored schools, respectively.
The number of colored teachers is inadequate for conducting the
colored schools satisfactorily.
Two teachers are assigned to substitute for teachers absent on
account of sickness, and to assist individual pupils in the elementary
white schools. Besides the absences covered by these two teachers
and by per diem substitutes, rooms were dismissed 160 days. Two
teachers are inadequate for this work.
A plan of promotion by subjects in grades four to eight, inclusive,
has been successfully operated for the past three years. A general
uniform program is followed in these grades and the pupils pass to
other rooms for their irregular subjects. Supervisors and special
teachers follow a floating program. The plan has worked to the
advantage of all concerned.
Music and penmanship instruction has been conducted under
special supervisors. Besides the high-school modem language
courses, Spanish instruction has been given in grades four to eight,
inclusive, by special Spanish-speaking teachers.
A unique problem in school administration and supervision exists
here because the teachers come from so many different States and
localities, bringing with them their various local views, standards,
and methods of teaching; because the annual turnover in teaching
force is large; and because of frequent transferring of pupils to and
from the States. The past year 42.8 per cent of the white teachers
were new.' The corps of white teachers represented 27 States and two
foreign countries, and practically as many localities and different
school systems as there were teachers. The length of service for
teachers in the Canal Zone schools averaged about three years. The
average length of time for pupils is about the same.
The school buildings are modern and well equipped. Some
annex buildings have been provided to accommodate the overflow
from main buildings. It is necessary to accommodate the two
high schools in buildings with the grades, until new modern high
school buildings can be provided. Classroom accommodations. in
the colored schools are inadequate. A double-shift plan, whereby
two classes alternate in using the same classroom, has been operated
in some of the colored schools.





REPORf OF THE GOVERNOR. 49

tWhile the Canal Zone school system is first class, there are still
r needs to be met and improvements to be made, but which I have
Ipegretfully omitted from our estimates in the interest of economy.
1The Canal Zone schools not only provide educational facilities for
Ithe. children of the American communities of Panama Canal employ-
SeesE, but also serve as an example of American education to many
non-Americans visiting The Panama Canal. The best possible-
educational system is required, in the former case, since the very
existence and future of our form of government is dependent upon
public education, and desirable, in the latter case, in order to convey
the proper impression to iion-Americans judging American education
by -the Canal Zone school system. Children of Panamans and of
representatives of foreign governments and business firms living in
Panama and Colon attended the Canal Zone schools by payment of
tuition fees aggregating about $5,000 for the year.
POSTAL SYSTEM.
] Eleven post offices were in operation at the end of the year, five
having been closed because of lack of funds and for reasons of economy.
Postal receipts amounted to $161,476.13, as compared with $138,-
391.60 for the previous year, an increase of 16.6 per cent, amounting
to.. $23,094.53. In addition to paying the Panaman Government
$39,544 for postage stamps which could have been purchased from
the United States Post Office Department for $2,000, all official mail
of The Panama Canal and the Army and Navy within the Canal
,Zone was carried free, and transportation charges were paid on
official mail to the United States. If the Canal Zone postal system
had been relieved from payment of the subsidy of 40 per cent of the
face value of postage stamps furnished by Panama, the revenue
would have exceeded the expenditures for the fiscal year by about
$20,000; this with free handling of official mail to the amount of
aslhot 64 per cent of the whole.
The number of money orders issued was 136,976, an increase over
1920 of 13,851, the total value amounting to $3,759,132.76, an in-
crease of $59,135.78. The increase in fees collected was $1,421.55.
Postal savings money orders were issued of a total value of $1,348,245
and*paid of a total value of $1,352,425. The balance on deposit
June 30, 1921, was $660,720 as compared with $520,070 at the close
5 of the previous fiscal year. Depositors. were paid $7,952.18 interest
on orders cashed,. and interest received from banking institutions
on funds on deposit amounted to $25,803.10, leaving a net balance
-for the year of $17,850.91. The postal savings money order system
has been in operation since October 15, 1914, and to June 30, 1921,
showed a profit of $84,357.72. The rate of interest paid depositors
is 2 per cent per annum, and recommendation has been made for







legislation that will permit an increase in the interest. rate .-Spipe
cent, which it is hoped will be approved.
The director of posts continued to act as postal agent; for thqe
United States Post Office Department under an arrangement eauclu4d
in 1916, under which arrangement all transit United States nmall, apd
foreign closed mail dispatched by way of United States portso to the
west coast of Central and South America is forwarded .h.ee .On
April 1, 1921, at the request of the United States Post Ofiee Depart-
ment, the handling of foreign closed transit mail, formerly handled
by the British packet agent, was taken over by the direotor.of posts
The greatest need of the bureau of posts at present, is for potpk
office buildings at Cristobal, Ancon, and Balboa. The buildings now
in use are built of wood and have deteriorated to a pointthat tat makes
the cost of upkeep high. The business has also outgrown the,Aie of j
the buildings, which makes unpleasant and crowded working condi
tions for the employees, and also inconveniences the public. These
necessary improvements have also been omitted from estimates for
reasons of economy.
CUSTOMS. .
Customs work increased considerably during the year. Not- -
withstanding the decrease in shipping during May and June, the total
number of vessels entered and cleared during the fiscal year 1921 was
13,914, as compared with 12,039 during the previous year, an average O
increase of 156 vessels a month. For merchandise destined to ,the j
Republic of Panama entered at the ports of Cristobal and Balboa, 8,302
releases were granted. One thousand five hundred and sixteen requestA :
for free entry under the treaty and Taft agreement were handled:.
Three hundred and eighty-four inspections of household goods of of
employees being returned to the.United States were made, for which.
the sum of $1,050 was collected. In addition to invoices for The
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad, which are certified wi'thxut 1
charge, 1,048 invoices were certified, for which the sum of $820 .S
was received. The bureau of customs is also charged with the |
exclusion of Chinese from the Canal Zone, and also cooperates with the
Republic of Panama in the enforcement of its Chinese exclufioni'aw. I
The number of Chinese passengers arriving at ports of the Cffial
Zone was 1,272, as compared with 490 for the previous fiscal' yea ,
and 319 Chinese crews were also handled. Bonds for the tenipor
release of Chinese in transit were deposited to the amount of OSoO.
Three times as many prohibited alien passengers were hbandl id irrig
the year as were handled during the previous year.







S. SHIPPING COMMISSIONER-SEAMEN.

:: e shipping commissioner and his deputies have the same powers
as shipping commissioners in the United States and American consuls
in foreign ports with respect to American seamen. During the year
4,313 seamen were shipped and 3,462 discharged, as compared with
S4,2.81. shipped and 3,378 discharged during the previous fiscal year.
I There were lodged and subsisted at the expense of the State Depart-
meant 707 American seamen, of whom 382 were returned at the
expense of the Gbvernment and 325 procured employment on
vessels or signed on as work always. The total amount of wages
earned by seamen discharged at Canal Zone ports amounted to
$421,690.97. Deductions amounting to $160,279.63 were approved,
&nd $201,411.34 were either paid to seamen or received on deposit
kit them. The estates of 10 deceased American seamen were handled
dtirihg the year and settled with the proper courts. Two American
vessels were sold under libel actions in the Canal Zone, in which
cases the shipping commissioner represented the interests of the
seamen.
ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATES.

Estates of 142 deceased and insane employees, amounting to
$19,968.71, were settled as compared with 258 estates during 1920,
sand there were 27 estates in course of settlement on June 30, 1921.

RELATIONS WITH PANAMA.

Relations of the canal administration with the Republic of Panama
were carried on as usual, and, in addition to these, the Governor acted
in an advisory capacity in other matters concerning the affairs of the
Republic with relation to the United States. In the report of the
executive secretary is a partial list of the various matters handled,
consisting of 73 distinct items. Some of these were of a routine
nature, but several of them were matters of considerable importance,
both to the United States and to Panama. No report is made on
these questions, because each of them involves diplomatic relations
and only an exhaustive discussion would be fair.

THE TAFT AGREEMENT.

Attention is called to the statement showing that the postal
service paid $39,544 to the Government of Panama for stamps that
would have cost $2,000 if United States stamps were used. This
subsidyy is paid as part of the consideration of the modus viviendi of
1904-5, known as the Taft agreement. This agreement was a tem-
:porary measure for the construction period of the canal only, and
sine the canal was opened to commerce recommendations for re-


6 i. '-. "





52 THE PANAMA CANAL.

placing it by a formal treaty have been made. The formal opening
of the canal was made on July 12, 1920, by proclamation of the
President, and thus one more obstacle to a proper adjustment of
diplomatic relations between the Canal Zone and the Republic of
Panama was removed. It is not my purpose to discuss here a ques-
tion so complicated as this, but I wish to make it of record in this
report that all of the reasons advanced at any time for repeal of the
Taft agreement still exist, and recommendation for its repeal is
therefore renewed.

LAWS AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS.

Laws enacted and Executive orders issued during the year, ap-
plicable to The Panama Canal, form Appendix E of the report of
the executive secretary. Toward the end of the year, the com-
pilation of all laws of the Canal Zone was completed, and publication
will be made within the next six months.









SECTION IV.

ADMINISTRATION.
CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION.

The following is quoted from the annual report of the executive
secretary to me under date of August 15, 1921:
Chester Harding, brigadier general, retired, Engineer Corps, United States Army,
ended 12 years of service on The Panama Canal March 27, 1921, when he resigned as
Governor of The Panama Canal. A statement of his service with the canal follows:
t'July 27, 1907, detailed from Engineer Corps, United States Army, to Isthmian
Oal Commission, as division engineer, Gatun Locks.
"July 1, 1908, when canal work was reorganized and divisions consolidated, made
uagistant division engineer of the Atlantic division, continuing- as such until he
resigned, February 27, 1913.
"November 4, 1914, detailed from Engineer Corps, United States Army, to be
assistant to the Governor of The Panama Canal.
'January 1, 1915, promoted to engineer of maintenance.
"January 11, 1917, took oath as Governor of The Panama Canal.
"March 27, 1921, resigned, having continued as Governor, by request of the Secre-
tary of War, two months beyond his term."
Speaking for the thousands of canal men who hold Gen. Harding in affectionate
-esteem, I wish to make this brief personal note in my report as an evidence of the
regard of his fellow workers.
I wish to add to this brief tribute of the executive secretary my
own appreciation of the high service done for our Government by
Gen. Harding during his term as Governor.
Col. Jay J. Morrow, engineer of maintenance under Gov. Harding,
took the oath of office as Governor, March 28, 1921.
Other changes in executives in th3 administration were as follows:
Judge Frank Feuille, who had been special attorney of The Panama
Canal and counsel for the Panama Railroad on the Isthmus since
1910, resigned on September 20, 1920. In his capacity as special
attorney, Judge Feuille had represented The Panama Canal before
the joint commission, to which claims on account of land expro-
priated for the canal and related uses were referred. He also, through
the land office, adjusted claims which were settled through his efforts
without reference to the joint commission. His zeal in defending
the Government against exorbitant claims resulted in a saving of so
much money that it probably can be reckoned in millions of dollars-
certainly in hundreds of thousands. The value of his service, like
that of Gen. Harding, can not be overestimated.
In accordance with precedent, immediately after my appointment
as Governor I requested the detail of an officer of the Engineer
Corps, United States Army, to act as engineer of maintenance and,
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.inthe absence of the Governor, to act in that office. Col. Meriwether
j. 'Walker was detailed, and, on July 2, 1921, he took up the duties
o) the office. It has been evident for two years or more that so much
detail work was coming to the Governor and to the engineer of
maintenance as to hamper them in their proper duties as executives,
planning for the improvement of the service and promoting economy
F;in the handling of the work. On this account I established the office
of assistant engineer of maintenance, and Maj. C. S. Ridley, Engineer
;Corps, United States Army, was detailed to fill it. He is representa-
.tive: of the Governor on the Wage and Compliants Boards, and has
supervision of a portion of the engineering duties that center in the
office of engineer of maintenance. He assumed office on May 10,
S 1921.
:- M. T. C. Morris resigned as resident engineer of the building divi-.
Ft siW on July 28,.1920, and was succeeded by Mr. J. B. Fields, up to
fth' time superintendent of construction, under whom the work then
1in hand was carried to completion. On June 1, 1921, the new con-
-.struction work having been practically completed, the building
s division was abolished and such members of the force as were needed
S for the maintenance .work on buildings of all kinds were transferred
i to the supply department, where they will work under the direction
of Mr. Fields, who has been designated constructing quartermaster.
On June 1, 1921, the municipal engineer, Mr. D. E. Wright,
resigned, and Mr. George W. Green, who had been acting during the
absence of Mr. Wright, was appointed municipal engineer.
Mr. Alfred H. Mohr was appointed collector on December 16, 1920,
to succeed Maj. T. L. Clear, who had accepted a commission in the
United States Army.
Surg. W. C. Rucker, of the Public Health Service, was appointed
chief quarantine officer on October 28, 1920, succeeding Dr. S. B.
Grubbs, returned to duty with the Public Health Service.
The district judge, John W. Hanan, resigned toward the end of
the fiscal year, and Charles Kerr was appointed to succeed him.
Judge Kerr did not assume the duties of his office, however, until
July 16 of the new fiscal year. This entry is made as a matter of
.record only. The district court is independent of the executive and
is associated with it only for convenience of handling administrative
details.
ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY.
A No changes were made in administrative policy during the year,
although variations in details were necessary from time to time.
: The work on the Isthmus was handled as though in one organiza-
tion, the heads of departments of The Panama Canal reporting to the
Governor, and the superintendent of the Panama Railroad reporting
to the aident of..'the railroad,-.the incumbent of both offices being


i "":::





THE PANAMA CANAL.


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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


the same. The general administration is centered in the executive
office, and the accounting work in the accounting department; the
Pamana Railroad and other divisions of the general organization
being billed for their proper share of the general overhead work.
The organization charts which are published herewith show the lines
of responsibility and the various divisions into which the work is
separated for convenience in administration.
BUDGET AND ECONOMIES.
In accordance with the provisions of the budget and accounting
act of June 10, 1921, the work of preparing estimates for the fiscal
year 1922 was begun immediately after receipt of instructions from
the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. The auditor of The
Panama Canal, Mr. H. A. A. Smith, who is head of the accounting
department and has been charged in past years with the preparation
of estimates and making of allotments, was appointed budget officer
for this organization. Steps toward making economies had been
taken months before the passage of the new budget law, and the efforts
of the Director of the Bureau of the Budget to promote both economy
and efficiency found The Panama Canal already well along with the
aims he has in view.
Measures of economy under way at the close of the fiscal year
included: (a) Reductions in wages in accord with reductions in the
United States and with the cost of living; (b) reductions in force on
account of lessened work; (c) studies in canal operation forces with
idea of reducing number of employees; (d) reducing amount of stock
in warehouses; (e) reducing paper work and printing bills. Sub-
stantial savings have been made, and the efforts will be continued
to the end that the balance which The Panama Canal turns into the
Treasury each year (already a substantial amount) may be increased.
ACCOUNTING.
The system of accounting, embracing both Government and com-
mercial methods adapted to the peculiar conditions of the canal
and related work, was continued along established lines. A study
of the organization chart of the accounting department and of the
fiscal tables in Section V will give insight of the broad outlines of this
work. The auditor, who is head of this department, is preparing an
analysis and explanation of the system, which will be available
shortly.
THE WORKING FORCE.
The working force of the organization, both on the Isthmus and
in the United States, at the close of the fiscal years 1920 and 1921
is as shown in the table following.
68844--21--5









THE PANAMA CANqAL.


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Department or division.


Operation and maintenance
Offie............................................
Building diviselon................................
Electrical.........................................
pan..........,........... ...
Lo6 a entiB .*................................
pai a.........................................
iminaa......................................
:tie r...... ..........l.........................
al s .....................................
g. ...... -..............................


Wahint o offic....e .................... .......
Ne Indr oiyc Pan. a.ma ..R......C .................
l.n.. ..................................
t .. i.... ..... .... ....... .............. .......
.... .........................................


p miengstati .ns..................................

Waslaigtoa office, Panama Canal.......... ........
New York oalce, Panama R. R. Co...................
Totow...........................................


P'i


Silver Toal.
roll. I


Gold:
roll.


41
512
247
115
170
185
1,027
184
58
208
35
317
27
11
253
252
567
76
147
98
120
141
1,373


81
1,887
504
1,305
758
1,308
2,656
689
285
1,990
435
1,923
618
106
262
1,152
797
6483
329
2,369
925
141
1,373


6,164 16,372 22,536


'Dvin oftePnm alod u dinsee yspl eatet


i Dtions of the Panama Railroad, but administered by supply department.
* Iniundes employees in Haiti and on steamers.

The reduction of force that is indicated between


Gold
roll.


31
197
90
175
167
645
191
61
279
33
239
19
10
226
246
564
61
94
66
112
134
1,005


Silver Total.
roll.I


50
216
760
557
756
1,000
518
181
1,474
299
1,166
154
81
9
847
258
332
125
687
586


4,645 10,035


81
413
850
732
922
1,645
709
242
1,753
332
1,405
173
91
235
1,093
822
393
219
753
678
134
1,005
14,680


1920 and 1921


actually continued throughout the first month of the new fiscal year,
and the total is now less than it was at the end of June. From the
figures above, however, it will be seen that the gold roll, or American,
force has been reduced by 1,144 men, and the silver roll, or laboring,
force, made up chiefly of West Indians, has been reduced by 6,337
men, The reductions in force are due principally to two causes:
Firs4 the end of building construction work for the Army, which
elirihiated entirely the building division; and, second, the world
depression in the shipping business, which has cut down materially
the 'amount of work in the mechanical shops and in other services
tospipping.
I. .Will be noticed that there have been comparatively small cuts
in the purely administrative force under the executive and account-
ing departments. On the other hand, a material increase in the
productive force would not result in an appreciable increase in the
.number of administrative; workers. There is presented here the
common situation of overhead force neither increasing nor decreasing
t exact proportion to the number of productive workers. However,
a.. April of the past year I directed the executive secretary, the
iboting auditor, and the marine superintendent to make a careful
tiwfVey of the administrative work, with the idea in view of cutting
I &twn the number of employees on such work. As the result of the
r`stdy begun at that 'time -md of the general reduction of force, we


40
1,375
257
1,190
588
1,123
1,629
505
227
1,782
400
1,606
S91
95
9
900
230
567
182
2,271
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60 THE PANAMA CANAL.






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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 61

have found it possible to eliminate 25 positions in these departments
]since the end of the fiscal year, making a total reduction since the
k beginning of the fiscal year 1921 of over 50 men in this force. A
I reduction along similar lines has been made in the health department,
I due to a lessening of field work, making possible a reorganization
of the method of handling it.
In the municipal engineering division the reduction of approxi-
mately 500 men is due, likewise, to the completion of work at the
Army posts, where this division was engaged in street and sidewalk
construction and grading.
In the dredging division there has been a slight decrease in the
number of gold roll employees and a decrease of nearly 300 in the
silver roll employees. The necessity for continuing the dredging
organization on a basis for emergency has been referred to in Section
I of this report. The routine maintenance work will always require
a dredging force, but until the danger of interruption by slides has
been put entirely behind us, it will be necessary to keep a force
capable of doing emergency work in large volume. This force is
not kept idle, but is working to advantage at all times on such
excavation as will anticipate further slides or as is useful to various
parts of the work.
There has been an actual increase of 5 men on the gold fotce of
the lock operation division and a decrease of 31 men on the silver
force. So small a fluctuation as this may be due at any time to
maintenance conditions that may be different at the end of each
fiscal year. Shortly after the arrival of the assistant engineer of
maintenance in May, 1921, I directed him to take up a study already
begun by me to determine if it would not be possible to cut down
the force at the locks by a different method of handling the ships
without .any, or appreciable, decrease in the efficiency of making
lockages. These studies were in progress at the end of the fiscal
year, but inasmuch as they involve not only the theory but also
experimentation under actual working conditions, it is impossible to
state when the results will be known. One point must be kept in
mind in this connection, viz, with the great care already used we are
obliged to pay each year several thousands of dollars in repairs to
damages incurred by ships at the locks, and that a lowering in
efficiency of handling the ships at the locks might easily lead to a
..great increase in the amount of damages to be repaired.
In Section II of this report reference has already been made to
the decrease in force of the mechanical division, and attention has
been called to the fact that this force is now below the point at
which- it should be kept in order to guarantee prompt and efficient
work of any magnitude either for the Navy or for commercial vessels.
Inasmuch as it is a military as well as a commercial necessity to








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maintain shops here that are capahle-of doing big repair jobs on ships
:at short notice, it is believed that our efforts to procure from the
iTavyfDepartment and the Army, a certain amount of the repair
work that they have constantly on hand should be more carefully
considered than is apparent.
In the commissary division there has been a gross reduction of
over 500 employees. This is due to a less total number of employees
p purchasing at the commissaries and to the falling off in various lines
of the work, making it possible to reduce force by doubling up.
Thqefigures for cattle industry and plantations are not conclusive,
because the cattle-industry force is somewhat casual, but it is true
that there has been an intrinsic reduction in this end of the work,
due, to the fact that most of the virgin clearing has been completed,
that the chicken industry has been practically abandoned, and that
several more of the plantations have been let out to contract.
In the transportation force of the Panama Railroad the reduction
is due to the falling off of construction work and to the closing down
of the Caseadas branch and to a decrease in the amount of freight
being handled. A further reduction has been made in the new fiscal
year as .the result of studies begun in the year 1921 on account of a
curtiheint of the passenger service.
The total figures for the receiving and forwarding agency and the
coaling stations are indicative of very. little, because the laboring
force engaged at both plants is largely casual. The figures of the
gold-roll force, however, do signify a certain change. At the receiv-
ing shd forwarding agency this reduction in force is due to the
less amount of cargo being handled, and at the coaling station is
due to the fact that we are working on a two-shift instead of a
three shift basis.
In considering the working force of The Panama Canal and the
Panaina Railroad on the Isthmus, the main classes of work done,
viz, canal operation, business operations, and government, should be
kept: in mind. For the mere work of operating the canal a force of
about 3,000 men is sufficient. For the various activities of the Gov-
k; eminent, which include the activities of National, State, and munici-
pal governments in the United States, a force of about 2,000 men is
necessary. More people are' employed in the business operations-
that is, in the operations that pay for themselves and actually return
some profit-than in the other two branches combined. An effort'
has been made to show ;this fact in the table herewith, entitled
r "Force at work in June, 1$21, divided as to work on which engaged
and as to pay received." ;From this statement and the organization
i charts a fairly accurate idea of the method of administering the whole
'work and the cost of each part thereof can be obtained.


biS^^





64 THE PANAMA CANAL.







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


WAGE ADJUSTMENTS-GOLD EMPLOYEES.


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The policy of adjusting wages of American employees on the basis
of similar employment in the United States was continued. The
system is to ascertain an average of wages for various classes in com-
munities in the United States where conditions of living are fairly
comparable with conditions on the Canal Zone and to add to this
average 25 per cent to determine a rate for the canal service. Gov-
ernment wages in continental United States are used as a base, where
the Government is doing work comparable with that done at the
canal; otherwise, comparable private employment is used as a guide.
The data procured from the United States are presented to the Gov-
ernor, who is charged with the fixing of compensation. He is ad-
vised in this work by the executives in charge of departments or divi-
sions and by a board on rates of pay.
This board, which was established in 1919 and continued to function
in 1921 along lines indicated in the reports for 1919 and 1920, is com-
posed of a representative of organized employees and a representative
of the Government. It held 29 meetings during the fiscal year, made
recommendations to the Governor in 71 separate cases, and held 19
hearings of employees. It is a valuable auxiliary in promoting a
sense of fairness and contentment in the working force, and unless
reasons not nowv apparent make a change in policy necessary, in this
connection, it is my intention to continue the board and the policy of
allowing employees to be represented in the determination of rates
of pay.
Adjustments followed the trend of wages in the United States.
which was upward in the first half of the year and downward during
the second half.

RECRUITING IN THE UNITED STATES.

The recruiting of American workmen was continued by the Wash-
ington office, as in previous years. During the first half of the year
it was difficult to obtain good men, but as soon as work slacked in the
United States it also lessened on the Isthmus and during the second
half of the year, when there was little demand on our part for more
men, we could have obtained any number in the United States. The
Washington office tendered employment to 704 persons, and of these
495 accepted and were appointed. These covered 78 different posi-
tions, but the majority of them were for the building trades.

LIVING COSTS AND WAGE INCREASES.

Inasmuch as the rates of pay for American employees are fixed on
the basis of rates for similar employment in the United States, and as
the greater part of the staple foods and clothing sold in the commis-






THE PANAMA CANAL.


u1
S"



Lu-
I-~







REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


series are purchased in the United States, no effort has been made
to adjust wages on the Isthmus in proportion to the increase in the
cost of living. The law forbids The Panama Canal to pay more than
25 per cent in excess of wages for the same or similar work under the
Government in the United States, and if the wages of any class in
the United States had not increased in proportion to the cost of living,
this condition would be reflected in the rates for the same class on
the Isthmus. As a matter of fact, it has been so reflected. From
studies of living costs used in the adjustment of wages for the West
Indian, or labor force, in which the cheaper staple articles are used
as a basis, we have found that the increase in necessities on the
Isthmus, as of July 1, 1920, over July 1, 1914, was 89.11 per cent
and the increase as of July 1, 1921, over July 1, 1914, was 68.97 per
cent. Taking the first-class rate of pay for various journeymen
(workers without supervisory duties) the following comparison of in-
crease in wages and in the cost of living on the Isthmus has been
made:


Draftsmen:
Architect..............................
Marine...................................
Fireman (F. D.).............................
Civil engineer (surveyor)-.....................
Commissary manager........................
Nurse (female) (S)...........................
Storekeeper..... .........................
Teacher (grade school).......... ....... ..
Physician....................................
Police an....................................
Clerk.........................................

Blacksmith............................ ..
Boilerm aker..................................
Chipper and caulker.........................
M achini t..................... ................
M older.................. ...................
Pipe fitter..................................
Bhipfltter.......................... ............
Wireman.....................................
Welder (gas)...............................
Bricklayer I..................................
Painter i......................................
Plasterer ...................................
Plumber ...................................
Carpenter ....................................


19141


Per mon
$200.
200.
110.
175,
250.
85.
200.
150.
250.
110.
175.
Per hot
sO.


Percentage of increase in living costs.......... ........


Maximum wage.


1920 1921

ih. Per month. Per month.
00 $241.66 $241.66
00 285.41 273.00
00 172.91 172.91
00 206.25 206.25
00 300.00 300.00
00 105.00 105.00
00 275.00 275.00
00 160.27 186.67
00 275.00 325.00
00 172.91 172.91
00 200.00 220.83
ir. Per hour. Per hour.
65 $1.06 11.05
65 1.06 1.05
65 1.06 1.05
65 1.06 1.05
65 1.06 1.13
65 1.06 1.05
65 1.06 1.05
65 1.06 1 1.05
65 1.06 1.05
75 1.34 1.46
56 1.19 1.23
70 1.35 1.47
75 1.30 1.41
65 1.23 1.31


Percentage of increase
over 1914.

July 1, 1920. July 1,1921.


20.83
42.70
57.19
17.85
20.00'
23.53
37.50
6.85
10.00
57.19
14.29

63.08
63.08
63.08
63.08
63.08
63.08
63.08
63.08
63.08
78.67
112.50
92.85
73.33
89.23
89.11


20.83
36.50
57.19
17.85
20.00
23.53
37.50
24.45
30.00
57.19
26.19

61.54
61.54
61.54
61.54
73.85
61.54
61.54
61.54
61.54
94.67
119.64
110.00
88.00
101.54


1 Wage scale as of Apr. 1, 1921.

It will be noticed that in most cases increase in wages has not kept
pace with the increase in cost of living, based on articles of necessity
only and without relation to an advance in the standard of living.


6& 97


i'


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BAPORT or THE GOVERNOR. 71

RATES OF PAY-BILVER EMPLOYEES.

Schedules of pay of silver-roll employees (mostly West Indians)
were adjusted every three months on the. basis of changes in the cost
of living. Studies of living costs compared with 1914 guided the
action of the board on rates of pay, silver roll, which is composed of
heads of divisions. The standard rate for laborers on July 1, 1920,
was 23 cents an hour. The board felt that changes in.living costs
y during the year were not sufficient to justify it in recommending a
n: change in this rate until the meeting held in June, 1921, when a
reduction of 1 cent an hour, effective July 1, 1921, was recommended,
which the Governor approved. In connection with the adjustment
Sof wages of this class, it is pertinent that wages in the canal service
are always somewhat higher than in the Caribbean countries, while
p. the cost of the imported articles is lower. On the other hand, the
K living conditions in the Caribbean countries are rural or semirural,
while on the Isthmus they are comparable with those of industrial
communities in the United States.

LIVING COSTS.

Studies of living costs showed the following:

Increase over July 1. 1914.

Item. Weight. 1920 1921

July. October. January. April. July.

Food...................................... 54 101.11 98.17 77.3 62.1 63.88
Clothing................................ 21 71.59 73.R1 78.2 89.7 80.75
Household................................ 15 105.30 123.9 127.59 119.89 103.45
Peraonal.................................. 3 65.47 67.9 67.9 67.89 66.86
R nt............................... ..... 7 ........... ......... ........ ......... ..........
S''Weighted %verag................... .......... 87.39 89.11 79.28 72.39 68.97

The studies are based oii articles used by the West Indian employ-
ees, which are staples of the lowest grades. They reflect fairly accu-
rately, however, the fluctuations of living costs for all canal workers
during the fiscal year 1921, compared with costs in 1914.

COMPLAINTS OF AMERICAN EMPLOYEES.

Plans perfected in 1920 for.a board to hear grievances or complaints
Zof American employees on working conditions were made effective
;-uly 13, 1920. The circular outlining the scope of the board's action
ias published in the annual report for 1920. This board is composed
of-the assistant engineer of maintenance, the head of the division in
which the complaint originates, and two representatives of the em-


.i'.' :












.i

* i


THE PANAMA CANAL.




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 73

ployees, nominated by the central body of the employees' organiza-
tions. This board relieves the Governor of much of the routine work
connected with the handling of complaints, but does not deprive any
employee (American or alien) of the right of appeal to the Governor,
a right that has been freely accorded since 1907. The board reports
to the Governor, in whom alone the power of making a decision
rests. Reports were made in 32 cases during the year.

PUBLIC AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION.

Following the plan pursued by large corporations in the United
States and elsewhere, The Panama Canal continued its policy of
assisting employees to find wholesome amusement and recreation
near the homes of the people and under home influences. A sum-
mary of this work will be found in Appendix D of the report of the
executive secretary on file in your office. Most of the activities
are self-supporting as to operation, and the funds accumulated from
various sources also help in paying for maintenance of clubhouses
and playgrounds. It is necessary each year, however, to use some
Government funds in this work. The clubhouses serve well as
stabilizers of what would otherwise be a constantly shifting, unan-
chored population, drifting inevitably to the demoralizing influences
of the inferior cabarets and saloons of Panama and Colon, or leaving
the service. The United States Government has created here a
unique community of workers with no responsibility of citizenship
as to government, no ownership of real and but little personal prop-
erty, and no encouragement (in fact, no'possibility in the Canal Zone)
to private enterprise of any kind. The money appropriated by Con-
gress for the clubhouses is a necessary corollary to the living condi-
tions resulting in the Canal Zone from our policies. This work
should be maintained at its present high standard, and every possible
encouragement should be given to its extension along lines already
. proven.
Although they are not under the direct control of the canal
administration, mention is made here of other institutions that are
valuable in promoting better community life. The Salvation Army
maintains a Seamen's Institute at Cristobal and one at Balboa.
The Army and Navy Y. M. C. A. maintains clubhouses for the men
of the military service at Cristobal, Coco Solo, and Balboa. The
Y. W. C. A. maintains clubhouses for girls and women at Cristobal
and Balboa. The National Catholic Welfare Council maintains a
community house at Balboa.
A baseball association promotes the national game and thereby
adds materially to wholesome recreation.
68844-21--6-






























































































































* I I


''~'i'

;3:?





REPORT OF TfE GOVERNOR. 75

QUARTERS FOR EMPLOYEES.
In keeping with the reduction of force, the demand for quarters
.for both gold and silver employees became less active toward the end
of the fiscal year. All gold employees entitled to quarters had been
provided for at the end of the year, although some of them in quarters
that are neither convenient nor appropriate. There were 618 applica-
tions for quarters by gold employees on June 30, 1920, and on June 30,
1921, there were only 138, and these represented applications for
change from low grade to better grade quarters. Among silver
employees, the number of applications on file June 30, 1920, was 747,
and on June 30, 1921, 156. The occupants of quarters were as
fUllows: Americans, 2,913 men, 2,136 women, and 2,476 children-
tOtal, 7,525; Europeans, 143 men, 36 women, and 74 children; West
Indians, 4,952 men, 2,514 women, and 5,136 children.
Work on new buildings at Mount Hope for quartering of West
Indian employees, as described in the annual report of last year, was
completed. The project consisted of 49 buildings, providing quarters
for 468 families, and 10 buildings, providing 320 rooms for bachelors,
and a building for a commissary. The estimated cost of these build-
ings was $520,750, and the work was done within the estimate',
with a saving of something over $9,000.
It has been the policy, up to the present time, to assign quarters to
American employees free of charge and to maintain these quarters
and to supply light, water, and fuel. My predecessors, Gov. Goethals
and Harding, both recommended that a sufficient rental charge
be made for quarters to pay the expense of maintenance, and on
March 1915, such a plan was actually put into effect, but was dis-
cozntinued by direction of the President. When the question came
up gain, in 1916, the collection of rental for these quarters was again
postponed by direction of the President. On May 26, 1921, I sent
to you a report on conditions of employment for The Panama Canal
and Panama Railroad on the Isthmus as they relate (1) to the 25 per
cent provision as to wages; (2) to locomotive engineers and con-
ductors; (3) to rent for quarters occupied by employees. In this
letter I favored the continuance of the provision for a wage standard
25 per cent. in excess of rates paid in the United States, recommended
a decrease in the rates for locomotive engineers and conductors and
recommended collection of rent on account of quarters occupied
by employees, on the basis of a charge sufficient to cover mainte-
nance of the quarters and the supplying of water, light, fuel, and
certain grass cutting around'the premises.
SPECIAL PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION.
On June 18, 1921, a commission, appointed by you and known as
the Special Panama Canal Commission, arrived on the Isthmus,






:'1


THE PANAMA CANAL.


'





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


under instructions from you to report upon existing conditions and to
make recommendations relative to any changes that might seem
advisable. The commission consisted of Brig. Gen. Wm. D. Connor,
United States Army, Capt. Alfred Brooks Fry, United States Naval
Reserves, Mr. H. P. Wilson and Mr. F. A. Moliter, with Mr. E. H. Van
Fossan as secretary. Mr. Moliter was obliged to leave the Isthmus
on July 6, but the other members of the commission remained until
July 20. No effort was spared to facilitate the work of the com-
mission, and, in a letter to me just before his departure, the chairman
of the commission thanked the canal organization for its helpful
attitude. At the time this report is written I have no knowledge of
the recommendations which the commission has made to you nor
of the line these recommendations take. But, whether or not I can
agree with the recommendations that the commission may make,
I can state that its visit to the Isthmus was a distinct help to the canal
organization. In conversation with me and with the heads of
divisions of the canal, the members of the commission pointed out a
number of details of administration that they thought could be
changed to advantage, and many of the oral recommendations that
they made have either been carried out or are in way of being
adopted.








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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 79











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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 81

















SECTION V.

FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS.


This section contains three classes of statements:
1 to 47. Financial statements of The Panama Canal.
48. Summary of Panama Railroad business on the Isthmus.
49 to 54. Statistical statements of canal operation and traffic.
More detailed information of finances will be found in the annual
report of the auditor of The Panama Canal and the annual report of
the Panama Railroad Co.


TABLE No. 1.-General balance sheet, June 0S, 1921.

DEBITS. ,
Cash in hands of fiscal officers-............................................................. 34,600,981 4
Appropriation balances, subject to requisition............................................ 3, 203,10.3
Accounts receivable........................................................................ 3,372,25L.6
Material and supplies (Table No. 12).................................................... 9,323,072.94
Reequipment loan to Panama R. R. Co................................................... 1,399,114.61
First mortgage bond loan to Panama R. R. Co........................................... 1,848, 217.50
Public works in Panama and Colon..................................................... 2,674,453.583
Construction of canal (Table No. 5)...................................................... 353,234, 725.W98:
Capital additions (Table No. 5).......................................................... 2, 744, 599,24
Equipment (Table No. 11)................................................................ 12,577,446.7
Work in progress (Table No. 14) ............... .............. ......................... 220,187. 20'
Panama Canal property operated by Panama R. R. Co. (Table No. 91 ................... 1,895,646.33
Assets received from Canal Zone Government............................................. 364,212.50
Assets received from United States Army................................................. 175,258.99
Property transferred to other departments United States Government (Table No. 10)..... 2,159,923.20
Miscellaneous receipts credited to assets................................................. 5,241,228.25
Annual payments to Republic of Panama............................................... 2,250,000.00
Operation and maintenance of canal (Table No. 16).................................... 45,986,067.03
Unclassified expenses .................................................................. 232,976.62
Total................................................................. 453,503,27.94
CREDITS.
Accounts payable................................................................. 2,697,882.51
Trust funds and security deposits....................................................... 190,755.00
Miscellaneous receipts not deposited in United States Treasury ........................ 789, 284.12
Panama R. R. property operated by Panama Canal (Table No.18) ...................... 837,547.60
Unclassified credits.................................................................. 121,421.66
Reserves (Table No. 13). ......................................................... .... 4,285,195.62
Assets received from Canal Zone Government (Table No. 6)............................. 544, 792.37
Assets received from United States Army............................................... 183, 724.99
Reimbursements account public works in Panama and Colon, repaid to appropriations... 398, 95.06
Appropriations by the Congress.......................................................... 443, 465, 968.01
Construction.......................................................... 380, 554,949.31
Operating............................................................ 62,352,464.94
Unexpended balances in other appropriations......................... 548,553.76

Total.................................................................. 453,503,87.96
82





'r; Ii


TABLE No. 2.-Statement of appropriations by Congress.

Craetjon appropriations:
ST l amountappropriated to June 30, 1921.......................... 387,069,108.31
Less expended for operation and maintenance....................... 6,514,159.00
Netappropriations forcanalconstruction...................................... 380,554,949.31
Operation and maintenance appropriations:
Annual payments to Republic of Panama........................... 2,500,000.00
Act ofMar. 4, 1913................................ $250,000.00
Act of Apr. 6, 1914................................... 250,00.00
Act ofJan. 25 1915............. ............... 250,000.00
Actof Feb. 28, 1916.............................. 250,000.00
Act of July 1, 1916.................................... 50,000.00
Act of Mar. 3 1917................................... 250,000.00
Apt of Apr.15, 1918.................................. 250,000.00
Adt of Apr. 15, 1919................................ 250,000.00
Act of June 4, 1920................................... 250,000.00
'A6t of Mar. 2, 1921................................... 250,000.00
i' kainaenance and operation, Panama Canal.......................... 44, 029, 790.00
Sanitation, Canal Zone, Panama Canal............................. 4, 850,000.00
Civil government, Panama Canal and Canal Zone.................... 4,366,670.00
Iocreaibes of compensation, Panama Canal........................... 91,845.94
Construction funds used for operation and maintenance .............. 6,514,159.00


Total operation and maintenance, Panama Canal..................................
Une Pendjed balances in other appropriations:
Frtifiations (allotted to Panama Canal)............................ 473,781.75
Army quarters, etc., prior 1920......................... 258.2-
Army quarters, etc., fiscal year 1920................. 65,705.31
Army quarters, etc., fiscal year 1921................... 40,000.00
Cantonment construction............................ 204,967.33
Panama fortifications................................. 1,587.94
Protecting Panama Canal and structures............. 8,926.60
Sites for seacoast fortifications........................ 150,867.01
Submarine base...................................... 1,469.28
Rigulating commerce, act of May 20, 1918............................ 21, 566.80
Censorship of foreign mails, act of May 20, 1918...................... 53,205.21


62,352,464.94


Total unexpended, other appropriations ........................................... 548, 553.76
Grand total ledger account appropriations by Congress ............................. 443,455,968.01

Detail of acts covering operation and maintenance appropriations.


Maintenance
and opera-
tion.


55,200,000.00
5,750,000.00
9,000,000.00

9,000,6000.00

7,547,939.'00

7,531,851.00


Act of Mar. 3, 1915.................
Act oJuly 1, :916.................
Act of June 12,1917................
Act of July 12,1917............
Act of June 4, 1918-.................
Act of July 1,1918...............
Act of July 3, 1918.................
Act of Mar. 1, 1919................
Act of July 19,1919................
Act of Nov. 4,1919................
Act of May 2 1920..............
Act of June 5, 1920.................
Act bf Mar. 1,1921..................
Totalo.......................
Leas amount transferred to surplus
fund.......... ............

Amouant appropriatedfor construe-
tmin but aned for maintenance
Iand operation and not charge-
able against authorized bond
Ami (act of A&ug. 1,1914, sea. 12),
naineamae and operation
priorto July 1915............
Sftoe otmaterial for maintenance
.at opration.................
Total In operation and main-
team=o....................


AtwtMar.4,.1921................I 7,250,000.00


Sanitation,
Canal Zone.



3700,000.00
700,000.00
700,000.00
..............
150,000.00
900,000.00

850,'000.00

850,000.00
..............


Civil gov- Increase
ernment, of corn-
Panama pensation,
Canal, Canal Panama
Zone. Canal.


3540,000.00 ............
600,000000 ............
700,000.00 ............


750,000.00

702,000.00
150,000.00
900.000.00
24,670.00


$10,006.22

W16,00.00
35,018.33

34,500.00
............


Total.



86.440,000.00
7,050,000.00
10,400,000.00
10,006.22
150,000.00
10,650,000.00
16,000.00
35,018.33
9,099,939.00
150,000.00
34 500.00
9,281,851.00
24,670.00


44,029,790.00 4,850,000.00 4,666,670.00 95,524.55 53,341,984.55
.............. .............. ............. 3,678.61 3,678.61
4,029,790.00 4,850,000.00 4,366,670.00 91,815.94 53,338,30L594





.........................o...................... 4,289,159.00
.............. .............. .............. ........... 2,225,000.00

.............. ............ .............. .............. 5 ,852,404.94


850,000.001 900000.00 .......


9,000.000.00


J OE,


REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.





. . . . . . . . ..'* ".q
A!
0L


THE PANAMA CANAL.


TABLE No. 3.-Statue of authorized bond issue.

Authorized bond issue........................................................... .......... 375, )0, 90. 00
Appropriated for canalconstruction.......... .................. 387,069,108.31
Less amount exempted by law:
Colliers Ulysses and Achilles.......................... 1. 552.29
Coalbarges Mamei and Darien........................ 2, ,746.57
Dock No. 6, Cristobal................................... 2, 093,190.00
Equipping colliers Ulysses and Achilles............... 250,000.00
Painting tanks, colliers Ulysses and Achilles............ 44279.76
Repairs to steamships Ancon and Cristobal............. 720,000.00
Expended for operation and maintenance of canal...... 4,289, 159.00
Stock of material and supplies for operation and main-
tenance of canal..................................... 2,225,000.00
13,902,927. 62
---- 373,166,180.60
Balance................................................................. 2,034,719.31
Appraised value American legation building, in the city of Panama, ex-
empt from charge to bond issue, act July 1,1916........................................ 22,256.00
Balance available for appropriation within limit of cost of canal
and authorized bond issue...................................................... 2,056,975.31
Amount appropriated charged to bond issue............................. $373,166,180.69
Amount repaid account of public works, Panama and Colon. ............... 396,956.06
Expended or available for expenditure................ .......................... .37,563,136.75

CLASSIFIED STATEMENT (EXPENDED TO JUNE 30, 1921).


Construction of canal:
Prism excavation ...................................................
Locks................... ........................
Dams and spillways ................................................
Breakwaters........................... ............................
Aids to navigation..................................................
Auxiliary works:
Electric power and transmission system.............................
Coaling stations........................ ................
Fuel oil plants...................................................... ..
Dry docks................................................. ......
Wharves, piers, and docks (exclusive of Dock No. 6)..............
Playgrounds........................................................
Landscape improvements..................... ......................
Water and sewer systems and roads................................
Sanitary fills and ditches...........................................
Townsites ..........................................................
Improvements, Cristobal Harbor...................................
Dredging inner harbor and entrance basin...........................
Preparatory work Balboa terminal.................................
Floating caisson......................................................
General items:
Real estate................................ ..... .............
Purchase from Panama Canal Co...................................
Investment, Panama R. R. stock..................................
Concessions from Republic of Panama...............................
Relocation Panama R. R.......................................
Buildings.......... ...............................
Launch Louise......................................................
Canal protection, 1917-18............................................
Equipment, materials and supplies.................................


5137,276,036.98
75,229,985.95
17,771, 615. 81
9, 062,077.94
888,887.65
6,140,391.04
5,964,365.94
695,218,39
3,613,030. 42
3,314,854.70
54,474.41
36,280.63
4,615,798 67
793,980.34
923,338 07
237,101.43
3,754,687.43
1,808,921.65
347,868 15
3,730,862.24
38,721,690.16
155,818.24
10,000,000.00
9,800,626.46
16,164,886.49
13,500.00
25,236.79
7,878,051.12


Total............................................................ 359,019,587.10
Reimbursable and miscellaneous items:
Public works in cities of Panama and Colon.......................... 2,674,453.53
Assets transferred to other deDartments of the Government.......... 2,159,923.20
Equinment operated by the Panama R. R............. 91,895,646.33
Less Panama R. R. property transferred to canal....... 765,317.32
1,130,329.01
Reequipment loan to Panama R. R................................. 1 399,114.61
First mortgage bond loan to Panama R. R........................... 1,848,217.50
Miscellaneous receipts credited to assets.............................. 5,241,228.25


Total.................................... 14,453,266.10
Total canal construction to June 30, 1921.......................... 373,472,853.20
Allotted for dredging, fiscal year 1922....................... ............. 83,013.86
Outstanding orders........ ... 7,239.69


373, 563,130. 75




Ar A.















































































i'


TABLE No. 4.-Canal and auxiliary worksTfiscal year 1921.


REPORT OE THE GOVERNOR.


Construction of canal:
Prism excavation-
Gatun to Pedro Miguel ..........................-...
Pedro Miguel to sea............................-... ..

Total, prism excavation.....................................

SGatun locks........................--...... ..-*---
Pedro Miguel locks..................-............... -
ikraflores locks............................................
Aids to navigation. .....................-
Dredging-
Cristobal Harbor.................................--....-.---
Balboa Inner Harbor .................................

Total, canal.......................----*---**.. ....


Con-
struction.


$58,215. 96
27,328.00

85, 544.05


231,984.16
280,833.37
201,189. 86
20,268.32


I -


Capital
additions.


I.......


82,640.00

289.53


74,481.63 ..............
201,545.47 ............


1,013,302.81


Auxiliary works:
Power producing and transmitting system-
Gatun hydroelectric plant.......................... ..............
Mirafores steam electric plant ..................
Substations, transmission and distribution lines:..... .......
Street lighting, townsites. ...................... ..-..........
Underground duct system, townsites.................. ..... .......


Total, power producing and transmitting system....

Pacific terminals: Fuel oil plant...........................

Atlantic terminals-
Fuel oil plant...............................-----...-
Docks................................................

Total, Atlantic terminals .........................

Permanent townsites: Cristobal ........................ .

Buildings-
Shops, Balboa.................................
'Storehouses................................... ...
Hotels and mess halls............ .............
Gold quarters......................................
Silver quarters ............ ....... ........ ..
Aneon Hospital ....................................
Asylums................ .. .................. .....
Other health department buildings ..................
Miscellaneous buildings..........................

Total, buildings.................... ...............

Sanitary ditches....... ................................
Landscape improvements...............................
Water works system: Other Zone systems, general........

Roadways, streets, and walks-
Roadways.........................................
Streets .............................................
W alks........ .....................................

Total, roadways, streets and walks................


Real estate--
Joint land commission expenses......................
Canal construction and flooded areas.................
Depopulation of the Canal Zone......................

Total, real estate...................................

Canal protection, 1917 and 1918..............................

Total, fiscal year 1921..................................


14,226.09

141,795.21
5,132.26

337.05





'600.00
3,300.00

10,117.21

18, 535.55
900.00

32,252.76

1,432.78
..............


2,929.53


Total.


558,215.96
27,328.09

85,544.05


231,984.16
283,473.37
201,189.86
20, 557.85

74,481.63
204,545.47

1,016,232.34


13,103.51. 13,103.51
376.66 376.66
111, 167.19 111,167.19
1,465.19 1,465.19
3,024.55 3,024.55

129,137.10 129, 137. 10C

26,699.15 22,473.06


207,228.35


207,228. 35

15,730.37

18,223.64
46,378.62

51, 232.29
18,202.29

3,506.23
3, Y074.35
86,672.61

227, 290.03

11, 536.90

6,555.13


202,433.14
5,132.26

207,565.40

15,730.37

18,223.64
46,378.62
1600.00
54,532.29
18,202.29
10,117.21
3,506.23
21,609.90
87,572.61

259,542.79

16,536.90
1,432.78
6,555.13


............. 1,834.22 1,834.22
.............. 8,100.67 8,100.67
.............. 1,679.24 1,679.24

.............. 11,614.13 11,614.13

1,135.94 .............. 1,135.94
1 15.00 .............. 115.00
682.00 .............. 682.00

1,802.94 .............. 1,802.94

25,236.79 .............. 25,236.79

1,155,683.09 643,720.69 1,799,403.78


'2 Indicates credit.


............
..............

..............






86 THE PA2 I AMIA CANAL.

TABLE No. 5.-Canal and auxiliary works, total to June 30, 1921.



Construction. t and 'y
works.


Construction of canal:
Prism excavation-
Gatun to sea....................................
Gatun to Pedro Miguel..........................
Pedro Miguel to sea.............................
Total prism excavation........................
Gatun locks........................... ...............
Pedro Miguel locks...................................
Mirafores locks.....................................
Gatun spillway.......... ........................ .....
Miraflores spillway and east dam...................
Gatun dam..................... .......................
Gatun-Mindi levee........................ .......
Trinidad River dam ...............................
Pedro Miguel dams.................................
Miraflores west dam..................................
La Boca locks and dams (abandoned)..............
Colon east breakwater.............................
Colon west breakwater.............................
Naos Island breakwater..............................
Aids to navigation..................................
Dredging Cristobal Harbor..........................
Dredging Balboa inner harbor.......................
Dredging Balboa entrance basin.....................
Total, canal....................................
Auxiliary works:
Power producing and transmitting system (Table
No. 20)-
Gatun hydroelectric plant ............. .....
Mirafloressteam-electric plant.................
Substations, transmission and distributing lines...
Street lighting, townsites.......................
Underground duct system, townsites............
Total power producing and transmitting system
Pacific terminals-
Coaling station.................................
Fuel oil plant.....................................
Dry dock.................. .....................
Docks.......................................
Preparatory work......... ............
Total, Pacific terminals........................
Atlantic terminals-
Coaling station..................................
Fuel-oil plant....................................
Dry dock.................. .....................
Docks..........................................
Total, Atlantic terminals......................
Gatun dock........... .............................
Permanent townsites-
Cristobal ............. .........................
Gatun...............................
Pedro Mieuel............................ ...
Red Tank......................................
Balboa-Ancon..........................................
La Boca.......... ................. ......
Total, permanent townsites.....................
Buildings, designing,and preliminary expenses-
Offices-
Administration, Balboa.....................
Administration, Santa Rosa.................
Balboa shops.................................
Balboa terminals.............................
Shops-
Balboa................................................
Cristobal..................................
Storehouses.......... ..........................
Hotels and mess halls...........................


511 874,182.88 .............
107 067, 900.67 ............
18,333.953.43 ..............


431874 182.88
Is 333,958.43


137,276,036.98 .............. 137,276,086.98
35,958,177.42 .............. 595 .42
15,985,400.30 52,640.00 15,9U, 0N. 30
23,286,399.23 .............. 28 99.2
4,081,516.86 .............. S16.86
1,320,389.95 .............. 320389.95
9,823,140.60 .............. 3, 140.60
140,635.01 .............. 140,635.01
66,385.47 [.............. 66,38547
431,703.66 1.............. 431 lL70
1,159,789.78 .............. 1,15978.7
748,054.48 .............. 748,054.48
3,771,111.74 .............. 3,271,111.74
4,275,316.42 .............. 4,275,316.42
1,015,649.78 .............. 1,015,649.78
888,887.65 289.53 889 177.18
237,101.43 .............. 237,101.43
3,265,207.04 .............. 3,265,207.04
489,480.39 .............. 489,480.39
106,944,356.21 2,929,53 106,947,285.74



1,648,990.55 16,588. 06 1, 665,57& 861
307,485.78 376.66 307. 862.44
3,700,591.52 178,77,5.81 3,879,367.33
90,033.26 8,193.22 98.226.48
393,289.93 18,547.77 Q41,837.70

6,140,391.04 222,481.52 6,362,872.56

2,284,568.35 .............. 2,284.568.35
389,900.60 68,959.98 458,860.58
3,538,554.91 .............. 3,539,554.91
3,184,96431. .............. 3,184,9631
1,808,921.65 ........... 1808, 921.65
11,207,909.82 68,959.98 11, 276,869. 80

3,679,797.59 .............. 3,7,797.59
305,317.79 255,180.44 560498.23
73,475.51 ............. 7347&551
2,214,129.06 .............. 2,214,129.06
6,272,719.95 255,180.44 6,527,900.39
8,951.33 .............. 8,951.33

122,040.71 222,115.97 844 158.68
1,704.70 71.85 1,077.56
91,709.06 5,088.02 6,797.08
2,614.43 ......6.....1. 614.43
582, 063.04 14,216.59 :6,279.63
123,200.13 .............. 123206.13
923,338.07 241,492.44 1,194,8 0,11
..' r *.n ll-e


1,224,847.51
130,892.39
238,553.94
80,634.42
3,970,490.55
163,203.14
1,009,428.68
486,638.87


30,025.56
43,444.79
174,862.89
80,413.00


1, 224,47.51

O 9L42

4,000,531611
206,647. 9
1, 18291.57
. S 05L.87T
-s..






:EPOBT OF TEE GOVERNOR.


S'TABdLE No. 5.-Canal and auxiliary works, total to June 0S, 1921-Continued.

'*** 'I ii~-in ~


. Auxili works-Continued.
ul dis, designing, and preliminary expenses-Con.
S quarters.....................................
Silver quarters....................................
Andon Hospital................. ................
Colon Hospital .................................
Dis a ................................
Quarantine stations ..............................
Medical storehouse ...............................
Other health department buildings ...............
SPostaoffices.....................................
Courthouses, police and firestations, jails, etc......
Behhooolhouse....................................
.Fivlographs..........................
MIscellaneou buildings ...........................
Total buildings...................................
Playgrounds, including Balboa grand stand ..........
Sanitary fills....................................
Sanitary ditches................................
Landscape improvements........................
Waterworlks systems-
Colon-Cristobal...................................
Panama-Gamboa...............................
Other Zone systems, general.....................
Other Zone systems, townsites....................
Total, waterworks systems...................
'Raadways, streets, and walks--
Roadways......................................
Streets..........................................
W alks............................................
Total roadways, streets, and walks............
Zone sewage system-
General...........................................
Townsites......................................
Total, Zone sewage system.....................
Realestate--
Joint land commission expense.................
Construction and flooded areas.................
Auxiliary works and buildings.................
Depopulation of the Canal Zone ...............
Total real estate..............................
Mimcellaneous--


noating caisson................................
Relocation Panama R. R........................
Investment Panama R. R. stock...............
:Cpncesions from Republic of Panama...........
Purchase from New Panama Canal Co..........
Presentation of launch Louise to French Govern-
. m ent...................... ................ ....
Canal protection, 1917 and 1918. ..................


Total miscellaneous............................


.1


works.
1 Contrucion .Capial s L, 0 d aOxlo .


54,467,443.75
672,242.62
1,705,337.27
255,506.90
J61,213.97
207,994.56
72,469.36
25,471.15
187,593.34
35,982.62
100,884.23
482, 561.68
13,709.02
471,786.52


8343,347.21
218,024.12


44'791.'98
7,789.12
52, 814. 60
1,043.27
9,709.55
371, 923.51


16,164,886.49 1,378,189.60
54,474.41 .............


636,732.11
157,248.23
36,280.63


42,458.30
..............


14,810,790.96
890,266.74
1,705,337.27
255,506.90
161,213.97
252,786.54
80,258.48
25,471.15
240,407.94
35. 982.62
101,927.50
492,271.23
13,709.02
843,710.03
17,543,076.09
54,474.41


636,732.11
199,706.53
36,280.63


585,642.89 .............. 585,642.89
1,765,222.58 .............. 1,765,222.58
560,876.89 18,139. 81 579,016.70
131,946.43 1,969.92 133,916.35
3,043,688.79 20,109.73 3,063,798.52

520,118.33 359,911.04 880,029.37
527,283.83 60,396.14 587,679.97
90,161.03 28,752.52 118,913.55
1,137,563.19 449,059.70 1,586,622.89

76,457.15 28,864.50 105,321.65
358,089.54 34,873.50 392,963.04
434,546.69 63,738.00 498,284.69

356,006.61 .............. 356,006.61
891,707.06 .............. 891,707.06
146,258.94 .............. 146,258.94
2,336,889.63 ............. 2,336,889.63
3,730,862.24 .............. 3,730,862.24

347,868.15 .........>.... 347,868.15
9,800, 626.46 .............. 9,800,626.46
155,818.24 .............. 155,818.24
10,000,000.00 .............. 10,000,000.00
38,721,690.16 .............. 38,721,690.1
13,500.00 .............. 13,500.00
25,236.79 .............. 25,236.79
59,064, 739. 80 ............. 59,064, 739. 80


Total anal and auxiliary works................1 353,234,725.98 2,744,599.24


I?
* 4.


. '.


355,979, 325.22


Hig .m *
:: : : .. i: 1





88 THE PANAMA CANAL.

TABLE No. 6.-Detail of assets received'from the Canal Zone government.-The total
is $544,792.37, of which $451,887.50 are for roads, $72,115 for school buildings, $10,500
for waterworks, $8,000 for sewers, and $2.289.87 for books and stationery.
TABLE No. 7.-Detail of property received from the United States Army at Las Cas-
cadas.-Total, $183,724.99, divided as follows: Buildings, $75,850; roads, $45,630;
buildings erected by Army, $39,069.99; waterworks, $12,825; sewer systems, $10,350.
TABLE No. 8.-Detail of Panama Railroad equipment and property operated by Panama
Canal.-Total, $837,547.60, of which $373,742.10 are for concrete dock at Balboa.
$286,338.50 for buildings used as quarters, $79,961.28 for Gamboa gravel plant, $48,255
for Cristobal roundhouse, $29,862.50 for floating equipment, $16,086.72 for rolling
stock, and $3,301.50 for machinery and tools.
TABLE No. 9.-Detail of Panama Canal equipment operated by the Panama Railroad.-
The total value of this equipment is $8.375,768.02. Of this amount $1,895,646.33
have been transferred on the books and include the steamships Panama, Colon, Carib-
bean and certain items of floating equipment and railroad rolling stock. Panama
Canal equipment operated by the railroad for which no transfer has been made on the
books consists of the steamships Ancon and Cristobal, $2,164,357.31; the colliers
Achilles and Ulysses, $2,029,232.05; and the coal barges Darien and Mamei, $2,286,-
532.33. For further details see annual report of the auditor.
TABLE No. 10.-Detail of assets transferred to other departments of the United States
Government.-To the Army on the Canal Zone, waterworks, sewer systems, roads,
buildings, a tract of land on the Chagres River, and railroad tracks at Fort Amador,
total, $1,739,698.79; to the Alaskan Engineering Commission, railroad rolling stock
and construction material, $395,965.16; to State Department on account of legation
building, Panama City, $22,256; Colon boathouse to Army and Navy on Canal Zone,
$2,003.25; grand total, $2,159,923.20. The details of this statement will be found in
the annual report of the auditor.
TABLE No. 11.-Detail of Panama Canal equiprent.-Floating equipment, $11,193,-
728.09; other equipment, such as trucks, cranes, road rollers, etc., $611,482.82;
machinery and tools, $772,235.82; a grand total of $12,577,446.73. Of this amount
there were added during the fiscal year 1921, for the coal barges Mamei and Darien,
$2,286,532.33; for the dredge Culcbra, returned by the Panama Railroad, $250,000; for
machinery and tools, $206,899.72; for miscellaneous equipment, $28,781.86. For com-
plete statement see annual report of the auditor.
TABLE No. 12.-Detail of material and supplies.-This gives the amount in various
stores on the Isthmus. The net book value of materials and supplies is $9,323.072.94.
For complete statement see auditor's report.
TABLE No. 13.-Detail of reserves for gratuity, depreciation, and repairs.-A reserve
for leave earned, known as "gratuity," for depreciation of plant, and for repairs to
equipment and plant is made from revenues of the business operations of the divisions
that do a large amount of such work. This amounted on June 30, 1921, to the follow-
ing: Gratuity, $717,037.09; depreciation, $2,877,967.49; repairs, $690,191.04; total,
$4,285,195.62. For detail of reserves see annual report of the auditor.
TABLE No. 14.-Detail of work in progress.-This statement shows that the mechan-
ical division had in progress at the end of the fiscal year $171,835.51 worth of work, and
other divisions $48,351.69. A detail of this statement will be found in the annual
report of the auditor.







REPOBTR OF THE GOVERNOR.


T4BLEz No. 15.-Statement of overhead expenses.


Expenses, fiscal year 1920. Expenses, fiscal year 1921.


Gross. Net. Gross. Net.


Civil government:

AdminiAtration........................
Posts.............................----
Customs...............................
Estates................................

Total civil affairs.....................
Schools...............................-----
Fire protection............................
Pollee and prisons........................
District court.............................
Magiltrate courts..........................
District attorney..........................
Canal Zone marshal.......................
Municipal expenses.......................

Total civil government..................
Las' credits...................................

Health department:
Administration ...........................
Medical storehouse........................
Ancon Hospital...........................
Colon Hospital............................
Santo Tomas Hospital.....................
Palo Seo leper asylum..................
Corozalfarm and insane asylum..........
Other hospitals and dispensaries...........
Quarantine service........................
Sanitation-
Panam a................................
Colon..................................
CanalZone.............................
Street cleaning and garbage disposal-
Panama. ..............................
Colon..... ..........................

Total health department..........
Less credits...............................

Administration:
Executive office-
Executive .............................
Record bureau........................
Personnel bureau...................
Correspondence bureau.................
Property and requisition bureau.......
Statistics bureau...........................
General bureau.........................
Bureat of payrolls ........................
Operation of official motor cars.............
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds..........
Executive miscellaneous.................
The-Canal Record.........................
Cables and radiograms................
Land office.................................
Legal expenses............................
Shipping commissioner.....................
Total......... ...................
Less credits................................

Engineer of maintenance:
Office engineer............................
Meteorology and hydrography...........
Surveys..................................

Total.....................................
Less credits....................... ..........


$5,339.91
171,516.54
36,258.16
2,731.25

215,815.86
170,481.42
91,063.58
335,436.66
22,910.51
14,535.07
7,975.22
8,260.01
44.21


866,552.54
57,894.11

22,291.37
15,349.41
578, 439.70
99,938.44
13,566.13
35,836.89
125,4094.16
44,875.37
.90,388.63
70,768.60
59,668.00
143,980.52

87,328.36
50,703.59

1,43 629. 17
776,279.27


44,161.93
57,527.82
29,293.94
39,615.19
31,590.78
15,129.53
55,253.46
97,009.44
21,945.22
217,921.42
4,542.79
12,199.31
9,561.10
13,377.22
11,030.15
33,264.95

693,424.25
175,255.86


55,339.91 16,364.04
165,410.25 1 203,221.82
34,705.39 36,909.47
2.731.25 3,106.59

208,186.80 1 349,601.92
164,879.34 ; 246,672.67
89,307.81 113,025.87
292,559.46 388,095.97
22,910.51 22,702.35
14,535.07 16,675.79
7, 975.22 9,235.91
8,260.01 9,068.17
44.21 111.79


808,658.43 I 1,055,190.44
.............. 68,351.19

22,291.37 21,776.03
15,349.411 16,409.20
124,302.60 622,669.19
59,180.38 120,559.86
12,91 866 13,773.65
18,740.03 36,233.28
63,516.77 132,794.45
28,617.56 541,807.53
52,267.70 85,130.31

60,774.17 82,900.67
45,923.76 i 63,574.50
128,253.74 138,635.80

7,340.10 91,497.67
22.873.65 70,379.14

662,349.90 1,551,141.28
....... ....... 594,054.01


42,252.93 54,951.67
46,116.02 71,737.04
1 24 475.97 36,417.78
28,317.30 41,526.78
22,693.58 34,656.52
12; 32 38 19,988.09


47 594. 91
59 409. 80
'3, 086.65
174,955.93
4,221.57
12,093.25
9,180.40
4,377.22

33,236.78

518,168.39
..............


Si,199.79
192,549.91
35,504.27
3,106.59

237,360.56
241,039..31
112,681.88
338,300.88
22,696.32
16,390.28
9,235.91
9,022.32
111.79
986,839.25


21,776.03
16.409.20
294,011.37
76,893.52
13,073.05
25,078.94
72, 332.75
22 836.64
50,965.23

72,307.24
44,010.99
117,334.31

98, 212.78
31,845.22

957,087.27


48,344.27
59,122.32
29,073.78
31,746.78
27 312.52
16,388.09


52,492.0S 40,423.20
117,140.37 64,562.24
22,915.53 3,738.29
270,235.93 206,791.58
13,679.51 13,671.26
17,336.02 17,207.10
7,402.90 7,179.67
5,767.15 5,761.72
1,280.84 1,278.18
39,238.31 39,238.31

806,766.52 611,839.31
194,927.21 ..............


180.11 19,932.17 3889210 15,897.90
36793.67 35,077.24 38 852.71 761.51
43,993.31 38,096.63 45,061.19 39,033.15

134,967.09 93,106.04 122,806.00 93,692.56
41,861.05 29,113.44..............


68844-21-7


''


I


i
; ;







THE PANAlVI A CANAL.


TABLE NO. 15.4tatement of overhead expensea-Continue .


Accounting department:
Accounting office..........................
Paymaster's office.........................
Collector's office.............................
Total...................................
Less credits................................

Washington office:
Assistant auditor's office..................
Disbursing clerk's office.................
General bureau........... ................
Purchasing expenses........... ........
Total...................................
Less credits................................

1Municipal engineering:
Operation and maintenance of waterworks.
Repairs to sewer system.............
Repairs to roads..........................
Total....................................
Less credits................................
Electrical division: Lights-Streets, lodge
halls, and churches..........................

Supply department:
Maintenance and care of administration
building..............................
Operation of storehouses...................
Repairs to storehouses............ L........
Handling freight on docks................
Operation of quarters......................
Repairs to quarters......................
Repairs to others buildings...............
Ancon nursery...........................
Store stock losses and adjustments........
Loss on corral and motor-truck operations..
Total..................................
Less credits................................
Miscellaneous:
Transportation of employees on Isthmus...
Recruiting and repatriating..............
Compensation to injured employees........
Payments to deported alien cripples.......
Total...................................

Recapitulation:
Grand total, administration................
l.ess credits................................
Total overhead expenses......................
Less credits...................................
Distribution:
Business operations.......................
Construction of canal......................
Capital additions..........................
Operation and maintenance of canal.......
Total ........ .........................


Expenses, fiscal year 1920. Expenses, fiscal year 101.


Gross. Net. Gross. Net.


$404,090.11
52,430.83
43,243.22

499,764.16
175,127.53

41,819.03
11,928.65
70,368.71
222,892.63

347,009.02
1,436.04


8249,700.07
42,350.96
S32,585.60
324,636.63


41,804.50
11,924.36
70,088.12
221,756.00

345,572.98
..............


466, 445.87
52, 011.51
48,307.43
566,764.81
226,962.44

44,343.08
12,578.33
72,701.30
230,322.08

359,944.79
1,379.85


13, 110.74
40527.49
164.14




44,31143
12.5671.52
72, 346.80
229,334.19

358,564.94


449,595.60 155,161.11 460,736.20 138,948.49
24,966.88 24,966.88 18,990.75 18,990.75
136,299.56 136,299.56 109,534.49 109,534.49

610,862.04 316,427.55 589,261.44 267,474.23
294,434.49 .............. 321,787.21 ..............

14,609.73 14,609.73 16,196.91 16,196.91


40,064.39 40,064.39 59,566.42 59,566.42
713,528.09 659,528.09 769,870.43 715, 870.43
2,755.79 2,755.79 4,058.43 4,058.43
16,464.01 16,464.01 8,385.91 8,385.91
557,835.67 337,008.55 874,517.55 612,976.62
374,194.09 374,194.09 455,052.6 465,052.69
1,302.22 1,302.22 3,778.70 3, 738 58
5,229.71 1266.23 5,595.17 ............
283,426.10 28,426.10 5,633.00 5,633.00
.............. .............. 49,840.07 49,840.07
1,739,800.07 1,439,477.01 2,235,998.37 1,915,122.15
280,323.06 .............. 320,876.22 ..............

141,603.68 141,603.68 141,300.09 141,300.09
51,554.96 51,554.96 57,068.21 57,068.21
1.073.95 1,073.95 416.62 416.62
1,200.00 1,200.00 1350.00 80.M00

195,432.59 195,432.59 198,434.92 198,434.92


4,235,868.95
968, 438. 03
6,541,050.66
1,802,611.41






..............


3,267,430.9:

4,738,439.2


1,239, 639.2:
70,878.6
103,754.3
3,324,167.11

4,738,439. 2


2 4,896,173.76 3,801,127.39
.. 1,095,046.37 ..............
5 7,502,505.48 5,745,058.91
.. 1,757,451.57 ...........

2 .............. 93,952.13
S.............. 84i88.89
2 .............. 9,172.40
0 .............. 4,711,06.99

5 .............. 6,745,053.91


SCredit.


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