• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the governor of the Panama...
 Appendix A: Report of the engineer...
 Appendix B: Report of the marine...
 Appendix C: Report of the superintendent,...
 Appendix D: Report of the chief...
 Appendix E: Report of the...
 Appendix F: Report of the executive...
 Appendix G: Report of the district...
 Appendix H: Report of the special...
 Appendix I: Report of the chief...
 Appendix J: Report of the general...
 Appendix K: Acts of Congress and...
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00005
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1920
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Report of the governor of the Panama Canal
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Appendix A: Report of the engineer of maintenance
        Page 39
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    Appendix B: Report of the marine superintendent
        Page 109
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    Appendix C: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division
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    Appendix D: Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department
        Page 129
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    Appendix E: Report of the auditor
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    Appendix F: Report of the executive secretary
        Page 229
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    Appendix G: Report of the district attorney
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
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    Appendix H: Report of the special attorney
        Page 278
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    Appendix I: Report of the chief health officer
        Page 298
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    Appendix J: Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
        Page 340
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    Appendix K: Acts of Congress and Executive orders relating to the Panama Canal and to the Canal Zone, index
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    Back Cover
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Full Text











UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY









ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE


GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL

FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30

1920


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1920
































































Digiized by the Internet Archive

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page.
Report of the Governor of The Panama Canal.............................. 1
Formal opening of Canal to commerce ................................ 1
Organization......................................................... 5
Department of operation and maintenance............................ 5
Building division................................................. 5
Locks operation and maintenance................................. 7
Electrical division............................................... 8
Municipal division ............................................. 10
Meteorology and hydrography..................................... 11
Section of surveys................................................ 13
Office engineer................................................... 13
Dredging division................................................ 14
Marine division..................................................... 16
Mechanical division.................................................. 17
Supply department.................................................. 18
Labor........................................................... 18
Quarters......................................................... 19
Transportation facilities.......................................... 19
Materials and supplies........................................... 19
Obsolete material................................................. 20
Fuel-oil tanks................................................... 20
Panama Canal press............................................. 20
Subsistence....................................................... 20
Commissary division............................................. 20
Accounting department............................................... 21
Executive department................................................ 26
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds................................. 27
Record bureau.................................................. 27
Personnel bureau................................................ 28
Property bureau.................................................. 28
Bureau of pay rolls.............................................. 28
Bureau of statistics.............................................. 28
Division of schools................................................ 28
Police and fire division........................................... 29
Division of civil affairs............................................ 29
Bureau of posts............................................... 29
Bureau of customs............................................ 30
Shipping commissioner...................................... 30
Administration of estates..................................... 30
Courts........................................................... 30
Relations with Panama...............................!.......... 31
Office of the special attorney..................................... 31
Health department................................................... 33
Division of hospitals ............................................ 34
Ancon Hospital.............................................. 34
Corozal Hospital.............................................. 35
Colon Hospital............................................... 35
Santo Tomas Hospital........................................ 35
Palo Seco Leper Asylum..................................... 36
Sanitation ......... ............................................. 36
Quarantine division............................................. 36
Washington office..................................................... 37

APPENDIX A.
Report of the engineer of maintenance..................................... 39
Organization......................................................... 39
Locks division....................................................... 39
Operation....................................................... 39
Lockages......................................................... 40.

JTz0o76 m






TV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Locks division-Continued. Page.
Water consumption-Gatun Lake................................. 41
Painting and maintenance........................................ 41
Towing locomotives.............................................. 42
Transformer rooms................................................ 42
Miter gates...................................................... 42
Rising stem valves............................................... 42
Cylindrical valves .............................................. 42
Culvert screens.................................................. 42
Emergency dam................................................. 43
Fenders.......................................................... 43
Transportation................................................... 43
Pacific locks..................................................... 43
Organization and personnel.................................. 43
Operation ............................................. .. 44
Paint machine................................................ 44
Launches and boats.......................................... 44
Corozal store................................................. 44
Miscellaneous ... ........................................... 44
Maintenance.................................................. 44
Overhauling at Miraflores...................................... 45
Overhauling at Pedro Miguel.................................. 46
Tables-
Pedro Miguel locks-lockages and vessels.................. 47
Miraflores locks-lockages and vessels..................... 48
Pacific locks-locking operations......................... 48
Annual report of water drawn from Gatun and Miraflores
Lakes for lockages and other purposes-.................... 49
Atlantic locks .................................................. 49
Organization and personnel.................................. 49
Operation................................................... 50
Maintenance.................................................. 50
Building division..................................................... 52
Organization..................................................... 52
Personnel............................... ......................... 52
Building operations............................................... 52
Pier No. 6........................... ........................ 52
Naval submarine base and naval air station.................... 53
Army aviation base, France Field-......................- .... 53
Barracks, quarters, and wharf, Fort Sherman-................... 53
Fort Davis and Fort Clayton Army posts....................... 53
Costs................-- ......................................-- 54
Journeymen's rates....................................... 54
New silver townsite, Mount Hope ............................ 55
Lighthouse at channel end of east breakwater-................... 55
Coloa-Cristobal incinerator plant.............................. 55
Combined shop and storehouse, Cristobal mole-.................. 56
Panama Railroad stables...................................... 56
Reniodeling of the old Royal Mail pier for the Panama Railroad
for native produce.......................................... 56
Concrete oil tanks............................................. 56
Miscellaneous work............................................ 57
Work for individuals and companies............................ 57
Force.............................. ......***................. 57
Tables-
Increase ini cost of gold labor due to increase in pay over rates
in effect when project was approved-Fort Clayton Army
post.............................-- ............... 58
Increase in cost of gold labor due to increase in pay over rates
in effect when project was approved-Fort Davis Army
post................................ -.... .*.- ---- - -...... 59
Additional cost due to increase in wages to silver employees.. 60
Estimated and actual time in man-days for various crafts-.... 61
Comparative unit cost of buildings........................ 63








TABLE OF CONTENTS. V

Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued. Page.
Dredging division..................................................... 66
Division organization.............................................. 66
Dredging plant................................................... 66
Tables-
Number of days dredges were retired from dredging service...... 67
Output of all dredges, with total and unit costs.................. 67
Yardage removed to -42-foot mean sea-level contour in the At-
lantic Ocean to Gamboa.................................... 69
Yardage removed from Gaillard Cut, Gamboa to Pedro Miguel
locks ............... ... .................................. 69
Yardage removed, Pedro Miguel locks to the -45-foot mean sea-
level contour in the Pacific Ocean............................. 69
Number of cubic yards removed from the Canal prism .......... 70
Yardage remaining to be removed from the Canal prism......... 70
Distribution of material removed from Gaillard Cut.............. 71
Dum ps......... .................................................. 71
Subaqueous rock excavation-........................................ 72
Table-Performance of drill boat Teredo No. 2 ..................... 72
Miscellaneous dredging............................................. 72
Atlantic terminals.............................................. 72
Pacific terminals-.............................................. 73
Sand and gravel production....................................... 73
Drainage................................. ........................ 73
Slide inspection and reports........................................ 73
Mindi dikes and groins............................................. 73
W ater hyacinths................................................... 73
Surveys.......................................................... 73
Office.............................................................. 73
Electrical division .................................................... 74
Organization and personnel......................................... 74
Character and extent of work...................................... 74
Power-system equipment and improvements......................... 74
Operation of power system.......................................... 75
Gatun spillway...................................................... 76
Telephone and telegraph systems.-................................-; 77
Table-Canal Zone telephone system-............................ 77
Fire-alarm system .................................................. 78
Railway-signal system .............................................. 78
Tables-
Responsible and. nonresponsible signal failures, arm move-
ments, and train-minutes delay for each month during
fiscal year.......................... .. .. .......... ............ 78
Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year ending June
30, 1920................................................. 79
Miscellaneous electrical work...................................... 79
Municipal engineering division.......................................... 80
Organization...................................................... 81
Personnel.............. ........................................ 81
Southern district................................................... 81
Work performed for individuals and companies.................. 82
Work performed for departments, divisions, and others........... 83
Northern district................................................... 85
Work performed for departments, divisions, and others.......... 87
Operation of water-purification plants and testing laboratories........ 88
Section of meteorology and hydrography................................. 91
Personnel......................................................... 91
M eteorology ..................................................... 91
Special investigations......................................... 94
Pilot balloon flights............................................. 94
Tables accompanying meteorological section, list of ............... 94
H ydrography................................................. .... 98
Branch hydrographic office, Cristobal............................ 100
Special investigations ........................................ 100
Tables accompanying hydrographic section, list of ................ 100
8847-20--iI








VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued. Page.
Section of surveys................................................. 104
Building lots...................................................... 104
Maintenance records.............................................. 105
Canal Zone boundary-............................................. 105
Triangulation.................................................... 105
Alhajuela basin .................................................. 105
Supply department. .............................................. 105
Health department............................................... 106
Electrical division. ........................ ...................... 106
Land office.................................. .................... 106
Fortification division.............................................. 106
Navy Department................................................. 106
Miscellaneous...................................................... 107
Section of office engineer............................................ 107

APPENDIX B.

Report of the marine superintendent....................................... 109
Operation of board of local inspectors.................................. 109
Shipping statistics.................................................... 110
Tables-
Summary of commercial traffic through The Panama Canal during fiscal
year 1920 and since its opening to commercial traffic............... 112
Number of commercial vessels of various nationalities passing through
The Panama Canal ............................................ 113

APPENDIX 0.

Report of the superintendent, mechanical division......................... 115
Organization.......................................................... 115
Principal work performed ........................ ........................ 115
At Balboa shops.................................................. 115
At Oristobal shops............................. ..................... 117
Balboa dry dock.................................................. 117
Cristobal dry dock............................................... 117
Miscellaneous matters................................................. 117
Improvements....................................................... 118
Needs for the coming fiscal year........................................ 119
Statistical data......... ................. .............................. 119
Tables accompanying report, list of.................................... 119

APPENDIX D.

Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department....................... 129
Organization........................................................ 129
Personnel............................................................ 129
Labor............................................ ................... 129
Quarters.............................................................. 130
Zone sanitation...................................................... 131
Motor transportation ................................................ 131
Animal transportation.................................................. 132
Material and supplies............................................... 132
Sales................................................................. 132
Surplus, obsolete, and scrap material and equipment..................... 133
Fuel-oil plants....................................................... 133
Gasoline storage...................................................... 134
Panama Canal press.................................................. 134
Subsistence.......................................................... 135
Commissary division.................................................. 135
Costa Rtican agency............................................. 136
Changes, alterations, and improvements in retail commissaries........ 136
Products shipped to the United States............................ 137
Fresh-beef shipments............................................. 137
Publicity ......................................................... 137
Material salvaged from steamship Marne............................ 137








TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII

Reportfof;the chiefqquartermaster, supply department-Continued. Page.
Cattle industry....................................................... 137
Purchases....................................................... 138
Transportation................................................... 139
Sales............................................................ 140
Health.......................................................... 140
Pastures.......................................................... 141
Plantations........................................................... 142
Poultry farm .......................................................... 143
Dairy farm .......................................................... 143
Tables-
Occupants of Panama Canal and Panama Railroad quarters, June 30,
1920 .......................................................... 144
Applications for family quarters on file June 30, 1920................ 144
Sales............................................................. 144
Value of material received during fiscal year on requisition.......... 145
Sales of obsolete and scrap material and equipment during fiscal year,
the original cost of which amounted to more than $500............ 147
Houses, apartments, and occupants, by districts, of gold and silver
quarters, as of June 30, 1920..................................... 147
Operation of Hotel Tivoli, fiscal year.............................. 148
Summary of operations, Hotel Aspinwall, fiscal year............... 148
Summary of operations of restaurants, fiscal year................... 148
Summary of operations, laborers' messes, fiscal year................. 149
Obsolete and surplus material (appraised values)................... 149
American scrap operations......................................... 149
Fuel oil handled................................................... 149
Comparative statement of output of manufacturing plants, commissary
division, supply department. fiscal years 1916 to 1920 ............. 150
Quantities of certain staple articles purchased during fiscal year as
compared with previous fiscal year.............................. 151
Comparative selling prices for June 30, 1920, as against June 30, 1919- 151
Articles purchased by the products buyer in Costa Rica during fiscal
year..................... ......................................... 152
More important articles purchased in Haiti during fiscal year. ...... 152
List of the important articles (1) purchased locally, (2) from planta-
tions of the cattle industry, (3) from Corozal farm and Army truck
gardens, from local producers and importing agencies, and by the
local commissary buyer, Panama................................ 152
APPENDIX E.
Report of the auditor...................................................... 153
Organization......................................................... 153
Paym aster ........................................................... 153
Collector............................................................. 154
Tolls.................................................................. 154
Accounting to the Treasury for collections.............................. 155
Canal appropriations................................................. 155
Current appropriations................................................ 156
Operation and maintenance........................................... 157
Business operations................................................... 158
Material and supplies.................................................. 159
Construction of Canal and capital additions ............................. 159
Manufacturing plants................................................. 160
Public works, Panama and Colon....................................... 160
Exchange of property with Panama Railroad Co......................... 161
Examination of pay rolls.............................................. 161
Inspection of accounts ............................................... 162
Time inspection...................................................... 162
Freight claims....................................................... 162
Claims for damages to vessels.......................................... 162
Bonds of employees.................................................. 162
Coupon books........................................................ 163
Canal Zone accounts.................................................. 163
Clubhouse accounts................................................... 163
Claims for injuries and deaths.......................................... 164
Operations with Panama Railroad Co.'s funds........................... 165








VTm TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the auditor-Continued. Page.
Railroad, harbor terminals, etc......................................... 165
Farm industries....................................................... 166
Commissary.......................................................... 167
General.......................... ..................................... 167
Tables accompanying report, list of.................................... 167

APPENDIX F.

Report of the executive secretary......................................... 229
Population of the Canal Zone.......................................... 229
Working force......................................................... 229
Tables-
Force actually at work on June 23, 1920....................... 230
Force reports, by months, fiscal year........................... 231
High and low force records, December, 1906, to June 30,1920, by
fiscal years................................................ 232
Living costs............*............................... ..... 232
Complaints of American employees.................................... 233
Compensation of American employees.................................. 233
Compensation of West Indian employees............................... 236
Strike of West Indian employees....................................... 237
Employees and the land............................................... 238
Publicity........................................ ................... 238
Organization of executive department............................... 240
The executive office............................................. 240
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds................................. 240
Report of director of physical education and play............... 241
Record bureau..................................................... 243
Personnel bureau.................................................. 244
Property bureau............... ................................... 244
Bureau of pay rolls................................................ 245
Table-Statement of work of bureau of pay rolls, fiscal year...... 245
Bureau of statistics. ............................................. 246
Surveying officer................................................ 247
Division of schools................................................ 247
Education of apprentices...................................... 249
Police and fire division........................................... 249
Police section................................................ 250
Fire section................................................... 252
Division of civil affairs............................................ 253
Bureau of posts............................................... 253
Bureau of customs............................................ 254
Shipping commissioner........................................ 255
Ad ministration of estates...................................... 255
The courts....................................................... 255
Special attorney and district attorney.............................. 256
Marshal for the Canal Zone........................................ 256
Relations with Panama............................................ 256
Appendix-Report of chief of division of civil affairs..................... 258
Bureau of posts................................................... 258
Number of post offices......................................... 259
Lock boxes................................................... 259
Money orders................................................ 259
Registered, insured, and C. 0. D. mail........................ 259
Dutiable packages............................................. 260
Duplicate money orders and investigations..................... 260
Dead-letter section.................... ........................ 260
Violation of postal laws and regulations........................ 260
Dispatches to the United States and other countries............. 261
Delhvery of mail to ships in transit............................. 261
United States transit mail...................................... 261
Count of mail matter......................................... 262






TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Appendix-Report of chief of division of civil affairs-Continued. Page.
Bureau of customs................................................ 263
Movement of vessels.......................................... 263
Merchand ise for Republic of Panama........................... 263
Free entry of merchandise..................................... 263
Attempted smuggling......................................... 264
Opium traffic................................................ 264
Household inspections........................................ 264
Certification of invoices......................................... 264
Special customs service....................................... 265
Prohibited aliens............................................... 265
Shipping commissioner........................................... 265
Administration of estates........................................... 267
Licenses and permits.............................................. 268
Insurance companies and corporations............................... 268
Tables-
Vessels entered and cleared, seamen shipped and discharged, and
seamen lodged, subsisted, and repatriated, fiscal year......... 269
Number of estates of deceased and insane employees, by nation-
alities, settled by administrator of estates during fiscal year.... 269
Number of estates received and settled, and amount of funds
handled during fiscal year.................................. 270
Number of mail parcels released free of duty, number on which
duty has been paid to the Government of Panama, and the
amount of duty as shown by receipts on file, by offices, during
fiscal year ................................................ 270
Number of insured and C. 0. D. parcel-post parcels and registered
articles delivered, by offices, during fiscal year............... 270
Letters and parcels registered and insured, by offices, during fiscal
year ....................................................... 271
Number and amount of money orders issued and amount of money
on deposit at post offices, by offices, as reported by postmasters,
for fiscal year............................................ 271
Receipts................................................... 272
Summary of insurance business transacted in the Canal Zone
during calendar year 1919.................................. 272
Surplus of postal receipts over expenditures if 40 per cent subsidy
on stamp sales had not been paid to Republic of Panama and if
postage had been paid on official matter which was carried free
S during fiscal year......................................... 272
APPENDIX G.
Report of the district attorney............................................ 273
Table-Criminal prosecutions........................................ 275
APPENDIX H.
Report of the special attorney........................................... 278
Land matters of The Panama Canal.................................. 278
Tabulation of land claims....................................... 281
Land claims disposed of during fiscal year........................ 282
Panama Canal land leases........................................ 284
Panama Railroad land matters........................................ 284
Panama Railroad leases and licenses reported by the land agent...... 284
Statement of Panama Railroad leases and licenses in effect July 1,1920. 285
Panama Railroad litigation..........-................................ 287
District court, Cristobal division.................................. 288
District court, Balboa division.................................... 289
The Supreme Court of the United States.......................... 289
District court, Cristobal division.................................. 290
District court, Balboa division.................................... 291
Magistrate's court, Balboa division............................... 292
The Supreme Court of the United States.......................... 292
Land litigation of the Panama Railroad Co........................ 292
Panama Railroad Co. litigation pending in the courts of Panama..... 293
Legislation.......................................................... 294






X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

APPENDIX I.
Page.
Report of the chief health officer.......................................... 298
General remarks..................................................... 298
Vital statistics...................................................... 301
Employees...................................................... 301
Effects of race................................................... 302
Canal Zone...................................................... 302
Panama City................................................... 303
Colon........................................................... 303
Ancon Hospital..................................................... 303
Board of health laboratory....................................... 305
Corozal Hospital................................................ 306
Colon Hospital...................................................... 308
Santo Tomas Hospital................................................. 309
Palo Seco Leper Asylum............................................. 311
District dispensaries.................................................. 312
District dentists..................................................... 312
Sanitation .......................................................... 312
Canal Zone...................................................... 312
Panama health office............................................. 315
Colon-Cristobal health office..................................... 316
Quarantine........................................................ 318
Immigration inspection........................................... 319
Expenses........................................................... 320
Tables accompanying report, list of.................................... 320

APPENDIX J.

Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office..... 340
Table showing increases in salaries authorized over organization of July 1,
1918.............................................................. 348

APPENDIX K.

Acts of Congress and Executive orders relating to The Panama Canal and to the
Canal Zone, index........................................................ 349













LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX A.

Plate. (Report of the engineer of maintenance.)
Plate.
1. Regimental headquarters.
2. Two-family field officers' and captains' quarters.
3. Six set lieutenants' quarters.
4. Four-family lieutenants' quarters.
5. Four-family noncommissioned offtlicers' quarters.
6. Special barracks.
7. Battalion barracks.
8. Gaillard Out. Cucaracha slide. May, 1920. Line indicates limits of Canal
prism.
9. Gaillard Out. Cucaracha slide. August, 1920. Line indicates limits of Canal
prism.
10. Gaillard Cut. Cucaracha slide excavation. March 21, 1920.
11. Gaillard Out. Cucaracha slide excavation. September 10, 1920.
12. Monthly rainfall, calendar year 1919, and station averages.
13. Distribution of rainfall in Canal Zone, maximum, minimum, current and average
calendar years.
14. Chagres River drainage basin; mean monthly discharge at Alhajuela; year 1919,
dry season 1920, Und 18-year average.
15. Chagres River drainage basin; discharge at Alhajuela; maximum, minimum, cur-
rent and average calendar years.
16. Operating uses of Gatun Lake water supply; year 1919, dry season 1920.
17. Gatun Lake watershed; yields and losses; massed curves, 1919.
18. Gatun Lake watershed; total yields; year 1919, dry season 1920, and 9-year average.
19. Gatun Lake watershed; comparative dry season hydrographs and curves; monthly
uses and losses, dry seasons 1917-1918-1919-1920.
APPENDIX C.
(Report of the superintendent, mechanical division.)

20. Charts showing classes of work and source of revenue.
21. Gross overhead expense percentage compared with the total direct labor charges,
fiscal year 1919-20.
22. Chart showing comparatively the total productive labor, indirect expense, super-
vision, maintenance of tools, machinery and shop buildings, and the power
consumption.
23. Chart showing the growth of work at Panama Canal repair wharves, 1916-1920,
inclusive.
APPENDIX F.
(Report of the executive secretary.)

24. Balboa, Canal Zone. Playgrounds for children. Halloween party. October,
1919.
25. Balboa, Canal Zone, school. Flag drill. Closing exercises. June 25, 1920.
XI












ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL.


THE PANAMA CANAL,
O()FFICE OF iTHE GOVERNOR,
Balboa Heights, Can"l Zone, S&ptctbtr 23, 1920.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the annual report, covering the
construction, operation, maintenance, and sanitation of The Panama
Canal for the fiscal year ended June'30, 1920.
The Canal was informally opened to traffic in August, 1914. On
July 12, 1920. the President issued the following proclamation
formally announcing the completion of the Canal and declaring it
open to commerce:

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
A PROCLAMATION.
Whereas section 4 of the act of Congress entitled "An act to provide for the open-
ing, maintenance, protection, and operation of The Panama Canal, and the sanitation
and government of the Canal Zone," approved August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 561),
and known as the Panama Canal act, provides that upon the completion of The
Panama Canal the President shall cause it to be officially and formally opened for
use and operation; and
\ Whereas the canal is completed and is open for commerce:
C Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America,
acting under the authority of the Panama Canal act, do hereby declare and pro-
claim the official and formal opening of The Panama Canal for use and operation in
conformity with the laws of the United States.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United
States to be affixed.
F Done in the District of Columbia this 12th day of July, in the year of our Lord
one thousand nine hundred and twenty, and of the independence of the United
States of America the one hundred and forty-fifth.
[SEAL,] OODROW ILSON.
By the President:
NORMAN H. DAVIS,
Acting Secretary of State.
This formality was necessary in order to comply with the require-
ments of the Panama Canal act.
During the six years of operation there has been a marked increase
in traffic through' the Canal notwithstanding the fact that the World
War has everywhere prevented the normal development of ocean-
going commerce. After the entry of the United States into the war
there was a decrease in commercial traffic, due to the diversion of
certain lines of ships to trans-Atlantic service, which was more than
offset by the increase in traffic growing out of the war, chiefly on
account of the development of the nitrate trade with the Pacific
coast of South America.
8847-20-1 1





2 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The number of commercial transits, the amount received from tolls
and other collections, and the current expenses of maintenance and
operation for the several fiscal years are shown in the following table:

Number Tolls and Current ex-
Fiscal year of corn- other penses of
iscal year.mercial revenues. operation and
transits. maintenance.

1915........................................................ 1,072 $4,343,383.69 4, ,128.09
1916....................................................... 760 2,658,542.38 6,909,750.15
1917...................................................... 1,806 5,808,398.70 6,788,047.60
1918...................................................... 2, 068 6,411,843.28 5,920,34194
1919....................................................... 2,028 6,354,016.98 6,112,194.77
1920...................................................... 2,478 8,935,871.57 ,548,272.43

For the same period the number of Canal transits by Government
vessels exempted from tolls and the total tonnage of cargo carried
were as follows for each fiscal year:


Fiscal year.


Number
Fiscal year. of Cargo.
vessels.


Ton s. Tons.
11........................ 16 43.647 1914....................... I 112 36,71$
1916........................... 43 76,675 1919 .......................I 179 93,611
1917........................... 100 147, !05 1920 ...................... I 267 351:332

Included in the above are 172 merchant ships carrying cargo for the Government.

The revenue of the Canal exceeded the current expense for its
operation and maintenance by S2,3S7,509.14 for the fiscal year
1920, and the total current expense of operation and maintenance
for the six-year period since 1914 exceeded the total revenues by
the amount, of $2,231,091.61. This excess will be more than over-
come by the revenues of 1921. The year in which the expenses
exceeded the revenues in the greatest amount was 1916, during
which traffic was suspended for six months on account of the great
slides at Culebra, and the expenses were increased by the cost of
removing them.
The Canal in its present state represents a capital expenditure by
the United States of .$36,650,000, exclusive of expenditures for its
military and naval defense. The investment, from one point of
view, may be regarded as having been made and justified in the
creation of in invaluable element, of national defense. If this be
true, the Canal has an additional value in rendering, useful service in
time of peace, and in returning to the Federal treasury revenue
more than sufficient to defray the expense of its operation and main-
tenance. It. is capable of doing more than this; and it is not an idle
prediction to state that with proper management directed along
the lines of a large business enterprise, it will within a reasonable
period of normal world conditions earn an actual profit on the cost.
From an analysis made under reasonable assumptions as to amorti-
zation, depreciation, obsolescence, and interest, it is estimated that
with an annual revenue of three times that of 1920 the Canal will
make a financial return on the investment. The time required to
produce this result will be affected by any changes in legislation
affecting charges for tolls. In the meantime the Canal is performing





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


an important commercial service in a promising field by stimulating
trade with the Orient and with the west coast. of South America.
Over 25 per cent of the cargo handled through the Canal since its
opening to the end of the fiscal year 1920 was in transit between the
United States and South America, and 14 1 per cent was between
the Atlantic coast of the United States and the Orient. Among
nations the chief users of the Canal are the United States and Great
Britain. The number of vessels passed each year for these nations
and for all other nations was as follows:

Fisal year. UCnited ;rPat All other FisUcaler Unitec' GrPat A.l other
Fiscal year. States. Britain. nations. Fiscalye.r. States. Britain. nations.

1915................ 470 415 153 1918................ 628 699 803
1916................ 238 3589 1919 ................ 786 602 637
1917................ 464 780 632 1920............... 1,129 753 596

By authority of the Panama Canal act, stores of coal, fuel oil,
ship maintained by The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad to meet
the requirements of ships that use the Canal, and facilities for repairs
to ships are provided at the two terminals, including the dry (dock
at Balboa, capable of receiving any ship that can pass through the
locks. These auxiliaries have been largely utilized and are of great
value in carrying out the policy of ranking the Canal attractive in
all of the incidental services that are considered by shipping interests in
routing their vessels. It has not been the purpose to make large profits
on these activities, but rather to regulate the charges so as safely to
cover the cost. The receipts from these miscellaneous services to
shipping during the year were as follows:
Coal...................................... ....................... $6,032, 578. 74
Water.................... .................... 55,412. 64
Oil, groceries, and miscellaneous supplies......................... 1, 274, 556.18
Mechanical repairs to ships..................... ......... ... 3, 863, 933. 00
With the growing traffic, it. will be necessary to expand these
auxiliary facilities in the near future. The old dit dock alid shops
at Cristobal, inherited from the French, and utilized during construc-
tion days for repairs to Canal equipment., are notably inadequate to
meet the present requirements of commercial steamers. These
developments will require appropriations in addition to the amount
of current expenditures, but the earnings of the Canal will be corre-
spondingly increased and the amount expended will be returned
from the revenues derived. If the developments are permitted to
lag behind the increasing traffic, the Canal will not be in position to
handle ill of the business offered.
The problems confronting the head of the local administration of
Canal affairs are those arising from (1) the maintenance of the Canal.,
the Panama Railroad and other auxiliaries, involving the practice of
civil engineering in all its branches, including sanitation: (2) the opera-
tion of'the Canal, requiring technical knowledge of all of the engi-
neering features of the Canal and of its navigation, and of the con-
duct of a great business enterprise of unusually varied ramifications;
and (3) the government of the Canal Zone, involving the administra-
tion of civil laws affecting persons living within the limits of the






THE PANAMA CANAL.


Canal Zone or entering upon it. The responsibility of the Governor
in all of these matters is complete; his authority is also complete,
as determined by the organic act and by the Executive orders of the
President issued thereunder. The duties, responsibilities, and author-
ities of the Governor are civil in character and have no relation to the
preparation for the defense of the Canal in time of war. He con-
tinues his functions during war, except that within the discretion
of the President, under authority of the organic act, the commanding
officer of the military forces on the Canal Zone may be given entire
control during a state of war, in which case the Governor performs
his duties under the direction of the military commander. in every
branch of his work the Governor has the responsibility of maintain-
ing an efficient force of employees and of s ttling locally, so far as
possible, all issues raised by them concerning compensation, condi-
tions of employment, and other matters. A liberal, but, in my judg-
ment, a reasonable policy, has been followed in adjusting these issues.
The organic act of the Canal fixes a maximum limit of pay for its
employees for services similar to those of Government emrAoyees in
continental United States. Many employees perform duties for
which there is no parallel in other Government service, and their
compensation is deduced from prevailing commercial rates in the
United States for similar work. In general, the allowable in-
crease of 25 per cent above United States rates is applied to Ameri-
can employees, adjustments being made in some cases for purposes
of coordination among positions of equivalent responsibility in our
organization. The Canal schedules of pay have therefore followed
the increases that have occurred in the United States. In the case
of the alien labor force, composed almost altogether of West Indians,
increases in wages have kept pace with increases in living costs, as
compared with the standards of 1914. A permanent board of heads
of departments and divisions is convened every three months to make
thorough investigation of changes in cost of living to these employees
and to recommend appropriate changes in wages to meet them.
There has been a large surplus on the Isthmus of this class of help,
but during the year 1920 some emigration has occurred to Cuba and
the United States.
General industrial conditions on the Canal are good. There has
been some unrest, but less than elsewhere. Care has been taken to
avoid arbitrary and unreasonable action in adjusting elements of
discontent, with results that have been generally satisfactory. Repre-
sentation has been allowed to employees on boards appointed for
making recommendations concerning rates of pay and working con-
ditions. It has been my experience that among American employees
decisions based upon a consideration of both sides of the questions
at issue have been acceptable to them, and that, in general, they take
an active interest in the Canal and its welfare and have a commendable
feeling of pride in it..
The turnover in force of Americans during the year was 33 per cent.
Some of it, is attributable to resignations on account of opportunities
for betterment elsewhere, but most of it to the fact that the American
workman does not wish to make his permanent home in the Tropics,
and while here feels out of touch with possibilities of business advance-
ment at home. I do not advise taking away the privileges now
enjoyed by our American employees, buttelieve that the local situa-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


tion should be allowed to work itself out under conditions as at pres-
ent established and along the lines of comparison with industrial
conditions in the United States.
ORGANIZATION.
The heads of departments and divisions remain as reported last
year, with the following exceptions:
By orders from the Navy Department, Capt. L. R. Sargent, United
States Navy, marine superintendent, was relieved from duty with
the Canal on April 15, and Capt. E. P. Jessop, United States Navy,
was detailed for appointment to the position.
Mr. T. L. Clear, who resigned the position of collector on September
20, 1918, to accept a commission in the inspector General's Depart-
ment of the United States Army, returned to his former position with
the Canal on September 6, 1919.
Mr. J. H. McLeah, paymaster, resigned on November 15, 1919, and
Mr. R. W. Glaw, assistant paymaster, was promoted to fill the vacancy
on January 24, 1920.
DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
BUILDING DIVISION.
This division remained in the charge of Mr. T. C. Morris, resident
engineer, under the supervision of the engineer of maintenance.
On account of lack of appropriation no large building projects were
in progress for the Canal, and the chief operations of the building
division comprised the construction of two Army posts, one at New
Gatun and one at Miraflores, from Army appropriations which were
allotted by the Secretary of War to the Governor for expenditure.
The total amount appropriated for the projects was $4,986,849, of
which $2,851,600 for buildings were allotted to the building division.
A general description of the buildings constructed was contained
in the report of last year. Unavoidable delays were experienced in
the progress of the work on account of delays in filling requisitions
for material and for skilled mechanics. Under a requirement of
the act appropriating the funds no material, supplies, or eq(Luipment
could be purchased until it was determined whether or not they
could be furnished from available surplus stores of the War Depart-
ment. In filling our requisitions it, was necessary for the general
purchasing officer in Washington to communicate with the various
surplus stores of the construction divisions of the Army and attempt
to purchase all available material from these stores. In some
instances certain materials were available when the inquiries were
made but had been otherwise disposed of when about to be con-
tracted for. In such instances it was necessary to purchase the
needed material in the ordinary way from commercial firms. Un-
precedented delays occurred also on account of difficulties in trans-
orting materials to the seaboard, congestion in the harbors in the
Unite States, and delays to shipping on account of labor difficulties.
On June 30, 1920, the state of completion at Fort Clayton (Mira-
flores) was as follows: All buildings 100 per cent except headquarters,
which was 85 per cent complete; one battalion barracks, 85 per cent






THE PANAMA CANAL.


complete; one battalion barracks, 70 per cent complete; and at
Fort Davis (New Gatun), all buildings were 100 per cent complete
except one 2-family captain's set, 84 per cent complete; one 2-family
set, 50 per cent; one 4-family lieutenant's set, 90 per cent; and one
4-family lieutenant's set, 80 per cent complete; headquarters build-
ing, 95 per cent complete; one battalion barracks 70 per cent, and
one battalion barracks 60 per cent complete.
At the naval submarine base and air station, work was continued
on projects for which allotments have been made by the Navy
Department. Total expenditures during the year for the submarine
base were 8147,317, and for the naval air station $91,919.
Work at the Army aviation base under an allotment from Army
appropriations was continued; total expenditures during the year
being $66,954.
At Fort Sherman new work authorized under an allotment from
Army appropriations for barracks and quarters was completed at a
total expenditure of $125,715.10. A new wharf was completed at
a cost of $25,501.08.
At the new silver townsite at Mount Hope work was begun on the
construction of thirty-nine 12-family frame quarters and ten 32-room
frame bachelor quarters. At the end of the year the project was 54
per cent complete. A commissary building authorized for this
community was under construction and was 75 per cent complete
at the end of the year.
This division was placed in charge of the erection of a 100-foot
lighthouse at the channel end of the east breakwater, Cristobal
Harbor. Contract was awarded for the superstructure on October 8,
1919, at a price of $6,500 delivered at Colon. The contractor's
drawings were received on February 3, 1920, giving the dimensions
of the base of the tower and sufficient data for computing the loads
on the base. The foundation consists of 23 feet 7 inches square
reinforced concrete deck design, supported by 12 steel pipe piles,
3 at each corner, driven to rock. After driving the piles were filled
with concrete. The construction of the foundation was completed
on June 22, and the erection of the superstructure will proceed upon
the arrival of its component parts on the Isthmus.
From funds made available by congressional appropriation, work
was begun on the construction of a 60-ton daily capacity garbage
incinerator for the Cristobal-Colon district. On July 1 the building
was practically complete. The equipment was installed and the
work remaining to be done consisted of placing fire brick lining in
the combustion chambers and breechings. The building is of rein-
forced concrete construction, with tile roof, two stories high, and 37
feet 3 inches by 101 feet 3 inches in horizontal dimensions. On the
first floor are two 30-ton incinerating units with their accessories.
The second floor is of reinforced concrete, designed to support a live
load of 200 pounds per square foot, and will be used for the receiving
and distribution of garbage for incineration. The garbage will be
delivered on motor trucks with removable steel bodies of 2J yards
capacity. An overhead electric crane will lift the bodies from the
trucks and dump them directly into the incinerator hopper or in the
proper place on the floor until the furnace conditions warrant charg-
ing. The estimated cost of the project is $113,000.






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


A combined mechanical shop and storehouse was authorized for
construction in the immediate vicinity of the Cristobal docks. In
the shop will be handled the increasing amount of minor repairs to
commercial ships and others lying at the docks, and the storehouse
will be used for ships' stores where they will be readily accessible, as
required, for sale to ships at the docks. The shops area is 76 by 113
feet, and the storeroom 76 by 125 feet; the end of the building
designed for a storehouse will be two stories high. The estimated
cost of the building is $90,000 and on July 1, 1920, it was 52 per cent
complete.
The old Panama Railroad stables in Colon, constructed in 1908,
were demolished for sanitary reasons, and a new building was au-
thorized in a section of Colon set apart for such purposes, at an esti-
mated cost of $142,000. Work proceeded on the construction of the
new stables during the year and the buildings were 84 per cent com-
plete at the end of the year.
The old Royal Mail pier at Colon was demolished by virtue of a
sanitary regulation of November 11, 1913, which required the demoli-
tion of all nonrat-proof piers by January 1, 1919. The property was
acquired by the Panama Railroad Company, and on the iron sub-
structure, which remained intact, a new fireproof and rat-proof
structure was built 60 by 400 feet for the accommodation of small
coastwise and native craft. The reinforced concrete floor slab is
designed for a live load of 175 pounds per square foot over the entire
structure, covered with a roof built of material salvaged from the old
Panama Railroad Pier No. 2. Water lines were installed for fire
protection and for water supply to ships. The work was completed
at a total cost of $38,247.70.
Under work request from the supply department construction was
begun of two reinforced concrete oil tanks, 55,000 barrels capacity
each, one at Mount Hope and one at La Boca. The estimated cost
of the tanks is $55,000 each. On July 1, 1920, the Mount Hope
tank was 98 per cent complete and the La Boca tank 60 per cent
complete.
In addition to the above, the building division performed various
minor items of work for the Canal; and for individuals and companies
the following work was performed: The construction of a community
house for the National Catholic War Council, at Balboa, at an esti-
mated cost of $85,000, was in progress; an office building and quarters
for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, at Cristobal, was under
construction at an estimated cost of $275,000; and bachelor quarters
and an office building for the Central and South American Cables
Company was completed.
The operations of the building division are described in further
detail in Appendix A.
LocKS OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
On July 25, 1919, the largest American ships that have transited
the canal were passed through the locks; they were the dreadnaughts
New Mexico and Mississippi, each of 32,000 tons displacement, 624
feet long and 97 feet 44 inches beam. As the locks are 110 feet wide,
there was in each case a clearance of 6 feet 3j inches on either side,






THE PANAMA CANAL.


with the vessel centered in the locks. No difficulties were expe-
rienced during the passage.
The British cruiser Renown, which passed through the Canal on
March. 30, 1920, is the largest ship to have transited the Canal to
date, although her beam is 6 feet less than that of the New Mexico
and Mississippi. She has a length of 795 feet and a displacement of
33,379 tons.
There was a total of 8,149 lockages during the year, of which 2,559
were at Gatun, 2,859 at Pedro Miguel, and 2,731 at Miraflores.rA
total of 2,534 commercial vessels were locked through at Gatun,
2,527 at Pedro Miguel, and 2,528 at Miraflores. Six hundred and
fourteen vessels of all descriptions, pertaining to the Canal and Army
and Navy, for which no tolls were paid, passed through Gatun locks;
1,003 through Pedro Miguel locks, and 978 through Miraflores locks.
For purposes of inspection and repair, locks were out of commission
during the year as follows: At Miraflores, east chamber, from Decem-
ber 12, to January 31; west chamber, from February 2, to February 7;
at Pedro Miguel, west chamber, from February 12 to Marchl'27.
During these periods the rising stem valves at Miraflores and Pedro
Miguel locks were removed and completely overhauled. Considera-
ble evidence of the action of the teredo was found in the submerged
hardwood valve fittings and gate sills, requiring replacement of the
parts affected. The wearing pads and roller trains of the rising stem
valves were found to be worn sufficiently to require their replace-
ment at their next period of overhauling. The maintenance of the
protective coating of the submerged portion of the lock gates was
continued. None of the chambers of the Gatun locks were un-
watered during the year, and with the exception of the overhauling
of the 12 intermediate valves and 24 roller trains nothing but the
usual work was done.
The work of the operation and maintenance of the locks is described
in detail in the report of the engineer of maintenance, Appendix A.

ELECTRICAL DIVISION.
This division is charged with the maintenance and operation of
the electric generating stations, substations, transmiission lines, and
power distributing systems; maintenance of the lighting systems of
the Canal Zone; maintenance of telephones and telegraphs, fire alarm
and railway signal systems, and railway interlocking plant, and
installation and maintenance of all new electrical equipment required
by the Canal, the railroad, the Army and Navy posts, and such com-
mercial vessels as require electrical work while transiting the Canal.
The division remains in the charge of Mr. Walter L. Hersh as elec-
trical engineer.
The total expenditures of the division for the year were $1,700,000,
of which 46 per cent was for work and current for other departments
of the Canal, 24 per cent for work and power for the railroad, 10 per
cent for work performed for outside interests, 9 per cent for improve-
ments in the power system, and 6 per cent for exterior electrical work
at the new Army posts at Fort Clayton and Fort Davis; 1l per cent
for work for other departments of the Government, and the balance
of 3j per cent covers stock of materials, equipment purchased, and
work in progress awaiting completion and rendering of bills.






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


The major equipment of the power system remained unchanged
during the year. Due to the failure of a 2,200-6,600-volt, auto trans-
former of unit No. 2, Gatun hydroelectric station, a complete set
of new coils for this transformer was ordered. Pending the delivery
of the new coils No. 2 generator has been placed directly on the
2,200-volt service and is operating at about three-quarters capacity.
At the Cristobal substation two 2,200-volt feeder equipment were
installed, one as a distribution feeder to the new silver townsite at
Mount Hope and the other to relieve the existing feeders to the
Cristobal docks to provide power for the new small machine repair
shop at the docks.
At Gatun substation a new 300 KVA 60,000-volt testing trans-
former was installed for applying high potential tests to the trans-
mission line. A 30-ton motor-operated chain hoist was installed
preparatory to the handling and installing of an 8,400 KVA 44,000-
6,600-volt transformer on requisition for this substation.
The average combined generator output of the power system for
the year was 5,382,750 KWH per month, as compared with 4,725,637
KWH per month last year. A monthly average of 4,608,341 KWH
was transmitted and distributed to all power consumers, with a
monthly average of 3,955,607 KWH last year.
On account of the abnormal dry season, extending until the middle
of May, it was found advisable to conserve the water supply stored
in Gafun Lake by relieving the hydroelectric station of a load ranging
from 3,000 to 4,000 KW. During this period this load was carried
by the steam power plant at Miraflores, which generated 8,234,380
KWH. During the remaining nine months Miraflores plant was
maintained on the usual basis of stand-by service.
There were from all causes 11 interruptions in the service of the
transmission line, as compared with 49 last year. There was only 1
interruption chargeable to insulator failure, as compared with 32 last
year. This improvement is attributed to the additional disk installed
to all insulator strings of the transmission line, as mentioned in the
report of last year.
The average cost of electric power distributed for the year was 9.421
mills per KWH, and the average cost of distributed lighting current,
including lamp renewals, was 13.277 mills per KWH. The corre-
sponding figures for last year were 8.097 mills for power and 12.963
mills for lighting.
During the year 999 telephones were installed and 636 removed,
leaving a total of 3,330 telephones in service on June 30, 1920, a net
increase of 363 telephones in the year. The average number of tele-
phone calls during the eight-hour business day was 28,900, as com-
pared with 22,630 for last year. A total of 15,114 feet of lead-covered,
paper-insulated telephone cable of all sizes was installed, resulting
in a total installation of 642,448 feet of telephone cable in service on
June 30, 1920.
There were no failures in alarm apparatus during the year, and 27
alarms were turned in. Two new fre-alarm boxes were installed on
Pier No. 6, Cristobal. There were no material changes in the railway
signal installation during the year. There were 2,262,937 registered
arm movements, with 149 failures, as compared with 2,084,908 arm
movements and 97 failures during last year.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


At the electrical repair shop 307 armatures, motors, and generators
were rewound; 131 transformers and miscellaneous coils were re-
newed: 156 magnetos and fan motors were rewound or repaired; 62
electrical appliances were repaired; 148 switchboards and panels
were manufactured, and 180 miscellaneous other repair jobs were
done. The forces of the electrical division handled 361 jobs of
marine electrical work on ships at Cristobal and 416 at Balboa.
The more important items of this work included the complete rewiring,
overhauling, or additions to the electrical installations aboard the
steamships 'ristobal, Acajutla, Ansaldo, San Giorqio, Salaverryi, Paita,
Circassian Prince, Azov, Ardmore, and the Peruvian cruiser Lima.
For further details of the work of the electrical division see report
of the electrical engineer, Appendix A.
MUNICIPAL DIVISION.
The work of this division continued under the charge of Mr. D. E.
Wright, as municipal engineer, under the supervision of the engineer
of maintenance. The work performed included the operation and
maintenance of water reservoirs, pumping stations, filtration plants,
and the maintenance and repair of municipal improvements in the
Canal Zone and in the cities of Panama and Colon.
Miscellaneous municipal construction work for the Canal, the rail-
road, the Army and Navy, and for individuals and companies,
included the following principal items: Necessary surveys for new
townsite projects, including the layout and design for water, sewers,
streets, and sidewalks; the maintenance of all roads, water-pumping
stations, purification plants and pipe lines, and such municipal
construction work as was required within the Canal Zone and cities
of Panama and Colon. The principal items of new construction work
included municipal engineering work for the new Army posts at Fort
Clayton and Fort Davis; the development and placing in municipal
order of the extension of the city of Colon, providing additional 99
building lots for residential purposes for individual residents of
Colon and for Canal employees; the new town of Mount Hope for
occupation by silver employees of the Panama Railroad at the docks
and coaling stations; the construction of a concrete road with an
asphalt wearing surface from the lumber shed in Balboa to Diablo
Hill; the resurfacing and oiling of the Paraiso-Gamboa macadam
road; street extensions for new buildings of the Army posts at Fort
Sherman, with necessary water and sewer connections; the demo-
lition of the Calidonia bridge over the Panama Railroad tracks in
Panama and constructing a grade crossing to replace it; the repairing
of roads in Fort Amador and Corozal; miscellaneous work for the
United States Navy at Coco Solo, consisting of construction of sea
wall, sanitary ditches, baseball park, concrete sidewalks, etc.; the
development of block 54, Colon, as a warehouse site; construction
of concrete road from the new cold-storage plant to the Margarita-
Mount Hope Road; the extension of the concrete road to Pier No.
6; and a large amount of miscellaneous work for The Panama Canal,
the Panama Railroad, and various business concerns of Panama
and Colon. The amounts expended on this work are as follows:
Army post, Fort Clayton, $355,829.12; Army post, Fort Davis,
$329,786.05; silver townsite, Mount Hope, $115,788.62; concrete road






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Balboa to Diablo Hill, $34,452.44; resurfacing Paraiso-Gamboa
road, $22,713.22; roads, streets, sidewalks, etc., Fort Sherman,
89,881.25; Calidonia bridge crossing, $36,594.87; miscellaneous
municipal work for United States Army, $39,659.61; miscellaneous
municipal work for United States Navy, $38,446.18; development
of block 54 in Colon, $38,537.43; road from cold-storage plant,
Mount Hope, $39,150.11; extension of road to Pier 6, $12,779.63;
miscellaneous municipal work for the Panama Canal departments
and Panama Railroad, $159,893.22; outsiders, $20,232.43; municipal
engineering work, New Cristobal, $91,488.44; and municipal work
between Seventh and Ninth and G and K Streets, Colon, $115,685.67.
The supplying of water and the maintenance of sewer systems and
streets in the cities of Panama and Colon was continued. The total
expenditures in these two cities for routine maintenance work was
$184,453.92. Work was continued on enlargement of storm sewer
drains in the city of Panama, $112,177.84 being spent.
The total number of gallons of water pumped at the various pump-
ing stations was as follows: Gamboa, 3,895,630,000; Miraflores,
423,790,000; Balboa, 2,790,202,000; Paraiso, 74,640,000; Cucaracha,
176,513,000; Mount Hope, 2,157,686,000; Agua Clara, 427,714,000;
Frijoles, 11,620,000; and Monte Lirio, 3,264,000. The divisional
cost of water delivered in the several districts was as follows per 1,000
gallons: Ancon-Balboa, $0.07; Miraflores, $0.06; Pedro Miguel, $0.07;
Paraiso, $0.07; Gamboa, $0.OS; Gatun, $0.14; and Cristobal, $0.07.
These costs include filtration, analysis, and treatment. The sales of
water to vessels were as follows: Cristobal, 2,215 vessels, 110,825,282
gallons; Balboa, 1,438 vessels, 35,289,250 gallons. The water con-
sumption in the city of Panama for the year was 1,026,440,000
gallons, and in Colon the consumption was 625,371,800 gallons.
For further details of municipal engineering work see report of the
municipal engineer, Appendix A.

METEOROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY.

The section continued in the charge of Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick, chief
hydrographer, reporting to the engineer of maintenance. All of the
meteorological stations as reported for last year have been continued
in operation and additional stations were established as follows: A
standard rain gauge was installed at La Palma in December, 1919,
operated by the naval radio station at that point; at Divala, Province
of Chiriqui; Mariato, Province of Veraguas; and at Mandinga Bay,
Province of Colon, all in the Republic of Panama, during the dry
season of 1920. These stations are not operated at the expense of
The Panama Canal.
For the calendar year 1919 the rainfall was below normal at all sta-
tions in the Canal Zone and vicinity, except Cape Mala, Taboga, Chili-
brillo, and Bocas del Toro. The greatest deficiency was 32.14 at
Brazos Brook. At most stations October was the month of heaviest
rainfall and March the month of lightest rainfall. The average annual
rainfall in the Pacific section was 63.39 inches; in the Central section,
79.11 inches; and in the Atlantic section 109.89 inches. The greatest
precipitation recorded in any one day was 9.09 inches at Porto Bello
on August 23, 1919. The four months dry season rainfall for the
fiscal year 1920 is the lowest of record since American occupation






THE PANAMA CANAL.


in 1904, and the dry season conditions were prolonged until the
middle of May, a full month longer than usual. The rainfall for the
first six months of the calendar year 1920 was below normal through-
out, the Canal Zone and vicinity, the difference being most pronounced
in the Atlantic section.
The average air temperature for the year was above normal. For
the calendar year 1919 the maximum temperature recorded was 940
F., which occurred at Balboa, Heights on February 6 and at Gamboa
on April 11, and the minimum temperature recorded was 61' F., at
Alhajuela on March 22.
The annual wind movement in the Canal Zone for the calendar
year 1919 was above normal; northwest, north, and northeast winds
prevailed at all stations. The maximum wind velocity recorded for
the year was 50 miles per hour, at Gamboa on September 26, and at
Gatun on June 17. During the calendar year 1919 the evaporation
over the surface of Gatun Lake was below the average of eight
years. During the first six months of 1920 the evaporation was
above normal, due to the unusual length and intensity of the dry
season. The usual conditions of frequent night and early morning
fogginess prevailed at the interior stations during the rainy season,
and as usual all fogs observed were dissipated by 8.30 a. m.
There were 33 seismic disturbances during the fiscal year 1920; all
were of moderate intensity and no damage was done to Canal struc-
tures.
For the calendar year 1919 the total yield of the Gatun Lake
watershed was 17 per cent below normal, the average yield being
5,225 c. f. s., as compared with a nine-year average 7of 6,267 c. f. s.
The maximum monthly average yield was 1,053 c. f. s. in October,
and the minimum was 952 c. F. s. in March. The actual total yield
for the calendar year 1919 was 164.79 billion cubic feet, of which 36
per cent was run-off above Alhajuela, 44 per cent from land area
below Alhajuela, and 20 per cent direct rainfall on Gatun Lake
surface. Of the total yields, 14 per cent, or 22.108 billion cubic feet,
were lost by evaporation from the lake surface; 11 per cent, or
18.246 billion cubic feet, were consumed in lockages; 2S per cent,
or 46.34 billion cubic feet, were consumed at the hydroelectric plant
at Gatun: 46 per cent, or 76.044 billion cubic feet, were discharged
over the spillways, and 1 per cent, or 1.89 billion cubic feet, were
consumed at the water pumping stations, in leakages, and other
losses.
At the beginning, on December 16, 1919, of the 1919-20 dry season,
Gatun Lake was at its maximum stage of 87 feet. On account of
the abnormal intensity and length of this dry season and of the
increased consumption of water Jue to increased traffic in the Canal,
the lake on May 28, 1920, soon after the close of the dry season, had
fallen to elevation 81.77. On account of the rate of fall of the lake,
and of the condition of Cucaracha slide, it was determined to conserve
water by reducing the output of the hydroelectric generating plant
at Gatun by 50 per cent and to supplement the necessary power by
the operation of the Miraflores steam plant. This was done on
March 3, and continued to June 3, by which date the lake had begun
to rise at a sufficient rate to justify the full operation of the Gatun
hydroelectric plant. If the hydroelectric plant had continued at its





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


normal output without interruption, the lake would have fallen to
elevation 80.55.
Nothing in the results following the abnormal dry season of this
year has indicated the necessity for many years to come, if at all, of
the creation of an additional reservoir by the construction of the
Alhajuela dam. With the traffic developed to the capacity of the
Canal and with the hydroelectric plant at Gatun operated at its
maximum ultimate capacity, it will always be necessary to waste
water over the spillways d(luring the rainy season. During a part of
abnormal dry seasons it will probably be necessary to conserve water,
as was done from March to June of this year, by reducing the output
of the hydroelectric plant at Gatun and by generating the deficiency
in the operation of the steam plant at Miraflores. As the other work
of the surveys office permits, additional surveys are being made of
the upper Chagres Valley for the purpose of accumulating data for
estimating the volume of water that may be impounded above Alha-
juela, if in the future it becomes apparent that the additional reser-
voir is advantageous.
Reference is made to Appendix A for other details.

SECTION OF SURVEYS.

Mr. 0. E. Malsbury continued as assistant engineer in charge of
this section, reporting to the engineer of maintenance. The section
conducted all surveys for the land office of the Canal and Panama
Railroad and maintained the establishment of Canal Zone monu-
ments, triangulation stations, and bench marks. It also made sur-
veys and prepared maps for the Army and Navy and for the joint
land commission, as required. Corner and grade stakes were set on
43 lots in the city of Colon, on 1 lot in Cristobal, and on block 23 in
the city of Panama.
Observation at points on Gatun dam and of the south approach
walls at Gatun were continued, indicating normal conditions. The
entire 5-mile limit line of the east side of the Canal Zone was cleared
and marked with 168 extra monuments. On the west side of the
Canal the 5-mile limit line between the Canal Zone and the Republic
of Panama was cleared and marked with 10 extra monuments.
A new triangulation station was established in the vicinity of Fort
Clayton Military Reservation, and four new stations were established
in the vicinity of upper Chagres River on which to tie the survey of
the Alhajuela Basin. Various surveys were made for the supply
department, health department, and electrical division, as described
in the appendix. Boundary lines of military and naval reservations
in the Canal Zone were established and maintained.
For further details see Appendix A.

OFFICE ENGINEER.

This work continued in the charge of Mr. C. J. Embree, under the
supervision of the engineer of maintenance, and included the engi-
neering, architectural, and miscellaneous design work for all divisions
of the Canal except the mechanical division.
There was a total of 685 working drawings issued, of which the
most important were for the building division and electrical division.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


The office issued during the year 224,670 square feet of blue prints,
19,653 square feet of white prints, and 8,715 square feet of brown
prints, at an average cost of 1j cents per square foot.

DREDGING DIVISION.
This division continued in charge of Mr. J. M. Pratt, superintend-
ent of dredging, under the direction of the engineer of maintenance.
It was charged with the maintenance of the Canal prism and of the
approach channels to the docks and coaling plants at the Canal
entrances, and with the sand and gravel production from the bed of
the Chagres River.
The total amount of material of all kinds excavated by the dredg-
ing plant was 4,750,686 cubic yards, at an average cost of 34k cents
per cubic yard. Of the material excavated, 3,333,961 cubic yards
were earth and 1,416,725 cubic yards were of rock. Except for 120,-
676 cubic yards of sand and gravel production, the cost just stated
includes the transportation and dumping. For the sand and gravel
production, costs include delivery alongside the gravel dock at Gam-
boa. A total of 3,711,810 cubic yards was removed from the limits
of the Canal prism, distributed geographically as follows: From
Atlantic Ocean to Gatun, 0; from Gatun to Gaamboa, 7,400 cubic
yards; from Gamboa to Pedro Miguel, 2,121,710 cubic yards; from
Miraflores Lake, 0; and from Miraflores to Pacific Ocean, 1,582,700
cubic yards. Of these amounts all were chargeable to maintenance
except 17,800 cubic yards chargeable to construction between Mira-
flores and the Pacific Ocean. Within the limits of the Canal prism
there remained on June 30, 1920, to.be removed 155,400 cubic yards
chargeable to construction and 3,286,900 cubic yards chargeable to
maintenance.
The large amount of dredging done in Gaillard Cut section was due
to the renewed activity of ucaracha slide, 77 per cent of the total
yardage reported in this section having been removed from that
obstruction. The slides at Culebra were quiescent throughout the
year, except, for a small movement of the East Culebra slide in the
latter part of October, 1919, requiring the excavation of 272,000
cubic yards from October 16 to December 27.
In August, 1916, a movement in the old slide area at Cucaracha
closed the Canal to traffic for a period of eight days. Equilibrium
was restored after the removal of 1,054,757 cubic yards from the
Canal prism and the excavation of a small basin in the bank of the
Canal. Within the area of the disturbance, but not affected by it,
was a high ledge of rock extending diagonally from a massive hard
rock promontory, locally called "Purple rock," at the edge of the
Canaf, to Gold Hill, at a point 1,200 feet from the Canal. By its
resistance this ledge retained and prevented the motion of the mass
of material behind it. The first indication of new disturbance was a
surface movement of the mass behind the rock ledge that began
during the heavy rainfall of October, 1919, and which forced material
over the ledacge and into the Canal. This condition continued without
serious results until February 21, 1920, when a large general move-
ment occurred carrying huge masses of earth and rock into the Canal
prism and obstructing the channel, except for small draft ships.
The operations of the large dipper dredges accomplished the removal
*





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


of the obstructions at a sufficient rate to keep the Canal open to all
traffic with the exception of occasional delays in February, March,
and April. Twenty-seven ships were delayed an average of two days,
the maximum delay to any ship being four days. By June 12, 1920,
the channel had been restored to full dimensions and at the date of
this report a basin has been created by excavating the broken bank
throughout the full length of the slide and for an average width of
250 feet outside the limits of the Canal.
Between February 21, the date of the first obstruction, and Sep-
tember 1 a total of 1,890,800 cubic yards was removed by the dredges,
at an average cost, including transportation and dumping of the
dredged material, of 371 cents per cubic yard.
When stability was secured after the movement of 1916, it was
expected that no more serious difficulty would be experienced at-
Cucaracha, and this expectation was strengthened by three years of
quiescence. The renewed activity was obviously due to the failure
of the rock ledge referred to above, which finally yielded under the
pressure of the material behind it and left that material free to move
toward the Canal.
The slide at Cucaracha has always been free from one of the diffi-
cult features of the slides at Culebra, which closed the- Canal in
1915-16. At the latter place the disturbance extended to a depth
below the level of the bottom of the Canal and shoals were formed by
the upheaval of the bottom. At Cucaracha the bottom has remained
undisturbed, and we have. had to handle only the material that
actually moved from the banks. The present situation is that all
obstructions have been removed, the motion is much retarded, and
a new period of stability is approaching. For several months to
come it may be necessary to operate a dredge to keep pace with the
movement, but the creation of a basin permits the work to be done
outside the limits of the Canal prism, and therefore without inter-
ference with traffic. As the failure of the rock ledge referred to
above has removed the resistance to motion of the broken masses of
earth and rock within the limits of this extensive break in the bank
more than one-half mile from the Canal, it is probable that intermit-
tent movements will occur until stability is attained, and that when
attained the stability will be permanent.
On account of the large amount of material removed from the
slide, it is not probable that sudden movements of large masses will
again occur, or that further movements will be more rapid than the
rate of removal by the dredges.
Plates Nos. 8 and 10 show the conditions existing at the worst
stage of the slides, and plates Nos. 9 and 11 the present conditions.
The plant operated by the dredging division continued as reported
last year, except that the large seagoing ladder dredge Corozal was
sold to the United States Engineering Office, Philadelphia, and
delivered to representatives of that office on November 7, 1919.
Inspections were made from time to time of the slide areas in Gaillard
Cut with special reference to drainage conditions and evidence of
lack of stability. Where necessary, ditches were excavated and
banks sloped by the hydraulic graders to facilitate the drainage of
the banks. The usual work of destruction of water hyacinths was
continued. During the year 2,500,000 plants were pulled and





THE PANAMA CANAL.


destroyed, and 403,500 square yards were cleared by spraying with
an arsenic solution.
For further details of dredging division operations, see Appendix A.
MARINE DIVISION.
Capt. L. R. Sargent, United States Navy, remained in charge of
this division until April 15, 1920, when he was relieved from duty
with the Canal by orders from the Navy Department; he was suc-
ceeded by Capt. P. P. Jessop, United States Navy.
The floating equipment was increased during the year by the return
of the Canal tugs La Boca and Miraflores, which had been loaned to
the War Department for service during the war, and by the acqui-
sition from the Navy Department, for use and custody of the Canal,
of the U. S. S. Favorite, a vessel of 500 tons dead-weight, for service
as a lighthouse tender and as a salvaging vessel. The Favorite takes
the place of an old French clapet that has been used as a lighthouse
tender and that has been worn out in the service.
A two-story concrete building located at Gatun was completed
and is occupied as a combined storehouse, repair and office building
for the lighthouse subdivision.
The board of local inspectors, under the supervision of the marine
superintendent, made the prescribed semiannual inspections of all
floating equipment of the Canal and Panama Railroad, and, in
addition, inspected in dry dock 42 hulls of commercial ships and
Canal and railroad plant. Inspections and tests were made of 67
boilers in floating equipment, 60 on Canal and railroad plant, and 7
on vessels belonging to the United States Army. Licenses were
issued to 10 pilots, 13 masters, 21 mates, 30 engineers, and 126
navigators of motor boats.
A total of 2,478 commercial vessels made the transit of the Canal,
1,180 from the Atlantic to the Pacific and 1,298 in the reverse direc-
tion. Commercial cargo carried through the Canal amounted to
9,374,499 tons, of which 4,092,516 tons were from the Atlantic to
the Pacific and 5,281,983 from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Three
hundred and twenty-nine ships, with a cargo tonnage of 1,129,616,
passed through the Canal in ballast; 105, with a tonnage of 458,383,
were northbound, and 224, with a tonnage of 671,233, were south-
bound. United States Government vessels transiting the Canal free
of tolls aggregated 266, of which 51 were northbound and 215 south-
bound. Of these 218 pertained to the United States Navy, 18 to
the Army, and 30 were merchant ships with naval cargo. The ton-
nage transported by these ships amounted to 365,898, of which
150,814 tons were in naval vessels, 27,275 in Army vessels, and
187,809 tons were transported in merchant vessels under control of
the Navy. Five naval vessels of other nations, totaling 69,536 tons
displacement, transited the Canal. The traffic for the year showed
an increase as compared with the preceding year, in vessels, tonnage,
and cargo, amounting, respectively, to 22.37 per cent, 39.38 per cent,
and 36.31 per cent. The number of commercial vessels transiting
the Canal was 16.34 per cent above all previous yearly records. The
distribution as to nationalities of the ships transiting the Canal during
the year was as follows: United States, 1,129; British, 753; Japanese,
118; Norwegian, 306; Chiloan, 79; Peruvian, 75; French, 60; Span-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


ish, 41; Dutch, 29; Italian, 26; Swedish, 19; German, 17; Danish, 9;
Panamanian, 4; Brazilian, 3; Chinese, Portuguese, and Russian, 2
each; Belgian, Colombian, Costa Rican, and Uruguayan, 1 each.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix B.
MECHANICAL DIVISION.
The work of this division continued in the charge of Commander
E. G. Kintner, United States Navy, as superintendent. The principal
changes and additions to plants included the installation at Balboa
shops of a reclaiming roll for rerolling miscellaneous steel and iron
scrap into round and rectangular section rods and bars; the roofing
over of the space between buildings 2 and 3, Balboa shops, to relieve
the congestion of the pipe shop; the installation of a large horizontal
boring mill at the Balboa shops; and the construction (in progress) of
a light repair shop adjacent to the commercial piers in Cristobal to
facilitate repairs to ships at those piers.
The average force employed in the shops was 2,869 per month,
1,002 gold and 1,867 silver employees, as compared with correspond-
ing averages of 696 gold and 1,658 silver employees for last year.
The value of work performed was $6,454,219, of which 59.87 per
cent was marine work, 19.73 per cent railroad work, 12.17 per cent
miscellaneous, and 8.23 per cent manufacturing. Of the total work
performed 35.09 per cent was for the Canal, 43.38 per cent for indi-
viduals and companies, 17.16 per cent for the Panama Railroad, and
4.37 per cent for Government departments.
At the Balboa dry dock 16 vessels were docked pertaining to the
United States Army and Navy, 33 pertaining to The Panama Canal,
and 34 belonging to outside commercial interests. At the Cristobal
dry dock corresponding figures were 22 ships belonging to the Army
and Navy, 20 to the Canal, and 43 to outside commercial interests.
The total number of vessels, other than tugs, barges, and dredges, on
which work was done was 1,064-422 at Balboa shops and 642 at the
Cristobal shops.
The principal items of work at the Balboa shops include: Comple-
tion of overhaul and repairs to ex-German merchant steamers Uarda
(renamed Salaverry) and Anubis (renamed Paita); the former was
delivered for operation on July 14 and the latter on October 6, 1919,
the Anubis having been considerably delayed by nondelivery of parts
from the United States, held up by strikes; completion of the repairs
and alterations to the steamship Cristobal, of the Panama Railroad
Steamship Line, the work including not only a thorough overhaul but
also very extensive alterations. The vessel was changed from a coal
burner to an oil burner; the accommodations for officers and crew
were rebuilt; the passenger space was entirely changed and greatly
enlarged, as was also the cold-storage system. The overhaul in-
cluded installation of new boilers, refitting of main engines and practi-
cally all auxiliaries in the ship. The steamship Azov was given a
general overhaul of machinery and repairs in dry dock to the hull,
including renewal of about 25 shell plates, numerous frames, and the
lower half of the stem. The U. S. S. Melville, after arriving at this
plant in tow in a disabled condition, with boilers out of commission,
had installed modified furnace fronts and certain changes in her oil-
8847-20--2




"..F.


18 THE PANAMA CANAL.

burning system. The U. S. battleship Rhode Island was placed in
dry dock on account of a broken outside coupling. Repairs were
made to the strut fastenings which had been loosened; new coupling
and new propeller shaft were made from rough machined spares car-
ried by the vessel. The Navy Department ordered this vessel to
proceed to Mare Island Navy Yard under one engine, when it was
found, after removal of the stern tube shaft to the shop, that it was
cracked; there was no material on the Isthmus available for the
manufacture of this part. The Peruvian cruiser Lima received ex-
tensive repairs, particularly to the boilers and hull structure in the
vicinity of the machinery spaces, rudder, and steering gear. A new
radio house was constructed; also a new pilot house. Thesteamship
Acajutia, belonging to the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, was
altered from coal burning to oil burning, and received extensive re-
pairs to her hull and machinery. The United States submarines sta-
tioned at Coco Solo were dry-docked and given miscellaneous repairs.
The steamship Olockson (owned by the United States Shipping Board),
which had been sunk near the Pacific entrance to the Canal to extin-
guish a fire in the cargo of gasoline, was salvaged. Dredges, scows,
and tugs of the dredging division were overhauled and repaired. On
account of the slides which took place this year the amount of these
repairs was considerably increased. Four new 61-foot steel-frame
passenger coaches were completed in the car shop and put into active
service. These cars are notable on account of being trimmed with
caoba blanca, a native wood; they were finished in the natural color.
Twenty-five 40-ton flat cars were rebuilt for the Alaskan Engineering
Commission.
The principal items of work at the Cristobal shops included: The
steamship Culebra received extensive repairs and alterations in con-
nection with restoring her from her condition as a cattle carrier to
her previous condition as a seagoing dredge; the vessel was moved
to Balboa shops on April 6, 1920, for the completion of the work on
account of the many interruptions at Cristobal; salvage of the steam-
ship Marne (owned by the U. S. Shipping Board). This vessel was
raised after being sunk in Cristobal Harbor to extinguish a fire in the
cargo of benzine. The vessel caught fire a second time and sank in
the harbor on account of an explosion; she was again raised and
unloaded.
For further details of the operations of the mechanical division
see Appendix C.
SUPPLY DEPARTMENT.
The operations of this department continued under the charge of
Mr. R. K. Morris, chief quartermaster.
Labor.--The force for the month of June, 1920, consisted of 4,608
employees on the gold roll and 17,023 on the silver roll. In June,
1919, there were 3,290 employees on the gold roll and 17,071 on the
silver roll. The increase in the gold roll was principally due to the
operations of the building division in the construction of the Army
posts and of the mechanical division in the larger repair jobs for
steamships. There was a slight increase in the gold roll on account
of the displacement of certain alien employees on the silver roll.
The maximum number of employees on the silver roll was in February,






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


when 18,231 were employed, and the minimum number in November,
when 16,243 were employed.
Quarters.-Applications on file for family quarters, gold employees,
were 618 on June 30, 1920, as compared with 306 on June 30, 1919.
On the silver roll there were 747 applications on file on June 30, 1920,
for family quarters. By arrangement with the War Department,
the old Canal village of Las Cascadas, which was turned over to the
Army for occupation by troops in 1910, was turned back to the Canal
in October, 1919. Sixteen of the quarters suitable for the purpose
were removed from Las Cascadas and reerected for quarters of gold
employees in existing Canal towns. The remainder of the buildings
were made available for rental to a selected class of silver employees
temporarily out of work, with allotments of land for their use in
gardening, poultry raising, and growing of fruit trees to assist in the
support of themselves and their families. At the end of June, 1920,
40 families had taken advantage of this opportunity to have a home
at a nominal cost.
Transportation facilities.-Animal transportation was further re-
duced and replaced by motor transportation during the year. The
animals still in the service were used for drawing mowing machines,
garbage wagons, and material wagons where roads do not permit the
use of trucks. On June 30, 1920, 29 horses and 143 mules were in
the transportation service, a reduction of 10 horses and 51 mules
from the figures of a year ago. The motor vehicles in service on
June 30, 1920, and for the same date last year are shown in the
following table:

1919 1920 1919 1920

Ford cars, 1-ton delivery......... 78 57 Combination passenger and de-
1-ton trucks...................... 47 78 livery, changeable............. 4 17
li-ton trucks..................... 7 7 Hearses.......................... 1 2
3j-ton trucks..................... 15 15 Ambulances...................... 7 8
21-ton trucks (electric)............ 3 3 Motor cycles..................... 56 58
2-ton trucks...................... ........ 4 Buss, li-ton...................... ........ I
Ford passenger cars............... 11 16

In the cattle industry there were in service on June 30, 1920, 208
horses and 110 mules, corresponding figures for last year being 190
horses and 137 mules.
Materials and supplies.-The total value of materials received
during the fiscal year was $7,812,258.86, as compared with $7,832,-
845.61 for the previous year. The value of materials issued from the
different storehouses was $11,966,308.81, as compared with $12,157,-
090.24 for the previous year. The value of materials on hand June
30, 1920, was $5,249,300.15, as against $6,001,451.24 on June 30,
1919. The value of materials of all classes sold from the storehouses
of the supply department was $3,025,698.18. Sales were made to
3,265 steamships to the amount of $1,274,556.18, being an increase
of $97,039.85, as compared with last year. A total of 248,294 requi-
sitions and foremen's orders was handled, distributed as follows:
General storehouse, Balboa, 156,415; Cristobal storehouse, 76,243;
Paraiso storehouse, 15,636. The consumption of cement for the year
was 158,089 barrels.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


Obsolete material.--Two scrap shears were purchased and installed
at Mount Hope scrap yard to facilitate the cutting and classifying of
scrap in order to secure more favorable prices. It is expected that
all scrap now on hand will be cut up, classified, and sold by December
1, 1920, at which time the scrap shears will be moved from Mount
Hope to the general storehouse at Balboa, from which point all
future scrap operations will be handled. During the year 20,378
tons of American scrap were sold.
Fuel-oil tanks.-Contract was entered into with the West India Oil
Company to furnish 300,000 barrels of fuel oil at 81.12 per barrel, de-
livered into PanamaCanal tanks at Mount Hope, and 700,000 barrels at
$1.29 per barrel delivered into Canal tanks at Balboa. This contract
expired on June 30, 1920, but with the privilege of renewal to De-
cember 31, 1920. In view of the favorable price the Canal exercised
its option of renewal. Two 55,000-barrel capacity concrete tanks under
construction during the year, one at Balboa and one at Mount Hope,
were 90 per cent complete. The total amount of fuel oil handled
by the Balboa and Mount Hope plants amounted to 5,620,986 barrels,
including both receipts and issues; 1,195 vessels were fueled during
the year. The amount of 484,045 gallons of bulk gasoline was ob-
tained from the purchase of salvaged cargo of the steamship Olockson.,
which was wrecked by fire in the vicinity of the Pacific entrance to
the C:nal.
Panama Canal press.-The value of stock on hand at the close of
the year was $109,605.55, as compared with $98,103.52 for the pre-
ceding year. The increase was due to additional stock required for
the printing of commissary coupon books. On account of the high
price in the United States, it was decided to install a plant for the
printing of our commissary coupon books, with an estimated saving
of $30,000 annually. The total value of material issued from the
printing plant was $158,406.79, as compared with $147,627.39 for the
previous year.
Subsistence.-The supply department operated the hotels Tivoli
andjWashington, Hotel Asp inwall, on Taboga Island, three cafeterias,
four restaurants, and two lunch rooms for gold employees, and three
labor messes for silver employees. The line restaurants and cafe-
terias showed a net loss of $4,755.84, and the labor mess a profit of
$5,516.84. The Hotel Tivoli was operated at a net profit of $15,763.47,
and Hotel Washington was operated at a net profit of $24,046.01.
The patronage at the Tivoli and Washington showed a marked in-
crease during the dry season on account of increased travel of the
general public after the removal of travel restrictions caused by the
war.
Cormmniissary division.-The general market conditions were ab-
normal throughout the year, and it was difficult to secure and main-
tain an adequate supply of all commodities. There was a reduction
of stock on hand and in investment in commissary stocks. There
was an increase in the business done by the bakery, coffee-roasting
plant, Cristobal laundry, ice plant, milk-bottling plant, and industrial
laboratory. The abattoir, ice-cream plant, sausage factory, and
Ancon laundry did a decreased volume of business. On account of
suspension of beef shipments to the Army in the United States, fewer
cattle were slaughtered than for 1919, but the local consumption was
greater. The Costa Rican agency, which had been suspended on





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


account of uncertain transportation facilities in 1919, was reopened
following the renewal of regular steamship service. This agency
supplies vegetables and fruits, and occasionally sugar and coffee, in
better condition and at less price than afforded by the markets of
the United States. By-products from the abattoir to a total value
of $589,142.67 were shipped to the United States and there sold.
During the year a total of 6,256,941 pounds of beef were exported
to the Army in the United States. The total area cleared for pas-
tures in the Canal Zone is 46,165 acres.
For further details see Appendix D.

ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT.
This department continued in the charge of Mr. H. A. A. Smith, as
auditor. Mr. E. P. Sine resigned his position as collector and was
succeeded by Mr. T. L. Clear, the former collector, upon his return
* from service overseas in the Inspector General's Department of the
United States Army, in September, 1919. Mr. J. H. McLean, pay-
master, resigned on November 15, 1919, and Mr. R. W. Glaw, assist-
ant paymaster, was promoted to fill the vacancy on January 24, 1920.
The paymaster disbursed a total of $38,426,733.29, of which the
sum of $15,134,712 was on account of the Panama Railroad Com-
pany. Employees on the gold roll of The Panama Canal were paid
$8,391,066.16, and employees on the silver roll $6,505,810.88. The
sum of $8,395,094.25 was paid on miscellaneous vouchers. Collec-
tions by pay-roll deductions were $5,191,946.63, of which the sum of
$4,220,524.88 was collected for coupon books. Of the total collec-
tions on pay rolls, the sum of $4,948,704.48 was disbursed directly,
by the paymaster, the balance $243,241.95 being transferred to the
collector's accounts. A total of $1,224,000 in cash was imported
from the United States by the paymaster. The collections repaid to
appropriations amounted to $14,745,634.31, as compared with
$10,364,875.07 during the previous year. The sum of $8,848,978.06
was collected for deposits as miscellaneous receipts.
For the payment of tolls and bills for supplies and services, there ,
were deposited with the Assistant Treasurer of the United States to
the credit of the collector $2,287,783.21. Deposits for the same
purpose made with the collector on the Isthmus amounted to
$18,631,811.32. The direct deposits with the collector on the Isthmus
for tolls and other bills show an increase of $6,500,000 over the
figures of last year, and the deposits with the Assistant Treasurer of
the United States to the credit of the collector show a decrease of
over $2,000,000. The total deposits, $20,919,594.53, exceed the
total for last year by $4,476,220.50.
Money order funds to the amount of $1,501,000 were transferred
to the Postmaster General of the United States in payment of money
orders drawn on the United States. Collections on account of the
Panama Railroad Company amounted to $21,532,848.43, an increase
over last year of $1,191,903.47. The tolls actually collected for
vessels transiting the Canal amounted to $8,496,633.40. The total
earned amounted to $8,516,469.80, and the sum of $19,836.40 remain-
ing unpaid being charges on certain Government vessels that may not
be finally held liable for the payment of tolls.





22 THE PANAMA CANAL.

As a matter of interest it will be stated that the tolls earned for the
year would have been $9,955,754.32 if the Panama Canal rules of
measurement had been applied in all cases. The total loss to the
Canal since it was opened to traffic on account of the present legal
restrictions to the application of the Panama Canal rules of measure-
ment amounts to $5,109,904.24 to June 30, 1920. Benefits to vessels
on account of the existing rules of measurement are distributed as
follows:

American. Foreign.
Vessels plring between American ports..................................... $237,956.85 367,881.50
Vessels piing between American ports ani eAnal ports.................... 97,956.05 1,325.90
Vessels plying between American possessions and American ports........... 34,908.60 43,495.75

These figures, subtracted from $5,109,904.24, give the sum of
$4,626,379.59 as the amount of saving to vessels engaged in foreign
trade.
The total appropriations for the Canal and its immediate adjuncts
by Congress to June 30, 1920, amount to $467,431,257.41. Deducting
from this total the amounts appropriated for annual payments to
the Republic of Panama, $2,500,000, regulating commerce and censor-
ship of mails, $170,000, fortifications, $34,658,400.81, and for opera-
tion and maintenance, $50,511,914.68, leaves $379,840,941.92 appro-
priated for the construction of the Canal and its immediate adjuncts.
Of the total appropriated for construction, $4,329,898 for colliers and
coal barges, $2,093,190 for pier No. 6, Cristobal, $300,000 for work on
the colliers Ulysses and Achilles, and $720,000 for reboilering and
repairing the steamships Ancon, and Oristobal, were specifically ex-
empted by law as a charge against the amount of the authorized
bond issue. These being deducted from the total appropriations for
the construction of the Canal and its immediate adjuncts, gives the
sum of $372,397,853.92 as chargeable to bond issue, and makes avail-
able for appropriation within the limit of the cost of the Canal and the
authorized bond issue the sum of $2,825,302.08.
Current appropriations.-The cash balance of the current appropria-
tions for operation and maintenance, sanitation, and civil government,
and for construction, on June 30, 1920, amounted to $12,347,642.76.
Including the amount of the accounts receivable and transfer of appro-
priations to be made in payment for work done and supplies furmnished,
the total of the cash and cash items was $16,325,017.48. The liabilities
immediately payable, including the amount to be paid the United
States Shipping Board for the two coal barges, which are now in service,
amount to $6,004,775.71. The additional ordinary obligations out-
standing, viz, $3,601,343.84 on outstanding orders, $3,480,460.30 on
unfilled requisitions, and $2,234,701.77 on allotments for special work,
make a total of the regular obligations of $15,321,281.82, and leaves
a balance of $1,003,736.26. This balance is a great deal more than
offset by the reserves for repairs ($484,268.74) and by the amount
due employees for leaves earned ($813,591.01)-a large portion of
both of which may be required at any time-and by the reserves for
depreciation on equipment, $2,442,029.86.
As stated last year, too much stress can not be given to the ne-
cessity of keeping the appropriations for Canal operations and main-

Si
;i





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


tenance on a continuing rather than on an annual basis, and to the
maintenance of an adequate cash balance to carry on the business
operations. Work for the Army and Navy has been done on a
very large scale in the past and will continue to be done. Delays
in paythent seemingly can not be avoided. This throws a burden
on Canal funds that must be recognized and provided for. The
cash balance with which to operate can be provided by a special
appropriation, or, what is believed to be better and more in keeping
with the law relative to the business operations of the Canal, by
considering the reserves for depreciation as direct obligations against
the appropriations for operation and maintenance. Fluctuations in
the value of stock on hand directly affect the cash balance, and if
the value of the stock falls below the amount authorized for invest-
ment in stock, then the difference must be considered as a direct
obligation chargeable to the appropriation at any given time.
The ordinary expenses for operation and maintenance, including
those of civil government and sanitation, were $6,548,272.43, against
$6,112,194.77 expended in 1919. The expense of maintaining
dredging increased from $1,152,188.99 to $1,611,359.78, due to the
slides in Gaillard Cut. Offsetting the total expense of operation
and maintenance are the amounts earned as tolls, $8,493,082.56;
the amount collected as licenses and taxes, court fees and fines,
$153,102.88, and as net profits on business operations, $239,686.13,
or a total of $8,885,871.57. The revenues earned were thus in excess
of current expenses by $2,387,594.14. At this rate, by June 30,
1921, the collections for tolls and other Canal revenues will exceed
by $1,000,000 or more the total current expenses of operation and
maintenance of the Canal to that date, after which there should be
an excess of $5,000,000 or more each year.
The total revenue derived from business operation carried on with
Panama Canal funds amounted to $14,705,371.82, as against a total
of $13,684,881.18 received during the preceding year. There was in
1920 a net profit of $239,686.13 to be covered into the Treasury as mis-
cellaneous receipts. The annual increases in business operations at
the Canal is shown by the following table, giving the number and
amounts of formal bills:

Year. Number Amount. Year. Number Amount.
of bills, of bills.

1915................... 8,686 812,197,170.74 1918.................... 22,070 $20,887,460.60
1916................... 13,754 11,786,187.91 1919.................... 24,210 25,272,815.50
1917................... 16,386 17,007,342.16 1920.................... 28,825 28,654,731.64

The capital expenditures from construction appropriations total
a little in excess of $1,000,000, the principal items being as follows:
Dredging inner harbor at Balboa, $34,916.25, involving the removal
of 63,050 cubic yards of material at an average division cost of
$0.4991 per cubic yard, of this material 84 per cent was earth and
16 per cent rock; sanitary fills and ditches, $9,503.54; settlement of
claims for private property within the Canal Zone, $546,217.05;
completion of Ancon hospital buildings, $19,877.26; the new garbage
incinerator at Cristobal, $115,873.52; and completion of Pier No. 6,
at Cristobal, $113,471.94. There was also transferred to the con-
struction account about $900,000 which had heretofore been tenta-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


tively charged to operation and maintenance funds. The main
items included in this amount were: Dredging Cristobal Harbor,
$130,000; extensions to the electric current system, $233,000; fuel
oil plants, $82,000; shop additions, $186,000; work on locks, $160,000
aids to navigation, $53,000. Amounts allotted to construction ap-
propriation and available for expenditure include $2,329,898 for
the two new coal barges, $250,000 for work on the colliers Ulysses
and Achilles, $325,000 for dredging, and $81,000 for the payment
of land claims, with certain other small items totalling a little in
excess of $3,000,000.
The charges to capital additions covering expenditures for per-
manent improvements the cost of which was payable from opera-
tion and maintenance appropriations were a little in excess of $900,000,
of which the main items were: Extensions to the power and lighting
system, $84,858.56; additions to fuel oil plant, $90,219.50; new
garages, $20,425.56; fills, roads, and sewer systems, New Cristobal,
$187,369.43; terminal storehouse and shop building, Cristobal
piers, $46,182.33; fenders, Miraflores locks, $9,623.32; road from
Balboa shops to Diablo, $34,452.44; repairs to Docks 13 and 14,
Balboa, $32,481.84; quarters for gold employees, $183,000; quarters
for silver employees, $48,000; and miscellaneous, $87,061.14.
The total expenditures for construction of public works in the cities
of Panama and Colon from 1904 to the end of the fiscal year were
$1,430,208.91 and $1,220,382.03, respectively. The total expendi-
tures for operation and maintenance of public works were $911,083.54
for Panama and $798,127.58 for Colon. Under the agreement with
the Republic of Panama all expenditures incurred by the United
States for construction, operation and maintenance of waterworks,
sewers, and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon are to
be reimbursed to the United States within a period of 50 years from
July 1, 1907. Besides being authorized to currently reimburse
itself from water rental collections for expenses of the operation and
maintenance, the United States liquidates the expenditures for con-
struction by quarterly charge of one-fourth of the part of the capital
cost, ascertained by dividing the amount thereof by the number of
years the contract has to run. In addition, the Republic of Panama
pays interest at the rate of 2 per cent per annum on the capital cost
balances and on the proportionate cost of waterworks in the Canal
Zone used for supplying water to the two cities, based upon the
quantity consumed. To liquidate the capital cost there has been
paid to the United States, or is immediately due, the sum of $563,-
442.21, leaving a balance unpaid of $1,106,926.48 for the work in
Panama, and $980,222.25 for the work in Colon, payable in install-
ments during the contract period. The amount which is payable
immediately under the agreement is 894,179.05 and is covered by
bills for the difference between the current charges for the work,
plus the quarterly payments required, and the amount collected as
water rentals. The Panama Canal continues to maintain the pave-
ments in the two cities under a temporary agreement effected at the
beginning of the fiscal year 1918, under which reimbursement is
still obtained through water rental collections.
There were audited prior to payment 403,231 pay roll items.
Upon the final audit by the auditor for the War Department, 65
errors were discovered, involving the sum of $274.58. The total






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


amount of the rolls involved was $15,141,321.37. The gross deduc-
tions on pay rolls aggregated $6,650,009.19. There were 347 exami-
nations of the accounts of employees of The PanamaCanal and Panama
Railroad charged with the collection, disbursement and custody of
Canal and railroad funds.
The time inspection forces checked the timing of 10,442 gangs,
with a total of 519,869 employees. On account of corrections made
in the timebooks by the inspection forces, there was a saving of
$3,822.90.
Under the provisions of section 5 of the Panama Canal act, two
claims for damages to vessels passing through the locks were settled,
amounting to $7,243.51; also two claims amounting to $2,361.98.
for damages to vessels in the Canal outside of the locks. Minor dam-
ages to vessels were repaired at an expense of $5,179.12. The total
expense for all claims of this kind was $14,784.61, all settled without
recourse to the courts; corresponding figures for the previous year
were $16,739.19.
The schedule bonds of employees of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad, executed to insure the faithful performance of their duties,
were continued with the Maryland Casualty Company. The total
liability for Canal employees was $430,000 and for railroad employees
$381,000. No claims were made during the year against the surety
company for defalcations of employees.
Commissary books for the payment of commissary and other pur-
chases from the Canal were issued to employees on pay roll deduc-
tions to the value of $5,627,605, which was $1,100,000 in excess of
the issue for the preceding year. The total issue, including cash
and pay roll deduction sales, was $7,727,437.50, as compared with a
total of $6,510,997.50 for the preceding year. Meal tickets to the
value of $46,329.50 were used by employees on the silver roll, a
reduction of $21,000 from the amount used during the previous year.
The unexpended balance in the Canal Zone funds, amounting to
$6,220.11 was deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.
The collections for licenses and taxes 'ver? $15,354.05; court fees and
fines, $27,694.45; postal receipts, lf'09, 117.48 with miscellaneous
items amounting to $57-,2109.07, making a total bf 8209,376.05; the
corresponding figures for the previous year being $,i3*'876.29. The
cash balance of miscellaneous trust funds in the hands.of the col-
lector increased frinn-$683,085.96 on June' 30, 191;, to $780,757.96 on
June 30, 1920 "There were issuedi'WJ1 22 toney orders to the value
of $3,198,989.9&, an increase of $90,311.71 over the previous year.
Since the establishment of the money-order business on the Canal
Zone, 2,454,002 money orders have been issued, to the value of
$57,524,064.81.
The revenue derived from the operation of the various clubhouses
amounted to $427,118.67, as compared with $463,409.39 received
during the prior year. The expenditures amounted to $452,600.34.
For settlements under the injury compensation law there were
pending 4 death cases and 141 injury cases at the beginning of the
year. Three of the death cases were approved and 1 was disallowed;
16 of the injury cases were disallowed, the remainder being approved
for payment wherever the time lost was in excess of 3 days.
There were reported 4,451 accidental injuries and 17 accidental deaths
of employees during the year. Compensation was allowed in 1,471





-26 THE PANAMA CANAL.

cases of injury and 3 cases of death. Ten death cases are pending
on account of injuries and deaths during the past year. There was
paid to employees for injuries $17,705.17; to beneficiaries for deaths
of employees, $3,946.67; to persons injured during the year there
was paid the sum of $25,123.68; and to beneficiaries of employees
dying as a result of injury in line of duty, $549.83. The payment of
$1,200 to five inmates of the Corozal farm was authorized upon
their repatriation.
For further details see the report of the auditor, Appendix E.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.
This department continued under the Governor, assisted by Mr.
C. A. Mcllvaine, as executive secretary. In addition to the routine
reports of different subdivisions of this department, the following
general remarks are submitted with reference to matters affecting
the compensation and living conditions of employees of the Canal
and Panama Railroad:
A census taken by the police division in June, 1920, shows a
total civilian population of the Canal Zone of 21,650, of whom 9,529
were employees. Three thousand four hundred and thirty-four were
male Americans, 5,652 male aliens, 369 female Americans, and 74
female aliens. The turnover in force of Americans, represented by
new employees and separations from the service, was approximately
30 per cent. There was an increased emigration to Cuba and the
United States of the labor force of West Indians, but there remained
available at all times a larger force than was required by the Canal
and railroad. Careful analyses show increases in the cost of living
in the Canal Zone since 1914 as follows: Food, 101.11 per cent;
clothing, 71.59 per cent; household expenses, 105.30 per cent; and
personal expenses, 65.47 per cent.
Adjustments were made from time to time of the rates of pay of
American employees on the gold roll in accordance with the policy
of allowing an increase of 25 per cent above current rates in the United
States for similar employment. A general exception to the rule of
granting the full 25 'per .cent increase-was made in the case of all
employees whode" ba'sic-rate in the United States was affected by the
legislative bonus increase of $240 per annum. This exceptionwas made
on account of -lack of appropriations in the civil-government branch to
pay the increases oin account -of ;the additional 3 $120 bonus in the
United-States. The additionral-rompensation to Canal employees on
account of the increased bonus is reserved pending further action of
Congress. Adjustments have been made from time to time in the
compensation of West Indian employees in order to meet the in-
creased cost of living. In these adjustments the rates effective in
1914 were taken as a basis and the minimum rates and earnings were
given primary consideration, since it is on the lowest paid classes of
workmen that the burdens and increases of living costs are heaviest.
The following statement shows the general trend of wages for the
common labor class since 1914:
Cents Cents
per hour. per hour.
May 1, 1914. ..................... 10 November 1, 1918................. 17
January 1, 1917................... 12 July 1, 1919........................ 19
October 1, 1917..................... 13 February 1, 1920................... 21
May 1, 1918....................... 15 July 1, 1920........................ 23

ii





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Immediately following the adjustment of February 1, 1920, the
organization of West Indian employees demanded an increase of 7
cents an hour and certain other changes in conditions of employ-
ment. The refusal to grant these demands was met with a strike on
February 24, when from 15,000 to 17,000 men quit work. Thanks to
the readiness of the American employees to turn to whatever work the
exigencies required, the Canal was kept in operation without inter-
ruption on account of the strike. The strike was broken by the
return of the men to work on March 2, and the general rule was fol-
lowed of reemploying the mass of strikers who were not leaders as
new employees, with a loss of certain rights and privileges pertaining
to continuity of service.
BUREAU OF CLUBS AND PLAYGROUNDS.
Clubhouses were operated for gold employees at Balboa, Ancon,
Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal; also for silver employees at
La Boca, Red Tank, Paraiso, Gatun, and Cristobal. The clubhouse
building at Balboa was improved by an enlargement of the reading
room and the installation of bookcases in the library. The main
floor of the Cristobal clubhouse was enlarged by the removal of the
side walls of the building and the inclusion of the porch in the floor
area. Local entertainments were given as usual, and entertainers
have come down from the United States about once in two months.
Moving pictures were exhibited in all clubhouses. The Balboa
clubhouse has supervised the physical education of the grammar
schools and of the high schools. One of the most useful and success-
ful benefits of the physical education developed was instruction in
swimming. All members of the senior class of the Balboa high
school were required to pass a rigid test, before graduation, con-
sisting of swimming and life saving. New play sheds were added
to the equipment of the Pedro Miguel and Gatun clubhouses, and
one was erected near Folks River beach in New Cristobal for the
children of that community; the sheds are approximately 42 by 80
feet. The average daily attendance of children 3 to 5 years of age
on the five playgrounds was 164, and of children 6 years and over, 552.
Decoration Day was observed on all playgrounds by appropriate
patriotic exercises. A community Christmas pageant, with over
165 children and 50 adults participating, was staged on the lawn of
the administration building on Christmas night by employees of
this bureau.
RECORD BUREAU.
In addition to maintaining the general files and permanent records
of the Canal and railroad, this bureau has charge of the classification
of records turned in by the field officers; publication of all rules and
regulations, circulars, etc., documents, and publications; the custody
of timekeeping records; the receipt, distribution, and dispatch of
all mail for aW offices of the administration building other than the
accounting department; and the operation of the library system.
The library has five branch libraries in the Canal Zone clubhouses.
In the libraries there were 5,111 volumes received, classified, cata-
logued, and prepared for circulation. On June 30, 1920, there were
1,139 registered borrowers, with a circulation of 1,625 volumes per
month.





THE PANAMA CANAL.


PERSONNEL BUREAU.
This bureau maintains the personal files of each gold employee,.
accounting for the history of service, salary status, leave of absence,
transportation; organization status of the different divisions and
bureaus of the Canal and railroad; and the records of all new em-
ployees requisitioned from the United States. Under the provisions
of the act for the retirement of the eiiployees in the classified civil
service the bureau began the examination of personnel files as a.
basis for the necessary reports on employees entitled to the benefits
of this act.
PROPERTY BUREAU.

This bureau has the actual property accounting for the entire
Canal and railroad organizations. Physical checks of the property
are made twice annually and the accounts of responsible officials
entering on leave, transferring, or resigning are checked in each
instance.
BUREAU OF PAY ROLLS.

This bureau is charged with the preparation of all pay rolls of the
Canal and Panama Railroad, based on the daily time reports. Prep-
aration of the rolls involves deductions for collections for coupon
books and other charges to employees paid by pay-roll deduction.
Pay receipts prepared for Canal employees totaled 46,947 for gold
employees and 175,622 for silver employees.

BUREAU OF STATISTICS.

The routine work of this bureau included the compiling of vital
statistics for the health department; navigation statistics for the
marine superintendent; preparation of data for wage adjustments;
compilation of matter for The Panama Canal Record; investigations
of cost of living; and, in addition, a special study of Canal services
for official report or for replies to private inquiries.

DIVISION OF SCHOOLS.

The net enrollment for the year was 2,004 at the white schools and
1,481 at the colored schools, a total of 3,485 as compared with 3,006
in 1919. The average daily attendance at the white schools was
1,588.5 and at the colored schools 864.9, making a total of 2,453.4
as compared with 2,178.5 for the previous year. The number of
white teachers employed during the year was 74, an increase of 2
over the preceding year. There was an increase of 2 colored teachers,
the number being 24. The best standards of the public schools in
the United States were followed in the Canal Zone schools. Physical
examinations were made in both white and colored schools of pupils
and proper steps taken to remedy defects discovered. Manual
training and household art classes were held at Cristobal for the
white pupils of Gatun and Cristobal schools and at Balboa for the
white pupils of the Pedro Miguel, Ancon, and Balboa schools. In-
struction in music was continued and satisfactory progress made.
The night school of Spanish was conducted at Cristobal and night






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


school of English, Spanish, French, shorthand, and manual training
was conducted at Balboa. On July 1, 1919, there were 44 appren-
tices taking the apprentice courses. There were 14 new enrollments;
10 were graduated, 3 resigned, and 1 was discharged for unsatis-
factory progress. At the close of the year there were 48 apprentices.

POLICE AND FIRE DIVISION.

In addition to routine work the police division made numerous
confidential investigations and reports of matters affecting the Canal
and the general interests of the United States on the Tsthnius. Con-
siderable extra work was handled in the police division during
the strike of the silver employees. There were 4,202 arrests during
the year, of whom 4,026 were mnles and 176 females. A monthly
.average of 92.25 prisoners served sentences in the common jails.
'The total value of labor performed amounted to $19,486.94. Monthly
patrols of the interior sections of the Canal Zone were continued to
determine if any new clearings or cultivations were made or if any
new buildings were being constructed by private parties in the
depopulated areas. There were 23 arrests and 2 convictions for
trespassing on Canal Zone lands. Fifty-four persons were deported
from the Canal Zone; of this number 49 were convicts who had com-
pleted terms of sentence in prison. Sixty-five convicts were re-
ceived at the penitentiary during the year. The aggregate sentences
imposed on convicts amounted to S3 years, 9 months, and 21 days.
There were 51 discharges front the penitentiary on account of com-
pleted terms of imprisonment. At the close of the year 53 convicts
remained in custody.
Periodical inspections were made by the fire division of all
government buildings, docks, storehouses, yards, etc. Fire hose and
fire extinguishers were maintained in good condition. Fifteen vol-
unteer fire companies were maintained until March 1, 1920, when
the number was increased to 22 companies. Each company is com-
posed of a maximum of 20 men, employees of the Canal and railroad.
There were 129 fires and 14 false alarms reported during the year.
Eight fires occurred in property of The Panama Canal, 21 in property
of the railroad, 3 in property of the United States Army, and 15 in
property of private individuals and United States Shipping Board.
The total losses from all fires was $3,567,083.85, of which $1,970,000
was a loss due to a fire on United States Shipping Board steamship
Marne, $1,502,000 to a fire on United States Shipping Board steam-
ship Olockson, and $47,000 to the Army storehouse at. Empire.
Aside from the exceptional incidents of the fires on the two United
States Shipping Board steamers, fire losses on the Canal Zone were
very low.
DIVISION OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.

Bureau of posts.-Total receipts from the postal service were
$138,391.60, an increase of $1,764.20 above the previous year.
Interest received on deposit money-order funds amounted to $22,-
141.38. Under the agreement of December 3,1904, with the Panaman
Government, 40 per cent of the face value of postage stamps sold
was paid to the Panaman Government, amounting to $33,783.97.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


There were issued 125,123 money orders, including deposit orders,
amounting to $3,199,996.98, on whith fees amounting to $10,207.85
were collected. Compared with the preceding year there was a
decrease of 15,495 in the number of orders issued and an increase of
S91,295.32 in t.he total amount. Deposit money orders issued during
the year totaled $1,143,225, and payments of deposit money orders,
$1,043,080. A total of 273,778 registered letters and parcels was
handled, an increase of 10,168 above the previous year. Customs
duties were paid to the Republic of Panama to the amount, of $33,452
on mail parcels for nonemployees and on dutiable articles imported
by employees. A total of 107,161 sacks of transit, mail from New
York and New Orleans was received and dispatched, an increase of
16,070 sacks over the preceding year. Of this total 94,733 sacks
originated in the United States.
Bu-reau of customs.-There was a marked increase in shipping at
Canal ports. The total number of vessels entered was 6,023 and the-
total cleared 6,016, as compared with 4,604 entered and 4,590 cleared
during the previous year. American vessels entered numbered 2,779
and total number of American vessels cleared was 2,778, as compared
with 1,959 entered and 1,940 cleared during the preceding year.
Shipping commissioner. -The chief of division of civil affairs is also
shipping commissioner, and the chief customs inspectors are deputy
shipping commissioners. According to law the shipping commissioner
and his deputies on the Canal Zonelave the same powers as shipping
commissioners in the United States ports and American consuls in
foreign ports respecting American seamen. There were 4,281 sea-
men shipped on American vessels and 3,278 discharged, as compared
with 4,182 shipped and 3,453 discharged in the preceding year. Six
hundred and twenty-four American seamen were subsisted or lodged
in the Canal Zone during the year: of this number 288 were returned
to the United States at the expense of the appropriation for the relief
of destitute American seamen, and the remainder, 336, were signed
on vessels and returned to the United States without expense to the
Government.
Administration of cstates.-There were administered 258 estates of
deceased or insane employees of the Canal and railroad, and 26 estates
were in course of settlement on June 30, 1920. The amount involved
in the settlements made was $16,314.77, of which $15,446.87 belonged
to decedents' estates and $867.97 to the estates of insane persons.

COURTS.
In the district courts 359 cases were pending at the beginning of the
year, 875 were filed, 952 were settled during the year, and 282 were
pending on June 30, 1920. Of the cases pending on the first of the
fiscal year 158 were civil, 119 probate, and 82 criminal. The cases
filed included 157 civil, 348 probate, and 370 criminal. Those settled
included 189 civil, of which 101 were decided, 83 dismissed, 4 trans-
ferred, and 1 reported off; 337 probate cases were settled. Of the
426 criminal cases settled, 51 resulted in acquittal, 253 in convictions,
67 were nol pressed, 52 dismissed, and 3 transferred. Eight hundred
and seventy-nine marriage licenses were issued. Five deeds were
recorded. Collections of costs, fines, forfeitures, fees, etc., in the
district courts amounted to $9,431.17.






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


In the magistrates' courts there were 13 civil and 4 criminal cases
pending at the beginning of the year. During the year 3,744 criminal
and 91 civil cases were docketed; 3,838 cases were disposed of, leaving
3 civil and 11 criminal cases pending at the close of the year. Collec -
tions from all sources in the magistrates' courts amounted to
$17,863.91.
RELATIONS WITH PANAMA.
The executive secretary conducted the correspondence with the
secretary of foreign relations of the Republic of Panama that arose
in connection with matters affecting the direct relations between the
Canal and the Republic of Panama.
The various acts of Congress and Executive orders affecting The
Panama Canal are printed as Appendix K. All details with reference
to the operation of the executive department will be found in Appen-
dix F.
OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL ATTORNEY.
Judge Frank Feuille, as special attorney, continued to represent
the Government's interests before the joint commission for adjusting
land claims of private owners whose property has been taken under
the provisions of the treaty with Panama for purposes of construction,
operation, maintenance, sanitation, and protection of The Panama
Canal. In addition to these duties, he served as counsel for the
Panama Railroad Company on the Isthmus and advised the Governor
on certain legal questions affecting the administration of the office.
The joint commission appointed by the President of the United
States and the President of Panama, in conformity with Articles VI
and XV of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1903, was dissolved on
March 10, 1920, after all of the cases on the docket had been disposed
of with the exception of 16 remaining unsettled. The unsettled cases
involve claims arising under leases or contracts for occupancy of land
in the Canal Zone made with the Panama Railroad Company. By
virtue of section 2 of the sundry civil appropriation act of July 1,
1916, the Congress of the United States declared that the joint com-
mission was without jurisdiction to adjudicate such claims, and that
no part of the amounts appropriated by those acts or any other act
could be used for the payment of such claims or for the payment of
salaries and expenses of the commission in adjudicating or settling
such claims. In view of these positive congressional mandates, the
American members of the commission declined to proceed to a hearing
of the 16 claims involved. The agents of the Panama Railroad have
repeatedly advised the claimants, since they originally filed their
claims with the commission, that the railroad company was willing
to submit the controversy to the courts of the Canal Zone, but these
offers have all been refused by. the claimants.
In the total of 3,600 claims filed with the commission since its
organization, in 1913, the total amount of money claimed was $21,-
072,235.41. Of this total number, 2,041 claims were dismissed by
the commission on the ground that they had been settled directly
between the claimants and agents of the United States. The aggre-
gate demands of these 2,041 claims were $3,718,885.50; the aggregate
amount paid in their settlement was $764,512.71. Because of a
previous award having been made covering the same property, the-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


'commission dismissed 42 claims, involving an aggregate demand of
$388,277.37. For want of jurisdiction the commission dismissed
178 claims, involving a total demand of $1,504,821.15. There were
10 claims withdrawn upon motion of claimants, the aggregate
demands being $167,397.50. For want of merit the commission
dismissed 106 claims, the aggregate demands being $1,374,040.38.
Five claims, involving an aggregate demand of $1,798.50, were dis-
missed by the commission, having been found to be duplicates of
prior claims. The commission defaulted 318 claims, in which the
aggregate demands were $974,062.28. Award was made by the
commission in 844 claims, in which the aggregate demands were
86,116,682.97 and the aggregate amount awarded was $880,534.79.
On account of disagreements the joint commission forwarded for
settlement by the umpire 40 claims, in which the aggregate sum
demanded was $6,704,490.76. The amount awarded by the umpire
was $860,144.15.
The various joint commissions and umpires appointed under the
-Canal treaty prior to December 5, 1912, made 21 awards, aggregating
the sum of $304,558. There are no data available indicating the
aggregate of these 21 claims as demanded by the claimants. The
law department of The Panama Canal was authorized to settle land
claims by direct negotiation with the claimants, on August 6, 1908,
by virtue of an Executive order of the President. Since that date
the law department, and afterwards the office of the special attorney,
under authority of the act of Congress of April 7, 1914, have settled
directly with the claimants 5,599 claims for damages to land and
improvements taken over by the Government for Canal and railroad
purposes. The amounts paid in settlement of these claims aggre-
.gated the sum of $1,403,378.86, including the sum of $764,512.71
paid as direct settlement of 2,041 claims filed with the joint commis-
sion and afterwards dismissed by the commission because of such
.settlements. Some settlements for improvements destroyed were
made by the Canal and railroad organizations prior to August 6,
1908, the amounts involved not being available in the records.
The total amounts paid for land and improvement claims under
awards of all of the commissions and umpires appointed under the
Canal treaty, and under direct settlements made with the claimants
since August 6, 1908, aggregate a grand total of $3,448,645.80.
Forty-five land improvement claims were settled directly with
claimants during the fiscal year 1920, aggregating the sum of $33,-
238.96. At the beginning of the year there were pending before the
joint commission 94 claims, involving an aggregate amount of
$2,466,869.81. There were pending on that date before the umpire
13 claims, the aggregate demands being $3,695,796.56. No new
claims were filed during the year.
The joint commission certified to the umpire for his decision 7
claims, the total amount demanded being $686,516.67. The umpire
disposed of a total of 20 claims during the year, wherein the aggregate
demands were $4,379,313.23 and tyle aggregate award was $495,-
776.70. Three of the claims, in which the demand totaled $253,600,
were dismissed by the umpire. During the year the joint commission
disposed of 71 claims-7 by awards, 1 by dismissal on claimant's
motion, 17 because of lack of jurisdiction, 22 on presentation of
evidence that payments were made on direct settlement, 5 on account


:32





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


of previous award having been made for the same property, 9 were
dismissed because of lack of merit, and 10 were dismissed under the
commission's rule of default.
On June 30, 1920, there were 58 lot licenses in effect on the Canal
Zone, issued by the land agent on behalf of The Panama Canal; of
this number, 7 were issued during the fiscal year. The revenue
collected on these licenses for the year aggregated $16,290.02.
For further details see Appendix H.

HEALTH DEPARTMENT.
This department remained under the jurisdiction of Col. H. C.
Fisher, United States Army, as chief health officer. The general
health conditions of the Canal Zone and of the cities of Panama and
Colon remained normal, except for the prevalence of an influenza
epidemic which began early in the month of March, 1920. From
this disease there were 601 cases and 50 deaths in March, 314 cases
and 52 deaths in April, 40 cases and 24 deaths in May, and 138 cases
and 7 deaths in June. The epidemic originated in the city of Colon,
but later cases were reported from all parts of the Canal Zone and the
city of Panama and its suburbs. Effective measures were taken to
control the epidemic so far as possible. Schools, moving picture
shows, and other places of assembly were closed for a period of two
weeks. On March 21, 1920, a ship from Ecuador was received at
Balboa quarantine with six cases of influenza. On June 23 a ship
from Peru arrived with 23 cases. In both instances the local pas-
sengers were detained in quarantine three days and the crew and
other agents and employees were observed and temperatures taken
for three days; no new cases developed from these sources.
There were 28 cases of smallpox reported during the. year, with no
deaths. Among residents of the cities of Panama and Colon a sys-
tematic vaccination was continued. On June 30, 1920, there were
two cases in the hospital. One case of yellow fever was reported to
the Balboa quarantine on August 10; 19i9, from a ship arriving from
Corinto, Nicaragua. There were no secondary cases following this
case, and no cases of yellow fever originated on the Isthmus; 11
cases of leprosy were admitted to the leper asylum during the year.
With the cooperation of the chief health officer an antivenereal
disease campaign has been conducted along the lines adopted in the
United States by the Commission on Training Camp Activities of
the War and Navy Departments. A free venereal disease clinic,
where both curative and prophylactic treatments are given, was
established in Santo Tomas Hospital, in Panama, on August 19, 1919,
and one at Colon on March 1, 1920, maintained by the American
National Red Cross. An educational campaign has been conducted;
pamphlets have been distributed in English and Spanish, and moving
pictures dealing with this subject shown. A notice of warning against
all prostitutes was handed by the quarantine officers to the crews of
all incoming vessels. On account of the inevitable lack of authority
to legislate in foreign territory, the recommendations and suggestions
of the chief health officer and his assistants have been of an advisory
character only, so far as the cities of Panama and Colon are concerned.
8847-20---8






THE PANAMA CANAL.


In the population of the Canal Zone and vicinity the incidence of
malaria was less than in the preceding year, the number of cases
reported having been 1,370 for 1920, as compared with 2,224 in 1919.
The annual rate per thousand for employees living in the sanitated
areas of the Canal Zone and the two terminal cities was 14.64 in 1920,
as compared with 10.81 in 1910. In the unsanitated districts, camps,
and plantations within the Canal Zone the rate per thousand was
160.13 in 1920. as compared with 240.53 in 1919.
Among the employees of the Canal and Panama Railroad the
denth rate per thousand for 1920 from all causes was 9.49, as com-
pared with S.43 in 1919. The death rate from tuberculosis was 1.43,
as compared with 1.49 in 1919. The five diseases causing the highest
number of deaths, with the rate, are as follows: Tuberculosis, 1.43;
pneumonia. 1.15; influenza, 0.97: chronic nephritis, 0.87: organic
diseases of the heart 0.46.
In the average population of the Canal Zone of 30,954, including
the military population, there were 253 deaths, 219 of which were
from disease, with a rate of 7.08 per thousand for disease alone, as
compared with 9.4 in 1919.
In the city of Panama there were 1,278 deaths, of which 1,234 were
from disease. giving a rate of 20.11 for disease alone, as compared
with 21.85 for the preceding year, on the basis of an average popu-
lation of 61,369. In Panama City the death rate from tuberculosis
was 3.8 per thousand, as compared with 4.3 for the year 1919. Of
the total deaths reported in the city of Panama 42 per cent occurred
among children under 5 years of age.
In the city of Colon there were 567 deaths, of which 527 were from
disease, giving a death rate of 20(.21 from disease alone, as compared
with 23.28 the preceding year, on the basis of an average population
of 26,078.
DivisION OF HOSPITALS.
In cv) Iu.j'pittal.--At the surgical clinic there were performed 1,944
major operations: 3,134-1 cases visited the out-patient department;
314 obstetrical cases were delivered. In the medical clinic 2,611
cases were treated in the out-patient department. In the eye and
ear clinic 7,443 cases were examined in the out-patient department.
A total of 2,606 prescriptions were written, 967 refractions were
made, and 976 operations performed. In the X-ray clinic a total of
3,333 cases were handled; 7,197 plates and 1,708 dental films were
taken. In the steward's department there were 164,218S rations
issued to Ancon hospital patients and 92,790 rations to hospital em-
ployees, making a total of 257,008 rations issued. A total of 10,393
patients were admitted. At the board of health laboratory the work
included examinations of milk, beverages, drugs, canned foods, and
miscellaneous supplies, as well as clinical examinations requiring
quantitative determination. The entomological department of this
laboratory covered the study of insects infesting food and stored
products, household insects, vegetables and truck crop insects, and
the more important pests of tropical fruit trees. At the request of
the United States Departminent of Agriculture the laboratory facilities
were made available to an entomniological inspector of the Federal
Horticultural Board, who was assisted by the chief of laboratory.
The principal object in view was to ascertain what dangerous pests
occur in the Canal Zone which might, on account of the concentration






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


of traffic and commerce from all parts of the world, he potential
menaces to the continental United States.
Corozal Hospital.-On June 30, 1920, there were 344 patients and
26 chronic cripples at the Corozal Hospital. In the treatment of the
insane the occupational department was expanded. The officers of
the Mental Hygiene Society in New York sent down free of charge
an industrial instructor, who remained here three months ind in-
structed the chief nurse in the essentials of an industrial department.
The occupational treatments proved to be beneficial to the class of
insane patients at this hospital. Most of the articles made by the
patients, including rugs, hats, handbags, wood serving, etc., have
found ready sale. Most of the male patients are cultivating gardens
attached to the hospital plant. Fromn appropriations made by Con-
gress a new hospital ward was erected, with accommodations for 80
patients, and was occupied in January, 1920. It. ha been possible
to isolate all tubercular insane patients. Tlie grounds within the
hospital have been kept in order by patients' help. The dairy main-
tained at this hospital was continued alnd milk supplied, under pre-
scription, to the patients in Ancon Hospital. On June ;0, 1920, the
herd consisted of 3 bulls, 74 cows, and 38 calves At the piggery
there were on hand at the end of the year 27 hogs and 120 pig-.
Most of the pigs when ready for use are sold to the supply department.
The number of cripples remaining at the hospital on June 30, 1920,
was 4 white and 27 black, a reduction of 21 during the year.
Colon Hospital.-Emergency cases are admitted to the Colon Ilos-
pital; others, both medical and surgical. are transferred to the Ancon
or Santo Tonias Hospitals. Efforts were made to keep the number
of patients in Colon Hospital to 50 or below. The number of admis-
sions at this hospital during the year were as follows: Employees,
305; Army and Navy, SS; Panama pay patients, 5; other pay patients,
427; charity patients, 62, making a total of S.S7. A total of 403
surgical operations were performed at this hospital.
Santo Tornas Hospital.-This hospital, located in the city of Pan-
ama, is owned by the Panaman Government, but is operated by agree-
ment under the general supervision of the chief health officer of the
Canal. The superintendent, two physicians, and three nurses are
employees of the Canal. With the cooperation of the Panaman Gov-
ernment, a practical systein of bookkeeping and property accounting
has been installed, and a systematic survey of the financial condition
was made. All of the debts of the institution have been paid. From
revenues pertaining to the Republic of Panama, derived from liquor
taxes and the national lottery, plans have been made and approved
and construction commenced on an entirely new hospital plant. The
site of the new plant is on a high point faIcing the Pacific Ocean, in
the suburbs of the city of Panama. The estimated cost of th', total
project is $1,000,000. The total capacity of the hospital will be 600
patients under normal conditions, with facilities for emergency ex-
pansion to 900 patients. The following equipment and facilities are
being installed at the institution: Sound-proof walls, silent bell call
system; floor lights and inclosed clothes chutes; an X-ray suite;
library and class room; venereal and dental clinics. A radium de-
partment will be a feature of the surgical suite, and hydro and electric
therapeutic installations will also be added to the institution.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


Palo Seco Leper Asylumrn.-The number of cases in this institution
at the close of the year was 74. There were 11 admissions and 39
were discharged-2 from Gatun, 1 from Empire, 4 from Panama,
and 1 from Juan Diaz, in the Republic of Panama. Three deaths
occurred during the year. Two patients were paroled who were
afflicted with a noninfectious type of leprosy; they will report to the
health department once every six months for examination and report
as to condition. One patient was deported to his home in Martinique
and 1 to Barbados.
SANITATION.

The principal work of the division of sanitation consists in anti-
mosquito work. The four sanitary districts remain as described in
last year's report except that the former Army post at Las Cascadas,
on the west side of the Canal, is now sanitated by our forces as this
town was turned over to the Canal and opened by the supply depart-
ment for silver employees of the Canal. On account of an outbreak
of malaria in Colon and Mount Hope and vicinity, drainage ditches
extending to sea level were excavated in swamps on Telfer's Island
and in the vicinity of Mount Hope. All swampy territory within a
mile of the dry dock was thus drained. Drainage work was also
done in the vicinity of Gatun, in a swamp north of Gatun dam and
west of the old French canal. Near Pedro Miguel tile drainage was
installed in the fortifications clearings formerly used as cattle pas-
tures. In the Ancon-Corozal district the outlying areas requiring
maintenance by oiling and other temporary measures have been
improved by the construction of open ditches lined with half-round
concrete drains. No extensive construction was required in the
Balboa district. Constant vigilance was exercised to reduce so far
as possible the number of rats in the vicinity of dwellings, store-
houses and steamship piers. Systematic rat destruction was carried
on in the terminal cities by poison and traps, and examinations were
made by the board of health laboratory in all cases to determine if
any plague infection was present. Because of the prevalence of
plague in both North and Central American ports, the destruction
of rats is an important protective measure in the Canal Zone against
the importation and spread of plague.

QUARANTINE DivISION.

Inspection trips were made by the chief quarantine officer and
by the quarantine officer at Cristobal to various ports in Central and
South America in order to discover the actual conditions as to the
incidence of yellow fever and plague at those ports. As a result of
these inspections the 6-day quarantine was lifted against the Atlantic
ports of Colombia. Fumigation of all vessels arriving from the
west coast of South America, which discharged cargo at a Canal Zone
port, was continued, and these vessels are fumigated, empty, once
every three months for the destruction of rats. On account of the
unsatisfactory plague situation at Paita, Peru, the separate fumiga-
tion on the arrival at Cristobal of all cargo lifted at this port was
instituted as a matter of precaution. Steamship companies have
given hearty cooperation in these protective measures. Quarantine





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


inspection of incoming vessels from "clean" ports, at the Balboa
entrance up to 10 o'clock at night, was started on February 16,
1920. Up to June 30, 1920, only 9 ships had availed themselves
of this privilege. At Cristobal 203 ships were inspected at night.
The quarantine service is charged with the enforcement of immigra-
tion regulations of the Canal Zone and Republic of Panama, aided in
cases of American seamen and Chinese by the customs bureau.
For further details see report of chief health officer, Appendix I.

WASHINGTON OFFICE.
This office remained in charge of Mr. A. L. Flint, as general pur-
chasing officer and chief of office. The work is divided into three
general subdivisions; Administrative office, including the appoint-
ment division and the correspondence and record division; office of the
assistant auditor; and the purchasing department. The work of the
appointment division was affected by unusual conditions during
the year, including the shortage of skilled and technical men in the
United States available for appointment on the Canal; interruption
of sailing schedules to the Isthmus during the summer and autumn
of 1919, and the loss during the year of most of the experienced
clerks engaged in this work.
On May 5, 1920, a requistion was received from the Isthmus for
130 building tradesmen. Forty-two per cent, of those tendered
appointments during the year failed to accept. Seventeen hundred
and ninety-two persons were tendered appointments in the grades
above that of laborer, of which 1,032 accepted and were appointed.
Four thousand five hundred and ninety-two persons, including new
employees, those returning from leaves of absence, and members
of employees' families, were provided with transportation from the
United States to the Isthmus. In response to inquiries and appli-
cations for employment, and in the issuance of appointments,
21,435 letters were written; 7,525 telegrams were sent, and 43,222
circulars were mailed.
The increasing commercial use of the Canal since the war has de-
veloped a corresponding increase in the work of the correspondence
and record division in answering inquiries and disseminating general
information and literature regarding the Canal.
In the assistant auditor's office 13,635 disbursement vouchers,
amounting to $8,180,673.25, and 225 collection vouchers, amounting
to 81,678,875.44 were prepared. An administrative examination was
given 1,661 settlements by transfer of appropriations, aggregating
$2,106,758.79. Reports were made on 31 claims submitted to the
auditor for the War Department. One hundred and twenty-one con-
tracts were prepared, amounting to $5,130,714.76. The assistant
auditor, as legal adviser in the United States for The Panama Canal,
has continued to render assistance to the Department of Justice in
connection with the preparation for trial, and at the trial in the courts,
of all cases in connection with actions brought by or against The
Panama Canal. During the year suits have been pending against The
Panama Canal involving claims amounting to $19,339.48. All cases
were settled in favor of the Government except one, which is still
pending in the district court of the seventh district, New York.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


The purchasing department issued 8,367 orders for material and
supplies, an increase of 898 as compared with the fiscal year of 1919.
The total value of the orders placed was $9,133,069.94, as compared
with 86,764,278.82 for the fiscal year 1919. Sales in the United States
of scrap and obsolete Canal material handled by the purchasing de-
partment during the year amounted to $678,402.82, based on 58 sale
orders, as compared with $423,194.90, based on 70 sale orders during
the preceding year.
The work of inspection of material purchased has been facilitated as
heretofore. by assistance of the field officers of the Corps of Engineers,
United States Army, in charge of districts, by the Bureau of Stand-
ards, Bureau of Mines, Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of
Agriculture, and the Medical Department, Ordniance Department,
Signal Corps, and Quartermaster Corps of the United States Army.
The principal purchases were made by the Washington office,
although offices in charge of assistant purchasing agents have been
continued at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco. These
offices act as receiving and forwarding agents for such material as has
been purchased in their respective ports. A small force of employees
has been continued in the medical branch, Zone Supply Office, United
States Army, to assist the officers in charge in making purchases of
medical and hospital supplies on the Isthmus, most of which have
been purchased through that branch.
For further details of the operations of this office, see report of
general purchasing officer and chief of office, Appendix J.
Respectfully submitted.
CHESTER HARDING,
Governor, Tie Panamna Canal.
Hon. NEWTON D. BAKER,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.













APPENDIX A.

REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


THE PANAMA CANAL,
OFFICE OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, July 20, 1920.
SIR: The following is a report of the work done under the jurisdic-
tion of this office during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920:

ORGANIZATION.

The duties of the engineer of maintenance were increased during
the year by the issuance of your order dated August 15, 1919, instruct-
ing me to have supervision over the work of the building division.
During the year the personnel in charge of the various divisions and
sections reporting to this office was as follows:
Building dirision.-Mr. Hartley Rowe resigned, effective August
15, 1919, and Mr. T. C. Morris was appointed resident engineer in
charge of the building division.
Electrical division.-Mr. Walter L. Hersh, electrical engineer.
Locks diviysion.-Mr. E. D. Stillwell, superintendent of the Atlantic
locks.
Mr. W. R. Holloway, superintendent of the Pacific locks.
Municipal division.-Mr. D. E. Wright, municipal engineer.
Section of nmteorology and hydrography.-Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick,
chief hydrographer.
Section of office engineer.-Mr. C. J. Embree, office engineer.
Dredging division.-Mr. J. M. Pratt, superintendent.
Section of surveys.-Mr. 0. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer.
Maintenance of Gatun dam and back fills.-Mr. J. J. Walsh, general
foreman.
LOCKS DIVISION.

OPERATION.

On July 25 the largest American ships to transit the Canal went
through Gatun locks going south. They were the dreadnaughts
New Mexico and Mississiippi, sister ships of 32,000 tons each, length
624 feet and beam 97 feet 41 inches.
The largest ship to transit, the Canal to date is the British battle
cruiser Renoiwn, which passed through the Canal on March 30, 1920,
with the Prince of Wales. She has a length of 795 feet and a displace-
ment of 33,379 tons, her beam being 91L feet.








4U THE PANAMA CANAL.


LOCKAGES.


The following table gives the record of lockage operations for the
past fiscal year:


Lockages.
Commercial lockages:
Vessels ........................................................
Panama Railroad vessels......................................
Launches......................................................
Total commercial lockages....................................
Noncommercial lockages:
Canal...........................................................
U. S. Navy and U. S. Army...................................
Total noncommercial lockages...............................
Commercial lockages in which noncommercial vessels wereincluded.
Summary:
Comm err-ial lockages...........................................
Noncommercial lockages.......................................
Total lockages...............................................
V vessels.
Commercial vessels.................................................
Commercial launches..............................................
Total commercial vessels and launches.......................
Noncommercial:
Vessels (canal).................................................
Barges 'canal).................................................
Tugs (canal)...................................................
Launches (canal)..............................................
Noncommercial U. S. Army and U. S. Navy:
Vessels ........................................................
Barges.........................................................
Tugs..........................................................
Launches......................................................
Total noncommercial vessels, etc............................
Summary:
Commercial vessels............................................
Noncommercial vessels........................................


Total vessels..................................................


Gatun.




2,200
14
6
2,310


Pedro
Miguel.



2,360
17
5
2,382


Miraflores.


2,289
15
4
2,308

243
180


249 477 423
175 234 262

2,310 2,382 2,308
249 477 423
2,559 2,859 2,731


2,498 2,507 2,508
36 20 20
2,534 2,527 2,528

1 93 85
93 123 108
115 306 287
56 129 126
258 284 283
16 9 11
43 27 27
32 32 51
614 10,003 9078

2,534 2,527 2,528
614 1,003 978


3,148


3,530


3,506


The average number of lockages per month for Gatun was 213.25 as
compared with 180O- for last year. The average number of lockages
for the Pacific side was 238.25 as compared with 203 last year
The month having the maximum number of lockages and vessels was
December, 1919, when the record was as follows:


Atlantic Pacific
locks. looks.


Commercial lockages............................................................ 252 259
Noncommerciallockages........................................................ 16 32
Total number of lockages................................................. 268 291
Commercial vessels............................................................. 269 266
Noncommercial vessels.......................................................... 43 75
I'otal number of vessels................................................... 312 341






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 41

WATER CONSUMPTION-GATUN LAKE.

Complete data regarding the hydrography of Gatun Lake for the
calendar year are included in the report of the chief hydrographer given
hereinafter. The following table has been compiled to give complete
information regarding the average monthly supply and demand of
water for the past fiscal year:

Average quantity of water per month.

Cubic feet. Percentage. Percentage
of total.

Water lost:
Lossin storage, Gatun Lake................................ 879,790,000 10.4786 6.4882
By evaporation............................................. 1,994,150,000) 2.3.7511 14.7062
By wastage over Gatun spillway.......................... 5.433,670,000 64.7172 40.0717
By leakage, Gatun spillway ................................ 9,500,000 .1132 .0700
By transfer to Miraiores Lake.............................. 31,700,000 .3776 .2338
Byleakage,all locks........................................ 47,210,000 .5623 .3482
Total water lost.......................................... 8,396,020,000 1000000 61.9181
Water used:
Forpumping............................................... 74,650,000 1.4-156 .5505
Forlockages, Atlantic...................................... 857,900,000 16.61.35 6.3268
Forlockages, Pacific........................................ 745,310,000 11.4332 5.4964
For hydroelectric station................................... 3,486,000,000 67. 5077 25.7082
Total water used......................................... 5,163,860,000 100.0000 3S 0819
Total water lost and used..................................1 13,559,880,000 ............ 100.0000


The maximum lake elevation for the year was 87.16 feet in Decem-
ber, the average 84.85 feet, and the minimum elevation of Gatun Lake
was 81.65 feet in May of this year. As detailed in the report of the
chief hydrographer, water was conserved in Gatun Lake by a partial
relief of the hydroelectric station through operation of the Miraflores
steam station. The controlling reason for this was the acute situa-
tion at Cucaracha slide from February 22 to early in June, during
which time, as was anticipated, the gains in levels effected by this
saving of water facilitated the transit of some of the larger ships.

PAINTING AND MAINTENANCE.

In line with the adopted policy of maintenance of underwater
structures by unwatering at three-year intervals, maintenance at
Miraflores locks started with the installation of the floating caisson
in the east chamber on December 12, the work being completed
January 31. The west chamber was unwatered February 2 and the
work completed February 7. Work was started at Pedro Miguel west
chamber February 12 and completed March 27. The east chamber
at Pedro Miguel was not overhauled because of the congested traffic
conditions in the short stretch of the Canal north of Pedro Miguel due
to the emergency brought about by conditions at Cucaracha slide.
During the maintenance work it was found that the teredo has
attacked the greenheart sill timbers of the gates. New sills were in-
stalled on gates 120, 121, 123, 124, 108, 109, and 113 at Miraflores locks.
The teredo was also found attacking the greenheart sills in the west
chamber at Pedro Miguel locks, where the fresh water of Gatun Lake
passes into Miraflores Lake, the latter 541 feet above sea level.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


TOWING LOCOMOTIVES.
The towing locomotives have continued to render excellent service
throughout the year. All locomotives were thoroughly overhauled
and painted, the slip drums being tested at, varying intervals, but a
test is made at least once every two weeks. Only one accident
occurred during the year when one of the machines went down the
incline under the emergency dam at Pedro Miguel and collided with
another machine, injuring one cab.

TRANSFORMER ROOMS.
In the transformer rooms all oil switches are tripped at least once a
week for test.
The oil switch banks have been thoroughly overhauled, the relays
checked, the busses retaped where necessary, and the oil in oil
switches and transformers has been filtered. Steps have been taken to
install disconnective switches on all towing track feeders at Gatun to
assist in operation.
MITER GATES.
All miter gates are sounded each week and necessary repairs made.
The control piping leading through to the air compartment has been
rusting badly and orders have been issued to remove all miter gates
sump pumps and their respective control piping.
We have continued to maintain the bitumastic enamel on the
interior and exterior of the lock gates, the American Bitumastic
Enamels Co. guarantee having expired at all locks except Miraflores,
where the painting of the exterior of the gates is still under guarantee.

RISING STEM VALVES.
During the maintenance of Miraflores and Pedro Miguel locks the
rising stem valves were removed and completely overhauled. The
side seal strips of guayacon were found badly eaten by teredos and
the bottom seals of greenheart were in the same condition.
The wearing pads-and roller trains of all valves were found to be
in bad condition and in many cases will have to he replaced on the
next overhauling. In some cases the bronze nuts on the rising stems
have worn down to a point where theysheared offl in service; the depth
of the sheared thread on one set was found to be about one-sixteenth
inch at the base, the original thickness being one-half inch.

CYLINDRICAL VALVES.
All leather seals on the cylindrical valves of the Pacific locks are
being removed and replaced( with rubber. The balance of the valves
have been maintained in fair condition by the bituminous enamel
applied during the last maintenan'-e period.

CULVERT SCREENS.
When the maintenance work at Nlirallores locks was started it was
found that the intake screen on valve No. 406 had passed through the
culvert and was found on the caisson seat at the lower end of the






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


locks. The culvert and valves were examined and no apparent dam-
age was done by the screen in its travel through the culvert. Several
other screens were found so badly bent that they could not be lifted
through the bulkhead slots, but had to be pulled out through the end
of the culvert.
EMERGENCY DAM.

The usual maintenance of the emergency dams has been carried
on, the dams at Gatun being repainted in March. We have con-
tinued to operate each pair of dams at all locks once each month,
one dam being operated at night and one in the daytime. Two
quadrants were found to have settled, the east one at Miraflores and
the west one at Pedro Miguel. As the quadrants were found to be
as much as 1 inches out in places, it was necessary to take up all rack
castings, pull the foundation holts, and reset the entire set of quadrant
castings of the dams mentioned.

FENDERS.

The wooden fenders installed along the approach walls of all locks
have begun to deteriorate due to dry rot, they are being replaced at.
present with native hardwood almendra. The marine division con-
sidered it necessary to install a third and lower set of fender timbers
at lower Miraflores locks to take care of extreme low tide conditions.
The new fenders were put in by the building division, the work being
completed November 7, 1919.

TRANSPORTATION.

A 1-ton Ford truck has been added to the equipment of the Pacific
locks and will be used to handle supplies from the storehouse as
well as carrying men to Miraflores locks when the launch is out of
commission. A new railroad speeder has just been delivered and
will be used for handling heavy material between Corozal storehouse
and Miraflores locks.
Following are extracts from reports of the lock superintendents,
covering details of operation and maintenance of the locks.

PACIFIC Locss.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
There were few changes in the personnel, but the general organization remained the
same as throughout the previous year with the exception of the addition of two super-
visors and additions in some of the minor positions, all o1 which are covered below.
Mr. W. R. Holloway continued as superintendent throughout the year, with Mr.
J. C. Myrick as assistant superintendent. Mr. D. H. Moore was promoted from aREsist-
ant mechanical supervisor to the newly authorized position of mechanical supervisor,
and Mr. Oliver Bullock was promoted from assistant electrical supervisor to the newly
authorized position of electrical supervisor, both promotions being made effective
May 16, 1920. Mr. R. S. Mills and Mr. A. E. Meigs continued in the other two posi-
tions of electrical supervisor and mechanical supervisor, respectively, thorughout the
year.
Due to the increase in traffic it was found necessary to increase the gold organization
by two control house operators-one each for Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks. The
gold organization was also increased by the addition of one utility foreman.
Approximately 47 per cent of the silver force joined the strikers in the strike that
commenced on February 24, 1920. Twenty-six per cent of the strikers returned to
work, and by taking on new men the silver force was back to normal in one month.
There was no delay to shipping on account of the strike.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


OPERATION.
Operations were continued throughout the year on a two-shift basis, covering a
period from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m., at Pedro Miguel locks and from 7 a. mn. to 8.30 p. mn.,
at Miraflores locks. It has been found necessary at times to hold the men beyond the
regular working day, but the above hours take care of traffic under normal conditions.
Tabulations are attached showing lockages by months for both Pedro Miguel and
Miraflores locks, and a tabulation is also attached showing the total lockages for the
year. There was an increase in lockages of 16 per cent at Pedro Miguel and 17 per
cent at Miraflores locks over the number for the last fiscal year.
There were no delays to traffic due to failure of the operating machinery.
Practice operations of the emergency dams were made monthly, but no emergency
operations were necessary.
The spillway at Miraflores was operated to maintain Miraflores Lake at the proper
elevation, which is 54 feet above sea level.

PAINT MACHINE.

The paint machine was operated throughout the year, approximately 3,000 gallons
of paint being manufactured for the Atlantic and Pacific locks.
LAUNCHES AND BOATS.
The launches Mary S and Dora V were operated on Miraflores Lake for transporting
men and material back and forth between Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks. The
launch Mari S was given a complete overhauling during the year.
Two round-bottom pilot boats were made during the year, this work being done by
the lock forces.
COROZAL STORE.
The storehouse.? was operated at Corozal throughout the year in connection with the
storing and issuing of spare parts for the Atlantic and Pacific locks.

MISCELLA N EOUS.
A Ford truck was secured for service in connection with handling material and
supplies for the locks, and a motor car was also secured for operation on the branch
line between Corozal and Miraflores locks.
Towing locomotive No. 667 was damaged in a collision with locomotive No. 670 at
Pedro Miguel locks. It was necessary to install a new cab on locomotive No. 667
and also to install new panels and controller. All work was done by the lock forces
with the exception of the building of the cab, which work was done by the mechanical
division at Balboa shops.
Low-tide fenders were installed on both sides of the south approach wall at Mira-
flores locks, extending from the chains to the end of the wall. The construction of
these fenders consists of a single row of 12 by 12 inch timbers, 7 feet below the lower
section of the original fenders. This work was done by the building division.
Work was started by the lock forces installing a single row of fenders from the chains
to the outer gates at both ends of Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks, on the center
walls. This work has been completed at the north end of Pedro Miguel locks.
Inspection of the emergency dam quadrants showed that it was necessary to adjust
the quadrant of the east dam at Miraflores locks and both dams at Pedro Miguel locks.
All this work was completed during the year.

MAINTENANCE.

The floating caisson was given a complete overhauling. In connection with this
work new impellers were installed in all pumps.
The spillway caisson was also given an overhauling. It was necessary to renew
the bottom sill in its entirety, as well as to install a new roof. The caisson was also
coated with hitiumastic enamel.
The fender timbers at both shots of locks were inspected and renewed where necessary.
The soft nose at the north end of Pedro Miguel locks was overhauled.
The east chamber at Miratlores locks and the west chamber at Pedro Miguel locks
were unwatered in order to give the submerged parts an overhauling and for touching
up the bitumastic on the gates and valves. This work is covered in detail below.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


OVERHAULING AT MIRAFLORES.

The caisson was sunk at the lower end of the east lock on December 12, 1919. The
overhauling was completed and the caisson raised on January 23, 1920. The caisson
was then sunk in place at the upper end of the same lock on January 26, 1920, to
expose the upstream and bottom surfaces of the upper gates. This work was com-
pleted and the caisson raised on January 31. 1920. The caisson was then sunk at
the upper end of the west lock on February 2, 192 ), to expose the upstream and bottom
surfaces of the upper gates, and was floated again on the completion of this work on
February 7, 1920. The general condition of the submerged parts as found on unwater-
ing the locks and the report of maintenance work done on them are covered under
each item. This work was all done by the lock forces.
Miter gates.-The bitumastic enamel on the submerged surfaces was generally
spotted from rust on the exterior of the gates. On the four lower gates (Nos. 120, 121,
124, and 125) a heavy barnacle growth was found. This growth was scraped off and
it was then found necessary to re-cover the entire submerged surface with new enamel.
The exterior surfaces of the other gates were then gone over and all rust spots cleaned
and scraped, after which the spots were touched up with new enamel.
On the south side of the interior of gates Nos. 117, 116, 120, and 121 the heat had
caused the enamel to soften and run, leaving a very thin coat. The interior surfaces
of these gates were reenameled where the coat had become thin, and the remaining
surfaces on the interior, as well as the interior surfaces of all other gates, were carefully
gone over and rust spots cleaned and scraped, after which they were touched up with
new enamel.
Hermastic enamel was used on all exterior surfaces in the east lock and on the
interior of gates Nos. 108, 116, 117, 120. and 124. Barber asphalt was used on all
-other interior surfaces. The exterior surfaces of gates Nos. 102 and 103 were patched
with Navy enamel.
The conduit and pipes for the sump pumps in the gates were found to be badly
*corroded in all gates, and in some practically eaten through. All sump pumps,
-conduit, and pipes, except sounding tubes, were removed from the gates, and the
holes where the pipes had passed through the water-tight bulkheads were plugged.
Some of the greenheart seals at the bottom of the gates were damaged by the teredo
The seals were repaired at nine gates, 180 linear feet of 12 inch by 12 inch almendra
timber being used to replace the worm-eaten timbers that had been taken out.
Three hundred and thirty linear feet of the oak fenders at the tops of the gates that
were weakened by decay were replaced with almendra.
Rising stem valves.-The bitumastic enamel was in fair condition except on the
rivet heads, butt straps and top seal castings. The four lower valves were covered
with barnacles. The bottoms of the valves were badly pitted. The rivet heads
were partly eaten away, weakening their tensile strength. The wearing pads on the
valves were badly pitted. A number of the side seal springs were broken. The end
rollers were nearly all stuck fast and had "flats" worn on them. The lignum-vitae
side seal and bottom seal strips had been damaged by the teredo. The roller trains
were generally in bad condition, the rollers being pitted with rust and reduced in
size. The rollers were very loose in their bearings, due to wear and corrosion, reduc-
ing the diameter of the shaft and enlarging the bearings. The fixed irons in the cul-
vert were badly corroded, especially the roller train and end roller tracks.
Twelve valves were overhauled at this time. The valve machines were dismantled
and the valves lifted out for overhauling. The bottom seals of all valves were planed
to a true surface. Two hundred and twenty-one defective rivets were backed out
and new rivets driven. All broken side seal springs were renewed. The end rollers
were turned in the lathe to eliminate "flats" and then shimmed out when mounted.
The lignum-vitae side seal and bottom seal strips were renewed with strips of the
same material that had been impregnated with creosote. The roller trains had to
be practically rebuilt, straight iron bars being used in place of channels for the con-
tainers. Several top seal castings and seals were repaired. The fixed irons in the
culvert were scraped and cleaned, after which they were coated with hermastic
enamel. The bearing surfaces were greased. The barnacles were scraped off the
four lower valves and these valves were then recoated. All rivet heads and other
exposed parts were patched with enamel.
Cylindrical valves.-When the chamber was unwatered it was found that the rubber
seals installed on the valves on the west side had practically eliminated leakage.
Rubber seals were installed on the 20 valves on the east side. The valves were
found to be in very good condition except the leather seals, which were very hard
and badly deteriorated. The enamel was in good condition. Necessary touching up


L. -






THE PANAMA CANAL.


was done. There was very little rusting or pitting on any part of the valves. A
few bolts, nuts, and cap screws were renewed. The stems were repacked on all the
valves on the cast side.
Guard '.i/rs.-The screens for guard valves Nos. 407 and 40S were removed on
December 9, 1919. It was necessary to do considerable repair work on both of them
due 4* rivet heads and spacers being eaten away. The screen for No. 406 had col-
lapsed and had been washed through the culvert lodging on the caisson seat at the
lower end of the locks. No damage was done to the valves or culvert in its passage.
The screen was sent to Balboa shops and available parts were used in building a
new screen.
The opening in front of valve No. 407 was not wide enough to take a bulkhead, so
the valve was replaced on December 10, 1919. after having been overhauled. The
side seals were overhauled, anil the roller trains were in good condition and were
replaced. The end rollers were overhauled. the bottom planed and the- valve coated
with Navy enamel.
On valve No. 406 the bottom seal was planed, end rollers overhauled, slide seals
overhauled and scraped and the valve coated with hermastic enmniel. Rebuilt
roller trains were installed. The valve was replaced on January 2. 1920.
Valve No. 408 was removed on January (.i, 1920. The valve and roller train were
rusty but not badly pitted. Rebuilt roller tr:iins were installed. The side seals were
overhiuled. as well as the end rollk-rs. and the valve was then coated with hermastic
enainel. It was replaced on January 21. 1920.
The roller trains for the guard valves covered above were in very good condition.
They were all rusty but were not badly pitted and the roller hearings were not badly
worn. Roller trains Nos. 4013 and 10S were used on the rising st'-.m valves and rebuilt
trains installed in their place.
Bulkheads.-Bulkheads were installed in the upper end of the east culvert on
December 9, 1919. and in the lower end on Decembler 12, 1919. The bulkheads at
the upper end were removed on January 23. 1921. and the lower end on January 24,
1920.
The center culvert entrance bulkheads were removed in both the upper and lower
chambers and seals renewed complete. almendra being used. The enamel on these
bulkheads was in very good condition and touching iup only was (done.

OVERHAULING AT PEDRO MIGUEL.

The caisson was sunk at the lower end of the west chamber at Pedro Miguel locks
on February 11, 1920. It was floated again on March 23, 1920, after completion of
the overhauling work in that chamber. The general condition of the submerged
parts, as found on inspection afterthe lock was unwatered. and a report of the mainte-
nance work on them are covered under each item.
Miter gates.-The exterior surfaces of these gates had been coated with Navy enamel
in the early part of 1917, and touching lup only was required at this time. The
exterior surfaces were in very good condition and showed no signs of deterioration
except on the miter faces and at the quoins. which showed considerable corrosion
and pitting. These were thoroughly cleaned and given one coat of red lead paint and
a heavy coat of "Crater" compound. The bitumastic on the interior of gates Nos.
,I, i-). 72, and 73 was touched up.
It was found that the teredo hadil been extremely active in all gate sills. The sills
for gates Nos. 68 and 69 were renewed in their entirety. 2.' linear feet of the sill at the
quoin end of No. 72, and 12 feet each at the miter ends of Nos. 72 and 73 were renewed.
Almendr.a was used on all this work.
Repairs. were made to the fenders at the top- of the gat"s. 9; linear feet of fenders
being renewed.
Rising stein vi ilves.-All center wall rising stem valves, with the exception of Nos.
312 and 31.L3. and all the west side wall valves were removed for overhauling. All end
rollers had to be removed, overhauled. and relined. The rivets in the valves were in
good condition. A number of the side seal springs were broken, and valve No. 330
required a complete set of new springs. Some of the roller trains were worn and had
to be replaced. The bottoms of the valves were planed to a true surface where
necessary.
Before the valves were replaced they were thoroughly cleaned and the bitumastic
gone over. Some of the valves required an entire new coat of bitumastic.
ilindriral valves.-The cylindrical valves were in good condition. The leather
seals were replaced with rubber seals on all valves of the west chamber. The bitu-
mastic on all valves of the west chamber was touched up.








REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Guard valves.-The screens were bent out of shape and had to be pulled through
the intake openings with a towing locomotive. They were then sent to Balboa shops
to be used in connection with making new screens. The guard valves were all in
good condition. However, they had never been coated with bitumastic and had to
be taken out for this purpose.
The roller trains for guard valves Nos. 309 and 311 were used on the rising stem
valves, rebuilt trains being installed in their place.


Pedro Miutcdi Lorks.

LUCK Ai ES.


Nor Iiboiundii.


Months. Co-
mer-
cial.


1919.
July.......................... 9 0)
August ....................... 9W
September.................. 100
October............ ......... 123
Novem ber................... 92
December................ 115

1920.
January................... .. I1'
February.................... 9
March........................ j5
April...................... 105
May.......... ............ 117
June......................... 91

Total.................. 1,239


Army
ini'
Nnvy.



1 1
2

1
1
5




2
6
3
2

42?


Can.il
eqinp-
n:znl.



14
5





'i
11
1'
13



10

115


ToaIl.




1 1.5

Ill
1.36
9q.
127



115




1,3%
1,3TIC.


South hbou'nlJ.


Com-
iner-





9l)
76

"7
144


1U;

1117
102


1.14.3


Arrnv
and
Navy.



13
20)
6

10
6


3 rnal
r-111iri-
ment.



20t
1.1
I-
15
14
16
14


12 !F1
11 I
4 17
4 1 .
7- 12
14. 177

14.3 177


Total.




131
123
100
102
II.A
111-1





124
121
124

1, 4.3


Tntal
both
wav '.


246
229
211
218
211
2'41


265
214
22S
244
250
227

2, W,


VESSELS.


191.
July ......................... 3 .
August ...................... 100
Septem ber........... .......I 100
Ocroher.................... I 12--
November.................. 92
December................... 120

1920.
January ................ 1 12
February. .................. ..: I10
March ........................: 112
April................... I 1
May........................ 120
June......................... 97

Total.................. 1,307


16 41 i 152 I.8
A 13 11. "0
1 31 1.2 77
2 20I 154 7 7S
S 19 119
6 22 14S 146


5 22 15.1 116
Ip- 3q 1I j 101
7 'I 142 127
10 27 150 1I16
6 24 150 1105
5 25 127 1114

90 3141 1,711 1,220
I.2


t:62
33
12


12


27

15
9
15
12

262


24
.31



27


2-1

-1*



337
,37


166
147
121)
125
137
1I3


17:3

174
147
144
140

1, S19


319
26q
252
279
256
341


326
318
316
297
24
267

3,530







48 THE PANAMA CANAL.


Miraflores Locks.
BLOCKAGES.

Northbound. Southbound.
Total
Months. Com- Army Canal Cor- Army Canal both
mer- and equip- Total. mer- and equip- Total. waY8'
cial. Navy. ment. cial. Navy. moment.


1919.
July......................... 84 10 14 108 67 42 17 126 234
August...................... 92 2 6 100 S5 19 13 117 217
September................... 93 0 12 105 72 5 19 96 201
October.................... 11 1 11 130 76 10 13 99 229
November................... 92 1 4 97 83 10 13 106 203
December.................. 10S 5 5 118 124 6 9 139 257
1920.
January..................... 110 1 2 7 119 91 11 12 114 233
February.................... '6 7 10 113 92 10 1 103 216
Mrch..................... W 2 4 102 107 4 13 124 226
April........................ 104 7 !4 119 102 4 15 121 240
MI......................... 115 3 8 126 101 8 10 119 245
June ........................ 96 2 S 106 104 9 11 124 230

Total ............... .. 1,204 42 (07 1,343 1,104 138 146 1,388 2,731


VESSELS.


July................ '.. 16 33 145 69 62 33 164 309
Autust............. i 1010 6 12 11B 90 33 23 146 264
September...................I 'i 1 31 131 75 12 31 118 249
kOctoher.................... 123 2 30 155 78 20 29 127 282
Novcmnber.................. 92 11 15 11B 92 19 24 135 253
December.................. 120 6 26 132 146 12 34 192 344

Janiurv .................... 126 5 IS 149 116 26 25 167 316
February ................... 1i19 ` *31 15S 101 2 1 is 147 305
Ma:rch................... .. 112 1S 13S 127 16 29 172 310
April...................... 113 13 23 149 116 13 25 154 303
May.............. .. .. 120 t1 23 151 105 17 24 146 297
June... .......... ... .7 27 132 105 13 24 142 274
Total.................. I,3308 101 2S7 1,696 1,220 271 319 1,810 3,506


Pacific Locks.
LOCKING OPERATIONS


Lockages:
Commercial lockages-
Vessels............................
Panama Railroad vessels..........
Launches.........................
Total commercial lockages.......

Noncommercial lockages-
Canal .............................
U. S. Navy and U. S. Army......

Total noncommercial lockages...
Commercial lockages in which non-
commercial vessels were included...
Summary-
Commercial lockages............
Noncommercial lockages..........

Total lockages................


Pedro Miguel locks.


North. I South. I Total.


1,230
8
1
1,239

115
42
157


1,130
9
4
1,143

177
143

320


2,360
17
5

2,382

292
185
477


Miraflores locks.


North. South. Total.



1,196 1,093 2,289
7 8 15
1 3 4
1,204 1,104 2,308


97
42

139


146
138
284


243
180
423


132 102 234 140 122 202

1,239 1,143 2,382 1,204 1,104 2,308
157 320 477 139 284 423

1,396 1,463 2,859 1,343 1,388 2,781







REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 49


Pacific Lods-Continued.

LOCKING OPERATIONS-Continued.


Vessels:
Commercial vessels...................
Commercial launches.................
Total commercial vessels........
Noncommercial vessels (canal)........
Noncommercial barges (canal).........
Noncommercial tugs (canal)..........
Noncommercial launches (canal).......
Noncommercial vessels (U. S. Navy
and U. S. Army)...................
Noncommercial barges (U. S. Navy
and U. S. Army)...................
Noncommercial tugs (U. S. Navy and
U. S. Army).....................
Noncommercial launches (U. 8. Navy
ad U. S. Army)...................

Total noncommercial vessels....
Summary-
Commercial vessels................
Noncommercial vessels...........

Total vessels...................


Pedro Miguel locks.


North.


South.


Total.


S I1- I


1,297
10
1,307


1,210
10
1,220


2,507
20
2,527


Miraflores locks.


North.


1,298
10

1,308


South.


1,210
10
1,220


Total.


2,508
20

2,528


47 46 93 42 43 85
71 52 123 56 42 98
129 177 306 123 174 297
67 62 129 66 60 126
68 216 284 68 215 283
1 8 9 2 9 11

5 22 27 5 22 27
16 16 32 26 25 51
404 599 1,003 388 590 978

1,307 1,220 2,527 1,308 1,220 2,528
404 599 1,003 388 590 978


1,711


1,819


3,530


1,696


1,810


3,506


Annual report of water drawn from. Gatun and Miraflores Lakes for lockages and other
purposes.

[In thousands of cubic feet.l


Month.


1919.
July.........................
August.......................
September...................
October......................
November...................
December....................

10. .
January.....................
February.....................
March........................
April.........................
May................. .........
June..........................

Total fqr year...........


Pedro Miguel.


Lockages.


787,600
722,020
633,280
748,650
704,160
1,030,990

884,930
620,950
705,760
714,600
696,200
635,370


8,884,510


Leakage.


25,930
28,980
29,520
30,500
35,420
48,800

33,540
23,530
16,770
17,710
18,300
17,800


326,800


Other
purposes.


13,850
3,810
27,390
............
39,970
............

........9, V6
.92,1406
119,030
62,740
61,980
19,080


439,990


ATLANTIC LOCKS.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Mr. E. D. Stillwell continued as superintendent throughout the year, and Mr.
H. M. Thomas as assistant superintendent. During the absence of the superintendent t
on 100 days' leave in the United States from May 30,1920, his duties were assumed
by the assistant superintendent.
Mr. P. R. Kiger, who was honorably discharged from the United States Army
August 8, 1919, was assigned to his former position as electrical supervisor October
28, 1919. Mr. A. E. Wood, who was appointed electrical supervisor during the ab-

8847-20--4


Miraflores.


Lockages.


707,190
652,910
607,600
704,900
629,880
769,740

740,650
667,860
726,590
748,110
740,710
698,390


8,394,530


Leakage.



13,500
14,000
15,000
15,000
15,000
15,000

15,000
15,000
15,000
15,000
15,000
15,000


177,500


Other
purposes.


............
............
8,240
14,010
57,810
............

13,500
8,070
2,'6i6
4,920
890


110,050


I







THE PANAMA CANAL.


sence of Mr. Kiger, was demoted to assistant electrical supervisor November
4, 1919.
Mr. F. M. Easter continued as mechanical supervisor until June 24, 1920, when he
was transferred to the Gatun lighthouse subdivision. This position has not been
filled.
Mr. A. M. Butcher, who was honorably discharged from the United States Army
October 12, 1919, and reported for duty November 20, 1919, was assigned to his former
position as general operator.
The supervisory force was increased by two additional assistant supervisors, one
mechanical and one electrical, effective May 5, 1920.
The general organization remained the same as throughout the previous year, there
being a few changes in the personnel of the locomotive operators to take care of resig-
nations and transfers.
A strike was called by the silver employees on February 22, 1920, and only nine
silver employees reported for duty February 23, but with the cooperation and loyal
support of the gold force, lockages were carried on without any delay until March
4, 1920, by which date the majority of the silver men had returned to work.
OPERATION.
_Practically the same system of operation continued in effect as during the previous
year.
Delays to Canal traffic due to faulty operation or failure of operating equipment
have been few and of negligible magnitude. From a total of 3,047 vessels passed
through Gatun locks the total delay was 4 hours and 26 minutes.
A report of lockages by months is as follows:

Northbound. Southbound.
Month. -----------------Grand
Corn- Noncom- Total. Corn- Noncom- Total total.
mercial. mercial. mercial. mercial. *

1919.
July........................... 86 20 106 64 46 110 216
August......................... 95 5 100 86 21 107 207
September...................... 97 2 99 71 6 77 176
October........................ 120 4 124 72 15 87 211
November...................... 89 7 96 83 13 96 192
December...................... 114 7 121 138 9 147 268
1920.
January........................ 118 10 128 103 10 113 241
February....................... 93 5 98 89 12 101 199
March.......................... 90 7 97 113 11 124 221
April........................... 96 7 103 98 4 102 205
May............................ 115 6 121 95 8 103 224
June........................... 91 3 94 94 11 105 199
Total..................... 1,204 83 1,287 1,106 166 1,272 2,559

Total amount of water used for lockage purposes, 10,293,170,000 cubic feet.
Average number of lockages per day, 6.99 plus.
Average amount of water used per lockage, 4,022,340 cubic feet plus.
Average number of commercial vessels per day, 6.923.
The emergency dams were operated each month for the purpose of instructing
operators. No emergency operations were necessary.
No operation of a chain fender machine due to ship striking the chain occurred
during the year.
Both lock chambers were in service during the entire year, with the exception of a
few days when minor repairs and painting were being done on the gates and valves,
and then at the convenience of traffic.
The battle cruiser Renown, with the Prince of Wales, passed through the locks,
southbound, March 30, 1920. This ship has a length of 795 feet and displacement of
33,379 tons, which is greater in length and displacement than any vessel transiting
the Canal to 'late.
MAINTENANCE.
All machines and equipment were maintained in good condition. A few changes
of a minor nature were made in order to improve operating conditions and reduce
the work of maintenance.
Emergency dains.-Both dams were painted, except gates and girders, with one
coat of linseed oil and one coat of gray paint.







REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


A 500-watt lamp and reflector was installed on both dams for lighting inclines.
Fenders.-One hundred and nine fenders of native hard wood (almendra) were
installed on approach walls during the year.
Locomotives and tracks.-An 8-foot section of steel conductor rail was replaced with
copper rail on both side wall return tracks at foot of long inclines.
The steel rail was badly corroded from the salt water splashing into slots.
The conductor rails, covers, brackets and switches on towing and return tracks
were overhauled and painted.
A new traction motor was installed in locomotive No. 656.
Towing track and return track rail joints were realigned and concreted in where
necessary during the year.
Rising stemn valves and machines.-The 12 intermediate valves and 24 roller trains
were overhauled during the year.
Guard valve motor stator No. 269 was renewed on account of short-circuited coil.
New motor shaft couplings were installed on Nos. 254 and 255.
Renewed side seals on No. 249 and one seal on No. 248.
Filling plugs were installed on all dash pots.
A new removable lintle casting was installed in pit No. 243. Z bars were aligned
and concreted in.
Miter gates and mnachines.-Sump pumps, motors and wiring were removed from all
miter gates.
Heating lights were installed in all miter gate machines and hand rail motors.
Chain fender mtachines.-Shortened chain on No. 801, 4 links removed.
Steel chains on Nos. 800, 801, 802, and 803 were transferred to the intermediate
machines Nos. 808, 809, 810, 811, as the chains on the former were worn considerably
on the side of links that come in contact with the concrete at bottom of locks.
New banjo signal was installed on No. 810.
Brass plates were installed on cores of all main contactor relays to prevent them
from holding closed by residual magnetism.
Lighting system.-The lighting conduit in lower cross-under tunnel was renewed
and the conduit in center wall vertical shaft was taken out.
Conduit pipes were renewed and lead-covered wires pulled into lamp posts Nos.
9, 10, 31, 32, and 188.
Approximately 400 feet of the jute-covered telephone cable were replaced by lead-
covered conductor.
Miscellaneous.-Continued making up parts and assembling disconnect switches
for towing track feeders. Switches have been installed in transformer rooms, 1 in
No. 749, 2 in No. 746, 2 in No. 742, 2 in No. 750, and 1 in No. 752.
Terminal boards were installed on receivers of No. 7 and No. 8 miter gates and
rising stem valves Nos. 226 and 227 in the control house.
Renewed spare oil switch No. 6 in transformer room No. 752.
Made new duct line and installed 2/0-3 conductor lead-covered power cable to
shop building. Old feeder No. 7526 from the west wall was pulled out for the above.
Continued retaping busses and bell terminals on machine panels.
Side wall bulkheads were painted and new hard wood (almendra) sills were
installed.
Overhauled main culvert sump pump. A recess cover, seat and base with anchor
bolts for base were installed in regulating valve room at north end of center wall for
storage of pump.
The center wall bulkheads were dipped in crude oil and stored on platform back
of the northwest side wall, lower level. A concrete vat 15 feet square by 15 inches
deep and storage platform was built for this purpose.
A short circuit switch for use in starting the air compressor or motor was made and
installed. This switch short circuits the series transformer and cuts out the relays
while the motor is getting up to speed.
A board showing the primary power and lighting feeders to all transformer rooms
was completed and installed in the control house.
Two ventilator shafts were installed in transformer rooms Nos. 756 and 753 for
ventilation of rooms and operating tunnel.
Concrete sheds were constructed over the east and west wall locomotive repair pits.
The wood flooring was removed from the work shops; east, west, and center walls
and concrete beams were installed.
Painting gates.-The top of all miter gates and handrails were painted during the
year.
The north side, upper section of miter gates Nos. 9 and 10, were enameled with
hermastic enamel.
Tunnel floors.-Tunnel floors were painted, in the middle and lower levels, east,
west, and center walls.


41






52 THE PANAMA CANAL.

BUILDING DIvISION.

The details of the operations of the building division during the
fiscal year are covered in the report of the resident engineer, which
follows:
BUILDING DivisioN.
T. C. Morris, Resident Engineer.
The following report of operations for this division for the fiscal year ended June
30, 1920, is submitted herewith.
ORGANIZATION.
On June 30, 1919, the subdivision of pier construction engaged in the construction of
Pier No. 6 was abolished and all work of that division was placed under the super-
vision of Mr. J. B. Fields as superintendent of construction.
Mr. C. A. Nelson, formerly superintendent of construction of Pier No. 6, had been
engaged on the construction of a pier for the Colombian Government and his resigna-
tion was submitted and accepted on September 25.
PERSONNEL.
Mr. H. Rowe resigned from his position as resident engineer on August 14, and
the undersigned was appointed as his successor.
The building division was placed under the jurisdiction of the engineer of mainte-
nance on that date.
Mr. S. M. Hitt continued as architect.
Mr. F. W. Blackwood. assistant engineer in charge of designs, resigned on August
21 to accept a position with the Colombian Government.
Mr. A. Hall, as supervisor, was placed in charge of construction of Fort Clayton
Army post, and Mr. P. J. Corrigan, as supervisor, at Fort Davis.
BUILDING OPERATIONS.
Work was continued on Pier No. 6; Coco Solo submarine base; naval air station,
Coco Solo; Army aviation base, France Field.
New projects started during the year were barracks, quarters, and wharf at Fort
Sherman; Fort Davis and Fort Clayton Army posts; New silver townsite, Mount Hope;
lighthouse at channel end of east breakwater; Colon-Cristobal incinerator plant;
combined shop and storehouse, Cristobal mole: Panama Railroad stables, Colon;
reconstruction of Royal Mail pier for use of Panama Railroad; concrete oil tanks;
community house. National Catholic War Council; Royal Mail office building.
PEER NO. 6.
Construction of Pier No. 6 was completed and turned over to the receiving and
forwarding agent for use on August 27, 1919.
At the beginning of the rainy season, some complaints were received on account
of leakage of the roof. Expansion and contraction of the roof, due to temperature
changes, were sufficient to cause slight temperature cracks in the 4-inch roof slab.
This roof consists of a reinforced concrete slab 4 inches thick, 160 feet wide, and 945
feet long. Since this pier is used for the storage of freight in transit, and any damage
to goods would result in claims against the Panama Railroad, it was decided to pre-
vent, so far as possible, all possibilities of claims resulting from wetting, and the
application of a five-ply tar and gravel Barrett Specification roof was authorized.
Owing to the necessity of flashing each pier supporting the cargo-handling crane rail,
and also owing to the large number of skylights, this tar and gravel roofingwill be rather
costly per square of roof covered. It is necessary to provide copper flashing for 720
of the crane rail piers and also to build copper framework to support the 210 sky-
lights. These skylights originally consisted of 14 by 24 inch wire ribbed glass set in
a & by j-inch rabbet with top surface of the glass flush with the surface of the concrete
slab. The estimated cost of flashing and applying the tar and gravel roof is $26,000,
or $17 per square, and work was 50 per cent completed on July 1.
On the morning of March 6, 1920, an explosion occurred on the steamship Marne,
-which was moored along the north side of the pier. This explosion resulted in the
blowing in of 6 doors, 3 louvers, and 11 windows on the north side, and the vacuum
caused by the explosion pulled in 6 doors on the south side of the pier. Several
pieces of debris were thrown in the air, some of which fell on the roof slab. One
piece, consisting of a ventilator funnel and the gearing for operating same-a total






REPORT OF tENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 53

weight of 800 pounds-fell astride one of the longitudinal reinforced concrete trusses
and broke holes in the roof slab on both aides of the truss. A careful inspection
showed no damage to the truss.
NAVAL. SUBMARINE BASE AND NAVAL AIR STATION.
Work was continued on these projects in accordance with original plans and sub-
sequent request of the Navy Department. The total expenditure during the fiscal
year for the submarine base was $147,317, and for the naval air station $91,919.
ARMY AVIATION BASE, FRANCE FIELD.
All work was completed on the officers' quarters and barracks, as covered by the
$335,400 appropriation, and additional work as requested by the Army, consisting
principally of the erection of one steel hangar, 110-foot span by 200 feet long, and one
steel hangar 66-foot span by 140 feet long. The total expenditure at this base during
the year was $66,954.
BARRACKS, QUARTERS, AND WHARF, FORT SHERMAN.
New work authorized under the $140,000 appropriation for barracks and quarters
was completed. This work consisted of the construction of two type-20 staff quarters,-
two type EE-2 officers' quarters, two 150-men barracks, including exterior electrical:
work and municipal work. The total expenditure on this project was $125,715.10...
The construction of the wharf authorized under the $35,000 appropriation was
completed at a cost of $25,501.08.
FORT DAVIS AND FORT CLAYTON ARMY POSTS.
The Army building program for the fiscal year 1919-20 provided for the construction
of quarters and barracks to accommodate one regiment of Infantry at Fort Clayton,
Miraflores dump, and one regiment of Infantry at Fort Davis, New Gatun.
A general description of the buildings constructed was given in the last annual
report and all buildings were constructed in accordance with the specifications as
outlined.
On March 28, 1919, the Governor of The Panvm- Canal advised the chief of office
as follows with reference to the construction of these two Army posts:
"Canal has organization and equipment to commence work within two weeks
after location is approved and can carry out project by July 1, 1920."
This allowed a 15-month period for construction.
Funds were finally allotted to The Panama Canal on April 23 and the project was-
definitely approved on May 19. Work was started at Miraflores on May 20.
The total amount appropriated for Fort Davis and Fort Clayton projects was-
$4,986,849, of which amount the building division was allotted $2,851,600, the elec-
trical division $212,000, and the municipal division 8842,000, leaving an unexpended.
balance of $81,649.
A clause in the appropriation act requiring the Governor of The Panama Canal to,
purchase needed materials, supplies, and equipment from various surplus stores-
of the War Department, so far as available, resulted in considerable delay in de-
livery of material. Specific instances of this are shown below. Requisitions
for these materials were forwarded to the United States on June 23, 1919. It was
then necessary for the general purchasing officer in Washington to communicate
with the various surplus stores of the construction division of the Army in an
attempt to purchase the needed material from these stores. In some instances, sup-
plies were actually contracted for on the assumption that materials were available,
but when actual shipment of material was to begin, none could be found. It was
then necessary to cancel the order, advertise for purchase from commercial firms,
and award bids. The tabulation below indicates some of the difficulties:


Comodiy. equhition IDelivery shFirst
Commodity. e promised. rceiet


Rooftile.................................................... June 23,1919 Oct. 8,1919 Dec. 6 1919-
Hardware............................................... ....... do...... Nov. 6,1919 Nov. 17 1919 *
Plumbing fixtures.......................................... .....do.... .. Oct. 5,1919 Oct. 21,1919
Plumbing fittings........................................ .....do...... Nov. 1,1919 Dec. 18,1919
Scullery sinks............................................. .....do....... Nov. 3,1919 July 10,1920
M'illwork........ .......................................... .....do....... Nov. 16,1919 Feb. 21,1920
Lumber.................................................... .....do....... Oct. 29,1919 Dec. 26,1919






54 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Similar difficulties were also encountered on requisitions for skilled mechanics.
Of 15 carpenters requisitioned for on the 1set of May, final arrival was not effected
until September 5. Of 31 carpenters requisitioned for on August 12, final arrival
was accomplished on December 2, and of 34 carpenters requisitioned for on May 4,
final arrival was effected on June 26. The same difficulty was experienced with
plasterers, plumbers, painters, bricklayers, and sheet-metal workers. Some of these
delays in procuring men were due to the fact that the authorized rates of pay for
skilled mechanics in the building trades at times were as much as five months in
arrears of base rates in the States. For instance, the rates of pay effective on October
1, 1919, were not authorized until February 5, 1920, and the rates of pay effective
February 1, 1920, were authorized on June 10, 1920.
COSTS.

Unprecedented advances have occurred during the past fiscal year in the prices
of both materials and labor. The following table shows the rates paid for skilled
mechanics at the time estimates for these projects were prepared, which was June 25,
1917, the rates of pay when final plans of construction were made, on June 1, 1919,
and the rates of pay in effect on June 1, 1920:
Journeymen's rates.

Plans
Estimate made for In effect
cra. prepared csr on June 1
Craft. June 25, struction JueS,
1917. June 1,
1919.

Rricklavers................ ........................ ................... 0. 1.09 $1.34
Plasterers ............ ................... ..................... .. 1.09 1.35
Plumbers.......................... ................... ..........-. --.84 1.04 1.30
Carpenters..... ... ................................. .............. .74 .95 1.22
Roofers.............. ...... .. ................................. .74 1.03 1.03
Painters.................... .............. .. ...... .. . ..71 .91 1.19
Metal lathe-rs.... ........................... ....................... .95 1.07

The actual increase in cost due to these increases in gold journeymen's rates over
the rates in effect on July 1, 1919, are shown for the various crafts in the accompany-
ing tables (Table No. 1 for Fort Clayton and Table No. 2 for Fort Davis), and the
increases due to advances in rates for silver employees are shown on Table No. 3.
The total amounts are as follows:
Fort Clayton: Fort Davis:
Gold............................... 49,632.22 Gold............................... 357,519.20
Silver............................ 25,079.89 Bilver.............................. 25,755.40
Total............................. 74,712.11 Total............................. 83,274.60
The increased costs of two of the principal commodities, lumber and roof tile, are
shown in the table below. These increases are based on storehouse prices of July
1, 1919.

Fort Clayton. Fort Davis.
Commodity.
Amount. Per cent Amount. Per cent
Amount. Amount. .m se
increase, increase.

Lumber.. ...................................... .. .. ... 27,434 18.3 138,985 25.9
Roof tile........................................... .. 26,665 45.6 26,665 45.6


Total value of material used on these projects during the year was $630,467 at
Fort Clayton and $632,831 at Fort Davis. Other commodities increased in price
at various rates.
Owing to delay in starting the projects, in delivery of materials, and in the arrival
of skilled mechanics, the Army posts were not completed by July 1, 1920. At
Fort Clayton all buildings were completed except headquarters, which is 85 per
cent complete, one battalion barracks, 85 per cent, and one battalion barracks, 70
per cent; while at Fort Davis all buildings were completed except as follows: One
2-family captain's set, 84 per cent complete; one 2-family captain's set, 50 per cent






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


complete; one 4-family lieutenant's, 90 per cent; one 4-family lieutenant's, 80 per
cent; headquarters building, 95 per cent; one battalion barracks, 70 per cent; and
one battalion barracks, 60 per cent.
By August 1, 1920, these projects will be completed, except at Fort Clayton. one
battalion barracks. 90 per cent, and at Fort Davis, one battalion barracks, 90 per cent.
Table No. 4. attached, shows the estimated and actual time in man-days for the
various crafts for each building. Similar charts were prepared semimonthly, from
which the force required to complete the work was computed.
The total expenditures for building division work to July 1. 1920. was as follows:

Labor. Material. Other Total.
charges. otl

FortClayton.......................................... .508,019 3630,467 $177,932 $1,316,418
FortDavis............................................ 520,783 632,831 161,582 1,315,196

This leaves a balance of $109,382 at Fort Clayton and $110,604 at Fort Davis. Pres-
ent estimates indicate that these posts will be completed within the appropriation.
NEW SILVER TOWNSITE, MOUNT HOPE.
On July 18, 1919. authority was given for the construction of 49 buildings at Mount
Hope at an estimated cost of $441,000. Thirty-nine of these buildings were to he of
standard Panama Canal 12-family frame quarters for silver employees, and 10 standard
Panama Canal 32-room frame quarters for silver bachelor employees. Work was not
started on this project until January 1, 1920, and then only with a limited force,
owing to inability of securing building materials. The project as a whole was 54 per
cent complete on this date. the total expenditure to July 1 being $236. 628.26.
In connection with this project, there was also authorized the construction of a
silver commissary, of sufficient capacity to provide for future development of the
townsite. This commissary is typical of the silver commissaries on the Canal Zone
except that boots and shoes, hardware, and dry goods will be sold on the second floor.
A 3-ton capacity freight elevator will be installed for handling goods to the second
floor and a modern electric-driven refrigerating apparatus will be installed for refrig-
erating the cold-storage section. The estimated cost of this commissary is $43,000.
Work on July I was 75 per cent completed; cost was $32,291.20.
LIGHTHOUSE AT CHANNEL END OF EAST BREAKWATER.
On September 9, 1919, authority was given the building division for the construc-
tion of a foundation for a 100-foot lighthouse at the channel end of east breakwater
and for the purchase and erection of a lighthouse tower.
Proprietary purchase was authorized for a 100-foot steel tower similar to the one
constructed at Punta Mala. and on October 8, 1919, contract was awarded for this
tower at the price of I6,500, delivered in Colon. Contractors' drawings were received
on February 3, giving the dimensions of the base of the tower and sufficient data for
computing loads on tower base.
The foundation consists of a 23-foot 7-inch square reinforced-concrete deck designed
for a live load of 150 pounds per square foot and supported on four sides by a reinforced-
concrete beam 7 feet deep and 2 feet thick. Twelve steel-type piles, three at each
corner, with cast-iron shoes, were driven to rock at elevation minus 115 feet. These
piles were driven with a floating driver equipped with an 1,800-pound falling part
steam hammer. The depth of the water at this lighthouse was 20 feet and upon
filling the pipe piles with concrete, reinforcing cages consisting of 10 j-inch round
reinforcing bars were lowered to elevation minus 30. thus providing the reinforced-
concrete pile support whenever the steel pipe has rusted away. The construction of
this foundation was completed on June 22, and latest advice received from the States
was on July 26, stating that steel tower had been completed and passed inspection
and material was en route to the Isthmus.
COLON-CRJSTOBAL INCINERATOR PLANT.
Work was commenced on the construction of a 60-ton daily capacity garbage incin-
erator located about 2,000 feet east of the east diversion on the Mount Hope-Fort
Randolph road. This site was selected to allow for future development of the new
silver townsite at Mount Hope. The building housing this plant is 37 feet 3 inches
by 101 feet 3 inches, two stories high, rein forced-concrete construction with tile roof.
The first floor contains two 30-ton units consisting of water-jacketed steel furnaces,
together with preheaters induced and forced-draft fans, feed water pumps, and fuel






THE PANAMA CANAL.


oil pumps. The second floor is of reinforced concrete designed to support a live pad
of 200 pounds per square foot, and will be used for the storage of garbage and its ablec-
tion for proper incineration.
Garbage will be delivered to the plant in motor trucks with removable steel bodies.
These bodies of 24 yards capacity will be lifted from the trucks by an overhead trav-
eling electrically operated crane and the contents will be either dumped directly
into the incinerator hopper or stored until such time as furnace conditions warrant
charging.
The plant is provided with a platform scale for weighing all garbage delivered to
the plant.
Steam generated in the incinerator will be used for drying fertilizer and bone meal
which will be manufactured in an adjoining building. On July 1, 1920, this building
was practically completed, all the equipment was installed, and the work remaining
to be done consisted of placing the fire-brick lining in the combustion chambers and
breeching. The estimated cost of this project was $113,000; the cost to July 1, 1920,
$110,073.52.
COMBINED SHOP AND STOREHOUSE. CRISTOBAL MOLE.
A combined shop and storehouse is under construction on the Cristobal Mole to
provide a 76 by 113 foot shop for the mechanical division for small marine work and
also a storeroom for the supply department, 76 by 126 feet, for ships' stores. The
supply department end of this building will be two stories high, and the second floor,
having an area of 141 by 76 feet, will be available for rental to steamship companies
for ships' supplies. Toilets are provided for gold and silver employees. A 3-ton
freight elevator will handle material to the second floor. The estimated cost of this
building is $90,000, and on July 1, 1920, it was 52 per cent completed, the total ex-
penditure to that date being $46,182.33.
PANAMA RAILROAD STABLES.
It became necessary, owing to filling of certain lots in Colon, and for the municipal
improvements of the same, to demolish all privately owned and Panama Railroad
stables in Colon and reconstruct same between Sixteenth and G Streets and Folks
River. Authority was accordingly issued for the construction of stables to accommo-
date 432 horses and the necessary feed rooms, shops, storehouses, wagon sheds, and
living quarters for attendants. The total estimated cost of this project is $142,000,
and the total cost at the end of the fiscal year was $118,990. The project as a whole
was 84 per cent completed.
REMODELING OF THE OLD ROYAL MAIL PIER FOR THE PANAMA RAILROAD FOR NATIVE PRODUCE.
Circular 512, dated November 11, 1913, requiring the demolition of all nonratproof
piers by January 1, 1919, resulted in the demolition of the superstructure of the old
Royal Mail pier. The foundation of this pier remained intact and was purchased by
the Panama Railroad Company, who then authorized the construction of a fireproof
and ratproof superstructure for the accommodation of small coastwise and native
craft. Authority was issued on the building division for the designing and construc-
tion of same. A reinforced concrete slab was designed for 175-pound live load over
the entire structure and was built accordingly, and the area was roofed with material
salvaged from the old Panama Railroad Pier No. 2. Same was covered with corru-
gated iron. Sliding doors were installed on both sides of 30-foot centers for the han-
dling of natih e produce. Water lines were installed for fire protection and for sup-
plying water to ships. The area covered by this shed is 60 feet by 400 feet. The
total cost of the project was $38,247.70.
CONCRETE OIL TANKS.
Instructions were issued by the supply department for the construction of two rein-
forced concrete oil tanks of 55,000 barrels capacity each. These tanks are 115 feet
inside diameter at the base and 116 feet inside diameter at the top. The tanks are
30 feet deep. The walls are 1 foot thick at the base and 6 inches thick at the top
and are reinforced spirally with 14-inch diameter rods. These rods were rolled by
the mechanical division and a considerable saving was effected in the amount of
steel used by obtaining these rods in greater lengths than are practical to secure com-
mercially from the States. Our experience has been that 33-foot length reinforcing
bars are as long as can be shipped conveniently from the States, and the bars as fur-
nished by the mechanical division were from 40 feet to 70 feet long. The lap splice
was used, necessitating a lap of 5 feet, and the obtaining of this steel in longer lengths
resulted in a saving of approximately 5,000 feet on the two tanks.
After the pouring of the reinforced concrete floor slab of this tank the walls were
poured with inner and outer forms built in 12-foot sections 6 feet in height, and pours






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


were made on alternating days, the intermediate day being required for the raising of
the form and the placing or the reinforcing steel. The inner surface was given a rub-
float finish.
Two mixers were used for the pouring of these walls and the pouring was so arranged
that no new material was dumped on material which had been in place for more than
10 minutes.
Estimates indicated that a reinforced concrete roof would cost approximately
one-halt as much as a structural steel roof. A reinforced concrete roof was therefore
built. This roof is supported by one central column and 12 columns equally spaced
on a 29-toot radius. From the central column 12 beams radiate to this intermediate
ring of 12 columns, which are tied together at the top by 12 beams, forming a duo-
decagon. From this frame 24 beams were poured, supported by the wall of the tank.
A 4-inch reinforced concrete slab covers the entire area. The estimated cost of these
tanks is $55,000, and the cost to July 1 was $42,751.39 for the tank at Mount Hope and
$42,260.83 for the tank at La Boca. The increase in cost of the tank at La Boca is due
to the fact that it was necessary to excavate 6,000 cubic yards of rock to prepare the
foundation and to construct a dike and a fire wall. The status on July 1 was: Mount
Hope tank, 98 per cent completed; La Boca tank, 60 per cent completed.
MISCELLANEOUS WORK.
Other work done for The Panama Canal during the past fiscal year was as follows:
Moving two type-15 houses from Las Cascadas to Balboa and the reerection of same
as a type-17 cottage for the Seamen's Home.
Removal of one type-14 residence from Las Cascadas and the reerection of same as a
dormitory for the Seamen's Home.
Removal and reerection of seven type-15 cottages and one type-7 two-family house
trom Las Cascadas to Pedro Miguel, at a cost of $21,063 for nine apartments.
Removal and reerection of three type-18 bachelor quarters from Las Cascadas to
Balboa at a cost of $32,208.27.
Removal of four modified type-7 quarters from Las Cascadas and their reerection as
one-family houses for pilots' quarters-two at Gatun and two at Pedro Miguel.
Removal and reerection of three type-7 quarters from Las Cascadas to New Cristo-
bal. at a cost of $19,397.06 for six apartments.
The construction of three play sheds for the bureau of clubs and playgrounds, one at
Pedro Miguel, one at Gatun, and one at New Cristobal, at a cost of $10,585.56.
The conversion of section F, old Ancon Hospital, into 14 family quarters; conver-
sion of sections 17, 18, 19, and the kitchen of the old Ancon Hospital into 8 family
quarters; conversion of the old Chinese detention camp into 8 family quarters, at a
total cost of $66,441.28 tor 30 apartments; removal from the vicinity 1ot section F,
Ancon Hospital, ot the colored maids' quarters to a site nearer the hospital activities.
The construction of a 60 by 300 toot warehouse for oil drums and waste for the supply
department, at a cost of $22,607.81.
The demolition of the old Mount Hope storehouse and the reerection of same as a
storehouse for the printing plant at Mount Hope, storehouse for the supply department
at Mount Hope, and as a reclaiming shop and store for the supply department at Balboa.
The demolition of the wooden section of the old French steel pier at Balboa.
The painting of the exterior of all frame quarters in Balboa, La Boca, Pedro Miguel,
Gatun, and New Cristobal and 30 per cent of the frame buildings in Ancon.
Painting of the interior of 100 type-17 cottages, 96 type-14 cottages in Ancon and
Balboa, the interior of all concrete residences in Balboa, the interior of the adminis-
tration building, and the interior of all quarters in La Boca.
WORK FOR INDIVIDUALS AND COMPANIES.
Work was started on the community house for the National Catholic War Council at
Balboa. The estimated cost of this building is $85,000 and the expenditure to July 1,
1920, was $28,174.34.
Work was started on the construction of the office building and quarters for the Royal
Mail Steam Packet Company. The estimated cost of this building is $275,000 and the
expenditure up to July 1, 1920, was $57,795.73.
Work was completed on the office and bachelor quarters in Balboa for the Central
and South America Cable Company.
FORCE.
On July 1, 1919 the force was 205 gold men and 1,530 silver men, a total of 1,735.
This was increased to the maximum of 2 268 men on November 1, 1919, of which 328
were on the gold roll and 1,940 on the silver roll. At the end of the fiscal year, June
30,1920, the force totaled 1,887 men, of which 512 were on the gold roll and 1,375
on the silver roll.









THE PANAMA CANAL.


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REPORT OF. ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 61

TABLE No. 4.-RaEstimated and actual time in man days for various crafts.


Bricklayers. Plasterers. Rubbers.


Building name. Actual. Actual. Actual.
Eati- Esti- Esti-
mate. _g mate. p, mate. ,_
Davis. y- ae. Davis.Clay- ma tDavis. Clay-
I ton. ton. ton.


Headquarters................ 75 11121 63 187 368 305 170 225j 2794
Special barracks............. 66 614 531 205 3965 230* 220 2383 85
Battalion barracks........... 175 213* 1701 595 8883 750 410 559 2481
Do..................... 175 1914 166f 595 788 746 410 5591 619
Do...................... '175 275* 1851 595 1,142 740 410 4591 622
Field officers' and captains'
quarters................... 51 511 42 167 1594 1114 16 244 181
Do..................... 51 511 42 167 1594 111 16 244 18
Do..................... 51 494 43 167 1541 127 16 24 174
Do..................... 51 494 435 167 1544 130 16 24 17
Do..................... 51 54 54; 167 1225 116 16 33J 171
Do..................... 51 47! 474 167 135 131 16 244 10
Do..................... 51 474 474 167 135 130 16 244 10
Do..................... 51 58 51 167 1234 126 16 284 11i
Do..................... 51 58 51 167 1234 1164 16 285 11
Do..................... 51 511 48 167 1174 117 16 185 144
Do..................... 51 51 48L 1b7 1174 117 16 20i 14
Do..................... 51 51 49 167 1174 117 16 204 14
Lieutenant 4-family quarters. 68 681 674 192 174. 161 33 385 174
Do..................... 68 68a 68 192 1744 176 33 38J 17
Do..................... 68 68- 66 192 1885 158 32 27; 284
Do..................... 68 68 66 192 1883 1534 32 27 28
Do..................... 68 714 591 192 191 1764 33 34 30
Do..................... 68 714 60 192 191 175 33 34 30
Lieutenant 6-set quarters. .. 65 674 62* 183 1651 2091 23 291 283
Noncommissioned officers'
quarters................... 30 265 30 59 89 653 ........ 121 74
Do..................... 30 265 30 59 89t 66 ........ 124 6
Do..................... 30 294 30 59 114 66 ........ II 64
Do..................... 30 294 30 59 114 66 ........ 11 54
Do..................... 30 431 294 59 854 614 ........ 33 ........
Do..................... 30 44 294 59 854 60 ........ 33 ........
Servants' quarters........... 18 224 30 48 54 48 20 18 8
Total................. 1,949 2,1813 1,8654 5,918 7,1083 5,8631 2,051 2,697i 2,2401

S6,000 more blocks than Fort Clayton headquarters.
Part of the rubbing done by silver labor.
10,000 more blocks than Fort Clayton battalion barracks.








(62 THE PANAMA CANAL.


TABLE No. 4.-Estimated and actual time in man days for various crafts-Continued.


Building name.


Headquarters......
Special barracks....
Battalion barracks.
Do...........
Do.............
Field officers' and
captains' quar-
ters ..............
Do.............
Do.............
Do............
Do............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Do............
Lieutenant 4-fam-
ilv quarters......
Do............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Lieutenant 6-set
quarter..........
Noncommissioned
officers' quarters.
Do............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Do.............
Servants' quarters..

Total.........


Carpenters.


Esti-
mate.



600
580
900
900
900


140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
150

150

150
150
150
150

140

138
138
138
138
138
138
96

7,524


Actual.


Davis. Clay-
avis. ton.


8491 7564
530t 643
Il,249, 1,346
11,250 1994
1,3711 "1,092


2031 168
2031 169
2004 133
2003 129
191* 150
1964 187
1964 187
170 187
170* 188
172 147
1724 158
1721 167

212 207
212 198
241 234
241 234
2460 204J
2461 2061

216 209_

1631 169
l631 169
1871 163
187 163
1931 204
193t 204
541 101

10,2581 9,234


Plumbers.


Esti-
mate.


Actual.


Davis.


213 2261
246 263;
770 1 6851
770 1685
770 636


54 02
54 62
54 56
54 57
54 654
54 53
54 54
54 56
514 56
54 581
54 581
54 581

57 63
57 63
57 76J
57 76
57 584
57 i 58

65 64

46 .50
46 50
46 51
46 51
46 404
46 401
38 491


Clay-
ton.


2351
231
7331
'7604
168bi


461
46
53f
52
441
45)
46
52
53
46
46
471

514
52
64
564
55
55

36

35
414
41
374
38
68
564


Esti-
mate


4,138 3,948 3,9121 622


I Estimated part of this work.


Rooters.


Painters.


Actual.


Da- Clay-
vis. ton.


Actual.


Da- Clay-
vis. ton.


7G?2 75
591 59?
94f 88
1284 77i
1201 111

20 9
20 Si
18i 10

14k i11

101 11"
91 11
9t 10
131 S
13 8
13 10

10 12
10 11
16 10
16 10
91 114
9I 10

9f 161

7h 91
74 9
10w 7
10 7
14 8j
13J 8
94 18

803f 679


Esti-
mate.


40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

45
45
45
45
45
45

38

81
81
81
81
81
819

2,779


249f
1464
1375
1375
375


38
38
391
391
36!
54f
541
511
511
51
51
51

42*
424
45
45
52J
52t

681

321
321
47J
471
41f
41;
36

3,704


195
174
3141
1377
13851


57
57
57
681
53J
45)
45
41
40
45
45
46

601
65
476
46
574
57

421

57
60
72J
72
63
63
36

2,8351










REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


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THE PANAMA CANAL.


DREDGING DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the dredging division during the
fiscal year are covered in the report of the superintendent of dredging,
which follows:
DREDGING DIVISION.
J. M. Pratt, Superintendent.
The following report of operations in the dredging division during the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1920, is submitted herewith-
DIVISION ORGANIZATION.
All dredging operations embracing Atlantic entrance, Gatun Lake, Gaillard Cut,
Miraflores Lake, and Pacific entrance sections of the Canal, with auxiliary dredging
at the Atlantic and Pacific terminals and Chagres River gravel operations, have been
handled direct from the division headquarters at Paraiso for the entire year. Field
offices were maintained at Balboa and Cristobal.

DREDGING PLANT.
The following dredges and other floating plant were in operation during the year:
The 15-yard dipper dredge Paraiso was operated for nine months of the year on
general maintenance work at East and West Culebra, Gatun Lake, excavating and
deepening channel at Paraiso and Miraflores P. I. improvement work, excavating
material at (CuIaracha slide, widening the approach channels to Cri9tobal Harbor and
west slip coaling station, and deepening anchorage slips north and south of Pier No. 6,
Criktobal Harbor.
The 15-yard clipper dredge Gamboa was operated for seven months of the year
excavating and deepening the channel at Paraiso P. I. improvement works, excavat-
ing elide material at East Culebra and Cucaracha slides, and widening the approach
channel to the west slip of Cristohal coaling station.
The 15-yard dipper dredge Cascarlas was engaged nearly 10 months of the year on
general maintenance and original excavation in Balboa Inner Harbor, and deepening
the ilip between Dock- Nos. 7 and S and in front ot Dock No. 6, Balboa, removing
shoals at West Culebra and material from Cucaracha slide.
The French ladder dredge Marmot returned to active service December 8, 1919, and
for the remainder of the fiscal year was engaged in the sand and gravel service in the
Chagres River, also removing shoal at the Gamboa dock and uncovering the gravel
beds. All concrete on the Isthmus is manufactured from sand and gravel obtained
in this manner.
The 20-inch pipe-line dredge No. 83 returned to service November 28, 1919 and
wa. engaged five and one-half months on general maintenance work in the Canal
channel at the Pacific entrance and at Miraflores P. I. improvement work. This
dredge was then retired from dredging operations May 14, 1920. This dredge was used
from June 21 to 27 to remove coal from a sunken barge and again laid up.
The 20-inch pipe-line dredge No.84 was operated for 10 months of the year on general
maintenance work in the Pacific entrance, Balboa Inner Harbor, including excavat-
ing in front of Docks Nos. 6 and 7, Balboa Harbor, and removing material in front of
Cucarar'-ha slide.
The 20-inch pipe-line dredge No. 86 was engaged nine months during the year on
general maintenance work at the Pacific entrance, Balboa Inner Harbor, and excavat-
ing at Mliraflores improvement work, and deepening channel in Gaillard Cut south
of and at Cucaracha slide.
The drillhoat Teredo No. 2 was engaged for seven and one-half months of the year
in mining operations at Paraiso and Miraflores P. I. Channel improvement works.
also in the Pacific entrance channel and in Gaillard Cut at Cucaracha slide.
The hydraulic grader No. I was engaged for 11 months of the year ditching and
grading West Culebra, including Barge Repair and Lirio slides, and sluicing at
Cucaracha slide.
The hydraulic grader No. 3, retired from service last year, was returned to work
November 1 1919 and was engaged in sluicing and grading at Cucaracha slide for the
remainder of the fiscal year.
The floating air compressor No. 27 was tied up at Gamboa out of commission from
July, 1919. to January 31, 1920, and was used in raising the sunken steamship Marne








REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


at Cristobal from the latter date to May 7, 1920, and again retired from service May 8,
1920.
The 300-ton cranes Hercules and Aja.r, with the < range boat La Vaolley and wrecking
barge No. 91, were operated by the dredging divi-inn 1he1 entire year.
The seagoing ladder dredge Corozal wac tied up at Gamloia from July to September,
1919, and was under repairs at Balboa during September and part of October, 1919.
This dredge was sold to the United States Engineer Ofhico, Philadelphia, Pa., and
turned over to representatives of that office Novembei 7. 1'919, and left the Isthmus
for Philadelphia under tow of the Navy collier Vulcan Ll -ember 11, 1919.
There were four tugboats in the dredging service on July 1, 1919. During the fiscal
year three were loaned to this division between March and July, 1920, by other
divisions, and at the end of the fiscal year there were seven tugboats in the service.
A total of 14 launches wis operated during the year.
The following table shows the number of days the dredges were retired from dredg-
ing service for repairs, alterations, or on detached service:


TABLE No. 1.-Number of days dredges were retired from dredging s-e rice.


Dredge.


Paraiso...............
Gamboa..............
Cascadas...............
Corczal................
Marmot...............
No.83.................

No.84..................
No.86.................


Type.


15-yard dipper....
.....do...........
.....do............
Searoing ladder...
French ladder.....
24-inch pipe-line
suction
.....do...........
..... do..........


Days
out ';.
service.


42
29
S9
14
19
30

90-
155


Cause.


Repairs.
.. do....
...do.. .
.. do....
.. .do....
...do... .


Rmniarks.


Tied up inot working A0 riyns.
Tied up i no; working) 1633dIas.
Tied up i n-t working 1.
Tied up (not working, .51 d.iys.
Tied up i' not working 1 16 tdayv.
Ti-ed utip mnot working i 164 Ida ys


...dn.... Tied up i ot wurkingi 2 dais.
..do.... Tied up i repairs to relay i 'days.


DREDGING.

Dredges operating in the Canal prism, at the Atlantic and Pacific terminals, and in
the sand and gravel service, removed a total of 4,750,686 cubic yard of material.
The following table, divided into Canal pri3m and auxiliary dredging, se.hows the
output ot each dredge during the year, with the total and unit costs o0 same:


TABLE No. 2.-Output of all dredges, with total and unit costs.


Dredges.


Dipper:
Paraiso..................
Gamboa.................
Cascadas.................


Months
worked.




9
7
10


Total...........................


Ladder:
Marmot..................

Total..................

Suction:
No.83...................
No.84...................
No.86...................

Total..................

Grand total............


7


54.........

10
9

..........

..........


Canal prism dredging.


Earth. Rock.



429,785 429,425
204,600 334,250
266,630 414,700

901,035 1,178,375

............ I............


423,100
63.5,600
528,200

1,586,900

2,487,933


............
8,600
37,000

43,500

1,223,875


Total.


839,210
53S,850
681,350

2,079,410


423,100
644,100
56.5.,200

1,632,400

3,711,810


Cost.



$380,221.93
300,F93.34
257, 330.84

938,146.11


..............



67,691.48
119,405.45
96,902.12

2W3,999.05

1,222,145.16


Unit cost.



80.44252
.55784
.37768

.45116


.15999
.18338
.17145

.17398

.32926.


---- ----- -- --







THE PANAMA CANAL.

TABLE No. 2.-Output of all dredges, wudh tolal and unit co0t8-Continued.


Dredges.


Mouth
worked.


Earth.


Dipper:
Paraiso............... .... 9 .3.1.00
Gamboa................. 7 24,900
Cascad.as.................. 10 220,800S
Total .. ......... ........... 279,200
Ladder:
Marmot...... ............. 7 134,S26


Total.................
Suction:
No. 8....................
N o.84....................
No.86....................
Total..................
Grand total .............


.... ... i .134, 82t;

5 -if01.
10 217,500
9 214,000

..........I 432,000
.......... 846,026`


Auxiliary dredging.


Rock. Total.


.11,6.1'0 s 150
128,200 153,100
10,000 230,800
192,8:.0 472,0;.0

........... .1 134,826
............ 1.34,826

............ 500
............. 217,500
............ 214,000
............ 432,000
192, R50 1,03-,876


I Canal prism and auxiliary dredging.
Dredges. Mouths ____ ______
worked.
Earth. Rock. Total. Cuot.

Dipper:
Paraiso................... 9 463,2S53 IS41,073 947,360 $417,.S75.47
Gamboa................... 7 229,500 462,450 641,950 351,771.75
C'ascaias.................. 10 497,4.o0 424,700 912,150 411,380.24
Total......................... 1,l 0,233 1,.171,225 2,'.51,460 1,181,027.46
Ladder:
Marmot................... 7 134,S26 ............. 134,820 76,201.28
Total........................ ..... 134,826 ............ 134,826 76,204.28
Suction:
No. 83.................... 54 423,600 ............ 423,600 69,169.98
No.84.................... 10" S53,100 8,500 X61,600 1V6,867.84
No.86.................... 9 742,200 37,000 779,200 137,804.15
Total................... .......... 2,01S,900 45,500 2,064,400 363,841.97
Grand total...................... 3,333,961 1 1,116,725 4,730,686 1,621,073.71


NOTE.-Dredging costs in the above table do not include coZst of mining 13,14 cubic yards of rock by
drill boat Tfieao No. :?, which amounted to $26,6.-5.16, at the Pacific entrance, as this material was not
haidled by dredges during the fiscal vear.
Dredging costsin the above tah'e include the cozt of mining 3',S7 cubic yards of rock drilled and blasted
the previous fiscal year at a co;t of $44,.%.11, and :.3,2S3 cubic yards of rock mined during the present fiscal
year at a cost of $'9.912.69.
Dredging costs in the above table do not include cost of grading, duitlching, and sliicing Goillard Cut,
which amount Ito in",970 .'i.

While the preceding table shows the actual cost of the yardage removed, the cost
of the total yardage handled by dredges would be a trifle less, as there were 35,000
cubic vards of material rehandled for which no credit was taken upon second handling.
With the exception of dredges Nos. 84, 86, and Marmot, costs are for materials
placed on the dump. Costs o(if dredge Marmot are for sand and gravel delivered
alongside the gravel dock at Gamboa, and of dredges NjVos. 84 and 86 for material
delivered to relay pumps. The pipe lines were 5,200 feet frcm the dredge to the
outfall at Balboa and 5,100 feet at Cucaracha slide.
The fAllowing tables show the monthly output of all dredges, exclusive of the sand
and gravel output, by geographical districts:


Cost.


$37,653.54
51,178.41
134,049.40
242,881.35

76,204.28
76,204.28

1,478.30
37,462.39
.10,902.03
79,842. 92
398,928.55


Unit cost.


$0.42715
S.33948
.66746
.51452

.56520
.56520

2.95700
.17224
.19113
.18482
38401


Unit cost.


$0.44109
.50838
.45100
.46288

.56520
.56520

.16329
.18207
.17685
.17625
.34123








REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


TABLE No. 3.- Yardage removed from the -42-foot mean sea-level contour in the Atlantic
Ocean to Gamnboa.


Month and year.



1919.
July...........................
August........................
September.....................
October .......................
November.....................
Decem ber.....................

1920.
January.......................
February......................
M arch..........................
April...........................
M ay ........ .... ..... .... ...
Jure...........................

Total.....................


Canal prism.


Earth.



7,400
..........
... .......
..........


..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

7,400


Rock. Total.



.......... 7,400







.......... 7.. 40.
.......... ..........
.......... ..........
. . ... . . .

.......... .."........

.......... ..........

.......... ..........
.......... ..........


.......... 7 4 0


Auxiliary.


Earth.


Rock. Total.


Grand
total.


4,500 2,500 7,000 14,400
29,000 52,150 81,150 81,150
15,900 79,500 95.400 95,400
9,000 48,700 57,700 57,700
.... ... .. ;. ..... ...........
02,9 0 ......... 6o 2,900


..600 ....... l (00 1. S
2, 4 .1,00 14500
2,450 .......... 2,450 2,450

.......... .. . . . . . . .
7, 000 ......... 7, 00 7,00066

72,550 182, .5O0 255,400 I 262,SO0


TABLE No. 4.- Yardage reimord from Gaillard Ctil, Gamboi to Pedro Miguel locks.


Month and year.


1919.
July............................
Auzust........................
September.....................
October.......................
November.....................


Canal prism.


Earth. Rock. i



S,000 I 6,300
.......... .......... .
30,000 I 8,125
71,600 67,250
154,3353 63,500


Total.



14,300&

38. 12.5
138, 50
217,S835


Auxiliary.
____ _____ Grand
I I total.
Earth. Rock. Total. I



......... .......... .......... 14.300
.......... .......... .......... ......... .
..... ... ................ 3'A, 125
......... .................... 138,850O
.......... .......... .......... 217,835


Decem ber ...................... 119,600 54,000 173,600 ............................. 173,600

1920. I
January ........................ 30,300 42,700 73,000 I ...................... I 73,000
February....................... 24,800 62.500 87,300 .............................. %7,300
March ....................92, 171,0 6301)...................... 92,0 171,000 23, 263,800
April.......................... 135,200 162,700 297,000 ............ ........... 297.900
May............................ 132,70(10 295,200 427,900 ............................... 427,900
June........................... 120,500 26S,600 389,100 '500 .......... 500 369,600

Total..................... 919,S3- 1,201,S75 2,121,710 500 .......... 500 2,122,210


k 300 cubic yards of this amount, salvaged coal from sunken barge No. 226: 200 cubic yards of earth wasted
on bank of canal.

TABLE No. 5.- Yardage removed, Pedro .lfiguel locks to the -45-foot mean sea-level
contour in the Pacife Ocean.


Month and year.


1919.
July...........................
August.........................
September.....................
October.......................
November.....................
December.....................

1920.
January.......................
February......................
March.........................
April..........................
May...........................
June...........................

Total....................


Canal prism.


Earth.



144,800
146,800
46,600
137,500
190,000
270,000


Rock.


18,000
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........


116,100 ..........
116,000 ..........
73,900 ..........
120,000 ..........
121,000 4,000
78,000 ..........

1,560,700 22,000


Total.


162,800
146,800
46,600
137,500
190,000
270,000


116,100
116,000
73,900
120,000
125,000
78,000

1,582,700


Auxiliary.

I
Earth. Rock. Total.



132,800 10,000 142,800
139,200 .......... 139,200
56,700 .......... 56,700
6,100 .......... 6,100
.......... .......... ..........
25,300 .......... 25,300


47,100 .......... 47,100
n00 nn 09o nn


1
61,100
80,000

12,600066

652,300


10,000


P
61,100
80,000
..........
12,000

662,300


Grand
total.


305,600
286,000
103,300
143,600
190,000
295,300


163,200
208,000
135,000
200,000
125,000
90,000

2,245,000


---- -I







(U THE PANAMA CANAL.

DREDGING CANAL PRISM.

Dredges were at work throughout the year dredging and maintaining the Canal
channel in Gatun Lake, Gaillard Cut, and the Pacific entrance, excavating a total
of 3,711,810 cubic yards of construction and maintenance yardage, as shown in the
following table:

TABLE No. 6.-Ni mber of cubic iards removed from the Canal prism.


Location. Construe- Mainte- Total.
oat.tion. nance.

Atlantic entrance...................... ........................................................
Catun La .ke....................................................... ........... 7, 40400 7, 0
Gaillard C t ....................................................... .* ......... 2,121,710 2,121,710
Mira'lores Lake................................... ................. ............
Pacific en trance ................................................... 17,800 1,564,900 1,582,700
Total Canal prism ............................................ 17,800 3,694,010 3,711,810


At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, there remained to be removed
from the Canal prism, including siltage, slides, and original material, 2,604,100 cubic
yards of earth and 682,800 cubic yards of rock.
The following table shows the classification and location of all yardage remaining
to be removed from the Canal prism on June 30, 1920:

TABLE No. 7.- Yardage remaining to be removed from the Canal prism.

Construction. Maintenance.
Location. Grand
total.
Earth. Rock. Total. Earth. Rock. Total.

Atlantic entrance............................................. 25,000 .......... 825,000 825,000
Gatun Lake.................... ........ .. ...... .... 155,000 .......... 155,000 155.000
Gaillard Cut.................... .......... 25,000 25,000 566,000 50,000 1,016,000 1,041,000
Miratlores Lake................. .......... .......... .......... 175.000 .......... 175,000 175,000
Pacific entrance............... 47,500 82.900 130,400 835,600 124,900 960,500 1,090,900
Total..................... 47,500 107,900 155,400 2,556,600 574,900 3,131,500 3,286,900


Itis estimated that during the present fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, the following
shoaling will occur in the Canal prism:

Location. Earth. Rock. Total.

Atlanticentrance................................................... 200,000 ............ 2 ,000
Gaillard Cul.......................... .. .. ........................ 1,000,000 700, 000 1,700,000
Pacificentrance.................................................... 1,100,000 ............. 1,100,000
Total...... .......... ............. ................ 2,300,000 700,000 3,000,000


Work under the project at Miraflores P. I. to widen the channel by cutting off the
point of land on the west bank just south of Miraflores locks, was continued during
the year. Forty-nine thousand one hundred cubic yards of earth and rock were
removed, making the total earth and rock excavated to July 1, 1920, 486,300 cubic
yards. The total estimated quantities to complete this project are 20,600 cubic yards
of earth and 124,900 cubic yards of rock.
The work of widening the channel at Paraiso P. I. to give a better and more easy
approach to the north end of the Pedro Miguel locks, was completed during the year.
In this work, 93,900 cubic yards of earth and rock were excavated, making a total
of 460,500 cubic yards of earth and rock removed.
Of the material removed from Gaillard Cut 18 per cent was from Culebra slide, 77
per cent from Cucaracha slide, 4 per cent from Paraiso P. I. improvement work, and
I per cent from miscellaneous dredging.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 71

The following table shows the distribution of all material removed from Gaillard
Cut during the year, and also the grand total removed by dredges to June 30, 1920:

TABLE No. 8.-Dislribution of material remoredfromn Gaillard CiOt.


Location.


Fiscal. ear.


Earth.


Rcek.


Gam bon Dike............................ ... . .
Tower- R incline ................ . .... . ... ....
Haut Obisno slide, west............... ............ ....... ..
HBuena Vista slide, west.................. ............ .. ..
Buena Vista slido, east.............. .......... ....... ..
Cascadas lide, east............ ............ ................... .
W hitehouse slide, east .................. ...... . ..... ...
Pow derhouse Alide, east.............. .. ... ....... ..........
La Pita flower; slide, cast............. . ... ..........
Emnireslide, east............... .... .. .. ..... .
Division o.Tice slide, west............... ...... ... ..........
Lirio slide, west................. ............... ... ....
Culebra, new slide, east and west '......... 255,235 12), 575
Culebra, old slide, east and west ......... .......... ..........
Contractor's Hill, north............. ... .......... ..... ...
65-foot berm west........................ .. . ... .. .. . .
Cucaracha slide, east...................... 633, 00 05, 200
Contractor's Hill slide, west............... .......... ..........
Paraiso incline, east..................... .......... ..........
ParaisoP. I., west....................... 20. 800 7.1, 100
Pedro Miguel slide, east................... .......... ..........
Miscellaneous '............................ 10,200 13,000
Total.............................. 919,835 1,201,S75


Total.


Total to date.


Earth.


Rock.


321.5 .........
.'..'... '. '.. 2 1-5l " [
......... 170 ... ..
2,300 3.
.......... 2,525 32,670
. ... 9, I 17, 132
.......... 39,7r.5S 57. 9'2
........ .. ,80.1
2S, 7 4 212.217
.......... ..........' r6, 2s0
.......... 7.2' 81, 7.0
.175,810 2,032.234 22.165 76
..........i 2 ,449 1,0 I,337
.......... 1.3, 800 1 Vi, 60)
........ ......... 73,430
1,62N,800 2,110,i P .5,382,6161
.......... 7,900 31,600
.......... .. .. .... 2i21,300
91,900 7.3.700 386.,800
I,956 7,254
23,200 2.863,778 170,8160
2,121,710 7,251,910 30,051,187


I Since Oct. I1, 1914.


" Prior to Oct. 14, 1914.


I Small slides and rGill in the Canal.


Culebra slides have been fairly quiescent durint- the last fiscal year except during
the latter part of October, 1919, when East Culebra became active. From October
16 to December 27, 1919, 272,000 cubic yards were removed from in front of this slide.
The channel was maintained at all times and no delays to shipping occurred. There
have been removed from Culebra slides to date 25,287,896 cubic yards of material
and it is estimated that 750,000 cubic yards more will have to be removed before
the slides become permanently quiescent.
Cucaracha slide, extending from the south side of Gold Hill to the north face of
Purple Rock, reaching from the Canal eastward for 2,500 feet, and covering an area
of 33 acres, became active on .October 3, showing a general movement and shoaling
within the Canal proper between stations 1805+00 and 1815+00. On February 22
the slide again moved into the Canal and has continued for the last five months.
The width and depth of the channel in front of this slide varied from time to time over
this period. At one time the channel was reduced to a depth of 15 feet over a width
of 60 feet. This closed the Canal to all shipping for four days (March 21 to24, inclusive).
A total of 1,628,800 cubic yards of material was removed from this area by dredges
during the last fiscal year, making a total removed to date 7,492,652 cubic yards.
At the close of the fiscal year channel conditions at this point were restored almost
to normal.
Drag surveys were made daily in the vicinity of all active slides, and all lumps or
shoals found, which were considered a menace to navigation, were removed by the
dredges before shipping was allowed to pass.

DURPS.

All of thespoil from Gaillard Cut and Gatun Lake was disposed of on dumps located
in Gatun Lake near mile post 24. north of Mamei curve, with the exception of 43,850
cubic yards dumped in the Canal north of Gold Hill, 70,900 cubic yards deposited in
the Canal by pipe-line dredges south of Cucaracha slide, and 58,200 cubic yards which
were pumped through a pipe line into the Rio Grande Valley. There was a total of
1,991,160 cubic yards of material deposited on the Gamboa dumps during the year.
The material excavated in the Pacific entrance, including MirafloresP. I. improve
ment work, was deposited in San Juan fill; on the flats along the west bank of the
Canal: on theArsenal fill: in the Rio Grande east diversion: on the flats north of the
Arsenal fill: and in the sea dump located to the westward of the Canal entrance in
Panama Bay. There were 431,100 cubic yards deposited in San Juan fill, 597,300


F-
Total.

R1,361
S3,505
3,2.2i5
5, 470
5,900
35, 1f5
27,060
97, 760
51, 803
210 P962
6, 290
8'J,070
21, lS, 110I
1,0893,78
1.13, 400
7.4.430
7, 492,652
30,500
20,300
46, 500
9,210
3,031, 6T3h
37,309,127


___







THE PANAMA CANAL.


cubic yards on fiats west of Canal, 207,000 cubic yards on the Arsenal fill, 51,000
cubic yards on the flats north of the Arsenal fill, 275,000 cubic yards in the Rio Grande
east diversion, and 21,300 cubic yards in the sea dumps, makldng a total deposit of
1,582,700 cubic yards.
SUBAQUEOUS ROCK EXCAVATION.

During the year 1,233,875 cubic yards of hard and soft rock were removed from the
Canal prism and Tlalboa Harbor, as follows: 120,575 cubic yards from Culebra slides,
995,200 cubic yards from Cucaracha slide, 13,000 cubic yards south of Cucaracha slide,
73,100 cubic yards from Paraiso P. I. improvement work, 18,000 cubic yards of un-
mined rock from Miraflores P. 1. improvement work, 4,000 cubic yards from the
Pacific entrance, and 10,000 cubic yards from Balboa Inner Harbor.
Of these amounts, 33,283 cubic -ards were drilled and blasted by drill boat Teredo
No. 2 this fiscal year, and 30,587 cubic yards drilled and blasted at the Paraiso P. 1.
last year. There are still 43,770 cubic yards drilled and blasted but not dredged,
30,029 cubic yards of which are at Miraflores P. I., and 13,741 cubic yards in the
Pacific entrance; 73 cubic yards of the first amount and all of the latter were drilled
and blasted by drill boat Teredo NVo. 2 this fiscal year. There were 72,045 pounds of
dynamite used during the year by the Teredo No. 2 and by dredges in dobying large
rocks at Paraiso P. I. and Cucaracha slide.
The following table shows the location, feet drilled, area covered, theoretical break-
age, and cost of all rock mined by the Teredo No. 2:

TABULt No. 9.--Pcrbormuanre of drill boat Teredo N'o. ."


l.ocatinn.




Paraiso, 1'. I., 1900+10 to
1901 +70 W.
Paraiso, P. I., 1901+70 to
1904 + 10W.
Paraiso, P. I., 1904+10 to
1905+70 W.
Total, Paraiso, 1'. 1..
Pacificentrance, 2088+50to
2101+50 W.
Pacific entrance, 2297+50 to
2299+10 E.
Pacificentrance,2299+10 to
2300+70 E.
Pacificentrance, 2290+90 to
2301+50 W.
Total, Pacific en-
trance.
Cucaracha slide, 1805+00 to
1809+00 E. and W.
Cucaracha slide, 1806+00 to
1811+00 E. and W.
Cucaracha slide, 1805+00 to
1811+00 E. and W.
Cucaracha slide station
1805+00 E. and W.
Total, Ciacaracha
slide.
Totals for year.......


Num-
ber
holes.



459
582
125

1,166
11
245
487
517

1,2600

S24
35
19
11

89


Total Powder
feet (number
drilled. pounds).



5,021 14,047
I,0 15,556
1,431 4,210


12,257
55
1,936
.1,783

3.591

10,365

380
541
260
145


34,413
132
5,227
12,644
9,370

27,373

1,650
2,320
1,010
675


Area
square
yards).



16,524
20,952
4,500

41,976
396
8,820
17,532
18,612

45,360

1,176
1,260
1,391
1,000


Break-
age
(cubic
yards).


6,695
7,738
1,907

16,310
73
2,580
6,375
4,786

13,814

690
7,210
7,638
1,405


1,32t6 5,655 1 4,827 16,943


Month and
year.


1919.
July.........
August......
September..



.............
September..
October.....
November .



1920.
March.......
April........
May.........
Juno........


Cost.


59,813.15
11,353.71
2,856.25


Unit
cost.



S1.4657
1.4673
1.4978


24,023.11 1.4702
b163.83 2.2442
5,790.65 2.2444
11,739.74 1.8415
8,961.64 1.8725

26,655.86 1.9296

3,348.63 4.8531
5,053.57 .7009
5,541.92 .7256
1,945.46 1.3846

15,889.58 .93783
56,568.55 1.41343


MISCELLANEOUS DREDGING.

Atlantic terininals.-During the year 58,400 cubic yards of earth and 182,850 cubic
yards of rock were removed from the Atlantic terminals as follows: 2,650 cubit yards
of earth and 7,850 cubic yards of rock removed from the approach channel extension;
50,200 cubic yards of earth and 168,000 cubic yards of rock from the extension to the
west coaling station slip; and 5,550 cubic yards of earth and 7,000 cubic yards of
rock from the Blips north and south of Pier No. 6.
There have been no dredging operations at Coco Solo during this fiscal year.
All of this material, a total of 241,250 cubic yards, was dumped between the land
end of the east breakwater and Margarita Point.


2,515 23,948 67,441 92,163 47,097


___






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Pacific terminals.-During the fiscal year 558.700 cubic yards of earth and 10,000
cubic yards of rock were removed from Balboa Inner Harbor, 53,500 cubic yards of
earth from in front of Dock No. 6, and 40,100 cubic yards of earth from in front of
Dock No. 7.
This material was disposed of as follows: 220,400 cubic yards of earth, excavated
bya pipe-line dredge with one relay, through a pipe line 4,750 feet long, were deposited
on the Diablo dump "A"; 119,000 cubic yards of earth in the San Juan fill; 92,100
cubic yards of earth on the flats west of the Canal; and 220,800 cubic yards of earth
and 10,000) cubic yards of rock were towed to sea and deposited on the sea dump.
SAND AND (MiAVEL. PRODUCTION
The sand and gravel necessary for construction purposes were excavated by the
French ladder dredge Marmot in the gravel beds of the Chagres River opposite Juan
Mina, about 5 miles above Gamboa. There were excavated by this dredge and
delivered to the Gamboa handling plant 104,749 cubic yards of run-of-bank gravel
and 15,927 cubic yards of washed sand. There were also 13.100 cubic yards of mud
removed to uncover the gravel beds and 1,050 cubic yards of mud removed in front
of Gamboa gravel dock. This total of 14,150 cubic yards of mud was dumped in deep
water in the Chagres River. The following amounts of sand and gravel were on hand
in stock at Gamboa July 1, 1920: 1,449 cubic yards of sand. 25,03s cubic yards of
No. 1 gravel, 4, 296i cubic yards of No. 2 gravel, and 51,899 cubic yards uf run-of-bank
gravel. There were shipped during the year 39,261 cubic yards of sand, 57,093 cubic
yards run-of-bank gravel, 34,992 cubic yards No. 2 gravel. making a total of 131,346
cubic yards.
llt.1INAG .
Ditches were excavated at West Culebra and Barge Repair slides, East and West
Lirio, andti Cucaracha by the hydraulic graders to prevent water from standing in the
areas.
SLIDE IN.MP'rF.TIoN AND RIPOHT.S.
Inspections were made of all slide area, fri.rm time to time, new breaks reported,
and drainage conditions noted.
31INDI D[KEs AND GROINS.
The rock and timber dikes and groins along Mindi Beach, south of Limon Bay,
were maintained throughout the fiscal year. No new dikes or groins have been con-
structed, and only minor repairs have been necessary to those previously built.
WATER HYACINTHS.
Regular monthly inspections were made of the waters of the Canal. Gatun Lake,
and tributaries. All the scattering hyacinths were pulled, but most of those in beds
were destroyed by spraying with a solution of arsenic and soda.
During the year 2,500,000 plants of the floating variety were pulled and deposited
on shore and 403,500 square yards of hyacinths were destroyed by spriying with the
arsenic solution. Log booms placed in the upper reaches of the Pescado River, to
keep the channel navigable for small boats, were maintained. Log booms were also
placed and maintained at the mouths of the Mandingo and Chagres Rivers to keep the
hyacinths from being washed into the Canal by freshets.
The floating variety has made its appearance in Canal Zone waters for the first time
during this fiscal year. This is a much harder variety than the anchored kind to
control.
SURVEYS.
The usual progress surveys were made of the dredged areas in the Canal prism,
Cristobal Harbor, Gatun Lake, Gaillard Cut, and Balboa Inner Harbor. The Gatun
Lake, Margarita, and Pacific sea dumps were surveyed and charted. Two topographi-
cal surveys of Cucaracha slide area were made and plotted. Borings were made of the
proposed area for a ferry landing at Mindi, and rock exploration surveys were made
in front of the reloader wharf and along the west prism line, between stations 2286+00
and 2307+00, at Balboa. All surveys, estimates, and plans of all dredging and mining
projects proposed during the year were prepared. Dump inspection in Gatun Lake
section and at the Pacific and Atlantic entrances was maintained during dredging
operations in those localities
OFFICE.
All clerical work, preparation of progress records, estimates, requisitions, etc., were
satisfactorily performed during the year.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the electrical division during the
fiscal year are covered in the report of the electrical engineer, which
follows:
ELECTRICAL DrvisIoxN.
J'. ,. lHersh. Electrical Engineer.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The personnel, as recorded in last year's report, was continued throughout the
year, with the exception that Mr. Carl W. Markham, who returned from military
service, was reinstated in his former position of electrical recorder effective Novem-
ber 1, 1919, and Mr. M. P. Benninger was assigned to other duty. The six sub-divi-
sions into which the work of this division is divided are listed as follows:
Power and transmission system, B. R Grier, superintendent.
Construction and maintenance, A. 0. Garlington, superintendent.
Telephones and telegraphs, C. L. Bleakley, supervisor.
Railway signal system, E C. McDonald, supervisor.
Designing and estimating, W. T. O'Connell, estimator and designer.
Office and requisitions, C. W. Markham, electrical recorder.
In this division there were 248 gold and 288 silver employees at work during the
last week of June. 1920. The average monthly pay roll was $65,300.

CHARACTER AND EXTENT OF WORK.
The duties of the electrical division remained unchanged during the year with
the exception in the case of maintaining and charging of storage battery cargo handling
trucks at the Cristobal terminal docks, which activity was taken over March 15, 1920,
by the receiving and forwarding agent of the Panama Railroad. The principal func-
tions comprising the activities of the electrical division are the operating and main-
taining the steam and hydroelectric power plants, substations, transmission lines,
and power-distribution sy:-tems; the maintenance of street, shop, dock, public
building, and resident e lighting systems; the maintenance of telephone, telegraph
fire alarm, and railway signal systems and railway interlocking plants, charging and
maintaining of storage battery cargo handling trucks at the Pacific terminal docks
and warehouses; and the installation and maintenance of such electrical equipment
as required by other divisions of the Canal or other departments of the Government,
and by such commercial vessels as might require this class of work while transiting
the Canal.
The handling of the foregoing work required the issuing of a total of 4,785 work
orders, with the attendant reports, estimates, and miscellaneous correspondence.
There was prepared a total of 25 requi-itions for material, which included specifications
for 2,113 items, and totaling in estimated value $824,352.
The total expenditure of the divi-inn for the year was approximately $1,700,000,
of which l1 per cent was for work performed for other departments of the Govern-
ment, 6 per cent was for exterior electrical work at Fort Claylon and Fort Davis,
9 per cent was for improvements to the power system, 10 per cent was for work per-
formed for outside interests, 24 per cent was for work and power for the Panama Rail-
road, 46 per cent was for work and current for other departments of the Canal, and the
balance of about 3J per cent covered stock of materials, some equipment purchases,
and work in progress awaiting completion and rendering of billing.
The work of checking and mapping of duct lines and of preparing feeder-connection
diagrams of the underground distribution system, as mentioned in last year's report,
was continued when other activities permitted and was advanced to a state of about
60 per cent completion by the end of June.
POWER-SYSTEM EQUIPMENT AND IMPROVEMENTS.
The installations of major equipment of the power system as existing at the end of
last year remained unchanged throughout the year. Any improvements or changes
which have been undertaken have been of a secondary nature and are briefly sum-
marized as follows:
At the Gatun hydro-electric station a small amount of preliminary work was ac-
complished in preparation ior the installation of Unit No. 5. Part of the switchboard
and oil switch equipment pertaining to this unit arrived during the later months of
the year, but the actual work of installation has not been started.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


The unit proper, consisting of generator, turbine, and governor, was originally placed
on a proprietary requisition from the respective manufacturers of Unit No. 4. How-
ever, on account of the high price quoted by the contractor for the turbine and
governor, it was decided to cancel the original requisition covering the unit proper,
and to prepare new specifications in order that same might be put out on a competi-
tive bid basis. This required a complete set of detail drawings of the turLine and
governor, which are well under way at the present time, and upon the completion of
which the new requisition will lie placed.
About. the middle of February the 2,200-6,600 volt autotransformer of Unit No.
2 at the Gatun hydroelectric station failed in service, due to burn-out l:etween turns
of the winding. Several coils were replaced, and transformer was returned to service,
only to fail again in other coils during the early part of May, making it necessary to
place cablegram requisition for a complete Eet of new coils for this autotransformer.
Awaiting the delivery of these new coils, No. 2 generator has been placed in 2,20CO-volt
service, under which conditions it can be operated at about three-quarter capacity.
During the dry season, when Miraflores steam station was placed in service, it was
found convenient to clean and paint head Rates, trath racks, and valve guides at the
hydroelectric station. An inspection of the bitumastic enameling on the inside of
penstocks made at the same time showed that this enamel wa" in very good condition.
At the Miraflores steam electric station a 3-inch oil-pipe line was installed in such
a manner as to pa--s through the ash pits for the purpose of heating the heavy grade
of fuel oil now being used.
At each of the Gatun, Cristobal, Miraflores, and Balboa substations the work of
remodeling storage-battery rooms was completed. New batteries were installed at
Gatun, Cristobal, and Balboa, but at Miraflores the battery was completely over-
hauled by using the better cell materials from the other stations.
At the Cristobal substation two 2,200-volt feeder equipment were installed, using
materials recovered from the hydroelectric station. One of these feeder equipment
is to be used for a distribution feeder to the new silver townsite at Mount Hope,
which is under construction. The second equipment will Le used for a feeder to
relieve the existing feeders to the Cristo-al docks, which would otherwise l:ecoimne over-
loaded when the new machine ahop at the docks will le finished and placed in service.
At Gatun substation additions to equipment consisted of the installation of a 300
KVA 60,000-volt testing transformer for applying high potential tests to the trans-
mission line, and the replacement of the 16-ton manually operated chain hoist by a
30-ton motor-operated chain hoist, this change leing preparatory to the handling and
installing of an 8,400 KVA 44,000-6,600-volt water-cooled transformer now on
requiiition for this substation.
At Balboa and Cristobal substations the originally installed F00-ampere bus tie
switches were replaced by switches of 1,000-ampere capacity, which were recovered
from the hydroelectric station. Also at the Balboa substation there were installed
two 2,200-volt feeder equipment for future needs, using materials recovered from the
hydroelectric station.
During the dry season an endeavor was made to anti(-ipate the deterioration of por-
celain insulators in service on transmission line, and as a result of these tests a total
of 1,915 insulator disks were marked for removal. By the end of June 902 of these
insulators had been replaced. During the dry season all transmission line steel
towers and also the strain fixtures on all substation roofs were given a complete coat
of gray paint.
OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM.
The power system was operated throughout the year with an average combined
generator output of 5,382,750 kilowatt hours a month, as compared with an average
combined generator output of 4,725,637 kilowatt hours a month last year. There was
an average of 4,608,341 kilowatt hours a month transmitted and distributed to all
power consumers this year as compared with a corresponding average of 3,955,607
kilowatt hours a month last year. From the above there results a power system
transmission and distribution loss of 14.4 per cent this year, as compared with a cor-
responding loss of 16.3 per cent last year.
During the dry season months of March, April, and May it was found advisable
to conserve the water stored in Gatun Lake, and for this reason the hydroelectric
station at Gatun was relieved of a load ranging from 3,000 to 4,000 kilowatts. For
the three-month period this load was carried by the steam-power plant at Miraflores,
during which period this plant generated 8,234,380 kilowatt hours, and consumed
47,010.14 barrels (42-gallon) of fuel oil. During the remaining nine months of the
year the steam plant was maintained on the basis of stand-by service, for which the
average rate of fuel consumption was 2,311 barrels a month, as compared with a cor-
responding rate of 2,515 barrels a month last year.








76 THE PANAMA CANAL.


On the transmission line there were a total of 11 interruptions in service from all
causes, as compared with a corresponding total of 49 last year. Of this total, 1 inter-
ruption was chargeable to insulator failure, as compared with 32 last year. Thip
improvement in service is attributable to the fact that an additional insulator disk
was added to all insulator strings and to the testing and weeding out of 1,475 insulator
disks, as mentioned in report for last year.
The average cost of distributed power for the year was 9.421 mills a kilowatt hour,
as compared with a corresponding cost of 8.097 mills last year. The average cost of
distributed lighting current, including lamp renewals, was 13.277 mills a kilowatt
hour this year, aq compared with a corresponding cost of 12.963 mills last year. These
increases in the unit costs of power and lighting current have been caused largely by
the revision of the reserve for depreciation account and the fact that the Miraflores
steam station was pressed into service during three months of the dry season.
The following tabulation shows, by months, the combined generator output at the
Gatui and Mira'lore; generating stations; also the power distributed to all consumers
and the percentage of power lost between generators and the consumers:


1919.
Ju ly ........... ........................................
.A u uW t....... .......................................
September... ...... ................................
October........ .... .............................
No.-ember............ .............................
D ecem ber .... . ...................... .... .........
1920.
January........... ............................. .
February................. ... ......................
M arch...................... .........................
April....... ........................................
M ay....................................................
June...................................................


Combined generator
out put.


Gatun Miraflores


steam
station.


Kilowatt
hours.




, 928590............




3,005,350
2,300,440
208,120
...........
............
. .. .. .. .
............
............

............
............
2 '928,590
3,005,350
2,300,440
208,120


hlydro
Istat ion.


I I


Kdoiailt
h u rs.
5,228,000
5,422,000)
5,125,001)
5,322,000
5,128,000
5,667.700

5,S94, 100
5,221, 000
2,514,200
2,132,53)0
3,027,400
5,477,400


Average this year........... ...........................
Average last year....................................... ............


Total
distributed
po;ver.



Kilowatt
hours.
4,417,078
4,584,693
4,345,679
4,549,394
4,365,968
4,829,153

5,006,940
4,5)2,610
4,752,618
4,5917,733
4,6S5,090
4,753,138
4,698,341
3,955,607


System
losses,
including
excitation,
auxiliaries,
transmis-
sion, and
transforma-
tion.


Per cent.
15.6
15 5
152
14.5
14.75
14.75

15.1
13.7
12.5
12.1
12.1
16.4
14.4
16.3


The following tabulation shows the cost of operation and maintenance of the power
system and the unit costs of power in its various stages of distribution. The unit
costs are based on the net quantities of power delivered to consumers and not on the
gross amounts generated.


Totals,
fiscal year
1920.


Net power consumption (kwh).................................... 55,300,094
Costs of operation and maintenance:
Gatun hydroelectric station...................................... $48,771.71
Miralores iteam-electric station................................ 142,100.61
Traniformer substations....................................... 82,146.13
High-tension transmission lines................................ 16,797.25
Diitrihution lines............................................... 31,161 59
Depreciation, po ver system................................... 195,000.00
Reserve for repairs............................................. 5,000.00
Total costs distributed power................................ 520,977 29
Net consumption lighting current (kwh) ............................ id,V9s,878
Cost, maintenance, lighting system, including lamp renewals....... $53,939.83
Cost of lighting current per kiloNatt hour .......................... ............


Average cost per
kilowatt hour.

This year. Last year.

............ ............

50.000S19 50.001053
.0025696 .002381
.0014854 .001597
.0003037 .000528
.0005634 .000502
.0033262 .002022
.0000904 .000000
.0094206 008083

6. 60038564 50.0014880
.013277 .012363


GATUN SPILLWAY.

The operation and maintenance of the Gatun spillway was performed by the forces
of the electrical division throughout the year. There were no failures of equipment
and no operating difficulties were experienced. There was a total of 153 gate oper-
ations, 126 of which were for regulation of lake level and the remaining 27 were for


-~-----






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 77

inspection and miscellaneous reasons. During the dry season all railings about the
spillway were cleaned and painted, and all structural steel and other metal parts
were painted where necessary. The building di- vision installed steel apron plates
on four baffle piers during the dry season.

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH SYSTEMS.

The electrical division continued to operate and to maintain the telephone system
and to maintain the telegraph system of the Panama Railroad Company throughout
the year.
During the year 999 telephones were installed, and 636 telephones were removed,
leaving a total of 3,330 telephones in service at the end of June, 1920, representing an
increase of 363 telephone installations for the year.
The average number of telephone calls during the eight-hour business day, as
determined by peg count, was about 28,900 calls, representing a rate of 3,600 telephone
calls an hour, as compared i\ith corresponding figures of 22,630 calls a day and a rate
of 2,829 telephone calls an hour last year.
During the year 15,114 feet of lead-covered paper-insulated telephone cable of
all sizes, varying from 5 to 200 pair, were installed, resultingin a total installation of
642,448 feet of cable in service at the end of June, 1920. On this entire cable installa-
tion there occurred 13 cases of cable trouble as compared with 12 cases of trouble
last year.
The following outline of telephone statistics has been compiled in a condensed form
to show the growth of telephone equipment and installations d(luring the past year
as compared with previous years.

Canal Zone telephone system.

June 30, June30, June30, June3u, June 30,
1916. 1917. 191S. 1919. 1920.
Miles of pole line..................................... 51 43 3S 36 38
Miles of underground conduit:
Panama Railroad................................ 212 212 212 212 212
Panama Canal, occupied by Panama Railroad... 10 20 26 34 3ti
Total miles of conduit......................... 222 2.12 238 1 246 244
Miles of cable:
In duct.......................................... 79 101 111 11S 1201
Aerial ........................................... 9 2 2 2 2
Total miles of cable........................... 88 103 113 120 122
Miles of wire:
Induct........................................ 8,282 9,9.9 11,457 11,656 12,960
In submarine cable.............................. 26 55 55 55 55
in aerial cable...................................I 470 124 i 124 124I 124
Bare and insulated, aerial lines.................. 522 5' 515 526 1550
Total.......................................... 9,300 10,676 12,1.51 12,5.)l 13,689
Miles of wire: j
Trunk circuits................ ................. 2,002 2. 810 4,040 4,259 1 4,5SS
Subscribers'circuits............................ 7,04, 7,,5ri1 7,753 7,bus s, 605
Telegraph circuits.............................. 2.5) 303 3.5 404 496
Total......................................... U,300 10,676 12,151 12,561 13,689
Miles of phantom circuits........................... 576 576 I 576 672 768
Milps ofsimplex circuits............................ 96 96 9 96 132 132
Total...................................... .... 672 672 672 804 900
Telephone exchanges:
tanam a Railroad................................ 16 10 I 9 9 10
Panama Canal...................................I 3 3 i 3 .3 3
Arm y and Navy................................i 1 10 10 10 9
Total..........................................I 29 23 22 22 | 22
Telephones: i I__
Panama Railroad................................ 1,878 2,154 2,523 2,967 3,330
Panama Canal................................... 104 110 114 114 120
Army and Navy................................. 400 57.S 670 703 707
Totaltelephoncs.............................. 2,392 2,842 3,307 3,784 4,157
Exchangeconnections daily'....................... 12, 165 17,8Wl 21,816 21,415 22,503
Trunk connections daily I................................ 2,954 3,241 3,924 6,396 7,241
Total..........................................I 15,119 j 21,042 25,740 27,811 1 29,744

Exchange and trunk connections are those handled in the four main exchanges only.






78 THE PANAMA CANAL.

FIRE-ALARM SYSTEM.

The work of inspecting and maintaining the fire-alarm system has been continued
under the supervision of the telephone subdivision. Two new fire-alarm boxes were
installed on pier No. 6 at Cristobal, and two existing fire-alarm boxes were relocated
at Mount Hope. OH fire-alarm box supports were replaced by standard iron posts
at two locations in Cristobal and at two locations in Balboa.
At the Balboa fire station a new loop-distributing board was installed and the ter-
minal wiring was rearranged. In the Balboa district it was necessary to reroute about
3,000 feet of two-conductor fire-alarm cable.
There were 27 alarms turned in, and no failure of any alarm apparatus occurred
during the year.
RAILWAY-SIGNAL SYSTEM.

There wenw practically no changes made in the installation of railway signals during
the year. Considerable maintenance work was found necessary in reinsulating splices
in under-round signal cables.
There were 2,262,937 registered arm movements with 149 responsible signal failures
compared to 2,OS1,90S arm movements and 97 responsible signal failures last year,
and 2,404,176 arm movements and 131 responsible failures for the year ended June
30, 1918. There was an average of 15,187.5 arm movements per responsible signal
failure compared to 21,4195 last year, and S18,352 for the year ended June 30, 1918.
Counting only avoi.lable signal failures there were 44,371 arm movements per signal
failure. There were 547 train minutes delay this year compared to 181 minutes last
year, and 556 minutes for the year ende- June 30, 1918. There was an average delay
of 4 minutes per train for each signal failure.
There was one reported false clear aspect and one false caution aspect during the
year on the entire signal system. The false clear aspect occurred September 12, 1919,
on signal No. 239, due to sweating relay box and possibly leaky door on relay box.
The false caution aspect occurred in December, 1919, and was caused by a broken
slot tozgle which was discovered by a signal maintainer who was at the signal when
it occurred.
The responsible and nonresponsible signal failures, arm movements, and train
minutes delay for each month during the year are outlined in the following tabulation:

Signal failures.

Mouth. Responsible. Toinlarm Delay train
Nonre- movements. minutes.
------------Nonre-
Avoidable. Uia'oid- sponsible.

1919.
July ...................................... 10 7 2 194,990 13
Au ist.................................... 1 ........... I .. .. .. 1 197,483 10
September........................... 2 4 1 180,014 28
O tober............................... .... 2 9 4 183,316 23
November................................. .3 2 1 171,716 5
December.................................. 5 15 5 1,0,300 116
1920.
January................................... 6 ............ 206,248 25
F'hruary................................ 1 16 ............ 223,863 85
M irch.................. .................... 2 22 ............ 184,209 122
Anril............................... ..... 10 S8 1 195,039 55
M V ....................................... 6 2 ............ 178,921 40
June...................................... 2 7 ............ 166,838 26
Total................................ 61 98 15 2,262,937 547


There was an average of 45.5 train minutes delay and 12.5 responsible signal failures
per month.
In the following is tabulated an analysis of the responsible signal failures for each
month of the year.







REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year ending June 30S, 190.





con0 z M.. 2 ~ r P4

Loose nut between track wire ter-
m inals a ......................... .. ........ .... .... ... 1 0.7
Track relay disconnected account
broken toggle 1 .............. ..... .... .... .... .... .. . .... .... .... .... 1 .7
Bad relay contact'.................... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 3 .... 3 6 4.0
Poor or defective track bat. dirty
zincs, etc.i.......................... 1 .... .... .... .... ... .. ........ .... 3 2.0
Leakage '. .............. ... ...... .... .... .... 2 .... ... ..... .... .... ... .. .. ... 2 1.3
Loose connection on lead-out wire of
m agnet ............................ .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 3 .... . ...... 3 2.0
High-resistance contacts on track relay' .... .... .... .... .... .... ....... 10 ......... .... 10 7.6
Broken bnd wire ................. ... ........ I ... ..... ......... 1 .... 4 2.5
Open switch point .................. .... .. ........... ................. ...... .... .... 2 2 1.3
Switch box cotter brokenu 2............ .... ........ .... 2 ... ..... .... 2 1.3
Broken factory splice in track I ........ .... ........ .... .... ....... .... 2 1.3
Open in track resistance unit 1. ...........1 2 ............... ... .... i.... .... 2 1.3
Open lead on truck relay coil ........ 2 ............. .. .1.... .... .... .... .... 3 2.0
Track relay high resiktance coil 1...... .... .... . i .... .... ... .... 1 .7
Switch box our of adjustment '........ 2 ......... .... .... .... .... 1.3
Discharged or exhausted storage bat- I
tery, careless mninienance........... 1 I.... .... ... 3 ... .... .... 5
Signnil light out.............................. 1 ....... 5 .I... 5.2
Unknown........................... .... I .... .... 4 1 |.... .... 5 3 .... I 12.0
Loose wire on term in il of signal....... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 2 .... 2 1.3
Open coilon sinalslot arm ............... .... .... ... .... .. .. 2 ........ .. 2 1.3
Open wire from -simrl to main cable. I ....1 1 4 ... .... .... 3 .... .... .......... 6.0
Commutator stic' inc on sign-il motor, l 2
account of dirty bru he', etc......... 2 ........ I i........ 1I. .. .. . .... ... .. 4 2.5
Home relay oii of adju3iment......... .. .... .... .... .... ........ ......4 .... 4 2.5
E~~~~~~om.....1.. 2erl 1.30aj: Mrt..........
Open circuit, broken Junpcr wire on
pole changer.................. .. .. .... ... ..... .... . -. .2 .... .... 2 1.3
Signal motor commutat6r tcl..at ... ........... .... .. ........ 1 .7
Commutator brushes nut properly ........
adjusted............... .... ... . ... .. .... .... .... .. . . .... 1 1 .7
Fuse blown.................... 2.... .... 2 ...... .... .... .... ... 3 2.0
Open coil on l,00)-ohm repeater rely. 2 ...... ......... ... .... .....1.... .... .... ... .... 2 1.3
Exhausted primary battery, careless
maintenance. .. .................... I ..... 3 ..... .... .... 5 3.3
Defective primary battery material... ........ 1 2 14 1 10 7 1 1 2 40 27.4
Total.......................... 17 1 G 11' 5 20 13 17 24 IS 8 9 1-19 100

I Track circuit defects responsible for 30 per cent of signal failures.

There were two derailments at the interlocking plants during the year. One
occurred at Diablo and the other at the pontoon bridge at Paraiso. Theie were also
two derailments at hand-throw pipe-connected derails, one at Mount Hope passing
track and one at Tower R, Gamboa.
There were 34 reported sigral failures for the year from various causes at the inter-
locking plants compared to 3ti tor last year. Of these, 24, or about 70 per cent, occurred
at the pontoon bridge. Considerable delays were also reported during the month of
January, 1920, in closing the bridge on account of rail wedges not dropping into place.
This was caused by the bridge bumping the abutments when opening and closing,
thereby throwing the apron girder about 3 to 4 inches out of alignment at the extreme
end.
Due to the increased costs of labor and material, the cost of maintaining railway
signals has increased about 20 per cent over last year.

MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL WORK.

The principal items of electrical work not otherwise classified or mentioned include
the following items:
The addition of 40 lighting standards to the street-lighting systems in Canal Zone
towns; the construction of underground distribution and stieet-liglihting systems and
the illumination of buildings at Fort Clayton and at Fort Davis; the starting of con-
struction work for the distribution of lighting current lo the new silver townsite at
Mount Dope; the completion of underground distribution and the equipping of a
small motor-driven pumping station at france Field: the extension of auxiliary power
circuits for the division of fortification; the installation of a 24-panel switchboard and






THE PANAMA CANAL.


seven motor generators and the necessary accessory equipment in the Coco Solo sub-
station; the construction of duct line across reclaimed area at. New Cristobal and the
extension of an existing feeder cable to this area; the installation of a supplementary
feeder in Balboa to relieve overloaded feeder cables; the complete rewiring, includ-
ing the rewinding of all motors for the reconstructed sand and gravel handling cranes
at Gamboa; the installation of switchboard, transformers, and motor equipment for
the rerolling mill at Balboa; the construction of about a mile of four-cell duct line
through Balboa; the placing of 7,200 feet of submarine cable for the beacon-light
circuits of the lighthouse subdivision; the installation of water heaters in practically
all bachelor quarters in Balboa, Ancon, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal for the
supply department; the completion of the underground distribution system and the
installation of nimotor-generator and switchboard equipment in machine shop at the
naval air station.
The work at the electrical repair shop, exclusive of the work done in the field or
which required men to leave the shop. may be briefly sumnimaiized as including the
following:
Armatures, motors, and generators rewound........................ 307
Transformers and miscellaneous coils rewound...................... 131
Mlagnetos and fan motors rewound or repaired.................... 156
Miscellaneoiius electrical appliances repaired....................... 62
Switchboard and panels manufactured........................... 148
Miscellaneous other repair jobs................................... 180
The force of the electrical division handled 361 jobs of marine electric work at
Cristobal and 416i jobs of the same class at Balboa; the more important items of this
class of work include the complete rewiring or overhauling of and making additions
to thle electrical installations aboard the steamships Crislobal Acajuila, Ansaldo San
Giorin, Salirei'rri, Pait. Circassion Prinre, A:or, Ardmnorc, and the Peruvian cruiser
Limna.
MiNuICII'A.I. ENGINEERING DIVISION.

The details of tlhe operations of the municipal engineering division
during the fiscal year are covered in the report of the municipal
engineers, which follows:

MuIc'lP.\l. ENGINEERING DIVISION.

D. E. Wrighl, Mtnii:ipal Engineer.

The municipal division performed the necessary surveys for new townsite projects,
the layout and design for water, sewers, storm drainage,. streets, sidewalks, and land-
scape work for same; the maintenance and operation of all roads, water-pumping
stations, purification plants, pipe lines, and such building construction work as
directly concerned this division. The principal items of new construction were the
new Army post at Fort Clayton, located at Miraflores, and Fort Davis, located at
Gatun; the extension of Colon, comprising the area between G and K Streets and
between Seventh and Ninth Streets, an area giving 99 building lots for residential
purposes for private individuals; also an area in this vicinity lying between G and
K Streets and Second and Seventh Streets as a proposed addition for residential
purposes for Canal employees. The development of the area between Fourteenth
Street and Folks River for Panama Railroad stables, and the area between E and G
Streets and Fourteenth and FifAeenth Streets for warehouse purposes; development
for the area for construction of 33 houses for silver employees of the Panama Railroad
on the docks and at the coal-handling plant-this involved grading, the installation
of water and sewer lines, streets and sidewalks; the area developed was between
Mount Hope and Colon, and designated as "Silver City"; construction of the concrete
road with asphalt wearing surface for the lumber shed in Balboa to Diablo; the re-
surfacing and oiling of the Paraiso-Gamboa macadam road; the necessary street
extension for new buildings at Fort Sherman, with the necessary water and sewer
connections; the laying out and making the fill necessary for and grading the baseball
park at Coco Solo; the laying of various stretches of concrete sidewalks and water
connections for this point; the building of tennis courts at France Field, Gatun, and
the resurfacing of tennis courts in Ancon; the construction of various sized storm
sewers. in the vicinity of Panama to relieve the combined sewer systemnt originally







REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 81

installed at this point, sewers ranging in size from 24 by 24 to 6 by 6; the demolition
of the Caledonia bridge over the Panama Railroad tracks, and the putting in of a
grade crossing.
ORGANIZATION.
a
The municipal division is divided into three sections, viz: The Southern district,
including all points in the Canal Zone from Darien south and including the city of
Panama; the Northern district, comprising all points in the Canal Zone from Darien
north, including the city of Colon; and the operation of purification plants, testing
laboratories, and reservoirs.
PERSONNEL.

Mr. R. C. Hardman transferred on October 15, 1919, as superintendent of the
Southern district and was succeeded by Mr. George W. Green on October 16, 1919.
Mr. E. H. Chandler was relieved as superintendent of the Northern district on March
10, 1920, and was succeeded by Mr. A. C. Miller on March 11, 1920.
Mr. George C. Bunker, physiologist, continued in charge of the purification plants
and laboratories.
Mr. A. G. Nolte was appointed assistant physiologist, effective February 21, 1920.

SOUTHERN DISTRICT.

In the Southern district all pumping stations, water and sewer lines, streets, side-
walks and roads, and the upkeep of equipment were performed, as well as various
items of new construction pertaining directly to appropriations made this division.
besides the performance of such construction work as was requested from other divi-
sions of The Panama Canal, the United States Army, the United States Navy, private
companies and individuals, and by the Panaman Government. The report of
operations of pumping stations is given in the following statement:

STotal Average Average
S gallons number cost per
Pumping station. pumped ga Ions thousand
during per gallons for
year. month, pumping.

Gamboa, U. S. No. 1......................................... 3,895,630,000 324,636,000 $0.0154
Mirafloresq U S. No 2........................................ 423,790,000 35,315,833 .0162
Balboa, U S. S. No.3........................................... 2,790,202,000 232,516,841 .0141
Paraiso.......................................................I 74,640,000 6,220,000 .0447
Cucaracha (Mount Zion)...................................... 176,513,000 14,709,445 ............


In the city of Panama the usual maintenance work was performed by the municipal
division on the water and sewer systems and pavements, the work of maintenance and
operation in the city, including the installation of water meters on new construction.
the repairs and maintenance of all work installed on previous construction, and the
preparation and collection of water-rent bills for water consumed. The following
table shows the quantity of water used in Panama during the fiscal year. by quarters,
together with amount of water rentals:

Consumption per quarter.

Paying Public hy- Dally aver-
Quarter ended- connec- Private. drant and Total, age con-
tions. taps. sumption.

Gallons. Gallons. Gallows. Gallows.
Sept.30,1919............................. 2,434 155,147,000 101,421,000 256,56.9,000 2,850,000
Dec.31, 1919............................ 2,433 149,873,000 101,862,000 251,735,000 2,797.000
Mar. 31,1920.............................. 2,445 176,780,000 82,501,000 259,287,000 2,880,000
June 30, 190.............................. 2,457 166,962,000 91,888,000 258,850,000 2,876,000
Total far year....................... .......... 648,768,000 377,672,000 1,026,440,000 2,850,750

8847-20----f






82 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Collections.


Amount Average
collected consump- Average
Quarter ended- from pri- t per pn- private
rat co- vate con- quarterly
v o- nection per bill.

Gallons.
Sept. 30, 1919....................................................... 540,698.60 63,741 116.72
Dec. 31, 1919....................................................... 39,343.10 61,189 16.17
Mar. 31, 1920........................................................ 46,256.80 72,305 18.92
June30, 1920 2...................................................... 43,622.00 67,953 17.75
Total for year................................................. 169,920.50 265,188 69.56

i Includes all bills rendered against Panaman Government for water consumed in public buildings in
Panama City.
I Net amount of hills due (not yet collected).

In addition to the regular maintenance and operation in Panama City, consisting
in main of the following: Hydrants inspected and flushed. 2.5-14; repaired, 510; leaks
repaired in service connection. 35; concrete pavement replaced or repaired, 173
square yards; brick pavement repaired, 341 square yards; meters repaired and reset,
597: meters set on new (:contracts, t16; stoppages cleared in sewer main, 47; manholes
ell-aned and flushed. IS.514; concrete pavements repaired and relaid, 5,828 square
yards; concrete drains constructed. 488 linear feet; catch basins built, 5; sewer pipe
for new connections laid. 231 linear feet; bricks reclaimed and cleaned, 7,450.
IUnder the appropriation of S200.000 for sewer extensions and storm-sewer construe-
tion, the following work was performed: 350 feet 8-inch vitrified pipe laid between
Northern Avenue and Eleventh Street; 200 linear feet of 24 by 21 concrete box sewer
constructed on Northern Avenue to Thirteenth Street; 1.220 linear feet of 31 by 3J
concrete box sewer from Thirtrenth Street through Javillo fill to Northern Avenue; 100
linear feet of 4 by 5 concrete box sewer cross-connecting existing sewer on Northern
Avenue; 880) linear feet of 4 by 4 concrete box sewer from Northern Avenue through
Panama Railroad yard to Third of November and Nineteenth Streets; 750 linear feet
of 5 by 5 concrete box sewer from Third of November Street. down Ninth Street to
Twelfth of October Street; 350 linear feet of 15-inch concrete pipe on Twelfth of Octo-
ber Street. from East Nineteenth Street to the beach; 1,330 linear feet of 3 by 3 con-
crete box sewer paralleling Third of November Street from East Nineteenth Street
and crossing the Panama Railroad at Caledonia grade crossing, thence to the inter-
section of Central Avenue and L Street. The following amount of work.was necessary
for the above-mentioned construction work:
Excavation.....................................cubic yards.. 10, 373
Backfill . ..........................................do.... 8,890
(Grading....................................... square yards.. 3,000
Concrete sidewalk rebuilt................................do.... 292
Reinforcing steel placed-i-inch, 1-inch, and 3-incli linear feet.. 30,000
Concrete placed.................................cubic yards.. 1,680
the above at a total cost of $112,177.8-4.
The engineering forces performed the necessary work of preparing plans, estimates,
and layout for the proposed new Santo Tomas Hospital on a special work request from
the Panaman Government, besides performing various miscellaneous jobs in connec-
tion with the starting of this work by forces of the Panaman Government. A work
request was also placed upon this division for the construction of the concrete streets
in the hospital layout and on the 1st of July a total of 7,532 square yards of concrete
pavement had been laid.
INDIVIDUALS AND COMPANIES.

The Central and South American Cable Company.-Work requests were issued by
this company to the amount of $5,615.32, covering water and sewer connections for
their buildings, grading, and grass planting in the vicinity of same and the necessary
patrolling of water and sewer lines supplying their reservation.
The Panama Electric Company.-The Panama Electric Company made deposits for
work to be performed by the municipal forces, amounting to approximately $5,500.
This work consisted of surfacing in their track right of way on C Street, the construc-






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


tion of concrete landing platform, the furnishing of asphalt for various patching jobs
on their right of way, and the concreting in of their tracks for the grade crossing at the
site of the old Caledonia Bridge.
WORK PERFORMED FOR DEPARTMENTS, DIVISIONS, AND OTHERS.
Under other departments and divisions of The Panama ('anal miscellaneous work
was performed as follows:
For the electrical division, fortification division, police and fire division, division
of surveys, and subsistence department only, a miscellaneous amount of work was
performed on different work requests to the amount of $1,512.
Building dirision.-A series of miscellaneous work was done amounting to approxi-
mately $18,773, consisting, in the main, of concrete walk to seamen's home, Balboa;
municipal work for three type-18 houses. Balboa; municipal work for Lodge Hall.
Paraiso; municipal work for nine type-15 cottages, Pedro Miguel; construction of
concrete floor in garage at Ancon; construction of floor for garage, near the National In-
stitute, Ancon; construction of floor in two garages, Balboa district; construction of
floor and approaches for garage at Pedro Miguel; municipal work for new National
Catholic War Community Building, Balboa.
Supply departnen!.-Miscellaneous work to the amount of $10.738 was performed.
The more important areas follows: Road construction to new garages: construction of
roadway to Balboa store; paving in the vicinity of th? new oil storehnirse; the laying of
6-inch cast-iron water line for fire protection and operation of the fuel-oil handling
plant, Balboa; construction of sidewalks and steps to various huw!s.s in the district;
construction of clotheslines throughorit the Ancon-Balboa district; installation of
air tank for the La Boca mess.
Mechanical dirision.-Miscellan-ons work to the amount of approximately P2,726
was performed, the more important items being the construction of sidewalks in the
shops' district.. the installation of an industrial railway track from their sawmill to
the boiler house, and the repaving of certain areas of the shops' roads.
Health deparlnnte.-Miscellaneous work was performed for this department to the
amount. of approximately $000, consisting of the paving of certain drainage ditches
and filling in the vicinity of their old larvacide plant, Ancon.
Marine dirision.-Miscellaneoi s work to the amount of approximately $877 was
performed. The principal item was the construction of a garbage platform in the
vicinity of the port captain's office, Balboa.
Panama Railroad.-For the Panama Railroad Company miscellaneous work was
performed to the amount of approximately $37,100, the principal item of construction
being the demolishing of the Caledonia bridge in lanama ( ity and the construction
of a grade crossing over the I anama Railroad ( company's tracks. This v-ork to date is
95 per cent completed and consists of the following: 12,049 cubic yards excavated;
5,242 square yards subgraded; the placing of 3,538 square yards of concrete pavement
in roadway and sidewalks; the placing of 5,289 square yards of sheet asphalt wearing
surface, together v ith the necessary catch basins, drains, and retaining v alls.
Another item of construction under this appropriation v as the raising of ihe roadway
to Pier No. 18. The remaining v-ork consisted of 24 miscellaneous small jots.
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds.-Miscellaneous vork to the amount of approxi-
mately $8,495 was performed, consisting mainly of the resurfacing of tennis courts in
Ancon and Pedro Miguel, the regrading and surfacing of the Palhca tafeLall grounds,
repairs to the running track, the placing of a sheetasphalt ficor in the EalLoa play shed,
and the installation of water and sewer lines to the Faloa gun club.
Dredging diridion.-Miscellaneous work was performed for thisediision to theamount
of $2,678. This consisted principally of the laying of pipe lines of various sires for
supplying their relay pumps in the vicinity of Contractors Hill; 13 jobs were done on
Panama Canal orders.
United States Army.-Plans and estimates were made up and submitted giving in
detail all costs and showing the location of the I acif c side of the Canal covering the
proposed scheme of the Army board for permanent Army posts in this locality. At
Quarry Heights military headquarters roads, walks, sewer and water lines were laid.
At Empire and Culebra, on the west side of the Canal, 35,000 linear feet of v ater-bound
macadam road were repaired. At Coroval 1,235 linear feet of 15-inth concrete pipe
were laid as a sewer line from the stables.






--84


S THE PANAMAA CANAL.


At the new Army post at Fort Clayton the following important items of construction
were performed, the cost of this work, which is now 95 per cent completed, amounting
to $355,829.12:
Roads laid................................................square yards- 23,779
Excavation.... ...........................................cubic yards.. 17,545
Grading.............................. .......... ...................do.... 33,030
Temporary railroad track laid.......................................feet.. 1,882
Storm sewer laid.............................................linear feet. 3,240
Box culverts constructed-- by 4..................................do.... 63
Vitrif ed and concrete pipe for sver system laid-various eires........do.... 6,405
Cast-iron water pipe laid, various sies., from 16" to 14" in diameter. ..do.... 9,080
lead pipe for services, together v ith necessary hydrants, vahlves, meters.do.... 1,131
$heet asphalt wearing surface laid..........................square yards.. 13,183
Concrete curbl) and gutter constructed, together with necessary catch basins
and storm drain:............................................linear feet.. 17,842
Sidewalkslaid.................... .........................square yards.. 6,961
Concrete eave gutters placed..................................linear feet..-- 3,921
At the Cardenas River bridge a culvert was driven under the present railroad culvert
to 7ero elevation as a sanitary measure. This culvert was 3I by 34 feet and 237 feet
long. There were 1.070 cubic yards of excavation and fill made in connection with
the sanitation in contiguous areas to the post. For the stables and wagon sheds there
were 4.150 square yards of concrete floor laid and three concrete water troughs con-
structed. This job is 90 per cent completed.
In addition to the regular construction work outlined above for the Army, we were
called on from time to time to prepare plans and estimates for various work which they
desired done, and all water and sewer lines in the various posts were maintained.
Among other items of construction outside of the new post. the following are the most
important: Installation of water line for the new forage sheds constructed atCorozal,
which necessitated the laying of 1,584 linear feet of 6-inch cast iron water mains and
the construction of the necessary fire hydrants and valves; construction of a concrete
road to Quarry Heights to noncommissioned officers' quarters, consisting of the laying
of 796 square yards of concrete; and the N; widening of the road at Ouarry Heights, in
which were placed 1-15 square yards of concrete with asphalt wearing surface. -
I n Corozal 5,769 square yards of sheet asphalt wearing surface were placed on theold
macadam road at this point after same had been shaped up. There was also installed
at the engineer depot at Coro7al necessary fire protection for this point. vhich required
the laying of 970 linear feet of 6-inch cast-iron pipe and the installation of three fire
hydrants.
At Fort A mador 20,000 square yards of road were rolled and treated with oil and sand.
United Staites Vii i.-The municipal division was called on from time to time to
perform miscellaneous jobs for the United States Navy. this work consisting princi-
pally of water lines. repairs to their piumpingi equipment. and the various roads and
-idnwalks in tliir reservation
Th' following t ile shows material received, expended, and on hand in the Southern
district as of July 1. 1920:

On hand Received On hand Expended Balance on
Material. June 30, 1919-20. and 1919-e0. hand June
1919. received. -2 30,1920.

Cement...........................barrels.. 3041 13,928 14,2321 13,393j 839
Sand.........................cubic yards.. 5234 5,408 5,9311 5.498 4331
Rock................................do.... 1,794 ............ 1,794- 660 1,1341
Gravel..............................do.... 3011 3,629 S,9301 8,2214 709f
Gravel (storage).....................do.... 6,739 ............ 6,739 560 6,170
Lumber..............board measure feet.. 32,126 115,950 148,076 147,426 650
Lumber (native)....................do.... 2,653 8,554 11,207 11,207 ........
Reinforcement...................pounds.. 26,248 125,96i2 152.210 151,344 866
Pipe, vitrified, 6-inch.................feet.. 2.566 3,356 I 5.922 5,437 485
Pipe, vitried, -inbc................do.... 4,5R2 1,818 6,400 4,824 1,576
Pine, vitrined, 10-inch...............do.... 1,7P1 1,075 2.866 1,842 1,024
Pipe, vitrined, 12-inch...............do.... 1,089 ............ I.089 1,038 51
Pipe, galvanized iron, '-inch........do.... 50 123 173 96 77
Pipe. galvanized Iron, I-Inch........do.... 63 143 20B 157 40
Pipe, galvanized iron, W-nch........do.... 124 359 482 446 36
Pine, galvanized iron, --inch........do.... 878 1,525 2.403 1,058 445
Pipe, galvanized iron, 1-inch......... do.... 1,692 542 2,234 1,886 48
Pipe, galvanized1 iron, I '-inch.......do.... 102 1,128 1,230 1.170 60
Pipe, galvaniied iron, 14-inch.......do.... 562 126 688 327 I 361
Pipe, galvanized iron, 2-Inch........do.... 1,156 ............ 1,156 448 708
Pipe, galvanized Iron, 24-inch-.......do.... 179 ............ 179 40 139








REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Material.


On hband Received
June 3, 1919-20.
1919.
I -J


Pipe, galvanized iron, 3-inch..... pounds.. 41
Pipe, galvanized iron, 3S-inch.......do.... 42
Pi91talvanized iron, 4-inch....... do.... 44
Pipt,.ast iron, 4-inch.............. do.... 120
Pipe, cast iron, 6-inch..............do.... 660
Pipe, cast iron, 8-inch...............do.... 448
Pipe, cast iron, 10-inch............. do.... ...........
Pipe cast iron, 16-inch..............do.... ............
Oil, fuel...........................barrels.. 489.21
Meters, water, .-inch...............each.. 152
Meters, water, 1-inch................do...] 65
Meters, water, 2-inch................do.... ............
Meters, water, 3-inch................do.... ............
Pipe, concrete, 15 inch..............feet.. 2,778
Pipe, concrete, 20-inch..............do.... 720
Pipe concrete, 24-inch............. do.... 30
Leadite ..........................pounds.. 5S
Jute................................do.... 3.049
Lead...............................do.... 27.041
Hydrants..........................each.. 23
Bricks..............................do.... 92,100 on
Meter parts..........................lot.. $701.95
Valves, 4-inch......................each. 5
Valves, 6-inch......................do.... I
Valves, 8-inch.......................do.... 6
Valves, 10-inch......................do.... 3
Valves, 12-inch......................do.... 2
Valves, 16-inch......................do.... ............
Muralite.........................pounds.. 3,010
Asphalt.............................do.... 335,800
Tarvia...........................gallons.. 947
Binder............................. do.... do ............


............
........66....

100o
............
1,596
............
456
4,12S
1,791.10
............
............
4
S i








15
60,791
............
............
............
............



50
............
$1,573.42
1.3
60
5
2
............
4

579.1'60
7,412
1,211A


On hand
and
received.


41
42
144
120
2.256 i
448
456
4,12S
2.280.31
152
65
4
I
9,.06f.9
720
30
5S
3,048
36,023
73
92,100
$2,278.37
20
61
11
5
21
4
3,010
914,9 60
8,359
1,2111


NORTHERN DISTRICT.

Under municipal work chargeable to allotments made for Canal construction work.
the sum of $127,461 was spent on the following projects: Construction of the watei
and sewer lines for ten 12-family silver quarters at Mount Hope; the construction of
sidewalks in the vicinity of Cristobal corral; grading, rolling, and installation of sewer
and water lines and construction of sidewalks in the Gatun district; the laying out,
grading, installing of water, sanitary and storm sewer lines, grading for and construc-
tion of concrete streets and sidewalks for the New Cristobal townsite.
The laying out and putting in of necessary municipal work for the extension of the
new townsite for Canal employees involved the following work:
Excavation for fill of 156,719 cubic yards.
Laying of 22,400 square yards of concrete for streets.
Installation of 17 catch basins.
Placing of 1,034 square yards of concrete in slabs for gutters.
Construction of 16,074 linear feet of curb and gutters.
Placing of 6.188 square yards of sidewalks.
Digging of 200 linear feet of ditch for drainage purposes.
9,200 square yards of finished grading.
Grading and rolling 37,204 square yards of the townsite.
Construction of 29 manholes and laying of 6,214 linear feet of vitrified pipe.
8,198 linear feet of cast-iron pipe for water lines laid, 12-inch, 10-inch, 8-inch,
6-inch, and 4-inch, in addition to necessary storm sewers laid for draining town-
site -areas.
Under the head of "Maintenance" the sum of $208,647 %as spent for the operation
and upkeep of the pump stations, reservoirs, roads, streets, sidewalks, water and
sewer lines; also as a charge against maintenance, an electric booster pump of 5,000
gallons a minute capacity and driven by a 250-horsepower motor was installed. There
were 21,543 square yards of macadam road repaired and oiled, in addition to the up-
keep of all roadside ditches and the making of such repairs that were necessary to
concrete roads in this district.


Expended Bol'nce on
1919-20. hand June
301919-20. 1920.


41 ............
42 ............
144 ............
120 ............
2,196 60
449 ............
456 ... .... ..
3.324 804
2,074.89 205.42
151 1
31 24
4 ............
1 .. .... .. ....
7,251 1,818
720 ............
30 ............
58 ............
1,310 1.732
35,678 345
51 22
14,352 77,748
$1,205.85 1 $9R2.52
15 5
40 21
6 6
5 .......
2 .............
2 2
............. 3.010
890,545 24.415
3,642 4,717
............ 1,2111








50 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The following is a statement of water pumped at each of the pump stations during
the year, giving an average monthly pumping and the average rate per 1,000 gallons:


Pumping station.


Mount lope........ .. .. .............. ............. .
Agua Clara ................................... .... .....
Frijoles........... . .. .......... .........................
M onte Lirio. ................... ............... ............. .


Total gallons
pumped
during year.


2,157,68A,000
427,714,000
11,620,000
3.204,000


The following statement shows the division cost of water delivered in the various
districts of the Canal Zone during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1920:


I
Com per
District. thousand
gallons. i


District.


Cost per
thousand
gallons.


Critohbal................................. 80 07 Pedro M iguel.... .......... .......... 10.07
Gatun................................... 14 Miraflores.. .................... I .0
Camboa............................... .0- Ancon-Balhoa..... .................. .. .07
Paraiso.............................. ..... .. .07


The sale of water to vessels at the docks was handled as in the past. Water was
delivered to ships at the rate of 50 cents per 1,000 gallons, with a minimum charge of
$3, excepting Docks No. 2 and No. 3, where the minimum charge was 50 cents, this
applying to small coastwise boats. A trtal of 2.215 vessels was furnished with
110,825,282 gallons of water, this being an average of 9,235,440 gallons per month.
The cost for the year of handling water amounted to $11,527.81. In the city of
Colon the sum of $60,055 was spent on the maintenance and repairs of streets, water
and sewer system, and the cost of water collections and plumbing inspection work.
The following statement shows the quantity of water used in Colon during the fiscal
year, by quarters, together with the amount of water rental:


Quarter ended -





Sept.30,1919........
Dec.31, 1919..........
Mar. 31, 1920.........
June 30, 1920.........


Paying
connec-
tions.




947
992
993


Total for year... ........




Quarter enlrd -




Sept. 30,1919.... ............
D ec. 31, 1919 ..................
M ar. 31, 1920 ..................
June 30, 1920 ..................


Consumption


Private Panama
connec- Railroad
tions. reservation.


Gallons.
73,1q6,000
7., 739,750
7S, 029,.500


Gallons.
,*'07, 750
8,0Z7,000,
9,133,7750


r,2311,25U .,5 '1, 5OU
306,2.'0,500 I 32,532,750


Amount
collected
from pri-
vale con-
sumers.


829,I6l.50
29,95W3.20
30,22W1.80
32,524.80


Total for year......... 120,871.30


Amount


pe-r quarter.
A average
Panama Total con- daily con-
Panama Public fire gumption. sump-
phI nod hydrants tion.
'luarantine. and ta.


Gallon?. Gallons. Gallons. Gallon.
9,0919,750 56, 3?,150 145,930, i60 1,621,452
S,451,000 67,310,575 161.591,325 1,795,492
9,j9,.500 5t,902,025 150,5.,775 1,622,897
10,477,750 117,987,800 ]67,286,050 1,858,734
37,525,000 249,013,.550 61f,371,KOO 1,737,144


Amount Averago Av raa


collected collected Total consump- n-
from from revenue lion per arterir
Panarmn Panama per quarter. private iqull
Railroad. Canal. connection.


1 Gallons.
32,042.70 $2,732.70 $33,011.90 74,376 329.64
2,4211.10 2,530.50 33,915.80 7,9 163 29.33
2,740.50 2,F50.00 335.17.30 75,633' 30.40
2,551.SO 3.144.00 1 38,221.50 80, -1477 32.59
9,761.10 11,204.10 141,896.50 77,310 30.49


Average
number of
gallons per
month.


179, 807,i16
35,0642,000
0S, 333
272,000


Average
cost per
thousand
gallons for
pumping.


$0.0oy
.014
.1792
.5317


NOTE.- For quarter ended June 30. 1920:
Net amount of private bills to be collected..... .......................... .... 8 32,424.80
Approximate amount of discount to be collected............. .. ........ .... 100.00
A pproximate amount to be collected from private consumers.................. 32, 521.80


iff
.




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