• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the governor of the Panama...
 Appendix A: Report of the engineer...
 Appendix B: Report of the resident...
 Appendix C: Report of the marine...
 Appendix D: Report of the superintendent,...
 Appendix E: Report of the chief...
 Appendix F: Report of the auditor...
 Appendix G: Report of the executive...
 Appendix H: Report of the district...
 Appendix I: Report of the special...
 Appendix J: Report of the chief...
 Appendix K: Report of the general...
 Appendix L: Acts of congress and...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover














Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00004
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1919
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
oclc - 2454300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Binder2 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Report of the governor of the Panama Canal
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 40b
    Appendix A: Report of the engineer of maintenance
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 106b
        Page 106c
        Page 106d
        Page 106e
        Page 106f
        Page 106g
        Page 106h
        Page 106i
        Page 106j
        Page 106k
        Page 106l
        Page 106m
        Page 106n
    Appendix B: Report of the resident engineer, building division
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 116a
        Page 116b
        Page 116c
        Page 116d
        Page 116e
        Page 116f
    Appendix C: Report of the marine superintendent, marine division, department of operation and maintenance
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Appendix D: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 134a
        Page 134b
        Page 134c
        Page 134d
    Appendix E: Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Appendix F: Report of the auditor in charge of the accounting department
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Appendix G: Report of the executive secretary, executive department
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
    Appendix H: Report of the district attorney for the Canal Zone
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
    Appendix I: Report of the special attorney
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
    Appendix J: Report of the chief health officer, health department
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
    Appendix K: Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
    Appendix L: Acts of congress and executive orders relating to the Panama Canal and to the Canal Zone
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
    Back Matter
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
    Back Cover
        Page 373
        Page 374
Full Text











UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY











ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE




GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL




FOR THE




FISCAL YEAR

ENDED JUNE 30



1919


*33 3'.
3 a
S."' ~


00
i 1
r
te L
7
1,1 U


,,
.
c
~ r,
"r
Il. Il

r r
r 1 t r
Ir r
r,, rr r
"I*
Irr "1"~"


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1919


_ _, _~ _~_ ~_ iLI_ i/~_








826




































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from Lyrasis and the Sloan Foundation



















I i -


o *1
4 a


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofgo1919cana


t. w








TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Page.
Report of the Governor of The Panama Canl _ _----------_ _ ---- _- 1
Organization -------------------------------------------------- 1
OlI'erationi and maintenance- ------------------. --- ----_ -- 3
Builtling division ---------------------------------______________ 3
Locks operation and maintenance ---------_---------______ 5
Electrical division-------------------- ------ -- 6
Municipal engineering division 8
1Metenrology and hydrogrnaphy --------_-__-- _______.-- 10
Section of surveys -- --- ---- ----------------------- 11
Section of office engineer --------------------------------- 12
Marine division---------------------------------------- 12
Dredging division---- 14
Mechanical division--------------________________________________ 15
Supply department-_ ------- --- --- --- ---- __ 17


Labor--------------------------
Quarters ----------------- -----------_
Transportation facilities ----------
Materials and supplies ------------------
Obsolete material ------ _-----_
Fuel-oil plants __---------------
The Panama Canal press- ---- ----_
Subsistence. -----_
Commissary division --------------_
Accounting department- -------- ____-- .------
Exe'utive department--- -----------------
Bureau of statistics------------ ---.--
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds -----_-----
Division of civil affairs---------------------
Bureau of posts-----------------------
Bureau of customs -------- ------ -----
Police and fire divisions--- - - -
Division of schools-----------------------_-
Courts---------- ------ ----------
Relations with Panama-------- -- ----
Office of the special attorney -------------
Health department -----------------------_---
Division of hospitals--------------------- --


17
18
18

19
19
19
19)
2t
21
25


28
29
29
29
31
32
33
33
35
3-i
37


Sanitation _--------------------------
Quarantine division------------------------.
Washington office----------------


APP'I'ENiTX A.


Report of the eiirniieir of maintenance------------------- ____
Or-ganization ------------___ ________________---
Locks ilivisini------------------ --
Lockaige*s. - - _. .. -
Water consumption, Gatun Lake ------------_
1400210-19 III

a^o7^


-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
------------
------------
-----------
------------
------------
------------
------------





IV CONTENTS.

Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Locks division-Con t in ued. Page.
Gatun dam------------------------------------------- 43
Towing locomotives----------------- --------------------- 43
Spare parts_------- ----------------------------- 43
Approach wall fender cribs----------------------------------------- 44
Painting lock gates---------------------------------- 44
Power and control------------------------- 44
Lock operation---------------- ---- 44
Maintenance work------------------------- 45
Pacific locks---------- ----------------------------- 45
Organization and personnel------------------- ------------ 45
Operation ----------- ------- 45
Maintenance---------------------- ----- 46
Paint machine ------------------------ 4T
Launches, boats, etc--------------------------------- 47
Cocoli shed--------------------------- --- 47
Overhauling west chamber, Miraflores locks-------------- 47
Atlantic locks-------------------------------- ---------- 51
Organization and personnel----------------------------- 51
Operation ---------------------- -- 51
Maintenance ___------------------ 52
Electrical division------------------------ 54
Ormniziiati'in and personnel---------------- 54
Character and extent of work ---------- 55
Power plants and improvements--------- ---------- 55
Siiii-ta;ti'ins and improvements------------------------ 55
Transmission line and improvements ------ -------------- 56
Distribution system and improvements----------------------- 36
Operation of power system--- __---- ------- 57
Gatun spillway------------------------------ -- -- 58
Telephone and telegraph --- ------------------ 59
Fire-alarm system----------------------------- 60
Railway signal system-------------------------------------- 60
lMiccvll;ineous electrical work---- ------------ 61
Municipal engiiinering division ----------------------------------- 62
Organization ----------------------------- -------------- 63
Personnel -------------------------------- 63
Southern district---- -------------------------------- 63
Northern district -- ---------------- ----- 68
Operation of water-purification plants and testing laboratories- 72
Section of inet(''rolog.y and hylr gran p-hy---------------------------- 76
Personnel ------------------------------------------ 77
MIteirlrology-------------------- --- --------- 77
Tables accompanying meteorological section, list of--------- 80
Hyi1rotriph.---------- ------- --------------------- 84
Tidal conditions--------------------- ---------- 85
Branch li.ydrograipliic office, CristobaL- -----_--- 80
Special investigations------------------------------------ 86
Tables a;ccoiIIp; inYilg hydrogmraphic section, list of ---------- 87
St'vriin of surveys------------------------------------- -- 91
Buillilin: lots----------------------------------------------- 91
Miiintenance records ---------------- ------ 92






CONTENTS. V

Report of the engineer of maintenance--Cuoin ued.
Section of survey-Continued. age.
Canal Zone boundary _--------_ f 1.4
Precise triangulation stations-------------------------- 9;3
Colon-Cristobal survey and nin;i-. -- ------------------- ---- 93
Supply department ----------- __-------------------- 93
Land office-------------------- -- 94
Electrical department --------------- ------ ----- 94
Health department -------------------------------------- --- 9-4
Various departments and divisiii ------- --------_ _--._--- 94
Miscellaneous _--------- ----------------------------- 5
Section of office engineer--------_-___-------- 96
Dredging division-------------- ---------- --------- 9
Division organization--------------------------------- 97
Dredging plant---------------------------------- 97
Tables-
Number of days d redgesi% were retired from service---------- 98
Output of all dredges. with total and unit costs------------ 98
Yardage removed to -42-foot mean sea-level contour in
Atlantic Ocean to Gamboa Dike---------------------- 100
Yardage removed from Guillard Cut, Gamboa Dike to Pedro
Miguel locks------ ------------------------------ 100
Yardage removed, Pedro Miguel locks to --13-foot mean
sea-level contour in Pacific Ocean--------------------- 10
Number of cubic yards removed from canal prism---------- 101
Yardage remaining to be removed from canal prism-------- 101 -
Distribution of material removed from Gaillard Cut---- 102
Dumps----- --------------------------------------- 102
Subaqueous rock excavation-----------------------------103
Tables-
Performance of drill boat Teredo No. 2------------------- 103
Performance of well and trip drillH----------------..---- 103
Miscellaneous dredging _-__----- -------------------104
Sand and gravel production-------------- ------------ -----104
Diversion, drainage, and dikes-------------------------- --- 104
Slide irlspectimi and reports----------------------__--- -----
Water hyacinths-------------------------------------- 115
Surveys --------_---_---------------- .-------------- 105
Office ---------- -------------------- 105

APPENDIX B.

Report of the resident engineer, lbuildinl; division --------------------- 107
Organization ------------------------------------ ---------107
Personnel ---------- -------------------------------------- 107
Building operations--- ---------------------------------------- 107
Pier No. 6----------------------------------------- 107
Ice and cold-storage plant------------------------------- 10S
Ancon Hospital ------------------------------------------- 108
Naval sulimarine base and naval air station----------------- 108
Army aviation base, France Field ---------------------------- 108
Cantonment construction--------------------------- --- -- 108
Individuals and companies ----------------------------- 108
Army posts, Miraflores and Gatun-------------- ---------- 109






VI CONTENTS.

Report of the resident engineer, building division-Continued.
Building operations--Continued.
Tables- rage.
Panama Canal buildings--------------------------------- 113
Panama Railroad buildings--------------------------- 113
Comparative unit costs of buildings-------- -------- 114

APPENDIX C.

Report of the marine superintendent ------------------------ 117
Steamboat inspection service ---------------------------- 118
Admeasurement of vessels and application of tolls---------------- 118
Tables-
Summary of commercial traffic through The Panma Canal during
fiscal year and since its opening to commercial traffic-------- 121
Number of commercial vessels of various nationalities passing
through The Panama Canal----------------------------- 122

APPENDIX D.

Report of the superintendent, mechanical division -------------------- 125
Organization ---------------------------------------------- 125
Principal work performed--- ------------------------------125
Improvements--------------------------- 127
Needs for the coming fiscal year------------------------------ 128
Statistical data, tables accompanying report, list of--------------- 128

APPENDIX E.

Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department-----------------135
Organization ----------- ----------------------------------- 135
Personnel ----------------------------------------- 135
Labor ---------------------------------------- 135
Quarters ------------------------------------------------- 136
Zone sanitation ---------------- ----------------------- 137
Motor transportation ----------------------------------- ------ 137
Animal transportation----------------- --------------------- 137
Material and supplies------------------------------ --------- 138
Sales ---------- --------------------------------------138
Surplus and obsolete material, equipment and scrap------1----- 39
Fuel-oil plants ----------------------------------------- 139
Gasoline storage ------------------------------------- 139
Panama Canal press-- ----------------------------------140
Subsistence --------------- -------------------------------------- 140
Commissary division ------------ ---------------------------141
Cattle industry-------------------------------------------- 145
Purchases------------------------------------------- 145
Transportation ------------------------ 146
Sales of live stock and poultry-------------------------------- 147
Health of stock--------------------------------------------147
Construction-------------------------------------------- --148
Pastures ------------------------------------------------148
Plantations---- ------------------------------------------ 149
Chagres River launch service---------------------------------151
Poultry farm ---- --------------------------------------- 151
-log farm----- ----------------------------------------- 151
Dairy farm------------------ ---------------------------- 152






CONTENTS.


Report of the chief quartermaster, supply dep;irii ent-Contiiiiul.
Taliles- PRn1r.
Occupants of Panama Canal an d Panama Railroad quarters,
June 30, 1919----------------------- ------------------- 152
Applications for married quarters on file June 30, 1010 153
Sales -------------------------------------------------- 153
Value of material received during fiscal year on requisitiionl------- 154
Sales of material, supplies, and equipment heretofore liurchased or
acquired for construction of The Panama Canal, made by author-
ity of the Governor without advertisement, and on which time
did not permit securing approval of the Secretary of War re-
quired by Executive order of May 12, 1915, fiscal year 1010---- 156
Houses, apartments. and occupants, by districts. of gold and silver
quarters, as of June 30, 1919 ------- ------------- 15(
Operation of Hotel Tivoli------------------- 157
Summary of operations, Hotel Aspin\v;all-_ 157
Sunmmary of operations of restaurants------------------------ 158
Summary of operations of laborers' messes-------------------- 158
Obsolete and surplus material------------ ---------- S
American scrap operations.__ _-------- ----- --------- 159
Fuel oil handled---------------------------------------- ------159
Comparative statement of output of manufacturing plants, com-
missary division, supply department, fiscal years 1915 to 1919- 159
Quantities of certain staple articles purchased during the fiscal
year as compared with the previous year-------------------- 160
Comparative selling prices for June 30, 1919, as against June 30,
1918-------- -------------------------------------- 161
Articles purchased by the products buyer in Costa Rica---------- 161
List of more important articles purchased in Haiti-------------- 102
List of important articles (1) purchased locally, (2) from planta-
tions of the cattle industry, (3) from Corozal farm and Army
truck gardens, from local producers and importing agencies, and
by local commissary buyer, Panama------------------------ 162
APPENDIX F.

Report of the auditor------------------------------------------ 163
Organization --------------------------------------------- 163
Paymaster------------------------------------------- 163
Collector ----------------- ------------------- 164
Accounting to the Treasury for collections-------------------- 164
Tolls---------------------------------------------------- 1064
Claims for damages to vessels passing through the locks ------ 165
Examination of pay rolls------------------------------------ 165
Canal appropriations----------- --------------- ---- 166
Current appropriations --------------- --- ----- 17
Exchange of property with Panama Railroad Co------------------- 168
Public works, Panama and Colon--------------------------------- 169
Operation and maintenance---------------------------------- 7
Business operations ---------------------------------------- 171
Material and supplies ------------------------------------- 172
Construction of canal and capital additions-------------------- 1-- 73
Manufacturing plant ----------------------------------------173
Canal Zone accounts -------------------------------------- ---- 174


VTII





VIII CONTENTS.

Report of the auditor-Continued. Page.
Clubhouse accounts -------------------------------------------- 174
Claims for injuries and deaths __- _--------__------- 175
Coupon books --------------------------------------------- 175
Inispectioii of accounts -------------- 176
Time inspection ------------------------------------- 176
Freight claim ---- -------------------------------------- 176
Bonds of employees ----------------------------------------- 176
Operations with Panama Railroad Co. funds----------------------- 177
Railroad, harbor terminals, etc----------------------------- 177
Commissary ------------------------------------------- 177
Farm industries---------------------------------- 178
General----------------------------------------------- 178
Tables accompanying report, list of--- ----- ----------- 179

APPENDIX G.

ReJport of the executive secretary--------------------------------- 237
Organization------------------------------------------237
Wage adjustments----------------------------------------- 238
Wages of West Indian employees ------------ -- 240
Publicity ------------------------------------------------- 240
Commodity statistics------ ------------------------------- 241
Working forceff------------------------------- 241
Tables-
Force actually at work on June 18, 1919-- ---------- 242
Force reports, by months, fiscal year----------------------- 243
High and low force records, December, 1906, to June 30, 1919,
by fiscal years--------------- --------------------- 243
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds --------------------------- 244
Division of civil affairs--------------------------------------246
Bureau of posts-------------- --------------------------247
Bureau of customs --------------------------------------249
Shipping commissioner ----------------------------------- 250
Administration of estates---------------------------------250
Licenses and taxes--------------------------------- 250
Special work of the division under war regulations------------- 250
Police and fire division ----------------------------------------- 253
Police section---------------------------------------------- 253
Tables-
Number of arrests, by fiscal years, made on Canal Zone
since organization ---------------------------- 255
Number of arrests made, by months, during fiscal year- 253
Arrests by stations, fiscal year_---------------------255
Disposition of persons arrested, fiscal year---------- 2513
Fire section -------- _-- ------------------------------- 2i
Division of schools------- -------------------------------- 256
Table-Epitome of more important statistics for the years end-
ing June 30, 1916 to 1919, inclusive----------------------- 258
The courts-- ----------------------------------------------- 258
Special attorney and district at tir ------------------------ 2)9
Marshal for the Canal Zone--------------------------------- 259
Relations with Panama------------------------------------ 259
L.lati ------------------------------ ------------- 261





CONTENTS. IX

Report of the executive secretary-Coutiued. Page.
Appendix-Report of chief of division of civil affairs- ------ 262
Bureau of posts- -----------_ _---------------------- 262
Number of post ocfTics-------------- -- ----- 263
Lock boxes---------------------------------------- 263
Money orders- ------ ----- -------- 263
Deposit money orders----------------------_ -------- 263
Registered, insured, and C. 0. D. mail------------------- 264
Dutiable packages ------------------ -- 264
*Duplicate money orders and investigations --------------- 265
Dead letter section---------- -- -------------_________________ 265
Violations of postal laws and regulations--------------- 265
Dispatches to United States and other countries------------ 266
Delivery of mail to ships in transit----------------------266
United States transit mail----------------------------266
Handling of all transit mail --------------------------- 267
Bureau of customs----------------- ----__--- 267
Prohibited aliens------------------------------------267
Opium traffic-------------------------------------- 268
Attempted smuggling-----------------------_---___ 268
Violations of espionage act----------------------------268
Free entry of merchandise--------------------------- 269
Household inspections------------------------------- 269
Certification of invoices------------------------------ 269
Merchandise for Republic of Panama -------------------- 269
Movements of vessels------------- --- --------___ 270
Shlipiping commissioner---------------------------------- 270
Administration of estates----- ---------------------- 271
Licenses and permits--------- ---------- 271
Insurance companies and corporati'.ins.------___ -_-------_ 272
War activities _______------------_-_____ 272
Tables-
Statement of vessels entered and cleared aind of seamen
shipped and discharged at Balboa and Cristobal---------- 272
Statement showing number of estates received and settled
and amount of funds handled------------------------ 273
Statement showing number of .estates of deceased and in-
sane employees, by nationalities, settled by administrator
of estates_ ------------------- 273
Number of mail parcels released free of duty, number on
which duty has been paid to the Government of Panama,
and the amount of duty as shown by receipts on file, by
offices _--------------- ------...-- 273
Number of insured and C. 0. D. parcel-post parcels and reg-
istered articles delivered, by offices--------------------_ 274
Letters and parcels registered and insured, by offices------ 274
Number and amount of money orders issued, and amount of
money on deposit at post offices, by offices, as reported by
postmasters ----------------------------------______--__--____ 275
Receipt---------------------------------------_----__________--_____--__ 275

AIPPENI)1X H.
Ileport of the district atorney------------__ --------____------------------_ 27
Table-riiiil prosecutions -----------------------------------_______ __________ 280





X CONTENTS.

.APPENDIX I.
Page.
Report of the special attorney------------------------------------281
Land matters of The Panama Canal---------------------------- 281
Land claims ------------------------------------------- 281
Tabulation of claims---- --------------------------- 285
Panama Canal land licenses------------------------------ 286
Panama Railroad matters--------------------------- ------ 286
Panama Railroad leases and licenses reported by the land agent- 287
Panama Railroad litigation------------------------------- 289
The district court, division of Balboa---_---------- -----290
District court, division of Cristobal-------------------- -- 291
Magistrate's court, division of Cristobal ------------------ 291
District court, division of Balboa-----------------------292
District court, division of Cristobal------------------ 293
Litigation in Panaman courts----------------------------- 296
Services of an advisory nature----------------------------- 296
Legislation ----------------------------------------------- 296

APPENDIX J.

Report of the chief health officer------- ----------------------- 299
Personnel------------------------------------------- 299
General remarks ------ ---------------------- 300
Vital statistics ---------------------------------------- 300
Employees------- ------------------------------ 300
Effects of race- ------------------------------------- 301
Canal Zone ------------------------------------------ 301
Panama City-----------------------------------------302
Colon -- ------------------------------------------02
Ancon Hospital--- --------------------------------302
Corozal Hospital---------------------------------------- 304
Colon Hospital --------------------------------------------306
Santo Tomas Hospital--------------------------------------307
District dispensaries------------ --------------------------307
District dentists-- -------------------------------------- 307
Palo Seco Leper Asylum------------------------------------- 307
Sanitation--- ------------------------------------------ 308
Canal Zone ----------------------------------------------- 308
Panama health office-- --------------------------------- 313
Colon-Cristobal health office-------------------------------316
Quarantine---------------------------------- ----------317
Tables nceolipanllying report, list of---------------------------- 319

APPENDIX K.

Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington of-
fice--- --------- ----------------------------------------------- 337
Table showing increases in salaries authorized over organization of
July 1, 1917__ ----------------------- 343

APPENDIX L.

Acts of Ciriigress and Executive orders relating. to The Panama Canal auii
to the Canal Zone, index----------------------------------- 34








LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

[Report of the Governor.]
Plate.
1. Chart showing organization of The Panama Canal, July 1, 1919.
APPENDIX A.

[Report of the engineer of maintenance.]

2. Gatun hydroelectric station, typical daily load curves.
3. Power-system demands. Combined generator output: Gatun hydro station,
Mi raflures steam station.
4. Relation of the ultimate compressive strength of concrete test specimens to
the length of time exposed to the air after removal from damp sand
storage, and to the length of time of mixing.
5. Section of Ancon-Pedro Miguel highway. Concrete base, sheet asphalt-wear-
ing surface. June, 1919.
6. Pedro Miguel, Canal Zone. Main Street. June, 1919.
7. Gatun to Mount Hope, Canal Zone. Section of concrete road. June, 1919.
8. Monthly rainfall, year 1918, and station averages.
9. Distribution of rainfall in Canal Zone, maximum, minimum, current and
average years.
10. Operating uses of Gatun Lake water supply; year 1918, dry season 1919.
11. Gatun Lake watershed; yields and losses; massed curves, year 1918.
12. Gatun Lake watershed; total yields; year 1918, dry season 1919 and 8-year
average.
13. Chagres River drainage basin; massed curves-discharge at Alhajuela; maxi-
mum, minimum, current and average years.
14. Chagres River drainage basin; mean monthly discharge at Alhajuela; year
191S, dry season 1919, and 17-year average.
15. Colon-Cristobal ninp. Index map show ing general layout.
APPENDIX B.

[Report of the resident engineer, building division.]

16. New industrial plant at Mount Hope. Southwest view showing cold-storage
plant at right, canning factory at left.
17. New industrial plant at Mount Hope. Northeast view showing abattoir at
left, canning factory at right.
18. Atlantic terminals. New pier No. 6, Cristobal.
19. Atlantic terminals. New pier No. 6, Cristobal. Longitudinal view showing
reinforced concrete roof construction.
241. New Ancon Hispital. Section D.
APPENDIX D.

[Report of the superintendent, mechanical division.]

21. Balboa shops. Charts showing classes of work and source of revenue.
22. Balboa shops. Gross overhead expense percentage compared with total
direct labor charges.
23. Chart showingg comparatively the productive labor and the indirect expense
of mechanical division shops; and factors of indirect expense.
24. Relative cost of power elements showing the evolution of charges trans-
ferred and t1quntities consumed.











ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL.


THE PA N.AI.MA CANAL,
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR,
BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE, Scptfiluer 15, 1919.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the annual report covering the
construction, operation, maintenance, and sanitation of The Panama
Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919.
ORGANIZATION.
There were a few changes in personnel in the principal adminis-
trative positions of the organization. Mr. Walter J. Douglas, who
assumed the duties of engineer of maintenance for the period of the
war emergency and whose services were of much value to the canal,
both as engineer of maintenance and as acting governor during the
absence of the Governor in the United States in December and Jan-
uary, resigned his position on April 30, 1919, to resume his private
practice in New York City.
On May 31, 1919, Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow, Corps of Engineers,
United State- Army, who was called from the canal for service at the
front during the war, was reappointed engineer of maintenance.
Lieut. Col. A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps, United
States Army, was relieved from duty with the canal on January 23,
1919, and his position as chief health officer was filled by the appoint-
ment on March 31, 1919, of Col. H. C. Fisher, Medical Corps, United
States Army. Between the date of Col. McCormack's relief and the
assignment of Col. Fisher, Maj. Robert L. Loughran, Medical
Reserve Corps, United States Army, was acting chief health officer.
Mr. Hartley Rowe resigned his position as resident engineer in
charge of the building division on August 14, 1919, after almost
15 years' continuous service with the canal. His vacancy was filled
by the promotion of Mr. T. C. Morris, assistant engineer.
Commander R. D. Gatewood,' Construction Corps, United States
Navy, superintendent of the mechanical division, was relieved from
duty with the canal by orders from the Navy Department on Feb-
ruary 21, 1919, and Commander E. G. Kintner, Construction Corps,
United States Navy, was appointed to the vacancy.
On September 20, 1918, Mr. T. L. Clear, collector, resigned his
position with the canal to accept a commission in the Inspector Gen-
eral's Department, United States Army. His vacancy was filled by
the appointment of Mr. E. P. Sine.
In several additional cases, in positions of less responsibility,
civilian employees who entered the military or naval service for the




THE PANAMA CANAL.


period of the war have received honorable discharges from such serv-
ices and have been reappointed to their former positions with the
canal. During the critical periods of the war it was necessary for
me to decline to release several employees in the higher grades who
were anxious to serve the country at the front and who could not be
spared without seriously crippling essential work of ihe canal. They
were performing patriotic service for the country in capacities for
which they were particularly qualified by training and experience,
and there would have been no net gain to our belligerent forces on
account of their release from the canal, as their positions must have
been filled by others less well qualified for their duties here and equally
as well qualified as they for military service. In order to assure
these men that they were performing their full duty to their country
in its time of stress I initiated the following correspondence with the
office of the Secretary of War:
BALBOA HEIGHTS, August 17, 1918.
Hon. NEWTON D. BAKER,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.
SIm: I inclose copy of letter received from ----, acting physiologist, dated
the 6th instant, and copy of my reply, together with copy of letter from --,--
chemist, which has a bearing on the same subject. This correspondence relates
particularly to the status of chemists serving on the canal during the war, but
it also has application to employees of various other classes. With the de-
parture of many employees who have resigned to enter the military or the
naval service, with others leaving from day to day, and still others considering
whether it is not their duty to do so, the subject has become one of presing
importance. This is especially so since we have no local supply from which
our force may be replenished, but for every man lost must employ in the States
and bring to the Isthmus a new man, with attendant expense to the Govern-
ment for canvassing and transportation, and some loss in efficiency due to
changes.
The canal organization must not only maintain and operate the canal but,
as essential subsidiary functions, must repair, provision, and bunker ships,
and for itself, as well as for the military and naval establishments here, must
supply water, light, fuel, transportation, and provisions. Our mechanical divi-
sion, incident to the war, has in recent months been called upon to do con-
siderable repair work on merchant and naval vessels, and it is found increas-
ingly difficult to maintain our force of mechanics and shipwrights for this
purpose.
Something has been done to meet the situation by the employment of men
over age or disqualified for active service or of men less competent than -'would
be ordinarily required and, for clerical work, by the employment of women
resident with their families on the Isthmus. We have just employed a woman
chemist, having found it impossible to secure a man for the place, which it
was necessary to fill. However, the backbone of our gold force must consist,
as hitherto, of technical men or skilled craftsmen who know their work and
can be relied upon to perform it day in and day out. It would not be safe
to attempt to do the work that must be done here with a force of any
other kind.
As the subject is of so much importance to others of our employees, as well
as to the chemists, I have expressed myself rather fully in my reply to -----,
and I believe that I am on firm ground in stating that th1e services of our
essential employees are just as necessary and just as patriotic as the services
of men employed in similar capacities by the Government in the United States.
If you can briefly endorse the views expressed in my letter to -----_ for the
information of our employees through publication in The Pa;min;n Canal Ilecord,
it would tend to clear up the situation and to relieve the minds of many of
our employees who desire at this time to do their full duty, but are doubtful
where that duty lies. In any event, it will continue to be inmy policy to spare,
if at all possible, the services of any employee who desires to join the military
or naval forces.
Respectfully,


(Signed)


CHESTER HARDING, Gouvernor.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


WASHINGTON, D. C., September 9, 10IS.
Colonel CHESTER HARDING, U. S. A.,
Governor of The Panama Canal, Balboa IHcights, Canal Zone.
Mly DEAR GOVERNOR: I am in receipt of your letter of the 17th ultimo, with
its inelo(sures, regarding the loss of men in the Panama Canal service on ac-
count of present war conditions. Your statements regarding the particular
case mentioned have been noted, and it is also observed that you have assumed
a very liberal attitude in sparing, whenever possible, the services of ainy
canal employee who desires to join the military or naval forces. I agree with
you that an efficient canal organization must be maintained and that the
services of essential Panama Canal employees are just as necessary at this
time, and just as patriotic as the services of men employed in similar capacities
by the Government in the United States, and I have no objection to your
c1ounniiiunic,1ting my views in the matter to any employee whlo may be undecided
as to whether to remain on the Isthmus or to return to the United States to
assume employment there.
Very truly, yours,
(Signed) BENEDICT CROWELL,
Acting Secretary of War.

WASHINGTON, D. C., ."'ptCembcr 20, 1918S.
Colonel CHESTER HARDING, U. S. A.,
Governor of The Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.
MY DEAR GOVERNOR: The receipt is acknowledged of your letter of the 4-th
instant, supplementing your letter of the 17th ultimo, regarding the loss of men
in the Panama Canal service on account of existing war conditions.
In my opinion the operation and maintenance of The Panama Canal is a very
important part of the prvstlnt war program, and therefore it is imperative that
an efficient canal organization be maintained. During the present crisis men
must be placed where they can be of greatest value to the Government, which
action must be based upin their previous training and experienllce. Those men
who have served for a long period on The Panama Canal, working up to re-
sponsible positions, should not be transferred to other branches of the Govern-
ment service unless you can il their places without serious loss of cfficienviuy
or unless it can be clearly shown to you in each individual case that their serv-
ices can be used to much greater advantage during the existing war by an-
other branch of the Government. * *
Sincerely, yours.
(Signed) BENEDICT CROWELL,
Acting Secretary of War.
Quotations from essential parts of this correspondence were fur-
nished employees whose requests for release had been declined by
me and served to reassure them that they were giving best service to
the Government in the positions in which they were employed. The
total number of canal employees who left the service to enter the
military and naval service for the period of the emergency was ap-
proximately 394.
The services rendered by the canal that had a bearing upon the
conduct of the war were made the subject of a special report to the
Secretary of War on December 6, 1918.

DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.

BUILDING DIVISION.

This division is charged with all new building construction work
for the canal and railroad and such work for the Army and Navy
establishments in the Canal Zone as is assigned to it from time to
time. Its organization performs maintenance, and repair work on
buildings of the canal and railroad which in any instance exceed $75




THE PANAMA CANAL.


in estimated costs. Mr. Hartley Rowe continued in charge as resi-
dent engineer until June 14, 1919, when he left the Isthmus in an-
ticipation of his resignation. During his absence the work was in
charge of Mr. T. C. Morris, assistant engineer, who was later ap-
pointed to fill the vacancy in the position of resident engineer. On
August 1, 1918, the northern and southern districts were consoli-
dated, and on September 17, 1918, the separate district including
the work for the Army and Navy at Coco Solo and vicinity, was
eliminated as a separate district.
Two of the larger projects under construction at the beginning of
the year, the new Pier No. 6 at Cristobal and the hospital group at
Ancon, were completed. Detailed descriptions of the work were
given in the report for last year. The noteworthy feature of the
design of Pier No. 6 as constructed is the general substitution of
reinforced concrete for steel in the floor and in the roof structure,
necessitated by the abnormally high cost of steel shapes. The roof
trusses, originally designed in steel, were cast in concrete, with the
necessary reinforcing, and lifted into position after having thor-
oughly set. The heaviest truss so built in place weighed 18.35 tons.
The saving effected by the substitution of this type of roof truss for
steel is estimated at $200,000. The total cost of the pier was
$2,093,190, and the amount expended during the year was $827,330.20.
In the Ancon Hospital project buildings under construction and
completed were two ward groups haNving a capacity of 192 patients
each and a superintendent's house. As explained in last year's report,
this project was begun in 1915 under authority of Congress and in-
volved the remnonval of the old frame wards, operating rooms, admin-
istration units, etc., constructed by the French, and the erection of
concrete buildings of modern type. The total cost of the project now
completed was $1,590,330.52, of which the sum of $310,156.02 was
expended during the year.
For the canal the building division constructed various other
buildings, as follows, the state of completion and the amount ex-
pended to July 1, 1919, being indicated in each case:

Per cent Amount
completed expended
to July 1, to July 1,
1919. 1919.

10 family quarters for silver employees, at Mount Hope, frame ................ .. 90 99, 362. 79
restaurant, Pedro Miguel.................................................. 100 32,604.21
1 crude oil tank, Mount Hope.............................................. 100 54, 0'.5. 60
1 silver clubhouse, Red Tank........................ ....................... 100 10,489.28
1 silver clubhouse, Gatun................................................ .......... 90 6,937. 57
1 Lighthouse subdivision office, for marine division, Gatun...................... 45 11 885.60
1 storage building for section of surveys, Balboa Heights.........-.............. 100 4 739.36
1 tuberculosis ward at Corozal................................ .............. 85 2,394.85
112-stall boathouse, Gatun......................................... ....... 100 7,201.11
1 storehouse for printing plant at Mount Hope................................ 100 2,824.98
For the Panama Railroad:
1 ice and cold-storage plant, at Cristobal................................... 100 530, 648.25
1 slaughterhouse, at Cristobal............. .................... 100 149,443.14
1 meat canning plant, Cristobal ................................. ......... 100 70,685.73
1 machine shop, Cristobal................... .......................... 90 7 400.91
1 carpenter shop, Cristobal.............................................. .. 90 5461.07
boiler house, Cristobal......................................... ........ 95 24,;30. 94
1 garage, Cristobal.......................................... ...........97 7,5 7.22
1 temporary bone mill and fertilizer plant, Cristobal......................... 100 2, 155.58

For the Navy building-construction work was performed at Coco
Solo, payable from Navy funds, at a total cost of $905,801.32.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


For the Army, from funds appropriated for cantonments, three
barracks were completed; also a large amount of alteration and
repair work to existing barracks was performed. The total amount
expended under the $500,000 cantonment appropriation was $254,-
363.06.
By direction of the Secretary of War the amount of $3,986,849
appropriated for the housing of two Infantry regiments on the Canal
Zone was allotted to the Governor for expenditure, and the work con-
templated, as approved by the military authorities, was assigned to
the building division. Work was begun in June, 1919. A detailed
description of the types of buildings to be constructed is contained in
the report of the resident engineer, Appendix "B."
Work was done for companies authorized to locate within the
Canal Zone as follows: For the Central & South Amnerican Tele-
graph Company, eight type 17 quarters and two sets of nonfamily
quarterss of special design.
Work was begun on office building and bachelor quarters in Bal-
boa. For the West India Oil Company at Balboa, one type 17 non-
family house was constructed and one of similar type for the Sea-
men's Home at Cristobal.
A table showing the unit cost of the various types of buildings con-
structed is attached to Appendix B.
LocKS OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
The number of lockages of all classes of vessels for the year was
6,938, of which 2,161 were at Gatun, 2,444 at Pedro Miguel, and 2,333
at Miraflores. These lockages drew from Gatun and Miraflores
Lakes a total of 17,071.68 million cubic feet of water. A total of
2,061 commercial vessels passed through Gatun locks, 2,045 through
Pedro Miguel locks, and 2,048 through Miraflores locks. Two hun-
dred and eighty-two vessels of the United States Army and Navy,
for which no tolls were paid, passed through Gatun locks, 243
through Pedro Miguel locks, and 242 through Miraflores locks. A
delay of five hours to traffic occurred on June 14, due to flooding of
the lower east chamber at Miraflores by a blunder of the operator in
manipulating the control board, as the result of which the lower
chamber was connected with the Miraflores Lake level. Beyond the
delay to traffic no serious consequences resulted from the accident.
For purposes of inspection and maintenance work on submerged
parts of the locks, gates, and machinery the lock chambers were
unwatered and out of commission as follows: At Gatun-West
chamber from January 10, 1919, to February 10, 1919; ea'st chamber
from February 10, 1919, to March 10, 1919; at Miraflores-west
chamber from Ma rch 22, 1919, to June 12, 1919.
No unusual work of maintenance or repair was required at any of
the locks, except that the wooden fender at the north approach wall
at Miraflores had to be entirely renewed, on account of the destruc-
tion of the timbers of the old structure by the teredo. This work of
replaceiitent was begun in Febriiuary, 1919, and completed in June. It
was done by the lock forces, the cost. being $16,SO03.16. The fender at
the south i'pproa;ch wall at Pedro Miguel was repaired, its condition
not requiring its entire replacement.
Tlie increasing salinity of Miraflores Lake, duj to the inevitable
transfer to it of sea water in lockage operations, subjects all sub-
ii0921- '10-2





THE PANAMA CANAL.


merged timbers in Miraflores locks and at the lower end of Pedro
Miguel locks to active attacks of these marine worms. Where prac-
ticable trial is being made of a native hard wood, almendra, to de-
termine its resistance to such attacks. Careful examination was
made to discover the wear of moving parts of submerged mechanisms
of all locks, with the object of providing for the timely renewal of
such as required it. The only parts that showed progressive deteri-
oration were the roller trains and tracks attached to the rising stem
valves, for the purpose of providing rolling friction and thus reduc-
ing resistance to the operation of the valves. The roller shanks were
generally considerably reduced in size, and the bearings were en-
larged to such an extent as to necessitate their gradual replacement.
Provision will be made in the estimates submitted for funds to cover
the work. The valves were found to be generally in good condition,
the corrosion of rivet heads and seals by voltaic action, as noted in
previous reports, having been apparently checked by the application
of bitumastic enamel. For further details see the report of the
engineer of maintenance, Appendix A.
ELECTRICAL DiVISION.
This division continued in the charge of Mr. Walter L. Hersh,
;:1 electrical engineer. The work consisted of operating and main-
taining the steam and hydroelectric power plants, substations, trans-
missionI1 lines, and power-distribution systems; the maintenance of
the systems of lighting for the Canal Zone, including the Army
and Navy establishments, the maintenance of telephones and tele-
gr.aphs, fire alarm and railway signal systems, and the railway in-
terlocking plants, and the installation and maintenance of such
electrical equipment as was required by the canal, the railroad, the
Army and Navy, and such commercial vessels as required electrical
work while transiting the canal.
The installation of the new generator unit, No. 4, at the Gatun
hydroelectric station, with its appurtenances, reported as being in
progress in last year's report, was completed and placed in operation
during the month of November. This work increased the capacity
of the Gatun hydroelectric station to 13,500 KW. The additional
unit, No. 5, for which funds have been heretofore provided, has been
ordered. After the unit No. 4 was placed in operation, the capacity
of the Gatiin station was sufficient to take care of peak loads without
the nece.sity of operating the Miraflores steam-power plant for the
purpose. The Miraflores plant is therefore on a strictly reserve
basis and is not operated for the generation of current, except in
eimergcnicy cases or failure of the trainsisthm ian transiiission line.
For this purpose, in order to be immediately available for emer-
gencies, it is necessary to maintain steam on the boilers and to
operate the generators synchronously with the generators at Gatun
by power derived from the Gatun station. By the proper mechanical
devices the steam power at Miraflores automatically drives the gen-
crnit''rs at Miraflores as soon as the failure in the transmission line

At the Gatun substation the work of changing the bus potention
from 2',2--00 volts to 6,600 volts, in progre-s at the date of last year's
report, was completed in November. An additional 2,200-volt feeder





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


equipment was installed in Gatun substation for supplying power
and lighting current to the new Army post at Gatun.
At the Cristobal substation a second 2,667 KVA., 44,000-2,200-
volt transformer, which was removed from the Gatun substation,
was rebuilt and installed. This change has increased the capacity
of the Cristobal substation for the purpose of supplying power for
the new cold-storage plant at Mount Hope and for the Army and
Navy establishments to the east of Manzanillo Bay.
At Miraflores substation a 2,200-volt feeder equipment was in-
stalled to serve the new Army post near Miraflores. An additional
feeder equipment was installed at the Balboa substation to meet the
increased demands for light and power in the vicinity. An addi-
tional transformer was installed at the Balboa substation for sup-
plying.service required by the Army establishment at Fort Amador
and vicinity.
Failures in the transmission line across the Isthmus were greatly
reduced in number by the installation of an additional unit to the
insulators on the line. Failures from the breakdown of insulators
occurred in 1917 to the number of 17, and in 1918 to the number
.of 29, and in 1919, up to the month of February, at which time the
additional insulators were installed, there were 32 breaks. From
February to June 30 there were no transmission line interruption"
due to insulation failures.
Extensions and improvements of the underground power systems
included a main of 82,740 duct feet of vitrified-tile duct, 40,460 feet
of fiber duct, and 218,840 feet of lead-covered cable. Included in
these figures the principle items are: Feeder circuits to the Ariiy
post at Miraflores, additional feeder to Ancon Hospital, a 6.(0i-
volt feeder to the Army post at the Pacific entrance, and distri-
bution systems in the Army and Navy establishments to the east
of Manzanillo Bay. The additions to the street-lighting systems
at Coco Solo, New Cristobal, Ancon, Quarry Heights, and Red Tank
required a total of 173 additional street lamps, and approximately
53,000 feet of armored lead-covered cable. The average monthly
unit output from the generating stations was 4,478,330 kilowatt
hours, as compared with 4,419,192 kilowatt hours a month for List
year. The reduction in fuel consumption at the Miraflores plant.
resulting from the increased capacity of the Gatun station, amounted
to 3101 barrels of fuel oil for the seven months of the year following
the installation of the additional unit at Gatun.
The average cost of distributing the power was 0.S487 cent per
kilowatt hour. The average cost of lighting, including lamp re-
newals, was 1.2942 cents per kilowatt hour. The principal loads in
kilowatts added during during the year were as follows:

Power. Light.
Navy aerostation............. ..... ......................................30 50
Army aerosttion...... .. .................... .................... ........ .. ........... 0so 50
Cold storage plant. M urintL if'ii' ........... ............ ..... ............... ........ .I,V() 40
Pacific forts................................................... 245 150
Street lihting........... ............................................. ............... 50
Industrialsehool................... .................................... ..... .. 20 ..........
Ancon Hospit ................. .. ............ ... ............................. 40 60
Holel, at Pedro Migmizrl......................................................... 10 5
Water-supply pump saL iilln, lio jIranile ............................ 150 ............
Anconlaundry.............. ................. ................... 20 ...........
Quarters for the cable company.............................................. 30 10


~





THE PANAMA CANAL.


The operation and maintenance of the machinery of the Gatun
spillway is assigned to the electrical division, and the work per-
formed by the force at the hydroelectric plant. There were 317 gate
operait ions recorded, of which 271 were for lake regulations and 46
for inspection and testing of equipment. There were no failures of
spillway equipment. and no difficulties in operation.
There was an increase of 444 telephone installations during the
year, 916 being installed and 472 removed. At the end of June, 1919,
there were 2,967 telephones in service. The average number of tele-
phone calls per day of 8 hours was 22,630. The average number
of telephone trouble cases was 6 a day, as compared with 91 a day for
last year. There were in service at the close of the fiscal year 627,334
feet of cable, an increase of 35,095 feet during the year.
The electrical fire-alarm systems were maintained. Thirteen
alarms were turned in, and no failures of alarm apparatus occurred.
In the railway-signal system there were 2,084,908 registered arm
movements, with 97 failures of operation, as compared with 2,404,176
registered arm movements, with 131 failures, for the preceding year.
There were 181 train-minutes' delay caused by signal failures, as
compared with 556 train-minutes' delay for last year.
At the electrical repair shop 291 armatures were rewound, 120
transformers and compensators were repaired and rewound, 114
magnetos and fans were repaired and rewound, 93 miscellaneous
electrical appliances were repaired, 108 switchboard panels Imaniu-
fact Iur-ed, and 129 miscellaneous machines were repaired and rebuilt.
The principal items of marine electrical work included the complete
overhauling of elect rical equipment, the installation of wireless appa-
ratus on five ex-German ships, which were overhauled for the United
States Shipping Board at Balbao, and the installation of all electrical
equipment on the Coast Guard cutter Manhattan, which was built at
the Balboa shops.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix A.

MNUI(C.IPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.

The municipal engineer in charge of this division, Mr. D. E.
Wright, resigned to accept a temporary commission in the United
States Army on October 22, 1918, and upon receiving his honorable
discharge from military service resumed his duties with the canal on
March 22, 1919. During the absence of Mr. Wright the work of the
di\v i;ion was supervised by Mr. Roy C. Hardman, as acting municipal
engineer.
The usual work of operation and maintenance of water reservoirs,
pumping stations, and filtration plants and the maintenance and
repair of municipal improvements in the Canal Zone and the cities
of Panama and Colon were performed.
New road-construction work included roads in the Ancon Hospital
grounds, a road from Pedro Miguel to Paraiso, and one from Gatun
to Mount Hope. Miscellaneous municipal work, including the con-
struction of concrete roads, walks, sewers, etc.,.was performed for the
submarine bal:-.e and the naval air station at Coco Solo, and for the
Army at the new aviation base at France Field and at the various
posts throughout, the Canal Zone. A large amount of miscellaneous
miiuniicipal construction work was also performed for the various





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


departments of The Panama Canal and for the Panama Railroad.
The amounts expended on this work at the different localities are
indicated as follows:
Halb)a. terminals----------- ---------------------------- $7, 1l3. 00
IlPar;i i-('Gaubo)a road- ___---------------------------------- ;i), 3. (
Resurfacing streets in PeI'dro Miguel------------------------- 32, 258. 00
Resurfacing streets in Paraiso----------------------------- _______________18, 074. 00
Construction of roads in Ancon Hospital grou_______ __________---------------- 99,676.00
Reconstruction of roads in Ancon----------------------------17, 20. 00
Hesurfacing main street, Gatun----------------------------- 22,485.00
Reconstruction of Mount Hope-Gatun road and municipal in prove-
ments at Mount Hope------------------------------------- 149, 210. 00
Miscellaneous municipal work for United States Navy ______-----------84,22.
MNiscellaneous nuniuciipal work for United States Army --------________-- 112,098. 75iT
Miscellaneous municipal work for Panama Canal departments and
for the Panama railroad--------------------------------_ 152,191.27
In addition to the above, an appropriation of $842,000 was received
for the construction of roads, streets, walks, ,sewver and water lines,
and other general municipal work for the two new Army posts at
Miraflores and Gatun. Work was commenced in May and by the
end of June $123,642.47 had been expended.
The usual maintenance work of the water and sewer systems and
of the pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon was done. In
the city of Panama 11,147 square yards of sheet asphalt were laid.
The total expenditures in these two cities for the routine maintenamnie
york was $165,288.87. On account of the inadequacy of certain
sewer mains in the city of Panama, as originally ins-talled, work was
begun on the construction of new sewer outfalls and the enlargement
of a number of storm sewer drains. The details of tlhe work thus
far performed in this project are given in the report of the municipal
engineer, Appendix A. The amount expended up to June 30, 1919,
was $52,455. This expenditure and all expenditures for municipal
work in the cities of Panama and Colon are, under the agreement
with Panama, to be reimbursed to the United States from the water
revenues in the two cities.
The total number of gallons of water for all purposes pumiiped at
the various pumping stations was ns follows:
Gallons.
At Gamboa ----------------------------------------_______________________ 3, 691, 800, 00)
Miraflores------------------- ------------------------4 2 1, () I
Balboa--______________________ 2, 655, 479, 000
Paraiso ________________________________________________--------------------------------------------- 74, 640, 010
Cucaracha ------------------------------------------ 961 651
Camacho tanks -----------------------------------_ 72,261
Camacho mains------------ ---------------------- ____________________ 745,
Mount Hope ____________------------------------------------- 1, 647, 850. 000
Agua' Claran _ -------------------________---------- 42-124. 79S
Frijoles_____________________ ---------------------------------------------, 138, 000
Monte Lirio-------------------------------------------_____ 3, 523,000
The divisional co t of water delivered in the soverail districts was
as follows pei 1,000 gallons:
Cristobal __ ____ __--------------------------------------------------- $0.07
Giltun---______--------------------------------------------------- .11
Ga noa .-- --__________ --------------- __ _- _-- ___- .14
Pr;iso_______-----------------------------------_ _______________------------------_ .07
Pedro Miguel --------------- --------------- ---------__ ___---__ .07
Miraflores------------ --------------- ------------__----------- .i);
Ancon-Balbo -- -------------------------------------__------ ____ .





THE PANAMA CANAL.


The sale of water to vessels was as follows: At Cristobal, 1,589
vessels received 75,536,354 gallons; at Balboa, 1,290 vessels received
27,048,500 gallons.
The water consumption in the city of Panama was 915,047,000 gal-
lons, and in the city of Colon, including the canal hospital and the
Panama Railroad projects in Colon, 558,546,450 gallons. The filtra-
tion and purification plants at Miraflores, Gatun, and Mount Hope
provided water of the usual high standard. The expense of opera-
tion of these plants is included in the cost per gallon, above stated.
For further details, attention is invited to the report of the muni-
cipal engineer, Appendix A.

METEOROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY.

The operation of this division remained in the charge of Mr. H. G.
Cornthwaite, as chief hydrographer, until February 21, 1919, when
Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick, who had left the service of the canal to enter
the military service, returned to his former position with the canal.
The observation stations, enumerated in last year's report, continued
in operation, and several new stations were established, as follows:
A rain gage was installed on the Cocoli arm of Miraflores Lake on August 16,
1918.
An evaporation station was established in Gamboa in September, 1918, and also
on Miraflores Lake on December 24, 1918.
A standard rain gage was installed on the Pequini branch of the Chagres River
on December 21, 1918.
These stations are used in determining the rainfall and evapora-
tion affecting Gatun and Miraflores lakes.
An anemoscope and quadruple register were installed on Soso Hill on August
21, 1918, for registering the velocity and direction of the wind.
A fully equipped weather station was established at Cape Mala on March 14,
1919, in charge of the chief electrician, naval radio station.
Weather reports are received by radio from this station at 8 a. m.
and 1 p. m. daily, and are of value in advising shipping interests of
Ihe conditions of weather and sea at the entrance of the Gulf of
Panama.
The rainfall for the calendar year 1918 was below normal at all
stations except Empire and Bocas del Toro. The deficiencies were
3.77 inches at Colon and 39.59 at Bohio. October was the month of
heaviest rainfall, and February the month of lightest. The average
rainfall recorded at the various stations in the Pacific section was
62.20 inches, in the central section 85.08 inches, and in the Atlantic
section 117.86 inches. The greatest precipitation in 24 consecutive
hours occurred on October 16-17, 1918, amounting to 8.12 inches.
During the first three months of 1919 the rainfall was the lowest
on record at several stations, but the dry season was terminated about
two weeks earlier than usual, and the rainy-season conditions were
well established before the middle of April.
The air temperatures for the calendar year 1918 were normal.
Wind movement in the Canal Zone was above normal. Northwest,
north, and northeast winds prevailed at all stations. The maximum
wind velocity during the year 1918 occurred at Gamboa on June 5 and
attained a velocity of 39 miles per hour,





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Evaporation from Gatuni Lake exceeded the highest annual evapo-
ration since the filling of the lake. Fog conditions, as usual, were
absentt at the Atlantic entrance of the canal, and there were 1Nit few
fogs ;at the Pacific entrance. Fogs ocicIrred fre quently at the interior
stations during the rainy season, ;ind, as usual, were dissipated by
8.30 a. m.
There were 40 seismic disturbances recorded, all slight and none
resulting in damage to any canal structures.
There was an abnormally high spring tide in Panama Bay on
Octo ber 21-22, 1918. The high-wa ter stage, of +11.2 feet was recorded
at Balboa. The prevalence of fresh southerly winds on these two
dates assisted in producing an abnormal height of water.
The maximum momentary discharge of the Chagres River was
61,200 c. f. s., and the minimum momentary discharge was 446 c. f. s.,
on April 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1918. Of the total yield of the Gatun Lake
watershed, 12 per cent was absorbed by evaporation, 20 per cent by
the hydraulic plant at Gatun, 9 per cent by lockages and miscellaneous
uses, and 59 per cent by the necessary spillway dis.charge to maintain
the lake at the standard level during the wet season. On December
15, 1918, the elevation of Gatun Lake was 8.98 feet above sea level,
and on April 12, 1919, the elevation had been reduced to 83.70 feet
above sea level.
Investigations were made of currents in the Gaillard Cut section
of the canal, with the following results: During the dry season, with
the prevailing northerly3, winds, there is an almost continual drift
toward Pedro Miguel. The nmaxininmu current velocity recorded was
0.94 knot per hour toward Pedro Miguel, occurring in the canal
channel opposite Gold Hill eight minutes after both cha mbers were
filled simultaneously. With the canal prism at its present full width
at Culebra, the drift due to lock operations at Pedro Miguel will pro-
duce an estimated maximum current velocity of not more than 1 knot
per hour.
For further detail- attention is invited to Appendix A.

SECTION OF SURVEYS.

Mr. Fred R. Fitch continued as assistant engineer in charge of this
section until February 1, 1919, when Mr. 0. E. Mal-bury, who hadl
left the canal service to enter the military service during the. wvr,
received his discharge from the Army and resumed his duties with
the canal. The. duties of this section included surveys of all Panama
Railroad lands and lots as required, the maintenance of canal bound-
ary mnonumients, triangulation stations, and bench marks. and also
such surveys and maps as were required from time to time by the
various departments and divisions of the canal, by the Army and
Navy, and the joint commission.
Colon corner and grade stakes were set on 33 lots, and in the Folks
River district corner and grade stakes were set on 2 lots. Corner
stakes were set on 4 lots in the city of Panama.
Observations were continued on Gatun dam, indicating normal
settlement. Twenty-four monuments were set on the isolated 100-
foot contour line in the Rio Trinidad Valley. One hundred stations
in the Canal Zone triangulation system were repaired and cleared.


11





THE PANAMA CANAL.


Maps were made embracing Colon, Cristobal, New Cristobal, Folks
River, and Mount Hope, showing all Panama Railroad and canal
buildings, fire alarms, sewer manholes, hydrants, and electrical ma n-
holes. The tracings are in four sections on a scale of -TT. Surveys
and maps were made in connection with the plantations and pastures
of the supply department. A survey was made locating the boundary
lines of the Fort Randolph military reservation. A large map of the
Coco Solo naval reservation was made by pantograph from various
maps and measurements taken on the ground. A survey was made
and a map prepared showing the boundary lines, towers, and build-
ings of the Cape MTln radio station.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix A.

SECTION OF OFFICE ENGINEER.

Mr. C. J. Embree remained in charge of this section until his resig-
nation on October 31, 1918, for service in the Army, when he was
succeeded by Mr. F. W. Blackwood. Mr. Embree resumed his duties
on January 5, 1919, having received his discharge from the Army.
This section continued the engineering, architectural, electrical, and
miscellaneous design work required for all divisions of the canal
except the mechanical division. A total of 672 working drawings
were issued during the year. The most important designing work
was in connection with the building construction programs of the
Army and Navy establishments on the Isthmus and for the building
and electrical divisions of The Panama Canal.
There were issued from the blue-print room 250,928 square feet of
blue prints, 28,331 square feet of white prints, and 7,444 square feet
of brown prints, at an average cost of 1.085 cents per square foot.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix A.

MARINE DIVISION.

Capt. L. R. Sargent, United States Navy, continued in charge of
this division as marine superintendent. The various restrictions
covering pilotages and movements of vessels in defensive areas were
progressively relaxed after the suspension of hostilities on November
11, 1918, with the corresponding progressive return to normal pro-
cedure in the handling of shipping within the canal. The local pro-
cedure in such matters as trade control and travel control, requiring
the inspection of vessels during canal transit, was gradually restored
to normal as the war-time precautions were relaxed by the govern-
mental authorities in Washington.
On September 30, 1918, the San Jose Island light was established,
completing the contemplapi ted system of navigation aids for the Pacific
approach to the canal. Panama Canal craft loaned to the local naval
establishment during the war were returned. At the request of the
United States Shipping Board, under the direction of the marine
division, and with canal equipment, five ex-German vessels acquired
from the Peruvian Government were towed to the canal. In the local
steamboat-inspection service the board of local inspectors, under the
supervision of the marine superintendent, performed the following
duties:





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Semi-annual inspection of all floating plant of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Com'iiipj;ny on the Isthmus were iiaIde and reports uibmuitted.
Aininiul inspections were made and certificates of seaworthiness issued to
5 American steaners, 18 foreign steamers, 60 motor boats of the canal,
3 motor boats of the Panama Railroad Ciiinipuny, and S8 privately owned
motor boats.
Inspection and hydrostatic tests were made of 46 boilers on floating equip-
ment of the canal and railroad.
Inspection and appraisals were made from time to time of floating plant for
sale or transfer.
Licenses were issued to 8 pilots, 31 masters, 11 mates, 18 engineers, and 59
motor-boat operators.
The board of admeasurement, of which the marine superintendent
is chairman, made the necessary Iieasurements and furnished the
necessary data for fixing the tolls of ships that transited the canal.
The necessary remedial legislation fixing the canal system of
nmeasurement, as the basis for tolls was again brought to the atten-
tion of the Secretary of War, and by him presented to proper com-
inittees of Congress, with the urgent request for appropriate action
by Congress. The tolls collected during the year amounted to
$6,149,598.54. On the basis of the Panama Canal rules, tolls would
have been $7,017,125.02, an increase to the revenues of the canal of
$867,526.48.
The total number of ships making the transit. of the canal was
2,025, of which 860 passed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and
1,165 in the contrary direction. Their aggregate net tonnage, ac-
cording to Panama Canal rules of measurement, was 6,131,575 tons.
Cargo carried through the canal was 6,877,649 long tons. Of this total
2,705,001 tons passed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 4,172,558
tons in the contrary direction. A total of 249 ships passed through
the canal in ballast, 138 from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 111
from the Pacific to the Atlantic. A total of 186 United States Navy
vessels passed through the canal, 102 southbound and 84 northbound.
The average net tonnage of commercial ships transition the canal
was 3,337 tons. The average net tonnage of ships carrying cargo
was 3,404.
The traffic for the fiscal year showed a decrease in the number of
ships and in the tonnage and cargo amounting, respectively, to 4.93
per cent, 7.92 per cent, and 9.05 per cent, as compared with the
preceding year. Classified according to nationality, the ships enter-
ing the canal were as follows: United States, TS6; British, 602;
Norwegian, 128; French, 104; Chilean, 93; Japanese, 87; Danish,
79; Peruvian, 65; Swedish, 29; Dutch, 19; Costa Rican, 12; S nish,
5; Chinese, 4; Greek. 3; Russian, 3; Canadian, 2; Belgian, Colom-
bian, Ecuadorian, and Mexican, 1 each.
For the purpose of bringing to the attention of shipping interests
the facilities of the canal and the advantage of the Panama Canal
route, correspondence has been initiated with shipping agencies in
England, France, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and
Japan. Data and information of interest affecting the canal have
been furnished from time to time to the United States consuls and
commercial agents in various cities of the world. At a time when the
nations are making preparations for the resumption and extension of
the world's commerce, it has been deemed proper and expedient to
disseminate accurate information, in order that the preparedness of





THE PANAMA CANAL.


the canal to serve the interests of coinnierce may be generally known
and understood, and that those charged with the routing of ships
might be in a position to avail themselves of the canal if it should be
of benefit to their interests so to do. It should be emphasized that the
canal is now in condition to operate at its full capacity, and that it
will be prepared to meet the demands of increasing traffic as they
arise.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix C.

DREDGING DivisION.
This division continued to maintain the canal prism throughout.
and in addition performed work as requested by the Navy, in con-
nection with the submarine base at Coco Solo. The division remained
in charge of Mr. J. M. Pratt, as superintendent, under supervision of
the engineer of maintenance.
The various units of the dredging plant were engaged upon the fol-
lowing work:
The 15-yard dipper dredge Paraiso was operated for 7 months on general main-
tenance work in the Gaillard Cut in completing the channel near Gamboa,
in widening the prism at the Paraiso point of intersection, and in the
Pacific entrance channel.
The 15-yard dipper dredge Gamboa was operated for about 10 months in main-
tenance work in Gaillard Cut, and in the improvement at Paraiso and
Miraflores points of intersection.
The 15-yard dipper dredge Cascadas was at work throughout the year in widen-
ing the approach channels to Cristobal Harbor and the west slip at the
Cristobal coaling plant, in removing the shoal along the face of Pier No. 10
at Cristobal, maintenance work in the vicinity of Culebra, the channel
improvements at the Paraiso point of intersection, and in rock excavation
at Balboa inner harbor and the Pacific entrance.
The ladder dredge Corozal was engaged in deepening and removing rock shoals
in the Pacific entrance channel until March 6, 1919, on which date she was
retired from the service.
The ladder ii&edl- Mlarmot was operated in the Miraflores point of intersection
improvement work until September 23, when she was retired and laid up,
The 20-inch pipe-line suction dredge No. 83 was retired on July 10, 1918.
The 20-inch pipe line suction dredge No. 84 was worked throughout the year
on maintenance work at the Pacific entrance, Balboa inner harbor, and at
the Miraflores improvements.
The 20-inch pipe line suction dredge No. 86 was operated throughout the year
in the approaches of Cristobal harbor, at the Cristobal coaling station, at
the submarine basin at Coco Solo, in filling swamp areas for the Navy
Department at Coco Solo, deepening the Pacific entrance and Balboa
inner harbor channels, and reclaiming sand and gravel at Point ChamO,
and in the Chagres River at Gamboa.
Drill boat Teredo No. 2 was operated for eight months in subaqueous blasting
work on Paraiso and Miraflores channel improvements, and in the Pacific
entrance channel.
Hydraulic grader No. 1 maintained the drainage ditches in the Culebra slides.
Hydraulic grader No. 2 was engaged in maintaining drainage ditches in the
Culebra slides until September 12, on which date she was retired.
Hydraulic grader No. 3 was at work in maintaining drainage ditches in the
Culebra slides until December 24, when she was retired.
The floi ;iting air compressor No. 27 was operated until January 24, 1919, when
she was retired from the service.
Two of the tuglij;is t' which were luoued to the Navy Department during the war
were returned to canal service. The tug Alliance was lost at sea on Au-
gust 2, 1918. Two tugs were retired, and there remained in the service
on June 30, 1919, four tugboats.
This dredging plant excavated a grand total of 4,460,665 cubic
yards of material, at an average unit cost of 0.4733 cent per yard.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Of this quantity, 2,473,200 cubic yards, of which 1,616,300 were earth
and 8.51r,900 were rock, were removed from the canal prism; the
yardage removed from Gaillard Cut was 753,800, of which 157,400
were earth and 596,400 rock; and the yardage removed in the main-
tenance, of the prismi in the Culebra slide region was 448,600, as conm-
pared with 1,316,315 cubic yards during the preceding year.
On June 30, 1919, the amount remaining to be removed from the
canal prism was 3,454,800 cubic yards, of which 173,200 are charge-
able to construction and 3,281,600 chargeable to maintenance. The
amount chargeable to construction represents the remaining material
to be removed in order to complete the original excavation for the
full width.of the canal prism throughout its length. The yardage
removed from the canal prism during the year was 2,473,200, of which
280,000 were original excavation chargeable to construction and
2,193,200 were maintenance work. During the year a total of 264,-
500 cubic yards of material was removed in the project for widening
the channel at the Paraiso point of intersection, leaving 18,100 cubic
yards of earth and 56,300 cubic yards of rock to be removed to com-
plete the project. In the widening of the canal prism along the west
bank of the canal immediately south of Miraflores locks, 354,200
cubic yards of earth and rock were removed, leaving a total of 51,700
cubic yards of earth and 142,900 cubic yards of rock to be removed
to complete the project.
At no time during the year was there difficulty in maintaining
full width and depth of the channel in the Culebra slide region, and
the diminished amount of excavation required to maintain the chan-
nel is an indication of gradually improving conditions. Observa-
tions periodically made of the fixed points established in 1916 on
Gold, Zion, Contractors, and Purple hills indicated no movement
of the banks in their vicinity.
In the sand and gravel production 6,755 cubic yards were exca-
vated from the Chagres River beds and 5,310 cubic yards for special
purposes from Point Chame. With these exceptions, all sand and
gravel necessary for constructional purposes was taken from the
stock piles heretofore deposited at the Gamnboa gravel plant.
The dikes and groins along the beach at the south of Limon Bay
and west. of the canal were maintained. No new dikes or groins
were constructed or required. The usual work of extermination
of the water hyacinth -was conducted. Nine thousand four hundred
and sixty-seven old plants and 922,510 young plants were pulled and
deposited on shore, and 22,192 square yards of hyacinths were de-
stroyed by spraying with arsenic solution. Necessary progress sur-
veys were made of the dredged areas in the canal prism and in the
various auxiliary (redging works.
For further details. attention is invited to Appendix A.
MECHANICAL DIVISION.
The work of this division was under the supervision of Comman-
der R. D. Gatewood, United States Navy, as superintendent, until
February 21, 1919, on which date Commander E. G. Kintner, United
States Navy, succeeded to the position. No important additions or
improvements or important changes in the organization were made
to the mechanical shops during the year. The average force em-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


played per month was 583 men on the gold roll and 1,296 men on the
silver roll at the Balboa shops, and 113 gold and 362 silver at the
Cristobal shops; the corresponding figures for last year were 620
gold and 1,278 silver employees at the Balboa shops, and 133 gold
and 372 silver at the Ci-istobal shops.
Of the total work done at the shops 30.77 per cent was for The
Panama Canal, 10.08 per cent for the United States Navy, 1.81 per
cent for the United States Army, 2.37 per cent for other govern-
mental departments, 18.92 per cent for the Panama Railroad, and
36.05 per cent for private individuals and companies. Fifty-four
and fourteen-hundredths per cent of the work done was marine
work, 26.56 per cent was railroad work, 10.50 per cent maniufncturing
work, and 8.80 per cent unclassified.
The principal items of work at the Balboa shops included:
The extensive overhaul and repairs of five ex-German merchant ships, which
had been chartered by the United States Shipping Board from the Peruvian
Government and which had been considerably damaged by the deliberate
acts of the German crews during their internment in Peruvian waters, and
had suffered general deterioration while lying in Peruvian ports. In some
cases new boilers were required and were furnished from the United
States, and in other cases the shell and parts of the boilers were retained,
the remaining parts being renewed. Several new cylinders were manufac-
tured for the main engines, and practically all the auxiliary machinery
had to be rebuilt.
An item of construction work completed during the year was the building of
the coast guard cutter Manhattan, which was built at these shops on
account of the congested conditions of shipping yards in the United States.
The vessel as constructed was 120 feet 3 inches long over all, 24 foot beam,
14 foot depth, 10 foot 6 inches draft, and had a displacement of 383 tons.
Work on the Koningin der Nederlanden, which was begun in the previous year,
was completed.
Work on the overhauling, reboilering, and modification of the S. S. Cristobal,
of the Panama Railroad steamship line, was begun on May 3, 1919, and is
now in progress.
The S. S. Circassion Prince was given a general overhauling, including the re-
newal of several shell plates of the hull, parts of the bottom plating and
bulkheads, and extensive repairs to the boilers.
The S. S. Middlebury, chartered from the United States Shipping Board by
the Panama Railroad Company for use as a cattle carrier, was nuditifed
so as to adapt it to such service.
The S.. S. Santa Isabel, which had grounded on a reef, received extensive repairs
to keel and bottom, and at the same time repairs were made to the pro-
pelling machinery.
The S. S. Heina was repaired, involving the renewal of several bottom plates
and straightening several plates and frames which had been damaged by
the grounding of the vessel.
Old boilers were removed and new boilers installed on the S. S. Quoque.
The U. S. S. Yorktorwn had three new furnaces installed.
The motor schooner Elizabeth Ruth had extensive work done on the gas en-
gines.
The motor schooner Evelyn received repairs to its propelling machinery and
auxiliaries.
The Army tug Cocoli and the S. S. Balboa received extensive repairs.
Fifty 1,800-pound standard Navy cast-steel anchors were manufactured on
order for the Navy Department and shipped to Mare Island Navy Yard.
For the Alaskan Engineering Commission, 167 Lidgerwood cars, formerly in
use in the construction of the canal, were repaired and prepared for
shipment.
For the United States Army, 140 Rodger ballast cars, 92 Western dump cars,
and 30 301-class locomotives, formerly in the service of the canal, were
repaired and prepared for shipment.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


At the Cristobal shops:
Extensiv-e repairs were made to the steamers Allianca, Balboa. Panama,
Advance, Colon, and the Panama (anal pipe-line dredges 83 and 86.
Forty-six pieces of canal equipment were placed in the dry dock for repairs,
and 50 vessels other than canal equipment were dry docked and repaired.
At the Cristobal dry dock:
Forty-one pieces of canal equipment were dry docked, and 36 vessels other
than canal equipment were dry docked.
Other than tugs, barges, and dredges, the total number of vessels
on which repairs were made was 1,329, of which 558 were handled
at the Balboa shops and 771 at the Cristobal shops.
The increase in the number of repairs to ships visiting the canal
makes necessary the construction and equipment in the near future
of a light repair shop adjacent to the piers at Cristobal to avoid the
delay and expense of transportation of men and material from the
dry-dock shops one and one-half miles away. For several years it
has been obvious that the dry-dock and shop facilities at Cristobal,
which are left over from the early construction days of the canal,
will not be adequate to care for the increased commercial work that
is to be expected with increasing traffic in the canal. The project,
which was originated four years ago, of rebuilding the old Cristobal
shops has been held in abeyance during the period of the war, and
for the additional reason that connected therewith a larger and
deeper dry dock should be constructed. The Navy Department is
interested in a project for its needs on a larger scale than what
would be required for the commercial needs of the canal. If the two
interests can be combined and funds secured for the larger project
without delay, an independent estimate by the canal for its pur-
poses will not be made. If, for any reason, the joint project can not
be determined upon, it will be necessary for the canal to make
preparations for its independent needs and for estimates to be sub-
mitted for funds in time for the construction to be completed when
traffic demands require.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix D.

SUPPLY DEPARTMENT.
This department continued in the charge of Mr. R. K. Morris,
as chief quartermaster. The organization of the department. re-
mained as stated in last year's report.
Labori.-On June 30.1919, the total force employed by The Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad Company on the isthm'us was 20),361,
of which 3,290 were on the gold roll and 17,071 on the silver roll, as
compared with the total of 19,205 on June 30, 1918, with 3,108 on
the gold roll and 16,157 on the silver roll. The increase of silver
employees was due to increased work in the operation of the docks
at Cristobal and to the beginning of the construction of the new
Army posts at Miraflores and Gatun. The increase of 182 on the
gold roll was due to the same causes and to the additional mechanics
required in the mechanical divi ion on account of the increased work
on ships. Throughout the year there was a large fluctuation in the
number of silver employees, the maximum number, 18,238, having





THE PANAMA CANAL.


been employed in February, 1919, and the minimum, 14,870, in
September, 1918.
One of the difficulties in the control of the common labor on the
Isthmus is the necessary fluctuation in the number employed and the
lack of employment on the Isthmus otherwise than by the canal.
Any construction projects conducted in the Republic of Panama by
the Panaman Government or by the Army in connection with the
defense of the canal would be of advantage in controlling the labor
situation, as it would provide work for those necessarily discharged
from employment with the canal or Panama Railroad.
Quarters.-No new quarters were built for gold employees except
on the cattle plantations, which were financed by the Panamia Rail-
road. The number of quarters available for both gold and silver
employees is still short of the number to be provided for. On June
30, 1919, 306 applications for married quarters for gold employees
were on file. There were 1,535 applications for silver married quar-
ters on file on June 30, 1919. The removal of all gold employees
from the town of Para iso, made possible by the largely reduced
dredging operations in Gaillard Cut, made available for silver em-
ployees the former gold quarters at Paraiso. Ten 12-apartment
houses at Cristobal for silver employees were under construction and
were 95 per cent complete on June 30, 1919.
Transportation facilities.-Transportation by animal-drawn ve-
hicles is being gradually reduced and replaced by motor transporta-
tion. On June 30, 1919, there were in service 39 horses and 194
mules, as compared with 44 horses and 219 mules on July 1, 1918.
The motor vehicles in the service on June 30, 1919, and on June 30,
1918, are shown in the following table:

1918 1919

Ford cars, -ton delivery.......................................................... 77 78
1-ton trucks........................... .............................. ........ 2 47
14-ton trucks...................... ................... ......... ................... 7 7
31-ton trucks........................................................ 15 15
2J-ton trucks...... ........... ......... ................................ .... 3 3
Ford passenger cars............... ............................................... 15 11
Combination (passenger and delivery)............................................. 1 4
Hearse....................... ..... 1 1
Ambulances....... ................................. 7 7
Motor cycles.......................... ......... ......... .......... .......... 47 56

In the operation of the pastures and plantations for the supply de-
partment, there were in service on June 30, 1919, 190 horses and 137
mules, as compared with 136 horses and 157 mules on July 1, 1918.
Materials and supplies.-The total value of material received dur-
ing the fiscal year was $7,832,845.61, as compared with $8,700,356.62
for the preceding year. Local purchases amounted to $1,452,153.35,
as compared with $1,349,783.84 for last year. Exclusive of obsolete
material and scrap, the value of material in stock in the department
storehouses was $6,001,451.24 on June 30, 1919, as agintl.6,4 ,511,:39.86
on June 30, 1918. There were issued froni the storehouses niiiterialn
of all classes aggregating in value $12,157,090.24.
Sales were made to 2,156 .te;anships, at a total price of $1,777,510.33,
shom ing an increase of $248,413.91, us compared with the previous
year. Sales to the United States Army totaled $2)87,256.82, and to





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


the United States Navy $141,329.68. The principal items included
in these sales were lumber, building material, general hardware, rope,
cable, gasoline, kerosene, and I lubricating oils.
A total of 223,027 requisitions and foremen's orders were handled,
of which 150,802 were from the general storehouse. at Balboa, 59,184
from the Cristobal storehouse, and 13,041 from the Paraiso store-
house. The consu1imption of cement for the year was 170,4061 barrels.
0b.solefte nifteril1.-The obsolete storehouse. at Mount Hope was
operated as a concentration point for obsolete and surplus material,
equipment, and scrap. Obsolete material was shipped to the United
States and disposed of to the value of $127,609.75. Material to the
value of $678,349.72 in addition was sold, and material of $184,059.49
valuation was reissued for service and to the value of $52,827.25 was
surveyed and scrapped. There remained on hand on June 30, 1919,
material to the value of $161,472.69, as compared with material to
the value of $359,903.58 on hand on July 1, 1918. Scrapped material,
other than old French scrap, was on hand on June 30, 1919, in the
total amount of 19,398,368 tons, with a total valuation of $100,952.65.
There were on hand on July 1, 1918, 13,427.02 tons of French scrap;
3,997.17 tons were shipped on the Rovetta contract, leaving a balance
on the Isthmus on June 30, 1919, of 9,429.85 tons. The sales from the
obsolete general storehouse of material, equipment, and supplies, the
original cost of which was over $500, are reported in detail in Table
No. 5, accompanying the report of the chief quartermaster, Appen-
dix E.
Fuel-oil phatns.-Contracts for supplying fuel oil for the canal
were entered into with the Anglo-Mexican Petroleum Company
(Ltd.) for 500,000 barrels f. o. b. steamer Mexican ports, at $0.7875
per barrel, and with the Huasteca Petroleum Company for 600,000
barrels, f. o. b. steamers at Tampico, Mexico, at $0.7875. On June
30, 1919, there remained to be delivered under these contracts 345,251
barrels and 370,051 barrels, respectively. The construction of the
553,000-barrel capacity concrete fuel-oil tank at Mount Hope was
completed on March 22, 1919. The Balboa and Mount Hope fuel-oil
plants served 396 vessels with 2,649,868 barrels.
Two 55,000-barrel capacity fuel-oil tanks were erected by the West
India Oil Company at the Mount Hope tank farm, being pract ically
completed at the end of the fiscal year.
Storage of bulk gasoline in tanks at Balboa and Mount Hope was
continued, the principal issues therefrom having been made to Navy
vessels and to the Army establishments on the Isthmus.
The Panamna. C (anal Pre.s.-The value of the stock on hand on June.
30, 1919, was $98,103.52, as against $80,542.96 for the preceding fiscal
year. The total value of material issued from the plant was $147,-
627.39, as compared with $107,302.55 for the previous year. The
total value of material used in manufacture was $63,634.43, as com-
pared with $51,090.31 for the previous year.
Suhib.'sirsnce.-The revenue from restaurants and messes wa.s $745,-
190.75, and4 the total cost of operation* was $749,147.60, netting a loss
of $3,94.85. The Hotel Tivoli showed a net profit of $2,130.98 for
the year, compared with a net loss of $6,936.06 for the preceding
year; the Hotel Washington. financed by the Panama Railroad Com-
pany, showed a net profit of $11,132.20, as compared with a loss of
$15,465.92 for the preceding year. The increase in South American





THE PANAMA CANAL.


travel, with resulting increases in patronage of the hotels, accounts
for the difference. The new Tivoli kitchen was occupied in Decem-
ber, 1918. This is of concrete construction, and is designed to be a
part of the new hotel, which will be made necessary at some future
date on account of the increasing deterioration of the old frame
structure.
COMMISSARY DIVISION.

The industries involved in the operation of this division are
financed by the Panama Railroad and are conducted under the, super-
vision of the chief quartermaster of the canal. The detailed opera-
tions will be given in the annual report of the Panama Railroad
Company, but the following summary is appropriate in this place:
The local enterprises maintained for the purpose of decreasing
the dependence for certain food products upon outside sources, as
referred to in the last annual report, were continued. The largest
and most successful of these enterprises was the importation, pas-
turing, and slaughter of Colombian beef. The number of cattle
killed at the abattoir showed an increase of 43 per cent over last
year's figures, and the value of products showed an increase of over
$1,000,000. This increase in revenue is largely accounted for by
increases in prices received and the sale of by-products, particularly
in hides. Under arrangements with the commissary branch of the
United States Army 41,659 quarters of beef, valued at $678,364.11,
were shipped from the abattoir to the depot quartermaster, United
States Army, New York. There was an increase in the amount of
beef sold to steamships. During the year 11,830 acres were cleared
for pastures, making a total for pasturage purposes of 42,347 acres.
The number of cattle on hand July 1, 1918, was 9,455; the number
slaughtered during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919, was.31,361;
the number received during this period was 34,848, of which 29,353
were purchased under contract; and the number remaining on hand
on July 1, 1919, was 12,822.
The raising of hogs was continued, and the facilities for curing
and pickling pork were extended.
Purchasing agencies for vegetables and fruits were maintained in
Costa Rica, from which source practically all of the potatoes im-
ported were derived. The agency at Haiti was discontinued in
January on account of the lack of adequate transportation facilities
and difficulties in the purchase of any large quantities.
The Food Administration regulations restricting the sale of wheat
flour and of fine sugar imported from the United States were con-
tinued on the Canal Zone until relaxed in the United States.
The new Mount Hope cold-storage plant was used for the first
time on February 25, 1919, when 300 sides of beef were put in for
cooling. On May 18 the plant was in complete operation. Space is
provided in this plant for refrigeration of over 5,000 carcasses of
beef.
At the poultry farm the egg production for the year amounted to
33,662A dozen hen eggs and 830-1 dozen duck eggs, delivered and
policed on sale at the commissaries.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR;


At the dairy farm the monthly production in milk reached the
maximum in May, when 8,6454 gallons were produced. The total
production for the year amounted to 59,178 gallons, of which 49,4431
gallons of milk and 1,298 gallons of cream were shipped to the com-
missaries for sale, 462 gallons sold to individuals at the dairy, and
9,688 gallons were fed to calves.
In March a cream separator was installed and placed in operation,
and daily shipments of cream made to the commissaries.
For further details, attention is invited to the report of the chief
quartermaster, Appendix E.

ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT.

This department continued under the charge of Mr. H. A. A.
Smith, as auditor; Mr. J. H. McLean, as paymaster; Mr. T. L. Clear,
as collector, until September, 1918, when he resigned to enter the
service of the Army overseas, and was succeeded by Mr. Elwood P.
Sine; Mr. Elwyn Greene continued as assistant auditor on the
Isthmus; Judge B. F. Harrah continued as assistant auditor in
charge of the accounting department of the Washington office of
the canal, with Mr. H. P. Merrill as disbursing clerk.
The paymaster disbursed a total of $32,488,481.97, of which the
sum of $13,383,128.18 was on account, of the Panama Railroad.
Employees on the gold roll of the canal were paid $6.911,566_.56 and
those on the silver roll $5.557,963.88. The sum of $6.13.5.s23.35 was
paid on miscellaneous vouchers. Collections by pay-roll deduction
amounted to $4,708,625.02, of which amount $3,391,685.29 was col-
lected for coupon books for purchases by employees at the commis-
saries. Of the total collections by pay-roll deduction, $4,474,814.79
were disbursed directly by the paymaster, the balance, $232,810.23,
being transferred to the collector s accounts.
On account of the discontinuance, of the use of gold and Panaman
silver money in making payments, United States paper ioney was
used in large quantities. The sum of $754.500 was brought from the
States during the year.
Collections during the year repaid to appropriations amounted to
$10,364,875.07. The sum of $6,44-2,981.67 wasn collected for deposit
in the United States Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. Of these
amounts the disbursing clerk at Washington received the sum of
$464, )03.21 in credit for appropriations and $37,797.57 as miscel-
laneous receipts.
Deposits for the payments of tolls and bills for supplies and serv-
ices rendered shipping were made with the assistant treasurers of
the United States to the credit of the collector, The Panama Canal,
in the sum of $4,3.62,252. Deposits for the same purpose were made
with the collector on the Isthmus in the sum of $12.0,1.122.03. These
deposits were $2.583,906.98 in excess of the corresponding total for
last year. The sum of $609,415.87 was refunded upon settlement of
accounts.
Money-order funds to the amount of $1,671,000 were transferred to
the Postmaster General of the United States in payment for money
orders drawn on the United States. Collections were made on ac-
1409210-19-----3





THE PANAMA CANAL.


count of the Panama Railroad Company in the sum of $19,540,944.96,
an increase of $2,369,277.26 over the corresponding total for the
preceding year.
Actual collection of tolls on vessels transiting the canal amounted
to $6,149,306.04; in addition, the sum of $292.50 was collected for a
vessel which passed through the canal during the last fiscal year,
making the total amount collected $6,149,598.54.
Referring again to the loss of revenue on account of the present
rulings as to measurement of vessels for collections of tolls, had the
Panama Canal rules been applied the sum of $7,017,125.02 would
have been collected, a difference of $867,526.48. On account of the
lack of legal authority to apply canal rules of measurement in levy-
ing tolls, the total loss of revenue to the canal since its opening to
traffic in August, 1914, is $3,664,786.74. The beneficiaries have been
chiefly vessels engaged in foreign trade, and especially vessels under
foreign register. Vessels engaged in American trade, of both Ameri-
can and foreign register, have been as follows:
American vessels plyinr between American ports----------------- $103, 980. 35
Foreign vessels plying between American ports------------------36, 155. 05
American vessels plying between American ports and canal ports- 80, 329. 05
Foreign vessels plying between American ports and canal ports--- 114. 55
American vessels plying between American possessions and Ameri-
can ports---------------------------------------------- 6,546.85
Foreign vessels plying between American possessions and Ameri-
can ports---------------- ---------------- 20,226.00
Under the provisions of Section V of the Panama Canal act claims
for damages to vessels passing through the locks settled during the
year amounted to $16,739.19. No claimants thus far have sought
adjustment through the courts.
The work of checking pay rolls under the provisions of the act of
August 23, 1919, was continued satisfactorily. A total of 363,467
pay-roll items were audited, among which 74 errors, involving
$406.22 out of a total payment of $13,700,000, were found on final
examination by the Auditor for the War Department. Exceptional
monthly pay-roll deductions, involving additional work in prepara-
tion and auditing of the pay rolls, were handled for the objects,
amounts, and periods as follows:

Object. Amount. (mPeriods).

American Red Cross war relief fund...........................--.---- ...--...- $53,276.12 12
British Red Cross.........................-- --------------------------------- 278.55 8
United war work fund.......-....--..............-...----- .....----- -- 8,900.25 8
War savings stamps----------............--.....-- ------------------------------------ 743.35 5
Third Liberty loan bonds----.....--------------------...-. ----. ---.-- --- --. 356, 288.77 3
Fourth Liberty loan bonds.............----- .......---------- ..-------------------------- 758,988.94 5
Victory loan notes................--........ ...........---- ------------------ ....-- .-- -- 164, 991.68 1

The total appropriated by Congress for the canal and its forti-
fications to June 30, 1919, aggregated $459,443,105.99. Of this
amount $36,931,896.85 were for fortifications, $2,000,000 to cover
eight annual payments of $250,000 each to the Republic of Panama
for Canal Zone rights, and $170,000 for regulating commerce and
for the censorship of foreign mail during the fiscal year. The sum





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


of $34,716,006.22 has been specifically appropriated for operation
and maintenance, sanitation, and civil government of The Panama
Canal and Canal Zone. The amount appropriated for the construc-
tion of the canal and its immediate adjuncts totaled $379,111,043.92;
of this total $3,600,000 were for colliers and coal barges, $2,093,-
190 for Pier No. 6 at Cristobal, $300,000 for work on the colliers
Ulysses and Achilles, $720,000 for reboilering and repairing the
exempted by laws as a charge against the authorized bond issue,
steamships Ancon and Cristobal, all of which items were specifically
leaving the sum of $372,307,853.92 so chargeable. Of the $375,-
000,000 authorized bond issue, there is therefore available for ap-
propriation within the limit of the cost of the construction of the
canal $2,825,302.08.
Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, which re-
quires reimbursement within 50 years of July 1, 1907, for the ex-
penditures incurred by the United States for the construction,
operation, and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and pavements
in the cities of Panama and Colon, the expenditures for construc-
tion to June 30, 1919, have amounted to $1,323.276.27 in Panama
and $1,217,993.44 in Colon. The total expenditures for operation
and maintenance are $784,660.37 for Panama and $721,761.43 for
Colon. Under agreement, the United States currently reiniburses
itself from water-rental collections for the expenses for operation
and maintenance, and gradually liquidates the expenditures for
construction by a quarterly charge based on the amortization of
the funds expended within the period of years fixed by the contract.
In addition, the Republic of Panama pays interest at the rate of
2 per cent per annum on the capital-cost balances and on the pro-
portionate cost of the waterworks in the Canal Zone used for sup-
plying water to the two cities, based upon the quantity of water
consumed. These items reached the following totals: For interest,
$272,404.52 for Panama, and $220,309.41 for Colon; and for the
proportionate cost of the waterworks in the Canal Zone, $110,198.08.
The amount paid to the United States, or immediately due, in the
agreement with Panama, is $2,627,522.41, leaving a balance of
$2,034,081.11, payable in installments during the contract period.
Of this latter amount $1,030,070.31 is for work in Panama and
$1,004,010.80 for work in Colon. The Panama Canal continues to
maintain the pavements in the two cities under agreement reached
in the fiscal year 1918, whereby reimbursement is still obtained
from the water-rental collections.
The expenses for the actual operation and maintenance of the
canal, including civil government and sanitation, amounted to
$6,112,194.77, as compared with $5.903.719.69 expended in 1918 and
$6,788,047.67 during 1917. Offsetting these expenses for operation
and maintenance is the amount of annual tolls collected from vessels,
$6,156,118.95; amounts collected as licenses ind taxes, court fees and
fines, $136,870.77; and as profits on business operations, $61,027.26;
making a total of $6,354,016.98. The revenues were thus in excess of
current expenses by an amount of $241,822.21.
The expenditures chargeable to canal construction accounts totaled
$2,406,832.29. Charges to capital additions, covering expenditures
for permanent improvements, the cost of which is payable from





24 THE PANAMA CANAL.

maintenance and operation appropriations, amounted to $634,472.72.
The principal items chargeable to construction were:
Dredging from Gatun to Pedro Miguel-------___----------------_________ $33, 892.19
Dredging at the Pacific entrance------------------------------ 149,297.54
Dredging inner harbor, Balboa----------------------------- 331,951.65
Sanitary fills and ditches---------------------- 83,996.66
Roadways------ ------------ -----------------------------43,027. 93
Settlement of claims for private properties in the Canal Zone----- 127, 004. 77
Buildings (including quarters for gold employees, $177,180.14; con-
tinuation of construction of Ancon hospital, $144,668.80) -------- 370,480.68
Pier No. 6, Cristobal------------------------------ 827,330. 19
The main items under capital additions chargeable to maintenance
and operation were:
Dredging Cristobal Harbor to increase width of channel-------- $108,450.94
Extension to power and lighting systems------------------- 171, 776. 56
Additions to fuel-oil plant, Cristobal------------------------- 23, 153. 41
Quarters for silver employees----------------------------- 118, 212. 25
Quarters for gold employees------------------------------- 41, 415.88
Roads, streets, and walks --------------------------------265,732.02
Since July 1, 1915, the revenues derived from licenses and taxes,
court fees and fines, postal receipts, etc., which had theretofore been
appropriated separately for the support of the Canal Zone govern-
ment, have been deposited in the Treasury of the United States and
credited to miscellaneous receipts. Collections for licenses and taxes
amounted to $11,033.23; court fees and fines, $19,849.62; postal re-
ceipts, $104,932.34; and miscellaneous items, $1,061.10, making a total
collected of $136,876.29. The corresponding figures for the previous
year were $140,690.91. All the expenses of the Canal Zone govern-
ment were paid out of the regular appropriations for civil govern-
ment, as contemplated in the appropriation acts.
During the year 140,618 money orders to the value of $3,108,678.27
were issued, as against 168,022 to the value of $3,382,663.6.9 within
the previous year. The decrease is accounted for by the fact that
employees have diverted their savings from money orders to Liberty
loan bonds and war savings stamps.
The revenues derived from the operation of the various clubhouses
amounted to $463,409.39, as compared with $365,701.50 for the pre-
vious year. The expenditures were $414,895.93.
In the disbursement of claims for injuries and deaths there were
reported 3,308 accidental injuries and 23 accidental deaths, as com-
pared with 3,413 accidental injuries and 35 accidental deaths during
the previous year. Compensation was allowed in 1,521 cases of in-
jury and 10 cases of death. In 113 injury cases no compensation
was allowed, for the following reasons: In 1 case disability com-
menced over one year after the injury, in 16 the injuries were found
not to have been received in the performance of duty, in 55 there
was insufficient evidence to sustain the claims, in 37 disability was
not caused by the injury described, and in 4 notice of injury was not
given as required by the compensation act. In nine cases compensa-
tion on account of death was disapproved, one because the person on
account of whom the claim was made was not an employee of the
canal or railroad company, in one case death did not result from the
injury received while in the performance of duty, in two cases death
was not the result of the injury claimed, and in five cases there were
no dependents. Four claims were pending at the close of the fiscal






REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


year. The total amount paid by The Panama Canal for injuries and
deaths of employees from August 1, 1908, the effective date of the
act of May 30, 1908, to June 30, 1919, was $1,577,037.33. Under the
law applicable to such cases, 15 cripples injured during the construc-
tion of the canal, who had become a charge on the canal, were granted
an allowance and, with their families, were furnished transportation
to their homes.
The use of coupon books in lieu of cash has been continued at the
commissaries, restaurants, and clubhouses. 'Coupon books to the
value of $4,527,330 were issued to employees on pay-roll deductions
and to the value of $1,978,455 were sold for cash. Meal tickets for
silver employees were issued to the value of $67,916.40, as compared
with $132,766 for the previous year.
The accounts of all officers and employees charged with the collec-
tion, disbursement, and custody of Panama Canal, Canal Zone, and
Panama Railroad funds or with other funds which are semipublic,
such as clubhouses, Liberty loan collection organizations, etc., have
been examined by the accounting department at frequent and irregu-
lar periods, as contemplated by the regulations. A total of 553
examinations were made during the year. One case. of embezzlement
was discovered, and the guilty party was sentenced to a term in the
Gamboa penitentiary.
Inspection of time books and methods of time keeping were con-
tinued, without modifications. The inspectors checked 10,132 gangs,
involving 541,310 employees.
The bonds of certain employees of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad executed to insure the faithful performance of their duties
were continued with the Maryland Casualty Co. The total liability
for Panama Canal employees was $467,000 and for Panama Railroad
employees $349,000.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix F.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

This department continue ? hn'der tle .rov'rrnor, assisted by Mr.
C. A. McIlvaine as exeiutivtt e secretary. On acrnl't of the suspen-
sion of hostilities andL ks authorized from time to tin'eby the heads
of the appropriate' apartmentsts in Waslhington, the wor!: cd enforc-
ing special lawg fnd' regulations' iniv:lvi'g ;iP-L ime restricuohs was
suspended. M1nilcensorship -va 'nbt. 'discontinued until Juine 24,
and travel restrictions were not entirely relaxed at the close of the
fiscal year.
On June 30, 1919, the employees of the executive department on
the gold roll numbered 547, as compared with 539 on June 30, 1918.
A reduction in force on account of the discontinuance of mail censor-
ship and the removal of restrictions to travel will reduce the number
of employees to about 520.

BUREAU OF STATISTICS.
The work of the bureau of statistics in connection with the compi-
lation of data for wage adjustments was unusually heavy, on account
of the frequent adjustments of pay in the United States. The prin-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


cipal adjustments, and the reasons therefore, made during the year
were as follows:
A bonus of $10 a month was granted by act of Congress to certain
classes of Government employees in the United States, effective on
July 1, 1918, increasing the base pay of the corresponding classes
in the canal service. The change affected clerks and related posi-
tions, construction and engineering foremen, and civil engineers and
related positions, increasing the pay of approximately 1,000 positions
by $12.50 per month. The bonus referred to did not apply to navy
yard mechanics, and the 5 or 10 per cent bonus of the fiscal year
1918 expired by the end of that year, it being necessary, therefore,
to reduce the pay of Panama Canal mechanics and the positions
coordinated with mechanics, effective July 1, in accordance with the
reduction made in base rates. In the main the reductions were
2 or 3 cents an hour, affecting approximately 1,000 men.
Building-trades rates were adjusted as of July 1 to keep pace with
the increases in the United States. The schedule of the Chicago
Builders' Association was used as a base, because no comparable
work was being done by the Government in the United States at
that time. In May, 1918, the schedule of rates for employees in
various marine callings in the United States went into effect, result-
ing in the reduction in canal rates of employees on dredging, towing,
and other floating craft. The navy yards in the United States made
an adjustment effective November 1, 1918, resulting in the corre-
sponding adjustment by The Panama Canal effective the same date.
The adjustment here increased the rate for metal trades 9 cents per
hour, and for woodworking trades 10 cents per hour. These in-
increases necessitated increases for certain supervisory positions at
the locks, coaling plants, and in power plants, effective December 1.
Increases in pay of the supervisory force in the navy yards resulted
in corresponding increases in the mechanical division of the Canal
Zone, effective February 15, 1919.
The general conditions of labor unrest that have developed in
many countries since the suspension of hostilities have not thus far
assumed a serious 'plise in1 the Canial Zone. The canal administra-
tion has not, deiiedl the privilege' of, cJilctive bargaining to its
employees;, a uid has received committees appointed by labor organi-
zations as representatives of the crafts by which they were delegated.
Complaints and requests of in:ivi'diiials have bien given the same
consideration as that adccbide'd to those emanating-'fr-om the organi-
zations, whether or not the individuals concerned were members of
labor organizations. An effort has been consistently made to impress
upon all concerned the facts that the interests of the canal and its
employees are common, and not opposed, and that moderation, sound
reason, and common sense should guide the action of employer and
employed in all matters of apparent conflict.
One of the constantly recurring questions is, naturally, the rate
of compensation. It has been argued that the salaries and wages
maintained during the construction work, originally established to
afford necessary inducement to men to seek employment in an un-
healthful tropical country under conditions of recognized hardship,
are unnecessarily high for the work of operation and maintenance,
after the work of sanitation has converted the Isthmus into a health






.REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


resort, and after many other improvements have increased the at-
tractiveness of the Canal Zone as a place of residence. It is true
that many causes of iunhealth fulness have been removed; that yellow
fever has been entirely eliminated as a menace to the Canal Zone
population; that the malarial rate libas been kept down to a remark-
ably low figure; and that the residents of the Canal Zone may be
as free from anxiety about their health as they would be in many
parts of the continental United States. This was indeed the fact
for a considerable part of the construction period. But from per-
sonal experience and observation during 10 years' residence here, I
am convinced that, in general, the employees from the United States
and their families can not live in the tropics continuously without
impairment. of health and lowering of physical tone unless the
monotony of uniform high atmospheric temperature is relieved by
a change of climate for two imionths or so every year. This change
involves extra expense, in most cases absorbing the greater part
of an emplloyee's savings from his income for the year. While it is
also true that the comforts of life in the Canal Zone are greatly
increased over those of a construction camp, and there are, indeed,
some. advantages as compared with conditions in many localities in
the United States, the fact remains nevertheless that our American
employees would not leave their homes and their normal modes of
life in the United States to enter the canal service, or to remain in
it, without an inducement. in the way of additional compensation.
It is apparent that constant changes in tile force would reduce the
efficiency of the canal organization. Congress has recognized these
facts, and in the Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912, has placed
the compensation within the discretion of the President. except that
a maximum of 25 per cent above rates paid by the United States
Government in continental United States for similar employment
is prescribed. Under the authority of this law the canal admiinistra-
tion, with the approval of the Secretary of War, has-. since July 1,
1916, established the wage scale of the canal to all employees drawn
from the United States upon Government rates for simiilfar employ-
ment in continental United States, and has applied the full allow-
ance of 25 per cent increase above those. rates. In cases where no
similar employment by the Government existed, average commercial
rates in continental United States have been mus.ed as a wbsis where
applicable; and in the relatively few remaining cases, where no sim-
ilar employment, Government or commercial, were found, the canal
rates have been established by coordination with other canal rates
regularly determined for positions of like responsibility.
The adoption of the general policy above outlined has greatly
simplified the problem of wage adjustment on the canal. The men
understand the limits fixed by law, and while they insist upon the
full allowance under the law they do not. attempt to go beyond it.
Issues between employer and lahor on the wage question are made and
settled in the. United States. and when settled there the results are
reflected here. Local issues are thus avoided. and the adoption of a
fixed policy with an act of Congress as its basis has been responsible
for the comparative freedom from labor troubles on the canal.
On account of increases in necessary living costs, it was necessary
to effect increases in the pay of West Indian labor. This increase took
effect November 1, 1918, involving for all grades up to $75 a month,





THE PANAMA CANAL.


an increase of 2 cents an hour, but no increase in the grades of $75 or
above; and further increase in the hourly rate of pay was made to the
laborers at the docks operated by the Panama Railroad Company on
May 1, 1919, in order to prevent a reduction in earnings of the laborers,
due to the adoption of the eight-hour rule. In May and June, 1919,
careful investigation was made of numerous complaints as to insuffi-
cient earnings to meet necessary expenses, received from West Indian
laborers, by a board composed of the heads of departments and divi-
sions of the canal organization, as a result of which the board recom-
mended, effective July 1, an increase to West Indian labor as follows:
Rates of 20 cents an hour or less, increased 2 cents an hour.
Rates of 21 cents to 28 cents an hour, inclusive, increased 1 cent an
hour.
Rates of $40 a month or less, increased $5 a month.
Rates of $42.50 to $57.50, inclusive, increased $2.50 a month.
The above rates apply only to male silver help.
In connection with the publicity work for the benefit of the canal
the bureau of statistics has compiled and prepared reports, circulars,
and pamphlets for free distribution to all especially interested.

BUREAU OF CLUBS AND PLAYGROUNDS.
This bureau was conducted with little change in activities, person-
nel, or organization during the year. The clubhouses and play-
grounds are for the purpose of providing on the Canal Zone centers
of social life and healthful recreational facilities for the employees
of the canal and their families. The clubhouses have been main-
tained and urgent improvements made as funds have been available.
At the Balboa clubhouse a moving-picture room was added to take
care of the increasing patronage, which had grown beyond the ca-
pacity of the original hall. A new clubhouse for silver employees at
Red Tank was erected and opened to use in June. The clubhouse at
Paraiso, originally built for gold employees, was turned over to the
silver employees in October, on account of the abandonment of
Paraiso as a place of residence for gold employees. New soda foun-
tains and serving tables were installed in all the five gold clubhouses.
The playgrounds at Balboa, Ancon, Cristobal, Gatun, and Pedro
Miguel were maintained and operated. Competent instructors are
engaged in the work of directing playground activities, a daily pro-
gram being arranged to provide for different ages and classes of
children.
While conditions with respect to the entertainment of the Army and
Navy forces at the clubhouses have been greatly relieved by the estab-
lishment of eight similar clubhouses by the Army and Navy Y. M.
C. A. at post and garrison points, both soldiers and sailors continued
to have unrestricted privileges at the Canal Zone clubhoutses.
The Balboa stadium and baseball ground was fully utilized during
the year, not only for baseball and other sports, but for the various
entertainments given in connection with the loan campaigns and
other patriotic demonnt rat ions.
The swimming pools at Balboa and Cristobnl have been widely
patronized, with good results. Competent instructors have been pro-
vided and numerous children and adults have been sufficiently trained
in the art of swimming and also in the rescue of drowing persons.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Every member of the 1919 graduating cal;s.s of the high school passed
a satisfactory swimming test.
DIVISio- OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.
Bureau of potfs.-Postal receipts decreased for the year, due prin-
cipally to war restrictions and the removal of troops from the Canal
Zone. The total receipts were $136,(>27.50, as compared with $143,-
231.81 for the previous year. The s1h1sidy to the Panaman Govern-
ment of 40 per cent of all stamp sales amiouinted to $32,9)50.9. The)
financial returns from the post offices were considerably affected by
the free handling of all official mail of The Panama Canal. the Army,
and Navy. The post office at Las Casedlas was abolished February
28, 1919, when the troops were removed from that post. An office.
was opened at Coco Solo on March 1. The number of post offices in
operation thus remained 16, of which 13 were money-order offices.
Box rents collected during the year amounted to $8,6S2G.20, as com-
pared with $8,147.30 last year.
On March 31, 1919, a C. 0. D. and parcel-post convention was rati-
fied between the Republic of Panama. and the Canal Zone, effective
April 15, 1919. Prior to June 30, under this arrangement. 6,217 in-
sured parcels were mailed at Canal Zone post offices. In the registry
division 292,69008 parcels and letters were handled, of which 136.35;
were dispatched, including 32,942 domestic letters, 1,02S domestic
parcels, 16,716 foreign letters, 2,320 foreign p rcels, 77,086 official
letters and parcels registered free, and 6,2;3 domestic parcels insured.
There were delivered at all post offices 156,343 registered, insured,
and C. 0. D. parcel-post packages. Canal employees, under their
privilege of importing mercliandie for their personal use free of
Panaman duties, received 14,640 parcels during the year. Duties
were paid the Republic of Panama in the amount. of $25.2s9.71 on
9,591 mail parcels for nonemployees and dutiable articles imported
by employees.
Violations of the postal laws and regulations consisted in the send-
ing of lottery matter through the mails, of which three cases were
discovered; the misuse of the official penalty envelope, of which there
were three cases; and the misuse of canceled postage stamps, of which
there was only one case. One arrest was made for the rifling of mail
by a postal employee, and the offender was convicted.
Mail facilities for ships in transit. through the canal included the
selling of stamps, acceptance of letters for registry, and the receiv-
ing of applications for money orders from passengers and crews of
vessels, receipts in each case being given and the business transacted
through the Canal Zone post offices. There -was received and dis-
patched a total of 91.091 s:icks of transit. mail from New York and
New Orleans, of which 77,9(c2 originated in the United States and
13,129 in foreign countries. This mail was received from 146 steam-
ers and dispatched on 211 connecting steamer,'; 4,445 sacks were for-
warded by rail from Cristobal to Balboa to connect with vessels at
that point.
Burraiu of Customs.-A total of 4,604 vessels entered and 4.590
were cleared from Cristobal and Balboa. There were 1.959 Ameri-
can vessels entering and 1,940 clearing. A total of 251 prohibited
aliens arrived at Canal Zone ports, of which number 13S were ad-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


mitt e to the Republic of Panama by authority of that- Government,
the others proceeding to their destination or returning to their port
of embarkation.
Eight arrests were made for violation of the espionage act, Section
II, and convictions secured in each case.
This bureau certifies invoices covering ordinary shipments from
the Canal Zone to the United States in the same manner and form
prescribed for certification by American consuls in foreign ports.
There were 1,323 invoices thus certified, in addition to those covering
the shipment of employees' effects who were returning to the United
States.
The work of the shipping commissioner and deputies was in-
creased, both on account of the increase in the number of ships, han-
dled, the increased handling of shipping papers under war regula-
tions, and the care necessary to be exercised in the enforcement of
the seaman's act. A total of 4,182 seamen were shipped on American
vessels and 3,453 were discharged. Seamen's wages received for de-
posit at Balboa amounted to $27,027.43, of which all but $422.17 were
disbursed. The estates of 11 American seamen whose deaths oc-
curred on the Canal Zone were handled for settlement by the shipping
commissioner, the proceeds of such estates, together with such wages
as may have been due in each case, being remitted to the district
courts in the United States having jurisdiction.
A total of 161 estates of deceased and insane employees of the canal
and railroad were settled. Of this number 86 were delivered to the
consular or diplomatic representatives in the Republic of Panama or
the United States of the countries of which the deceased owners were
citizens or subjects, 56 were settled directly with heirs, 3 with admin-
istrators, and 1 delivered to an employee who had recovered his
sanity. The amount involved in the settlement of 161 estates was
$8,121.63, of which $189.34 belonged to the estates of insane persons.
There were issued 1,274 licenses for motor vehicles, 725 for bicycles,
443 for hunting and the keeping or carrying of firearms, and 500 for
the peddling of foodstuffs. The fees collected for the year were
$7,681.94.
As a representative of the Governor, the division of civil affairs
was charged with the enforcement of regulations of the following
special bureaus and boards in Washington:
War Trade Board, bureau of exports.
War Trade Board, bureau of enemy trade.
War Trande Board, bureau of imports.
Treasury Department (the inspection of passengers and baggage).
Treasury Department (war risk and insurance).
Federal Reserve Board (exportation of money).
State Department (travel control).
Mail Censorship Board.
National War Savings Committee.
There were 2,370 export licenses issued, and various regulations of
the War Trade Board covering special export licenses were carried
out. No licenses to trade with the enemy were issued locally, but
Washington licenses were recognized here in connection with export
control. Copies of the enemy trading list were supplied to the local
merchants in Panama and to all steamship companies. The enemy





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


trading lists were withdrawn effective April 29, 1919, and all cargo
which had been detained at Cristobal was ordered released on May 10.
In the regulation of the exportation of coin, bullion, and currency
from the Canal Zone, 116 permits were granted, covering $724,099.74
in American gold coin; $14,200 in English gold coin; $310 in gold cer-
tificates; $2,622 in English paper currency and silver money; $37.50
in miscellaneous silver money; $105,860 in United States notes, Fed-
eral-rese rve notes, or national-bank notes; $24,808 in gold dust or
ore; and $1,194.50 in other gold coin.
Under the President's proclaniation of August 8, 1918, establishing
rules and regulations governing the granting of permits to enter and
depart from the Canal Zone, the passports, departure permits, etc.,
of all outgoing passengers were examined in detail, and the crews of
all vessels departing from Balboa or Cristobal were mustered for
examination prior to the sailing of the vessel. Seamen's identifica-
tion certificates were furnished all members of crews requesting them,
there being 2,059 such identification cards issued at Balboa and 6,477
at Cristobal.
In enforcing the mail censorship regulations 544,434 letters and
788,521 other pieces of mail matter were examined.
For further details, see appendix to Appendix F.

POLICE AND FIRE DIVISIONS.
In addition to their normal duties the police division assisted in
the enforcement of the special regulations issued on account of the
state of war. The total number of arrests was 3,982, of whom 3,657
were males and 325 females. A monthly average of 102.83 served
sentences in the common jails during the year. There were six sui-
cides and two homicides; six arrests for the violation of the opium
act were. made and there were two convictions.
A continuous patrol of the harbors of Balboa and Cristobal and of
Gatun Lake and the Chagres River was maintained throughout the
year. Monthly patrols of the interior section of the Zone were made
to detect violations of the depopulation order. Three arrests for
trespass on Zone lands were made and three convictions secured.
For the enforcement of automobile and other vehicular speed and
operation regulations and for special emergency police service two
motorcycle patrolmen were continued in service, one at Cristobal
and one at Balboa:
There were 84 deportations of persons from the Zone, of whom 53
were convicts who had completed terms of imprisonment and 31 were
persons who had been convicted of misdemeanor charges or who were
deemed undesirable persons to be permitted to remain. Forty-nine
convicts were received at the penitentiary, the aggregate sentences
amounting to 39 years and 11 months. Sixty-four convicts completed
terms from the prison and were discharged. At the close of the year
39 convicts remained in custody, as compared with 54 at the close of
the previous year.
Investigations by the coroner were made in 50 cases of death, of
which 11 were due to accidental drowning and 19 to accidental
traumatism.
The status of the funds prevented the erection of any new buildings
for the police division or the extensive repairs to those in use. The





THE PANAMA CANAL.


only new equipment provided was one patrol wagon for the Ancon-
Balboa district, placed in service May 20, 1919. The old wooden pen-
itentiary buildings at Gamboa were maintained in as good condition
as possible, and new buildings are urgently required.
Thirty-five firemen were appointed and 34 separated from the
service. Fifteen volunteer fire companies, each composed of 20
men as a minimum, employees of The Panama Canal and Railroad,
were maintained. The usual inspection of all Government buildings,
docks, storehouses, etc., was conducted; fire hose and extinguishers
maintained in good condition where installed for special protection,
and installations made in the new buildings constructed. The total
losses sustained by fire aggregated $40,805.13, of which $23,000 rep-
resents loss on the schooner Evelyn at Balboa docks; $3,000 to fire
on the schooner Tacoma, also at Balboa docks; and $10,000 caused
by the burning of a United States Navy aviation speed launch in
Limon Bay.
No new buildings were constructed or changes made in existing
buildings, except slight alterations to the Pedro Miguel fire station
to accommodate a Ford motor hose wagon.

DIVISION OF SCHOOLS.

The total number of white teachers employed during the year was
72, an increase of seven over the preceding year. Twelve white
teachers resigned between July 1 and September 30, 1918, six$ re-
signed during the school year, and at the close of the year 70 teachers
were in actual employment. There were 20 colored teachers em-
ployed. The attendance at the schools at the time of opening was
2,307, of whom 1,491 were white and 816 colored. The average.
daily attendance during the school year was 2,179.5, of which 1,423.3
were in the white schools and 756.2 in the colored schools. The
corresponding figures for the preceding year were 1,963.2, of which
1,322.9 were white and 640.3 colored. The following new positions
were authorized and filled: One teacher of household arts, $150
monthly; and one supervisor of penmanship, $150 monthly. Six-
teen buildings were used for school purposes, of which 10 were for
white schools, including one room in the Balboa lodge hall, and the
lower floor of the Washington House at Colon Beach for domestic-
science classes.
The return of the Porto Rican Regiment of Infantry to Porto Rico
made it unnecessary to maintain the white school at Empire, and it
was accordingly closed on March 12. Industrial instruction was
extended, to every pupil in the white schools above the fifth grade, a
total of 424 pupils being enrolled in this department during the last
quarter of the year, an addition of 174 over the enrollment in the
corresponding period last year.
Physical training and athletics for the white schools were under
the charge of the director of physical education, the activities being
carried on through the coordination of the bureau of clubs and play-
grounds.
Night classes for instruction in Spanish, English granmmer, stenog-
raphy, bookkeeping, mathematics, and mechanical drawing were
continued at Cristobal and Balboa.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


There were 20 graduates from the two high schools, 16 from Bal-
boa and 4 from Cristobal. Up to the close of the fiscal year, 109
pupils have been graduated from the Canal Zone high schools.

COURTS.

In the district courts there were 2-2 cases pending at the begin-
ning of the year, and 1,097 were filed, 960 settled, and 359 were
pending on June 30, 1919. Of the cases pending at the beginning of
the year, 100 were civil, 107 probate, and 15 criminal. In the cases
filed there were 134 civil, 273 probate, and 690 criminal. Those
settled included 77 civil, 62 of which were decided and 15 dismissed,
261 probate cases, and 622 criminal actions, 110 of which were. ac-
quitted, 389 convicted, 20 forfeited, 56 dismissed, and 47 nol. pressed.
A total of 961 marriage licenses was issued and 12 deeds recorded.
In the magistrate's courts, one each at Cristobal and Balboa, there
were 3,850 cases on the docket during the year-3,671 criminal and
179 civil.' "Three thousand eight hundred and forty cases were dis-
posed of, leaving 13 civil and 4 criminal actions pending at the
close of the year. Petitions were issued during the year from the
magistrate's court to the district judge for the commitment of 86
persons to the Corozal Asylum for observation, including 45 male
whites and 2 female whites, 31 male negroes and 8 female negroes.
The report of the district attorney is printed as Appendix fl.
The marshal for the Canal Zone received 494 writs, subpoenas, and
other processes for service, of which 434 were served, the remaining
parties concerned not being located on the Zone. The marshal or
his deputy attended at the Balboa district court 107 days and at
the Cristobal district court 34 days.

RELATIONS WITH PANAMA.

Negotiations by correspondence or personal conference between the
executive secretary of The Panama Canal and the secretary of foreign
relations of the Republic of Panama included the following subjects
in addition to routine matters:
Repatriation of certain insane French subjects.
Request to have boat service resumed with Palo Seco on visit i ng days.
Japanese subjects delivered to port captain, Balboa, after passing quarnntinke
inspection.
Panama Canal to refuse to issue export licenses on rice, wheat flour, sugar,
etc., unless sufficient stock to last 30 days.
Question of excluding West Indian soldiers returning to the Isthnmus.
Insanitary conditions conducive to malaria at T:uioga ; possibility of yellow
fever, etc.
Cession of land to the United States by the Republic of Panmnia for permanent
lights in the Bay of Panama.
Request that the Republic of Panama have uniform procedure aInd rates for
issuance of chauffeur licenses in the Republic and the Canal Zone.
Anchorage for French sailing vessels in nitrate trade in ilhe Bay of Panama.
Special license to the National Navigation Co. to operate boats across the
restricted area to Palo Seco.
Decree No. 140 of the Republic of Panama authorizing use of postal service
Inviolable registry envelopes.
Handling of the fourth Liberty loan by Ptinaman authorities in Panama and
Colon.






34 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Exportation of Panaman silver by Panama Canal employees.
Esallilislinuenit of postal censorship and requiring passengers departing from
Colon to have permission from American authorities at Cristobal.
Purchase of house in Colon as allowed by treaty for use of Army quartermaster.
Request of the municipality of Colon for certain land adjacent to the slaugh-
terhouse at Folks River.
Report of the assistant chief health officer on trip of medical commission to the
San Blas coast.
Report that food supplies were being smuggled out of Panama through the
Canal Zone.
Report of the chief health officer regarding health conditions at New Provi-
dence, Republic of Panama.
Proposed inspection of slaughterhouse at Colon, etc.
Question of recognizing signatures of certain notaries in the Canal Zone in
connection with refunds of duties by Panaman Government to the West India
Oil Co.
Report of inspection made of old Panama experiment station.
Proposed amendment to Panaman sanitary regulations in so far as building
regulations are concerned.
Property required for military purposes at Taboga.
Request for list of consular representatives of foreign Governments accredited
to Panama.
Request for permission to deliver Christmas presents to employees, waiving
the usual formalities.
Reported sickness, malaria, etc., at El Vigia and San Juan, Republic of
Panama.
Alleged strike of West Indian laborers of the United Fruit Co. at Bocas del
Toro, Republic of Panama.
Information ri;in rding commissary sales, number of employees, etc.
Proposed sewer extension for the city of Panama.
Appointment of H. A. A. Smith as a member of the board of directors of Santo
Tomas Hospital.
List of Canal Zone automobiles bearing Panaman license tags, etc.
Alleged interference with passage of cattle from the interior via Arrijan over
the pontoon bridge at Paraiso.
Complaint of the Republic of Panama regarding difficulties of the natives in
navigating the Chagres River at Gamboa.
Measures to prevent misuse of commissary privilege by residents of Panama
and Colon not entitled to it.
Appointment of Lieut. William J. Burke as quarantine officer at Bocas del
Toro, Republic of Panama.
Proposed extension of C. 0. D. parcel-post service with the Republic of Panama.
Authority for increasing the number of beds at Santo Tomas Hospital over the
300 originally agreed upon in 1905.
Deposit to cover cost of design of powder magazine for the Republic of
Panama.
List of diplomats granted charge accounts at Panama Canal commissaries.
ReFliiest for copies of various new codes adopted by the Republic of Panama.
Question of the Republic of Panama standing half the cost of proposed incin-
erator at Cristobal (Colon).
Nutiticntiion of return from the United States of 27 alien enemies and sus-
pects who had been interned.
List of outstanding bills against the Republic of Panama.
List of persons from whom commissary books were confiscated.
Request of the Republic of Panama for statement of the cost of public im-
provements in streets that form the dividing line between Panama and Ancon
and Colon and Cristobal.
Report of the health department on the health conditions in the province of
Chiriqui.
Allegedly export of native products from Balboa and Cristobal without the
payment of duty.
Clri-aring the channel of Rio Cama Quebrada.
Request for information as to the status of the Continental Bank's liquidation
for the use of the administrator of estates, etc.
Protest of the Panama Association of Commerce against leasing of the
Panama Railroad stables for other than stable purposes.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Request of the Republic of Panama reg;irilliin .c'lring their approval before
shipping inflammables or explosives.
Plans of proposed new Canal Zone penitentiary to be located at Darien.
Paannima Railroad Company exempt from taxes on prliporly in Panama by
virtue of provisions of treaty.
Method of handling and making record of inflammables and explosives.
Regulations in force in Canal Zone prisons.
No legal authority in the Canal Zone to compel one to testify in connection
with rogatory letters issued by a court of Colon.
Question of amount of bond required by the Republic of Panama to permit
Chinese to enter the Republic to secure pr po.rt. from the Chinese consul
general.
Information requested regarding decree rcquiriug monthly inspection of all
vehicles in Panama.
Policy followed in granting clearing lierlitlk to rcsid-ents along the shore of
Gatun Lake.
Modification of tariff regulations covering public passenger vehicles.
For further details attention is invited to the report of the execu-
tive secretary, Appendix G.
OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL ATTORN EY.
Judge. Frank Feuille, as special attorney, continued to represent,
the Government's interests before the joint commission for adjusting
land claims in addition to serving as counsel for the Panama Rail-
road Company on the Isthmus. He also advised the Governor on
certain legal matters affecting the administration of the office.
During the year 74 land and improvement claims, aggregating
$49,099.40, were settled by agreement with the claniimants without re-
course to the land conmni.-sion. Up to June 30, 1919, a total of 5,554
claims for damages to land and improvements taken over by the
United States for canal and railroad purpo-ses have Leen settled di-
rectly with the claimants. Authority for settlement in this nimnner
was by virtue of the Executive order of the President until April 7,
1914, on which date the authority wn, continued by Congress.
During the fiscal year just ended the joint commission disposed of
18 claims in 19 awards, 3 awards being for improvements and 16
for lands. The awards aggregated the sum of $7T,971.80. Tile total
amount claimed in these cases was $1,487,537.05. The umpire for the
joint commission, appointed under the provisions of Article No. XV
of the Panama Canal treaty of Novembler 18, 1.03, disposed of four
claims by four awards during the year, the four awards by him aggre-
gating the sum of $11.433. A grand total of 913 claims have been
settled and paid for under awards made by all of the joint commis-
sions and umpires appointed under the treaty, aggregating the sum
of $1,4S6,646.82. Including the settlements made directly with claim-
ants through the law department of the special attorney's office.
the aggregate amount. paid by the United States for land and im-
provements to June 30, 1919, wa $2,S8)6.S.6.712. covering 6(,366 claims.
During the fiscal year 1919 the joint commis-ion dismissed six claims
on account of adjustment by direct settlement, three because of the
nonappearance of the claimants, five for lack of sufficient evidence to
support the claims, and two on motion by the attorneys for the claim-
ants. Fifteen claims were certified to the umpire by the joint com-
mission. At the end of the fiscal year 1918 there were four claims
before the umpire for his consideration. There were 13 clainis before
him at the end of tile fiscal year. On June 30, 1919, there were 104





THE PANAMA CANAL.


claims, aggregating $5,591,448.17, on the dockets of the joint commis-
sion a nd the umpire. Forty-eight of these claims were based upon
Panama Railroad leases which have been withdrawn from the juris-
diction of the joint commission by Section II of the act of July 1,
1916. There remained 46 claims for adjudication and settlement by
the joint commission on June 30, 1919, which aggregated the sum of
$1,679,296.56.
On June 30, 1919, there were 51 revocable licenses in effect for the
occupation of lots within the Canal Zone, of which number 4 were
issued during the fiscal year. These licenses were granted to steam-
ship companies, oil companies, and the cable company for office
buildings and oil tanks, as well as residences for their employees.
The licenses also included lots for churches and lodge halls. Revenues
collected on these licenses for the year aggregated $14,290.02.
For further details concerning the settlement of land claims, at-
tention is invited to the report of the special attorney, Appendix I.
HEALTH DEPARTMENT.
Following the relief by War Department's orders of Lieut. Col.
A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps, from duty with the canal,
on January 23, 1919, the position of chief health officer was vacant
until the appointment of Col. H. C. Fisher, Medical Corps, United
States Army, who was detailed by the War Department's orders for
duty with the canal, and who was appointed as chief health officer on
March 31, 1919. In the interim the duties of the position were
performed by Maj. R. L. Loughren, Medical Reserve Corps, as acting
chief health officer.
The general health conditions of the Canal Zone and the terminal
cities of Panama and Colon have continued good. One case of yellow
fever arrived at the Balboa quarantine station from Guayaquil,
Ecuador, on January 30, 1919, with no secondary cases. Seventeen
cases of leprosy were admitted to the Palo Seco Leper Asylum. A
mild epidemic of smallpox, originating in the interior of the Republic
of Panmai, occurred during the year; there were 187 cases and no
deaths. The last case was admitted to the hospital May 22, 1919.
In controlling this epidemic, the entire population of the terminal
cities and many residents of interior towns were vaccinated, where
no recent vaccination was shown or where the individual was not
immune from having had the disease. No other caie's of maritime
quarantinable diseases arrived or originated on the Isthmus during
the ye ar.
The average civil population of the Canal Zone for the yea r was
21,707, as con pared with 24,032 for the previous year. In this popu-
lation the death rate was 9.40 for discanse, as compared with 10.61 for
the previous year. The death rate for tuberculosis was 1.34, as coim-
pared with 1.79 for the previous year.
City of Punamww.-The average population was 61,369. The death
rate for disease alone was 21.85, as compared with 24.18 for the pre-
vious year. The death rate from tuberculosis was 4.30, as compared
with 4.53 for the previous year.
City of Colon.-The average population was 26,078, of which popu-
lation the death rate for disease. was 23.02, as compared with 24.96
for the preceding year.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


DIVISION OF HOSPITALS.
Ancon. Hospital.-The permanent buildings of the new plant were
completed and occupied during the year. The equipment is com-
plete, modern, and conforms with tropical requirements. The total
capacity of the hospital for patients in case of necessity, by placing
cots on protected porches and utilizing all the available space in
wards, is 1,400 patients. All of the former hospital biildlings have
been cleared of patients, section E remaining vacant, and section F
being utilized by the supply department as temporary quarters for
white bachelors.
A total of 12,461 patients was admitted to the hospital during the
year. In the surgical clinic there were 3,922' major operations and
2,010 minor operations, 3.646 cases visited the out-patient depart-
ment. In the medical clinic out-patient department -',301 cases were
treated. In the eye and ear clinic 7,440 cases were treated and 1,121
operations performed.
Corozal Hoxpi'al.-On account of the congestion in the male wards
and the impossibility of isolating tubercular insane patients, the con-
struction of a new two-story male ward was begun during the year.
The number of insane patients in this hospital at the. end of the
year was 393. Occupational treatment has been sncces-fully con-
tinued, and success has been met in encouraging certain classes of
patients to do some manual labor. Various forms of amiiusemllent
have been provided, as in former years. In connection with the man-
agement. of this hospital, a dairy, piggery, and garden have been
operated as heretofore. The dairy herd consists of 61 cows and 1
registered Jersey bull. The products of the dairy are available for
the use of the patients in the Ancon Hospital. The garden has pro-
vided fresh vegetables for hospital patients.
Chronic patients, citizens of the United States, for whom the re-
sponsibility of their home States can not be fixed, are sent from time
to time to the Saint Elizabeths Hospital, in the Distriet of Columbl'ia.
Patients from the Republic of Panama are cared for in this hospital,
the charity patients being paid for by the Panaman Government.
Colo-n Huospital.-The work of this hospital was considerably in-
creased during the year on account of the antivenereal disease cam-
paign by arrangement with the Repulblic of Panama. There were
1.031 major and 97 minor operations performed of all kinds during
the year; 2,629 patients were admitted for treatment.
The Colon Hospital is considered as an emergency institution to
take care of cases arising in Colon and vicinity that woiildl suffer
from the delay incident to transportation to Ancon Hospiital. The
cases operated upon included skull fractures, appendicitis. hernias,
fractures, and traumatic amputations.
Santo Tumnas Hoispitlh.-The work at this hospital was greatly in-
creased by the antivenereal disease campaign. tiis institution per-
orining in Panama in this respect the same functions as those per-
formied by the Colon Hospital at Colon. This hospital is owned by
the Governmient of Panama. but is operated by agreement under the
general supervision of the chief health officer of the canal.
Palo Seco Leper Asyi/inm.-At the end of the year there were 74
patients as compared with 70 at the beginning of the year. Seven-
teen cases were admitted, 6 deaths occurred, and 7 individuals escaped
1-1I0921-10--1





THE PANAMA CANAL.


from the institution. Before admission to the institution patients
are passed through the Ancon Hospital in order to guarantee the diag-
nosis. The immediate supervision of the institution is under the chief
health officer.
SANITATION.

For the purposes of sanitation the Canal Zone is divided into four
sanitary districts, all being supervised by the chief sanitary inspec-
lbr, reporting to the chief health officer of the cn anl.
The Gatun sanitary district extends from Mindi dairy on the north
to Darien on the south and includes the town of Gatun, the locks and
dam, a portion of Gatun Lake, and the large areas of swamnps and
cattle pastures north and west of Gatun. The Pedro Miguel district
contains the town and locks of Pedro Miguel, the villages of Paraiso
and Red Tank, the villages on the west side of the canal, the south end
of Gatun Lake and the Chagres River, and the cattle pastures on both
sides of the canal from Darien to Miraflores. The Ancon district in-
cludes the eastern part of the Pacific end of the Canal Zone from
1%Miraflores to the boundary of Panama City. The Balboa district in-
cludes the town of Balboa and the docks and shops along the water
front and large cattle pastures on the west bank of the canal south of
Miraflores.
In the Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and Colon-Cristobal districts there
was a marked increase in the malarial rate after the setting in of the
ivet season in April. In the vicinity of Gatun a breeding place of
the Anopheles mosquitos was located in a swamp between the spillway
and the old French Canal. Breeding is also going on in the swamps
and wet pasture lands north of Gatun near Mindi and Mount Hope
and on Telfer's Island near the Cristobal coaling plant. Special care
is exercised in sanitating the vicinities of coaling plants, docks, and
locks, at which night work is required. The malarial incidence was
greatest, as heretofore, among the employees whose work required
them to frequent unsanitated districts, particularly those employed
in the clearing of pastures for cattle. During the first quarter of the
calendar year 1919 there were admitted at the hospitals for treatment
for malaria 182 employees from the cattle camps and plantations and
but 28 from the sanitated areas of the Zone. The jungle-cutting
gangs are largely recruited from native Panamans, many of whom are
affected with chronic malaria. ,Extensive sanitation was not at-
tempted in the vicinity of the cattle camps, because of their tempo-
rary nature, and the routine administration of quinine solution to
all cattle camp and plantatiton employees was begun, with imme-
diate beneficial results. The tendency of the Anopheles mosquito
to breed in the hoof prints of cattle in which water is gathered makes
necessary their restriction in the location of pastures so as to pre-
vent their being too near inhabited towns.

QUARANTINE DIVISION.

During the year the situation has improved in regard to yellow
fever in nearby ports, but practically all ports in Columbia, Vene-
zuela, Ecuador, and the Pacific ports of Central and South America
are still under suspicion, and quarantine regulations have been main-
tained against them. There has been no change in the plague situa-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


tion, and active work has been done in the fumigation of vessels for
the destruction of rats. On April 1, 1919, on the recommendation
of the chief quarantine officer, procedure was instituted to fumigate
every three. months every vessel from the west coast which makes
Cristobal its terminal port. At the time of fumigation the vessels
must be entirely empty and have all dead spaces opened up; experi-
ence has shown that fumigation of vessels with cargo is not effica-
cious in destroying rats.
On April 1, 1919, the hours of quarantine inspection at Cristobal
were extended from sunset. to 10 p. m., except in cases of suspected
yellow fever, which can not be thoroughly examined by artificial
light. The object has been to prevent unnecessary delays to shipping
and the resulting congestion at the locks and coaling piers.
For further details see the report of the chief health officer, Ap-
pendix J.
WASHINGTON OFFICE.

The office remained in charge of Mr. A. L. Flint as general pur-
chasing officer and chief of office. His organization is divided into
administration, including the appointment division and the cor-
respondence and record division, office of the assistant auditor, and
the purchasing department.
The demands in the United States for workers at high rates of pay
increased the difficulty of filling requisitions from the Isthmus for
employees. In the shipbuilding trades especially it has been prac-
tically impossible to establish and maintain waiting lists. Sixteen
hundred and ten persons were tendered employment in grades above
that of laborer, of which 962 accepted. Thirty-one hundred and
thirty-three persons, including new appointees, those returning from
leave of absence, and members of employees' families, were provided
with transportation to the Isthmus.
The work of the correspondence and record divisions included the
preparation and submission to Congress of estimates of appropria-
tions and special items of legislation desired by the canal, as re-
quested by the Governor of the canal; and the dissemination of canal
literature and information, the demand for which has increased on
the part of shipbuilding and shipping concerns since the signing
of the armistice.
In the assistant auditor's office, including the work of the disburs-
ing clerk, 14,787 claims for payment. were received during the year,
and in addition 382 were on hand on July 1, 1918. There were
passed for payment during the year 14,871, leaving on hand June
30, 1919, 298. During the year 12,473 disbursement vouchers, amount-
ing to $8,756,004.38, and 264 collection vouchers, amounting to $540,-
248.65, were passed; 2,103 settlements by transfer of appropriations,
aggregating $1,329,299.85, were given the required administrative
examination. Reports were made upon 34 claims submitted to the
Auditor for the War Department for direct settlement or for settle-
ment by the auditor after the claims had been filed by the contractors.
During the year 84 contracts were prepared, amounting to $3,452.-
637.58. The assistant auditor, as legal adviser in the United States
for The Panama Canal, has continued to render assistance to the De-
partment of Justice in connection with the preparation for trial and





THE PANAMA CANAL.


at the trial in the courts of all cases in connection with action
brought by or against the canal. During the year suits have been
pending involving unclosed claims of the amount of $156,392.91
against the canal. No new suits were brought against the canal
during the year.
During the first. five months of the fiscal year the same practice
relative to methods of purchase as outlined in the reports of previous
years has been continued. After the signing of the armistice on
November 11, 1918, considerable quantities of material hitherto re-
quired in connection with the prosecution of war have been released
by the War Department as surplus material. Endeavor has been
made to cooperate with other government departments having surplus
material on hand, with a view to acquiring from such sources ma-
terial required for the canal. It is nevertheless still necessary to
secure the bulk of canal supplies by purchase under the usual meth-
ods. This is due to the fact that frequently the surplus material
available does not meet the canal requirements, and, furthermore,
there are no surplus stocks of many articles and materials which the
canal must buy.
The principal purchases have been made by the Washington office,
but assistant purchasing agents have been continued at New York,
New Orleans, and San Francisco. A small force of employees has
been continued in the Medical Supply Depot, United States Army,
New York City, for the purchase of medical and hospital supplies.
In the work of inspection of materials purchased, assistance has been
rendered, as heretofore, by district officers of the Corps of Engineers,
United States Army, by the Bureau of Standards, the Bureau of
Mines, the Bureau of Chemistry, the Medical Department, the Ord-
nance Department, the Signal Corps, and the Quartermaster Corps
of the United States Army.
The number of purchase orders issued during the fiscal year was
7,469, as compared with 6,608 for the previous year. The total value
of orders placed by the Washington office was $6,764,278.62, as com-
pared with $8,019,608.90 for the previous year. The figure given for
the fiscal year 1919 does not include the sum of $277,042.70 paid dur-
ing the year for cement ordered under continuing contract with the
Atlas Portland Cement Co., entered into in 1909.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix K.
Respect fully submitted.
CHESTER HAIHDING,
Goccrn-oi, The Panama Canal.
Hon. NEWTON D. BAKER,
Secretary of War, 1Was.hi.ngton, D. C.







ORGANIZATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL JULY 1. 113S


GOVEeNOB
THE PANAMA CANAL
Cal CHESTEP HA D2NW6 USA.
IBE3IDENTOFTHE PANAMA OR.C.


I

PURCHASING DEPARTMENT
AL a rJNT

.mf JmarshbA. 0fro


I
EXECUTIVE DERARTMENT
Cjw Csr D U.SA
CA.MFILVAIAE
E&6Cafw Sc,~fo,'
fiANK F/IL LE
ALBEIT C WlNDMAN


I I

MECHANICAL DIVISION BUILDING DIVISION
Cormar EDIN 6 KINTNER HAPTL 1y PLOWL


MARINE DIVISION
C4p/ 34 asm0.usuN.,
darnnr SertN4sdu.0 f
Ledf CTra* rnsl4USNU
Iefs ut m4dlrO9SSiVSW.US8Me


BOARD OFADMEASUREMENT BOARD Or LOCAL INSPI
Cap# L.P SARGENTv U.SM.. L ,d eothrr J-rGFG4L
C7rn Chmair-w
Le,. MAC DAVIIS U.&N. L.r Camd* CLNSaWitE
FE MILLIAMS Lra M CD 4VISL


DISTRICT COURT
JOHN W HAMNAN-J.Ldqe
MA OTEOM arsfol
MAaISTRATE'S COURTS
J.W BLACKBURN Sbo'ma
J W THOAWRFOV Csactai

,Uder fw Goernwr fr
adnamarta.e purposes ony


FORTIFICATION SECTION
Co' CHAS. FRICE'U8A.
OD.-nct f r Otr
ad fEr Tva i opmw Ce*



aOdmvrwffvf pwpoeou ed


Plate 1












APPENDIX A.


REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


THE PANAMA CANAL,
OFFICE OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE,
Balboa Heiyhts, Canal Zon-, July 29, 1919.
SIR: The following is a report of the work done under the juris-
diction of this office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919:
ORGANIZATION.
The duties of the engineer of maintenance were not changed during
the year, except that an order was issued by you, effective August 1,
1918, providing that all changes involving maintenance, improve-
ment, replacement, or new construction of Panama Railroad plants
should be carried out under his supervision.
Effective July 1, 1918, Mr. W. J. Douglas was appointed engineer
of maintenance. Mr. Douglas continued in this office until April 30,
1919, when he resigned from the service, and instructions were issued
by you on May 1, 1919, to the effect that all divisions formerly
reporting to the engineer of maintenance should report direct to the
Governor. Effective May 31, 1919, the undersigned resumed the
duties of engineer of-maintenance, vacated under War Department
orders 21 months earlier.
During the year the personnel in charge, of the various divisions
and sections reporting to this office were as follows:
Electrical Jhvision.-Mr. Walter L. Hersh, electrical engineer. con-
tinued in charge of the electrical division.
Locks division.-Mr. E. D. Stillwell continued as superintendent
of the Atlantic locks and Mr. W. R. Holloway continued as superin-
tendent of the Pacific locks.
liMunicipal di'lision.-Mr. D. E. Wright, ntmunicipal engineer, re-
signed for service in the United States Army on October 22. 1918,
and Mr. Roy C. Hardman was appointed acting municipal engineer.
Mr. Wright resumed these duties on March 2-2. 1919.
Section of meteorology and 7iqdrogrlphi i-.-Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite
continued as chief hydrographer until February 21. 1919, when Mr.
R. Z. Kirkpatrick received his discharge from the United States
Army and resumed his former duties as chief hydrographer.
Section of office enqfiner.-Mr. C. J. Embree continued in charge
of this section until his resignation on October 31,1918, for service in
the Army, and was succeeded by Mr. F. W. Blackwood. Mr. Embree
resumed these duties on January 5, 1919.
Dredgting di-ision..-Mr. J. M. Pratt, superintendent of dredging,
continued in charge of this division.
Section of surveys.-Mr. Fred R. Fitch continued as assistant en-
gineer in charge of this section until February 1, 1919, when Mr.
0. E. Malsbury received his discharge from the Army and resumed
his duties in charge of this section.







THE PANAMA CANAL.


LOCKS DIVISION.

BLOCKAGES.

The following table gives the total number of commercial and
noncommercial lockages for the year:


Gatun. Pedro Miguel. Miraflores.

To July During To July To July During To July To July During To July
1, 1918. year. 1, 1919. 1,1918. year. 1, 1919. 1,1918. year. 1,1919.

All lockages..............-- 6,426 2, 161 8,587 6,805 2,444 9,249 6,645 2,333 8,978
Commercial lockages........ 5,456 1,918 7,374 5,663 2,019 7,682 5,651 1,946 7,597
Noncommercial lockages
United States Army and
Navy--.............-....... 11 104 215 91 117 208 88 99 187
Noncommercial lockages
canal equipment.......... 960 139 1,099 1,051 308 1,359 906 288 1,194
Commercial vessels and
launches................... 5,985 2,061 8,046 5,946 2,045 7,991 5,937 2,048 7,985
Noncommercial vessels and
launches, United States
Army and Navy........... 179 282 461 133 243 376 133 242 375


The average number of lockages for the Atlantic side was 180Mk
per month, the Pacific, side having an average of 2031 per month,
throughout the year. The maximum number on the Atlantic side
occurred during the month of November, 1918, when they made 202
lockages. The maximum for the Pacific side was for the month of
October, when 226 lockages were made.

WATER CONSUMPTION--GATUN LAKE.

Complete data regarding the hydrography of Gatun Lake for the
calendar year have been included in the report of the chief hy-
drographer given hereinafter. The following table has been com-
piled to give complete information regarding the average monthly
supply and demand of water for the past fiscal year:

Millions of Percent Percent
Average quantity per month. cubic feet lost or
of water. used. oftotal.

WATER LOST.
By evaporation......................................... ......... 1,807.695 18.1156 11.7306
By wastage over Gatun spillway................................- 8,094.020 81.1134 52.7204
By leakage, Gatun spillway-.................................... 9.635 .0966 .0625
By transfer, Miraflores Lake....................................... 33.135 .3321 .2150
By leakage, all locks......... ................................. 34.153 .3423 .2216
Totalwaterlost........................................... 9.978.638 100.0000 64.9501
WATER USED.
For pumping-...............................-.......-.........- 63.885 1.1763 .4146
For lockages, Atlantic ..................-........................ 739.009 13.6072 4.7957
For blockages, Pacific.......................----............... ...683.631 12. 5876 4.1443
For hydroelectric station.................................. 3,611.175 66.4918 25.5324
Gain in storage, Gatun Lake..................................... 333.300 6.1371 2.1629
Totalwaterused................................--........... 5,431.000 100.0000 35.0499
Total water lost and used ....................................... 15, 409.638 100.0000

Useful water= 5431.
15,409.638 -=35.24 percent.
1422.64
Waterused forlockages 15,409.638=9'.232 percent.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


The average elevation of Gatun Lake for the entire fiscal year has
been 85.56 feet. The maximum elevation occurred in January, when
we had an average elevation of 86.75 feet. The minimum elevation
occurred in April, when the lake was at 84.15 feet. The average
amount of water required for one complete through lockage from the
Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean has averaged 7,472,000 cubic feet for
the entire fiscal year. Of this total the Atlantic has used 4,115,000
cubic feet, and the Pacific locks have averaged 3,357,000 cubic feet
per lockage.
GATUN DAM.

The installation of additional penstocks for units 4, 5, and 6 at the
hydroelectric station was satisfactorily completed without disturb-
ance of the surface of the dam in the vicinity of the excavation.
Earth has been backfilled over the installation of the penstocks and
the grass surface of the dam restored.

TOWING LOCOMOTIVES.

The towing locomotives have continued to render very satisfactory
service in the handling of the ships in the locks, although two acci-
dents occurred during the year, one on September 21, when locomo-
tive No. 644 ran down two steep inclines on the center wall towing
track, Atlantic locks, shearing off the bumper at the end of the ap-
proach wall, and coming to rest upon the wooden crib fender, with
comparatively little damage, except for the destruction of the cab
at one end of the machine. This locomotive was repaired and put
back into service and continued in operation until February 14, when
it again descended one of the steep inclines, out of control, and hit
the bumping post at the end of the approach wall, without serious
damage. Neither accident. involved any injury to operator. Both
of these accidents occurred as a result of the fact that the machine
is out of control when the clutch lever is on the neutral point, and
arrangements have been made to in-stall electric bells in both cabs of
each locomotive on the Atlantic side, these bells ringing whenever
both clutch lever latches are out of their quadrant. notches, in both
the north and south cabs of the machine. The bells will continue to
ring until the clutch lever is latched in either the 2 or 5 mile posi-
tions. We have also arranged to construct a brake, which has been
tried with success on one of the locomotives on the Pacific side, this
brake being applicable regardless of the position of the clutch lever.

SPARE PARTS.

The storehouse for spare parts at Corozal continues in operation.
Here are stored all supplies for the locks, except the electrical spare
parts which are kept at Balboa electrical storehouse. Forty-nine
requisitions on the States have been issued during the fiscal year.
These orders included 35 for the locks division, the balance being for
the office engineer, chief hydrographer, and the assistant engineer of
surveys. At the beginning of the fiscal year the locks had six United
States requisitions in process of manufacture. and these have been
completed during the past fiscal year. Of the 35 lock division requi-






THE PANAMA CANAL.


sitions which have been issued during the year, 18 have been com-
pleted to date. the material on the balance being in process of manu-
facture.
APPROACH WALL FlUNDER CRIBS.
The fender cribs at the ends of all approach walls have continued
in service, except the upper fender at Miraflores locks and the lower
fender at Pedro Miguel, both of which were found to have been
seriously attacked by the teredo, and it was necessary to build en-
tirely new fenders to replace the ones'destroyed. New fenders have
been constructed of creosoted piles to resist the attack of the teredo
which has been found to exist in the waters of Miraflores Lake, which
is rapidly becoining more saline.

PAINTING LOCK GATES.
The mainitenance work on the lock gate surfaces, fixed irons, and
valves, has continued in accordance with contract with the American
Bitumastic Enamels Company, dated November 24, 1917.
The maintenance work on the Atlantic lock gates was completed
April 15, 1918, but on July 24, 1918, it was reported that the sub-
merged enamel was peeling off the lock gates. On January 10, 1919,
Gatun locks were again unwatered and work tartled in the west
chamber. February 10, 1919, the caisson was placed at the upper
end of the east cliaminlictr and the reenameling of the gate- and valves
continued until March 10, when the repair work was completed.
Maiintenaince work on Miraflores lock gates and valves was started
March 22, 1919, when the caisson was sunk in place in the west chanm-
ber. Work in the east chamber at Miraflores is delayed pending
overhaul of the caisson pumps and valves.

POWER AND CONTP-OL.
In August, 1918, at the Atlantic locks there was started the con-
struction of a new service oil-switch bank room on the east side wall
opposite the control house. All work on the room was completed,
and the power cables to all transformer rooms were reconnected in a
closed ring system by November, 1918.
The trouble with control cables, which was described in last year's
report, has not interfered with the operation of the locks during
the pa st. fiscal year. It is hoped that the precautions taken in in-
stalling control cables away from the outside wall of ducts have
proved to be a satisfactory solution of the trouble.

LOCK OPERATION.
The first serious accident to the locks occurred on June 14, when
the east. chamber of the lower level of locks at Miraflores was flooded,
causing a five-hour delay in traffic. This accident flooded the tunnels
on both the center and side walls of the east chamber to a depth of
approximately 4 feet, and as the transformer rooms are on a lower
level than the tunnels these rooms were flooded to a (lepth of ap-
proximately 6 feet, enough to submerge the lighting transformer
and all oil switches, as well as the end bells and busses on the low-





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


tension switchboard. It was necessary to remove all oil firom the
lighting transformer and oil switches, as well as drain the motor
frames of water. blit in spite of the difficulties to be overcome the
center-wall machines and transformer rooms were back in operating
condition within five hours' time. The accident resulted from the
control-house operator opening upper valves iinder the impression
that the rising stenm vIlves in center wall culvert had been closed,
thus connecting lower chanmbler with Miraflores Lake level.

MA.\IN TENANCE WORltK.

During the year all machines and equipment have been examined
thoroughly and put in fir-t-class condition.
The manufacture of all oil paints with the paint. machine at Pedro
Miguel locks has continued, the prodiict of the machine being on a
par with the paint which was formerly purchased. The saving has
amounted to approximately $1 per gallon for the. material used in
painting all of the steel super.-triict iires of the locks.
Following are extracts fromi reports of the lock superintendents,
covering details of operation and maintenance of the locks:

PACIFIC LOCKS.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
Mr. W. R. Holloway continued as superintendent thlrouhluiit the year and
Mr. J. C. Myrick continued as assistant uiipieripitendent. During the absence
of the superintendent on leave in the Unitnld Staites from August .2, 1918, to
November 21. 1918, his duties were assumed by Mr. Myrick, as waiting super-
intendent. Mr. R. S. Mills continued as electrical supervisor tlhrorughout the
year. Mlr. G. L. Viberg, mechanical supervisor, re-igmlI. effective October 29,
1918, and this position was filled by the appointment of Mr. A. E. Aleigs. who
was formerly assistant supervisor and who re-ineid to enter the United States
Navy. Mr. Meirs was honorably disc-h;arged from the Navyi and was appointed
mechanical supervisor, effective December 20, 1918.
The general organization remained the same as throiLihoiit the previous
year, there being very few changes in the persIniiri1. with the exception of men
resigning to enter the Army or Navy during the war emergency.
Following is a complete list of eniplipyers of the ';acirii locks in the United
States Army and Navy during the World War:
Phallis C. Carr, William Kinsey,
Vesper C. Dillon, Alexander E. Meigs,
Samuel AM. Fnist, \\'illi;inn A. M'rimon.
William A. Gray, William H. Needlham,
Edward N. Jerry, Nathaniel J. Owen.
Of the above, Mr. William H. Needham and Mr. Alexander E. Meigs were in
the Navy and the remnIiniler in the Army.
Mr. Nathaniel J. Owen and Mr. Challis C. Carr were killed in action, the
former by enemy gas and the latter by shell fire.
Messrs. William Kinsey, Alexander E. Mleigs, William A. Morgan. nnil
Wilinm H. Needlianm have been lionor:iby discharged from the service and have
returned to duty at the locks.
OPERATION.
The locks were operated throughout the year on a two-shift basis, the shifts
overlnppinr at Pedro Miguel to cover the period from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. and
at Miratlipres from 7 a. m. to 8 p. m. It Is seldom necessary to hold the men
beyond this period.
A total of 2.444 lockages were made at Pedro Miguel during the year, or an
average of 64s per day, and 2.333 at Miraflores, or an average of 6.39 per
day. Tabulatils are attached showing the lockages by months.







46 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The S. S. Faith, the first concrete ship to pass through the canal, was locked
northbound on October 3, 1918. This ship was 326 feet in length, with a beam
of 41 feet and a draft of 24 feet.
The first accident at the Pacific locks that resulted in delaying traffic ocr
curred on June 14, 1919, when the lower level at Miraflores was flooded,
causing traffic to be delayed five hours. No serious damage to the operating
machinery and equipment resulted from the accident.
Practice operations of the emergency dams were made monthly, but no
emergency operations were necessary.
Operations of the spillway at Miraflores were made to maintain Miraflores
Lake at the proper elevation, which is 54 feet above sea level.

MAINTENANCE.

The six top panels on the downstream side of gates Nos. 104 and 105 at
Miraflores were coated with Navy solution and hermastic enamel in September,
1918, and the six top panels, both up and downstream sidles. of gates Nos. 108
and 109 at Miraflores were also coated with Navy solution and hermastic
enamel the same month. Inspection was made of gates Nos. 112, 113, 116, and
117 in August, 1918. These gates had been coated with enamel in August, 1917,
and the enamel was found to be in good condition, touching up only being
necessary.
The seven top sheets on the downstream side of gates Nos. 54 and 55 at
Pedro Miguel and the seven top sheets on both up and downstream sides of
gates Nos. 58, 59, 62, 63, 66, and 67 were scraped and given one coat of Tock-
olith" and one coat of black paint, this work being completed in December,
1918.
The handrails and top structures of all the gates were painted with battle-
ship-gray paint during the year.
The seven top sheets on the downstream side of gates Nos. 56 and 57 and
the seven top sheets on both the up and downstream sides of gates Nos. 60, 61,
64, 65, 68, and 69 were all painted with one coat of Tockolith," except the
upstream side of Nos. 60 and 61 and the downstream side of 56, which were
given one coat of locally-mixed red lead. All the above-mentioned gates were
given a second coat of locally-manufactured black paint. The eighth sheets,
or the sheets at the normal elevation of the water, were scraped and coated
with bitumastic solution, which was put on temporarily as a protection while
waiting for the caisson. The eighth sheets were the only ones that showed
signs of pittiint or deterioration. This work was completed in January, 1919.
Rising stem-valve machines Nos. 418, 419, 422, 423, 430, 431, 436, 437, 440,
441, 442, 443, 448, and 449 were cleaned and painted, including the pits and
machine rooms, walls, and floors, in connection with the other overhauling
work being done while the west chamber at Miraflores was out of service.
All four emergency dams were painted during the year, battleship-gray paint
1lcin-i used. The dams were coated in their entirety, with the exception of the
wicket girders and gates, which required touching up only.
All towing locomotives were painted during the year with battleship-gray*
paint manufactured at the locks.
Both control and power cables were inspiected and found in good condition.
and no cable failures occurred during the year.
The oil in all oil switches and power and lighting transformers was tested and
refiltered or replaced where necessary.
All lock-gate spares stored at Paraiso, with the exception of the girders,
have been moved to Corozal storehouse, where they were scraped, painted, and
renumbered before lieinur stored. The girders are still at Paraiso and will be
moved later on. This work was all done by the lock forces.
The necessary paiiitiing of all operating machinery, tunnel floors, etc., was
kept up during the year.
Part of the contract with the American Bitumestic Enamels Company expired
in January, 1919.
The back fills and dams at both sets of locks have been maintained throughout
the year.
The crib fender at the south approach wall at Pedro Miguel was repaired,
this work being colipleted in April, 1919.
The crib fender at the north approinch wall at Miraflores had to be replaced.
This work was started in February, 1919, when the old timber were removed






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


and new piles were driven. The work on the new fender was completed in
June. 1919.
Necessary repairs were made to the fender timbers from time to time and
timbers were renewed where necessary.
After removing the floating caisson from the west chamber at Miraflores
upon completion of the overhauling work in that chamber, it was found neces-
sary to give the caisson a general overhauling, which work was started in
June, 1919, and is in progress at the present time.

PAINT MACHL'E.
The paint machine installed last year was fiounid to meet all the require-
ments we had anticipated. All necessary piainlhing to the machinery, tunnels,
etc., has been done during the year with paint manufactured by us. A con-
siderable saving is effected in this manner and amounts to about $1 on each
gallon of paint used. On the paintin-r of the iiergin'iicy dams alone there was
a saving of about $1,200.
LAUNCHES, BOATS, ETC.
The launch Dora V was completely in September, 1918, and put in service.
This launch was purchased in the United States, knocked down, and was
assembled at the locks.
Four round-bottom pilot boats were made during the year and one flat-
bottom boat for removing derisr from the forebay was also made.
A new boathouse was built at Pedro Miguel locks for the launch Dora V.

COCOLI SHED.
The Cocoli shed, located near Cocoli Hill on the west side of the canal at
Miraflores locks, was moved to a point on the west back fill at Alirallores oppo-
site the control house, the work being completed in March, 1919. The exca-
Tating and handling of material in connection with thi-s work was done by the
lock forces, the remainder of the work being done by the building division.

OVERHAU-LING WEST CHAMBER, MIRAFLORES LOCKS.
The caisson was sunk in the lower west chamber on March 22, 1910, and
after completion of the inspection and overhlnuling work in that chamber was
raised on June 12, 1919. The following covers the work in detail, all of which
was done by the lock forces:
Miler yates.-All the miter gates in the west chamber, except Nos. 102 and
103, had the water compartments inspected and necessary touclinrg up of the
enamel done. The enamel was touiliic d up in the suilI1IerILedi portions ol' all the
gates in the west chamber, wit h the exception of the upper side of Nos. 102
and 103. Hermastic enamel was used on the above work.
The fender timbers on miter gate No. 1'2 were renewed complete, almendrIt,
a native wood, being used instead of givitrlien;irt. as oriigiri;ally usedl.
The fixed seal timbers fornmiii- the bottom sills for the miter gates were re-
newed on gates Nos. 106, 107, 118, 119, 122, and 123,. almendra being used. In-
spection showed that the seals for all the ;gates had been attacked by terpil'o-.
but their action was conrlined largely to a small area about the beveled dilges of
the seal. A patch was inrt:ailled in the fixed seal timber for miter gate No. 127.
The iron conduit running from the top to the bottom of the ,;tes for thb
sump pump wiring was found to be li;mdly corrioildd and pitted in the water com-
partments. In some cases this action had g1on0e fllr enough to penetrate thoi
conduit. which allowed water to enter and saturate the wires and run doIlwn to
thin air comupartuments. The conduit was renewed in gates Now-. 1ioG. 110, 111,
114, 115, 118. 119. 122, 123, 126, and 127. The wires flor the sump pIonup in gato
No. 127 had deterioraiteil to such an extent that it was necessary to replace them.
Cylindrical rilres..-Rubber seals were installed in place of the leather seals
on cylindrical valves Nos. 701, 703. 7oi5. 707, 70l, 711, 713. 715, 717, 719, 721,
723. 725, 727. 729. 731, 733, 735, 737, and 739. The leather had become hard and
brittle and in niuny places was b;adily deteriorated.
All of these valves were Except for the leather seals, they were found to be in very good oiidition. All
stems were repacked and necessary touching up of the bituinistic enamel was
done.







THE PANAMA CANAL.


Nonoperating valves.-The suspension chain was painted on the west wall
valve.
Bulkheads.-The seals on both the upper and lower west center culvert en-
trance bulkheads had been destroyed by teredos and were renewed, almendra
being used. The bitumastic enamel was found to be in very good condition and
only touching up was done.
The following shows the dates the bulkheads were removed and installed:
Upper center wall, east side, removed March 19, 1919, and replaced July 11,
1919.
Upper center wall, west side, removed March 20, 1919, and replaced June 11,
1919.
Upper end west wall culvert, removed March 19, 1919, and replaced May 23,
1919.
Lower end west wall culvert, removed March 20, 1919, and replaced June 12,
1919.
Lower center wall, east side, removed March 21, 1919, and replaced June 14,
1919.
Lower center wall, west side, removed March 21, 1919, and replaced June 13,
1919.
Intake screens.-The intake screens, which protect the culverts from debris,
logs, etc., were removed from the west-wall culvert on March 17, 1919, and were
replaced on May 23, 1919. The screens had been treated with red lead and were
badly deteriorated, making it necessary to rebuild them.
The screens in the center-wall culvert were removed March 19, 1919, and were
replaced on June 11, 1919. These screens had been treated with bitumastic
enamel and were found to be in very good condition, requiring very little touch-
ing up.
Rising stem valves-general.-The valves were found to be in fairly good
condition. The bitumastic enamel had served as a very good protection from
corrosion and pitting. There were some spots where the enamel had broken
down, but this was confined principally to rivet heads. The bottom of the valves
was found to be pitted, which indicates that the wooden bottom seal is no
better than the babbitt seal. The wooden seals were installed about two years
ago, thinking it would prevent action between the babbitt, as formerly used for
seals, and the metal of the valve.
The lignum-vitse side seal strips had been attacked by teredos, in some cases
to such an extent that the strips had become so weakened that sections were
carried away. This indicates that the wooden side seal strips can probably
be replaced by strips of some other material to advantage. The lignum-vitoe
strips were installed to replace steel strips about two years ago and have proven
a success so far as wear is concerned, but due to the fact that they were at-
tacked by teredos it will be necessary to experiment with other material. Two
bronze strips were installed in different locations for experimental purposes.
The wooden strips that were replaced were treated with creosote or a poison
solution to prevent attack by teredos. Two valves were also fitted with bronze
strips on the bottom to see if they would prevent pitting.
The roller trains in general were badly pitted and eaten away. The bearings
of the rollers were greatly reduced in size, while the bearing holes were con-
siderably enlarged. Those in the lower level, where they are always sub-
merged in sea water, were found to be in much better condition than those in
the upper level. The same condition applies to all parts of the valves, which
indicates that there is some chemical action peculiar to conditions as found
in the upper chamber or water entering from Miraflores Lake.
The fixed irons were in very gond condition, with the exception of the roller
tracks, which were pitted and worn. These will need replacing or having
new wearing strips installed in the near future or during the next over-
hauling period.
The wearing pads on the valves were worn and will have to be replaced dur-
ing the next overhauling period.
As there were not enough roller train channel irons to replace all those that
were needed, straight bar iron, 1 inch by 5j inches, was used and drilled to
take the rollers.
Guard valves Nos. 409, 410, an-d 411.-The valves were removed as follows:
No. 409, March 19; No. 410, March 17; No. 411, March 20. The valves were re-
placed as follows: Nos. 409 and 410, May 22, and No. 411, May 20. All three
valves were in very good condition. The roller trains were in very good condi-
tion and were used to replace unusable trains in other locations. Special roller






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


trains, containing 33 new rollers each, were made up and installed. The top
seals were in good condition. The side seal strips, which are formed by
Z bars which are anchored in the concrete, were pitted and should be
replaced with a renewable type of strip during the next overhauling period.
The bottom of the valves was pitted very little, not enough to necessitate
planing off. The bronze side seals were in very good condition, and were
scraped and adjusted where necessary. The. end rollers were overhauled.
These valves were given one coat of red lead and one coat of No. 30 marine
paint.
Rising stem valve 412.-The valve was removed on May 26, 1919, .and was
rephiced on June 8, 1919. The valve was in very good condition. The roller
trains had begun to deteriorate, but it was not necessary to renew them. The
top seal was in good condition. The side seal strips and bottom seals had been
attacked by teredos and were renewed. creosoted ligiium-vitae being used for
the side seals and greenheart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve
was planed off. The bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled and bolts
renewed where necessary. The end rollers were freed and put in good condi-
tion.
Rising stem valve 413.-The valve was removed on May 27, 1919, and re-
placed on June 9, 1919. The valve was in very good condition. The roller
trains had begun to deteriorate, but were in good enough condition to be used
again. The top seal casting was badly corroded and pitted and was replaced
with a new one. The side seal strips and bottom seals had been attacked by
teredos and were renewed, creosoted liniimn-vitfe being used for the side seals
and greenheart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was planed off.
The bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled, and bolts were renewed
where necessary. The end rollers were freed and put in ood condition.
Rising stem valve 416.-The valve was removed on May 23, 1919, and re-
placed on June 2, 1919. The valve was found to be in very good condition.
The roller trains had deteriorated considerably, but not enough to require re-
newal. The top seal was in good condition. The side seal strips and bottom
seals had been attacked by teredos and had to be renewed, cre'soteil, lignum-
vitae being used for the side seals and greenheart for the bottom seals. The
bottom of the valve was planed off. The bronze side seals were scraped and
overhauled, bolts being renewed where necessary. The end rollers were freed
and put in good condition.
Rising stem valve 417.-The valve was removed May 24, 1919, and replaced
June 4, 1919. The valve was in very good condition. The roller trains had
begun to deteriorate, but not enough to require renewal. The top seal was in
good condition. The side seal strips and bottom seals had been attacked by
teredosl and were renewed, creosoted lignuiin-vite being used for the side seals
and greenheart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was planed off.
The bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled, three sections of spring anil
bolts being renewed where necessary. The end rollers were freed and put in
good condition.
Rising stem valve 418.-The valve was removd- on April 4, 1919.0, and ril.Inced
on May 20, 1919. The valve was badly corroded on the upstream side. The
rivet heads had been attacked worse than the. other parts of the valve, and
24 rivets had to be renewed. The roller trains were not in good enough condi-
tion to be used again, and were replaced by those from gu-ard valve No. 409. The
top seal was in good condition. The side seal strips and bottom seals hail been
attacked by tereduas and were renewed, poison-treated lignum-vitoe being used for
the side seals anil greenheart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was
planed off. The bronze side seals were scraped antd overhauled, bolts being
renewed where necessary. The end rollers were overhauled.
Rising stem ruilre 419.-The valve was removed on April 3, 19190, and replaced
on May 6, 1910. The valve was badly pitted and corroded in spots. T'he action
was especially noticeable around the rivet heads and butt straps. Twenty
rivets were renewed. The roller trains were too badly deteriorated to he used
again, and were'replaced by those from guard valve No. 410. The top seal
was in good condition. The side seal strips and bottom seals had been attacked
by teredos and were replaced, using one experimental bronze side seal strip on
the east side, poiison-treated lignmin-vitm: on the west side, and grevenheart for
the bottom seal. The bottom of the valve was planed off and a 3-inch by 3-inch
bronze strip used as an experiment to stop pitting. The bronze side seals were







THE PANAMA CANAL.


scraped and overhauled, bolts being renewed where necessary. The end rollers
were overhauled.
Rising stem valve 432.-The valve was removed on April 2, 1919, and replaced
on May 10, 1919. The valve was in fair condition, but there were some signs
of corrosion and pitting. Six rivets were renewed. The roller trains had
Ietn11i to deteriorate, but not to such an extent that they had to be renewed.
The top seal was in good condition. The side seal strips and bottom seal had
been attacked by teredos and were renewed, poison-treated lignum-vitre being
used for the side seals and greenheart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the
valve was- planed off and a bronze strip installed for experimental purposes.
The bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled, new bolts being used
tlirom-rhiou t. The end rollers were overhauled.
Risiviy stem valve 423.-The valve was removed on April 1, 1919, and replaced
May 15, 1919. The valve was in good condition. There was a small amount of
pittillg where the enamel had failed. The roller trains had begun to dete-
riorate, but not enough to .require renewal. The top seal was in good condition.
The side seal strips and bottom seals had been attacked by trivdll's and were
renewed, poison-treated lignum-vitaT being used for the side seals and green-
heart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was planed off. The
bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled, and bolts were renewed where
necessary. The end rollers were overhauled.
Rising stem valves 4 ?S. 429, 434, and 435.-These valves were in very good
condition and were not removed. The seals were in very good condition.
Necessary touching up of the bitumastic enamel was done with the valves in
place.
Rising stem valve 430.-The valve was removed March 31, 1919, and replaced
April 18, 1919. The valve was found to be considerably corroded, especially
around the rivet heads and butt straps. Thirteen rivets were renewed. The
roller trains were in very bad condition, and were replaced with those from
guard valve No. 411. The top seal was found to have the casting pitted and
the iron bolts eaten away. These bolts, six in number, were replaced with brass
bolts. The side seal strips and bottom seals had been attacked by tereilos and
were renewed, using poison-treated lignum-vitTe for the side seals and green-
heart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was planed off. The
bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled, using four sections of spring
and twenty-eight brass bolts. The end rollers were overhauled.
Rising stem valve 431.-The valve was removed March 29, 1919, and replaced
April 25, 1919. The valve was found to be considerably corroded and pitted.
Thirty-two rivets were renewed. The roller trains were in bad condition, but
were overhauled and used again. The top seal was in good condition. The
side seal strips had been attacked by teredos and were renewed, poison-treated
lignum-vitse being used for the side seals and greenheart for the bottom seals.
The bottom of the valve was pinueod off. The bronze side seals were scraped and
4'overbiiiunlld, seven new sections of spring being used. The end rollers were
overhauled.
Rising stem valve 437.-The valve was removed March 31, 1919, and replaced
April 22, 1919. The valve was considerably corroded and pitted. Thirteen
rivets were renewed. The roller trains were deteriorated to such an extent
that they were of no further use, and were replaced by trains made up with
new channel irons and rollers. The.top seal was in good condition, but it was
necessary to renew six bolts. The side seal strips and bottom seal had been
attacked by teredos and were replaced, poison-treated liguum-vilm being used
for the side seals and greenheart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the
valve was planed off. The bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled, five
sections of spring and fourteen new bolts being used. The end rollers were
overhauled.
Ri4ingfl stem valve 440.-The valve was removed April 28, 1919, and replaced
1\lay 14, 1919. The valve was in very good condition. The roller trains had
begun to deteriorate, but were in good enough condition to use over. The top
seal was in g-'omd condition. The side seal strips and bottom seal had been
attacked by teredos and were replaced, usinii. poison-treated lignum-vitse for the
side seals and -reeiilheart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was
planed off. The bronze side seals were scrapeil and overhauled, three new sec-
tions of spring being used. The end rollers were overhauled.
Rising stem valve 441.-The valve was removed April 30, 1919, and replaced
May 22, 1919. The valve was found in very go'.d condition. The roller trains






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 51

had begun to deteriorate, but were used again. The top seal was in good condi-
tion. The side seal strips and bottom seal had been attacked by teredos and
were replaced, creosoted lignum-vitte being used for the side seals mnd green-
heart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was planed off. The
bronze side seals were scraped and overhauled. The end rollers were over-
hauled.
Rising stem valve 4'2.-The valve was removed April 27, 1919, and replaced
Mnay 8, 1919. The valve was found in very good condition. The roller trains
hind begun to deteriorate, but were utied over. The top seal was in sIrnII condi-
tion. The side seal strips and bottom seal ha;ld been attacked by teredos and
were renewed, poison-treated liianim-vitoe being iiv'd for the side seals and green-
heart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was pilaneid I'It. The bronze
side seals were scraped and overhauled. The end rollers were overhauled.
Ri.sinig stenl valve g43.-The valve was removed April 28, 1919, and replaced
May 12. 1919. The valve was found in very gooil condition. The roller trains
had begun to deteriorate, but were used again. The top seal was in gnood condi-
tion. The side seal strips and bottom seal liad been attacked by teredos and
were renewed, creosoted lignuin-vit.T beina used for the side seals and green-
heart for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was planed off. The bronze
side seals were scraped and overhauled, using two sections of new spring. The
end rollers were overhauled.
Rising stem valves 446 and 447.-These valves were inspected and found in
very good condition. They were not removed, but necessary repairs were made
with them in place. Tho side seal strips and bottom seals were in very goIIl
condition, except the middle section, west side, of No. 447, which was renewed,
using poison-treated lignum-vit;e. The bottom seals were pitted, but not enlainh
to justify renewal.
Rising stem ralre 448.-The valve was removed April SO, 1910, and replaced
May 8, 1919. The valve was in very good condition. The roller trains had hbegun
to deteriorate, but were used over. The top seal was foundil in nL'I condition.
The side seal strips and bottom seals had been attacked by teredos, a nd were
replaced, using poison-treated lignum-vitse for the side seals and greenheart
for the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was planed off. The bronze side
seals were scraped and overhauled, using one section of new spring. The end
rollers were overhauled.
Rising stem valve 449.-The valve was removed Mlay 1, 1919, and replaced
May 14, 1919. The valve was in very good condition. The roller trains had
liecun to deteriorate, but were used over. The top seal was in .inid condition.
The side seal strips and bottom seal had been attacked by teredos and were
replnccd, cresoted lignum-vit.p being used for the side seals and girenheart for
the bottom seals. The bottom of the valve was pinneil off. The bronze side
senls were scraped and overhauled, using one section of new spring. The end
rollers were overhauled.

ATLANTIC LOCKS.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Mr. E. D. Stillwell continued as superintendent throughout the year. The
supervisory force is the same as of last report.
Due to resignations and transfers, eight new men were scored by transfer or
nppnintmnent from the States, and two men who had resignedl to enter militai;r
service were reinstated in their old positions.

OPERATION.

The same system of operation continual in eoffct as during the previous year.
No change of working hours has been necessary, as the canal trallic has not
changed appreciably since the signing of the armistice.
Delays to canal traffic due to faulty operation or failure of operntlinug equllip-
ment have been few ;nnd of negligible magnitudle.
Damage to vessels during the passnge thlrounrl the locks has been small and
consisted chiefly of hrceaking chocks and bitts too light or not suitable for towing
pu rposrs.
A report of the lockages by months is as follows:






52 THE PANAMA CANAL.


Northbound. Southbound.
Month. Grand
Commer- Noncom- Total. Commer- Noncom- total.
cial. mercial. cial. mercial. Total

1918.
July................... ... .... 105 14 119 57 7 64 1.3
August............... ....... 92 8 100 58 7 65 165
September..................... 89 12 101 80 5 85 186
October-....................... 109 13 122 68 8 76 198
November..................... 112 12 124 65 13 78 202
December...................... 104 16 120 59 18 77 197
1919.
January........................ 88 9 97 77 10 87 184
February....................... 67 9 76 73 5 78 154
March....................... .. 72 14 86 72 13 85 171
April... ....................... 6 8 104 61 10 71 175
May............................ 96 9 105 67 9 76 181
June.......................... 96 5 101 55 9 64 165
Total...................... 1, 126 129 1,255 792 114 906 2,161


Total amount of water drawn from Gatun Lake for lockaiareps, 8,867,480,000
cubic feet.
Average number of lockages per day, 5.9.
Average amount of water drawn from Gatun Lake per lockage, 4,103,000
cubic feet.
The emergency dams were operated each month for instruction of operators,
except during January and February. No emergency operations were neces-
sary.
No operation of a chain fender due to ship striking the chain occurred during
the year.
There were two accidents, one serious and one minor, to towing locomotives,
caused by the operators losing control of machines, due to the traction clutch
getting into the neutral position with the machine in motion. In neither case
was the operator injured.
On account of overhauling the valves and painting the lock gates the west
chamber was out of service from January 10 to February 9, and the east
chamber from February 10 to March 9.

MAINTENANCE.

All operating machines and equipment were maintained in good condition.
A few changes of minor nature were made in order to improve operating con-
ditions and reduce the work of maintenance.
Emergency dams.-Anti-rebounding devices have been installed on the gate
and Oir Fenders.-Seven new fenders of native hardwood (nliueinlra) were installed
on the upper section on four gates in the upper west chamber.
Forty-three pieces of 12 inches by 16 inches by 16 feet almendra fenders were
placed on east and west side of south approach wall.
Twenty-six almendra fenders, 12 inches by 12 inches by 12 feet, were in-
stalled between gate No. 36 and chain fender No. 812.
Twenty-seven piece pine fenderr,. 12 inches by 12 inches by 12 feet, were in-
stalled between gaote No. 40 and chain fender No. 815.
Locomotives and tracks.-Extnsiv p repairs were made twice on locomotive
No. 644, which was badly damaged by crashing into the bumping post at north
end of center wall.
Plow shoe pits on the north and south approaches, center wall, were re-
arr:ingel. to facilitate changing of plow shoes for east or west chamber oper-
ation.
A bell-alarm system was installed on the traction clutch levers of all loco-
motives to indicate to the operator when the clutch levers are properly latched.
One light has been installed in the interior of each locomotive, each end,
to facilitate inspection and oiling of machine at night.
New foundations were placed for the spur tracks leading to the return
tracks on the upper level, east wall, and lower level, west wall.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 53

Work of realigning the towing tracks at the rail joints was connenced m;Il
about 35 per cent complete at the end of the year.
The electrical connections to the tracks at the north crossovers, center wall,
have been changed so as to cut off power quickly in case of plow-shoe trouble.
On the center wall, south end, work was started but not oiipleitil.
Lighting systen.-The lighting of the emergency dams, range lights, center
and west walls, range lights on east side of canal iand beacon lights in channel
north of the locks has been changed so as to operate from the control house
from the lighting bench board.
Tril Irpon es.-Approxi mtely 0,000 feet of the jute-covered telephone cable
have been replaced by lead-covered conductor.
Painting lock fites.%--All of the gates which are alternately exposed to
water and air have been paiinted with hermastic or Navy solution and enamel,
excepting the downstream side of gates Nos. 9 and 10.
Tran.-fornmcr rooms.-All liih11-tensitin busses and switch studs in rooms on
center wall have been retaped. This was done on account (if the insiil;iting
compound on old tape running and getting into the switches and requiring ex-
cessive work to maintain equipment in proper condition.
Aliscellaneous.-The cross-under rooms at upper and lower cris s-under
shafts, east and west walls, were flourdl over with concrete slabs.
A new flagpole was made and erected on the east wall in front of the store-
room building.
Approximately 1,000 yards of dirt were placed on back fills between the tow-
ing and return tracks in order to bring grade to level with walls.
Iron lidler.s, pliced in a recess clear of the side of walls, have been installed
on all approach and wing walls.
Construction and new eqWuipent.-A band saw has been installed in cnrpenter
shop.
Two new rowboats for use in handling lines to ships were c(linstructed.
A toilet was constructed under the arch at north end of center :I pi ri:nich wall.
Extensive chl;nges were nmade in the incoinihiig power feeders and bhih tension
system on the locks. In brief, the changes are as follows:
1. The incoming power feeders and switch bank rooms were nmived from the
upper end of the east and west walls to a new room built between the store-
room building opposite the east end of intermediate cross-mninler tunnel.
2. All incomiine power feeders now come from the Gatun substation instead
of the hydroelectric station.
3. Incoming power feeders are equipped with oil switches in the switch bank
rooms.
4. From the switch bank rooms the high-tension feeders loop into all trans-
former rooms in a closed ring system.
The new arrangement permits less trouble and greater safety in switching
and releases oil switches ;ind three-eondimrtor lea;I-c(ivCred cable for other use.
General orerhailinig.-During the period from January 10, 1919. to March 9,
the west and then the east chamber were unw;itered to allow pnlintiniz of the
gates below sea level and inspection and overhauling of the rising stem valves
in the tiupper level.
The caisson was placed at the north end, west chamber, on Jainuiarv 10, and
removed on January 29. The work in the west chamber was conmpleti-il oil
Februn; ry 8, and chamber placed in service on the 9th.
On February 10 the caisson was placed at the north end. east chamber, re-
moved on February 21, and the chamber placed in service on March 9.
Vailrc.-All tihe rising stein. guard, and nonopern;ting valves in the upper
east and west clhimbers were taken out of the pits, overhainled, clenned. ;and
touched up with hermastic solution and enamel where necessary and then re-
plac need.
Babbitt floor seals on all rising stem valves, except the internillinte vnlves,
were removed and replaced with lipgnmit-vitie seals. Steel side seal wearing
strips were removed and replaced with lignum-vitoe strips on all rising stem
valves.
The removable side seal box cnastings on 10 valves were remmrovedl, aind after
being machined at Rnlbon shops, were installed and iftted with liL'nnii-vit:r
side seals.
The removable side-seal box castings on the intermediate rising stem valves
were installe(l in the pits on valves No'. 25iS and 259, and 262 aflni 263 in the
center wall. The L enstings removed from these pits were not standard. New
castings have been ordered for the intermediate valve pits.
14Y09210-19-- 5







54 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The valves themselves were in good condition, the principal work done being
to replace broken and corroded bolts, align the side and top seals, reshape the
seal pi *ints, replace broken side seal springs, and align the side rollers.
The roller trains were found to be badly worn. The rollers were worn down
from A inch to I inch in diameter, and the spools were also badly worn.
The holes in the channel iron, which carry the rollers, were greatly enlarged.
The roller train tracks on the valves and in the pits showed a wear from
A inch to j inch. The face of the track is not smooth but wavy, the greatest
wear 1luine where the rollers stop with the valve in the closed position.
During the next overhauling new roller trains complete, roller train tracks,
and front wearing pads on the valve will have to be installed on most of the
valves.
An inspection was made of the cylindrical valves in the upper level, but no
work was done on them other than painting of valves Nos. 257, 258, and 259.
An inspection was made of the valves in the middle and lower levels, which
were overhauled in 1918, and these were found in good condition, except for
the roller trains and tracks, which showed considerable wear.
Intake screens.-All intake screens on the center and side walls were removed,
cleaned, and painted. Four of the screen sections were considerably bent and
the necessary repairs were made.
Zinc strips on pintle castings of miter ,firIt.-An examination of the zinc
strips around the pintle in the lower lock showed no noticeable action between
the zinc and the steel pintle. The pintle appeared to be in good condition, as
did those around which there were no zinc strips.
Painting patc.-.-The hermastic solution and enamel applied to the gates
below sea level in the middle and lower locks early in 1918 by The Panama Canal
under contract with the American Bitumastic Enamel Co. had peeled off and
was in such condition as to require extensive renewal. The work of touching
up all defective surface on both interior and exterior of gates and valves which
were under guaranty by the contractor was carried on with the overhauling
of the valves.
The guaranty for the work by the American Bitumastic Enamel Co. for the
painting of the interior of the gates expired on January 26, 1919.
The following sumiuin ry shows the work accomplished:


Square Gallons Pounds
feet sur- hermas- hermas-
face cov- tic solu- tic
ered. tion. enamel.

1 Gates, outside.................................................. 66,140 2 51,100
2 Gates, inside, before Jan. 27, 1919...... ...................... 10,550 8,400
3 Gates, inside, after Jan. 26, 1919..................................... 13, 830 47 10,400
4 Valves.... ........................... ......................... 4,000 30 3,000
Total................................... 94,520 3831 72,900


EL EIITICAL DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the electrical division during the
fiscal yea;ir are covered in the report of the electrical engineer, which
follows:
Er ECTRICrAL DIVISION.

TV. L. Hersh, Electrical Engineer.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

The personnel as reported in last year's report was continued throughout the
year. The position of estimator and dtesiuner was authorized as an anlditioinnl
position, and the appointment of Mr. William T. ()''i mniell was made May 1 to
fill this position. The six ilvisiuins into which the work of this division is dividell
are listed as follows:
Office and requisitions. lM. P. Benniniuer, electrical recorder.
Power and transmission system, B. R. Grier, superintendent.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 55

Construction and maintenance, A. C. Garlington, sliperi intpililen t.
Designing and estimating. W. T. O'Connell, estimator and designer.
Telephone and telegraph, C. L. Blenkley, supervisor.
Railway signal system, E. C. McDonald, supervisor.
The organization of the electrical division consisted of a total of 236 gold and
404 silver employees, of whom 206 gold and 360 silver employees were actually
at work on June 30, there being 28 gold employees on leave, 2 gid11 employees
absent on account of sickness, and 44 silver employees absent for miscellaneous
reasons. The average monthly pay roll for the division was $60,687.

CHARACTER AND EXTENT OF WORK.

The duties of the electrical division remained unchanged during the year and
consisted of operating and maintaining the steam and hydroelectric power
plants, substations, transmission lines, and povwer-distribution systems; the
maintenance of street, shop, dock, public building, and residence lighting
systems; the maintenance of telephone, telegraph. fire alarm, and railway .ign;il
systems and railway interlocking plants; the charging and mainitaininiij] of
storage-battery cargo-llandling trucks at the terminal docks and warehouses;
and the installation and maintenance of such electrical equipment as reIquir'll
by other divisions of the canal or other departments of the Government and such
commercial vessels as might require this class of work while transitting the
canal.
The handling of the foregoing Work required the issuing of a total of 4,319
work orders with the attendant reports, estimates, and miscellaneous corre-
spondence. There was a total of 23 requisitions for material pr"-pari-',l which
included specifications for 1,578 items and totaling in value $701,215. The
average monthly expenditure was about $120.000, of which 90 per cent was for
work performed for other departments and divisions.
The work of checking and mapping of duct lines and of preparing feeder con-
nection diagrams for the underground power distribution system was started
and reached a state of about 30 per cent complete by the end of June.

POWER PLANTS AND IMPROVEMENTS.

The project of installing at the Gatun hydroelectric station generator unit
No. 4, of 4,500 kw. capacity, with its governor, switchboard ndiiitions, oil switch
installations, and the change in bus potential from 2.21H) to 6,600 volts, which
was reported in an incomplete state in last year's report, was completed and
placed in operation during the month of November.
Specifications were prepared and requisition was submitted for generating
unit No. 5, of 4,500 kw. capacity, for future installation at this plant.
The trouble of maintaining the hardened-steel roller-type thrust bearings in
units Nos. 1, 2, and 3 at the hydroelectric station, mentioned in report of last
year, has been remedied by the installation of spring-supported segmental thrust
bearings of an improved type, with satisfactory results.
The governors of turbine units Nos. 1, 2, and 3 at the hydroelectric station
were rebuilt and changed from direct gear drive to belt drive, which has re-
sulted in improving the operating characteristics.
Generating unit No. 3 of the hydroelectric station was completely dismantled
and main shaft was reclined in completely rebabbitled bearings.
The penstocks of units Nos. 1, 2, and 3 at the hydroelectric station were in-
spected and the bituminastic enameling was found to be in very good condition.
The Miratriores steam-power plant was continued to be operated on a stand-
by basis and the necessary maintenance work was performed. The principal
improvement to this plant was the addition of an auxiliary fuel burner to
the boilers. The installation of this burner makes it possible to maintain
stand-by pressure by a continuous small fire Instead of by an intermittent
larger fire by the use of the main burners. This results in a saving of fuel
oil, as well as reduced maintenance of boilers.

Sl'RSTATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS.

The changing of Gatun substation from 2,200-volt to G,,40)-violt bus potential
and the installation of one 8,400 KlVA. water-cooled transformer and two 1,50m,
KVA. water-cooled transformers, mentioned in last year's report as
being under construction, was completed and placed in operation during the







56 THE PANAMA CANAL.

month of November. The rearraingement of tie line cables between the hydro-
electric station and the Gatun substation, as required by the change in bus
potential at these two stations, was also completed during the month of No-
vember.
Specifications were prepared and requisition was submitted covering an
additional 8,400 KVA. water-cooled transformer unit, with necessary control
equipment and 30-ton hoisting equipment for handling same, for future instal-
lation at the Gatun substation.
One additional 2,200-volt feeder equipment was installed in Gatun substa-
tion for supplying power and lighting current to the new Army post at Gatun.
There was received from the States a 60,000-volt testing transformer with its
control equipment, and at the end of the year preparations were under way
for its installation at Gatun substation.
At Cristobal substation a second 2,667 KVA., 44,000-2,200-volt transformer
which was removed from Gatun substation, was rebuilt and rerated at 2,500
KVA., 44,000-11,000-volts and completely installed. By this improvement there
resulted at Cristobal substation a capacity of 5,334 KVA. for 2,200-volt dis-
tribution, and 5,000 KVA. for 11,000-volt distribution. There were two 11,000-
volt feeders connected to the Cristobal substation for serving the new cold
stEi rae plant and the vicinity to the east of Manzanillo Bay.
At Cristobal substation there were two 2,200-volt feeder equipment in-
stalled, material for which was recovered from equipment of this type which
was abandoned at the hydroelectric station. These two feeder equiiipments
replaced temporary switch gear which had previously been in use at this sub-
station.
At Miraflores substation one 2,200-volt feeder equipment was installed, using
material which was abandoned at the hydroelectric station. This feeder equip-
ment is to serve the new Army post near Miliratl'res'.
At Balboa substation one 2,200 volt-feeder equipment was installed, using
material recovered from the hydroelectric station, this installation being made
to utipply additional light and power to Ancon Hospital.
A 400 KVA. autotransformer was reconnected and rerated at 400 KVA.,
2,200-6,600 volts and installed at the Balboa substation for supplying service
to the nearby Pacific islands.
At each of the Gatun, Cristobal, Miraflores, and Balboa substations work
was started of providing new tile-covered concrete shelving for the storage-
battery installations at these points, but the work was only partially com-
pleted by June 30.
TRANSMISSION LINE AND IMPROVEMENTS.

The most important improvement in the 44,000-volt transmission line has
been the walditiiiii of a fourth unit to the insulators of the line. This work
was completed during March, and required a total of 5,940 new insulator
units. At the time of plaineii this fourth unit, tests were made of all in-
sulator units on the line and all defective ones were replaced, requiring 1,475
new insulator units. The installation of these new insulator units has had
a very satisfactory result of practically eliminating transmission-line interrup-
tions due to faulty insulators, as will be seen from the following:
From defective porcelain insulators there resulted power interruptions in
1917 a total of 17 failures, in 1918 a total of 29 failures, in 1919, up to
the month of February, 32 failures, and since the month of February up
to June 30 there resulted no transmission-line interruptions due to this cause.
Dini-imnr March four sets of sectionalizing switches were installed in the two
circuits of the transmission line at Darien. These switches are an improved-
type dli.-'1nne'ctine switch irranriged foresteel-tower suspension mounting with
facilities for operating from the ground.
During the dry season all steel-tower structures of the transmission line
were spot painted by cleaning all rusted spots and giving them a coat of red
lead and a finikhinr coat of gray graphite paint.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND IMPROVEMENTS.

Ext-iisiins :i n wid improvement to the underground power systems incllulded
the laying of apir.'llxillnmtely 82,740 duct feet of vitritied-tile duct, 40,460 feet
of fiber duct, and about 218,840 feet lead-covered cable of all sizes and voltages.
The principal items of work included in these figures are the underground






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 57

feeder circuits to the Army post, Miratflores, an additional feeder to Ancon
Hospital, and a G.600-volt feeder to the near-by Pacitic island-s, and (ihe complete
distribution systems in the newly developed areas to the east of Maunzanillo
Bay.
The principal additions to street-lighting systeuis were those at Coco Solo,
New Cristobal, Ancon, Quarry Heights, and Red Tank, and there were some
minor additions to the existing installations, for which there was reqv(ir1ed a
total of 173 additional standard-type lighting posts and aplproximately 53,0111)
feet of armored lead-covered cable.

OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM.

The power system was operated throughout the year with an average not
generated output of 4,478,330 kilowatt hours per month, as compared with
-l,41),192 kilowatt hours a month last year. Previous to the installation of
unit No. 4 at the hydroelectric station part of the pek-lIoadl power demand
was generated at the Miraflores steam plant, where fuel was consumed at an
average rate of 3,497 barrels a month; but after December 1 the Mira.brres
steam plant was operated on a strictly stand-by basis, and the avern;ie rate of
fuel consumption for the remaining seven months of the year was 2,515 barrels
a month, as compared with an average consumption of 2,906 barrels of fuel oil
a month last year.
The average cost of distributed power for the year was 0.8087 cents a kilo-
watt hour, as compared with 0.7782 cents a kilowatt hour last year.
This increase in the unit cost of power has been caused Nl rgely by the in-
creased cost of maintenance of the eqiuipmitent at the Miraflores steam plant
and by the increase in the cost of labor for operation of all plants and sub-
stations.
Plate No. 2 shows typical curves of Sunday and week-day loads carried in
the hydroelectric station. The Miraflores steam plant is opt-rated on a strictly
stand-by basis, and is requi red to carry load only for short peri-ll; of time
during some power-system emergency. The power used to motor the two or
more gineratfors at Miraflores, operated as synchronous condensers for imiiprov-
ing the power factor, exceeds the power generated at this plant, mid this
accounts for the negative output for this plint as tabulIattd in the following
outline showing the monthly output at both plants.
Plate No. 3 shows the growth of the peak dleand and the gross generated
output of the power system from 1914 to the end of June, 1919.

Table, showing output in kilowatt hours, by months.


'Nt out put inkilowatt System
hours. losses
include
Total net transmis-
Monh. generated sion, trans-
Gatun M iraflnres power. formation,
hydro steam and 220.
station. station. volt diri-
Ihut in
losses.

1918 Per cent.
July...................................................... 4 .22 00 65,110 4,457,490 15.0
August.................. ............ ................ 50 .N -111,720 4,4(i0,11< 16.0
September.............. ........................ 4,3'.7, A.) 9. 13)0 4. 2.7,, 70) 16.0
Octobler............ ... ........................ 3,905,151 26. 00 .1, 191,(. 51 10.0
Novemcler............................................. 4,11.'1. 27 1 ,21- 4, l79,,37 13.0
December...... ........................................ 4.46 700 -151,730 4,294,970 12.3
1919.
January................ ................................ 4 673,.10 85,850 S 4,.567,410 11.4
February....................................... .", 11. mO -1, i"e.0, II) 10.8
M a .rch...... ... .. ......................... ...... 4, A 40 17. 4, .'2, 0 12.4
April............................................ 01.3 -1i,'.170 4 .'l.-24. 10.2

Average this year........ .......... ............ 4,. .0 .13,063 4, i'14 '7 12.3
Average last year........................... 4 319, 5) -010,3119 4. 1'., 192 14.7







58 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The following table shows the cost of power in its various states of distribu-
tion. Cost figures are based on delivery to consumer and not on the net amount
actually generated.


Average cost per
Totals, Average kilowatt hour.
fiscal year per
1919. month.
This year. Last year.

Net consumption (kilowatt hours)..................... .... 47,467,280 3,955,607 ............ ............
Cost of operation and maintenance, hydrostation....... $49,989.96 $4,165.83 $0.001053 50.000853
Cost of operation and maintenance, Miraflores steam
plant............................................. 113,034.18 9,419.52 .002381 .001732
Cost of operation and maintenance of substations....... 75,864.40 6,322.03 .001597 .001416
Cost of maintenance, transmission lines............... 25, 109.37 2,092.45 .000528 .000624
Cost of maintenance, distribution lines............... 23,815.09 1,984.59 .000502 .001034
Depreciation, power system........................... 96,000.00 8,000.00 .002022 .002123
Total cost of current for power distribution............. 383,813.00 31,984.42 .008083 .007782
Net consumption, lighting current (kilowatt hours).... 11,303.418 941,943 ........................
Cost of maintenance, house lighting system, including
lamp renewals..................................... $55,150.12 $4,595.84 $0.00488 80.005397
Cost of lighting current per kilowatt hour.............. ......... ............ .012963 .013179


The principal loads in KW. added during the past year are tabulated as
follows:


Power. Light. Power. Light.

Navy aero station................ 30 50 Municipal pumping station, Rio
Army aero station................ 30 50 Grande......................... 150 ........
Cold storage plant, Mount Hope.. 1,800 40 Aneon laundry, new machinery.. 20 ........
Pacific forts.. ................... 245 150 Central and South American
Series street lighting...................... 50 Cable Co., living quarters....... 30 10
Industrial school.................. 20 ........
New Ancon Hospital.............. 40 60 Total....................... 2,375 415
New hotel, Pedro Miguel......... 10 5


The principal loads which may be added during the coming year are tabulated
as follows:


Power. Light. Power. Light.

Army post, Gatun................ ........ 170 Battery charging station, addi-
Army post Miraflores.................... 170 tionalM. G. set................. 100 ........
Fort Amador, additional......... 40 10 Series street lighting.............. ........ 60
Air compressor, Mount Hope..... 1,020 ......... Submarine base................ 2,000 100
Fuel-oil handling plant, Balboa... 200 ......... New Pier No. 6................... 200 300
Central and SouthAmerican Cable Iron and steel scrap handling..... 50 ........
Co., headquarters.............. 30 5 --------
Water heaters in bachelor quar- Total....................... 3,690 815
ters........................... 50 .........


GATUN SPILLWAY.

The operation and maintenance at Gatun spillway was performed by the
forces of the electrical division throughout the year. There were 317 gate
operations rreorded, 271 of which were for lake regulation and 46 for inspect-
ing or testing of equipment.
There were no failures of spillway equipment and no difficulties were ex-
perienced in the operation of the gates.
All gates were inslipected and both up and down stream sides were spot
painted where necessary. The steel superstructure was completely repainted
and all operaitig macliiner.y was overhauled and repainted. The interior of
the spillway tunnel was completely repainted.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 59

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH.

'IThie electrical division continued to operate and maintain the telephone
system and to maintain the telegraph systeni of the Panama Railroad Coip.iiny
throughout the year.
During the fiscal year 848 telephones were installed and 472 tclephonmse were
removed, leaving 2,967 telephones in service at the end of June, 1919, an
increase of 444 telephone installations for the year.
The average number of telephone calls during a day of eight hours, as
determined by peg count, was 22.G30, or 2,829 calls in an hour. The average
number of telephone trouble cases was six a day as compared with nine and
a half a day recorded last year.
During the year 55.33.- feet of lead-covered, paper-insulated telephone cable
of all sizes, varying from 5 to 200 pairs, were iniitalllld, and 20,240 feet if cable
were removed, leaving 627,334 feet of cable in service at the end of June, 1919,
an increase of 35,0).i feet of cable for the year.
On this entire cable installation there occurred 12 cases of cable failure,
as compared with 14 cases last year.
The principal items of new telephone work were: The installation of cables
and telephone switchboard at Coco Solo, the installation of telephones and
annunciators at the cold storage plant at Mount Hope, the installation of tele-
phones and annunciators at the new section of Ancon Hospital, and the in-
stallation of four additional operating positions at the Ballhoa 1Hi0lhts ex-
change.
There are indications that in the near future the transisthmian telephoiie
traffic will so increase as to require the constant use of all the existing circuits,
with possible congestion during the hours of maximum traffic, ani studies
have been started to determine the allvisability of considering the installation
of additional transisthmian cable facilities during 1921.
The following outline of statistics has been compiled in a condensed form
in order to show the growth of telephone elluipmUnt and installations on the
Canal Zone vp to the end of June, 1919:

Canal Zone telephone system.

June 30, June 30, June 30, June 30, June 30, June 30, June 30,
1907. 1910. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919.

Miles of pole line.............................. 48 140 60 51 43 36 36


Miles of underground conduit, Panama Rail-
road......................................
Miles of unilerground cond uit, I'anama Canil,
occupied by Panama Railroad..............
Total miles of conduit...........
Miles of cable in duct.......................
Miles of cable, aerial.........................
Total miles orcable....................
Miles of wire in duct.........................
Miles of wire in submarine ral le..............
Miles of wire in aerial cal le....................
Miles of wire, bare and insulated, aerial lines..
Total....................................
Miles of wire, trunk circuits...................
Miles of wire, subscrihieri'cirmults...........
Miles of wire, telegraph circuits..............
Total..................................
Miles of phantom circuits.....................
Miles of simplex circuits......................


........ ........ 212 212 212 212 212
........ ........ ........ 10 20 26 34
........ ........ 212 222 232 238 246
........ ........ 75 79 101 111 118
7 12 9 9 2 2 2
7 12 84 88 103 113 120
........ ........ 4,007 8,282 9,08' 11,4-.7 11,'.
........ ........ 24 26 5.1 55 5.i
210 740 470 470 124 124 124
920 2,643 789 522 508 515 526
1,130 3,389 5,290 9,300 10,676 12,151 12, 5Il
7:8 1,200 2,880 2,002 2,810 4,040 4.2'"9
218 1,921 2,160 7,048 7,561 7,753 7,898
144 268 250 250 305 358 404
1,130 3,389 5,290 9,300 10,676 12,151 12,:i:1
. ...... ..... ... 576 576 576 672
........ ....... .... ..... 96 96 96 132


Total....................... .... .......... 672 672 W742 80
Telephone exhbange'4, Panama Railroad ..... Ill 22 11 II. 10 9
Telephone exchange, I'.anania Canal.......................... 3 3 3 3 3
Telephone exchange,, Army and Navy....... 1 I I I ) 10 In j Ii
Total................................... 11 2.1 15 2 2.1 22 22







60 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Canal -Zone telephone system-Continued.

June 30. June 30, June 30, June 30, June 30, June 30, June 3),
1907. 1910. 1915. 1916. 1917. ,1918. 1919.
Telephones, Panama Railroad................ 610 1,213 1,609 1,878 2,154 2,523 2,91.7
Telephones, Panama Canal.................................... 98 104 110 114 114
Telephones, Army and Navy......................... 15 ........ 400 578 670 703


Total telephones.......................


610 1,228 1,707 2,382 2, 842 3, 307 3,784


Exchange connections daily'.................. ........ 6,342 9,328 2,165 17,801 21,816 21,415
Trunk connections daily..............................2,809 2,366 2,954 3,241 3,924 6, 396
Total........................................... 9,151 11,694 15,119 21,042 25,740 27,811

1 Exchange and trunk connections are those handled in the four main exchanges only.

FIRE-ALARM SYSTEM.
The work of inspecting and maintaining the fire-alarm system has been con-
tinued under the supervision of the telephone subdivision. The principal work
of the year was the cleaning, rewiring, and repainting of all fire-alarm boxes
in the Ancon-Balboa district. There were 13 alarms turned in, and no failure of
any alarm apparatus occurred during the year.

RAILWAY SIGNAL SYSTEM.
There were practically no changes made in the installation of railway signals
during the year. Considerable maintenance work was done to improve the
insulation of splices in the underground signal circuits and of renewing local
wiring at many signal locations.
There were 2,084,908 registered arm movements and 97 responsible signal
failures, as compared with 2,404,176 registered arm movements and 131 re-
fspjons.i11e signal failures, last year and with 2,474,210 registered arm movements
and 115 signal failures for the previous year.
From the above figures there results an average of 21,495 arm movements for
each responsible signal failure, as compared with 18,352 arm movements for
each signal failure last year.
There were 181 train-minutes delay caused by signal failures, as compared
with 556 train-minutes delay last year and with 431 train-minutes delay the
previous year.
There was an average delay of 1.87 minutes per train for each signal failure.
There were four reported false clear and one false caution aspect year on the entire signal system. This is unusual, as previous reports show
that seldom has there occurred more than one false clear aspect during any one
year, which was the case last year.
In the following outline there is tabulated the responsible and nonresponsible
siL'nal failures, total arm movements, and train minutes delay for each month
of the year:

Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year ending June SO, 1919

Response Nonre- Total Delay,
Month ble signal possible arm move- train
failures. signal ments. minutes.

1918.
July...............................................-... 10 1 159,148 24
August.............................. ..--- ...---------- 8 ............ 174,817 5
September....-....-........-......-.................--- 3 ............ 166,060 10
October.......... ..... ............................ 13 1 173,591 20
November............................................ 13 ............ 164,825 40
December............................................ 6 1 168,175 13
1919.
January..--..........--- ....---.--..-------- 4 ........................................... 175,906 4
February.............................--........... 7 ............ 165, 606 10
March............................................... 6 1 186,212 2
April........... .... ................................... 4 ............ 185,179 15
May...........................................------ 11 ............ 180, 808 28
June............................................... 12 1 184,581 10
Total........................................... 97 5 2,084,908 181






.REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


There was an average of 15 train-minutes delay and 8 responsible signal
failures each month.
There was but one derailment at the interlocking plants during the year, as
compared with three cases last year. This lone case occurred during September
at Diablo cabin.
There were 36 reported signal failures resulting from all causes at the tive
interlocking plants during the year, as compared with 60 such failures for last
year. About two-thirds of these failures occurred at the pontoon bridge at
Paraiso.
In the following outline there is tabulated an analysis of the responsible signal
failures for each month of the year:

Responsible signal interruptionsfor fiscal year ending June 30, 1919.





a o o

Poor or defective track battery, dirty
zincs, poorconnection, etc............ .............. 4 ...................... 8 .... 12 12.3
Leakage due t o low resistance, crossties,
roadbed, drainage'................ 2 .... ................... ... .... .... .... 2 2.06
Switch box connection rod bent by
hand cars1................................ ...... ...... ... .... ............ .. 2 2 2.06
Bad relay contactI................ .... .... .... 1 .... ...... .... .... .... .... .... 1 1.03
Bad track wire connection, bootleg'1..... 1 ........- ........ .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1 1.03
Broken bond wireI..................... .... 2 .... .... 1 ---- .... .... .... .... ........ 3 3.12
Relay out of adjustment 1............... 2 1 .... 1 3 --....- -.- --.. - ...... .... 7 7.21
Cotter pin missing from switch-box con-
nectionI.............................. ... .......... .. .... .......... ........ 2 2 2.06
Defective bonding......................... .... 1 ................................ 1 1.03
Exhausted track battery ............... .... .... 2 .... .... .... ............ .... .... 2 2.06
Tie-plates under insulated joint 1........ .... .... .... ..... .. ..... 3 -..-..---...---. 3 6.12
Worn filler block on insulated joint 1.... .... .... ........ ............ .... 1 .......... .. 1 1.03
Switch-point lug loose ............... .... .... .... .... .... .... 2.... .... 2 2.06
Discharged storagebattery .............. .... .... .... .... 2 ........ .... .... .... .... 3 3.12
Signallightout. 2 1 ..... ... ..... .2... 1 1 .... .... .... 5 5.15
Signallightout, poor kerosene oil........ .... .... .... 6 .... ......... .... ...... ..... 6 6.21
Unknowni................................ 1 .... .... .... 3 4 .... .... 1 .. ....... 1010 .3
Open coil on control relay............ .. ........... 1 ....... ... . .. .... .... 1 1.03
Open coil onsignal slot arm .......... . .... ... 2 ........... ... .. . .. .... .... 2 2.06
Open wire from signal in cable connec-
tion................................... .... ... 2 .... 1 1 .... 2 .... .... .... 5 11 11.3
Commutator sticking, brush sticking,
sanded................................ 1 1 ... .... .... 1 .... 1 2 .... 8 8.25
Fuse broken--defective ................. .... .... .... .... .... ........ ........ 3 3 3.12
Open circuit account renewing battcry.. I .... ....... .... ........ .... .... .... .... 2 2.06
Broken primary battery jar........... .. 2 .... .... .... 2 2.06
Broken cotter in 438 slot arm............ ... ....... l .... .... .... .... .... .... 1 1.03
Open connection on account rcwiring
signal................................. .... .... .... .... .... 1 .... 3 .... .... .... .... 4 4.12
Total................................ 10 .M l 11 n 4 7 1 11 12 97 99.99

1 Track circuits-40.17 per cent.

MIISCEMLANEOUS ELECTRICAL WORK.

The principal items of electrical work not otherwise classified or mentioned
include: The installation of a 75-kilowatt motor generator set, some 14,000
feet of 3-conductor 8,500-voult cable, and certain accessory transformers and
miscellaneous equipment for the division of fortifications; the installation of
electric lighting and heating appliances in the new section of Ancon Hospital;
the installation of motor, transformer, and switchboard equipment in and the
illumination of the new cold-storage plant at Mount Hope; the installation of
underground distribution system and the illumination of buildings at France
Field; the installation of underground distribution system and the illumination
of buildings at Coco Solo; and the starting of the installation of the motor
generator and switchboard equipment which was received from the States dur-
ing June fur the power house at Coco Solo.







62 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The work at the elect rican repair shop, exclusive of work done in the field
or which requireil the men to leave the shop, is here briefly suuniiarized, and
includes the following:
Armatures rewound, motors and generators------------------------ ----291
Transforiners and compensators repaired and rewound---------------- 121I
Magnetos and fans repaired and rewound--------------------------- 114
Miscellaneous electric appliances repaired--------------------------- 93
Switchboardl panels manufactured-------------------------------- 10
Miscellaneous machines repaired and rebuilt----------------------- 129
The work at the marine electric shop included miscellaneous classes of repair
work, new installations and additions or repairs to existing installations on
commercial and Government vessels, and was covered by the completion of 437
different work orders.
The principal items of marine electrical work were the complete o\--rihauling
of all electrical equipment, the renewal or repair of all lighting circuits, and
the installation of complete wireless installations on each of five ex-German
ships; the installation of all electrical equipment on the coast guard cutter
Manhattan, and the equipping of two 25-kilowatt portable-motor generator sets
for supplying direct current to ships at Balboa docks.
Some items of miscellaneous electrical material and supplies consumed in
the work done by the electrical division during the year are briefly expressed
in the following tabulation:
Wire, rubber-covered twin, total, all sizes------------------ feet- 232,206
Wire, rubber-covered single, total, all sizes---------------- do---- 683, 972
Wire, bare, total, all sizes-----------------------------do 21,996
Wire, magnet, total, all sizes-------------------------pounds- 6, 861
Wire, telephone, total, all sizes-------------------------feet- 405,942
Cord, flexible, all sizes--------------------------------do 202, 442
Cable, lead covered, total sizes and types------------------do-- 213, 838
Conduit, all sizes-----------------------------------do-- 339, 173
Condulet fittings- ----------------------------------------units- 343, 667
Outlet boxes and covers-------- --------------------- do-- 27, 812
Electric lamps, all sizes-------------------------------do---- 260, 000
Sockets and receptacles, all types------------------------do-- 29, 914
Fuses, all kinds and sizes ----------------------------do 72, 891
Lighting fixtures, house --- --------------------------do-- 2, 812
Lighting fixtures and fittings, marine-------------------do 11, 427
Reflectors, glass and metal-----------------------------do-- 16, 788
Meters, watthour, all kinds-- ----------------------- do--_- 242
Meters --------------- -----------------------------do-- 31
Panel boards----------------------------------------do-- 128
Distribution transformers, total 103, all sizes--------------- KW 980
Distance traveled by motor vehicles---------------------miles- 50, 715

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the municipal engineering division
during the fiscal year are covered in the report of the municipal
engineer, which follows:

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.

D. E. Wright, Municipal Engineer.

The municipal division continued the design, maintenance, and operation of
all roads, water pumping and purification plants, pipe lines, and such building
construction work as directly concerned this division. The principal items of
new construction were the Ancon Hospital roads. concrete base, and sheet-
asphalt wen ring surface; the reconstruction of the streets in Pedro Miguel of
concrete base, asphalt wearing surface; the road from Pedro Miguel to Paraiso
of concrete; the relocation of the O(Ttun-Mlonunt Hope road of concrete; the
installation of concrete streets, gutters, inln sewers for the Coco Solo submarine
base; the construction of concrete roads, scewwi'ro pump station, water, and





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 63

.sewers for the France Field aviation base. During the year the amount of
water handled by the municipal division pumping plants was 9,22S,S00,651
gallons.
ORGANIZATION.

The municipal division is ilividedl into three sections, viz: The Southern
district, including all points in the Canal Zone Tfrom Darien south and including
the city of Panama. The Northern district, comprising all points in the Canal
Zone from Darien north and including the city of Colon; and the operation of
purii eat ion plants, testing laboratories, and reservoirs.

PERSONNEL.

W. J. Spalding, superintendent of the Southern district. resigned August 12,
l19I, andil was succeeded by Mr. R. C. Hardman.
The Northern district continued under the supervision of E. H. Chandler,
superintendent.
G. C. Bulnker, physiologist, continued in charge of the purification plants,
laboratories, etc.
SOUTHERN DISTRICT.

The maintenance work carried on in this district consisted of the maintenance
of water and sewer lines, streets, sidewalks, and roads, the upkeep of equipment,
the operation of pump stations, and various items of new construction for the
municipal division and other divisions of The Panama Canal. The report
of operations of pumping stations in the Southern district is given in the
following statement:


Average
Total gallons Average num- cost per
Pumping station. pumped dur- bergallons 1,000 al-
ing year. per month. Ionsor
pumping.

Gamboa,U. S. No.1...................................... 3,691,800,000 307,650,000 $0.0140
Miraflores, U.S. No. 2...................-............... 421,885,000 35, 157, 083 .0157
Balboa, U.S No. 3................. -....................... 2,655,479,000 221, 2q9, 917 .0137
Paraiso.................................................... 74,640,000 6,220,000 .0417
Cucaracha (Mount Zion).................................. 148,961,651 12,413,471 ............
Camacho tanks 1.......................................... 72,261,000 8,029,000 ............
Camacho (into mains) 1..................................... 76,745,000 8,527,222 .............

SNine months only. No water pumped in April, May, and June on account of low water in Camacho
reservoir.

In the city of Panama the usual maintenance work was performed by the
muniniipal division on the water and sewer systems and pavements. The work
of maintenance and operation in the city included the installation of water
meters on new connections, the repair and maintenance of all water meters
installed on previous connections, and the preparation and collection of.water-
rent bills for water consumed. The following table shows the quantity of water
used in Panama during the fiscal year by quarters, together with the amount of
water rentals:
Consumption per quater.


Paying Public Dily
Quarter ended.- connec- Private, hydrant and Total. Baerage
tions, taps. consumpn-p
Lion.

Gallons. Galons. Gallons. Ganons.
Sept. 30,1918....................... 2,441 148,917,000 65,294,000 214,211,000 2,380,000
Dec. 31, 1918......... ................. 2,414 139.136,000 83,454,000 222,590,000 2,473,000
Mar. 31,1919........................ 2,425 149,574,000 84,956,000 234 530,000 2,606,000
June30,1919........................ 2,444 152,342,000 91,374,000 243.716,000 2,708,000
Total for year............................ 589,969,000 325,078,000 915,017,000 2,541,797







64 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Collections.

Average
Amount consump-
collected tion per Average
Quarter ended- from pri- private "
vate con- conne- quarterilly
sumers. tion per bill.
quarter.

Gallons.
Sept. 30,1918 ........ ............................................8 38,220.75 61,000 $15.66
Dec. 31, 1918........................................................ 35, 649.35 57000 14.77
Mar. 31,1919. ......................................... 38,259.90 61, 000 15.77
June 30,1919 2.................................................... 38,823.25 62,000 15.88
Total for year................................................ 150,953.25 241,000 62.08

I Includes all bills rendered against Panaman Government for water consumed in public buildings in
Panama City.
2 Net amount of bills due (not yet collected).

There were 11,147 square yards of sheet asphalt laid in the city during the
year. Inspection of all plumbing work in the city of Panama, as well as in the
Canal Zone, was handled by employees of this division.
A summary of the more important items of construction work performed in
the Southern district during the year follows:
Lot improvement around the terminals at Balboa (at a cost of $2,100). This
work consisted of-
Gradin ----------------------------------- square yards- 17,111
Excavation ------------ --------------------cubic yards- 763
Fill --------------------------------------------do-- 959
Catch basins ------------------ ---------------------- 2
Resurfacing of Paraiso-Gamboa road (at a cost of $60,345) :
Grading -----------------------------------square yards- 8,437
Excavation ----------------------------------cubic yards 72
Road repair------------------------------square yards-- 22,182
Concrete placed ------- ------------------------do-- 238
Road oiled and sanded ------------------------------do-- 29,006
Telford base placed--------------------------------do-- 10,098
Resurfacing of streets, Pedro Miguel (at a cost of $32,258) :
Grading -- ------------------------------------square yards- 2,280
Excavation -- ---------------------------cubic yards- 116
Concrete base placed-------------------------square yards-- 3,933
Tarviging paint coat on concrete---------------------do--- 11, 085
Sheet-asphalt wearing surface----- ------------------do-- 11,085
Curb and gutter ------ ---------------------linear feet-. 983
Sidewalk built------------ ---------------square yards- 395
Macadam road repaired-------------------- --------do- 400
Resurfacing streets, Paraiso (ai a cost of $18,370):
Excavation----------------------------------cubic yards-- 1,415
Grading-------- ---------------------------square yards- 346
Concrete base placed ---------------- ----------------do-- 7,305
Back fill---------------------------------------cubic yards- 341
Curb and gutter---- ------------------------linear feet- 2, 752
Retaining wall -----------------------------------do-- 550
Roadside ditches cleaned ----------------------------do-- 3,000
Construction of roads in hospital grounds (at a cost of $46,880) :
Grading------------------------------------ square yards-- 4,556
Excavation----------------------------- cubic yards- 3,350
Fill ---------------------------------------------do-- 1, 478
Concrete base laid --_---------------------square yards- 4,928
Sheet-asphalt wearing surface------------------------do ---- 7, 046
Concrete road constructed---------------------------do-- 1,478
Drain pipe laid-------------------------------inear feet- 599
Manholes built -------------------------------------- 11
Catch basins constructed----------------------------- 12
Curb and gutter constructed---------------------linear feet-- 2,329.
The above under A. F. E. No. 1392.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Under A. F. E. No. 1585, the following work was done in the hospital
grounds (at a cost of $25,850):
Grading ------------------------------------square ynrs 25,918
Excavation---------------------------------cubic yards- 3,088
Fill ------------------------ ----------------do-- 1, 777
Back fill ----------------------------------------- do--- 1,770
Drain pipe laid------------------------------linear feet- 2,004
Concrete walks constructed --------------------------do-- 1, 3.50
Grass planted ---------------------------------square yards- 21,840
Manholes built-------------------------------------------- 11
Catch basins built __.------------------------------------------ 20
Construction of sidewalks and steps (at a cost of $26,946) :
Grading ----- ----------- --------------- square yards- 10,057
Excavation---- ---------------------------cubic yards- 297
Fill --------------------------------------------do-- 133
Concrete walks laid--- -------------------- square yards-- 24,164
Aspliipilt walks laid ----------------------------__- do-- 401
Curb wall constructed-----------------------linear feet-- 1,411
Drain pipe laid---------------------------------------do-- 202
Catch basins installed----------------------------------- -- 7
Construction of concrete approach to new garage, Pedro Miguel (at a
cost of $1,301):
Grading----------------------------- -----square yards- 1,054
Fill---------------------------------------cubic yards- 218
Concrete placed ----------------------------square yards- 500
Cast-iron pipe laid---------------------------- linear feet- 40
Construction of section of road to steel pier, Balboa (at a cost of $5,413):
Excavation ---- --------------------------- cubic yards-_ 23
Grading-----------------------------------square yards- 2,43
Fill ----------------------------------------cubic yards 160
Concrete road constructed ---------------------square yards- 2,125
Manholes built ---------------------------------------------- 1
Catch basins constructed--- ------------------ 4
Concrete curb built--------------------------------linear feet- 1,581
Drain pipe laid------------------------------------ do---- 70
At the radio station, Punta Mala, the sum of $8,396 was spent for municipal
work niid the construction and digging of a well for the Navy Departnient.
Aside from this work, a total of $574 for miscellaneous jobs for the Navy De-
partment, Southern district, was spent.
Under special authority work was started in Panama City on the construc-
tion of new sewer outfalls and the enlarging of a number of storm sewer drains.
The work (done to date under this authority consists of the extending of the
sewer lines on the south side of Higinio Duran Street (at a cost of $708) :
Excavantion ------ ------------------_---------cubic yards 75
Back fill -------------------------------------- do-- 75
Pipe laid -----------------------------------linear feet- 413
Manholes built ------------------------------------------------ 2
Catch basins built---------------------------------------- --- 2
Concrete pavement replaced_ ----------------_--------_ qiire yards- 61
The extension of storm and sanitary sewer on the 110th of Februnry Street
(at a cost of $4,092) :
Excavation ------------------------------ ------cubic yarilds 710
Rnak fill -------------------------------------------do-- 367
Storm sewer constriiucel---_--_____ __------------------ linear feet- 3701
Sewer pipe In id------------------------------_------ _. do 108
Catch basins built----------------------------- -------------- 6
Manholes built------------------------------------------- 5
Extension of storm sewer on the south side of Maria Arosenien;i Street
(at a cost of $1.195):
Excavation----- ---_-__--___------------------e~~ ic y:irds__ 180
Back fill -----------------------------------------do 18
Concrete pipe laid --------------------------------_______ near feet-- 237
Vitritied pipe laid--- ---------------------------- do-- 123
Manholes built---- ----------------------------------------- 4






THE PANAMA ('ANAL.


Extension of storm sewer, etc.--Continued.
Catch basins built------------------------------------- -- 7
Concrete pavement replaced----------- ---------square yards- 85
Extension of storm sewer along the north side of Calidonia Street (at a
cost of $608) :
Excavation --------------------------------------cubic yards- 78
Back fill -----------------------------------------do 78
Storm sewer built------------------- --------linear feet- 265
Catch basins built ------------------------------------------ 2
Manholes built ---------------------------------------- 2
Concrete pavement replaced ------------------ --square yards-. 40
Extension of storm sewer on west side of Twenty-fourth Street (at a
cost of $899) :
Excavation ---------------------------------cubic yards-- 110
Back fill -----------------------------------------do-- 110
Storm sewer built---------------------- ------linear feet- 440
Concrete sidewalk laid ---------------------square yards- 88
Manholes built ---------------------------------------------- 2
Catch basins built---------------------------------------------------- 4
Concrete gutter laid -- ---------------------- linear feet- 34
Installation of vitrified pipe for drainage on 3d of November Street (at
a cost of $101) :
15-inch vitrified pipe laid-----------------------linear feet- 46
Catch basins built ------------------------------- ------------ 2
Installation of 3 by 3 box sewer on Twenty-fifth Street (at a cost of
$14,905) :
Excavation -------------------------------square yards-- 2, 585
Back fill----------------------------------- cubic yards- 752
Box sewer constructed ----------------------------linear feet- 1, 769
Manholes built---------------------------------------------- 5
Extension of sewer for the Hatillo district: This consisted of placing 100
linear feet of 4 by 4 box sewer at a cost of $1,862.
Extension of sewer on Southern Avenue (at a cost of $6,843) :
Excavation ------------------ --------------cubic yards- 1,373
Back fill -------------------------------------- --------do 1,050
Grading-------------- -------------------square yards- 111
Concrete box sewer laid------------------------ -linear feet- 80
Concrete pipe laid--------------------------------do-- 150
Catch basins built ---------------------------------------- 2
Manholes constructed --------------------------------------- 6
Asphalt laid on repaired streets ---------------square yards- 2, 398
Construction of sewer line from Northern Avenue to beach, Panama
City (at a cost of $9,962) :
Excavation --------------------------------------cubic yards- 2, 878
3 by 3 box sewer laid -------------- ------------linear feet- 312
Manholes constructed ---------------------------------------- 2
Installation of storm-sewer line from Nhu irket Street to Northern Avenue, Pan-
ama City (at a cost of $10,)7.') :
Excavation -----------------------------cubic yards- 2, 113
Concrete pavement replaced -------------------square yards- 36
Brick pavement replaced -------------------------- do-- 57
Catch basins built------------------------------------------- 1
3 by 3 box sewer constructed------------------- -linear feet-- 701
Reversing the grade of sewer outfalls on Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Ninetenth,
and Twentieth Streets, Panama City: This consisted of excavating 533 cubic
yards and the ;lying of 895 linear feet of 8-inch vitrified pipe, at a cost of
$2,085.
The above items of work were done out of the special $200,000 appropriation
inldle for Panama City and represent work done during the fiscal year.
Miscellaneous work for the United States Army to the amount of $9,144 was
done.
For other departments of The Panama Canal, Southern district, miscellaneous
jobs amounting to $16,813 were performed.
Work was started on the new Army post at Mirnflores. for which a total of
$375,200 was allotted for municipal work. To July 1 there were $79.029.11
spent of this allotment, the principal work done being preliminary surveys,






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 67

mapping, graling, and the installation of 5,241 linear feet of cast-iron water
pipe, 5,762 linear feet of vitrified sewer pipe, 405 linear feet of vitrified pipe
for storm sewers and 320 linear feet of concrete pipe for storm sewers, the
laying of 6,708 linear feet of railroad track for construction purposes, and
grading to tlrw amount of 37,689 square yards.
Under the head of miscellaneous work for the supply department, the munici-
pal division spent a total of $17,762 for work in connection with the hog farm.
cattle industry, gardens, depressed track and loading platforms around store-
houses, Balboa, work around their silver markets, Hotel Tivoli, Hotel Tivoli
kitchen, local buyers' building in Panama City, and fuel-oil plants, Balboa.
On December 1, 1918, the incinerator plant for the disposal of all garbage
from the city of Panama, Ancon, Balboa, and Fort Anmador was turned over to
the municipal division by the health department for operation and mainte-
nance. The average amount of garbage handled by this plihnt a day amounted to
60 tons. The cost of operating this plant from December 1 to June 30 amounted
to $17,884.04.
Under authority for construction in the vicinity of the Corozal ord-
nance department of the Army the following "work was done at a total
cost (of .$16,474:
Land cleared-------------------------------- ______square yards- 13, 763
Excavation ------------------------------------cubic yards- 13, 998
Grading---- ----------------------------------square yards- 993
Fill------------------------------------------cubic yards- 33,214
Drain pipe laid--------------------------- ------linear feet_- 120,
Railroad track for construction purposes--------------______do-- 1, 36
In Ancon townsite reconstruction of roads under A. F. E. No. 172S was
done as follows (at a cost of $17,426, including work done in the same
district under A. F. E. No. 1728-1):
Excavation------------------------------------cubic yn ids 289
Grading------------------------------------square yards- 3,182
Fill ------------------- ------ -----------------cubic yards- 259
Concrete road foundation-----------------------square yards-- 2, .74
Slihet-asplinlit wearing surface--------------------------do---- 2,596
Curb and putter constructed ----------------------linear feet- 2, 7S4
Drainpipe laid----------------- ----------------------do-- 449
Catch basins installed-------------- ----------------------------- 14
Manholes built---------------------- ------------------------- 5
Subsoil drain laid------------------------------- near feet-- 144
In this same district, under A. F. E. No. 1728-1:
Excvaion ___--_----_------------_----------_--u---- uic yards-- 96
Fill------------------------------------------do-- 90
Grading-------------------------------------- square yards- 51
Concrete road constructed ------------------- ----- --do-__ 927
Under A. F. E. No. 1766. for the Army, roiid repair work at I'ort Amador
was done as follows (at a cost of $4,790):
Grading---_----------------------------------square yards-. 1,618
Sheet asphalt laid ------------------------------------do ---- 3, 270
Tarvia B applied to macadam roads------------------ do---- 17 ,295
Crude oil applied' to macadam roads---------------------do-- 8, 130
Concrete sidewalks were constructed for the mechanical division,
Balboa shops district, as follows (at a cost of $18,099) :
Excavation--- -- ----------------------------------cubic yards- -o4
Grading-------------------------------square yards- 4 5i5
Concrete wal ks laid---------------------------- -------do-- 5, 600
Concrete drain age ditches laid ---------------------linear feet- 2, 192
Vitrified drainpipe laid-------------------------------do--- 134
Concrete drains for roof drip ---------------------------do. --- 117
Under A. F. 1.. No. 1q21 repair work was done for the Panama Railroad
around their warehouse in Panama City to the amount of $3.9-l1.
The 1 iillowinL' amounts were spent for maintenance in the Southern district
during the year:
Macadam roads and concrete roadside ditches-------------------- .$14, 72.50
Sheet asphalt ria;ids ;ind sheet usphilat roandsilde ditche ----------- 22, 521.00
Concrete asphalt roads and roadside ditches- --- _--------------- 5,513.69
Concrete roads----------------------------------------- --- 21, 918. 00
Asphalt walks----------------------------------------------- 3, 497. 16







68 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Concrete walks----------------------------------- 755. 82
Water and sewer lines in the town of Las Cascadas -------------- 6, 319. 76
Water and sewer lines in the town of Empire, and the operation of
the Camacho pump station------------------------------- 22,314.91
Rio Grande reservoir ----------------------- ------- 9, 389. 81
Sewers in Ancon-Balboa district, Corozal, Pedro Miguel, and Pa-
raiso townsites----------- --- ------------------------13, 113. 08
Water and sewer systems, Culebra townsite---------------- 3, 596. 65
Sweeping and cleaning of 90,086,650 sq. yds. of streets----------- 21, 014. 35
The following table shows material received, expetided, and on hand in the
Southern district as of July 1, 1919:


On hand Onhand Balance
Material. Re eived nd Expended on hand
Material.June 30, and 1918-19. June 30,
1918. l received. 19


Cement...........................barrels.. ............ 19,6621 19,6621 19,3571 3041
Sand........................cubic yards.. 2521 7,269 7,4941 6,9711 5231
Rock............................ do.... 2,136 ........ ....2,1 2,136 4091 1,727
Screening..........................do.... 256... 256f 189 671
Gravel.............................do.... 62 10,630 10,694 10,3921 301s
Gravel l(storage).....................do.... 8,6381 ............ 8,6381 1,8991 6,739
Lumber..............................feet.. 24,273 220,397 244,670 12, 544 32,126
Lumber (native)....................do.... 3,523 7,822 11,345 8,692 2, 653
Reinforcing.....................pounds.. 371 137,913 138,284 112,036 26,248
Pipe, vitrified, 6-inch....-.......... fet.. 2,695 9,022 11,717 9,151 2,566
Pipe, vitrified, 8-inch................do.... 1,6091 8,259 9,8681 5,2861 4,582
Pipe, vitrified, 10-inch..............do... ............ 5,109 5,109 3,318 1,791
Pipe,vitrified, 12-inch...............do.... ............ 3,253 3,253 2,164 1,089
Pipe, vitrified, 15-inch ..............do.... 641 441 5051 5051 ............
Pipe, galvanizediron, -inch........do.... ............ 288 288 238 50
Pipe, galvanized iron, -inch........do.... .... ...... 63 63 ............ 63
Pipe,galvanizediron, i-inch.........do................. 244 244 120 124
Pipe, galvanized iron, 3-inch........do.... 971 10,502 11,473 10,595 878
Pipe,galvanizediron, 1-inch........do.... 1,254 6,310 7,564 5,872 1,692
Pipe, galvanized iron, -inch.......do.... 60 362 422 320 102
Pipe,galvanized iron, li-inch.......do.... 648 1,801 2,449 1,887 562
Pipe, galvanized iron, 2-inch........do.... 853 8,995 9,848 8,692 1,156
Pipe, galvanizediron,2j-inch.......do.... 187 245 432 253 179
Pipe, galvanized iron, 3-inch........do.... 128 1,847 1,975 1,934 41
Pipe, galvanizediron, 3-inch.......do.... ............ 42 42 ............ 42
Pipe, galvanized iron, 4-inch........do.... ............ 244 244 200 44
Pipe, cast iron, 4-inch..............do.... 37 1,536 1,573 1,453 120
Pipe, cast iron, 6-inch............. ....... ................ 4,500 4,500 3,840 660
Pipe, cast iron, 8-inch...............do.... 60 2,004 2,064 1,616 448
Oil,fuel........................barrels.. 163.43 2,261.44 2,424.87 1,935.66 489.21
Meters, water, j-inch...............each.. 10 ............ 10 10 ............
Meters, water, i-inch...............do.... 232 ............ 232 80 152
Meters, water, 1-inch................. do.... 75 .......7... 75 10 65
Meters, water, 4-inch................do.... 1 ............ 1 1 ............
Pipe, concrete, 15-inch................feet.............. 2,943 2,943 165 2,778
Pipe, concrete. 20-inch.............do.... ........... 1,002 1,002 282 720
Pipe concrete, 24-inch..............do.... ............ 222 222 192 30
Leate..........................pounds.. 805 ............ 805 747 58
Jute................................do.... 3,600 ............ 3,600 552 3,048
Lead................................do... 18,343 32,647 50,990 23,949 27,041
Hydrants..........................each.. 4 55 59 36 23
Bricks..............................do... 14,777 100,000 114,777 22,677 92,100
Meter parts........................... lot.. $400.17 $1,400.76 $1,800.93 $1,095.98 $704.95
Valves, 4-inch......................each.. 2 12 14 9 5
Valves,6-inch......................do................. 8 8 7 1
Valves, 8-inch.......................do.... 3 6 9 3 6
Valves, 10-inch.....................do.... 2 1 3 ............ 3
Valves, 12-inch....................do.... ............ 2 2 ............ 2
Muralite........................pounds.. 3,010 ............ 3,010 ............ 3,010
Asphalt..........................do.... 1,077,575 1,010 234 2,087,809 1,752,009 3,335,800
Tarvia.......................... gallons.. 1,330 33,844 35,174 34,227 947


NORTHERN DISTRICT.

Under new construction and municipal improvements there was a total of
$149,210 spent in the Northern district and con-sisted of the completion of re-
surfacing of Main Street, Gatun, the relocation and construction of the Munliiit
Hope-Gatun riadl. water and sewer lines for ten 12-family silver quarters at
Mount Hope. .This work comprised the laying of 46,713 square yards of pave-
ment, 214 square yards of sidewalk, 30,175 linear feet of curb and gutter, 1,261





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


linear feet of 20-inch and 960 linear feet of 24-inch concrete drain pipe, 103
linear feet of 6-inch galvanized-iron pipe, 341 linear feet of 6-inch cast-iron
water pipe, 304 linear feet of 6-inch vitrified pipe, and 21 linear feet of 12-inch
vitrified pipe.
For the United States Army the sum of $77,470 was expended and consisted of
the folliowinu. work: Construction of roads, sewer, and water lines to officers' and
nonfornluissioned officers' quarters, construction of concrete drip gutters around
hangars, machine shop, and storehouse, Army aviation base, France Field, the
lowering of 10,564 linear feet of 8-inch and 10-inch water pipe line to Margarit;i,
and the tarviaing of the Margarita road. At France Field 4,392 square yards of
pavement were laid, 67 square yards of sidewalks, 1,615 linear feet of curb,
1,420 linear feet of roof gutter, the construction of one concrete sump-jpump
station, the laying of 2,322 linear feet of 6-inch cast-iron pipe, 5,508 linear
feet of 3-inch galvanized-iron pipe, and 1,257 linear feet of 6-inch vitrified pipe.
Two motor-driven sewer pumps and one motor-driven fire pump were installed.
Work was started on the new Army post at Gatun and consisted of erandirn,
draining, diverting of streams, and the laying of 1,539 linear feet of 20-inch
concrete pipe and 72 linear feet of 24-inch concrete pipe. There were 64 acres
of land cleared and burnt.
For the United States Navy the sum of $75,650.97 was expended and consisted
of the following work: Completing the draining and filling of grounds and the
construction of road at the Colon radio station; the construction of two double
tennis courts, road, and paving for garage, roads, water and sewer lines for two
type EE-2 and four type Fr4 houses, 200 linear feet of sea wall, the extension of
road, water, and sewer lines for the four type E-4 houses, connecting walks for
new buildings along beach, construction of road to ammunition storehouse,
grading and draining of area for baseball park, installation of fire protection
for dirigible hangar, fire protection for 100-man barracks and 300-man mess
hall, the installation of water line for 5-stall seaplane hangar, submarine base,
Coco Solo. This work consisted of the placing of 6,799 square yards of pave-
ment, 1,642 square yards of sidewalk, 7,586 linear feet of curb, 220 linear feet
of sea wall, 105 linear feet of drip gutter, 24-inch, 486 linear feet of drip gutter,
30-inch, the laying of 880 linear feet of 6-inch cast-iron pipe, 3,988 linear feet
of 8-inch cast-iron pipe, 1,867 linear feet of 6-inch galvanized pipe, 140 linear
feet of S-inch galvanized pipe, 1,696 linear feet of 6-inch vitrified pipe, 138 linear
feet of 10-inch vitrified pipe, 592 linear feet of 20-inch concrete pipe, 400 linear
feet of 6-inch subsoil drain, and the installation of two motor-driven sewn;e
purmps and one motor-driven fire pump,
Under special authorities from the Panama Railroad the sum of $29,151.76
was expended. The work under these authorities consisted of the installation of
987 linear feet of 4-inch water line to the hog farm, the laying of 600 linear
feet of 6-inch cast-iron pipe, 12 linear feet of 10-inch cast-iron pipe, 144 linear
feet of 12-inch cast-iron pipe for Colon townsite extension, the excavation for
and the laying of 116 linear feet of 20-inch concrete pipe for draining swamp
area in the vicinity of Mindi, the placing of 10,190 square yards of concrete
in 18-foot roadway from Mount Hope cold-storage plant to the Mindi road, the
construction of a culvert for the Mlindi diversion, and the placing of 900 square
yards of concrete for approaches to dock No. 7.
For outsiders a total of $698.12 was expended. This consisted of deposits
made for the connection of sewers and water to private houses, the laying of
concrete in alleyways, and the grading and rolling of baseball grounds.
Under special authority from the building division the sum of $18,302.41 was
expended, the principal work being in the vicinity of the new coldl-torage plant
erected at Mount Hope. A circulating water system was installed for this plant,
3,075 square yards of pavement and 2,054 linear feet of curb and gutter were laid
around same. In the circulating system 735 linear feet of 24-inch concrete pipe
were laid.
Under special authority from the supply department the sum of $14-,005 was
expentled, this covering a number iof miscellaneous jobs, the more inimportant of
which were the, laying of concrete approaches to garnges, the laying of 6,858
linear feet 1-f 10-inch galvanized-iron pipe to the oil-stor;!e tanks, and the lay-
ing of 1,842 linear feet of 4-inch galvanized-iron pipe for oil supply.
Under special authority from the health department the sum of $5.013.-)0 was
expended, the principal items of which were the excavation of 2,031 cubic yards
of earth for dranining the Mlindi swamp, the laying of 3!3 linear feet of 20-inchl
concrete pipe for drainage purposes, and the placing of 13 cubic yards of con-
crete in the culvert.
1409210-19----6





THE PANAMA CANAL.


Under the head of miscellaneous work performed, the sum of $7,918.39 was
expended. This covered miscellaneous jobs for the Panama Railroad, cattle
industry, supply department, and United States Army.
Under the head of maintenance there were expended in the Northern District
the following sums:
Brazos Brook reservoir------------------------------------- $9, 666
Agua Clara reservoir --------------- -------------- 9, 658
Maintenance of water system, Cristobal district -------- ------- 31, 514
Maintenance of water system, Brazos Brook to Colon line-------------- 1, 100
Manrgarita water line----------------------------------------- 3, 368
Toro Point water line--------------------------------------- 4, 740
Water lines in Gatun district------------------------------ 5, 732
Water lines in Monte Lirio district-------------------------------- 719
Water lines, Frijoles district------------------------------- 157
Sewer maintenance for entire Northern district------------------ 5, 839
Road maintenance for the entire Northern district--------------- 31,992
Following is a list of more important items of material used on construc-
tion and maintenance work:
Cement ---------------------------------------- barrels- 19, 757
Sand ----------------------------------------cubic yards- 4,962
Gravel ----------------------------------------do ---- 12,845
Screenings ------------------------- ----------------do- 51
Lumber -------------------------------_feet, board measure- 325, 347'
Reinforcing steel ------------ ---------------------pounds- 197, 835
6, 8, 10, and 12 inch vitreous sewer pipe---------------linear feet- 7, 730
20-inch concrete pipe----------------------------------do-- 4, 238
24-inch concrete pipe --- ----------------------------do-- 612
Galvanized-iron pipe, , , 1, U, li, 11, 2, 2J, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and
10 inch----------- ---------------- -----linear feet- 44, 508
Second-hand galvanized pipe, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 inch--------do-- 3,051
Extra heavy black-iron pipe, 10-inch--------------------- -do-- 484
C. I. B. & S. water pipe, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inch------------do-- 10, 514
Crude oil----------------------------------------barrels- 204
Water meters---------------------------------- 181
Pig lead ---- ----- ----------------------------------pounds 22,321
Three-way fire hydrants-------------------------------------- 23
Asphalt --------------------------------------pounds- 9, 315
Tarvia ----------------------------------------gallons- 26,994
Coal -----------------------------------------------tons 167
Water meter repair parts--------------------------------- $534. 92
The nimniripal division continued to perform maintenance work on streets,
water and sewer systems in the city of Colon, $64,999.23 being spent. The fol-
lowing table shows the amount of water used in Colon during the fiscal year, by
quarters, together with amount of water rentals.

Consumption of water.

Consumption per quarter.
Average
Paying Total con- daily
Quarter ended- conec- Private Panama Pana ma Public fire sumption. consump-
tions. connee- Railroad anal' hydrants tion.
tions. reservation. quarantine. and taps.

Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. Gallons.
Sept. 30, 1918............ 970 67,858,750 5,739,500 5,708,250 66,693,675 146,000,175 1,622,224
Dec. 31 1918............ 965 57,250,500 6,486,000 6,733,500 69,788,625 140,258,625 1,447,318
Mar. 30 1919........... 971 68 732,750 5,900,250 11,914,500 53,974,000 140,521,500 1,561,350
June 30 1919........... 977 68,455,750 6,368,750 10,433,500 46,508,150 131,766,150 1,464,068
Total for year............. 262,297,750 24,494,500 34,789,750 236,964,450 558,546,450 1,523,740






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.

Water rental collections.


Aver-
Amount age con-
Amount Amount Amount paid or sump- Aver-
collected collected collected to be Total rev- tion age pri Cost
Quarter ended- from pri- from from id by enue per per pri- vate perhy-
vate con- Panama Panama qana n quarter. v quar drant.
sumers. Railroad. Canal. Govern- cone t rl d t
tion bill.
ment. p
per


Gallons.
Sept. 30, 1918......... $27,758.00 $1,722.00 $1,712.70 .......... $31,192.70 69,957 $28.62 ........
Dec.31, 1918.... ... 25,639.05 1,946.40 2,020.50 .......... 29,605.95 59,327 26.57.......
Mar.31, 1919........... 27,593.35 1,770.30 3,574.80 $1,384.49 34,322.94 70,786 28.42 $11.93
June30, 1919........... 27,655.90 1,913.10 3,102.60 .......... 32,671.60 70,067 28.31 ........
Total for year.... 108,646.30 7,351.80 10,410.60 1,384.49 ........... 67,536 27.98 ........


Report of operation of pumping stations in the northern district.


Average
Total gallons Averagenum- cost per
Pumping station, pumped ber of gallons thousand
during year. per month. gallons for
pumping.

Mount Hope.............................................. 1,647,850,000 137,320, 833 $0.0185
AguaClara.................................................. 424,798,000 35,399,860 .0419
Frijoles...................................................... 10,138,000 844,833 .2551
Monte Lirio..;.............................................. 3,523,000 293,583 .5714


The following statement Shows the division cost of water delivered in the
various districts of the Canal Zone during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919:


Cost per Cost per
District. thousand District. thousand
gallons. gallons.

Cristobal................................ 0.07 Pedro Miguel.......................... $0.07
Gatun................................. .11 Miraflores............................... .06
Gamboa............................... .14 Aneon-Balboa. .07
Paraiso................................ .07


The sale of water to vessels at the docks at Cristobal and Balboa was handled
by the municipal division. The rate charged for water was 50 cents per thou-
sand gallons, with a minimum charge of $3. The following table shows total
quantity of water sold at each of the two ports in the Canal Zone and the total
number of vessels taking water during the year:


Vessels Gallons
Port. supplied water
water, sold.
water.

Cristobal..... ....................................................... 1, 589 75,. FI, 15.
Balboa.............................................................. 1,290 27,041,500






THE PANAMIA CANAL.


The following statement shows the status of capital cost account for munic-
ipal improvements in Panama and Colon:

Items. Panama. Colon.


Cost of original water and sewer system within city prior to July 1, 1910..... $504,911.57 314, 760.99
Cost of original pavements within city prior to July 1, 1910.................. 447,966.60 221,070.29
Cost of extensions to water and sewer systems within city prior to July 1, 1910. 122,165.92 169,581.52
Cost of extensions to pavements prior to July 1, 1910........................ 92,193.08 88,967.20
Interest on capital cost water and sewer systems and pavements prior to
July 1, 1910............................................................ 77,742.27 48,314.47
Proportion interest on capital cost reservoirs, pumping stations, and pipe
lines prior to July 1, 1910................................................. 6,216.66 6,125.16
Cost of maintenance water and sewer systems and pavements and propor-
tion cost of maintenance reservoirs, pumping stations, and pipelines prior
to July 1, 1910........................................-- .......... 99,617.17 145,025.27
Water-rentalcollections prior to July 1, 1910................................ 212,375.20 200,410.74
Capitalcost water and sewer systems and pavements July 1, 19191 .......... 1,030,070.31 1,004,010.80
Capital cost reservoirs, pipe lines, pump stations, and filter plants in Zone
July 1, 19191 ..................... ........................................... ..... 1,765,222.58 585,642.89

1 Panaman Government pays a proportion of interest on these sums at 2 per cent, based on relation of
total quantity of water used in Panama and Colon to total quantity produced by system.
PANAMA.


New con- Mainte- Applied in Water
Fiscal year ending- struction nance Interest. amortiza rentals
in city, work. ~tion of including
in city. work. capital cost. deficiencies.


June30, 1911........ .................. $54,609.74 $30,121.03 $25,759.26 $26,611.99 $78,467.71
June30,1912.............-............ 38,745.05 35,563.86 26,532.29 31,651.54 97,772.26
June 30, 1913........................... 11, 815.77 38,470.70 27,468.14 48,937.71 114,876.55
June30,1914...................-.......-... 1,505.37 104,469.25 29,086.29 32,648.88 166,204.42
June30,1915.......--.--................... 5,034.13 88,414.68 24,505.45 25,247.78 138,167.91
June 30, 1916....................... ............ 84,543.88 32,094.21 25,283.10 141,921.19
June30, 1917...... ................... ............ 97,744.09 30,404.15 25, 283.07 153,431.31
June30,1918...................................... 94,966.25 29,632.23 25,283.04 149,881.52
June 30, 1919............. ............. 59,960.58 110,749.46 29, 166.31 25,459.76 165, 375.53
Total.............................. 158,039.10 685,043.20 254,648.33 266,406.87 1,206,098.40

COLON.


June 30,1911............................$188,114.24 $43,111.09 $19,041.25 $18,019.80 $78,870.28
June30,1912............................ 84, 528.41 54,470.85 21,774.37 20,994.40 98,541.48
June30,1913.............................. 88,071.07 51,161.60 24,101.66 23,553.23 98,816.49
June 30, 1914.............................. 14,302.97 61,542.71 26,292.38 24,388.65 112,223.74
June 30,1915........................... 1,413.33 64,125.55 26,611.47 24,513.22 115,250.24
June30, 1916................... ........ .. 1,908.82 85,171.60 26,256.02 24,569.28 135,996.90
June30,1917....-.......................... 54,876.54 69,774.81 25,062.22 24,868.25 119,705.28
June 30,1918............................ 4,799.90 75,490.70 25,463.52 15,992 66 126,946.88
June 30, 1919.............................. 3,787.14 71,887.25 24,262.22 26,137.31 122,286.78
Total.............................. 441,802.42 576,736.16 218,865.11 203,036.80 1,008,638.07

IIndicates credit by adjustment.

OPERATION OF WATER-PURIFICATION PLANTS AND TESTING LABORATORIES.

The following is a report of work performed by chemical section of the testing
laboratories at Miraflores during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919:
Number of
samples analyzed.
Tarvia ----------------------------- ------------------- 3
Asphalt \\nariiig surface-------------------------------------------- 50
Asphalt we;Lrinii-surt';aco mixtures---------------------------- ------- 6
Mi cfll;in(o"us work, iclu:1iiini samples of paints, asphaltic enamels, oils,
cement, sand, lime, alum, coal, ores, rocks, boiler scales, alloys, gas, air,
and chemicals, etc----------------------------------------------- 143






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


The following is a summary of the report of work performed in connection
with thte operation of water-purilicution plants during the year:


Placed in service.........................
District supplied..........................


Source of supply..........................
R ated rapacity gallons per day...........
Method of purification......................

Aeration basin:
Size...............................feet..
Number of nozzles.....................
Sedimentation basin:
Size...............................feet..
Depth..........................do....
Capacity......................gallons..
Period ofsedimentation..........hours..
Rapid sand filters:
Number of units......................
Totalsand area............square feet..
Depth of filtering material-
Sand......................inches..
Gravel......................do....
Size of filtering materials:
Sand, effective size....................
Sand, uniformity coefficient............
Gravel, size.................... inches..
Per cent of sand area covered by horizontal
area of troughs..........................
Washing of filters:
Vertical rise per minute........inches..
Gallons per square foot of sand area....
Filter bottom, type ..................
Loss of head:
Average initial....................feet..
Average final.....................do....
Length of filter runs, hours, yearly average..
Volumes of water, average gallons per day:
Raw................................
Filtered................................
Delivered to mains.....................
Wash water............. ... .......
Per cent of filtered water.............
Chemicals, yearly averages:
Alum, pounds per million gallons......
Lime, pounds per million gallons.......
Liqui chlorine, parts per million, avail-
able chlorine.......................
Physical and chemical characteristics of fil-
tered water, parts per million:
Color................................
Turbidity.............................
Free carbonic acid (COO)...............
Carbonate (COa3)......................
Alkalinit v, orythrosine (CaCO3)........
Hardness, soap (CaCO3).............
Oxygen consumed.....................
Chlorine (Cl)...........................
Iron(Fe)...............................
Solids, total.........................
Nitrogen as-
Nitrites (NO1)......................
Nitrates (N031 ...................
Colonies of bacteria per c.c. in water from
distribution system:
Nutrient agar at 37.5* C., 24 hours......
B. coli index, number per liter........


Agua Clara.


Dec. 29, 1911.
Gatun,Toro Point.


Agua Clara reser-
voir.
2,500,000
Aeration, sedi-
- mentation, rapid
sand filtration.
14 by 8

70.5 by 71
10.5
350,000
10
4
1,156
30
24
0.44
1.81
1A to 1t
22.3
19
12
Harrisburg, Pa....

0.5
6.5
79.3
1,186,000
1,164,000
1,151,000
13,000
1.13
147
49


3
0
0
0.94
18.9
26.2
1.57
6.8
0.11
75
0.0001
0.039


I Aerator box.


Mount Hope.


Feb. 23, 1914......
Colon, Mount
Hope, Marga-
rita Point, Cris-
tobal.
Brazos Brook res-
ervoir.
8,000,000
Aeration, sedi-
ini -jlion,rjpiI
sand filtration.

60 by 66
85
171 by 171
12.25
2,500,000
14
6
3,078
30
22
0.41
1.70
I to 1i
32.0
20
12.5
Harrisburg, Pa....

1.3
12.5
26.4
4,633,000
4,515,000
4,395,000
120,000
2.66
182

0.386


4
0
2.5
0
28.9
39.7
1.7
6.0
0.11
85
0.0000
0.005


1Mirnfl..r.- .


Mar. 14 1915.
Pedro Miguel, Co,
rozal, Ancon,
Ball.Ioa, Panama-
Paraiso.
Chagres River.
15,000,000
Aeration, sedi-
mnittation, rapid
,and filtration.

86 by 130
105
300 by 125
16.5
4,500,000
12
14
5,950
30
24
0.41
1.70
?w to I1
32.8
24
15
Concrete false bot-
tom.
1.0
11.5
31.6
9,466,000
9,371,000
9,120,000
267,000
2.85
132

0.40

0
0
3.6
0
46.8
46.5
0.9
6.6
0.12
101
0.0000
0.026

46.4
12.1


1I






'14 THE PANAMA CANAL.

Concrete test specim ens made and broken during the fiscal year ended June
30, 1919.
(Cylinders 6 inches in diameter and 12 inches high.)

Runs Cylinders. Age of concrete in days.
Location. sam-
pled. Made. Broken. 7 28 60 90 120 180 365


Pacific roads............. .........
Pacific sidewalks.................
Atlantic roads....................
Ancon Hospital..................
Cold storage plant...............
Pier No. 6, Cristobal.............
Larvacide factory...............
Oil tanks.........................
Ice plant.........................
Abattoir..........................
Tivoli Hotel kitchen..............
Miraflores dump1.................
Experimental work...............
Total.......................


34
3
17
16
1
84
1
1
1
2
6
16


690
16
200
83
8


8
8
14
72
406


1,506


793
40
197
266
84
638
13
19
8
8
14
337


2,417


500
20
101
114
20
557

4
4
8


4

13
5
4


54
20
4
68
4
4


204
20
72
131
64
4
11
4
4


19

4


16

4


56 1i53 44 40 .44 ....... .....


71 1,481


I Army post, building construction.

The 133,738 square yards of concrete highways laid during the past year were
inspected by the laboratory and several suggestions for the improvement of the
quality of the concrete were made.
Since December 18, 1918, the roads have been finished by means of an iron
roller 6 feet long, 10 inches in diameter, and weighing 80 pounds, operated by a
light handle. The roller is made of sheet iron United States gauge No. 12. This
roller compacts the concrete and brings sufficient mortar to the top so that a
smooth hard-wearing surface is obtained. The final finish is made by the use of
a flexible push board with a length equal to the width of the pavement, 10
inches wide and 1 inch thick, fitted to operate with high handles on each end.
In order to increase the daily output of the concrete mixers and yet retain
the quality of the concrete, time studies which show the following results have
been made upon the operation of the mixers.
A characteristic time study made on a batch mixer:


Operations. seconds. Operations. s eonds.


Raising skip........................ 8 Emptying mixer....................... 30
Putting in water (additional) ......... 20 Preparing to raise skip................ 2
Mixing concrete....................... 60
Total period of mix............. 120


Since the water is added from the time the mixer is empty, the total length
of time required to add water is 2+8+20, or 30 seconds. It is very evident
that the length of time required to add the water (30 seconds) and the length
of time required to empty the mixer (30 seconds) should be reduced.
The samples of the concrete taken from the highway and treated in com-
pression gave the following results:

The average The average
ultimate ultimate
compressive compressive
strength strength
in pounds in pounds
per square per square
Mix. inch based Mix. inch based
upon the upon the
total number total number
of test of test
specimens specimens
for the year for the year,
28-day period. 28-day period.

1:4.................................. 2,165 1:6................... .............. 1,173
1:5.................................. 1,599 1:2:4.......................----- ..--- 1,949


' ' ' ' '






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 75

The test specimens have in the past been broken by the municipal enaineerin-g
division's engineer of test, using a Riehl, 100,000-pound machine located in the
mechanical division Inha ratory. In April a laboratory was equipped in Ancon,
with an Olsen 2(00.4i -po-riiind compression testing machine, et-4pecially dt-igned for
breaking concrete specimens.
The 1: 4, 1: 5, and 1: 6 concrete was made, against general practice, with the
run-of-bank nialerial. which is shown in the following analysis.
The values Ei en below were obtained while separating 10 tons of sun-dried
Chagres River run-of-bank into nine different sizes to be used in connection
with some experimental work:


Per cent Per cent
Size of screen, passing Size of screen. passing
each screen. each screen.

2-inch................................ 100.0 No.16................................. 1 9.0
2-inch................................ 93.5 No. 20................................. 117.9
1l-inch-............................... 85.7 No. 3................................ 114.4
1I-inch............................... 79.0 No. 40.................................... 110.9
1-inch................................ 72.0 No. 50................................. 16.9
i-inch................................ 62.2 No. 80.. ..............................3.2
inch................................ 50.9 No. 100............................... 12.3
inch............................... .. 35.2 No. 150................................ 11.1
o.10................................ 22.4 No.200...... ........ ............ ... 10.6

'Per cent obtained by sifting selected samples of the portion passing the No. 10 sieve through sieves of the
corresponding sizes.
The 1: 2: 4 concrete was made by using the material from the same source
which had been separated into two grades.
The analysis which follows gives good av'ra':. values for this material:


Chagres chagres Chagres C('whtres
River River River IivtiHer
gravel. sand. gravel. sand.
Size of sieve. Size of sieve.
Per cent passing Per cent passing
each sieve, each sieve.

3-inch...................... 100.0 ............ No.16........................ 7.4 50.0
2-inch....................... 99.0 ......... No.20........................ 6.9 44.6
2-inch........................ 98.0 .......... No.30....................... 5.5 34.7
I-inch...................... 91.6 .......... No.40........................ 4.3 24.5
lIfinch...................... 84.0 .......... No.50........................ 3.0 17.2
1-inch....................... 74.6 .......... No.80........................ 2.1 8.8
6-inch....................... 62.0 .......... No.100...................... 1.5 5.9
1-inch....................... 41.9 100.0 No.150....................... .8 2.8
-inch................... 16.8 87.4 No.200....................... .4 1.5
NO.10........................ 8.7 58.5
...8.7 58.5


An investigation to determine the effect that the moisture content of con-
crete has upon its ultimate comiprt'esive strength was undertaken in order
to explain discordant results obtained in June, 1918, when from test specimens
taken at the same time the set which was broken immediately upon being
removed from the moist sand storage (standard method of procedure) showed
68 per cent of the strength in compression that another set showed which hadl
been exposed. by mistake, to the air for 4 days before breaking.
The curve, shown on plate No. 4, fig. 1, was obtained biy plotting values
of the compressive strengths of sets of uniformly prepared test cylinders
(6 by 12 inches), which varied only in their treatment after beinr made. One
set was removed from the moist sand and immediately broken, other sets were
removed from the moist sand and exposed to the air for 1, 3, 5, 7, etc., days
before being broken. All of the cylinders were broken at the a-I' of 28 d1:y<.
In the figure the abscissas represent the number of days exposed to the
drying effects of the tropical air after being buried in moist sand and before
being broken, and the ordinates give the per cent of the ultimate compressive
strength which the average of the sets of specimens (exposed for the indicated
number of days) was found to have, assuming as 100 per cent the ultimate com-
pressive strength of the specimens cured according to standard conditions-
that is, buried in moist sand until ready to be broken.





THE PANAMA CANAL.


Thus in the figure at the extreme left the strength of the specimens that
have been buried in moist sand for the total length of time, 28 days, is
represented as 100 per cent; and at the extreme right the per cent of this
strength is represented for the specimens that have been exposed to the air
27 days after being buried for 1 day in moist sand.
The curve shows that the compressive strength of the concrete exposed to
the air after being buried in moist sand for one day is reduced to less than
60 per cent of the strength it would have attained if stored in moist sand for
the total of 28 days-i. e., if treated under standard conditions, or, in other
words, saturated with water.
The term saturated with water" is used here because it has been found
that by drying out the concrete the strength has been increased considerably.
For example, from the curve it can be seen that if the concrete is kept in a
saturated condition for 27 days and dried for 1 day, it is 15 per cent stronger
than it would have beeri if broken when saturated with water. If, however.
it is allowed to dry for 3 days, it would be about 25 per cent stronger. Longer
drying seems to cause no appreciable increase, and as it has been found that
this period (3 days) coincides practically with the length of time required for
the water to dry out from even the middle of the specimen the concrete may
be said to contain free water unless dried for at least 3 days.
The maximum compressive strength at 28 days which is obtained by remov-
ing the test specimen from the moist sand storage after 23 days and allowing
it to dry out is 212 per cent of what it would have been if the test specimen
had been exposed to the air after being buried for but 1 day.
The shape of the curve shown indicates that a chemical action takes place
for about 20 days in the presence of excess water, and that a considerable in-
crease in the strength results from this action.
The decrease in strength when the specimen is wet is believed to be due
to the physical action of lubrication, or perhaps to the noncompressibility of
water.
It might be supposed by some that even though there was a very large
variation in the compressive strength between the specimen buried for the
total period previous to breaking and the specimen buried for only 1 or 2
days when both specimens were broken in 28 days that the compressive
strength would be more nearly equal if a longer period had elapsed. This
has been found to be a false supposition, for in sets broken in 4 months
there have been found to be larger differences between the specimens buried
for 1 day and those buried for the total time than there are in 28 days.
The application to road construction of the findings as shown in the above
curve are as follows:
1. Concrete pavements should be kept continually moist for as long a period
of time as is possible.
2. Concrete pavements should be allowed to dry out for at least 4 days before
being opened to traffic.
3. The curing of concrete test specimens should always be described when any
results on the ultimate compressive strength of concrete are published. The
length of time that specimens are drying in the laboratory prior to breaking
should also be stated.
A series of specimens were made by varying the time of mixing the concrete
in order to obtain the curve shown on Plate No. 4, Figure 2, which demon-
strates the ndvaiintnae of using at least a minute-mix.
Series of experimental test specimens were made that proved the consistency
of mix or the amount of mixing water used affected the ultimate compressive
strength much more than the ordinary variations in the amount of cement used.
The drier the mix, within reasonable limits, the higher the.ultimate com-
pressive strength and the greater the resistance to abrasion.

SECTION OF METEOROLOGY AND HYIDROGRAPH Y.

The section of meteorology and hydrography continued to keen
the permanent records of weather conditions on the Canal Zone, the
hydrology of 'Gatun Lake watershed, and the hydrographic condi-
tion- at the Atlantic and Pacific ports of the canal. Special investi-
gations were carried to conclusion and report as indicated in the re-
port of the chief hydrographer, which follows:





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


SECTION OF AMIEITEOROLOGYI AND HYDROGRAPHY.
R. Z. Kirkpialrick, Chicf HyUlrographer.
Report on iiietei 'rolo gi':il and hlilroizrapillpi work and conditions for the tinwIl
year ended June 30, 1919, is submitted herewith:
'Theli section of meteorology and hydrography continued to keep the perma-
nent records of weather conditions on the Canal Zone, the hydrography of
Gatun Lake watershed, and the hydrographic conditions at the Atlantic and
Pacific ports of the canal. Special inves.ttigations were concluded and reported
upon as outlined in the report of the chief hydrographer.

PERSONNEL.
Mr. Geo. J. Bentley, meteorologist, was reemployed, effective August 15, 1918,
vice Mr. G. E. Matthew, resigned to enter the military service.
Mr. L. T. Chapel, meteorologist, resigned to enter the military service, effec-
tive October 20, 1918, and returned to his former position January 27, 1919.
Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite, chief hydrographer, was in charge of the work of the
section up to February 21, 1919, when he assumed the assistant chief hydrogra-
pher's position.
Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick returned from military service and resumed his former
position as chief hydrographer on February 21, 1919.
AMr. R. L. Mitchell returned from military service and resumed his former po-
sition as li.\drugr;lpher, effective March 22, 1919.
Mr. Geo. Johnson, hydrographer, transferred to the mechanical division on
April 1, 1919.
Several changes were made during the year in the position of computer.

METEOROLOGY.
General.-Few changes were made during the year in the meteorological sta-
tions. All stations enumerated in the 1918 annual report were continued in
operation and the following new stations were established:
A standard rain gauge was installed on the Cocoli arm of Miraflores Lake
watershed on August 16, 1918. Rainfall measurements at this station are made
twice monthly, and the re-orls are used in connection with estimating the aver-
age rainfall over the Miraflores Lake drainage area.
An anemoscope and quadruple register were installed on Sosa Hill on August
21, 1918, for registering the velocity and direction of the wind. This station
was previously equipped to record wind velocity only.
An evaporation station was established at Gamboa in September, 1918. Rc-
ords from this station are used in connection with the Gatun evaporation rec-
ord in computing the evaporation loss from Gatun Lake.
An evaporation station was installed on Miraflores Lake on December 24,
1918, for use in me;ivsuring the evaporation loss from this lake.
A standard rain gauge was installed on the Pequeni branch of the Chagres
River at the mouth of the Rio Boqueron on December 21, 1918. Rainfall meas-
urements are made twice monthly. The records are used in connection with
estimating the average rainfall over the Gatun Lake drainage basin.
The rainfall station at Porto Bello was reestablished on December 23, 1918,
after having been closed since August, 1914. Porto Bello is favorably located
on the Atlantic coast, near the headwaters of the Boqueron branch of the
Chagres River. During the seven years that rainfall records were kept at Porto
Rello the average annual rainfall amounted approximately to 169 inches. This
is the heaviest average rainfall of any station on the Isthmus.
A fully equipped weather station was established at Cape Mala on March 14,
1919, in charge of the chief electrician, naval radio station. Radio weather
reports are received from this station at 8 a. m. and 1 p. m. daily, advising the
canal and shipping interests of the daily conditions of weather and sea at the
entrance to the Gulf of Panama. *
Precipilation.-Rainfall for the calendar year 1918 was below normal at all
stations in the Canal Zone and vicinity, except Empire and Bocas del Toro.
The deficiencies ranged from 3.77 inches at Colon to 39.r59 inches at Bohio.
The rainfall was unequally distributed throughout the year, being unusually
heavy in May and October and generally deficient during the remainder of the
year. October was the month of heaviest rainfall at most stations, and Febru-
ary was the month of lightest rainfall.






THE PANAMA CANAL.


Annual totals ranged from 30.09 inches at Taboga to 127.12 inches at Brazos
Brook.
The average rainfall in the Pacific section was 62.20 inches, in the central
section, 85.08 inches; and in the Atlantic section, 117.86 inches.
The greatest precipitation recorded during the year in 24 consecutive hours
was 8.12 inches at Brazos Brook on October 16-17, 1918. Daily quantities of
4 inches or more were recorded as follows:


Station. Date. Rainfall. Station. Date. Rainj:i1.

Inches. Inches.
Trinidad........... May 4............. 6.00 MonteLirio....... Oct.18............ 4.77
Bocas del Toro..... May 15............ 4.49 Do............ Oct. ............. 4.33
Do............. Aug. 6............ 5.19 Gatun.............. Oct.16-17......... 5.42
Rio Grande......... Oct.21-22......... 4.61 Agua Clara........ Oct. 17............ 4.90
Culebra............ Oct.21............ 4.30 Brazos Brook....... Oct.16-17.......... 8.12
Empire............. Oct. 21-22......... 5.10 Colon............... Oct. 16-17......... 7.56
Darien.............. Oct.18.......... 4.86 Bocas Del Toro..... Nov.10........... 4.21


Rainfall during the first three months of 1919 was extremely deficient-the
lowest of record at several stations-but the 1919 dry season terminated ap-
proximately two weeks earlier than usual, and rainy season conditions were
well established over the Isthmus before the middle of April.
The monthly rainfall for 1918 and the first half of 1919 and the station averages
are presented in table No. 1. The maximum rainfall of record for periods of
5 minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours is shown in table No. 2. The monthly distribu-
tion of rainfall in 1918 at selected stations, compared with monthly normals, is
shown graphically on plate No. 8, and the distribution of annual rainfall in the
Canal Zone is shown on plate No. 9.
Air temperatures.-Average air temperatures for the year 1918 were approxi-
mately normal. The highest temperatures in the year occurred in April and
the lowest in January and March.
The means and extremes in air temperature for the year 1918 are presented
in the following table:


Maximum. Minimum. Annual
mean.
Station.
SF. Date. 0 F. Date. F.

Balboa Heights...................................... 92 Nov. 3 66 Jan. 6 80.2
Gamboa............................................ 94 Apr. 28 64 Mar. 26 79.5
Alhajuela........................................... 93 Apr. 27 61 Mar. 24 78.5
Gatun............................................. 92 Apr. 25 68 Jan. 4 80.5
Colon............................................... 90 Apr. 25 70 Jan. 2 79.6


The maximum and minimum temperatures of record at the various stations
are given below (records revised to June 30, 1919) :


Maximum. Minimum. Annual
average. Years'
Station. -- records.
SF. Date. 0 F. Date. F.

Balboa Heights................... 97 Apr. 7,1912 63 Jan. 27,1910 80.1 13
Gamboa........................ 94 Apr. 28,1918 63 Feb. 5,1917 79.0 2
Alhajuela....................... 96 'Apr. 18,1912 60 1Feb. 5,1917 78.8 8
Gatun.......................... 92 1May 30,1915 66 Aug. 7,1912 80.4 8
Colon .......................... 92 1 June 3,1909 66 Dec. 3,1909 79.7 11

I Other dates also.
NoTE.-The lowest temperature of record on the Isthmus since the American occupation is 590 F., re-
corded at Bas Obispo (near Gamboa) on February 9, 1907.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 79

The minimum temperature of record at Alhajuela should read 600 F. instead
of 580 F., recorded in the 1918 Annual Report.
The highest temperature of record on the Isthmus, 970 F., was recorded at
Ancon on April 7, 1912, but the same maximum temperature was reached at
Naos Island on February 13, 1906.
The temperature during the first six months of 1919 averaged slightly above
normal.
Monthly temperature records and other meteorological data at the two prin-
cipal stations are presented in Tables Nos. 3 and 4.
Winds.-The annual wind movement in the Canal Zone for the year 1918
was generally above normal. February was the windiest month at all stations,
:am September was the month of least wind movement. Northwest, north, or
northeast windsa prevailed at all stations, although there was a considerable
percentage of southeast and variable winds during the rainy season months.
The average hourly wind movement, prevailing direction, and maximum ve-
locities at the various stations for the year 1918 are presented in the following
table:


Average wind
movement (miles Year 1918.
per hour).
Station.
Maximum velocity.
1918 Annual Prevailing
average. direction.
Miles. Direction. Date.

Balboa Heights................ 8.0 7.5 North......... 36 NorthwestA... Aug. 1
Pedro Miguel................ .. 5.7 5.5 Northwest... 26 Northeast..... Aug. 28
Gamboa ....................... 5. 4 4.9 Northeast..... 39 .....do..... June 5
Gatun........................... 5.5 7.2 North........... 33 East.......... Aug. 28
Colon......... .......... 11.1 10.4 .....do......... 36 .....do........ Oct. 1


The following table, revised to June 30, 1919, gives the maximum wind ve-
locities of record at stations in the Canal Zone:


Maximum velocit y.
Stations. Years of
Milesper Direction Date. record.


Sosa Hill.......................................... 48 South........ June 11,1913 2
Balboa Heights..................................... 59 .....do........ July 10,1909 11
Pedro Miguel....................................... 30 Northeast..... Sept.23,1912 9
Gamboa........................................ 39 .....do........ June 6,1918 5
Gatun............................................. 50 South......... June 17,1919 8
Colon............................................... 46 North......... Apr. 4,1915 11


The wind movement during the first six months of 1919 was generally above
normal, being highest in January and March.
Atmospheric pressure.-The mean atmospheric pressure for the year 1918
was .slightly below normal on both coasts. March was the month of highest
pressure and July was the month of lowest average pressure.
Relative humidity.-The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the
year 1918 was about 83 per cent on both coasts. February and March were
the months of lowest average humidity; August and October were the months
of greatest humidity.
Cloudinicss.-The average daytime cloudiness for the year 1918 was below
normal on the Pactfic coast and slightly above normal on the Atlantic side.
February andl March were the months of least cloudiness, while the highest
degree of cloudiness occurred in May, August, and October.
Eraporation.-Evaporation from the Lake surface at Gatun for the year
1918 was the highest annual evaporation of record since the filling of Gatun
Lake. The total annual evaporation was the highest of record at the coast
stations also.






80 THE PANAMA CANAL.

During the first six months of 1919 the evaporation averaged above normal,
being highest in January, February, and March.
Evaporation records at the various stations are shown in Table No. 5.
Fogs.-No fogs were observed during the year at the Atlantic entrance
and but few on the Pacific coast. The usual conditions of frequent, night and
early morning fogginess prevailed at interior stations during the rainy season.
Practically all-fogs observed lifted or were dissipated by 8.30 a. m.
Sea temperature.-The surface temperature for the sea water was approxi-
mately normal on both coasts. Records for the year 1918 are given in the
following table:
Temperature of sea water.


Maximum. Minimum.
Station. 1918 Annual
S-mean. average.
-F. Date. F. Date.

Balboa .................................. 87 Several.. 69 1 Mar. 2 80.3 79.8
Colon..................................... 87 June 23 77 'Jan. 2 82.2 82.1

1 Other dates also.

Seismology.-Forty-six seismic disturbances were recorded at the Balboa
Heights seismological station during the fiscal year 1919. Most of these dis-
turbances were slight tremors from shocks of distant origin; they were too
feeble here to cause damage to buildings or other canal structures.
The disturbances recorded on July 17, 1918, October 11, 1918, and November
29, 1918, were classed as force II on the Rossi-Forel scale. All other shocks
were classed as intensity I (very feeble).
The number of seismic disturbances recorded by months, during the past
fiscal year are shown in the following table:


1918 1919

Number Number
Month. of Month. of
shocks.' shocks.1

July................................ ... 5 January................................. 2
August.................................. 4 February.............................. 1
September..---............... ............. 4 March.................................. 2
October................................. 6 April................................... 3
November............................... ................................. 7 May.................................... 1
December................................ 10 June..................................... 1

1 Total, 46.

The following plates and tables accompany the meteorological section of
this report:
Plate No. 8.-Monthly rainfall, 1918, and station averages.
Plate No. 9.-Distribution of rainfall in Canal Zone, maximum, minimum,
current, and average years.
Table No. 1.-MoAnthlly rainfall in Canal Zone and station overnaeys.
Table No. 2.-Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone and vicinity.
Table No. 3.-Monthly meteorological data, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, year
1918.
Table No. 4.-Monthly meteorological data, Colon, year 1918.
Table No. 5.-Monthly evaporation in Canal Zone.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


TAwBL No. 1.-Monthly rainfall in Canal Zone, 1918-19, and station averages.

[Values in inches.]


Stations. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept.


Balboa:
1918............
1919............
Average 20 years
Balboa Heights:
1918............
1919...........
Average 21 years
Miraflores:
1918............
1919............
Average 10 years
Pedro Miguel:
1918............
1919............
Average 11 years
Rio Grande:
1918..........
1919............
Average 14 years
Culebra:
1918............
1919.........
Average 28 years
Camacho:
1918............
1919.........
Average 12 years
Empire:
1918.........
1919............
Average 14 years
Gamboa:
1918............
1919............
Average 36years
Juan Mina:
1918............
1919............
Average years.
Alhajuela:
1918............
1919.............
Average 19 years
Vigia:
1918............
1919............
Average 10years
Frijoles:
1918............
1919...........
Average 7 years.
Trinidad:
1918............
1919............
Average llyears
Monte Lirio:
1918............
1919............
Average 11 years
Gatun:
1918............
1919............
Average 14 years
Brazos Brook;
1918............
1919............
Average 12 years
Colon:
1918............
1919............
Average 4s- yrs


1.02
.13
1.07

1.78
.28
1.03

3.37
.16
1.88

3.08
.48
1.22

1.48
.64
1.19

1.75
.62
1.60

1.04
1.03
1.02

1.50
.50
.80

3.07
.55
1.77

1.35
.97
.69

.93
.75
1.03

1.37
.93
.80

3.03
1.61
1.93

3.96
2.47
2.79

3.92
4.03
2.76

4.03
1.42
3.20

4.72
2.48
3.18

3.28
1.82
3.85


0
.06
.63

T.
T.
.84

0
0
1.11

.02
T.
.74

.12
.02
.73

.10
.05
.67

.02
.21
.89

.02
.24
.77

.07
.21
.86

.96
.04
1.33

.14
.04
.78

.30
0
1.66

.24
.52
2.41

.37
.34
2.70

.76
1.15
3.30

.53
.54
2.83

1.00
.70
3.25

.67
.36
1.67


1.32
T.
.67

1.25
T.
.68

.20
0
.46

.03
T.
.34

0
0
.29

.02
T.
.58

.16
.08
.43

.20
.05
.35

.54
.03
.74

0
13.62
.24

.02
.07
.49

.17
.01
.43

.31
.47
.58

.39
.38
2.04

1.34
.59
2.37

.55
.59
2.18

.92
.73
2.22

.41
.61
1.61


4.33
6.32
3.80

4.52
6.42
2.92

10.89
5.79
4.17

11.01
6.58
4.24

7.77
6.44
3.46

6.91
7.41
3.69

6.69
8.52
3.41

6.91
7.52
3.44

3.16
7.02
3.60

3.80
7.77
3.36

6.80
9.06
3.68

4.91
10.02
3.20

5.27
10.07
4.44

4.75
6.34
4.98

4.20
11.66
5.21

6.66
12.04
5.58

5.50
12.48
5.04
5.34
10.95
4.21


6.45
5.92
8.18

6.75
5.21
8.62

8.36
6.07
9.99

9.36
7.37
10.88

13.68
6.35
10.83

16.20
6.90
11.14

15.30
5.08
11.57

113.56
7.01
10.13

11.45
5.82
10.83

10.29
5.50
10.92

11.34
6.11
12.25

11.46
4.30
12.01

11.29
8.28
11.93

15.10
7.28
13.55

14.51
5.20
13.16

11.64
7.16
14.40

16.99
8.71
13.71

19.26
6.95
12.71


4.57
7.75
7.30

5.20
8.93
7.50

5.70
4.60
8.65

6.55
3.99
9.44

7.33
6.23
9.15

8.07
5.73
8.84

10.92
5.08
9.77

9.31
5.57
8.70

10.12
6.02
9.78

13.56

11.13

15.76
6.87
12.51

15.58
7.07
13.50

8.06
5.85
10.24

5.39
12.30
10.14

9.43
8.16
12.68

8.29
12.54
12.63

10.11
11.70
14.62

8.56
12.08
13.38


4.32

8.06

5.13

7.82

5.21

8.15

5.54

8.87

7.18

9.98

8.49

9.43

7.79

9.72

9.24

8.98

6.51
10.21


3.75

7.62

3.84

7.81

5.70

8.57

4.41

8.32

5.52

9.40

4.91

10.05

6.81

9.49

5.18

9.16

8.59

11 90


5.25 11.36

9.48 11.92

8.79 9.16

12.44 12.51

11.96 10.25

12.20 12.67

6.37 8.91

9.84 10.27

4.78 5.81

9.24 10.51

7.83 11.82

11.82 11.87

8.15 17.93

11.96 14.34

10.82 19.20

15.46 14.71

10.36 18.85
11..02 15 00


6.58

6.97

7.03

7.75

6.97

9.22

7.27

8.83

7.81

10.36

10.01

10.74

9.12

10.31

9.25

8.78

7.60

10. 41


'"'''''


Dec. Year.


Oct. Nov.



8.52 8.62

9.32 9.31

9.16 9.61

10.25 10.33

10.01 5.88

12.05 10.87

10.57 7.16

11.84 11.26

16.02 7.75

12.48 11.59

16.&1 7.28

11.43 12.42

16.66 8.63

13.20 13.40

20.15 7.19

13.28 11.88

17.25 5.86

12.79 .12.10


!11.53 16.77 6.78 .48

11.85 14.83 12.96 4.73

11.07 12.03 6.94 .27
11.69 14.01 14.35 5.94

13.24 13.81 8.40 .13

13.13 i11.22 14..s9 4.57

12.87 19.36 14.14 1.35

11.03 15.91 16.64 5.62

9.04 15.71 7.73 .91

11.23 14.49 17.90 7.95

12.10 23.57 15.37 1.04

12.82 16.80 21.52 .8.87

7.27 22.73 11.49 1.92

10.17 16.50 20.53 10 33

13.79 27.30 15 04 1.73
12.37 11; 9.' 22 39 11. 11

15.34 27.07 14.23 1.90

12.67 14 y9 21.34 11.69


NOTE.-StatLion averages do not in lunde 1919 records.


1.42

5.51

.55
4.28

1.93

6.56

1.09

5.62

.31
5.31

.39
6.90

.35

5.60

.38

4.97

1.25

6.62


50.90

68.44

54.82

69.83

64.22

81.68

66.09

81.60

74.97

84.77

80.94

87.49

83.49

88.81

82.89

81.24

75.47

91.61

82.13

93.44

83.25

101 68

91.58

105.28

91.20

100.84

73.94

107.52

105.89

123.18

101.19

124.65
127.12

135.04

125.27

129.04






82 THE PANAMA CANAL.

TABLE No. 2.-Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone and vicinity, Oct. 1, 1905, to
June 80, 1919.

[Values in inches.)


Maximum rainfall.


Stations. 5 minutes. 1 hour. 24 hours. 1

Inches. Date. Inches. Date. Inches. Date.


Balboa (June 10, 1906)....... 0.90 May 12,1912 5.86 June 2,1906 7.57 Nov. 16-17,1906.
Balboa Heights(Oct.1,1905).2 .64 Aug. 7,1908 3.98 Oct. 9,1911 7.23 May 12-13, 1912.
Miraflores (June 19, 1914).... .50 Sept. 6,1917 4.09 Sept. 6,1917 4.75 Sept. 6,1917.
Pedro Miguel (Jan. 1, 1908) .60 Nov. 11,1908 3.46 ..... do..... 5.45 Nov. 19-20, 1917.
Rio Grande (Dec. 29, 1905).. .75 July 24,1908 4.14 Nov. 20,1917 8.24 Do.
Empire (July 18, 1906)...... .60 1918 4.19 Oct. 21,1918 6.15 Dec. 3, 1906.3
Gamboa (Nov. 18, 1905)..... .59 July 27,1908 3.32 May 11,1911 6.56 Dec. 2-3, 1906.
Alhajuela (Mar. 31, 1907)... .60 July 20,1909 4.19 July 8,1915 8.19 Dec. 2-3, 1906.3
Gatun (Oct. 1, 1905)......... .62 fAug 3,1912 4.72 Aug.12,1914 10.48 Do.
BA u g. 1 2, 1 9 1 i A u g. 1 2 ,1 9 1 4 1 0.4 D o.
Bohio (Oct. 1, 1905)4 ........ .67 June 16,1909 4.51 Aug. 7,1908 8.85 Aug. 7-8, 1908.
Colon (Oct. 1 1905)......... ...64 Aug. 25,1909 4.90 Oct. 8,1909 8.53 Dec. 2-3,1906.
Porto Bello (ay 1, 1908).. 2.45 Nov. 29,1911 4.53 Nov. 29,1911 10.86 Dec. 28-29, 1909.

1 Maximum fall in 24 consecutive hours.
2 Formerly Ancon. Station moved to Balboa Heights Oct. 1, 1914.
8 No automatic record on this date. Total for 24 hours ending at noon.
4 Station closed January, 1912.
5 Station closed Aug. 31, 1914, and reopened in December, 1918.
Approximate; automatic record indistinct, due to unusually excessive rate of fall.
NOTE.-Dates in parentheses opposite station names refer to installation of automatic registers.

TABLE No. 3.-Monthly meteorological data, year 1918, Balboa Heights, Canal
Zone.


Atmospheric Air
pressure Air temperature (F.).
(inches).


Month. .
'4 .)4 "

b 0



January.................. 29.742 29.865 78.4 90 26 86.0 66 6 70.8 20 72.1 81.4
February.............. 29.747 29.869 79.6 90 19 87.9 67 24 71.4 21 71.4 76.0
March............... 29.777 29.899 79.4 90 16 88.3 67 26 70.4 22 71.1 76.1
April................. 29.714 29.836 80.4 91 17 87.7 70 5 73.2 19 74.0 82.0
May................... 29.702 29.824 80.6 90 27 86.8 71 13 74.3 16 75.5 86.8
June................... 29.694 29.814 80.3 91 24 86.4 72 13 74.2 16 75.1 86.7
July ................. 29.688 29.809 81.6 91 5 88.1 73 22 75.0 17 75.7 85.7
August................ 29.714 29.833 80.8 91 10 87.1 72 29 74,5 17 75.6 86.0
September............. 29.730 29.851 80.8 91 29 87.2 72 14 74.5 17 75.4 86.4
October................ 29.712 29.834 79.8 91 5 85.9 71 1 73.8 17 74.8 87.5
November............. 29.714 29.835 80.2 92 3 87.2 70 11 73.1 20 74.6 86.1
December.............. 29.695 29.816 81.0 91 14 88.5 71 30 73.6 17 74.4 81.0
Year............. 29.719 29.840 80.2 92 43 87.3 66 66 73.2 22 74.1 83.5






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


TABLE No. 3.-Jfonthly meteorological data, year, 1918, etc.--Continupi.


Precipitation (inches). Wind. Number of days.


8__ -_ g Maximum velo-
Month. ity.
S I 0

P4 P E PL E4 -01


January........ 1.78 1.03 7 NW. 6,254 27 N. 13 7 22 2 2 4.5
February ...... T. .84 0 N. 7,990 32 N. 21 21 7 0 0 3.0
March......... 1.25 .68 2 N. 7,888 35 N. 11 17 14 0 1 3.5
April ........ 4.52 2.92 11 N. 6,077 32 NE. 15 4 20 6 7 5.2
ay........... 6.75 8.62 21 N. 4,863 28 N. 14 0 16 15 16 7.3
June......... 5.20 7.50 17 N. 4,752 23 N. 23 0 20 10 9 6.9
July........... 5.13 7.82 13 NW. 5,618 28 NW. 8 0 21 10 14 6.8
August........ 3.84 7.81 14 NW. 5,698 36 NW. 1 0 19 12 12 7.1
September.... 7.03 7.75 13 NW. 4,050 27 N. 9 0 21 9 8 6.9
October....... 9.16 10.25 19 NW. 5,367 28 SW. 22 1 14 16 15 7.3
November..... 9.61 10.33 16 NW. 4,533 28 NW. 15 2 14 14 8 6.8
December..... .55 4.28 5 N. 6,986 28 NW. 16 5 26 0 2 4.6
Year.... 54.82 69.83 138 N. 70,076 36 NW. 61 57 214 94 94 5.8

1 Elevation of barometer 118 feet above mean sea level.
2 Average for 21 years' record.
a Tenths of sky obscured during daytime.
4 November.
6 January.
6 August.

TABLE No. 4.-Monthly men oroJlogil-al data, year 1918, Colon (Cristobal).


Month.


Atmospheric
p pressure
inches).


January................. 29.841 29.878
Februlary............ 29.850 29.887
M:arch.................. 29.872 29.910
April.................. 29.800 29.838
May................... 29.789 29.826
June................... 29.776 29.R14
July................. 29.778 29.91 4
August ................. 29.800 29.838
September........... 29.816 29.854
October .............. 29.794 29.832
November............. 29.806 29.843
December........... 29.798 29.835
Year............ 29.810 29.847


Air temperature (*F.).


0


-I I1 1*-1-1---- 1 -- --I- *I- -I .I I


78.0
78.7
78.7
79.8
79.6
80.0
80.2
80.0
80.0
79.4
79.8
80.6
79.6


84
82
84
90
89
87
86
86
87
89
86
85
90


26 81.3
2 81.5
28 81.9
25 83.8
31 83.5
17 84.2
25 84.0
19 83.9
19 84.3
23 84.3
4 83.8
29 83.9
425 83.4


70
74
72
73
72
73
70
73
72
72
72
72
70


2
1
13
23
18
11
18
26
10
1
20
31
52


74.8 9
75.9 8
75.5 11
75.9 16
75.6 13
75.9 11
76.5 15
76.0 11
75.8 12
74.5 14
75.8 10
77.3 12
75.8 16


- .I
S 0






74.2 83.4
73.6 77.3
73.2 76.3
75.3 81.3
76.0 85.5
76.1 85.1
77.0 86.5
76.8 87.0
76.8 85.7
76.2 85.5
76.0 83.3
76.1 80.8
7i.6 13.1


a
a
m


~I . . . .






84 THE PANAMA CANAL.


TABLE No. 4.-Monthly meteorological data, year 1918, etc.--Continued.


Precipitation (inches). Wind. Number of days.


Sg Maximum veloo-
Month. ty
0 0S 4 '
Z D
z1 9 E-1 1- 94 E E1


January....... 3.28 3.85 12 9,462 NE. 35 NW. 8 5 23 3 0 4.9
February...... 0.67 1.67 14 11,838 N. 30 NE. 21 3 22 3 0 5.1
March......... 0.41 1.61 6 11,141 N. 30 NE. 12 7 23 1 0 4.6
April.......... 5.34 4.21 17 8,393 N. 29 N. 11 2 20 8 1 6.5
May.......... 19.26 12.71 25 7,238 N. 26 NE. 4 0 8 23 12 8.4
June........... 8.56 13.38 19 5,438 N. 28 NW. 9 1 9 20 11 8.0
July........... 10.36 16.02 25 7,199 N. 32 SW. 18 0 6 25 16 8.4
August......'.. 18.85 15.00 26 7,128 N. 27 SW. 3 0 4 27 15 8.8
September..... 15.34 12.67 20 4,988 W. 26 SW. 6 0 9 21 18 8.3
October....... 27.07 14.89 25 5,676 W. 36 E. 1 1 5 25 22 8.5
November..... 14.23 21.34 24 6,783 N. 27 NW. 15 4 7 19 6 7.3
December..... 1.90 11.69 19 11,269 N. 28 NE. 5 4 22 5 2 5.6

Year.... 125.27 129.04 232 96,553 N. 36 E. 61 27 158 180 103 7.0

1 Elevation of barometer 36 feet above mean sea level.
2 Average for 48 years'record.
3 Tenths of sky obscured during daytime.
4 April.
6 January.
6 October.

TABLE No. 5.--- monthly evaporation, Canal Zone, years 1918 and 1919.

[Values in inches.]


Month.


January.....................
February....................
March....................
April......................--
May.........................
June........................
July....................-
August......... ..........
September..............-
October....................
November....................
December...................
Year...................


Balboa Heights.


Gatun.


Colon.


____ ____- I -I. ~ _ _


1918


5.495
7.732
8.242
5.201
3.513
3.234
4.170
3.813
3.420
3.220
4.360
7.189
59.589


1919


7.970
7.704
9.813
5.478
3.737
3.063


Aver-
age (11
years).


5.826
6.274
7.456
5.443
3.517
2.988
3.263
3.198
--3.195
3.315
3.070
4.641
52.186


1918


5.548
7.231
8.475
6.502
4.901
4.859
4.690
3.991
4.577
4.127
4.621
5.881
65.403


1919


5.874
5.876
7.253
4.625
5.359
4.110


Aver-
age (8
years).


5.970
6.248
7.481
6.7404
5.127
4.268
4.478
4.390
4.460
4.273
3.671
4.982


........ 61.752


1918


4.858
7.871
8.960
6.960
3.949
3.492
3.433
2.981
2.906
3.309
3.753
5.587
58.059


1919


5.476
6.230
9.020
6.156
5.079
3.721


Aver-
age (10
years).


6.113
6.406
7.225
5.989
3.860
3.227
3.116
3.098
3.171
3.278
3.001
4.434
52.928


HYDROGRAPHY.

No new hydrographic stations were established during the year.
The lake station at San Pablo was discontinued on December 31, 1918,
sufficient records having been obtained to determine approximately the amount
of heaping up of the water at San Pablo Narrows, due to strong northerly winds
or Ch1lagreq IRiver floods.
The tidal station at Morro Island (Taboga) was discontinued at the close
of business June 30, 1919. It is considered the two years' recoril already ob-
tained gives a sufficient determination of tidal range and mean tide levels for
purposes of later construction.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs