• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 Letter of transmittal
 Introduction
 Section I: Canal operation and...
 Section II: Business operation...
 Section III: Administration
 Section IV: Government
 Section V: Financial and statistical...
 Index
 Back Cover






Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication: Washington, D. C.
Publication Date: 1944
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Front Matter
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Section I: Canal operation and trade via the Panama Canal
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
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        Page 34
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        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Section II: Business operations
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Section III: Administration
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Section IV: Government
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
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        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Section V: Financial and statistical statements
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
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        Page 130
        Page 131
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        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Index
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
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    Back Cover
        Page 157
        Page 158
Full Text












UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY




/' C t e 6C -(-.* /


ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

GOVERNOR OF


THE PANAMA CANAL
FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30

1944


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1946


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Covernmennt Printing Office. Washington 25, D.C. Price 30 cents











TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction ----------------- -- --- 2
Operation and maintenance of the Canal ---------------------- 2
Operation of auxiliary enterprises-business operations------------- 3
Government-administration _------------------------------ 3
Services rendered by the Canal to shipping_ 3
Net revenues ---- --- ------------------------------- 4
Replacements ------------------------------------------------- 4

SECTION I-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL

Statistics on Canal traffic ------------------------------------------- 5
Canal traffic by fiscal years 1915 to 1944--------------- --------- 9
Traffic by months--fiscal years 1944 and 1943--------------------- 10
Nationality of vessels transiting Canal --------------------------- 10
Vessels paying tolls on displacement tonnage 11
Cargo shipments by trade routes_ 11
Total cargo shipments-Atlantic to Pacific-------------------- 12
Total cargo shipments-Pacific to Atlantic- 13
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes-
Atlantic to Pacific----------- 14-15-16
Important commodity shipments over principal trade routes-
Pacific to Atlantic-- --------------------------- 16-17-18-19-20
Classification of vessels between laden and ballast traffic ---- ------- 20
Laden and ballast traffic by nationality------- ----- 23
Average tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per cargo-carrying vessel--- 23
Steam, motor, and other vessels 23
Frequency of transits of vessels through the Panama Canal--------- 24
Gross tonnage of vessels ---------25
Small commercial vessels transiting Canal----------------------- 28
Vessels entitled to free transit -- ------------ 28
Canal operation and maintenance 29
Hours of operation ----------------------------------------- 29
Lockages and lock maintenance -------------------------------- 29
Operating schedule of locks --------------------------------- 29
Lockages ------------------------------------------------- 30
Delays to shipping ------------------------------------ 31
Maintenance---------------------------------------------- 31
Power for Canal operation------------------- --------------- 32
Water supply and general weather conditions--------------------- 32
Water supply --------------------------------------------- 33
Air temperature .. ----------------------------------------- 35
Winds and humidity- -------------------------------------- 36
Tides -----------------.----------------------------------..... 36
Seismology ---------------------------------------------------. 37
Marine activities---------------------------------------------- 37
Harbor activities ------------------------------------------ 37
Aids to navigation--------..-------..-----------...---..............-......-------.. 38
rn







TABLE OF CONTENTS


SECTION I-CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL-Con.

Canal operation and maintenance-Continued Pagc
Marine activities-Continued
Accidents to shipping- 38
Inspections--- --------- ------------ 38
Admeasurement-------------------- ------ -38
Salvage and towing --- 39
Operation of tugs------------------------------------------ 39
Maintenance of channel-other dredging activities ---------------- 40
Ordinary channel maintenance-Canal prism dredging --------- 41
Auxiliary dredging-other projects----- ------ ---- ----- 42
Third Locks dredging------------------------- 43
Slides--------------------------------- 44
Subsidiary Dredging Division activities---------------------- 44
Equipment --- ------------------------ ---------- 45
Ferry service ------------------------ ----------- 46
Third Locks Project---------------------------------------------- 46
Authorization----------------- ------------------------ ---- 46
General program 47
Designs-plans-specifications _------------------------------ 47
Construction--------------------------------------- 48
Personnel ------------------------ ----------.----------------- .48

SECTION II-BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Panama Canal business operations ---------------------- ------ 49
Mechanical and marine work------------------ ----------------- 50
Gross revenues-class and source---------------------- ----- 50
Drydocks ----------------------------------------------- 51
Plant improvement ------------------------------ -------- 51
Operations ------------------------------------------------ 52
Electrical repair work- ------ --- --- ------------------- 52
Purchases and inspections in the United States ------------------- 53
Storehouses and ships chandlery -------------------------------- 53
Obsolete and unserviceable property and equipment--------------- 54
Bulk petroleum products ------- ----------------------- 54
Building construction and maintenance....---- ---- ----- ----- 54
Quarters for employees ---------------------------------------- 56
Motor transportation --- ....----------------------------------- 57
Panama Canal press ------------------------------------------- 57
Subsistence --------------------------------------------------- 58
Revenues derived from the rental of lands in the Canal Zone ------- 58
Business operations under the Panama Railroad Co -------------------- 58
Trans-isthmian railroad ------.---------------------------------- 59
Receiving and Forwarding Agency ------------------------------ 60
Coaling plants ------------------------------------------------ 60
Real-estate operations ------------------------------------------ 61
Telephone system --------------------------------------------- 61
Commissary division ------------------------------------------- 61
Sales ---------------------------------------------------- 62
Purchases ------------------------------------------------ 62
Hotels ------------------------------------------------------ 63
Mindi Dairy --..........------------------------------------------------ 63






TABLE OF CONTENTS V

SECTION III-ADMINISTRATION
Page
Departments ----------------- ----------------------------------- 64
Operation and maintenance -------------------------------- ---- 64
Supply ------------------------------------------------------ 64
Accounting--- ------- ------------------------------------- 64
Executive ------------------------------------------------- 65
Health -------.---------------------------------------------- 65
Panama Railroad Co ---------------------------------------- 65
Changes in administrative personnel --------------------------------- 65
Changes in administrative organization------------------------------- 66
Employees ------------------------------------------------------- 66
Gold employees -------------------------------------------------- 67
Recruiting and turn-over of force-gold employees ---------------- 69
Adjustments in wages and hours of work ---------------------- 70
Silver employees ------ --- -------- ---------- ----------- 70
Silver wages ---------------------... ------------------------ 72
Sick and rest leave ------------------ -------------------------- 72
Cash relief for disabled silver employees----------------------- 72
Repatriations -------------------------------------------- ----- 73
Central labor office ----------.. ---------------------------------- -- 74
Safety program ....--------------------------------- --------- 74
Purchase of war savings bonds by employees-------------------------- 76
Experiment gardens --------------------------------------------- 76
Clubhouses ..---------------------------------------------------- 77
Legislation-..------------------------------------------------- 78
Capital allotments, fiscal year 1945 ----------- --------------- 79
SECTION IV-GOVERNMENT
Area of Canal Zone ---------... ---------------------------------------82
Population ------------------------------------------------- 83
Public health ------------------------------------------------- 83
Vital statistics_ --------------------------------------- 84
Malaria --------------------------------.------------------- 85
Hospitals --..---------------------------------------------- 86
Quarantine and immigration ------------------------------------ 86
Municipal engineering ---------._---------------------.------------ 87
Water system- ----- -------------------------------------- 88
Expansion of water supply facilities----------------------------- 88
Sewer system ----------------------------------------------- 89
Roads, streets, and sidewalks-------------------------------- 89
Other heavy construction activities ------------------------------ 91
Test of Cucaracha rock formation --------------------------- -- 91
Cities of Panama and Colon ----------------------------------- 91
Miscellaneous activities --------------------------------------- 91
Public order ------------------------------------------------------ 92
Traffic accidents and control ------------------------------- 93
Magistrates' courts:
Balboa -------.......-------------------------------------------- 94
Cristobal-----.-- -------------------------------------------94
Pardons and reprieves----------------------------------------------94
Fire protection ..---------------------------------------------------- 95
Public schools system ------------------------------------------- --- 95
Playgrounds section -------------------------------------------- 97






VI TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION IV-GOVERNMENT-Continued
Page
Postal system 9------------------------------------------ 9S
Immigrations visas 99------------------------------------------- 9
Relations with Panama .--------------------------------------------- 99
Customs ----------------------------------- ------- 100
Shipping Commissioner- 100
Administration of estates ------------------------------- 101
Foreign corporations---------------------------------- -- 101
Insurance ----------------------------------------------. 101
Licenses---------------------------------------------------------- 101
Selective service registration------------------------------------- 102
Rationing program---------------------------------------------- 102
Commercial aviation -----------------------------------------------..103

SECTION V-FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL STATEMENTS

Accounting system ...-------------------------------------------------.... 105
Operation of the Panama Railroad Co -------------------------------- 106
Panama Canal operations------------------------------------------- 106
Index to tables ---------------------------------- 107
Financial tables------------------------------------------------- 108-190
a











REPORTS OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND DIVISIONS

APPENDIXES NOT PRINTED
The material in the annual report of the Governor of The Panama Canal,
published in this volume, is to a large extent a summary of the data presented
in the annual reports from the heads of departments and divisions in the Canal
organization; the latter, regarded as appendixes to the report of the Governor,
are not printed. The annual reports of the Panama Railroad Co. and the health
department are published separately; the latter is compiled for calendar years
only. The reports of the heads of departments and divisions, as listed below, are
on file at the Washington Office of The Panama Canal and at the office of the
Governor at Balboa Heights, C. Z.:
Engineer of maintenance, report of:
Dredging division, report of superintendent.
Plans section, report of chief.
Safety section, report of safety engineer.
Special engineering division, report of supervising engineer.
Assistant engineer of maintenance, report of:
Civilian Defense Corps, report of director.
Electrical division, report of electrical engineer.
Locks division, report of superintendent.
Meteorology and hydrography, section of, report of chief hydrographer.
Municipal engineering division, report of acting municipal engineer.
Office engineering division, report of office engineer.
Accounting department, report of comptroller.
Marine division, report of marine superintendent.
Mechanical division, report of superintendent.
Supply department, report of chief quartermaster.
Executive department:
Civil affairs, division of, report of chief.
Clubhouses, Panama Canal, report of director.
General counsel, report of.
License bureau, report of chief.
Personnel supervision and management, division of, report of acting
director of personnel.
Police and fire division, report of chief.
Real-estate section, report of chief.
Schools, division of, report of superintendent.
Surveying officer, report of.
Aeronautics section, report of chief.
Collector (acting), report of.
Magistrates' courts:
Magistrate, Cristobal, report of.
Magistrate, Balboa, report of.
Pardon board, report of chairman.
Paymaster, report of.
Public defender, report of.
Wasbington Office, report of chief of office and general purchasing officer.
























Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofgol944cana-










ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE

GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE,
October 9, 1944.
THE SECRETARY OF WAR,
Washington, D. C.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the report of the Governor of The
Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944.
The large program of defense construction initiated several years
ago neared completion during the past year, with a consequent
gradual decrease in the demands on The Panama Canal organization
resulting from those construction activities. On the other hand,
there has been a sharp increase in the use of the Canal and its facilities
by vessels operated by the United States Government in the prose-
cution of the war. As a consequence, it has become necessary to
make available on a greatly enlarged scale all types of services to
transiting ships, including hull and machinery repairs and the supply-
ing of oil, water, provisions, and ship chandlery. It is expected that
the number of such vessels will increase still further in the future, and
that the general level of Canal war activities will continue high until
after the cessation of hostilities in the Asiatic theater.
The preponderance of tolls-free vessels over tolls-paying continued
as during the preceding year, with a similar unfavorable ratio of
revenue to operating expenses.
For the past 2 years it has been deemed advisable to withhold the
printing and public distribution of the annual report until after the
war, because of the confidential nature of the statistical data and
other information contained in the report. The same course will be
followed this year, with your approval.
Effective May 16, 1944, the undersigned, having been appointed
Governor of The Panama Canal by The President of the United States
and having duly qualified on that date, assumed his new duties, vice
Major Gen. Glen E. Edgerton, United States Army, former Governor,
whose tour of duty with The Panama Canal terminated on May 15,
1944.
Respectfully,
J. C. MEHAFFEY, Governor.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


INTRODUCTION
Administration of the affairs of The Panama Canal enterprises
involves three main elements: (a) Operation and maintenance of the
Canal itself; (b) operation of the auxiliary enterprises necessary to
provide adequately for the needs of shipping and of the Canal operating
forces; and (c) government of the Canal Zone, populated by American
civilians, native or tropical workers and their families, and United
States Army and Navy defense forces.
In addition to these normal elements, during the past 5 years the
Canal organization has performed very important functions as a
supply and service agency for the greatly expanded activities of the
Army and Navy, particularly in their extensive construction program.
While the Canal organization and equipment were not designed for
this duty and are by no means fully adequate, the services rendered
are regarded as very creditable. These services have contributed
materially to the efficiency and economy of the Army and Navy
operations, and will continue to do so for the duration of the war.
The immediate supervision of the administration of these various
activities rests with the heads of the nine major departments and divi-
sions. Responsibility and control of the entire organization are
centered in the Governor of The Panama Canal who is also the presi-
dent of the Panama Railroad Co., an adjunct of the Canal enterprise,
organized as a Government-owned corporation.
By Executive order of September 5, 1939, the provisions of section
13 of the Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912, were invoked
as an emergency measure, and since that date the Commanding
General, Panama Canal Department, United States Army, has
exercised final authority over the operation of the Panama Canal and
all its adjuncts, appendants, a.nd appurtenances, including control
and government of the Canal Zone; and the Governor of The Panama
Canal has been subject to that authority and the orders issued under it.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CANAL
The primary function of the Panama Canal is to provide and main-
tain a waterway by means of which vessels may make the transit from
one ocean to the other, and to handle such traffic as presents itself
for transit with a maximum of safety and a minimum of delay.
Essentially this involves the maintenance of the waterway, the opera-
tion of the locks, and the control of traffic through the Canal. Through-
out the year the Canal force maintained its high standard of expedi-
tions service not only in the actual transiting of ships but in providing
emergency repairs, fuel, supplies, and the various supplementary
services incidental to shipping. There were no interruptions of ship
traffic during the year.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


OPERATION OF AUXILIARY ENTERPRISES-BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Second only to the operation of the Canal is the function of supply-
ing necessary services to shipping and the Canal operating force.
These services are provided under coordinated and centralized control
by the various business units of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. and include oil and coal bunkering plants; storehouses
for food, ship chandlery, and other essential supplies; marine repair
shops; harbor terminal facilities for passengers and for handling and
transshipping cargo; a railroad line across the Isthmus; water and
electric power systems; and living quarters and retail commissary
stores for the operating force.

GoVERNMENT-ADMINISTRATION

The usual functions of government, such as schools, police and fire
protection, quarantine, public health, immigration service, posts,
customs, aids to navigation, steamboat inspection, hydrographic and
meteorological work, water supply, sewers, construction and mainte-
nance of streets, and similar activities, which, in the United States
are directed by various officers of the national, State, and municipal
governments, are entrusted in the Canal Zone to the Governor, and
are executed under his authority and responsibility. This centraliza-
tion of all governmental activities under one head is essential to
economical and efficient administration.

SERVICES RENDERED BY THE CANAL TO SHIPPING

The principal services rendered to shipping by the Canal and its
adjuncts are shown in the following table, which presents a comparison
of the activities during the fiscal year 1944 with those of the 2 years
immediately preceding:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

TRAFFIC THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL
Number of vessels transiting the Canal:
Ocean-going commercial vessels........................... 1,562 1,822 2, 688
Small commercial vessels---.-----------. -------..-------. 235 177 439
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls (see page 28) -------- 3, 333 2, 373 1, 516


Total transits---------------.----------------------......................
Tolls levied:
Ocean-going vessels -----------------------------------
Small vessels--...--.---..- ..-.-...................... .
Total tolls......................-----------------............
Cargo passed through Canal, carried by:
Ocean-going commercial vessels....---------------................
Small commercial vessels-..----------------.--..........
Vessels exempt from payment of tolls ..-...-....- ....-
Total cargo.............................................


5,130 4,372 4,643

$5, 456, 163 $7, 356, 685 $9,752, 207
17,683 12,054 19,906
5,473, 846 7,368,739 9,772, 113
Tons Tons Tons
7, 003, 487 10, 599, 966 13, 607, 444
17,156 11,059 12,999
4,572,034 419,080 566,637
11,592,677 11,030,105 14,187,080






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

TRAFFIC THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL-continued
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement) of ocean-going com-
mercial vessels......-------.........--------.--.-----.-------------- ...........6,073,457 8,233,999 11,010,004
Cargo per Panama Canal net vessel ton (laden ocean-going
commercial vessels only) ---------------------------------- 1,389 1,435 1,381
Average tolls per ton of cargo (laden ocean-going commercial
vessels only) ------------------------....------------------...... .........$0.648 $0.633 $0.645
OTHER SERVICES
Calls at Canal Zone ports by ships not transiting the Canal... 813 483 948
Cargo handled and transferred at ports (tons)-............--------------. 1,734,556 2,018,377 2,508,421
Coal sales to ships (tons)-....----...-------..--------------------- 583 75, 491 123,502
Coal, number of vessels bunkered----------------------------- 213 294 305
Fuel oil-total barrels pumped (both incoming and outgoing)
excluding Panama Canal use..........................---------------------------- 23, 688, 710 20, 546, 768 11,620,913
Fuel oil-number of vessels handled ..... .... ..........-------------------- 2, 431 3,057 2, 596
Repairs to ships other than Panama Canal equipment:
Number of vessels repaired ......................---------------------......... 3,514 2,318 1,023
Number of vessels drydocked..........-------------- 418 332 185
Sales to ships (except U. S. Army and Navy):
Provisions (commissary sales)----.................--------.--........... $1,596, 608 $737,061 $543,996
Chandlery (storehouse sales)-.........----.------...-....-------------.... 337, 577 101,843 77,325


NET REVENUES

During the fiscal year the revenue from tolls charged to commercial
shipping using the Canal was $5,473,846.30 and civil revenues plus
the postal surplus amounted to $239,393.31. The net appropriation
expenses were $12,634,164.42, resulting in a net deficit from Canal
operations proper of $6,920,924.81. The business operations under
The Panama Canal produced a, net revenue of $1,553,294.06. The
combined net deficit resulting from the operation of the Canal and its
business units during the fiscal year 1944 was thus $5,367,630.75
as compared to a net deficit of $2,396.497.05 in the fiscal year 1943.

REPLACEMENTS

The past fiscal year marked the close of 30 years of successful opera-
tion of the Panama Canal. A very important factor contributing to
this creditable record is the care that has been taken to maintain all
parts of the Canal structures and equipment in good operating con-
dition.
Of the total capital value of The Panama Canal, approximately
$100,000,000 is the value of property of the transit divisions (which is
subject to deterioration). Some of this property, including locks,
dams, and other concrete structures, is still in excellent condition and
requires but little expenditure for upkeep. However, other types of
property, subject to more rapid deterioration, require systematic and
orderly replacement as their economic life is exhausted, and appropria-
tions must be made by Congress for this purpose, as well as for the
construction of new facilities as the need therefore develops.











SECTION I
CANAL OPERATION AND TRADE VIA THE PANAMA CANAL
STATISTICS ON CANAL TRAFFIC
Total transits of the Canal in the fiscal year 1944, including tolls-
paying commercial vessels and vessels transiting free of tolls numbered
5,130 in comparison with 4,372 in the preceding fiscal year, an increase
of 758 transits, or about 17 percent. The following table gives a
segregation of this traffic for the past three fiscal years:
[Number of transit]

Fiscal year
1944 1943 1942

Commercial (tolls-paying) transit:
Ocean-going of 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) and over...----- 1,562 1,822 2,688
Local traffic, under 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement) -.------- 235 177 439
Noncommercial (tolls-free) transit .....................................--------------------------------- 3,333 2,373 1,516
Total transits--.....-----..........-------------...--...----------....-------------... 5,130 4,372 4,643

As will be noted above, the increase in Canal traffic in comparison
with the preceding year resulted from the increased use of the Canal
by vessels transiting free of tolls. This type of traffic is made up in
the main of combat and auxiliary vessels owned by the United States
Government, as well as cargo-carrying vessels operated by the United
States Government for the transportation of war cargoes. The in-
creased use of the Canal by tolls-free traffic is, of course, a war develop-
ment, and transits in this category in 1944 accounted for 65 percent of
the total traffic. In 1939, which may be considered the last normal
year in Canal traffic, free traffic comprised less than 9 percent of the
total traffic through the Canal. The tolls which would have been
collected from these tolls-free vessels if they had been assessed at the
regular commercial rates would have amounted to approximately
$5,876,729. Further data on vessels transiting free of tolls will be
found on page 28 of this report.
The Panama Canal has never compiled detailed statistics on the
cargo or routing of noncommercial vessels (i. e., vessels transiting the
Canal free of tolls) nor have these been included in the general statis-
tics, which are confined to commercial (tolls-paying) traffic. In
normal times noncommercial traffic consists largely of warships, which
do not carry cargo, and supply vessels of the United States Army and
Navy, which carry only a relatively small amount of cargo. At the






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


present time a great number of cargo vessels are carrying supplies
for the Army and Navy as a direct part of the war effort. As these
vessels are exempt from the payment of tolls they are not included in
the traffic statistics, although they now comprise an important amount
of cargo carried through the Canal.
The following data show the total amount of cargo carried through
the Canal since the fiscal year 1939, segregated between that carried
by commercial and by noncommercial vessels:

Commercial (tolls-paying)
Fiscal year Total Nonceoimer-
Ocean-going Local a
Tons Tons Tons Tons
1939 -- 27,993, 143 27, 866, 627 31,251 95, 265
1940------------------- 27, 523, 727 27, 299, 016 25, 818 198, 893
1941------.. .............------------- 25, 198, 599 24, 950, 791 24, 881 222, 927
1942----. -------------............ 14, 187, 080 13, 607, 444 12, 999 566, 637
1943 --......- .--- ------------------.. -- 11,030,105 10,599,966 11,059 419,080
1944_- -------- ---------. 11,592,677 7,003, 48 14, 156 4,572,034

1 Vessels tinder 300 net tons, Panama Canal measurement.

Except for the sections on pages 28 and 29, the following discussion
of traffic through the Panama Canal in fiscal year 1 944 deals only with
ocean-going commercial tolls-paying traffic:

TEMPORARY CHANGE IN BASIS FOR COMPILATION OF SHIPPING STATISTICS

At the start of the current fiscal year (July 1, 1943) The Panama
Canal discontinued the use of its standard cargo declaration form for
the duration of the war. Prior to that date the origin and destination
of all important items of cargo had been shown on this form by the
masters of all commercial vessels transiting the Canal. For vessels
traveling over long routes the origin or destination of the cargo was
frequently different from the ultimate origin or destination of the
voyage.
In lieu of the cargo declaration form, ships' masters now are re-
quired to furnish only general statistics as to the important commodi-
ties on board at the time of transiting the Canal. The Panama Canal
receives independently special reports from the United States Navy
showing the ports of origin and destination of commercial vessels
transiting the Canal. These two sets of data are consolidated to
prepare statistics on trade routes and commodities.
An example of the difference between the standard procedure and
the one adopted for the duration of the war is the case of vessels coming
from the West Coast of North America. Vessels from this area often
pick up important parts of their cargo in both Canada and the United
States, and under The Panama Canal's standard procedure this dis-
tinction was shown. Under the present procedure, however, all cargo






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


in one ship is consolidated into one trade route, and no attempt is
made to distinguish between cargo originating in the United States
and in Canada.
The present temporary procedure is not as accurate or complete
as the standard peace-time procedure, but it is considered adequate
for the war period, since the commercial shipping now transiting the
Canal is entirely subject to war conditions, both as to routing and as
to commodities carried, and so is not comparable with commercial
shipping in normal times.
Ocean-going commercial (tolls-paying) traffic.1-A total of 1,562
ocean-going tolls-paying vessels transited the Canal in 1944, which
was a decrease of 260 transits, or 14 percent, from the 1,822 transiting
in the preceding fiscal year. The total of 1,562 transits in this category
for 1944 may be considered an all-time low for any full fiscal year of
operation since the Canal was opened to traffic; the fiscal years 1915
and 1916 actually had fewer transits than 1944, but the Canal was
only in operation 10% months in 1915 (having been opened to traffic
August 15, 1914), and was closed for approximately 7 months in 1916
on account of slides. The following figures show the principal features
of ocean-going commercial traffic through the Canal in the past three
fiscal years:

Fiscal year
1944 1943 1942

Number of transits ------. ------------------------------- 1,562 1,822 2,688
Net tonnage (Panama Canal measurement)....... .-- 6,073,457 8,233,999 11,010,004
Cargo carried (long tons of 2,240 pounds)....-----------------... 7, 003,487 10,599,966 13, 607, 444
Tolls -------------------------- --- --------------------- $5, 456, 163 $7, 356, 685 $9, 7o2, 207

In the fiscal year 1939, which immediately preceded the outbreak
of hostilities in Europe, ocean-going commercial tolls-paying transits
numbered 5,903, falling but little short of equaling the peak years
of 1928 through 1930, when transits averaged 6,190 per year. The
outbreak of war in Europe early in the fiscal year 1940 had an im-
mediate adverse effect on traffic, particularly in the normally impor-
tant Europe/North America and Europe/South America trades.
Traffic over the other main channels of trade continued for some time
at about prewar levels, but beginning with January 1941 (which
approximately coincided with the discontinuance of heavy shipments
to Japan) traffic declined sharply and at the time of the entry of the
United States into the war in December 1941 was about two-thirds
of normal. The entry of the United States into the war brought
about a further decline, resulting chiefly from the virtual disappearance
I Includes all tolls-paying vessels having a measurement of 300 or more net tons (Panama Canal measure.
ment) or 500 or more displacement tons.





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


from the Canal of vessels engaged in the important United States
intercoastal trade.
The combined cargo movement in both directions in 1944 amounted
to 7,003,487 tons, or a decrease of 3,596,479 tons (33.9 percent) from
that in 1943. The Atlantic-to-Pacific movement declined from
4,945,267 tons in 1943 to 3,354,349 tons in 1944 (32.2 percent), while
the Pacific-to-Atlantic movement declined from 5,654,699 tons in
1943 to 3,649,138 tons in 1944 (35.5 percent).
The principal cause of the decrease in traffic moving via the Canal
in 1944 in comparison with the preceding year was the decrease in the
number of vessels transporting cargoes between the east coast of
North America and Asia (India and the Persian Gulf area) and between
the east coast of North America and the east coast of Africa (princi-
pally the Suez Canal area). Total cargo shipped to and from these
areas via the Canal in 1944 was less than one-fourth the 3$ million
tons shipped in 1943. As stated in the report for 1943, the extensive
use of the long route via the Panama Canal and the Pacific for ship-
ments of materials between the east coast North America and the
India/Persian Gulf area and Africa was probably influenced by safety
considerations since shorter routes for this trade are via the Mediter-
ranean Sea or the Cape of Good Hope. Another route presumably
used for safety reasons in !1943 was that between Europe/east
coast North America and the east coast of South America, via the
Strait of Magellan.: This!'routel wasi also\ used to some extent in
1944 when a total of 151,407 tons was shipped, as against 367,226
tons in the preceding year.
Trade between the cast coast United States and the west coast of
South America accounted for the largest tonnage over any single
trade route in 1944, a total of 1,842,339 tons having been exchanged
between these two areas during that period. This represents an
increase of 311,600 tons, or 20 percent, over the preceding year.
The Atlantic-to-Pacific movement in this trade, totaling 515,190
tons, more than doubled the shipments of 1943 and constituted the
main factor in the over-all increase in this trade. The movement in
the opposite direction, totaling 1,327,149 tons, was up 1.8 percent
over the preceding year.
Shipments via the Canal between Europe and Australasia continued
to form an important element in Canal traffic, although the shipments
in both directions in 1944, amounting to 1,202,300 tons, were about
19 percent under those in the preceding year. There was a sharp
increase in cargo shipped between the east coast North America and
Australasia because of the heavy shipments from the Atlantic to the
Pacific, which totaled 1,221,119 tons in 1944, almost quadrupling the
313,825 tons in 1943; tonnage moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 9


in this trade was considerably lower, however, totaling but 99,540
tons as compared with 239,484 tons in 1943.
Cargo moving from the west coast United States/Canada to Europe
accounted for 342,681 tons in 1944, which represents a decrease of
about 61 percent from the 882,367 tons in the preceding year. Prac-
tically all of this cargo was transported by British vessels built on the
west coast of North America and sailing on their maiden voyages to
the United Kingdom.
Further details of individual trade routes and commodities are
presented on pages 11 through 20 of this report.
The receipts from tolls as reported to the United States Treasury
for the fiscal year 1944 were $5,473,846.30. This figure includes tolls
on local tolls-paying vessels amounting to $17,682.98 which are not
included in the Canal statistics covering ocean-going commercial
(tolls-paying) traffic. This item, therefore, accounts for the difference
between the tolls receipts reported to the Treasury and the figure for
tolls levied on ocean-going commercial traffic as reported in the follow-
ing studies of traffic which are based on'tolls levied at the time of transit.

CANAL TRAFFIC BY FISCAL YEARS 1915 TO 1944

Comparative traffic statistics covering ocean-going vessels for each
fiscal year since the Canal was opened to navigation are shown in
the following table:
Panama
Fiscal year ended June 30- Number of Canal net Tolls Tons of cargo
transit tonnage

1915 2 ------------ 1,058 3,507,000 $4, 366, 747.13 4,888, 400
19163 -------.. ... .. ---...............---- 724 2,212,000 2,403,089.40 3,093,335
1917 ------------------------------------------ 1,738 5,357,000 5,620,799.83 7.054,720
1918 -... ... ..- -.. ..... -.........-- 1, 89 6,072, 000 6,428,780.26 7,525,768
1919------................-------------.......................----------------------- 1,948 5, 658, 000 6, 164, 290.79 6, 910, 097
1920 .............---------------- -------------------------- 2,393 7,898,000 8,507.938.68 9,372,374
1921 ---------------------------..................--------------- 2,791 10,550,000 11,268, 681.46 11,595,971
1922 ------------------------------------------ 2,665 10, 556, 000 11,191,828.56 10,882,607
1923 .... ......------------------------- ---- .------------- 3,908 17, 206, 000 17, 504,027.19 19,566,429
1924....................................-- 5,158 24, 181, 000 24, 284, 659.92 26, 993,167
1925 -------------------------------......----------- 4,592 21,134,000 21,393,718.01 23,956,549
1926 ................--... -----................ 5, 087 22,906, 000 22, 919. 931.89 26, 030, 016
1927 -.... ......... ....-........... ... .. 5, 293 24, 245, 000 24, 212, 250. 61 27, 733, 555
1928 ---.. .. ...........-- - ..--- 6.253 27,229,000 26.022, 200.75 29, 615,651
1929 .............. ......... .. ..........- 6,289 27,585,000 27,111,125.47 30, 647, 768
1930 -.. ---.... ----..------------- 6,027 27, 716, 000 27, 059, 998. 94 30, 018,429
1931 - .......- 5,370 25, 690, 000 24,624, 599. 76 25,065, 283
1932 .........................................---- 4,362 21,842,000 20,694,704.61 19, 798, 986
1933 .........................----- .........-- 4,162 21,094,000 19,601,077.17 18,161.165
1934 .....................----.... .. 5,234 26,410,000 24,047,183.44 24, 704, 009
1935 ..............-------.....................------------------------- 5,180 25,720,000 23,307,062.93 25, 309, 527
193& ... .- 5,382 25,923,000 23,479,114.21 26,505,943
1937 ...............- -..- .... ...... 5,387 25,430,000 23,102.137.12 28,108,375
1938 --- 5, 5,24 25. 950, 383 23,169, 888. 70 27, 385. 924
1939 -- ---.. --... ---.... 5,003 27,170,007 23,661,021.08 27, 866, 627
1940 ........ ... 5,370 24,144,366 21,144,675.36 27,299,016
1941 ---- -----.--. -----..- 4,727 20, 642.736 18.157, 739.68 24,950,791
1942 ............................ 2,688 11,010,004 9,752, 207.38 13, 607, 444
1943 ----..-. .-- 1,822 8, 233,999 7,356, 684.94 10,599,966
1944 ----------------------..--------------- 1,562 6,073,457 6,456,163.32 7,003,487
Total .............. .....---.------- 120, 586 539, 345, 952 514,914,328.59 582, 251,379
1 Panama Canal net tonnages prior to 1939 are estimated figures based on revised measurement rules
which became effective Mar. 1, 1938. 2 Canal opened to traffic Aug. 15, 1914.
3 Canal closed to traffic approximately 7 months of fiscal year by slides.
683299-46-2







10 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TRAFFIC BY MONTHS-FISCAL YEARS 1944 AND 1943

The ocean-going commercial traffic during each month of the
fiscal year 1944 is summarized in the following table in which are
inserted for comparison the corresponding figures for the preceding
year:

Number of Panama Canal Tons of cargo Tolls
transit net tonnage ons of cargo polls


July -------.-..----
August .-----------
September ..
October ------....
November -----------
December ..----.--
January -------------
February ..----------
March...
April----
May--------------
June------------


1943-44 1942-43 1943-44 1942-43 1943-44 1942-43 1943-44 1942-43

131 129 553, 0901 528,236 580,644 645, 385 $487,843.56 $463,097.60
162 113 668,309 460,666 781,764 567,302 613,079.14 411,701.80
122 120 479, 535 591,941 557, 651 721,421 438,141.76 525,664.44
120 162 433, 307 757, 410 536, 964 1,005,486 391,543. 52 673,820.78
139 146 524,975 599, 273 673, 023 846, 889 466,229.60 536,734.14
102 168 339,018 761,032 350,208 1,021,333 310,272.56 685,880.40
129 151 489,454 733,660 564,602 962, 567 438,784.24 654,032.52
143 150 524, 289 710, 943 585,994 944,635 461,868.58 650,633.26
144 125 499, 661 582, 891 575, 279 767, 679 451,497.84 524,161.96
140 183 608, 747 805, 835 775, 593 1,080,943 542, 748.12 720,445.60
108 179 436,127 853, 676 464,958 1,067,577 395,178.70 760,599.78
122 196 516,134 848,436 556, 807 968, 749 458, 975.70 749,912.66


Total ....-------...--- 1,562 1,822 6,073,457 8,233,999 7,003,487 10, 599, 966 5,456,163.32 7,356,684.94
Average per month--- 130 152 506,121 686,167 583, 624 883, 331 454,680.27 613,057.07


NATIONALITY OF VESSELS TRANSITING CANAL

Segregation of the ocean-going commercial traffic through the
Canal during the fiscal year 1944, by nationality, is presented in the
following table, which shows transits, measurement tonnage, tolls and
tons of cargo:

Ocean-going commercial traffic through the Panama Canal during the fiscal year 1944,
by nationality of vessels

Measured tonnage
Number Tons of
Nationality of Registered Tolls cargo
transits Panama _argo
Canal net
Gross Net

Argentine- -------------- 1 3,461 4,940 2,816 $3,114.90 5,900
Brazilian------------ -- 2 3,224 4,635 3,085 2,901.60 3,950
British.. ----------- 478 2,295,985 3,089,304 1,871,554 2,205,346.88 2,406,886
Chilean --- -----. 74 190,174 242, ?57 149,099 170,938.62 289,170
Danish ----. 2 14,534 19,646 12,470 13,080.60 21,033
Free French --- --. 1 (2) (5) (5) 370.00 ....---
Honduran ---- 37 49,032 84,009 48,098 40,094.10 36,344
Mexican .... .--. 5 8,500 12,577 7,749 8,375.00 16,905
Netherland --- ---------- 301 290,686 310,161 165, 729 253,368.00 268,595
Norwegian -.. --- ---- 70 347,411 420,175 249,626 294,314.94 342,937
Panamanian--. ------------ 71 128,121 184, 399 110,824 108, 479.16 142,178
Peruvian .--------- 5 8,900 12, 645 7,237 8,010.00 10, 831
Polish .----------------------.... 1 5,117 7,001 5,121 4,605.30 7,782
Soviet ...........------ ------- ---- 10 30, 342 41,938 25, 880 27, 307. 80 50, 336
United States ---------------- 485 2,654,456 3,554,244 2,167,031 2,278, 908.18 3,352,866
Uruguayan ------------..-. 5 18,910 19,061 11,595 17,019.00 25,625
Venezuelan -- 14 24,604 41,124 2, 488 19,929,24 22,149
Totals:
1944 1,562 6, 073,457 8,048, 116 4,862,402 5,456, 163.32 7,003,487
1943 1, 822 8,233, 999 10, 873, 750 6, 578, 130 7, 356, 684. 94 10, 599, 966
1942.. 2,688 11,010,004 14,759, 299 8,742,192 9, 752, 207.38 13, 607, 444

I Ocean-going commercial traffic includes only tolls-paying vessels of 300 or more net tons, Panama Canal
measurement, or 500 or more displacement tons. 2 Displacement tonnage.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


VESSELS PAYING TOLLS ON DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE

In the Canal traffic statistics, foreign naval vessels such as trans-
ports, supply ships, tankers, etc., with a measurement of 300 net tons
(Panama Canal measurement) or more, and vessels of war, dredges,
etc., with a displacement of 500 tons or more, are classified as ocean-
going commercial tolls-paying vessels. Statistics on these vessels,
except as relate to displacement tonnage, have been included in the
traffic summaries shown on the preceding pages. Displacement,
tonnage cannot be combined with net tonnage, and the following table
presents by nationality statistics covering 58 vessels of war which
transited the Canal during the fiscal year 1944 and paid tolls on dis-
placement tonnage:


Number Displace-
Nationality transit ment Tolls
Stransits tonnage

British ---- ---- 56 347, 485 $173, 742.5(
Free French........................----------------------------------------------- 1 740 370.00
Mexican .. ........... ----- ------------- 1 1,450 725.00
Total-------------. ------------------------------- 58 349, 675 174,837.50


CARGO SHIPMENTS BY TRADE ROUTES

The following tables present, by direction of movement, cargo
tonnage passing through the Canal over various trade routes, together
with the principal commodities making up these shipments, for the
past three fiscal years. In using these tables it is important to bear
in mind that these data include only cargo carried by commercial
vessels, and that during the fiscal year 1944, 40 percent of the cargo
passing through the Canal was carried by tolls-free vessels and
accordingly is not included in these statistics. It should also be noted
that data on the origin and destination of cargo for the fiscal year 1944
are not strictly comparable with those for prior years, as explained on
page 7 of this report.








12 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942


East coast United States to-
West coast United States.-----------.-........--------.-..
West coast Central America -..------------------------........
West coast South America --- --------------------........
East coast South America (via Strait of Magellan).--------
Hawaiian Islands ---.------. ---------. -..--...-....-- ---
Australasia ---------------------------------------- -------
Africa.--.---------... ---...- ....------------------
Philippine Islands -------------- ---------------.-..---
Asia-------- ----.-----------------.-.- .. ....
Balboa, C. Z---- .......---------------------
High seas (destination unknown) --------------------.....
Other territories--------------------------------------..-
Total from east coast United States ----------------------......

East coast Canada to-
Australasia----------------------------------------------........
Asia---- -....- .... ...-- ............------. ---------
Other territories -------------------------------------......
Total from east coast Canada-.----------.-- .......---

From east coast Central America/Mexico, total ---------------
East coast South America to-
West coast United States ----------------- -----
Other territories-----------.------------.-.-.............
Total from east coast South America-..--------.------

Cristobal, C. Z., to-
West coast Central America -... --------. ----- --..-
West coast South America---- ------------------
Other territories-------------------------------........--
Total from Cristobal---------------.. ------ --------..

West Indies to-
West coast South America-------------------------- -.. -
West coast Central America-..-------------.- ...
Balboa, O. Z....--------- ----...- .-
Australasia .-----------.-------.--------.-.- .. ..
Africa --------------------- --------
High seas (destination unknown).---------.-.......-....
Other territories...--------------------.-----------........
Total from West Indies --......-----------------.... .

Europe to-
Australasia .----------------------------------------------
West coast South America ------------------------------
Asia .--- -------------------.--------- -- ---- -- ...-----..
All other territories --------------------------------
Total from Europe---------------- ----- ....

From Asia, total-...- ..........----------------------------
Total cargo, Atlantic to Pacific........................---------------------


704
16, 215
515,190
51, 394
9,493
903,626
81,353

216, 923
8, 531
4,194


6,563
226,184
54, 284
259, 290
883, 976
1,493,388
47, 784
670,580


949,610
37,134
542,328
108, 852
534,449

123, 173
490,654
138,810
- - - -


1,807, 623 3, 642,049 2,925,010

17,283 33,047 124,518
----.---...-- 38,347 3,697
...-------...... 24,394 7,440

17,283 95,788 135,655
3,584 4,098 26,303

..----- ....... ----- .------- 125,796
35,117 10,810 45,980
35,117 10,810 171,776

13, 482 8, 842 51,801
13, 293 6, 608 83, 376
4, 501 31,039 12,575
31,276 46,489 147,752

16,235 11,897 131,329
59, 901 16, 324 78, 120
713, 684 459,083 197,566
300,210 21,488 188,530
100, 589 135,254 .............
------.------ 86,004 66,197
39,741 15, 925 25,515
1,230,360 745,975 687,257

203,370 316, 548 361,310
25, 736 42, 834 49, 305
.-------.-- 26,188 143,449
14,488 23,309


229,106


3, 354, 349


400,058


4,945,267


577,373
13,796
4,684,922








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


TOTAL CARGO SHIPMENTS-PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC
[Tons of 2,240 pounds

Fiscal year


West coast United States/Canada to-
East coast United States ----- ---------------.--- ---
Cristobal, Canal Zone -------------------------. -----
West Indies.. ------------------------------ -
Europe ..---------------------------------
East coast South America.. -----------------------
Egypt --.
Africa (other than Egypt) ... .................
Asia ----------------------------------------------------
High seas (destination unknown).......------------------------
Other territories ---------------...................----------------------------

Total from west coast North America ..........-------------------

West coast Central America/Mexico to-
United States --------------------------------------------
Other territories-------------------------------------------

Total from west coast Central America/Mexico ----------

West coast South America to-
East coast United States.------- ---------------
Cristobal, C. Z..............---------------------------------------
West Indies ------------------ ..-----------
Europe. ..-----------------------------------------------
High seas (destination unknown)............ -----------------------........
Other territories -------------------------------- ---

Total from west coast South America ..............---------------

From Balhoa, C. Z., total -- --- ----------------

Hawaiian Islands to east coast United States--- -----------
(No other cargo shipments from Hawaiian Islands.).

Australasia to-
East coast United States...----------------------------
East coast Canada ------------------------ --
Europe---- . ---- -- -- --- -
Other territories..-------------- -----------------

Total from Australasia------------- ------------

Philippine Islands to-
East coast United States. ------------.----------- --
Other territories-----------------------------------.--- -

Total from Philippine Islands..-...-------------------------

Asia to-
East coast United States.- -
Europe... --------------- -----------. ------------
Other territories------------------------------------------

Total from Asia--------------------- -------------

East coast South America (via Strait of Magellan) to-
East coast United States ...---------------------.......................
Europe .... ---------------------------- ----------
Other territories .---------....- ._.-.....- -----...--..-

Total from east coast South America---------------------

Africa to-
East coast United States -----.----- ----------
Europe -----------------.-------------------. -------
Other territories---------------------------------------------

Total from Africa ......--- ------------. ----------. ..

High seas to-
High seas----------.-. ----------------..-..-
Other territories.---................-------------------.................
Total from high seas......-----.....-- ............--

Grand total, Pacific to Atlantic------------..............


1944


67,410

31,157
342,681
2,450

15,726
--------------
--------------
------ --------


1943


17,103
142,287
86,448
882,367



20,69--------------
-----.---------
--------------

--------------


1942


1,018,377
22, 354
76,831
541,046
78,028
21,013
35,987
48,307
17,297


459,424 1, 148,374 1,859,240


10,198 7,366 54,210
27,683 7, 962 25, 451


37, 881


1,327,140
69,411
36,288
71,331

14, 570

1, 518,749

8,809

11,189


91,546

998,930
936

1,091,412

------------



393,7----------


393, 237


95,852
4, 161


15,328

1,304, 555
67,239
64,692
93, 226
62,521
10, 255

1,602,488

3

93,428


230,018
9,128
1, 163, 244
1,427

1,403,817


-------------
--------- -



671, 665
99,735
11,480

782 880


176, 738
119,228
10,542


79, 661


2,652, 242
90,772
115,040
221,554

52, 634

3,132,242

7,825

222,258


392,668
98,467
1,403,106
4,253

1,898,494

404,754
6,226

410,980


896,426
395,221
20,175

1,311,822


- - - -


100,013 306,508 ...------

........-....-- 237,956 ------....
--....-------- 33,224 .--.--.
---...----- 10,078 --------

-..-----. --- 281,258 .--.--.--


26,392 20,615
2,032 ..............
28,424 20,615 ............
3, 049. 138 5, 054. 099I 8,9252


3,649,138


5.654.699 8.922.522







14 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942


East coast United States to west coast United States:
Canned goods, various ............----------------..
Iron and steel manufactures --.......----.--..------------.
Lubricating oils and greases.------------------------------.
Paper and paper products ............------------------------
Sulphur -------------......-----------------------.................................
All other and unclassified---------------------------.................
Total this trade route-...................................
East coast United States to west coast Central America. (No
single outstanding commodity in this trade.)
East coast United States to west coast South America:
Coal... .---- .. .. ...- .. ......---.----------------------
Iron and steel manufactures.............---------------------
Lubricating oil and greases --------------- .-- ..---
Machinery --------------------------------------
Paper and paper products----- ------ -- -.---. .
All other and unclassified -----------------------
Total this trade route ..... .-------------------..
East coast United States to east coast South America (via Ma-
gellan Strait):
Coal-----..-------- ----- -. -----. .-----
All other and unclassified ... ----- ----
Total this trade route -----------... --.......-- ..- ----
East coast United States to Hawaiian Islands:
Ammonium compounds-.......-...........---.-......-
Explosives ---..-..-------.-. -....
Iron and steel manufactures.........---------.---------------
All other and unclassified -----------------
Total this trade route --------------------------------
East coast United States to Australasia:
Automobiles and accessories.. --------------
Iron and steel manufactures -------------------------------
Machinery --------------------------------------------
M ineral oils------------------------------------------------
Paper and paper products -------------------------------
Phosphates.------------------------ -- ------------
Sulphur.... .. .......---------------------
Tinplate....... -------------- -----------------
War materials, unclassified ------------------------------
All other and unclassified --
Total this trade route ..-----------------------------------
East coast United States to Africa,
Ammunition.....-- ------.---------.---------- --------.. ..
Automobiles and accessories -------------------------------
Canned goods, various -----------------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures ------------------------------
Machinery ..................--------------------
Mineral oils.......------------------.........--------------.............
Ordnance, except ammunition -- -----------------
Railroad material..............-------- -----------------------
War materials, unclassified .... --------------------
All other and unclassified ----------------------------------
Total this trade route -------------......... --------------


East coast United States to Philippine Islands:
Mineral oils .....................------.------------------- --------------
Iron and steel manufactures ------------------------------- ------ -------
All other and unclassified-......... ------ .-- .- --------------
Total this trade route-....-.....------------ --------------


704 -


57, 145
316,090
69, 493
45, 587
42, 985
418, 310


704 -------- .. 949, 610



39, 866 36, 592 77, 592
70, 807 32, 303 104, 703
8,343 12,000 32,796
17, 042 12,191 24,639
1, 835 13, 732 21, 803
377, 297 119, 366 280,795
515, 190 226,184 542.328


8,087 14,717 ----
43, 307 39,567 -
51,394 54,284 ---------

. .. .. -- ......------ 14,480
4,300 ---------- -------
-- ------------ 22,633
5,193 ---------- 71,739
9,493 ------------- 108,852

22,669 19,226 34,911
17.980 31,703 28,329
9, 648 10, 658 13, 278
115,966 38,652 163,978
26,672 7,302 1,679
84,028 58 36
95, 523 21,665 72, 359
44,719 17,046 84,669
52, 428 8, 737 ------------.
433, 993 104, 243 135, 210
903, 626 259, 290 534,449


3, 200
4,589
2,043
3,489
--------------
7, 513
60, 519
81,353


52,779 ----------..
45,537 ----------
17,701 ------.----..
105,560 -----..........
14,214 .------..-
275,565 ---- --
14,513 .---------
11,591 -----.. --
156,090 ----....
190, 426 -----
883, 976 ...-...-

------.-..---- 23,705
-------------- 11,531
------........ 87,937
------ 123,173








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


East coast United States to Asia:
Alcohol, technical. ----------------- --------------------
Ammunition-------------------..--- ...- -----------
Automobiles and accessories---- -- ...-- ..-----
Beans, edible--------...... ------------
Canned goods, various ..------- ----- --- -
Chemicals, unclassified ---------------------------------
Cotton, raw --- ..................... .... .....-... ....-
Explosives---------------------------------------- -----
Flour------------------- ----- ------------------
Government stores------ --------- --------------
Iron and steel manufactures ..----. ....--------..
Machinery -------------------------------------------
M ineral oils.-------------------------------- . ..
Ordnance, except ammunition -------------------------
Paper and paper products......---......... .... ..----------
Railroad material------------- ------- --------
Tinplate --------------------------------------------......
War materials, unclassified -
Wheat ------------.............. ................. -----------
All other and unclassified .--------------------------- -.
Total this trade route ------------------....--------------
East coast United States to Balboa:
Cement------------------------------------..----------
Mineral oils----------------------------- .------.---
All other and unclassified-------------------------------
Total this trade route.------------------- ---... _

East coast Canada to Australasia:
Automobiles and accessories -------------------------------
Paper-------------. ------------.-.. --...- .......-- .--- .
All other and unclassified----------------------------------
Total this trade route ---------------...-------------.-
East coast Canada to Asia. (No single outstanding commodity
in this trade)
East coast South America to west coast United States:
Canned meat------------..---- -----..------------
Coffee-----------------. ------------------ -
Fertilizers ------------------------------..-....---------
Oilseeds------------------------------------ ----------.
Vegetable oils --- . .-----------------------------.. ...
All other and unclassified-------------------------------
Total this trade route ----------------------------
Cristobal to west coast Central America. (No single outstand-
ing commodity in this trade.)
Cristobal to west coast South America. (No single outstand-
ing commodity in this trade.)
West Indies to west coast South America:
Mineral oils---------------------------------------- --.
All other and unclassified -------------.-..- ........----
Total this trade route--.-------............----------------.......
West Indies to west coast Central America:
Mineral oils --------------.............
All other and unclassified --... --------------.......-...-
Total this trade route --..............-----------....----...........
West Indies to Balboa, C. Z.:
M ineral oils -----------------------------.---... ---_-.. ..
All other and unclassified-------.------------- -........
Total this trade route ----..-........................


1944


11,591
2, 401







7,115
94,764




101,052

216,923


8,531
- - - - - - -


Fiscal year

1943 1942


68,156
152,477
12, 288
61,522
10, 534
26,300
29, 538
87, 794
201,361
43,366
68, 044
40, 231
5,958
34, 556
5, 936
420,413
13,026
211,888
1,493,388

1,450
43,062
3, 272


42,967
5
17,392
12,042
14,197
13,190
13,259
114,939
12,783
48, 395
44. 628
3, 966
17,384

135, 507

490,654

35,674
63,529
39, 607


8,531 47,784 138,810

2, 696 2, 329 36, 430
6,808 5,231 53,323
7, 779 25, 487 34, 765

17,283 33,047 124,518



--- ---.. 8,361
------.. --- ---- 24,611
------.--.....-- -...... 26, 439
..- ------ -..- -.... 25, 196
--..--...----. ....---- --- 16,335
-------- --. ------.. ...... 24,854

------.--.--.- --.-..-....... 125,796





----------- 10,554 128,371
16,235 1,343 2,958
16,235 11,897 131,329

58,257 16,324 74,992
1,644 .............. 3,128


59,901

707,734
5,950
713,684


16, 324 78, 120

446, 811 197,515
12,272 51
459, 083 197,566








16 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


West Indies to Australasia:
Asphalt -----------------------------------------
Mineral oils ------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified-.....-.--------------------------

Total this trade route --------...........---------------------

West Indies to Africa: Mineral oils-............................
(No other commodities in this trade.)
Europe to Australasia:
Ammunition .--.--__---___---_ ----..-.........-
Chemicals, unclassified -------. ---------------
Explosives -------------------------------------------------
Glass and glassware --------.... ------------------
Government stores----------------------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures -.. ..---------------------
Machinery------------------------------------------------
Ordnance, except ammunition ----- ...-- .... ..--------
Salt ----------...............------------------------------------
Soda and sodium compounds ---------------------------
Tinplate -----------------...-------------------------..
War materials, unclassified ----------------------------
All other and unclassified ..----------------------------

Total this trade route ----------------------------------

Europe to west coast South America:
Chemicals, unclassified--------------------------------
All other and unclassified -------------.......--- ....

Total this trade route ----------------------.------------.............

Europe to Asia:
Cement ..........----------------------...............-----------------
Explosives ------------------------------------------
Iron and steel manufactures -----------------------------
Machinery-----------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified.-------------------------------


Total this trade route------------------------------- I---------


Fiscal year


1943


21,484
4


1942


20,128
168,362
40


300, 210 21,488 188, 530

100, 589 135, 254 .-...--.....-


4,940
864

7, 276
4,738
6, 084
3,400
5, 417
3,807
166,844


28,127
15,806
9,638
3,997
21,106
23,191
19,785
14, 641
27, 563
27,922
190
15,073
109, 509


7,232
25,305
13,988
12,832
27,861
39,789
2,786
22,961
11,052
21,515
175, 989


203,370 316,548 361,310

.--------- 14, 997 25, 305
25, 736 27, 837 24, 000

25,736 42,834 49,305

----.........--.... 15 19,114
-------- 24 11,492
3,464 16,040
- - - 11,150 9,021
--------- 11,535 87,782


26,188


143,449


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


West coast United States/Canada to east coast United States:
Beans, edible....................----------------------.----------
Canned goods, various ---------------------------
Flour -----...---------------
Fruit, dried-.. ---------------- -----...... ------------
Lumber..........----------......................................-------------------------------
Mineral oils---- ---- -----------------------
Molasses-.--------------.----...--------------------------
Ores.--......- .. ..---.----- ----------------. ---------.
Papers. .. .---.....---............-------------------..---
Woodpulp ------------------------------------------------
Wheat
All other and unclassified......-..........................

Total this trade route....................................-


Fiscal year


1944


2, 245
3,334
--------------
7,989




49,061
4,781


..............
.....-........
|.......-----



----------.-..
.-...........-


1942


18, 495
294, 698
25,855
49, 930
423,448
60, 724
14,861
18,027
16,137
10,112
248
85, 842


67,410---7,103- 1,018,377


67,410 17,103


1,018,377







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year


West coast United States/Canada to Cristobal, C. Z.:
Mineral oils.----------------..-------------------
All other-...-.........-----------------------..-------------
Total this trade route......----..............--------------

West coast United States/Canada to West Indies:
Canned goods, various..............-------------.......--------------
Flour---- ---------------------------------------
Lumber- .------------------------------------------
Mineral oils--..--..................--------------------------------
Rice -----.-----------------.-----------------------
All other and unclassified.....------------------------..
Total this trade route.----........----..........----------------..

West coast United States/Canada to Europe:
Borax--.-------------------- ------------------------
Canned goods, various----------..............-------------------.....
Chemicals, unclassified------------..................---------------
Cotton -.....-- ---... ..-------.----.----.----------
Fruit, dried -....---------- -------------------------
Grains, other than wheat .-----.-----------------------
Lead, metal------------------------------------------
Lumber --------------------------------------
Phosphates ------------------------ -----------
Wheat ----------------------------------------
Woodpulp -------------------------------------
Zinc, metal ...------------------------------------
All other and unclassified --------.. ----------------
Total this trade route......------..............--------------........
West coast United States/Canada to east coast South America:
Lumber ---------------------- ------------------
Metals, copper and lead --------- ---------------
Woodpulp --------------------------------------
All other and unclassified -----------------------------
Total this trade route.------------------------

West coast United States/Canada to Egypt:
Lumber -----------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified------ ------------------.-
Total this trade route .......-- -----------------------

West coast United States/Canada to Africa (other than Egypt):
Lumber----------- --------------------------------
All other and unclassified ------ ----------------------
Total this trade route -..............- ----------
West coast United States/Canada to Asia:
Lumber ..---------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified -------- -----------------
Total this trade route.............-------------------------------
West coast Central America/Mexico to east coast United States:
Bananas --------------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified ---------- -------------
Total this trade route ........---------------------------
West coast South America to east coast United States:
Beans, edible ----------------------------------- -----
Cocoa and cocoa beans ------------------------------
Coffee ------------------ ---------- ------------- -
Copper, metal ------- ---------------------------------
Lead, metal -------- ------------------------..---
Mineral oils -------------........--------------------------------
Nitrate ---------------------------------------
Ore, iron.... ----------------------------------
Ore, other than iron ------.. ------...----------------


1944


1943 1942


129, 831
12, 456
142,287


9, 351
13,003
22,354


------ 10,622 19,566
-- 10, 8 2, 85
22, 221 10,703 26,146
-------------- -------.- 9,366
28,665 2,427
8,936 25,567 16,741
31,157 86,448 76,831

18,339 11,879
25,420 22,358 94, 320
49 13,817 11,3I1
20, 429 9,753
1,708 3,183 32,124
----10,697 1,766
34,205 92,982 80,573
200, 524 435,884 141,024
12,300 13,111 ..-...........----
4,076 60,334 13,688
3, 260 42, 149 68, 639
13,020 71,444 24,069
48,119 77,640 51,880
342,681 882,367 541,046

------ 15,095
12,481
1,800 -------------- 11,128
650 ------------ 39,324
2,450 --------- 78,028

------- 17,657
-. .---------- --. ------ 3,356
---------- ------------ 21,013

12,882 ---------- 30, 993
2,844 ------- 4,994
15,726 ----------- 35,987

-- 31,357
--------. ------------ 16,950
-------- ------------ 48,307

9, 546 7, 366 52, 844
652 -------------- 1,366


10,198

7,768
2,600
80,801
459,915
25,920
14, 417
416, 211
---- 65---------
78, 650


7, 366 54,210

1,149 21,724
10,312 4,601
90,628 32,594
261,989 349,189
16,764 27,468
46,298 --------
607,496 592,437
44,760 1,204,696
149,319 214,002







18 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIc-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year


West coast South America to east coast United States-Con.
Rice ......
Sugar-----------
Wool.. ........... ..
All other and unclassified--- .......
Total this trade route.......................
West coast South America to Cristobal, C. Z.:
Coffee ---------..
All other and unclassified --._
Total this trade route --------_-- -----.....-----.
West coast South America to West Indies:
Mineral oils----
Nitrate--
Rice---.........
All other and unclassified -----------------...----
Total this trade route---.--------. ...
West coast South America to Europe:
Cotton
Mineral oils-_ -
Nitrate............ ..
Ores, various- .....
All other and unclassified.. .......
Total this trade route .... ....... ......
Hawaiian Islands to east coast United States:
Canned fruit ....
Molasses-- ..
Sugar -........... .... . . . .
All other and unclassified
Total this trade route ...... ... .....
Australasia to east coast United States:
Food products, refrigerated ........-........ .
Lead, metal
Ores, various
Sand.........
Sugar........ ------- --------------
Tallow...........
Skins and hides ---- -
Wool .............
All other and unclassified .......................
Total this trade route. -.---------------------........ .
Australasia to east coast Canada:
Fruit, dried ........
Sugar-.----... . .
Wool ...........
All other and unclassified.............................

Total this trade route...------........................
Australasia to Europe:
Canned goods, various ------. -..--
Dairy products-.....---
Flour, wheat ---....... -..... .. ........ ...... ..... ...
Fruit, dried.------............ ......_....-----------------
Tron and steel manufactures--.
Lead, metal -...... --......... ..... ... .. ..... ..... ....
Meat, refrigerated -... ....... .................. -.. ...
Ore, other than zinc_------. - - -- -
Sugar ....
Tallow...
Wheat ....
Wool -------------


1944


32,107
9,131
199, 629


1943


289
1,541
11,568
62,442


1942


2,149
93, 675
9,327
100,381


1,327,149 1,304, 555 2,652, 242

41,737 25,493 50,959
27,674 41,746 39,813
69,411 67,239 90,772

12, 400 24,439
-------------- 11,969 48,896
-------------. 19,662 14,818
36, 288 20, 661 26, 887

36,228 64,692 115, 040

12,347 8,049 8,676
-.- -....------ 47,532
16,864 6,526 149,654
23,877 24, 033 49, 791
18, 243 7, 086 13, 433
71,331 93,226 221,554

---..----.------ ------- 73,430
--------- ------------- 12,299
10,489 93,428 133,662
700 --------- 2,867
11,189 93, 428 222, 258

---------- 1,887 13,176
1,800 16,086 30,977
48,585 80,505 107,949
1,863 18,105 21,092
15,638 2,090
705 1,491 13,411
715 4,622 33,498
18, 053 81,429 133,008
19,825 10,255 37,467
91,546 230,018 392, 668

3,911 12,296
- -...-.- ...--- .----- .------ 45, 258
------------- 971 19,414
..----.- --- 4, 246 21,499
.------------ 9,128 98,467


5,155
208,844
35,331

66, 404
277,367
3, 012

17, 676
100, 710


40,084
299,479
24,066
34,521
2,002
65, 456
269, 794
13.808
14.357
290.697
151,789
61,547


60,851
273,920
3,993
21,451
19,877
99,129
369,346
14,292
83,012
53, 553
I15,864
106, 849








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 19


IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-
PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued

[Tons of 2,240 pounds]


Australasia to Europe-Continued
Zinc, ore ---------------------------------------------------
Zinc, metal ..............................-----------------------------
Zinc, ore... .. .... ...... ................ ............
All other and unclassified -..-- --------

Total this trade route .-----.---------------------------

Philippine Islands to east coast United States:
Chrome ore -----------------------------------------------
Coconuts--------------------------------------------------
Coconut oil------------------------------------------------
Copra -----------------------------------------------------
Hemp, unmanufactured -----------------------------------
Manganese ore -------------------------------------------
Ores, other than chrome and manganese -------------------
Sugar ------..----------..------------------ ----....
All other and unclassified -- ----------------------

Total this trade route ------------ --------

Asia to east coast United States:
Bags and bagging ..-.- --------- ---------------
Copra ............------------ ... .....--------
Hemp, unmanufactured -------------- --------------
Jute, unmanufactured ----------------------------------
Manganese ore--------------------------------------------
Ores, other than manganese--------------------------------
Rubber, raw --.........---------------------------------
Sago flour ------..-----.-------.---.-----.--------. --
Skins and hides .------------------------------------------
Spices ---------------- ----------------------------------
Tea -.-... ..---- .. --.-.....-.- .............
Textiles --------------------------------------------------
Tin, metal-.....----.-.-.----------------------------------
Vegetable oils ----------.--------------------------
All other and unclassified --------------------------------

Total, this trade route----------------------------------

Asia to Europe:
Copra -...----------......------.........---------------------
Nuts, edible------------.----------------------------------
Oilseeds ------------.....--------.......------------------.......------
Ores, various -------.------.------------------------------
Rubber, raw...-.......- ..----- .........-------------------
Sugar -------------------....... .....-----......
Tea ------.--.--------.- --.------------. --------------
Vegetable oils ---------------------------------------------
All other and unclassified --------------------------------

Total, this trade route ..---------------------------------...

East coast South America to east coast United States:
Meat, canned ----------------------------------------------
Ores, various --------------------------------------------.
Quebracho extract -----------------------------------------
Skins and hides.-------------------------------------------
Wool -.- --------- -. ---...---.- --------
All other and unclassified ---------------------------------

Total, this trade route ......-------------------------

East coast South America to Europe:
Meat, canned ----------------.---..----------------------
Meat, refrigerated ------------------------------...................
All other and unclassified ----------------------------------

Total, this trade route--------------------------------

I Zinc metal and ore-no hreak-dowu for 1944.


Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942


1 {9 3,5 J 10, 153 10,861
I 92, 365 69, 818 73, 843
192, 066 76, 673 96, 265


998, 930













72, 813
6,657
1, 100

212, 691
10, 840
515


16, 241


64, 549

393, 237
----- -- ---
- - - - -- ---
--- ----------


-------------


















798
I,000
7, 413
10, 631
7,571
68,439


95, 852

3,798
-.--------- -
363
4,161


1,163,244


112,366
29,312
3,216
90,856
251,016
25, 476
20, 809

11, 989
1,177
28, 503
12, 245
--------5:----
20,946
63,754

671,665


20,803
16, 647
8,641
2,570

18,6590
32, 415

99,735

22,277
44, 696
28, 419
21, 116
22, 576
37,574


176,738

28, 847
58,088
32, 293

119, 228


1, 403,106

77, 125
19,389
59, 370
31,809
42, 776
22, 457
10,443
119,024
22, 361

404, 754

22
40, 743
1, 284
62, 492
36,046
452, 318
41,028
4,592
15,073
15,048
1,315
55,885
55,181
115,399

896, 42e

73, 69

11, 114
71,348
97, 875
9.555
47,027
84, 604

395,221


I-






20 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

IMPORTANT COMMODITY SHIPMENTS OVER PRINCIPAL TRADE ROUTES-

PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC-Continued
[Tons of 2,240 pounds]

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Africa to east coast United States:
Lumber.....-----------------------.........-...................---------------------- -- 13,700 ------
Ores, various.-. ------ ------. --------------------- ---------- --- 173,083 .. -------.
Sisal fibre-.......-- -- .. ........------------------------------------ -----. ------ 15,247 -
All other and unclassified-........-....---.-------....--------.-----------------.. 35,926 ..
Total, this trade route ---..........-------.---.------..------------................---..-........---------- 237,956 .............
Africa to Europe. (No single outstanding commodity in this
trade.)

CLASSIFICATION OF VESSELS BETWEEN LADEN AND BALLAST TRAFFIC
The following table summarizes the ocean-going commercial (tolls-
paying) traffic through the Canal during the fiscal year 1944 segre-
gated between laden ships and those in ballast as well as between
tankers, ore ships, passenger ships, general cargo ships, and those not
designed to carry cargo, and also between vessels of United Sttes
registry and those of all other nationalities:









Classification


CARGO AND CARGO-PASSENGER SHIPS
Tank ships, laden:
Number of transits-...........--- ... ......................
Panama Canal net tonnage------------------.......... ..
Tolls............... __...................
Cargo (tons)--------------------------------------------...
Tank ships, ballast:
Number of transits-----------....... .......
Panama Canal net tonnage.. .. ............................
Tolls-------.................................
Ore ships (no transits in 1944).
Passenger ships, laden:
Number of transits ------------------.--------....--..........
Panama Canal net tonnage---.... ---------------- .-
Tolls...........................................
Cargo (tons)-.--------------...... ....................
Passenger ships, ballast:
Number of transits ----- -------------........-.. ...-
Panama Canal net tonnage.-----------.....
Tolls ......................
General cargo ships, laden:
Number of transits---- .............
Panama Canal net tonnage--- ----------------
Tolls-- ....................- --
Cargo (tons)-...-----l. ---------------------- --...--------
General cargo ships, ballast:
Number of transits.---..- .............. ..
Panama Canal net tonnage ....
Tolls--..........................

OTHER TYPE SHIPS
Naval vessels:
Number of transits ------ .. ..
Displacement tonnage...----
T olls .. ............ .-. .
Derrick barges, salvage ships, and cable repair ships:
Number of transits-- --------- ---- .......
Panama Canal net tonnage ----
Tolls .. .........


Vessels of Uisired States registry Vessels of foreign registry Total traffic


Atlantic to
Pacific




73
518, 634
$466, 771
989,089

------......



1
6,107
$5, 496
6, 300




104
466, 575
$419, 918
680,115
3
15, 192
$10, 938


3
1, 836
$1,322


Pacific to
Atlantic




1
4, 707
$4, 236
2,000

75
542, 824
$390,833

2
20, 595
$18, 536
7,510

------------

207
1, 021,023
$919, 845
1,667,852
13
56, 039
$40, 348


--I___ -___


Total Atlantic to Pacific to
Pacific Atlantic


74
523, 341
$171, 007
991, 089
75
542, 824
$390,833

3
26, 702
$24, 032
13, 810




311
1, 487, 598
$1,339, 763
2,347,967
16
71, 231
$51,286


6
2, 760
$1, 987


46
214, 954
$193, 458
413,438
2
2,737
$1,971

45
177, 249
$159, 524
135, 959
1
630
$454
292
1,040,293
$936, 263
1,129,448
95
122, 771
$88,395


5
7,419
$3,710
1
623
$561


2
18, 241
$16, 417
26,242
57
271, 759
$195, 666

50
200, 501
$180, 451
203, 766

1
630
$454
412
1,351,610
$1, 216, 449
1,741,778
12
15, 575
$11, 214


53
342, 256
$171, 128

3
1,428
$1,140


Total Atlantic to
Total Pacific


48
233,195
$209,875
439,680

59
274,496
$197, 637

95
377, 750
$339,975
339, 715
2
1, 260
$908

704
2, 391, 903
$2,152, 712
2,871,226
107
138,346
$99, 609


119
733, 588
$660, 229
1,402, 527
2
2, 737
$1, 971

46
183,356
$165,020
142, 259
1
630
$454

396
1,506,868
$1,356,181
1,809,563

98
137, 963
$99, 333


58 5
349, 675 7, 419
$174,838 $3,710

4 4
2,051 2,459
$1,701 $1,883


Pacific to Total
Atlantic


3
22, 948
$20,653
28,242
132
814, 583
$586, 499

52
221,096
$198,987
211,266
1
630
$454
619
2,372,633
$2, 136, 294
3,409,630

25
71, 614
$51, 562


53
342, 256
$171,128

6
2,352
$1,805


122 M
756, 536
$680, 882
1,430,769 -

134 C
817, 320 O
$588, 470 "

98
404, 452 O
$364, 007
353, 525
2 '
1.260 3
$908
1,015
3,879, 501
$3,492,475
5,219,193
123
209,577
$150,895 -


58
349,675 >
$174,838 -'
10
4,811
$3, 688


Vessels of United States registry


Vessels of foreign registry


Total traffic










Classification


SUMMARY

Total cargo and cargo-passenger shlps, laden:
Number of transits --------.---------------------------------
Panama Canal net tonnage -----------------------------------
Tolls ....--- .- .---------------------------- -- --
Cargo (tons) --. ----------------------
Total cargo and cargo-passenger ships, ballast:
Number of transits -------------------------------------------
Panama Canal net tonnage-----------------------------------
Tolls ---------.. ----------------------------------
Total other type ships:
Number of transits ....-...----------------------------------
Panama Canal net tonnage ----------------------------------............
Displacement tonnage ------------------------------------
Tolls....------------------------------------
Grand total ships:
Number of transits ...... -------------------------------
Panama Canal net tonnage -----------------------------------
Displacement tonnage -.---------------------.-------
Tolls.. ...(------- ------------------------ ----
Cargo (tons). ---... -------....... ------ -.-. ...-------- ..---------..


Vessels of United States registry


Vessels of foreign registry


__________________ _________________ ____________________________________ -- -i


Atlantic to Pacific to Total
Pacific Atlantic


178
991,316
$892, 185
1,675,504
3
15, 192
$10, 938
3
1,836
$1,-322-


210
1,046,325
$942,617
1,677,362
88
598, 863
$431, 181
3
924
...$665


181 301
1,008, 344 1,646,112


388
2,037,641
$1,834,802
3, 352, 866
91
614, 055
$442, 119

6
2, 760
$1,987

485
2, 654, 456


$904, 445 $1,6374, 463 $2, 278, 908
1, 675, 504 1, 677, 362 3,352, 866


Atlantic to
Pacific




383
1,432, 496
$1,289,245
1, 678, 845
98
126, 138
$90, 820
6
623
7, 419
$4, 271
487
1, 559, 257
7, 419
$1,384, 336
1, 678, 845


Pacific to
Atlantic




464
1,570,352
$1,413,317
1,971, 776
70
287, 964
$207, 334
56
1,428
342, 256
$172, 268
590
1,859, 744
342, 256
$1,792,919
1,971, 776


Total


847
3,002,848
$2, 702, 562
3,650,621.

168
414,102
$298,154

62
2, 051
349, 675
$176, 539

1,077
3,419, 001
349, 675
$3,177, 255
3, 650, 621


Total traffic


Atlantic to Pacific to
Pacific Atlantic


561
2, 423,812
$2, 181,430
3,354,349
101
141,330
$101, 758

9
2,459
7, 419
$5, 593
671
2, 567, 601
7,419
$2, 288, 781
3, 354, 349


674
2,616,677
$2, 355,934
3, 649, 138

158
886,827
$638, 515

59
2,352
342, 256
$172,933

891
3, 505, 856
342, 256
$3, 167, 382
3,649, 138


Total




1,2.35
5,040, 489
$4, 537, 364
7,003, 487

259
1,028,157
$740. 273
68
4, 811
349, 675
$178, 526
1,562
6,073, 457
349, 675
$5, 456, 163
7, 003, 487







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


LADEN AND BALLAST TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY

In the table below the ships of each nationality have been segre-
gated to show separate statistics on vessels which were carrying
cargo and/or passengers at the time of transiting the Canal and those
which transited in ballast:

Laden Ballast

Nationality Number Panama Number Panama
of Canal net Tolls of Canal net Tolls
transits tonnage transits tonnage

Argentine---...............-------------......------ 1 3,461 $3,114.90 .. ---- ----.. ----...
Brazilian--........------.--.----............ 2 3,224 2,901.60 -.------- -- --
British-----............------.....--------- 383 2,102,751 1,892,475.90 39 193,234 $139,128.48
Chilean---.------------------...................... 73 188,963 170,066.70 1 1,211 871.92
Danish--.....-------------------............ 2 14,534 13,080.60 .----.. ...--- ....-- .-- .
Honduran...--....--.------------........... 22 26, 617 23,955.30 15 22, 415 16,138.80
Mexican.------------------- 4 8,500 7,650. 00 .---------- ------------ ----
Netherland..----------.. ........---- 226 244, 856 220, 370.40 75 45, 830 32, 997. 60
Norwegian-----.---.----...........------ 49 245,439 220,895.10 21 101,972 73,419.84
Panamanian ------------------ 59 90,178 81,160.20 12 37, 943 27. 318.96
Peruvian --------..--..---------.......... 5 8,900 8,010.00 ......- ----.....-- -----.....
Polish...---------------------- 1 5,117 4,605.30 ---------------
Soviet .------....--.--.....--------------- 10 30,242 27,307.80 -- -- -..
United States------------------ 388 2,037,641 1,834,801.38 97 616,815 444,106.80
Uruguayan- .-.........----- .. ----------- 5 18,910 17,019.00 ---. ---------....--
Venezuelan --------------------.... .... 7 12,302 11,071.80 7 12.302 8,857.44
Totals:
1944 ----------------............. 1,237 5,041,735 4,538,485.98 267 1,031,722 742,839.84
1943 ------..... --------......... 1,605 7,455,623 6,709,136.22 189 778, 376 560,430.72
1942 .....-----......--....... 2,347 9, 854,075 8,868,667.50 312 1,155,929 832, 268.88


AVERAGE TONNAGE,


TOLLS, AND 'TONS'oFICARGO'(PER CARGO-
CARRYING VESSEL


The average measurement tonnage, tolls, and tons of cargo per
cargo-carrying vessel of 300 net tons and over, Panama Canal measure-
ment, transiting the Panama Canal during the past three fiscal years,
are shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Measured tonnage:
Panama Canal net----- .......-------------------------------------....... 4,038 4, 590 4,142
Registered gross .--. ----------------------.----------------5,351 6, 061 5, 553
Registered net.....--------------------------------------------3,233 3, 667 3,289
Tolls--...-----------------------------------------------------$3,628 $4,052 $3,650
Tons of cargo (including vessels in ballast)-----.----.------------------ 4,657 5,909 5,119
Tons of cargo (laden vessels only)---........---.--.---............................. ---------5,662 6,604 5,798



STEAM, MOTOR, AND OTHER VESSELS

The following table shows ocean-going commercial vessels transit-
ing the Canal during each of the past three fiscal years, segregated
according to the method of propulsion:






24 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Steamers:
Oil burning.--------..--- -------------------------------------- 738 78 1, 254
Coal burning ...............---------------......------..............---------.-------............... 160 301 332
Motor ships------------------------...----------------....--------------................ 593 613 1,065
Miscellaneous--..........----------.. ---------------.... ------.. --.................------- 71 30 37
Total ...... -- ..-------------...- ------.-----... ------------------------... 1,62 1,822 2,68


FREQUENCY OF TRANSITS OF VESSELS THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL

During the fiscal year 1944, 750 individual ocean-going commercial
vessels, representing 17 nationalities, passed through the Panama
Canal. In the aggregate these vessels made a total of 1,562 transits.
The number of transits made by individual ships varied from 1 to 63,
and averaged 2.08. The greatest number, 63, was made by the small
motor vessel Dido, plying between the Atlantic terminus of the Canal
and the west coast of South America.
The United States was first in the number of individual vessels
during the year with 322, as well as in the number of transits-485;
Great Britain was second in both individual vessels and transits
with 291 and 478, respectively.
The following table shows the number of individual ships, the
number of transits for each ship, the total transits for the year, and
the average number of transits per individual ship, segregated by
nationality:

Vessels making indicated number of transits during fiscal year 1944

Nationality i 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 20 21


Argentine-.............
Brazilian.........----
British -----------
Chilean .....-....
Danish ---- ...
Free French -........-
Honduran--.-------_
Mexican.---..........
Netherland ....----
Norwegian ----........
Panamanian- .---...---
Peruvian ............
P olish _--. -- -
Soviet--..-......
United States ....
Uruguayan.-----------
Venezuelan-......--
Total, 1944-....
Total, 1943-..--
Total, 1942-----


3 2


--i ii- i --


.....: T







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 25

Vessels making indicated number of transits during fiscal year 1944-Continued

fTotal Trans-
Nationality 24 25 26 27 28 29 32 33 34 36 37 39 44 53 55 58 63 Total trans-l itsper
sh its ship
. . -. .. ----- ----- --
Argentine ..------------------------------------ ----------------------- 1 1 1.00
Brazilian..----.....-- ...------- ----------- 2 2 1.00
British .........---------------... I I ---.....- --- --- --- --- ---..... ...........---------- 291 478 1.64
Chilean...........---------.......................---- ...--... ..--... --- --- --- --- --- -- --- --- ------ ---------19 74 3.89
Danish ...-..---------.----.. ....--..-- --- --- --- --- --- -- -- --- --- --- --... -- ...--- --- 1 2 2.00
Free French..-....--..------ ---...---------..... ...-- .....---...... --- -----......-- --- ------ ---------... 1 1 1.00
Honduran--------............--- --------- --------- .-- ----- --- --------- ---------..... 5 37 7.40
Mexican .-..-------------------------------. ------............ ------....----------.....--. 5 5 1.00
Netherland .........-------------......-----...........------...... ... 1 ------ --- ...... 1 1 1 1 27 301 11.15
Norwegian-------------- ---......... ------ -------------- -----... --......-----------... 43 70 1.63
Panamanian-.........---------...............------..----- ...-------------------...---... ..----------- 15 71 4.73
Peruvian-.........-----....------...-------------- --- --------- --- ----------- --- -- 2 5 2.50
Polish----.---------......................--- --------------- ------ --------------- ---. 1 1 1.00
Soviet ........--........-------------........---...------ --- --------- --------- --...--- --------- 10 10 1.00
United States -----------........................ ---...---...---...------ -----------...........------ 322 485 1.51
Uruguayan------- ------ --- --- --- ------------------------------ --- --- 1 5 5.00
Venezuelan -------------- ------------------------------------ --- 4 14 3.50
Total, 1944..... ... 1 ..------.. 1 -------.-- 1 1 1 750 1,562 2.08
Total, 1943..... 1 ...... 1 1 1 --- ---1 ---- 1 --- .--- --- --- 1,175 1,822 1.55
Total, 1942-..... 2 --- --- --- --... --- 3 1 ... 2 2 --- 1 --- --- --... -- 967 2,688 2.78


The following tabulation taken from the preceding table shows for
the fiscal year 1944 the number of vessels making a given number of
transits through the Panama Canal (from 1 to 63), their aggregate
number of transits, and their percent of the total ocean-going com-
mercial transits (1,562):


m Total Percent of Num- Total Percent of
Number of transit heoum number total Cal Number of transits herof number total Canal
Numbertranstsbtof of trafsits o transits
vessels transit (1,562) vessels transit (1,562)

1----------------- 518 518 33.2 21------------------ 1 21 1.3
2----------------- 133 266 17.0 25 ------------------ 1 25 1.6
3. ----------------- 28 84 5.4 26 ---.--.------------ 1 26 1.7
4.. ------------------ 26 104 6. 7 34 ------------------ 1 34 2.2
5 -----..........-----------.. 15 75 4.8 53 --.---------------- 1 53 3.4
6------------------ 7 42 2.7 55 ..------ ---------- 1 55 3.5
7.------------------- 3 21 1.3 58... ------------------ 1 58 3.7
8 --- --...------------......... 5 40 2.6 63 -----------.------- 1 63 4.0
9------------------- 3 27 1.7
10------------------ 3 30 1.9 Total---....... 750 1,562 100.0
20 ------------------ 1 20 1.3


GROSS TONNAGE OF VESSELS

The 1,562 ocean-going commercial vessels which transited the Canal
in the fiscal year 1944 included 1,494 merchant vessels, 10 miscellane-
ous types (derrick barges, salvage ships and cable repair ships) paying
tolls on the basis of net tonnage, and 58 vessels paying tolls on the
basis of displacement tonnage.
Of the 1,504 vessels paying on net tonnage, 449 were vessels under
2,000 registered gross tonnage, this representing the most general
size of vessels to transit the Canal in 1944. This group was made
up largely of vessels plying between the Atlantic terminus of the
G(;s299t -4( -






26 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Canal and ports on the west coasts of Central and South America,
carrying goods which are transshipped at Cristobal to or from larger
vessels. There has been much less of a. decrease in transit of smaller
vessels than in larger vessels, and so vessels under 2,000 tons now
account for more transits than any other sized vessel. In 1943 and
1942 vessels in the 6,000- to 8,000-ton group comprised the greatest
number, while in the 4 years preceding 1942 the 4,000- to 6,000-ton
group had the greatest number.
The average gross registered tonnage of all vessels paying tolls on
the basis of Panama Canal net tonnage in the fiscal year 1944 was
5,351 as compared with 6,061 for the fiscal year 1943, representing a
decrease of 11.7 percent.
The following tabulation shows the ocean-going commercial vessels,
excluding those paying tolls on displacement tonnage, in groups
according to registered gross tonnage, segregated by nationality, with
average tonnages for 1944 and 1943 and group percentages for the
fiscal year 1944:






Segregation of transits by registered gross tonnage of vessels, fiscal year 1944


Nationality


Under 2,000 to 4,000 to
2 3,999 5,999
2,000 inclusive inclusive


__________ - I -*I I


Argentine -------------..--------.--...-..
Belgian--------------.- ...-...---.-.---
Brazilian--------------------.............----
British---------
Chilean------- ... ... .
D anish --..- - - - - - - - -
Greek --.............-----.---------. ---.
Honduran.-----------------------...........
Mexican...-_......_.._._..................
Netherland...........--------.................--
Norwegian --.....................-.......
Panamanian ........._._........._ .........
Peruvian.-----------------------------------
Philippine.----------------------------------
Polish................ .............
Soviet ------.-------....----......--
Swedish ....... ...- ..............----
United States-----.- ------ --
Uruguayan----------------------..........
Venezuelan...--------..------.........
Yugoslav........ .......................

Total.---- ........ ...
Percent of total.... -- ----- -


63
30

21
2
263
14
45


1

10


2
8
20


12
1
19
4
11
5
----- --

6

29
5
14


1I

37
22



2
20
4
---- 59-



59
---- -- -
- - - -


6,000 to 8,000 to 10,000 to 12,000 to
7,999 9,999 11,999 13,999
inclusive inclusive inclusive inclusive


I1
2
254


97
------y---

2



20
5




50


449 136 145 413 184
29.9 9.0 9.6 27.5 12.2


1
" 80'


I 58 vessels paying on displacement-56 British, 1 Free French, and 1 Mexican-are not included.


27





3



- - - 3- -
-- - i


14,000 to 16,000 to
15,999 17,999
inclusive inclusive


3-
----------


Total I




1

2
422
74
2
37
4
301
70
71
5

10
485
5
14


Registered
gross
tonnage



4,940

4, 635
3,089,304
242, 257
19,646


12, 577
310,161
420,175
184,399
12,645

7,001
41,938

3, 554, 244
19,061
41,124


Average gross ton-
nage per vessel,
fiscal year


1944 1I


4,940

2, 318
7,321
3,274
9,823

2,271
3,144
1,030
6,003
2,597
2,529

7, 001
4,194

7, 328
3,812
2,937
---- -- --


1,504 8,048,116 5,3511
100.0 ....---------..-- ---.....


943


4,288
10,568 H

7,823 0
4,103 04

T4,"150
3,919

2,131 N
5,284
2,994 O
3,090
5,317

2,830 (
4,262
6,994
3,763

3, 692

6,061 >

0'..


57






28 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

SMALL COMMERCIAL VESSELS TRANSITING CANAL

Transits of small cargo-carrying vessels and other small miscel-
laneous craft of less than 300 net tons (Panama Canal measurement)
or 500 displacement tons are excluded from statistics on ocean-going
commercial traffic, although the vessels are not exempt from the pay-
ment of tolls. Transits of these small vessels during the year, together
with the tonnage, tolls, and amount of cargo carried, are summarized
in the following table:

Atlantic Pacific
to to Total
Pacific Atlantic

Transits:
Rated on net tonnage --------------------------- ------- 105 104 209
Rated on displacement tonnage-------------------------- 4 22 26
Total transits........----------.---.--------------------------- 109 126 235
Panama Canal net tonnage ...------------------ 8,882 9,133 18, 015
Displacement tonnage.------ ------------------------- 201 5,632 5,833
Tolls ... $7,625.22 $10,057.76 $17,682.988
Cargo (tons)--...................--------..----------..-------... 12,820 4,336 17,156


VESSELS ENTITLED TO FREE TRANSIT

Naval and other vessels owned and operated in the Government
service of the United States and Republic of Panama, war vessels of
the Republic of Colombia, and vessels transiting solely for the purpose
of having repairs made at the Canal shops, are exempt from the pay-
ment of tolls, and such vessels are not included in the general transit
statistics pertaining to Canal traffic.
In normal times free transits represent a relatively small part of
the total Canal traffic (less than 9 percent in 1939), but since the entry
of the United States into the war there has been a great expansion in
such traffic, which during the past year amounted to 3,333 tolls-free
vessels. This was five times the number of free transits in 1939, and
comprised 65 percent of the total traffic in 1944. Of the 3,333 vessels
transiting free in 1944, 75 percent were routed from the Atlantic to
the Pacific.
i The following tabulation shows for the past three fiscal years the
number of vessels, the measured tonnage, the approximate amount of
tolls to which they would have been subject at the prescribed rates if
tolls had been charged against them, and the cargo carried by such
vessels:





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Number of transits:
On net tonnage basis-------... ------...... -------- -------------- 2,107 1,523 1,091
On displacement tonnage basis ---... --- --------------- 1, 226 850 425
Total transits............-------------------------.............. -----.............. 3,333 2,373 1,516
Tonnage:
Panama Canal net....----------- ..----------........ 5, 303,061 1, 453, 560 1,806,340
Displacement----.---. -----------. ------------------- 2,903, 783 1,007,351 765, 779
Approximate value of tolls ... ---................ --- .---- $5, 876, 729 $1,739,410 $1,962,926
Cargo (tons)........-----------------------------......------------........... 4,572,034 419, 080 566, 637

Full information on combat vessels of the' United States Navy,
including naval supply ships completely manned and operated by the
Navy, is not required by The Paunama Canal for handling the ships in
transit. For these vessels estimates are made of the. displacement
tonnage or the Panama Canal net tonnage and the consequent value
of tolls. No attempt is made to estimate cargo tonnage carried by
naval supply ships, which comprise only a minor part of the total
noncommercial cargo-carrying vessels.
CANAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
HOURS OF OPERATION
Dispatching of ships through the Canal is conducted on schedules.
Vessels awaiting transit begin moving through the Canal from the
terminal ports at 6 a. m. and dispatches are made thereafter from each
terminus at intervals of 1 hour. The following is a summary of
normal arrangements in effect at the end of the fiscal year.
From Cristobal Harbor, first ship at 6 a. m., last at about 3 p. m.;
from Balboa anchorage, first ship at 6 a. m., last at 2:30 p. m. Varia-
tions often occur in these schedules due to wartime emergencies.
Tankers and vessels carrying hazardous cargoes are dispatched at
the discretion of the port captain and normally are not permitted to
proceed unless they can clear the locks before dark. Numerous
exceptions are made in these cases in order to avoid delaying war
cargoes.
Special precautions and regulations for handling ships in the locks
were continued throughout the year.

LOCKAGES AND LOCK MAINTENANCE
The following was the operating schedule of the locks at the end of
the fiscal year 1944:
Gatun:
Shift No. 1-7 a. m. to 3 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Shift No. IX-10 a. m. to 6 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Shift No. 2-3 p. m. to 11 p. m.-8 locomotives.






301 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Pedro Miguel:
Shift No. 1-8 a. m. to 4 p. m.-8 locomotives
Shift No. 2-9:30 a. m. to 5:30 p. m.-8 locomotives
Shift No. 3-4 p. m. to 12 m.-8 locomotives
Miraflores Locks:
Shift No. 1-7 a. m. to 3 p. m.-8 locomotives
Shift No. 2- 10 a. m. to 6 p. m.-8 locomotives.
Shift No. 3-3 p. m. to 11 p. m.-8 locomotives.

LOCKAGES

Lockages and the number of vessels handled (including Panama
Canal equipment) are shown in the following table by months for the
past fiscal year, with corresponding totals for the past 5 years:


Gatun Pedro Miguel Miraflores
Month -- -- --
Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels Lockages Vessels

1943
July..----------....... .... ...... 224 421 275 516 272 532
August---------.......------..............----------...... 263 527 291 489 295 516
September-------------.-----------.......--. 211 411 275 518 260 478
October -------------............ .. 216 425 391 965 255 479
November-------------------------- 236 433 295 518 287 542
December----------------...---------....- 250 516 284 550 289 576
1944
January----------------.---- 285 494 320 511 311 512
February.------.--------------------........................ 269 454 300 483 294 488
March ---------------------..... .. 287 468 314 490 302 497
April ----...-------_....---- ---..- 287 482 303 496 306 512
May------------.................--------------------. 350 555 455 945 365 568
June---------------...------------... 389 660 533 1,151 420 724
Total.----------------- ------- 3,267 5,846 4,036 7,632 3,656 6,424
Fiscal year:
1939 --- --. --- 6,054 7,929 6,283 8,064 6, 221 7,988
1940 --. ----------- 5,302 7, 713 5, 392 7,643 5, 286 7, 570
1941-------------------- --------- 5,103 8,018 5,018 7,489 4,943 7,410
1942--------...---------.. 4, 669 10,986 4, 445 8,084 3, 775 5,806
1943 ---------- -- . 2, 796 5, 236 3, 661 6, 672 3,395 5,934


The average number of lockages made daily, and the average
number of vessels handled per lockage, during each of the past five
fiscal years, are shown in the following table:


Average number of lockages per Average number of vessels per
day lockage
Fiscal year -- ----.-.- -a--------- rr---
Gatun Pedro Miralores tu Pedro Miraflores

1940 ...----- 14.5 14.8 14.5 1.45 1.41 1.42
1941 14.0 13.7 13.6 1.57 1.49 1.50
1942- 12.8 12.1 10.3 2.35 1.82 1.54
1943-- -- 7.7 10.0 9.3 1.87 1.82 1.75
1944 --- .. ...- 8.9 11.1 10.0 1.79 1.89 1.76






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


DELAYS TO SHIPPING

The lock-operating machinery functioned smoothly throughout the
year except for a few incidents due to faulty operation or minor failure
of equipment. The following summary includes all delays to vessels
while transiting the locks due to the incidents mentioned:

Number of Aggregate delay caused
delayed all vessels

Gatun -- ----- 19 3 hours 39 minutes
Pedro Miguel -------------------------------------------------- 8 3 hours 8 minutes
Miraflores ------... ---------------------------------------------- 15 3 hours 48 minutes
Total --........... ..--------------------- ----------- ------------------- 42 10 hours 35 minutes

MAINTENANCE

During the progress of special improvement projects on the locks in
the past several years, regular overhaul periods were impracticable,
and the normal schedule which called for overhaul at Pacific locks in
1941 and the Atlantic locks in 1943 was not adhered to.
Miraflores locks had a minor overhaul of both chambers in 1942,
which was intended to last until 1944. Between January 12 and April
21, 1944, both sides of Miraflores were given a first-class overhaul,
except for miter gate rebearing, which was intended to put these
locks in a safe operating condition for at least four more years.
The west side of Pedro Miguel had been overhauled between March
1 and July 2, 1943, and the east side was overhauled between August
13 and September 29, 1943. Certain regular overhaul features were
not performed, but sufficient work was done to insure safe operation
until 1948.
Some work had been done on the east side of Gatun locks last year,
and the west side was given a minor reconditioning during the past
year. Gatun locks are now considered to be in safe operating condi-
tion until 1946, and a major overhaul at Gatun is now scheduled for
that year.






32 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

POWER FOR CANAL OPERATION

The table below summarizes and gives pertinent data relative to the
electric power generated by the power system of the Canal Zone for
the past three fiscal years:
[Kilowatt hours]

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Gross power generated:
Gatun hydro station... ..........--. 89,314,900 78,970, 800 70,169, 400
Madden hydro station...-------........................-------------------- 157, 459,700 140, 295, 000 121,295,300
Diesel stations. -----------..------- 604, 000 2,092,400 1,015,300
Total generated ---- ------- 247, 378, 600 221,358, 200 192, 480, 000
Consumed in station service ----------------------------- 1,360,617 1,254, 849 1,083,389
Net generator output--------------. -------- 246, 017, 983 220, 103,351 191,396, 611
Distributed to consumers------------------------------ 222, 548, 235 198, 433, 204 170, 841,436
Transmission loss-(kilowatt hours) ------------------- 23, 469, 748 21,670,147 20, 555, 175
Transmission loss-(pereent) -- ------------------------ 9.5 9.8 10.7
Peak load (kilowatts)--------------------------------- 46, 900 39, 800 37, 600
Date - -------------------------- (1) (2) (3)

I November 1, 1943. June 21, 1943. 3 May 21, 1942.

During the past year a new 12,000-kilovolt-ampere transformer was
installed to provide necessary reserve transformer capacity at the
. Gatun Hydroelectric Station. Its installation permitted the general
overhaul of the two 8,400-kilovolt-ampere transformers which had
been in practically continuous operation for years. An additional new
2,500-kilowatt Diesel engine-driven generating unit was placed in
operation at the Miraflores Diesel-Electric Station in December 1943.
This station now has three units with a combined generating capacity
of 7,500 kilowatts.
During the past year service was temporarily interrupted at various
substations of The Panama Canal power system on 14 diffreent occa-
sions. There were 17 interruptions to transmission-line service during
the year, of which 4 were caused by lightning flash-over, 4 by animal
and reptile contacts, 3 by crane and dragline equipment contacts, 2
by barrage-balloon cable contacts, 1 each by the breakage of a line
wire from a previous burn and by the mechanical failure of an insula-
tor, and 2 by unknown causes.

WATER SUPPLY AND GENERAL WEATHER CONDITIONS

In accordance with world-wide practice, statistics on rainfall and
general weather conditions for the Canal Zone and immediate vicinity
are compiled on a calendar-year basis. These data for the calendar
year 1943 are contained in the annual report of The Panama Canal's







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Section of Meterorology and Hydrography, copies of which are
available at the Office of the United States Weather Bureau or of
The Panama Canal in Washington, D. C. In the following paragraphs
data for the fiscal year 1944 are presented for water supply and other
subjects where data are readily available on a fiscal-year basis.
Where fiscal-year data are not readily available, data are presented
for the calendar year 1943.

WATER SUPPLY

The water requirements of the Panama Canal for hydroelectric
power, lockages, and municipal use are supplied by Madden and
Gatun Lakes which together drain an area of 1,289 square miles.
Water spilled from Madden Lake or drawn for use of Madden hydro-
electric station flows into Gatun Lake and remains available for
Gatun Lake uses. The total inflow of water from Madden and
Gatun drainage basins during the year ended June 30, 1944, and the
expenditure of this water are itemized in the following table. Com-
parable data for the preceding year are also given:


WATER SUPPLY
Inflow from Madden Basin........................---------------------------
Evaporation from Madden Lake......-----------------------
Net yield available for Madden Lake uses ------
Inflow downstream from Madden Dam -------------...
Subtotal ---.....-----------------------------------
Evaporation from Gatun Lake ..-------------------
Net yield available for Gatun Lake uses --------.
MADDEN LAKE-WATER USES AND EXPENDITURES
Madden hydroelectric power-... --.---.--.-.----
Madden Dam spillage and leakage --------------..............
Change in Madden Lake storage----------------------
Total Madden Dam expenditures --..--.......-..
GATUN LAKE-WATER USES AND EXPENDITURES
Oatun hydroelectric power ..........................----------
Gatun Lake lockages---------------------------------
Municipal, leakage, and miscellaneous .-----------.....----
Total Gatun Lake uses--------. ...-..--.-----
Gatun spillway discharge .-----------------------------
Increase in Madden and Gatun Lake storage.-----------
Total Gatun Lake uses and expenditures-.........


Million cubic feet, year
ended June 30

1944 1943


87, 764
2, 219


81,880 --
2, 280 -..------


Percent of available
water supply, year
ended June 30

1944 1943


85, 545 79, 600
132,767 144, 962 .......... --..----
218,312 224,562--
18,568 17,702 .
199, 744 206,860 .--------..--------.---


63,180 52,663 73.9 66.2
22,183 28,106 25.9 35.3
+182 -1,169 +0.2 -1.5
85, 545 79, 0600 100.0 100.0


64,257 57,752 32.2 27.9
26, 330 22, 729 13.2 11.0
4,334 3,689 2.2 1.8
94,921 84,170 47, 6 40.7
102,726 124,590 51.4 60.2
+2,097 -1,900 +1.0 -0.9


199,744


206,860






34 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL
STORMS AND FLOODS
The only noteworthy general storm during the year was the norther
and flood of December 18-20, 1943. This was the most severe storm
of the norther type to visit the Atlantic coast of the Canal Zone in
recent years, and was similar to the storms that were a menace to
shipping in Colon Harbor prior to the construction of the breakwaters
in 1915. The wind at Cristobal on December 19 attained a 5-minute
maximum of 35 miles per hour and averaged 25 miles per hour from
the northwest and north for the 24 hours from midnight to midnight.
This is the second highest daily mean wind velocity at Cristobal in
a 35-year record, the record of 27 miles per hour having occurred on
April 4, 1915. One ship went aground and others were in distress
in the heavy seas along the Atlantic coast, but no serious damage
occurred inside the protection of the Colon breakwaters. Moderate
to heavy rains were general over the Canal Zone and created floods
in the Gatun and Madden Lake areas. The maximum 24-hour
inflow into Madden and Gatun Lakes combined 'averaged 152,000
cubic feet per second, amounting to about 13 billion cubic feet,
equivalent to slightly less than a 3-foot depth on Gatun Lake. On
December 19-20, 12 gates were open at the Gatun spillway for a
period of 28 hours with a maximum discharge of 124,530 cubic feet
per second. The rains stopped after 2 days and the storm did not
develop major flood proportions.
DRY SEASON-1944
The period in the 1944 dry season during which the inflow into
Madden and Gatun Lakes was below Panama Canal water require-
ments extended from January 10 to April 26, a duration of 108 days.
The 1944 dry season was somewhat shorter than usual and the run-off
for the dry season months-January to April inclusive-was 8 per-
cent above the 31-year average for this period. However, on account
of increased water use for electric power the draft on reserve storage
in Madden and Gatun Lakes was the greatest in recent years. The
total inflow into Madden Lake for the 108-day period was 10,404
million cubic feet; water requirements for the generation of power
and other uses totaled 17,812 million cubic feet, and so the draft
on Madden Lake storage amounted to 7,408 million cubic feet,
lowering the lake level by 15.09 feet-from elevation 250.30 to 235.21
feet. The total inflow into Gatun Lake during this period, including
all water drawn from Madden Lake, was 21,538 million cubic feet;
water requirements for lockages and other uses totaled 37,878 million
cubic feet, and so the draft on Gatun Lake storage amounted to
16,340 million cubic feet, lowering Gatun Lake level by 3.58 feet-
from elevation 86.96 to 83.38 feet.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


LAKE ELEVATIONS

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, Madden Lake varied in
elevation between a maximum of 256.06 feet on December 19, 1943,
and a minimum of 235.03 feet on April 27, 1944, a range of 21.03 feet.
The maximum of 256.06 feet was recorded during the storm of Decem-
ber 18-20, previously discussed, and occurred at a time when Madden
Lake was full to capacity in anticipation of the coming dry season.
This was the highest level of Madden Lake on record, the previous
high being 251.40 feet on December 22, 1942. Gatun Lake varied in
elevation between a maximum of 87.00 feet on January 9, 1944, and a
minimum of 83.32 feet on April 26, 1944, a range of 3.68 feet.

RAINFALL
During the calendar year 1943, rainfall in the Canal Zone and
adjacent drainage areas averaged slightly above normal. Along the
line of the Canal, annual totals ranged from 71.37 inches at Balboa,
the Pacific terminal of the Canal, to 126.23 inches at Cristobal, the
Atlantic terminus. At Porto Bello, 20 miles northeast of Cristobal and
just outside of the Canal Zone, 1943 rainfall totaled 178.35 inches.
March 1943, at the height of the dry season, was the month of least
rainfall, with monthly totals at different stations ranging from 0.11 to
4.86 inches. The heavy rains accompanying the norther of December
18-20, 1943, made December the month of greatest rainfall with
month totals at various stations ranging from 8.53 to 28.75 inches.
The greatest 24-hour rainfall during the year was 10.32 inches at
Goodyear in the Gatun Lake area on December 19 and 20.
AIR TEMPERATURE
Air temperatures in the Canal Zone for the calendar year 1943 were
very near normal. April was the warmest month with bihourly mean
temperatures of 80.40 F. at Balboa Heights on the Pacific coast,
79.00 F. at Madden Dam in the interior, and 81.40 F. at Cristobal on
the Atlantic coast. November was the coolest month with mean
temperatures of 77.40, 76.70, and 79.3 F. at the three stations, re-
spectively. Annual means and extremes at Canal Zone stations
during the calendar year 1943 are given in the following table:

1943 maximum 1943 minimum 1943 mean Departure
Station
F. Date F. Date (0 F.) (I F.)
Balboa Heights------------.................. ...-- 95 Apr. 20 68 Jan. 22 78.7 -0.1
Madden Dam------..... ----------------- 94 Mar. 22 64 ....-do.... 77.7 +0.2
Cristobal -----------------------........................-...... 92 Oct. 10 70 Aug. 12 80.4 +0.3






36 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Annual means and extremes on record at the above stations are as
follows:

Absolute maximum Absolute minimum Annual
Station Record ---- mean
(years) F. Date F. Date (0 F.)

B a l b o a H e i g h t s - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 8 9 7 A p r 7 1 9 1 2 6 3 J a n 2 7 1 9 1 0 7 8 8
Madden Dam..... .... .. .. ...- 33 98 Apr. 13,1920 59 aen. 30121} 77.5
Cristobal----...----------------------- 36 95 {Oy 192 } 66 Dec. 3,1909 80.1


WINDS AND HUMIDITY
Wind velocities during the calendar year 1943 averaged 6 miles
per hour at Balboa Heights, 4 miles per hour at Madden Dam, and
9 miles per hour at Cristobal. For the 4-month dry-season period-
January 1943 to April 1943-average trade wind velocities were 7, 6,
and 13 miles per hour at the three stations, respectively. Prevailing
wind directions were northwest to the Pacific coast and north on the
Atlantic coast. The 5-minute maximum wind velocity at Balboa
Heights was 34 miles per hour from the southeast on June 27, 1943,
during a violent local thunderstorm. The maximum velocity at
Cristobal was 35 miles per hour from the south on August 12 during
a similar storm. This velocity was equaled during the December
norther with a velocity of 35 miles per hour from the northwest on
December 19.
The relative humidity during the calendar year 1943 averaged 84
percent on the Pacific coast and 81 percent on the Atlantic coast.
On the Pacific coast monthly means ranged from 77 percent in February
1943 to 88 percent in June 1943. On the Atlantic coast monthly
means ranged from 72 percent in February to 85 percent in November.

TIDES

During the calendar year 1943 absolute tidal ranges were 21.2 feet
on the Pacific coast and 2.1 feet on the Atlantic coast. At Balboa,
the Pacific terminal of the Canal, the following extremes occurred:
Highest high water 9.8 feet above mean sea level, lowest low water
11.4 feet below mean sea level, and the greatest range between con-
secutive tides 20.2 feet on January 8, February 7, and August 18.
At Cristobal, the Atlantic terminal of the Canal, the following
extremes occurred: Highest high water 1.11 feet above mean sea level,
lowest low water 0.95 foot below mean sea level, and the greatest
range between consecutive tides 1.81 feet on January 7.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


SEISMOLOGY

Two earthquake shocks were felt by Canal Zone residents during
the fiscal year 1944--on August 12 and August 27, 1943. Both shocks
were slight and felt by only a few.
On May 2, 1943 (not mentioned in the annual report for fiscal year
1943), there occurred the heaviest shock recorded on the seismographs
in the Canal Zone since May 6, 1936. The time of the first onset
was 12:18:47 p. m., seventy-fifth meridian time. The shock was
generally felt by residents of the Canal Zone and many were alarmed
and ran outdoors. Of seven pendulum clocks in the Administration
Building at Balboa Heights, five stopped and two continued to run.
Tn private residences some dishes and mirrors were broken but
material damage was small. The United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey placed the epicenter in latitude 6.4' N., longitude 80.10 W.,
about 180 miles southward from Balboa Heights on the floor of the
Pacific Ocean.
MARINE ACTIVITIES

Transit operations continued throughout the first 10 months of the
year, with only one side of each pair of locks in use at one time. In
May 1944, however, both sides of all locks became available for use,
and were placed in operation. Wartime precautions for safeguarding
the Canal and vessels in transit continued throughout the year.
While there was a further decrease from 1943 in the commercial
tolls-paying traffic, this was more than offset by the increase in vessels
transiting free of tolls. Because of changes in the types of vessels
transiting the Canal, it is difficult to make a precise comparison
between the over-all volume of traffic (tolls-paying and free) passing
through last year as compared to the preceding years. All factors
considered, total traffic in fiscal year 1944 was some 25 percent greater
than in the preceding year.
HARBOR ACTIVITIES

The table following shows the number of vessels handled at docks
of the terminal ports of Cristobal and Balboa for the fiscal year 1944
as compared with the two previous years:

Cristobal-Fiscal year Balboa-Fiscal year
1944 1943 1942 1944 1943 1942

Number of vessels docked:
Handling passengers and/or cargo -------- 817 639 1,558 697 693 646
For all other purposes-------------------------- 1,333 1,404 941 1,410 1,230 959
Total................. ----- .....--------- 2,150 2,043 2,499 2,107 1,923 1,605






3S REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

AIDS TO NAVIGATION

On June 30, 1944, there were 767 aids to navigation in service in
the Panama Canal and its approaches, maintained by the lighthouse
subdivision, and classified as follows: Acetylene gas, 110; electric, 343;
unlighted, 314. Included in the foregoing are 2 automatic acetylene
gas operated lighthouses at Morro Puercos and Jicarita Island on
the coast of Panama in the Pacific approach, maintained in the inter-
ests of the United States Coast Guard. One visit was made to these
aids during the year by the U. S. S. Favorite, for the purpose of in-
specting equipment and servicing the aids.

ACCIDENTS TO SHIPPING

The board of local inspectors investigated and reported on 37 acci-
dents in connection with shipping in Canal Zone waters during the
fiscal year 1944, a summary of which follows with a comparison of
accidents in the two previous years:

Fiscal year
Cause of accident
1944 1943 1942

Collision-. -- ....-...--.. .... .. ---..........- ................ 12 14 7
Ship struck lock wall.....--- ..---.. ... ..------------------.....-----------......------- 6 7 2
Ship struck dock .-...........-----... ........-----------------------------------------.... -- 6 1 5
Ship grounded ---------------------------------------------- --- 4 5 6
Ship damaged by tug...-....---------........---..------------------...............-.....---- ---------- 3 1 1
Ship struck Canal bank ------------------ ------------------------- 2 1 1
Other causes....--- .. ...........--------------------------------------------------. 4 6 6
Total......---------------------------------------------------- 37 35 28

The only investigation involving the loss of life was that of the
dredging division's tug Chagres which was destroyed by a mine on
August 3, 1943, in the Pacific entrance. The master and seven of
the crew were lost.
INSPECTIONS

Complete inspections were made of the hulls, power plant, and
equipment of 11 American and 13 foreign vessels and certificates of
seaworthiness issued. Fifty hulls of commercial vessels and of Canal
and railroad plant were inspected in dry dock. Seventy-three steam
boilers were given annual inspections and hydrostatic tests. Annual
inspections were made and certificates of inspection issued to 268
motorboats.
ADMEASUREIMENT

During the year the principal features of interest in admeasurement
work continued to be the preponderance of newly constructed ships-
Liberty and other types-arriving for initial measurement; peak
loads in measurement work due to vessels arriving in large convoys;






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


and a large number of vessels requiring corrections in Panama Canal
tonnage certificates already issued, due to structural alterations
occasioned by gun crew accommodations and magazine installations
incident to the war.
SALVAGE AND TOWING

The U. S. S. Favorite was engaged in salvage and towing operations
during the year, as follows: From September 1 to 7, 1943, in assisting
the S. S. Brisbane Star which ran aground at Mamei Curve in Gatun
Lake; from December 14 to 31, 1943, and from January 3 to 22,
1944, in assisting the S. S. Herma Gorthon which ran aground at Rocas
Negrilla on the west coast of Colombia; and from May 6 to 13, 1944,
in towing a derrick barge and scow to Cartagena, Colombia. The
U. S. Gorgona was engaged in similar operations, as follows: From
July 1 to 12, 1943, in towing a barge from Balboa to Puntarenas,
Costa Rica, for the Pan American Highway; from August 21 to 25,
1943, and from August 27 to September 2, 1943, in towing barges
from Balboa to Golfito, Costa Rica; from December 1 to 2, 1943, in
an unsuccessful attempt to pull the small tug Betty off Chame Point,
Republic of Panama, where it had run aground. The U. S. Tavernilla
was engaged in towing and salvage operations, as follows: On July
10, 1943, in assisting the S. S. Cape Gaspe from the San Blas region to
Cristobal;'from July 27 to 31, 1943, in towing Panama Railroad barge
No. 206 from Quita Suefia Bank to Cristobal. The U. S. Tavernilla,
together with the U. S. Alhajuela, was engaged on December 19 and
20, 1943, in an attempt to salvage the S. S. James Withycombe which
had grounded off Fort Randolph, C. Z. The U. S. Alhajuela was
engaged on September 10 and 11, 1943, in assisting to Cristobal the
tug White Shoals which had become disabled.

OPERATION OF TUGS

Because of the great increase in activity at peak periods, four tugs
were added to the fleet available for assisting vessels at the Canal
terminals and where necessary through the Canal. At the end of the
year there were three large tugs and one small tug in service at each
terminal of the Canal. The following statistics summarize the ser-
vices of tugs used in marine activities (as distinct from dredging)
during the past three fiscal years:

Operating hours-Fiscal year Jobs handled-Fiscal year
1944 1943 1942 1944 1943 1942
Balboa... 9,780 7, 548 5, 448 6, 408 5, 112 3,072
Cristobal---- 5, 964 5,364 5, 712 4, 392 4, 284 4,884
Total .. --.. -------- 15,744 12.912 11,160 10,800 9,396 7,956








40 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


The above table does not fully reflect the increased demand for
tug service at Balboa, since it does not include the statistics for tugs
which were regularly borrowed from dredging service to assist vessels
during peak periods.

MAINTENANCE OF CHANNEL-OTHER DREDGING ACTIVITIES

Dredges worked throughout the year on the maintenance of the
Canal channel and terminal harbors from deep water of the Atlantic
entrance to deep water in the Pacific, as well as on various special
maintenance projects. For the preceding 3 years most of the dredg-
ing plant of The Panama Canal had been engaged on various construc-
tion and special maintenance projects incident to the war effort and
a minimum of maintenance dredging had been done in the Canal
prism. During the past fiscal year the dredging plant was enabled to
perform a normal amount of maintenance work on the Canal prism
in addition to a substantial amount of excavation on the Third Locks
project.
Excavation during the past year is summarized in the following
table:
[Cubic yards

Location Earth Rock Total


CANAL PRISM DREDGING
Atlantic entrance, maintenance-----------------------
Gaillard Cut:
Maintenance-regular -----------------------------------
Maintenance--slides --------------------------------------
Project No. 13 ----..- ------------------------....
Pacific entrance:
Maintenance ....-------------------------------------------
Project No. 1 ......--------------------------------------------
Total Canal prism------- --------------
AUXILIARY DREDGING
Cristobal Harbor:
Maintenance----- ----------------------------------------
Navy dock facilities-..------------ ------------
Marine Railways.. -------.-----.. -----------------
Dock No. 15 extension -----------------------------------.
Balboa Harbor:
Maintenance -......----- ---....------------------
Dry Docks Nos. 2 and 3.......-------------------------------
Refloating grounded ship, Gatun Lake ---------------
Miraflores Lake anchorage- ---------- -----------
Outer anchorage----------------------------------------------
Naos Island dock approach ------------------
Subtotal ....------------------------------------------------
Chagres River gravel service---------------------------------
Total auxiliary. ----- ------------------
THIRD LOCKS DREDGING
New channels:
New Gatun locks, north approach-..................-......
New Miraflores locks:
North approach -- ------------------------------
South approach---------------------- ...-----.---
Total bypass channels_ ----- -------
Grand total:
Fiscal year 1944 .
Fiscal year 1943 --------- -- .


1,402,900
118,800
55,200
379, 800
2,425,700
4,382,-400
4, 382, 400


116, 300

33,400
954,500

2,000
1,106,200


1,519,200
118,800
88, 600
1, 334,300
2, 425, 700
2,000
5,488, 600


403, 000 ------------..... 403, 000
6,500 121,500 128,000
174,600 ----.--------- 174,600
11,400 5,100 16,500
509,500 19, 00 529,400
6,900 37,100 44,000
-20,000 21,600 41, 600
11,200 ---------- 11,200
531,800 56,400 588,200
103. 100 ..---------. 103,100
1,778,000 261,600 2,039,600
264,900 264,900
2,042,900 261,600 2,304,500


2,873,700 397, 400 3,271,100
194,200 215, 300 409, 500
1,927,900 448, 300 2, 376, 200
4, 995,800 1,061,000 6,056,800


11,421,100
9, 339,400


2,428,800 13,849, 900
1, 149,500 1 10, 488,900


I In addition, 88,580 cubic yards of C'lharn sand were produced in fiscal year 1941 and 191,320 cubic yards
in 1943.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 41

Dredging operations are divided into three major districts; the
Atlantic district from contour 42' below mean sea level in the Atlantic
Ocean to Gatun locks; the Central district from Gatun locks to Pedro
Miguel locks; and the Pacific district from Pedro Miguel locks to
contour 50' below mean sea level in the Pacific Ocean. The total
excavation in these three areas, exclusive of Third Locks excavation,
is summarized as follows:
[Cubic yards]
Section

Atlantic Central Pacific Total

Canal prism:
Earth -- 1,402, 900 553, 800 2,425,700 4,382,400
Rock ........................................ 116, 300 987, 900 2,000 1,106,200
Total----. -------...........-...----.............------------- --- 1,519,200 1,541,700 2,427,700 5,488,600
Auxiliary:
Earth ------ ---------------....-------------.. 595,500 20,000 1,162,500 1,778,000
Rock- ------- -------------------------------- 126, 600 21,600 113, 400 261, 600
Total ------........----------------------...... ......-- --- 722, 100 41,600 1,275,900 2,039,600
Total (exclusive of Third Locks):
Earth - 1, 998, 400 573, 800 3, 588, 200 6, 160, 400
Rock ----------------------------- 242,900 1,009,500 115,400 1,367,800
Grand totals:
Fiscal year 1944 -.. .....-- ---......... 2,241,300 1,583,300 3,703,600 1 7,528, 200
Fiscal year 1943 ..-----.. --------------.. ........ 650, 900 664, 800 7, 677,000 1 8,992, 700
I Does not include Chagres River gravel or Cham6 sand service.
ORDINARY CHANNEL MAINTENANCE-CANAL PRISM DREDGING
Atlantic district.-Maintenance dredging in the Atlantic entrance
section of the Canal channel was in progress 45 days during the past
year by the pipe-line suction dredge Mindi, which excavated a total of
1,519,200 cubic yards of material.
Central district (maintenance exclusive of slide excavation).-The
dipper dredge Gamboa worked 23 days during the past year on main-
tenance in Gaillard Cut and excavated a total of 90,800 cubic yards of
earth. The dipper dredge Paraiso also worked 6 days in this same
area excavating 28,000 cubic yards of earth.
Gaillard Cut-Project No. 13.-This project, which consists of widen-
ing Culebra Reach by 200 feet to the westward, was started in January
1935 and has been continued on a low priority basis since that time.
During the past fiscal year shore mining, grading, and sluicing were
carried out as in the past. A total of 536,350 cubic yards of rock was
broken by shore mining and a total of 497,100 cubic yards of material
was sluiced into the Canal prism to be removed by regular dredging
operations. The dipper dredge Gamboa worked 167 days during the
year on this project excavating a total of 1,000,700 cubic yards of
earth and rock. The dipper dredge Paraiso worked 48 days on this
project removing 316,600 cubic yards of material and the dipper dredge
683299-46- 4






42 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

(ascadas worked four days excavating 17,000 cubic yards of material.
Total excavation to date on this project is 4,790,900 cubic yards and
at the end of the fiscal year 1944 it was 61 percent complete.
Pacific district.-The pipe-line suction dredge Las Cruces worked for
128 days during the past year on maintenance dredging in the Pacific
entrance section of the Canal channel and removed 2,425,700 cubic
yards of material.
AUXILIARY DREDGING-OTHER PROJECTS
Cristobal Inner Harbor.-The pipe-line suction dredge Mindi worked
on maintenance dredging in the Cristobal Inner Harbor for 25 days
during the past year excavating 403,000 cubic yards of material.
Navy dock facilities, Cristobal Inner Harbor.-The drill boat Thor
was engaged in subaqueous mining for 64 days on this project and
broke 95,500 cubic yards of rock. The pipe-line suction dredge Mindi
worked 18 days on this project removing 128,000 cubic yards of mate-
rial, most of which was mined rock.
Marine railways, Cristobal Inner Harbor.-The suction dredge
Mindi worked for 19 days excavating 174,600 cubic yards of earth at
the site for the marine railways built at the Cristobal shops.
Dock No. 15 extension, Cristobal Inner Harbor.-The dipper dredge
Paraiso worked 4 days and removed 16,500 cubic yards of material
on this project.
Balboa Harbor maintenance.-The suction dredge Las Cruces
worked 35 days on maintenance in Balboa Harbor removing 523,500
cubic yards of material, practically all of which was earth. The
dipper dredge Cascadas worked 5 days in this area and removed 5,900
cubic yards of material.
Dry docks Nos. 2 and 3, Balboa Harbor.-The dipper dredge Cascadas
worked 15 days excavating 44,000 cubic yards of material for the two
new dry docks completed during the past fiscal year.
Refloating grounded ship-Gatun Lake.-The dipper dredge Gamboa
worked for 5% days at a dump in Gatun Lake excavating 41,600 cubic
yards of material in order to refloat a grounded ship.
Miraflores Lake anchorage.-The dipper dredge Paraiso worked 2k%
days excavating 11,200 cubic yards of material for a tie-up station in
Miraflores Lake.
Outer anchorage, Pacific entrance.-The drill boat Vulcan was
engaged in subaqueous mining for 42 days during the past year on
this project and broke 56,400 cubic yards of rock. The suction dredge
Las Cruces worked 40 days on this project and excavated 531,800
cubic yards of earth. The dipper dredge Paraiso worked 10 days on
this project removing 56,400 cubic yards of mined rock.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Naos Island dock approach.-The suction dredge Las Cruces worked
7 days excavating 103,100 cubic yards of material in the approach to
this dock.
THIRD LOCKS DREDGING
The Panama Canal's dredging division is charged with the perform-
ance of practically all of the wet excavation in connection with the
construction of the Third Locks project. During the past year the
following construction dredging was performed in various bypass
channels for this project:
New Gatun locks, North Approach Channel.-Shore mining with
rotary drills was in progress for 70 days in this area during which
time 75,300 cubic yards of rock were broken. The drill boat Thor
was engaged in subaqueous mining for 79 days and broke 102,500
cubic yards of rock. The pipe-line suction dredge Mindi worked for
140 days during the past year on construction in this bypass channel
during which time it excavated a total of 3,271,100 cubic yards of
material, most of which was earth. Total construction excavation
to date on this project is 7,701,700 cubic yards and at the end of the
year it was 92.8 percent complete.
New Miraflores locks, North Approach Channel.-Shore mining was
in progress for 31 days in this area, during which time 12,600 cubic
yards of rock were broken. The dipper dredge Gamboa worked 35
days removing 176,000 cubic yards of material and the dipper dredge
Paraiso worked 50 days removing 233,500 cubic yards of material on
this project. Total construction excavation to date on this project
is 2,214,300 cubic yards and it was 59.8 percent complete at the end
of the year.
New Miraflores locks, South Approach Channel.-Shore mining with
rotary drills was in progress for 156 days during the past year, during
which time 20,600 cubic yards of rock were broken. Subaqueous
mining was carried out by the drill boats Thor and Vulcan and by
rotary drill: The drill boat Thor worked 116 days and broke 73,700
cubic yards of rock; the drill boat Vulcan worked 241 days and broke
134,500 cubic yards of rock, while an additional 15,200 cubic yards
of rock were broken by rotary drill mounted on pontoons and barges.
The dipper dredge Cascadas worked 244 days in this bypass channel,
removing 821,500 cubic yards of material. The dipper dredge Paraiso
worked 86 days in this area, removing 361,000 cubic yards of material,
and the suction dredge Las Cruces worked 90 days, removing 1,193,700
cubic yards of material. At the end of the fiscal year excavation on
this project totaled 5,617,600 cubic yards and it was 45.5 percent
complete.






44 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL
SLIDES
Excavation from slides in Gaillard Cut from June 30, 1913, to the
beginning of the current fiscal year totaled 51,738,600 cubic yards.
During the past year 88,600 cubic yards were excavated from this
area, bringing the total excavation from slides to 51,827,200 cubic
yards as of June 30, 1944. Slide activity throughout the cut was
generally much less than in previous years, being even less than in
fiscal year 1943. Culebra slide (west) continued to be the most
active of all slides. Small movements were observed in seven slide
areas during the past year, including small distinct breaks in Lirio
slide (west), Barge Repair slide (east), and Miraflores slide (Cocoli
Hill). Only at Barge Repair slide (east) did any slide material
actually enter the Canal prism. Numerous bank breaks occurred,
but these were all limited to small movements of no consequence.
During the past year the dipper dredge Gaiboa worked 14 days in
Culebra slide (west) removing 73,600 cubic yards of material. The
dipper dredge Gamboa worked 1% days at Barge Repair slide (east)
removing 15,000 cubic yards of material.

SUBSIDIARY DREDGING DIVISION ACTIVITIES
SAND AND GRAVEL
During the past fiscal year 225,514 cubic yards of sand and gravel
of all classes (both run-of-bank and washed) were shipped from the
gravel stock pile at Gamboa, as compared with 545,591 cubic yards
shipped in the previous fiscal year. The suction dredge Las Cruces,
assisted by relay barge No. 24, worked 42 days producing 264,900
cubic yards of run-of-bank gravel which were pumped into the stock
pile at Gamboa.
The craneboat Atlas was in service for 64 days excavating 88,580
cubic yards of sand at Cham6 Point, Republic of Panama. This sand
was pumped into barges and delivered to the docks at Balboa.
HYACINTH CONTROL AND OTHER ACTIVITIES
The Canal and adjacent waters through Gaillard Cut, Miraflores
Lake, and Gatun Lake (including all dump areas) were patrolled and
the growth of hyacinths kept under control. Log booms at the mouth
of the Chagres and Mandinga Rivers were maintained to prevent
hyacinths, logs, floating islands, and other obstructions from entering
the' Canal channel during freshets, or spilling at Madden Dam.
During the year periodical inspection trips were made in the Chagres,
Mandinga, Frijoles, and Azules Rivers and along the shores of Barro
Colorado Island, Pefia Blanca and Gigante Bays, excavation dumps
and Miraflores. Pedro Miguel, and Red Tank Lakes. Weekly inspec-







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 45


tion trips were also made ot the Canal channel between Gamboa and
Gatun.
It is estimated that 37,044,000 hyacinth plants were destroyed
during the past year of which 20,961,000 were pulled and 16,083,000
were sprayed; of the plants pulled 6,140,000 were removed by the
debris cableway. Ninety-nine cords of driftwood were removed by
the debris cableway during the past year and an additional estimated
664 cords of driftwood were picked up along the banks of the Chagres,
I\fandinga, Chilibre, and Cocoli Rivers, Gaillard Cut, and Gatun,
Miraflores, Pedro Miguel, and Red Tank Lakes.

EQUIPMENT

The more important items of dredging equipment or plant were
operated during the past year as shown in the following tabulation:

Out of service
(months)
Unit and name Type In service
Repairs Reserve or
Repairs standby

DREDGES
Cascades ............................------------------------------ 15-yard dipper --.....-----------. 8.8 0.1 3.1
Gamboa ...-..--- ----........do --------------- ------- 8.1 1.1 2.8
Paraiso-----------...................------------------ ---- do ------------------ 6.8 1.2 4.0
Las Cruces -------------------------- 24-inch suction-...-----.-------- 11.2 .8 ------.-----
Mindi ------------------....................-------------28-inch suction...-....-----..---------.... 8.1 3.9 ..-------
CRANEBOAT
Atlas ------- .. .. ...-------------------- 75-ton ---------------------- 7.9 2.1 2.0
DERRICK BARGE
No. 157----- ...---- ----------------.. 40-ton ----------------------- 4.7 1.1 6.2
GRADER BARGE
No. 4 --------------... ...-------------- 14-inch pumps........... 8.9 .5 2.6
RELAY BARGES
No. 3 .........................--------------------------------........----------...------------------------------------ 12.0
No. 24 -....................--...... ........................-------------------.. 1.4 .5 10.1
DRILLBOATS
Terrier No.2- ---------.-------------- Steam --------------- -------- ----------------..-----. 12.0
Teredo No. 2------------------------...................---- do ------------------------------------------- 12.0
Vulcan-..-----------------------....--- Air -------....----- 9.3 ..------ 2.7
Thor---------------------------- -------...do------------------ 8.5 -------- 3.5
AIR COMPRESSOR
No.29 ..............------------ .......------------------- 2,500 CFM --- --------- 7.3 .......... 4.7
FLOATING CRANES
Ajax-------------------------------- 250-ton ------------------ 2.8 .5 8.7
Hercules -----..-------------- --do ----------------------- 6.9 .2 4.9
FERRY BOATS
President Amador ---.----------------- ------------------ 8.2 .S 3.0
President Roosevelt ------------------------------- ------------- 8.6 1.3 2.1
President Porras----..--------------------------------- ..-------------.. 8.3 3.2 .5


In addition to the above there were also operated as part of The
Panama Canal's dredging plant large tugs and small tugs or tenders
and an attendant fleet of dump scows, sand barges and service lighters,
launches, quarter boats, and related drilling and excavating equip-






46 REPORT 01 GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

ment. The following changes in the tug fleet occurred during the
year: Two large tugs, the San Pablo and the Culebra, built under
contract in the United States, were received and placed in service;
the large tug Chagres struck a mine and sank in the Pacific entrance;
the large tug Empire and the small tug Miraflores were temporarily
transferred from dredging to marine activities; and one small tug, the
Cocoli, was sold. At the end of the year nine large and three small
tugs were engaged in or available for dredging service.

FERRY SERVICE

Thatcher Ferry service was continuous throughout the past year
except for 4%} days during the month of July 1943 when it was sus-
pended because of repairs to the ferry ramps and racking. This ferry
crosses the Canal at the Pacific terminal and connects Balboa on the
east bank with Thatcher highway on the west bank. Service was
maintained by rotating the three ferry boats, Presidente Amador,
President Roosevelt, and Presidente Porras, keeping two of these ferries
in continuous service.
Since the opening of the new bridge across the Canal at Miraflores
in May 1942 the ferry traffic has become fairly well stabilized. In
the following table are shown the more important statistics relative
to operations of the Thatcher Ferry for the past three fiscal years:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Single trips made------------...............------------------------- 54,639 41,158 61, 218
Vehicles carried:
Panama Canal vehicles -------------..........--------------------............. 32, 681 23, 118 33, 617
U. S. Army vehicles.....................---------------------------- -------- 163, 723 122, 780 148, 210
Commercial trucks ---------------------------------- ------ 91, 148 101,795 206,184
Commercial passenger cars___ ----- ------.. 92, 723 63,991 137, 366
Private cars ----------------------------------------------- 216,991 167,659 466,821
Total vehicles carried --------------------------------- 597, 266 479, 343 992,198
Total passengers carried----...............-----........----------------- 3,211,690 3,208,626 5,943,845


THIRD Locis PROJECT
AUTHORIZATION

The Third Locks project, providing for the improvement and enlarge
ment of the capacity of the Panama Canal in the interest of defense
and inter-oceanic commerce at a cost not to exceed $277,000,000 was
authorized by act of Congress, Public No. 391, Seventy-sixth Congress,
first session, approved August 11, 1939. The project involves the
design and construction of a new set of locks at some distance from
the existing locks, the excavation of approach channels to connect






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


the new locks with the existing Canal, and the design and construction
of appurtenant works.
GENERAL PROGRAM
Excavation work on the Third Locks project was started by the
dredging plant of The Panama Canal on July 1, 1940. The entire
program was prosecuted vigorously from that date until May 1942.
On May 25, 1942, the Governor, pursuant to a directive of the Secre-
tary of War, issued instructions that construction of the third locks
project be modified in order to bring this project into closer conformity
with the over-all war program.
Under the modified program, dredging in the approach channels
was continued but on a lower priority basis. Contracts for excavation
of the New Gatun and Mliraflores locks sites were carried to com-
pletion. Other features carried to completion were the designs and
specifications, construction of the bridge over existing Miraflores
locks, the relocation of various utilities and construction of emergency
electric power plants.
Among the more important items suspended under the modified
program were the contracts for construction of the locks structures,
furnishing cement and for processing aggregate for the locks struc-
tures, the excavation for the Pedro Miguel lock, fabrication of lock
gates, and purchase of equipment for operation of the locks.
There had been appropriated for fiscal years 1941, 1942, and 1943
a total of $106,758,800 for the Third Locks project. Due to the
modification of the construction program in May 1942 the funds
which had been appropriated were more than sufficient to carry on
the curtailed program through fiscal year 1945. Accordingly, the
War Department Civil Functions Act approved June 26, 1944, re-
turned $30,257,572 to the Treasury.

DESIGNS-PLANS-SPECIFICATIONS

During the past fiscal year designs were completed and contract
plans prepared for virtually all mechanical and electrical equipment
for the locks. Final revision was made of the contract drawings and
maps for locks construction to bring them into conformity with work
performed and with the detailed development of mechanical and
electrical equipment. A great deal of the work of relocating high-
ways, railroads, and transmission lines was completed. Specifications
were prepared for numerous features of the lockoperating machinery,
equipment, and facilities. A comprehensive report was prepared on
all phases of the design of the Third Locks project for convenient refer-
ence when operations are resumed. Engineering studies of founda-
tions and other features were continued on a limited scale. Labora-






48 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

stories and other facilities rendered specialized services to other govern-
mental agencies in addition to continuing essential Third Locks work.
CONSTRUCTION
The major construction work accomplished during the past year on
the Third Locks project was the dredging performed in the approach
channels, completion of the excavation contracts, and construction
of the emergency power plants.
A total of 6,056,800 cubic yards was excavated from the Gatun
north and the Miraflores north and south approach channels. Further
details of the dredging work on the Third Locks project are given on
page 43 of this report. Final payment was made during the past year
for contract excavation of both the Gatun and Miraflores locks sites.
The emergency power plant at Gatun was completed and turned
over to the electrical division of The Panama Canal for operation and
maintenance effective July 1, 1944. The emergency power plant at
Cocoli on the Pacific side was practically complete at the end of the
fiscal year.
Owing to the modification of the Third Locks project, it had been
necessary to adjust and cancel portions of various contracts. These
adjustments resulted in the Government's taking over considerable
amounts of plant, equipment and material. During the year prac-
tically all of this plant, equipment and material, was disposed of
by sale, mostly to other units of the United States Government.
Among the more important items uncompleted at the end of the
fiscal year were the relocation of the 44-kilowatt power transmission
line at Gatun and, as stated above, the emergency power plant at
Cocoli.
Advice was received that the War Department considered Panama
Canal contracts subject to renegotiation. Delegation to the Governor
of authority to renegotiate Third Locks contracts has been requested.
PERSONNEL
The force working on the project was reduced from 367 at the start
of the fiscal year to 88 at the end of the fiscal year. Four consulting
engineers were employed on a contract basis to advise on a special
foundation problem.











SECTION II


BUSINESS OPERATIONS

The business enterprises operated by The Panama Canal and by the
Panama Railroad Co. embrace a number of activities which in the
United States would normally be carried on by private initiative.
They have been developed to meet the needs of shipping passing
through the Canal and of the Canal-Railroad organization and its
employees. During the past year, as in the 3 years preceding, these
activities have also served very important needs of the Army and
Navy, and have been expanded and adjusted to meet the require-
ments of the war effort. The business enterprises include the supply
of fuel, provisions, ship chandlery, and repairs to vessels; the provision
of public utility services; the maintenance of living quarters and the
sale of food, clothing, and other essentials to Canal and Railroad
employees; the handling of cargo and allied operations; and the opera-
tion and management of a railroad line. A steamship line between
New York and the Isthmus also was operated prior to the outbreak
of war, but since the steamers of the line were requisitioned for direct
employment in the war effort, this function was inactive during 1944.
The Canal and the Railroad are separate organizations, but the
administration of both organizations is vested in the Governor of The
Panama Canal, who is also president of the Panama Railroad Co.
PANAMA CANAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS
Business operations of The Panama Canal are conducted separately
from operating activities pertaining directly to the transiting of
vessels and the government of the Canal Zone. The annual appro-
priation acts for The Panama Canal authorize the expenditure and
reinvestment of all moneys received from the conduct of auxiliary
business activities, with the proviso that any net profit derived from
such business activities shall be covered annually into the Treasury
of the United States.
It is the aim to operate the business activities as a whole on a
self-supporting basis and, in general, to include as a charge against
their operations a fixed capital charge of 3 percent as interest on the
investment. The amount representing charges for interest on invest-
ment is a part of the net profits covered into the Treasury and is in
effect a reimbursement to the United States for interest paid by it
to holders of United States bonds. The investment in business
49






50 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

activities totaled $46,448,530.57 at the beginning and $46,950,569.31
at the end of the fiscal year (tables 4 and 5, sec. V). The capital
charge for the fiscal year 1944 was $1,069,606.10 (table 20, sec.
V). The net revenues of $1,553,294.06 exceeded this amount by
$483,687.96.
]MECHANICAL AND MARINE WORK

During the past fiscal year the mechanical and marine work per-
formed by the mechanical division continued at a high level, the
total volume for fiscal year 1944 actually being somewhat greater
than in the preceding year, thereby establishing a new high for volume
of business. As was the case in fiscal year 1943, charges on work
performed for the United States Navy are not directly comparable
with those of earlier years or with charges to other interests, because
the Navy has continued the practice started in 1943 of supplying
practically all material used for naval work.
There was a further increase of approximately 12 percent in work
for the Navy, and an increase of 65 percent in work accomplished for
the Army. Work performed for divisions of The Panama Canal
decreased by 25 percent as compared with the preceding year. Iln
normal times The Panama Canal organization supplies the bulk of the
work load which keeps the mechanical division functioning with
complete ship repair facilities, but during the past year The Panama
Canal's proportion was reduced to only about one-fifth of the total
work load.
The following table shows the classes and sources of work performed
during the past two fiscal years:

Gross revenues-Class and source

Fiscal year Percent Fiscal year Percent
1944 of total 19.13 of total

Class:
M marine ------------------------------- $12,607,957 73.4 $10,460,410 63.6
Railroad . ------ 1,021,101 5.9 1,387,273 8.4
Fabricated stock ------------------------------ ---- 768, 426 4.5 596,927 3.6
Sundries ----- ------- 2,773,237 16.2 4,003,737 24.4
Total--------------------------- ----------- 17,170,721 100.0 16,448,347 100.0
Origin:
Panama Canal ---------------------------------- 3, 674,955 21.4 4,959, 330 30. 2
Panama Railroad--------- 1,092,726 6.4 1,485,459 9.0
U. S. Army. -------------- 2,552,516 i4.9 1,554,893 9.5
U. S. Navy ----- ---------- 7,949,610 46.3 7,079,926 43.0
Outside interests.... .... -...-------........-- 1,900,914 11.0 1,368, 739 8. 3
Total --------------- -------- --- 17,170,721 100.0 16,448,347 100.0


Operating expenses for the fiscal year totaled $17,062,175, leaving a
net revenue from operations of $108,546.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


DRYDOCKS

During the past fiscal year two new small drydocks were placed in
operation at Balboa and two marine railways were placed in operation
at Cristobal. Drydocks Nos. 2 and 3 at Balboa began docking opera-
tions in March 1944. Marine Railway No. 2 at Cristobal began dock-
ing operations in March 1944, and Marine Railway No. 1 at Cristobal
was first used in May 1944. These new facilities are in addition to
the large (1,044-foot) drydock at Balboa and the mediuin (385-foot)
drydock at Cristohbal.
The following table sununarizes drydocking operations at all dry-
docks and marine railways during fiscal year 1944, with comparative
figures for the two preceding years, in which only the two main
drydocks were ini operation:

Number of vessels drydocked

Fiscal year 1944 Fiscal year

Cristloal
Balboa drydock and Total 1943 1942
drydocks marine total total
railways

Vessels belonging to:
U. S. Army..... ..-----------------------------.. .. 88 24 112 61 39
U. S. Navy ------------------- ---- 104 155 259 232 89
Commercial------------------- ------------- 17 30 47 38 28


Total outside ------------------------------
Panama Canal------------------------------
Panama Railroad Co------------------------


209 209 418 331 156
22 9 31 31 28
-------...- -----------...... 1 1


Grand total-.. ....--- ....--------.---------- 2------- 31 218 449 363 185


During the past fiscal year Balboa Drydock No. 1 was unoccupied a
total of only 4 days, while the Cristobal Drydock was unoccupied
only 6 days.
PLANT IMPROVEMENT

The largest items of plant expansion completed during the past
fiscal year were the drydocks and marine railways discussed in the
preceding section. In addition, the general program of expansion
and modernization of marine repair and other facilities was continued
throughout the past year. Approximately 140 pieces of new equip-
ment and machine tools were installed and placed in operation.
Additional buildings were constructed to house the expanded facilities,
while numerous major repairs and overhauls of facilities and equip-
ment were accomplished to improve the ability of the plant to meet
the added war-time demand placed upon it. Ship repair facilities at
Balboa were further expanded by the installation of Repair Berth No.
2, a floating repair berth leading off from dock 13.






52 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

OPERATIONS
The work load of the mechanical division, like that of ship repan
yards in general is highly erratic. Because the general irregularity of
local traffic has accentuated the problem of meeting peak demands,
it has been necessary to establish and to enforce strictly a priority
schedule for each type of work undertaken. As in 1943, it has been
necessary to refuse certain classes of work, which would have tied
up the large drydock for long periods of time and thus made it un-
available for the emergency docking of vessels of higher priority.
In each case sufficient repairs were made to allow the affected vessel
to proceed safely to some continental repair yard for the accomplish-
ment of permanent repairs.
To assist in maintaining a reasonably steady work load, the Navy
Department has assigned to the marine repair shops of The Panama
Canal, the construction and outfitting of three floating workshops.
Two of these vessels are to be constructed at Balboa and the third
will be assembled at Cristobal from material fabricated at Balboa.
Keels of all three of these vessels had been laid by the end of fiscal
year 1944, and they will be completed some time during the fiscal
year 1945.
A salvage depot, including a diving school had been organized as
a unit of the mechanical division of the Panama Canal during the
preceding fiscal year. This was placed in full commission on August 2,
1943. During the past year 27 employees of The Panama Canal and 9
enlisted men of the Navy were trained as divers and tenders. Various
minor salvage jobs were completed during the past year using the
personnel and facilities of the new salvage depot.
ELECTRICAL REPAIR WORK
The principal activities of the electrical division are: The operation
and maintenance of the power system; the operation and maintenance
of telephone, telegraph, electric clock, fire alarm, printing telegraph,
and railway signal systems; the operation and maintenance of the
street-lighting system; and the installation and maintenance of elec-
trical equipment as required by The Panama Canal and other govern-
ment agencies, or by vessels undergoing repairs at the Canal termi-
nals. Following is a comparison of the three principal classes of
expenditures of the electrical division for the past three fiscal years:
Fiscal year
1944 1943 1942
Electrical construction and maintenance work.-----------.----............... $2, 863, 306 $4, 046, 604 $4, 627, 231
Maintenance and operation of-
Electric power system -------------------------------- 1,039,388 1,182,345 1,265,905
Telephone system and railway signals -----...------------- 266, 424 279, 968 240,879






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


Further information concerning the principal construction projects
undertaken and the operation of the power system are given on page
32 of this report, under the general heading of Canal Operation, while
operating statistics of the telephone system are covered on page 61
under the operations of the Panama Railroad Co. The expenditures
shown above include interdepartmental transactions. As an example,
maintenance and repairs on the power system are performed by the
electric work unit and the cost of this work is therefore included in
the expenses of both the power system and the electric work units.
There has been a decided decline in the electrical construction and
maintenance work during the past year. This decline may be attri-
buted entirely to the completion of many construction and improve-
ment projects on the Canal Zone. During the past year, however,
there has been a sharp increase in the amount of electrical repair work
performed for naval and other ocean-going ships.
PURCHASE AND INSPECTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
The principal purchases of supplies for The Panama Canal were
made, as heretofore, through the Washington Office of The Panama
Canal; the volume of the purchases is indicated by the following table:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942
Number of purchase orders placed.----------------------...... ---.. 8,931 13,373 17,225
Value of orders placed--------------------------------........................... $5, 418, 842 $13, 265, 404 $30, 755, 528
Number of disbursement vouchers prepared..---------.----... 20, 884 28, 703 25, 358
Value of above vouchers -------------. -------. $11,352,061 $30,948,054 $35,011,069
Number of collection vouchers prepared -------------- 708 484 415
Value of above vouchers -.------------------..... ---------- $2, 206, 937 $3, 822, 004 $1, 370, 014
Cash discounts taken------------------------------------- $40,757 $90,566 $154,859

STOREHOUSES AND SHIPS CHANDLERY
In addition to the main function of requisitioning, storing, and
issuing general supplies for the Canal and Railroad (exclusive of the
merchandising operations of the commissary division) the Panama
Canal storehouses sell ships' chandlery and other supplies to commer-
cial shipping as well as to units of the United States Army and Navy.
The following figures show the material and supplies cleared through
the stores accounts during the past 3 years:

Fiscal year
General storehouses
1944 1943 1942
Gross revenues-sales and issues..-----....------------------- $17.040, 252 $21,316,977 $31,395, 349
Cost of materials, plus operating expenses....-------------------.. 16, 997,995 21,297, 328 31,357, 714
Net revenue--------------..------------------------- 42, 257 19, 649 37, 635
Inventory as of June 30th 1 ---............--- ---........ 10,834,536 13,434,960 8,110,409
1 This includes all material and supplies of The Panama Canal, by far the greater part of which is in the
general storehouses.







54 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

OBSOLETE AND UNSERVICEABLE PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

During the year disposition was made by sale, or by destruction
where the items had no money value, of obsolete or unserviceable
property and equipment which had an original value of $676,259.
Replacements were made as necessary.

BULK PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

All deliveries of fuel oil, Diesel oil, gasoline and kerosene to and
from storage tanks, for private companies and for The Panama Canal,
and some deliveries for the United States Navy, are made through pipe
lines and pumping plants of The Panama Canal. The following table
summarizes the operation of the oil handling plants for the past
3 years:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Fuel and Diesel oil: Barrels Barrels Barrels
Received by The Panama Canal------------------------- 505, 950 450,846 530,759
Used by The Panama Canal..--------------------------- 411,491 471,366 463,443
Sold by The Panama Canal ----------------------------- 29,346 34,706 47, 544
Miscellaneous transfers on tank farms-------------------- 24, 643 34, 240 29,102
Pumped for outside interests...------- ------------------ 23,659,364 20,512,062 11,573,369
Total barrels handled .----------------------------------- 24,630,794 21,503, 220 12, 644, 217
Handled at Mount Hope (Atlantic side) ------------------- 11,886,897 13,767,378 7,510,902
Handled at Balboa (Pacific side) -----------------------..--.... 12, 743, $97 7,735,842 5,133,315
Total barrels handled --- ------------------ ----- 24,630, 794 21,503,220 12,644,217
Number of ships discharging or receiving fuel and Diesel oil:
Panama Canal craft------- ----. ---- ------ -- --215 171 187
All others -------------------------------------------- 2,431 3,057 2,596
Total ---...--.------------......---------- 2,646 3,228 2,783
Gasoline and kerosene received:
By The Panama Canal: Gallons Gallons Gallons
Bulk gasoline ... ..------..... 11,162,293 13,007,076 12,583,934
Bulk kerosene ....... .........-. ....-- .--- 2,612,310 3,219,988 2,066,378
By outsiders:
Bulk gasoline.................. ... ..-------------- --- 31,496, 430 27,592,908 24,980,256
Bulk kerosene...-----...---------......---------------------. 1,709.148 2,490,852 1,855,602
Financial results of operations:
Total revenues ------------...---...-..---. -------------.---- $1,548,701 $1,617, 781 $1,181,822
Total expenditures (including cost of sales)..... ...----------- 1,179,789 1,129,620 1,070,164
Net revenues-..----------------------------------- 368,912 488,161 111,658


BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE

The program of construction under way at the end of the 1943 fiscal
year was continued in 1944. Maintenance was continued on existing
buildings in use.
The principal projects of building construction forThe Panama Canal
and Panama Railroad Co. completed by the building division of The
Panama Canal during the fiscal year 1944 were as follows:
Ancon-Balboa.-Annex and extension to machine-shop building
No. 1, extension to sheet-metal shop, and auxiliary oxy-hydrogen






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 55

plant, mechanical division; alterations and extension to Ancon theatre
and old clubhouse; bowling alley building; internes' quarters, Gorgas
Hospital; truck and drum filling station; additional sheds for motor
transportation division; lubricant storehouse; and theatre, La Boca.
Cristobal.-Shoe and tlilor shop For clubllhouse; silver theater;
splinterproofing of oil storage tanks; dispensary and pharmacy build-
ing, ward and cafeteria building and admitting office, Colon Hospital;
alterations and extension to filter building; electrical division field
office; silver bleachers at Mount Hope stadium; cafeteria, mechanical
division; and foundations and cooling tower, emergency power plant,
Agua Clara.
Pedro Miguel.-Locks storehouse, Paraiso.
Gatem.-Salvage depot; gold clubhouse and theater; two switching
stations; and silver theater.
Corozal.-Eighty-patient ward building, office building, and boiler
plant for ('orozal H hospital; and various buildings for quarantine station.
Cocolli.-Emergency power plant; dismantling and crating construc-
tion equipment; and garage for official equipment.
Summit.-Electrical division storehouse.
Diablo Heights, Gamboa, Alargarita.-No new buildings.
In addition to the principal projects listed above, which were com-
pleted during the year for The Panama Canal and the Panama Rail-
road Co., several large projects were completed for the United States
Army and Navy.
Expenditures in connection with the construction and maintenance
of buildings declined about $3,000,000 as compared with the preceding
year. The cost of maintenance and repair work performed during the
past year aggregated $1,183,585, of which $525,297 was expended on
maintenance of quarters occupied by gold employees and $183,484 on
maintenance of quarters occupied by silver employees; the balance of
$474,804 was spent on all other maintenance work performed by the
building division.
The total volume of construction and maintenance work for the
past 3 years is summarized below:
Fiscal year
1944 1043 1942
For Canal divisions:
Repair and maintenance work .............--------------......-----------..... $809, 360 $954,373 $981,559
Construction work.----.... ----------------------------- 3, 101,859 5, 145, 956 8, 249, 128
For the Panama Railroad Co.:
Repair and maintenance work --...............----------.. -------------- 71,888 238,741 195,656
Construction work... ...------- ----------------------------........... 81,233 157, 604 611,277
For other departments of the Government, employees and
others ....------------..-----------------------------............................... 1,841,357 2,467,049 628, 721
Total...............................--------------------............---------------------... 5,905, 697 8, 963, 723 10, 666, 339
Total maintenance --------------................... .......... 1,183,585 1,624,647 1,342,613
Total construction---..--....---............................-..----------------------..------ 4,722, 112 7,339, 070 9,323,726
Total..........----------------.......-....------------------------......................... 5, 905, 697 8, 963,723 10, 666, 339





56 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

QUARTERS FOR EMPLOYEES
Gold employees.-No new quarters for gold employees were con-
structed during 1944 and the early bi ilding of additional gold quarters
is not contemplated at this time. The demand for gold quarters has
decreased considerably in the past 2 years because of a reduction in
the number of employees due to the cessation of work on the Third
Locks and the completion of major items of other construction work.
Employees who had not established residence on the Canal Zone for
their families prior to December 7, 1941, are now permitted to bring
their families to the Isthmus.
On June 30, 1943, there were on file in all districts a total of 316
applications for original assignment to family quarters from regular
employees, and on June 30, 1944, there were 283, a decrease of 33 from
the previous year.
It is intended to continue the replacement of old quarters, although
additional construction will be suspended until such time as materials
become more readily obtainable than at present. The old quarters
constructed prior to 1909 show increased deterioration each year,
which necessitates increased maintenance expense. Several con-
demned quarters, the maintenance of which is borne by the occupants,
are still in use.
No changes were made in the general regulations governing assign-
ment and rental of quarters to American employees.
Silver quarters.-The operation of silver quarters was continued on
the same basis as in previous years. There were no new silver quarters
constructed during 1944 and, while new construction is contemplated,
none has yet been scheduled for the coming year with the exception of
alterations to the buildings at Camp Paraiso, which was transferred by
the United States Army to The Panama Canal on June 1, 1944. After
the completion of these alterations, quarters will be available at that
location for 245 families and 120 bachelors.
Repairs were made and plumbing installed in 24 old silver family
quarters, comprising 27 apartments, at Camp Bierd, and the apart-
ments were made available for regular assignment at increased rental
rates. At Gatun one miscellaneous-type quarters building for silver
bachelors was converted for occupancy by 24 silver families. At
Camp Gatun and Cocoli, the labor barracks were closed due to the com-
pletion of construction projects and the consequent repatriation of all
Jamaican and the majority of the Latin American contract laborers.
The demand for quarters from silver employees is still far in excess
of supply. As of June 30, 1944, there were 2,758 applications on file
for family quarters and 1,467 applications for bachelor quarters, a
total of 4,225, as compared with 3,585 applications on file June 30,
1943.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
The motor transportation division is charged with the operation and
maintenance of motor transportation for the departments and divi-
sions of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co. The centraliza-
tion of transportation facilities in this division and the requirement
that it be operated on a self sustaining basis have been primarily for
the purpose of supplying needed transportation at minimum cost to
The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co. Repair work is also
performed for employees and for contractors engaged in work for the
Government in the Canal Zone. A large amount of heavy hauling in
connection with various building and highway construction projects
was accomplished during the year.
The public transportation system of privately owned busses under
the supervision and control of the motor transportation division, which
was necessitated by gasoline and tire rationing and the resultant
curtailment in the operation of privately owned vehicles, continued to
carry employees and their families in and between the various towns
in the Canal Zone; 141 busses were operating in this service as of
June 30, 1944.
Revenues of the division during the past year, including motorcar
repair shop activities, totaled $3,008,356 and the expenses $2,951,276,
which left a net revenue of $57,080.
In the fiscal year 1944, 13 cars and trucks, 6 trailers and 2 motor-
cycles were purchased, and 76 cars and trucks and 2 trailers were
retired. At the close of the fiscal year, 966 cars and trucks, 32 trailers
and 8 motorcycles were on hand.
PANAMA CANAL PRESS
The operations of the Panama Canal Press were continued under
the same policies as heretofore. The printing plant carries stocks of
materials, and prints such forms, stationery, etc., as are required on
the Isthmus in connection with the operation of The Panama Canal
and the Panama Railroad Co. This unit also performed some work for
the United States Army during 1944, including the printing of Yank,
the Army weekly newspaper.
The following is a summary of the financial operations of this
plant during the past 2 years:
Fiscal year
1944 1943
Gross revenues ...--.---.----- ------------------ -----...------ $492,782 $569,780
Total output (including supplies not processed in the printing plant).----------- 486, 730 561,896
Net revenue.................................----------------------------------.---........................--.... 6,052 7,884
683299-46- 5





53 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMIA CANAL

SUBSISTENCE
The subsistence section, which was set up on May 1, 1941, to
provide meals for contract laborers brought to the Isthmus in con-
nection with the large construction program, continued under the
same policies as in the previous year. Operations were on a reduced
scale, however, because of the repatriation of the majority of the
contract laborers and the resultant discontinuance of the Cocoli and
Gatun messes. The La Boco, Gamboa, and Camp Bierd messes are
still in operation.
In the fiscal year 1944, a total of 6,811,458 meals or 2,270,486
rations were served by this unit, a decrease of 28 percent from the
3,168,992 rations served in the previous year. The decrease that
took place during the past year was actually much greater than is
indicated by the decline in total rations for the year; by the end of the
year the number of meals being served was only about one-third of
the number served in the first 6 months. The ration cost was $0.400
in the fiscal year 1944 as compared with $0.416 in the fiscal year 1943.

REVENUES DERIVED FROM THE RENTAL OF LANDS IN THE CANAL ZONE

Rentals for building sites and oil tank sites in the Canal Zone totaled
$32,165 for the year as compared with revenues of $32,517 for the
fiscal year 1943. Rentals from agricultural land in the Canal Zone
totaled $7,564 as compared with $8,207 for the preceding year. At
the close of the fiscal year 756 licenses were in effect, covering 1,490
hectares of agricultural land within the Canal Zone. This is a reduc-
tion of 35 in the number of licenses as compared with the previous
fiscal year and a reduction in the area held under licenses of 67 hec-
tares. This reduction is largely the result of the policy adopted as a
health measure in May 1935, that no more licenses for agricultural
land be issued and that holdings under licenses previously granted
shall not be sold or transferred.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS UNDER THE PANAMA RAILROAD
COMPANY
The Panama Railroad Co. was incorporated in 1849 under the
laws of the State of New York for the purpose of constructing and
operating a railroad across the Isthmus. When the concession,
rights, and property of the New French Canal Co. were purchased
in 1904, the stock of the Panama Railroad Co. became the property






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


of the United States Government. Since the acquisition of the rail-
road by the United States, its corporate status has been preserved
and the railroad has continued to function as a common carrier.
At the beginning of Canal construction work, by Executive order
of the President of the United States, the Panama Railroad Co. was
made an adjunct to The Panama Canal. Its operations are super-
vised by a board of directors functioning under the direction of the
Secretary of War. As the operations of the railroad complement
those of the Canal, the policy has been for the board of directors to
elect the Governor of The Panama Canal as president of the Panama
Railroad Co. Thus, the Governor of The Panama Canal is the admin-
istrative head of the Panama Railroad Co. This practice has insured
complete coordination of the activities conducted by the two or-
ganizations.
As the activities of the railroad company are covered in detail in
its annual report, only the major features of operation as they relate
to Canal administration are covered in this section.
In addition to the operation of the trans-istlunian railroad, the
business enterprises conducted by the Panama Railroad Co. include
the following: The loading, unloading, storage, and transfer of cargo
for shipping interests at the terminal ports; the operation of whole-
sale warehouses, retail stores, and subsidiary manufacturing plants
engaged in the supply of food, clothing, and other essential commod-
ities to governmental agencies and to employees and their families;
and the operation of coaling plants, hotels, a dairy, and a laundry.
Prior to the outbreak of war the company also operated a steamship
line between New York and the Isthmus, but as the vessels of this
line have been requisitioned by the Government, this function was
native during 1944.

TRANS-ISTHMIAN RAILROAD

The railroad line operates between Colon, the Atlantic terminus,
and Panama City, the Pacific terminus. In addition to those cities,
the railroad serves all nearby activities of The Panama Canal. Gross
revenues from the operations of the railroad proper (not including
subsidiary business activities) during the fiscal year 1944 amounted
to $3,520,081. Revenue freight totaled 829,355 tons, as compared
with 1,312,189 tons during 1943, a decrease of 482,834 tons.







60 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Comparative statistics covering the significant features of railroad
operations during the past 3 years are presented in the following
table:


Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Average miles operated, Colon to Panama .----------------. 47.61 47.61 47.61
Gross operating revenue -----------.......------- ---------- $3, 520,081 $4, 738,504 $4,915, 925
Number of passengers carried:
First-class----------------------------------------------- 358, 907 443,910 319,235
Second-class...--------------------------------------- 487, 840 702, 989 558,893
Total.... --------------- .......------ 846,747 1,146,899 878,128
Revenue per passenger-train-mile ----------------------------- $5.79 $8.82 $7.62
Revenue per freight-train-mile..-------------------------................... 16.30 14.22 13.42
Passenger train mileage -- ------------------------- 161,836 146, 134 141,549
Freight train mileage -- -- ----- 208, 277 305, 545 345,537
Work train mileage----- ---------------------- 4,079 8,117 3,098
Total train mileage---------------------------------- 374, 192 459, 796 490,184
Switch locomotive miles-..--....------------------------- 232, 933 317, 906 298, 867


RECEIVING AND FORWARDING AGENCY

This division handles the dock and harbor activities of the Panama
Railroad Co. at the two terminals of the Canal. The following statis-
tics summarize the results of operations for the past 3 years:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Total revenue--------------------------------------- $3,364,189 $4,388,212 $3,934.304
Tons Tons Tons
Total cargo handled and transferred across docks --------------.. 1,734,556 2,018,377 2,508,421
Cargo stevedored by Panama Railroad Co ............--- -------- 673,209 854,110 1,145,186
Cargo ships handled.-------------------------------------- 1,767 2,381 3,345
Banana schooners handled ------------------- -------------- -------------- 449
Agency services furnished vessels-..........---- ....................------------ 50 36 42


COALING PLANTS

The volume of coaling-plant operations at Cristobal and Balboa for
the past 3 years is shown in the following table:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Gross revenues ----------------------------------------------- $1,308,907 $1,875,602 $1,414,120
Tons Tons Tons
Coal sold.......................---------...............-----------................--------------- 59,750 77,906 127, 644
Coal purchased.................................---------------------------------------......... 53,282 59,030 126,839






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


REAL-ESTATE OPERATIONS
Real-estate operations of the Panama Railroad Co. are devoted to
the management of the property owned by the company in the cities
of Colon and Panama and buildings erected by the company in the
Canal Zone. In pursuance to terms of the agreement concluded in
Washington, D. C., in May 1942 between the Governments of the
United States and the Republic of Panama, and of a Joint Resolution
(Public Law No. 48, 78th Cong.), the Panama Railroad Co., on
December 16, 1943, transferred to the Republic of Panama certain of
the company's lands in the Republic of Panama, having an appraised
value of $11,759,956.00. On December 15, 1943, there were in effect
1,641 leases to Panama Railroad Co. property in the cities of Colon
and Panama, of which 1,327 were in Colon and 314 in Panama City.
As of June 30, 1944, there were in effect a total of 7 leases and 14
licenses, nominally covering Panama Railroad Co. interests in both
cities. These figures included 7 licenses to lots located in the Panama
Canal quarters section of New Cristobal, formerly carried as Panama
Canal licenses, and 2 licenses to United States Government property
in Panama City, which are administered by the Panama Railroad.
No Panama Railroad Co. land in Colon or Panama City was dis-
posed of by sale during the year.

TELEPHONE SYSTEM
The gross revenues from the operation of telephones, electric clocks,
and electric printing telegraph machines were $366,484.
During the year 1,303 telephones were installed and 1,283 were dis-
continued or removed, resulting in a net increase of 20 telephones for
the year. At the end of the fiscal year 1944 there were in service
5,502 telephones, as well as 55 electric clocks and 36 automatic printing
telegraph typewriters. Telephone calls handled through the auto-
matic exchanges averaged 141,037 calls per day in 1944 and 155,690
per day in 1943 during the sample days tested. This represents an
average of 25.6 calls per telephone per day in 1944, as compared with
28.4 in 1943.
On March 20, 1944, the new 100-pair trans-isthmian telephone
cable was completed and placed in service. This cable was installed
by Panama Canal forces except for the splicing, balancing, and final
testing. These latter operations were performed by employees of the
American Telephone & Telegraph Co. who were sent to the Isthmus
for this purpose.
COMMISSARY DIVISION
The primary function of the commissary division of the Panama
Railroad Co. is to supply at reasonable prices food, clothing, and






62 REPORT 01' GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

household supplies to meet the needs of United States Government
personnel and the various United States Government departments on
the Isthmus. In carrying out this function the division operates
wholesale warehouses and cold-storage plants as well as retail stores
in each of the Canal Zone towns. Sales are restricted to agencies and
personnel of the United States Government, except that ice, cold
storage, food, and other essentials may be purchased by commercial
steamships passing through the Canal or calling at its terminal ports.

SALES

Net sales for the year totaled $39,220,427, compared with $46,-
948,042 for the previous fiscal year. The value of merchandise on
hand June 30, 1944, was $5,767,525, compared with $6,168,745 at
the close of the fiscal year 1943. The ratio of sales to inventory
indicates a theoretical stock turnover approximately every 8 weeks.
The distribution of sales for the past three fiscal years is shown in
the following table:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

U. S. Government (Army and Navy) --------------------------$9. 793,040 $19, 379,638 $12, 245, 622
The Panama Canal ---..............---------------- 4, 170,701 932,976 4,303,862
The Panama Railroad Co -.---- 419, 719 593, 510 779, 143
Individuals and companies ------------------------2, 072, 333 1,771,385 1,552, 484
Commercial ships...----------------- ------ ----------.. 1, 596,607 737, 061 543, 996(
Employees ----.--------------------------..------------------ 23, 183, 746 22, 486, 611 18, 297, 702
Gross sales ------------------------- 41, 236, 146 49, 901, 181 37, 722, 809
Less discounts, credits, etc------------------------------------- 2, 015,719 2,953, 139 2,301,045
Net sales ...........---------- 39, 220, 427 46, 948, 042 35, 421, 764


PURCHASES

Purchases during the year aggregated $32,563,699, a decrease of
$10,037,211 from the previous year. The following tabulation shows
the value of the various classes of merchandise purchased for the
past three years.

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Groceries. .- ...................................---------- $8, 254, 247 $8,716,892 $8,769,4101
Candy and tobacco---------.. .------------------------------- 1,185.909 1,135,739 1,090,298
Housewares -...-------..... - .. - -. 1,508,613 1,513,607 1,489,100
Dry goods --...........----..----------.------------.---------------------.................... 3, 507, 543 5, 591, 027 3.000, 521
Shoes----------------------------------------...--..------------- 1,431,202 2,006,714 1, 149, 913
Cold storage --... ....- -- .- --- - - --.. . . -- _- 9, 319, 656 13, 815, 161 8,865,456
Icaw materials ----------------------------------------- .. .. 1,881,940 2,642,347 2,517,275
Cattle and hogs. ------------------------------ 1,478,063 1,140,892 892, 131
Milk and cream ......... ... ..----------------------------------....- 361, 327 324,032 25, 524
Dairy products ---. ---- ------.. ---.-----. -..-- .-------.--. 3,635,199 5,714,499 3,670,049
Total-...------------------------------.....................---------------...---.. 32, 563, 699 42, 600, 910 31,870, 677





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 63

HOTELS
The hotels Tivoli and Washington were operated by the Panama
Railroad Co. without change of policy during the year. These hotels
are an essential adjunct to the Canal, providing necessary accommo-
dations for foreign visitors, American tourists, visiting Government
officials, and others.
The gross revenue from hotels was $957,374, compared with
$843,478 in 1943, and the number of guest days was 101,823, com-
pared with 91,059 in 1943.

MINDI DAIRY
The operation of the Mindi Dairy continued as in previous years.
Milk production for the year was 441,910 gallons, compared with
425,077 gallons in the preceding year, an increase of 16,833 gallons.
Fresh milk is furnished to the hospitals and, on doctors' prescriptions,
to persons having preference, such as invalids, infants, and nursing
mothers. The surplus remaining after these needs are met is sup-
plied to employees, units of the Canal and Railroad organizations,
and Army and Navy units stationed on the Isthmus.









SECTION III


ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENTS
The organization of The Panama Canal on the Isthmus embraces
five principal departments, namely, operation and maintenance,
supply, accounting, executive, and health. In addition, an office of
The Panama Canal is maintained in Washington, D. C. The Panama
Railroad Co., a Government-owned corporation conducting business
enterprises on the Isthmus, is a distinct unit, yet it is closely affiliated
with the Canal organization.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
The department of operation and maintenance embraces functions
related to the actual use of the Canal as a waterway, including the
dredged channel, locks, dams, aids to navigation, accessory activities
such as shops and drydocks, vessel inspection, electrical anrd water
supply, sewer systems, roads and streets, hydrographic observations,
surveys and estimates, and miscellaneous construction other than
the erection of buildings.
SUPPLY
The supply department is charged with the acquisition, storage, and
distribution of materials and supplies for The Panama Canal and Rail-
road; the maintenance and construction of buildings; the assignment
of living quarters to employees and care of grounds; the operation
of storehouses, fuel-oil plants, an experiment garden, and a printing
plant; the supplying of motor transportation facilities to the various
departments and divisions of the Canal and Railroad organizations;
and the operation of messes for silver-roll contract labor.

ACCOUNTING
The accounting department is responsible for the correct recording
of financial transactions of the Canal and Railroad; the administrative
auditing of vouchers covering the receipt and disbursement of funds
preliminary to the final audit by the General Accounting Office; cost
keeping of the Canal and Railroad; the checking of timekeeping; the
preparation of estimates for appropriations and the allotment of
appropriations to the various departments and divisions; and the
examination of claims.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


EXECUTIVE

The executive department embraces the office of the Governor and
all general administrative activities. In this department are included
the administration of police and fire protection, postal service, customs,
shipping-commissioner duties, estates, schools, playgrounds, general
correspondence and records of The Panama Canal and Panama Rail-
road Co., personnel records and management, wage adjustments,
general information, relations with Panama, and the operation of
clubhouses, restaurants, and moving picture theaters.

HEALTH

The health department has jurisdiction over all matters pertaining
to sanitation and public health within the Canal Zone and the cities
of Panama and Colon, the operation of hospitals and dispensaries, and
the enforcement of quarantine regulations.

PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY

The operations of the Panama Railroad Co. on the Isthmus are
related closely to those of The Panama Canal. As the Governor of
The Panama Canal is also president of the Panama Railroad Co., the
heads of all departments, both of the Canal and Railroad organiza-
tions, report to him. The general administration of the composite
organization is centered in the executive office, and the accounting
work in the accounting department. The Panama Railroad and the
business divisions of the Canal organization are billed for their proper
shares of the general overhead expense.
CHANGES IN (ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
Appointments in official positions during the fiscal year 1944 were
as follows:
Maj. Gen. Joseph C. Mehaffey, United States Army, was appointed
Governor of The Panama Canal on May 16, 1944, vice Maj. Gen.
Glen E. Edgerton, United States Army, relieved from duty with The
Panama Canal.
Col. Francis K. Newcomer, Corps of Engineers, United States
Army, was appointed engineer of maintenance on May 16, 1944, vice
Maj. Gen. Joseph C. Mehaffey, United States Army, appointed
Governor of The Panama Canal.
Brig. Gen. Henry C. Dooling, United States Army, was appointed
chief health officer on March 1, 1944, vice Maj. Gen. Morrison C.
Stayer, United States Army, relieved from duty with The Panama
Canal.





66 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Mr. Lew W. Lewis was appointed chief quartermaster, The Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad Co., on July 22, 1943, vice Mr. Roy R.
Watson, deceased.
Col. James G. Steese, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, was
appointed assistant to the Governor on May 16, 1944.
Col. Albert C. Foulk, Air Corps, United States Army, was appointed
chief, aeronautics section, on March 20, 1944, vice Col. Charles
Sommers, Air Corps, United States Army, relieved from duty with
The Panama Canal.
Col. William C. Dreibelbies, Medical Corps, United States Army,
was appointed superintendent, Gorgas Hospital, on March 25, 1944,
vice Brig. Gen. Henry C. Dooling, United States Army, appointed
chief health officer.
Mr. Lewis B. Moore was appointed first assistant chief quarter-
master, The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co. on July 26,
1943, vice Mr. Lew W. Lewis promoted to chief quartermaster.
Maj. Charles V. Sanders, Coast Artillery Corps, Army of the United
States, was appointed assistant to the Governor on April 29, 1944.
Mr. William M. Whitman was appointed assistant general counsel
on August 1, 1943, vice Mr. Ronald S. Hazel, resigned.
Lt. Comdr. Fred R. Draper, United States Naval Reserve, was
appointed assistant to the superintendent, mechanical division, on
July 2, 1943, vice Lt. William J. 0. Prinsloo, United States Naval
Reserve, relieved from duty with The Panama Canal.
Mr. John F. Phillips was appointed production superintendent,
mechanical division, on January 1, 1944.
Mr. A. Oren Meyer was appointed chief, police and fire division,
on July 1, 1943, vice Mr.. Guy Johannes, retired.
CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
Safety section.-Effective July 1, 1943, the safety section was trans-
ferred from the organization of the special engineering division and
set up as a separate section in the department of operation and main-
tenance, under the supervision of the engineer of maintenance, report-
ing directly to the military assistant to the Governor.

EMPLOYEES
The force employed by The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad
Co. is composed of two classes which for local convenience have been
designated "gold" and "silver" employees. The terms "gold" em-
ployees and "silver" employees originated during the construction
period of the Canal from the practice of paying common laborers and
other unskilled or semiskilled workers employed in the Tropics in
silver coin, while skilled craftsmen and those occupying executive,






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 67

professional, and similar positions were paid in gold coin, the latter
group being recruited largely from the United States. Although all
employees are now paid in United States currency, the original terms
used to designate the two classes of employees have been retained for
convenience. The terms "gold" and "silver" are applied also to
quarters, commissary, clubhouse, and other public facilities.
The gold employees-that is, those carried on the gold pay roll-
comprise those employees who are engaged in the skilled trades and
in the executive, supervisory, professional, subprofessional, clerical,
and other positions where education, training, and special qualifica-
tions are required. The force of silver employees is composed almost
entirely of natives of the Tropics, a considerable number of whom are
Panamanians. They are employed principally as laborers, helpers,
and semiskilled workers on work which does not require the services
of specially trained or qualified persons.
Responsibility for personnel administration in The Panama Canal is
vested in the division of personnel supervision and management,
executive department. The division's activities are separated into
"gold" and "silver" subdivisions in accordance with the customary
classification of employees of The Panama Canal.

GOLD EMPLOYEES

Starting in May 1944 the regular monthly force reports of The
Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co. have been compiled as of
the last working day of the month. Prior to that they had been com-
piled as of the first Wednesday of the month. The distribution of
the gold personnel on June 30, 1944, and on June 2, 1943, is shown in
the following tabulation:

June 30, June 2 Increase Decrease
1944 1943 increase crease

THE PANAMA CANAL
Accounting department--------------.-------------- 288 304 --......_... 16
Dredging division--------. ------------------------- 371 477 ------.... 106
Assistant engineer of maintenance:
Electrical division .. .... -------------------- 479 419 60 .---------
Locks division ------ ------------- .. ..--- 276 278 .... .... 2
Municipal division .--- -------------------- 259 581 --..--- 322
Office engineering division-------------- 117 176 --..- ---- 59
Meteorology and hydrography section ............. 10 10 ........ -----------
Executive department:
Personnel division....... --------------------- 133 155 -...--- 22
Executive offices ----------------------------------- 145 156 ---------- 11
Bureau of posts ---------------------------------- 83 177 -------- 94
Civil affairs and customs .----....----------------- 58 59 -.....------ 1
Clubhouses . -. ........-- ----- -------------- 136 182 ........- 46
Collector--..-------------------------------------- 19 19 --. -------- --.-----
Fire section---------------- 107 119 --- ---- 12
M agistrates' courts ------------------------ 7 7 ...-- -. ...... ------
Paymaster ------ ------------------------------ 17 18 ------------ I
Police section...---- --. --.......------------------ 274 368 ---....- 94
Schools and playgrounds ------------------------- 141 170 ---.-------- 29
Fortifications------------- ..--... -------------.. .. 2 3 ---------...--- 1
Health department --.---.--. -------------------- 641 655 -.....-- 14
Marine division .-----..---.....---.------------------------- 223 208 15 --.-----.---
Mechanical division -------------------------------- 1,825 1,755 70 ........-----..






68 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

June 30, June 2, Increase Decrease
1944 1943

TBE PANAMA CANAL-continued
Special engineering division-.......-------------------------- 86 380 ------------............ 294
Supply Department:
Offices, chief quartermaster ----------------- 24 28 ---------...........--- 4
Building division -------------------------------- 163 235 ............ 72
District quartermasters ---------------------------- 42 46 ------------ 4
Experiment gardens------------------------------- 14 27 -_. -.......- 13
Motorcar repair shop------------------------------ 107 105 2 .
Alotor transportation division ---------------------- 103 192 ..........---- 89
Oil-handling plants ------------------------------- 45 41 4 .
Panama Canal Press ------------------------------ 13 17 ------.......---..... 4
Storehouses ------------------------------ ---- 122 170 ........... 48
Subsistence section------- ---------------------- 7 17 --------- 10
Total, The Panama Canal -..--------------------- 6,337 7,554 151 1,368
Net decrease -------- ---------------------------.------------------------ 1,217
PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
Railroad proper ----------------------------------- 133 186 ............ 53
Receiving and forwarding agency ------------------- 120 172 .......---- 52
Commissary division -------------------------------- 356 412 __.---.__.-- 56
Dairy farm--------- -------------------------- 5 6 1........
Hotels----------------.- ---------------------------- 17 19 ------ 2
Real-estate section ..-------.....---------------------........................------- 6 8 ------------ 2
Total, Panama Railroad Co --------... 637 803 ........------ 186
Total force.-..---...............--------------------------- 6,974 8,357 151 1,534
Net decrease, total force------------------------------- ----------------------- 1.383


In line with the reduced heavy-construction activity throughout
1944, the gold force of the Canal-Railroad organization decreased by
1,383 employees (16.5 percent) from June 2, 1943 to June 30, 1944.
The reduction in force was accomplished gradually and, where neces-
sary, employees immediately affected were transferred to other
divisions, thereby reducing the recruiting and employment problems.
The divisions which showed the largest numerical declines were the
special engineering division, the municipal engineering division, and
the dredging division, in which an over-all decrease of 722 employees,
one-half of the total decrease, was recorded. However, ten other
divisions registered decreases of 20 percent and upward. Five units
recorded increases during the year, but only two of these were of real
significance. The electrical division force, which declined 19 percent
in the fiscal year 1943, continued to decline through February 1944.
In March, however, the division began to expand rapidly because of
an increase in marine electrical work, and by the end of the year had
a net increase of 14.3 percent over June 2, 1943. The mechanical
division, which had expanded more rapidly than any other division
in the preceding year because of the heavy work load of marine repair
and other work involving skilled craftsmen, continued to be very active
throughout 1944, and showed an increase of 4 percent in force as com-
pared with June 2, 1943.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 69

RECRUITING AND TURNOVER OF FORCE-GOLD EMPLOYEES

The following table shows additions to and causes of separations
from the gold forces of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad
Co. during the past year:

Panama Panama Total
Canal Railroad

Additions--------.............------------.... ------------------------------- 1,451 92 1,43
Separations:
Resignation -..--....----------------------------------------- 1,165 107 1,272
To enter military service ------------------------------------------ 808 71 879
Reduction in force.--.------------------------------------ 288 19 307
Termination of temporary employment or reassignment.---------- 117 2 119
Removal for cause ----------------------------------------- 106 6 112
Retirement:
Age ----------------------------------------------------------- 39 5 44
Disability ---------------------------------- .------2---------- 2 9 31
Optional...----------------------------------- 17 6 23
Disability-not qualified for retirement ------------- 20 1 21
Inefficiency.---------.---------------------------------------------- 6 3
Transfer (to other departments of Government)....------------------ 7 ..---------- 7
Disqualified in trial period --------------------------------------- 3 1 4
Death ..-..----.- ..-.- --------------------------------------- 20 1 21
Total separations --------------------------------------- 2, 618 231 2,849
Net separations--.............---- ...---------------------------------- 1,167 139 1,306

NOTE.-The above figures do not include 133 employment made on a part-time basis and 92 terminations
of part-time and irregular employees; neither do they include 8 employment and 8 terminations of American
citizens on the silver roll.

Based on an average aggregate gold force of 7,459 for the period
covered, the 2,849 separations from all causes shown in the foregoing
table represent a turnover of 38.2 percent. This is slightly lower than
the 39.1 percent rate of turn-over in 1943 which was believed to be
the highest rate experienced by the Canal-Railroad organization since
the original construction period. When separations by reason of
reassignment or expiration of temporary employment are excluded
the turn-over rate is 36.6 percent for 1944 as compared with 37.8
percent for 1943; and when the separations due to reduction of force
are also excluded, the rate for 1944 is 32.5 percent as compared with
32.1 percent for 1943.
A factor which probably had the effect of keeping turn-over in force
at a high figure in 1944 was the application during 1944 of selective
service registration to male citizens residing in. the Canal Zone. A
total of 879 employees terminated their services specifically to join
the military forces in 1944. While many employees no doubt resigned
for this purpose in 1943, the exact number is not known; but it is
believed that the number was considerably lower than in 1944.
Employment.-During the past year recruitment in all divisions of
the Canal-Railroad organization was necessary primarily for replace-
ment purposes, particularly to replace losses to the military service.
The principal recruitments were for the mechanical and electrical






70 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

divisions and these were necessary to maintain an adequate organiza-
tion to handle marine repair work.
At the beginning of the fiscal year the War Manpower Commission
issued orders restricting recruitment in the United States by individual
Federal agencies, which implied that all agencies thereafter would
place requisitions for necessary personnel with the United States Civil
Service Commission, and that selections would be made by the
Commission. However, in view of the employment conditions
peculiar to the Canal organization, the War Manpower authorities
authorized The Panama Canal to recruit through its own representa-
tives in the field in cooperation with the United States Employment
Service.
Although an attempt was made to maintain high qualifications
standards, versatility of experience, and employment of persons with
more than minimum requirements, the effect of the war on conditions
in the labor market forced a lowering of recruitment standards in
most occupational categories. It has been necessary to resort in-
creasingly to the employment of male applicants in the higher age
brackets and to the replacement of younger males by females. Re-
cruitment in the field by Panama Canal representatives has assisted
greatly in securing new employees of the highest possible qualifica-
tions under conditions prevalent in the labor market.
During the fiscal year all employees were transported to the Isthmus
by airplane through embarkation ports of Brownsville, Miami. and
New Orleans.

ADJUSTMENTS IN WAGES AND HOURS OF WORK

During the past year the rates of pay of postal employees with the
exception of postmasters in the larger post offices, were adjusted
following comparable adjustment in the rates of pay of employees of
the Post Office Department in the United States. There were no
other major changes in the rates of pay or hours of work of gold
employees during the fiscal year.

SILVER EMPLOYEES
As stated previously, force reports of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. are now compiled as of the last working day of the month,
whereas formerly they were compiled as of the first Wednesday of the
month. The granting of sick and rest leave to silver employees has
also made it desirable to effect some changes in the report pertaining
to silver employees. Originally the force report data included only
employees at work on the day the force count was made, the purpose
of these figures being to determine the size of the actual working








REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 71


force. As revised, the force report figures for silver employees now
show all employees carried on the pay roll, including those temporarily
not working. This change in the manner of compiling data materially
effects force report figures in divisions having work of a fluctuating
character, such as the receiving and forwarding agency, which em-
ploys a large force of laborers intermittently engaged in loading and
unloading vessels at the dock.
Subject to the above qualifications the following table shows a
comparison between the silver force of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Co. on June 30, 1944, and June 2, 1943, the figure for the
receiving and forwarding agency on June 2, 1943, being an approxi-
mation of the total silver force on that date.


THE PANAMA CANAL
Accounting department-------------------- ----
Dredging division-......................................
Assistant engineer of maintenance:
Electrical division -------... --
Locks division-------------------------------------
Municipal division ..---------------------------
Office engineering division -----------
Meteorology and hydrography section- ------------
Executive department:
Executive offices.----------------------------------
Bureau of posts.---------------------------------
Civil affairs and customs
Clubhouses ---------------------------------------
Magistrates' courts--------------------------------
Paymaster..------------------------- --------
Police section ..... -------------------
Schools and playgrounds--------------
Health department. -.. ------------------
Marine division----------------------------------------
Mechanical division ---------------------------------
Special engineering division----------------------------
Supply department:
Oflices. chief quartermaster -----------------------
Building division -------------------------------
District quartermasters-...........................-
Experiment gardens----------------------------
Motorcar repair shop- ---------------------------
Motor transportation division- --------------
Oil-handling plants .--- ------------------------
Panama Canal Press -------------------------------
Storehouses.....------------------------------------
Subsistence section....--------------------------------
Total, The Panama Canal-------- ----------
Net decrease -----------------------------------
PANAMA RAILROAD CO.
Railroad proper ------------- ...........-------..........
Receiving and forwarding agency----------------------
Commissaries----------------------------------------.
Dairy farm .................----------------------...
Hotels ---------------------------- -----
Real estate--------........ ... ........--- ---- _-----
Total, Panasa Railroad Co --- ------------
Net decrease...-----------. --------. -
Total force---- ----------------
Net decrease, total force --------------


June 30,
1944


June 2,
1943


Increase


109
------------
1
2

25

1


283
17
-----------


16, 168 20,408 456
............ -......... ............


550
2,693
3,233
126
267
3
6,872


23,040


699
3,2833
3,415
107
242
3
7,749


.........---
19
25

44


Decrease


1
699
32
1,650
12







28
121

16

2
1,057
54
286
112
---------






29
319
265
4, 696
4, 240


149
590
182



921
877


- Ill______________________ I I ________________________


28,157 500
.. .... |...... . .


As in the case of the gold force, decreased construction activity
during 1944 resulted in substantial decreases in force in the majority






72 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

of the units employing silver workers. The over-all decrease in
comparison with 1943 was 18.2 percent. The largest numerical de-
clines were in the municipal engineering division, the dredging divi-
sion, and the building division, although important decreases also
occurred in other units of the supply department. Substantial gains
in the silver force were recorded in only two divisions. The increase
of 283 in the marine division was brought about by increased Canal
traffic which necessitated the employment of additional tugs and an
increase in the number of men required for handling lines of vessels
transiting the Canal. The locks division silver force was higher by
109 than in the previous year, which was due to a holdover for clean-
up purposes of employees used on locks overhaul, additional men
required for painting emergency dams, handling heavy lines on large
ships passing through locks, and performing rehabilitation work on
dams and backfills following the completion of construction projects
by the Army and municipal engineering division.

SILVER WAGES

Wages of employees on the silver roll bear no direct relationship to
wages of corresponding classes of workers in the United States. As
silver roll employees are for the most part natives of the Tropics, their
wage scales are established at levels based on wages prevailing for
tropical labor in the Caribbean area. There were no important
changes in silver wage rates during the past fiscal year.

SICK AND REST LEAVE

Rest leave for silver employees was authorized by regulations issued
June 12, 1942. The former regulations governing sick leave allow-
ances were amended to authorize the granting of rest leave to alien
employees not otherwise entitled to vacation leave privileges, pro-
viding they have 5 years or more of continuous service and an excess
of 30 days sick leave to their credit. Sick leave is earned at the rate
of 1^ days per month. A total of 22,668 sick leave payments were
authorized during the fiscal year as compared with 25,050 during the
previous fiscal year. A total of 3,259 rest leave payments were
authorized in 1944 as compared with 1,783 in the previous year.
CASH RELIEF FOR DISABLED SILVER EMPLOYEES
Applications for relief under the act of Congress of July 8, 1937,
averaging 19 per month, were received during the fiscal year 1944.
The original regulations established during the latter part of the
fiscal year 1938 for administering this relief were continued without
material change.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 73

The tables below show the disposition of all applications from
employees of both The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co.
during the fiscal year 1944. The average cost per case and the
monthly payment as of June 30, 1944, are also indicated.


Panama Panama Total
Canal Railroad

Applications on hand, July 1, 1943---------------------------------- 3 12
Applications received during period ---------------------------------- 160 71 231
Total..----..--------------....-------.------..--------------------... 169 74 243
Applications approved for payment.----.......--------.....----------..-. 117 59 176
Applications suspended for various reasons ----......---...-------.............------. 4 4 8
Applicants died before relief approved...............................----------------------------... 2 ------------ 2
Applications rejected for various reasons--.........----------.....-----.----------................------------.. 2 2
Applicants ineligible because of limitations of the act ...-_-_-.--- ... 39 6 45
Applications not complete but in various stages of progress, June 30,
1944.---------------................---.......---...------..----------.------------..... 7 3 10
Total ---...----..... ------------------------- ..........---------------- 169 74 243

NOTE.-Removal from the rolls on account of the death or subsequent reemployment of cash relief re-
cipients: Panama Canal, 51; Panama Railroad, 13.


Number Monthly av- Monthly
of cases erage pay- average
mcnt per case payments

Panama Canal rolls -----------------------...---... --. -------------- 461 $18. 62 $8, 582
Panama Railroad Co. rolls------------------------------------ 201 20.54 4,128
Total--... ....------------ --. --.------------- ............-----------------. 662 19.20 12,710


Expenditures on behalf of The Panama Canal cash relief program
are paid from annual appropriations for that purpose, while those of
the Panama Railroad Co. constitute a continuation of the former
plan of granting cash relief to the superannuated employees of that
company and are paid by the Panama Railroad Co.

REPATRIATIONS

In 1934 an appropriation of $150,000 was provided for the purpose of
repatriating unemployed West Indians and their families who have
rendered at least 3 years service with the United States Government
or the Panama Railroad Co. on the Isthmus. During the fiscal year
1944 approximately $3,971 was expended for the repatriation and
rehabilitation of 64 former employees, accompanied by 43 members of
their families, a total of 107 persons. To date a total of $62,119 has
been expended for repatriation of 853 employees accompanied by
750 members of family, a grand total of 1,603 individuals. The
average cost per person for repatriation has been $38.75, and the
average cost per employee, $72.82.
683299-4--6----6






74 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

CENTRAL LABOR OFFICE

The Central Labor Office program of The Panama Canal provides
for eligibility control over applicants seeking employment with govern-
ment agencies and private contractors operating on the Isthmus.
The general decrease of employment activities is demonstrated by the
comparative figures presented below, showing the total numbers of
silver employees carried on the rolls of the various organizations as of
June 1944 and June 1943:

June 1944 June 1943

Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co ..........------------------........ 23,040 28,339
Panama Canal contractors ----------------------------------------------------- --------... 158
Panama Canal Department (Army)--------------------------------------------- 5,570 5,248
Army service exchanges --------------------------------------------------------- 1,536 985
Division engineer (Army) ----------.------------------------------------ 7,506 11,410
Division engineer contractors--------- ------------------------------------- 407 2. 235
U. S. Navy ..................---------------------.................................-----------------------------------.................. 5, 448 3 026
U. S. Navy contractors ------------------------------------------------------- 145 7,432
M miscellaneous ----------------------------------------------------------------- 62 124
Total .----- --.-----------------------------. ... 44,314 58, 957


Because of the insufficient supply of qualified labor on the Isthmus.
recruitment of contract workers from foreign countries continued
through September 1943 and then was discontinued. All workers
brought to the Isthmus during the past year were recruited in El
Salvador, whereas in the previous year workers were also imported
from the Republic of Colombia and from Jamaica, British West
Indies. The only foreign recruitment office in operation, largely to
handle repatriations, during the fiscal year 1944 was in El Salvador,
and it was closed on June 30, 1944.
From the inception of the foreign recruiting program in 1940, a total
of 19,675 contract workers have been brought to the Isthmus. Of
this number 16,465 have been repatriated, leaving, as of June 30, 1944,
a total of 3,210 still on the Isthmus. The following table shows figures
for the different areas from which the workers were recruited:

Number re-
Number Number maining on
recruited repatriated Isthmus
June 30, 1944

Colombia .. ------------------..- -.. ...... --.. -- 2,244 1,998 246
Costa Rica -------... -- --............................-- 2,248 1,990 258
El Salvador.... ...........----- -------..-..-- .- ... 10,183 7,681 2, 502
Jamaica ---- -- ........-- --------- ..-- ..----..... ........ 5, 000 4,796 204
Total.... ------------..........--...------ -------... ... ..---------.. 19,675 16, 465 3,210


SAFETY PROGRAM

A safety section in the Canal-Railroad organization was established
on April 26, 1940. The principal duties of the safety section are to






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


promote the application of safety measures in all subdivisions of The
Panama Canal-Panama Railroad organization, and to develop and
improve the programs of accident prevention for the organization as a
whole. This is accomplished by various activities such as periodic
inspections of field conditions, investigations of accidents, recommen-
cdations pertaining to safety matters, holding safety committee meet-
ings in various divisions of the organization and interesting supervisory
and other employees in the subject of accident prevention.
Normal experience has shown that during a period of expanding
activities the increase in the number of injuries might be expected to
be proportionately greater than the increase in hours worked. This
would be a natural result of taking on large numbers of new and inex-
perienced workers unfamiliar with the hazards of their work, and to
whom immediate working conditions are strange. Thus, it might
have been anticipated that the accident rate for the Canal-Railroad
organization would increase sharply during the recent period of ex-
panded activity. However, because of the safety program launched
near the start of the increase in work, the Canal-Railroad organization
was able not only to prevent an increase but to effect a decrease in the
rate of accidents.
The following statistics cover the accident rates for the Canal-
Railroad organization for the four full fiscal years since institution
of the safety program:

Year Man-hours Lost time Frequency Days lost Severity Fatalities
worked accidents rate I time rate. 2

1941-................... .. ---------------------- 72,725,000 5,750 79 214,170 2.94 21
1942............................. ------------------------ 92,429,000 4,978 54 238,628 2. 58 27
1943-................------ .. ...----------------- 94,325,000 3,585 38 230, 914 2.45 28
1944 ----------.... 80,499,000 2,770 34 158,770 1.97 17

I Frequency rate is the lost time accidents per million man-hours worked.
2 Severity rate is the days lost time per thousand man-hours worked.

The table below shows injury and death compensation benefits
for the Canal-Railroad organization for each of the 4 years since the
institution of the safety program, compared to the annual average
for the preceding 23 years:

eljury corn,- Compensation
Yearly average sensation per $1,000
pay roll

23 years-1918-40 ..............-----------------------------------....------------..... $51,886 $3.31
Fiscal year:
1941 _ __ -------------------------------------------------------- 86,290 2.55
1942 --...-----......---..................-------------------------------------....------------............. 98,830 2.21
1943 ..-------. -__ ...__ ..- .......................... 104, 550 2.17
1944 ----...... ....-------------............................................ 120,037 2.58






76 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Approximately two-thirds of the compensation payments now cover
accidents that occurred in previous fiscal years and so the amount of
such payments will not decrease during the next few years in propor-
tion to the anticipated decrease in work load. Accordingly, because
of the recent period of expanded activity the annual compensations
and rates may be expected to be high for the next several years but
these payments would have been materially higher had it not been
for the great improvement in accident prevention evidenced by the
data shown above.
The worst accident in the past fiscal year was the sinking of the
tug Chagres in the Pacific entrance on August 3, 1943. Eight men
were killed in this accident, which accounted for nearly half of the
17 fatalities during the past year.

PURCHASE OF WAR SAVINGS BONDS BY EMPLOYEES
The pay-roll deduction plan for the purchase of War Savings bonds
was continued with great success throughout the year, the deductions
for gold employees for the fiscal year 1944 amounting to $3,993,772.25,
as compared with $2,855,300 in the preceding year. Employees
responded substantially to the Third War Loan Drive (September
9 to October 2, 1943), the Fourth (January 18 to February 15, 1944),
and the Fifth (June 12 to July 8, 1944), all of which were conducted
during the fiscal year 1944. The Panama Railroad Co. and The
Panama Canal led all Government agencies in the purchase of war
bonds by the pay-roll deduction method and have been listed on the
Interdepartmental War Savings Bond Committee's honor roll, the
Panama Railroad Co. leading all other agencies and The Panama Canal
being second. Percentage of employee-participation at the close of
the year was 95.83 for the Railroad and 90.54 for the Canal employees,
while percentage of the gross pay roll subscribed was 21.05 and 16.93,
respectively.
By circular dated October 19, 1943, the pay-roll deduction method
for the purchase of war bonds was extended to the silver employees,
effective December 1, 1943, and as of June 30, 1944, a total of 2,456
silver employees were subscribing for bonds, the total amount of
monthly deductions being $17,531.25. The silver employees' plan
is limited to monthly deductions in the amounts of $6.25, $12.50,
and $18.75.
EXPERIMENT GARDENS
The Canal Zone plant introduction gardens and experimental station
were established in June 1923. The gardens, which include green-
houses, nurseries, and experimental plantings, embrace approximately
125 acres of land, and are devoted to the propagation and cultivation
of a wide variety of useful and ornamental plants from all parts of the






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


world, primarily for the purpose of determining their adaptability
and value under local soil and climatic conditions, for general propaga-
tion on the Isthmus. This unit also designs and supervises all land-
scape work for The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Co.
The volume of work handled by the landscape section of the gardens
was considerably less in 1944 than it had been in the three preceding
years. This was due principally to completion of the large program
of landscape work in new Canal Zone towns and in Army and Navy
reservations, as well as the practical completion of camouflage work
for the Army and of soil erosion work.
During the year the regular long-range experimental work was
continued. Experimental plantings were made of several new varie-
ties of tomatoes, lima beans, sweet corn, cucumbers, and muskmelons
with results indicating their adaptability to this climate. The opera-
tions of the nursery as a separate and self-supporting department of
the experiment gardens has proved to be one of the important services
which the gardens can render. Each year thousands of plants of
species previously tried out under Isthmian conditions and found
worthy of further propagation find their way into different parts of
the Canal Zone, Panama, and neighboring countries. During the past
year the demand for various varieties of citrus and avocado plants
far exceeded the supply, and the nurseries are being enlarged to take
care of the anticipated demands for next year.
Sales continued good at the Balboa sales store where the garden's
products were made conveniently available to the public. Items
sold included sweet corn, string beans, lima beans, okra, tomatoes,
bananas, grapefruit, limes, lemons, .mangoes, mangosteens, and such
other products as were available.

CLUBHOUSES
The Panama Canal clubhouses, which are now operating on a self-
supporting basis, comprise activities designed to provide at reasonable
rates restaurant, motion picture, and other recreational facilities for
Government personnel and their families. These activities have
undergone considerable expansion during the current period of
increased activity on the Isthmus. Since a large percentage of the
personnel brought to the Isthmus in the past several years have
necessarily come without their families, the problem of feeding them
has devolved largely upon the clubhouses. Further, the clubhouse
facilities are used extensively by members of the armed forces sta-
tioned on the Isthmus.
All of these factors produced much overcrowding in all the club-
houses, particularly in the larger ones located in the terminal areas






78 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

of Balboa and Cristobal. To meet this situation it became necessary
to undertake a major program of expansion of the clubhouse facilities.
The most important addition to the clubhouse plant last year was
the construction of a new gold clubhouse at Gatun. The former gold
clubhouse at Gatun was a very old, large, frame building located on
a hill near the Gatun locks. This building constituted a hazard to
the defense of Gatun locks, and so was torn down very soon after
the entry of the United States into the war in December 1941, except
for a small part specially protected to house the restaurant. The
town of Gatun did not have gold clubhouse facilities from that time
until the new plant was opened on April 1, 1944.
During the past year several other improvements, planned or begun
in prior years were completed. One of these was the new Balboa
Bowling Center opened in September 1943. The Ancon motion-
picture theater was enlarged, remodeled, and placed back in service
in September 1943. New silver theaters were built in La Boca,
Cristobal, and Gatun, as replacements for the silver theaters formerly
located in the old frame clubhouse buildings in those towns, which
had been fire hazards for some time.
During the fiscal year 1944 the business and revenues of the club-
houses remained at nearly the same level they had reached during
the previous year, which has been a record high. Activity of the
clubhouse chain is still six or seven times prewar levels.
LEGISLATION

Among the laws enacted by the Congress during the fiscal year
1944 which relate to or apply to the Canal Zone or affect The Panama
Canal and which are of importance or interest are those described
below.
An act approved May 29, 1944. providing for the recognition of
the services of certain civilian officials and employees, citizens of the
United States, engaged in and about the construction of the Panama
Canal.
An act approved April 4, 1944, amending the act of June 11, 1940,
making it a misdemeanor to stowaway on vessels.
An act approved March 4, 1944, making it a misdemeanor to stow-
away on aircraft and providing punishment therefore.
Legislation relating to the Canal Zone introduced during this fiscal
year and still pending in Congress includes:
A bill (S. 1115) to provide for the exercise by the United States of
certain jurisdiction over persons within areas in the Republic of
Panama, the temporary use of which for defense purposes is granted
to the United States.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


A bill (H. R. 3952; S. 1644) for the relief of the families of certain
employees of The Panama Canal who were killed in the marine acci-
dents involving the tugs Alhajuela and Chagres.
A bill (H. R. 4307) to amend the Canal Zone Code retirement pro-
visions so as to provide for the retirement at age 55 of an employee
with 30 years' service on an immediate annuity having a value equal
to the present worth of a deferred annuity beginning at the age of 60
years.
A bill (H. R. 3646) to amend section 42 of title 7 of the Canal Zone
Code by increasing from 4 to 8 years the terms of the United States
district attorney and of the United States marshal, was approved
July 1, 1944.
CAPITAL ALLOTMENTS, FISCAL YEAR 1945
The appropriations for 1945 carried $1,311,500 for improvements
and betterments and for the replacement of worn-out or excessively
deteriorated facilities as follows:
Auxiliary raw water supply, Pacific side $325, 000
Launch for Marine division _._. 25, 000
Dredging division dock, Balboa ------_---- 830, 000
Locomotive repair shelters, Gatun and Pedro Miguel_ 70, 000
Sanitation building, Ancon ---- 27, 000
Equipment for central dental laboratory--------- 17, 500
Infirmary, Corozal Hospital------------------ -- 17, 000

Total-------------------------------------- 1, 311, 500
Auxiliary raw water supply, Pacific side.-This project covers the
installation of 14,000 lineal feet of 30-inch, cement-lined, cast-iron pipe
from Paraiso pump station to the Miraflores filter plant. It will pro-
vide the facility for delivering an additional amount of raw water to
the Miraflores filter 'plant and permit increasing the output of that
plant from the present maximum of 23,000,000 g. p. d. to 28,000,000
g. p. d. The new pipe line will permit independent operation of the
two sources of supply (Chagres River and Gaillard Cut) which will
give better operating characteristics, lower pressures, and lower pump-
ing costs. Since it will follow a new route it will provide protection
against an interruption to the Pacific-side water supply in the event of a
break in the present raw water main on the narrow Panama Railroad
causeway across an arm of Miraflores Lake, which might be washed
out be a large flood.
Launch for marine division.-This appropriation has been provided
to cover the cost of one Diesel-powered launch, 50 feet long, for
parties boarding ships at harbor terminals. The new launch is to re-
place one that is 26 years old and which cannot be reconditioned to
secure the essential dependability.





80 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

Dredging division dock, Balboa.-Approximately 2,500,000 cubic
yards of material are dredged each year from the Canal south of
Miraflores locks and from the port of Balboa. The drill boats and
dredges performing this work require the services of approximately 50
auxiliary craft such as tug boats, oil and water barges, dump scows,
pipeline tenders, watch boats, and launches. All these craft are serv-
iced and dispatched from an inadequate makeshift mooring station
north of Balboa inner harbor. In February 1941, the expanding de-
mand for the existing permanent dock facilities by ocean-going vessels
loading, and discharging cargo, and requiring wet-dock repairs, pro-
hibited the further use of any part of these docks by the dredging
division and necessitated the establishment of a temporary mooring
station for the use of that division until the necessary appropriation
could be obtained and the construction of a permanent dock with
suitable auxiliary equipment completed. The dock to be built under
this appropriation will be 500 feet long by 50 feet wide with reinforced
concrete deck, a barge repair shed 100 feet long by 25 feet wide, and a
field office 40 feet long by 20 feet wide, the two latter structures to be
erected on the dock proper. Access to the dock will be provided by the
construction of a road 520 feet in length. With the construction of
these facilities the equipment of the dredging division in the Pacific
entrance and Balboa inner harbor areas will be provided with adequate
mooring and dock space.
Locomotive repair shelters, Gatun and Pedro Miguel.-This appropri-
ation was made to cover the cost of building concrete shelters over
existing towing locomotive repair pits at Gatun and Pedro Miguel
locks. The Canal is equipped with 64 of these towing locomotives, 40
of which were acquired in 1914 and the remaining 24 added from time
to time as the need developed. Prior to the outbreak of the war all
necessary replacements and additions were constructed by the me-
chanical division. However, under present war conditions, the need
for conserving materials and the difficulty of securing them, together
with the very heavy work load on the mechanical division, precludes
the construction of new locomotives and makes it necessary to con-
tinue to depend upon the present locomotives. To meet these con-
ditions it has been necessary to make more extensive use of the exist-
ing repair pits and provide shelters for such of the pits as are not now
equipped for protection against bad weather conditions.
Sanitary building, Ancon.-This appropriation was made to cover
the cost of a new one-story building to be used for centralizing and
providing additional space for the garbage collection and disposal
activities of the health department. In common with all other mu-
nicipal services, the volume of garbage handled has more than doubled
as a result of the general expansion in the Canal Zone, and the growth





REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


of the population in Panama. The present facilities for cleaning, re-
pairing and maintaining the garbage cans and other refuse receptacles
are located in a 20- by 15-foot open shed, while the office for time-
keeping, checking, and dispatching duties is located in a small struc-
ture of reclaimed lumber under the wooden garbage loading platform
at Ancon. These structures are of a makeshift nature and inadequate
for continued use.
Equipment for central dental laboratory.-This appropriation was
made to defray the cost of equipment required to establish a central
dental laboratory, which will permit the Canal Zone dentists to pro-
vide prompt and adequate dental service to the public. Space for the
laboratory is already available in an existing building and funds were
appropriated only for the purchase and installation of the necessary
equipment. Under the present arrangement the district dentists
have small work shops in their offices which are inadequately equipped,
and a large part of the laboratory work must, in the end, be sent to
laboratories in the United States for completion, with consequent
delays, increases in cost, and frequent errors in manufacture. The
establishment of the laboratory will permit the dentists to provide
special dental appliances as required, and will improve the quality and
quantity of the dental work performed and reduce its cost. The vol-
ume of work to be handled by the laboratory is expected to remain at
a high level indefinitely, so that revenues derived from the work will
enable the laboratory to meet its operating costs.
Infirmary, Corozal Ilospital.-Corozal Hospital is primarily an in-
stitution for the care and treatment of the mentally disturbed, but at
present approximately 100 of the inmates are senile, chronic, or
cripples, most of whom are suffering from organic diseases which re-
quire special care and attention from time to time. Inasmuch as the
hospital is designed for mental cases no facilities for the treatment of
other than mental ailments are available for these patients and they
must therefore be transferred to Gorgas Hospital whenever the neces-
sity arises for ordinary medical treatment. The addition of these
cases to the already greatly over-crowded wards of Gorgas Hospital
further strains the facilities of that institution and the movement
adversely affects the patients. As the majority of the cases are of d
nature that could be adequately treated at Corozal if proper facilities
were available, an infirmary for that purpose will be provided by en-
closing the space under the wing of an existing ward building. This
project will afford space for 32 patients, as well as for nurses' and at-
tendants' offices.












SECTION IV

GOVERNMENT

The civil government of the Canal Zone is conducted as prescribed
in the Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912, and subsequent acts
and Executive orders applicable to the Canal Zone. 11henever
practicable, governmental functions have been assigned to depart-
ments in the organization established for the operation and main-
tenance of the Canal. Complete cooperation and increased efficiency
are derived from such coordination of functions.
Date on expenses and revenues of various features of Canal opera-
tion and government are contained in the financial and statistical
statement in section V of this report.

AREA OF THE CANAL ZONE

The total area of the Canal Zone,' with areas segregated for various
purposes, is shown as of June 30, 1944:

LAND AREA


Military and naval reservations (inclusive of
areas):
Military reservations ---------------------
Naval reservations------------------

Total --- -- - ----.
C('anal Zone townsites and areas in active use_ _---
Miscellaneous assigned land areas:
Barro Colorado Island ----
Forest preserve------- ------- --
Cattle pastures -------------------------
Conmmercial leases ---------- ------------
Third locks project ----------

Total _----------------
IRemaining usable land -
Swamps


Total land area of the Canal Zone


revocable license
Square miles
- ------------ 87.23
----- ---- 12.02

--------- ---------- 99. 25
-------------------- 15. 69

-------------- 5. 71
------------- 5. 47
-------------- 41. 80
-------- .44
72

S ------------ 54. 14
------- ------ 177. 77
----- ----- 15. 16


362. 01


WATER AREA
Total water area of the Canal Zone (inclusive of Madden Lake to the
260-foot contour)---- ------- ----- 190. 94

Total area of the Canal Zone- __ ------ 552. 95
1 Not inclusive of noncontiguous areas, with the exception of Paitilla Point Military Reservation.
82






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 83

POPULATION

A house-to-house canvass of the civil population of the Canal Zone
was made by the police force during the month of March 1944. This
canvass included civilian employees of the Army and Navy, and
members of families of Army and Navy personnel, but omitted com-
missioned, warrant and enlisted personnel. In past years the canvass
had been made during the rainy-season month of June, but in 1944
it was decided to make future canvasses during the dry-season month
of March, to afford the enumerators easier access to the outlying
areas. Further, in normal times the March canvass will be more
accurate, since during the summer months many employees antd their
families are absent from the Isthmus on vacation.
The following is a summary of the population by districts:

Americans All others
Total
Men Women Chi- Men Women Chil-

Balboa district -- -----.......................... 6,580 4,902 2,928 9,689 3,515 3,840 31,454
Cristobal district -- ------ 1,655 869 782 6,201 2,949 3,664 16, 120
Prisoners ------------------------------ 16 ---------- ------- 183 2 201
Total inhabitants, March 1944 .--- 8,251 5,771 3,710 16,073 6,466 7,504 47,775
Total inhabitants, June 1943 ------......- 11, 159 5, 462 3,585 23, 543 6,239 7,402 57, 390

The population in March 1944 was 16.8 percent less than that
shown by the canvass taken in June 1943. The Canal Zone popula-
tion has been at abnormal levels in the past 4 years because of the
large number of persons brought to the Isthmus to work on construc-
tion projects of the Army, Navy, and Panama Canal. Most of
these projects have been completed since the 1943 canvass, and the
sharp decrease in the 1944 population figures reflects the repatriation
of a considerable number of the persons brought to the Isthmus in
recent years.
In addition to the population shown above, in March 1944, 1,484
American employees and their families (472 men, 514 women, and
498 children) were residing in United States Government quarters
in New Cristobal, Republic of Panama.
PUBLIC HEALTH
Little change occurred in health conditions on the Isthmus with the
exception of an epidemic of mumps which, continuing from the pre-
ceding year, gradually declined during the fourth quarter of the year
to the. normal expectation of sporadic diseases.
The two first-aid stations established in the mechanical division
areas at Balboa and Mount Hope during the fiscal year 1943 continued
in operation, but all other first-aid stations have been closed.







84 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

VITAL STATISTICS

The morbidity and mortality rates from diseases and injuries,
together with other vital statistics relating to the populations of the
Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, are set forth in
detail in the calendar year report of the health department, which is
published annually in booklet form. For this reason, the data
herein pertaining to vital statistics are limited to a brief resume of the
most important information.
General death rate.-The death rate for the Canal Zone is artificially
low because employees generally leave the Isthmus after retirement.
Moreover, prior to 1941 a large number of relatively young soldiers
were included in the population figures on which the rates were com-
puted. Below are shown death rates by yearly periods for the past
five years:

Death rate per 1,000 population-all causes

Calendar year

1943 1942 1941 1940 1939

Canal Zone ..... .----------------- i6.24 I 6.24 1 8. 57 6.43 6.32
Panama City 10.49 10.62 11.43 11.50 11.93
Colon ..--. ---------------------------------- 12.11 12.13 15.00 11.04 11.57

I Omits Army and Navy personnel.

Principal causes of death.-The eight principal causes of death in
each of the groups of population were as follows:

Number of deaths and annual rate per 1,000 population-calendar year 1943

Canal Zone Panama City Colon

Number Rate per Number Rate per Nunber Rate per
1,000 1,000 1.000

Organic diseases of the heart------------- 57 0. 99 125 1.00 82 1.74
Cancer of various organs -----.........--...--- ... 2 .49 74 .59 36 .77
Pneumonia...................- .......... .. 11 .19 133 1.06 49 1.04
Tubereulosis..... ........----------------- -------- 25 .43 208 2. 14 80 1.70
Apoplexy ----- 16 .28 38 .30 31 .66
Nephritis (acute and chronic). -------.... 22 .38 97 .77 45 .96
Diarrhea and enteritis............ ......--- --- 3 .05 77 .62 14 .30
Syphilis .. ...................----- .......- ------- 14 .24 49 .39 21 .45


Birth rate. Prior to the last 3 years the Canal Zone birth rate
for whites as shown in the statistics was artificially low, since a
large number of Army and Navy enlisted men were included in the
population figures used in the computation of the rate. The colored
birth rate is low because only colored employees who have more than
the average length of service, and hence are in the older age group,







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 85

can obtain quarters in the Canal Zone. The birth rates for both
classes in the calendar years 1943, 1942, and 1941 are not directly
comparable with those sliown in the table below for earlier years
because the population base for white births has omitted Army and
Navy personnel since 1940, and because the colored population has
been inflated by the influx of laborers without their families, imported.
for construction work.
The following table shows the birth rates in the Canal Zone and the
terminal cities of Panama and Colon for the past 5 years:

Live birth rate per 1,000 population


1943


Calendar Year

1942 1941 1940


1939


Canal Zone:
White -------------. ----------------------. 127.21 123.08 124.75 8.98 7.51
Colored --.-----------.. ..........------------.....---------...... 15.25 13.07 15. 80 19.24 14.90
Combined ------- ---------------------- 19. 48 16.65 19. 10 12. Z6 10. 76
Panama City ----------............--------------.--------- 34.06 30.38 29.60 28.09 28.34
Colon......-.......-----------------.........-----.--......----------...... 34.32 27.38 27.20 25.41 25.02

I Population base excludes Army and Navy personnel.

Death rates among children under 1 year of age.-The following
table shows the infant mortality rates per 1,000 births for the past 5
years:
Deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births

Calendar year

1943 1942 1941 1940 1939

Canal Zone:
White.......----------------------------------- 24 22 51 40 31
Colored-------....---.--..............................------------------------- 51 53 61 69 87
Combined--------------------------------- 38 38 56 56 65
Panama----...-------------- 73 79 89 94 91
Colon..............---.---.---................--------.-..---.........--------- 65 79 97 98 77


MALARIA

The rates for malaria among employees only for the past 10 years
are shown below:


Calendar yearRate per Calendar year Rate per
thousand thousand

1934 ....--------------.....- 16 1939 ............... ---------- 14
1935 ---------------- --- 15 1940.....-------------------------------- 17
1936 ---------------------------- 12 1941 ...-..........---------- ---------------- 14
1937- ----------------------... ------ 12 1942........- 25
1938 -----------------------------...... ............ 10 1943 .--------. ----. -------- 15







86 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

There was one death from malaria among employees during the
calendar year 1943.
HOSPITALS

The number of patient days in Panama Canal hospitals for the
past three fiscal years was as follows:

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Gorgas Hospital --... --------- ----------------- 365,429 427,455 386,563
Corozal Hospital:
Insane ..- ----- -- ------- 98,198 107,886 96,050
Cripples and chronic medical and surgical cases ------------------ 36,029 34, 744 33, 212
Colon Hospital--------- ----- ------------------------- 47,048 46,049 44,019
Margarita Hospital -----... ------------------------- 22.348 18, 269 495
Palo Seco Leper Colony --------------------------------------------- 42, 426 42, 288 43, 529
Total -----.....------------------------------------------------ 611,478 676,691 603,868


QUARANTINE AND IMMIGRATION

There was an increase both in ship and in airplane traffic in the
Canal Zone in 1944, as compared with the fiscal year 1943. The
number of persons admitted and detained at the quarantine station
on account of immigration laws decreased during the past fiscal year,
since the majority of the silver contract laborers returned to their
respective countries either prior to or during the fiscal year 1944.
Nearly twice as many ships were fumigated in the fiscal year 1944
as in the previous year. The spraying with insecticide of all airplanes
arriving from South American countries has been discontinued, and
in its place Aerosol is being used, the latter being preferable to and
more efficient than the former. The practice of taking the tempera-
tures of passengers and plane crews arriving from South America was
continued throughout the year.'
The sanitary conditions of most of the South American ports remain
about the same as in the previous year, with jungle fever, bubonic
plague, and typhus fever continuing to be endemic in certain localities.
A number of cases of typhus fever in Guatemala, and a few cases of
smallpox in Venezuela and Colombia, have been reported.
Three ships arriving at Canal Zone ports were detained in quarantine
during the fiscal year, one having on board a case of acute cerebral
spinal meningitis, one a case of poliomyelitis, and the third a case of
suspected diphtheria. The patients were removed from the ships and
precautionary measures were taken.







REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL 87

Immigration and departure control offices were installed in the nfew
Canal Zone air terminal building during the year, to facilitate the
handling of air traffic in the Canal Zone.
The following is a summary of transactions for the fiscal year 1944,
together with the figures for the two preceding years:


Fiscal year

1941 1943 1942

Vessels inspected and passed --------. -------------------.--------- 3, 568 2. 841 3,923
Vessels granted pratique by radio ---- ---- ..----- - 36
Total ----- .......-- ------------------------ --------------.------.----- 3.568 2,844 3, 9,59
Crew passed by quarantine ..... ..------------------------------- --- 4,946 146, 537 205,136
Crew passed by radio.------------------------------------------------- ..- 7, 251
Passengers passed at quarantine---- ------------------- --- 53, 134 50, 823 112,196
Passengers passed by radio------------------------------------------------ ---------- -- 375
Total ..........-----------......-------- ..------------... .. ---------- ---238, 080 197,360 324,958
Airplanes inspected and passed -------------------------------------------- 2, 656 2,525 1,619
Crew of airplanes inspected and passed ----------- 11.345 11,090 6,601
Passengers of airplanes inspected and passed -------------------------- 36, 912 33,623 20,837
Total----...............................---- ------------------ ---- 4, 257 44.713 27. 438
Vessels detained in quarantine--...........................----------------------------------- 3 2
Crew detained in quarantine on board of ship .........- --------- -------... 175 105 -
Passengers detained in quarantine on board of ship ----------- 55 ----- ----
Passengers admitted to station on account of quarantine laws -- ---...........I ---
Number of detention days at station on account of quarantine laws ------- 1 -..-
Immigration cases admitted to station ------------------------------- 2,946 5,331 6,256
Number of immigration detention days .............................---------------------------------. 35,399 73, 751 60, 739
Persons held for investigation and released ------------------------------ 114 96 655
Persons deported under immigration laws ...-------------------------------- 3,533 4, 19 5,798
Supplementary sanitary inspection of vessels -------------------------- 4, 695 3, 560 3,337
Vessels fumigated ----- ----------------------------------------- 107 68 45


MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING

Municipal work carried on during the year included the construc-
tion and maintenance of roads, streets, and sidewalks; the mainte-
nance and operation of water and sewer systems; and miscellaneous
construction jobs. In the past few years, a considerable amount of
construction work has been performed by the municipal engineering
division of The Panama Canal for the United States Army and the
United States Navy, private contractors, and the divisions of The
Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Co. Only the major items
of this work are conimmented upon in this report, although the value
of the large number of smaller items aggregates several hundreds of
thousands of dollars.







SS REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL

WATER SYSTEM

Consumption of water for municipal uses and for sales to vessels
during the past three fiscal years was as follows:
[Thousandslof gallons]

Fiscal year

1944 1943 1942

Canal Zone ------------------------------------------ 7,919,237 7,980, 664 6,568, 126
City of Panama -------------------------------- 2,909,916 2,666,519 2,432,916
City of Colon ---------- ----------- 1,388,098 1,191,134 1,014,392
Sales to vessels -- ---- 230,744 201,627 193,650
Total---....------------------------------------ 12,447,995 12,039,944 10,209,084


The following statement shows the quantity of water pumped at
each of the pumping stations during the year, the average per month,
and the cost of pumping per thousand gallons:
[Thousands of gallons]

Total gallons Average gal- Average cost
pumped dur- lons per gallons 1or
ing year month gallons for

Gamboa (intake) 1 ----. --------------- 3,108,495 259,041 $0.0175
Miraflores (relay) ------- --------- 3,366,333 280, 528 .0141
Balboa (relay) ....------.- --------------------------------- 4,163,018 346, 918 .0118
Paraiso (intake) I ------------- 4,972,578 414,382 .0125
Paraiso (relay) ---_-------------- 219,190 18,265 .0299
Mount Hope (intake)--- --------------- 3,999,899 333,325 .0107
Agua Clara (intake) 2 -. ------- -------- 452, 266 45, 226 .0815
Monte Lirio (intake) ---.- ----------- 1,138 95 .5980
Frijoles (intake)--- ------------------ 3,907 326 .3755
Madden Dam (intake) --------------------------- 17, 916 1,493
Total.-------..........----------------------------------- 20,304,740 1,699,599 ------

I Owing to a break in the raw water line near Summit, the main source of raw water for the last half of the
year was the Canal at Paraiso.
2 Agua Clara filtration plant was discontinued on Apr. 15, 1944, at which time the pumping plant was
also shut down.

The usual maintenance work was performed on the pipe lines,
reservoirs, filtration plants, and pumping stations during the year.
In addition, regular maintenance work was performed on a number
of special projects.

EXPANSION OF WATER SUPPLY FACILITIES

Work on the expansion of water supply facilities as described in the
previous annual reports was brought to completion during 1944, at a
total cost of a little more than $4,000,000, financed jointly by The
Panama Canal, the United States Army, and the United States Navy.
The enlarged system increases the rated water capacity from 15,500,-
000 to 23,000,000 gallons per day on the Pacific side, and from
10,500,000 to 14,400,000 gallons per day on the Atlantic side.






REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL


. This project on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus was completed
during the fiscal year 1944 with the installation of (a) two 5,000-
gallon-per-minute pumps, together with necessary switchgear, piping
and meter in Mount Hope pump station, to serve Fort Gulick
Reservoir; (b) the completion of the enlarged Mount Hope filter
plant, which involved the construction of four new filters for increasing
the capacity of the plant to 14,400,000 gallons per day, modification
of existing buildings, and the construction of a lean-to; and (c) the
installation of a new 30-inch raw water line from Gatun Lake, near
Fort Gulick, to the Mount Hope filter plant. This new raw water
line, which roughly parallels and is cross-connected to the original
30-inch water line, is 14,600 feet long, and consists of cement-lined,
cast-iron pipe. The carrying capacity of the new line is approximately
16,000 gallons per minute, and for the two lines approximately 24,000
gallons per minute. The new facilities were necessitated by the
increased use of water on the Atlantic side.

SEWER SYSTEM

In addition to the regular maintenance work performed on the sewer
system, considerable improvements wore made to the Old Cristobal
sewage pumping station. The latter project involved the removal of
old pumps, reconstruction of the sump to provide a dry pit on the
pump side, and the installation of new pumps and necessary auxiliaries.

ROADS, STREETS, AND SIDEWALKS

Regular maintenance work was performed on roads, streets, and
sidewalks in the Canal Zone. Asphaltic macadam streets in the
Ancon-Balboa area, most of which are 30 years old, had deteriorated
to such an extent, because of their age and to the exceptionally heavy
traffic in the past 5 years, that special surface treatment was required.
Funds were not available for reconstruction and, accordingly, a surface
treatment of cut-back asphalt and stone chips was applied to the roads
in the worst condition. This treatment has been successful as a
temporary measure and will be continued during the fiscal year 1945.
Other projects completed during the year included widening by
9 feet a section of Roosevelt Avenue extending from Corozo Street to
Gorgona Road; widening to 40 feet a section of Balboa Road extending
-from the Balboa cold-storage plant to Roosevelt Avenue; resurfacing
with rock-asphalt the 24-foot section of road from the Balboa cold-
storage plant to Balboa circular drive in front of the commissary;
and the reconstruction of a 750-foot section of Roosevelt Avenue in
the vicinity of the Sosa Hill rock-crushing plant.
683299-46--7






90 REPORT OF GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL
SPECIAL ROAD PROJECTS
In addition to the regular improvement work performed under
Panama Canal allotments, described above, the following special
projects were carried forward with funds provided by other agencies
of the Government:
Gaillard Highway improvement project.-This project consists of
rebuilding or widening portions of Gaillard Highway to provide a
minimum width of 24 feet over a section extending from Tivoli crossing
to Paraiso junction and a minimum width of 22 feet from the Paraiso
junction to Madden junction (new Gamboa Road). Funds for the
project were provided by the Bureau of Public Roads.
The section from Tivoli crossing to Diablo crossing, 2 miles in
length, was widened by a minimum of 6 feet, which necessitated
lengthening the decks of the bridges over Rio Curundu and the Rio
Maria Sala. Work on this section was started in March 1944, and
was 80 percent complete by the end of the year.
The improvement of the section between the northern end of the
Fort Clayton bypass and the junction of Paraiso Road included the
relocation of a large part of the highway over Miraflores Hill, and
required the excavation of 110,000 cubic yards for a cut at the top of
the hill. This section will consist of a 24-foot wide, 8-inch thick,
reinforced concrete pavement for a distance of 2.6 miles. The work
was 45 percent complete at the end of the year.
The section of Gaillard Highway, 3.5 miles in length, from the
junctions of the highway and Paraiso Road to the beginning of
Madden Road, is being widened to 22 feet. At the end of the fiscal
year 1944, 27 percent of this work had been completed.
Bruja Road improvement.-That part of Bruja Road extending from
Miraflores Bridge to Nicobar Avenue, Cocoli, having a total length
of 1.4 miles, was repaved. A temporary section of the road, approxi-
mately 0.3 mile long, crossing the site of the proposed new Miraflores
locks, was repaired with rock asphalt, while the balance was paved
with 8-inch reinforced concrete to a width of 30 feet. This project
was financed jointly by the United States Army and The Panama
Canal.
Widening Gaillard Highway from Corozal to Cardenas River bridge.-
This project consisted of widening to 30 feet the existing 20-foot wide
portion of Gaillard Highway from the Corozal cooks and bakers school
to the beginning of the 530-foot lock asphalt section just south of
Cardenas River bridge, and the replacement of this rock asphalt
section with a 27-foot wide reinforced concrete pavement. The funds
tor this project were provided by the United States Army.
Projects started last year.-The 30-foot wide, 4,100-foot long, express
highway between Ancon and Balboa, and the reconstruction of




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