• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the governor of the Panama...
 Appendix A: Report of the engineer...
 Appendix B: Report of the resident...
 Appendix C: Report of the superintendent...
 Appendix D: Report of the marine...
 Appendix E: Report of the superintendent,...
 Appendix F: Report of chief quartermaster,...
 Appendix G: Report of the...
 Appendix H: Report of the executive...
 Appendix I: Report of the district...
 Appendix J: Report of the special...
 Appendix K: Report of the chief...
 Appendix L: Report of general purchasing...
 Appendix M: Act of Congress and...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097365/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Alternate Title: Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: 36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1918
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note: Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097365
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02454300
lccn - 15026761
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by: Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Report of the governor of the Panama Canal
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 42b
    Appendix A: Report of the engineer of maintenance
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 48b
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        Page 102i
        Page 102j
        Page 102k
        Page 102l
        Page 102m
        Page 102n
    Appendix B: Report of the resident engineer, building division
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
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        Page 118a
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        Page 118d
        Page 118e
        Page 118f
    Appendix C: Report of the superintendent of dredging
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
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        Page 130e
        Page 130f
        Page 130g
        Page 130h
    Appendix D: Report of the marine superintendent
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Appendix E: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division
        Page 139
        Page 140
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        Page 150a
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        Page 150c
        Page 150d
    Appendix F: Report of chief quartermaster, supply department
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
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    Appendix G: Report of the auditor
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
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        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
    Appendix H: Report of the executive secretary
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
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        Page 288
        Page 288a
        Page 288b
    Appendix I: Report of the district attorney
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    Appendix J: Report of the special attorney
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
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    Appendix K: Report of the chief health officer
        Page 305
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        Page 344
    Appendix L: Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
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        Page 360
    Appendix M: Act of Congress and Executive orders relating to the Panama Canal and to the Canal Zone index
        Page 361
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    Back Matter
        Page 393
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        Page 395
        Page 396
    Back Cover
        Page 397
        Page 398
Full Text









UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES

























Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/annualreportofgo1918cana






ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR OF

THE PANXMA CANlAL


FOR THE


FISCAL YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30


1918


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE











TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Page.
Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal------------------- 1
Organization ---------------------------------------------- 1
Operation and mainteiance-------------------------------------- 2
Building division -------------------------------------------- 2
Locks operation --------------------------------------------- 6
Electrical division ------------------------------------------- 7
Municipal engineering divisio------------------------------- 9
Meteorology and hydroraphy --------------------------------- 11
Surveys--------------------------------------------------- 13
Office engineer--------------------------------------------- 14
Marine division_ ------------------------------------------ 14
Dredging division ------------------------------------------- 15
Mechanical division -----------------------------------------18
Supply department ....----------------------------------------------.. 19
Reorganization -------------------------------------------- 19
Labor-------------------------------------------------- 19
Quarters ------------------------------------------------- 20
Corrals --------------------------------------------------- 20
Materials and supplies --------------------------------------- 20
Fuel-oil plants ---------------------------------------------.... 21
The Panama Canal Press ------------------------------------ 21
Subsistence_ ------------------------------------------------ 21
Accounting department -------------------------------------__ 23
Executive department------------------------------------------ 27
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds------------------------------ 27
Division of civil affairs ------------------------------------- 28
Bureau of posts----------------------------------------- 28
Bureau of customs ------- -------------------------- 29
Police and fire division -------------------------------------- 30
Division of schools------------- ------------------------ 31
Courts ---------------------------------------------------- 32
Relations with Panama -------------------------------------- 32
Office of the special attorney ------------------------- ---- 34
Health department --------------------------------------_-- 36
Division of hospitals ---------------------------------------- 37
Ancon Hospital----------------------------------------- 37
Corozal hospital and farm------------------------------- 37
Colon Hospital ---------------------------------------- 38
Palo Seco Leper Asylum --------------------- 38
Santo Tomas Hospital ----------------------------------- 38
District dispensaries ------------------------------------ 38
Sanitation ------------------------------------------ 38
Quarantine division ------------------------- 39
Washington office ---------------------------------------------- 40
86372- 18 I


67/63





II TABLE OF CONTENTS.

APPENDIX A.
Page.
Report of the engineer of maintenance --------------------------------- 43
Organization --------------------------------------------------- 4
Locks division ---------- ---------------------------------- 44
Lockages -------------------------------------------------- 44
Water consumption, Gatun Lake ---------------------- 45
Gatun dam ------------------------------------------------ 46
Townlg locomotives ------------------------46
Spare parts --------------------------46
Approach wall fender cribs ----------------------------------- 46
Painting lock gates -------------------46
Lock power and control cables ------------------47
Chemist's report on corrosion of lead sheaths of cables at
Miraflores Locks --------------------48
Gatun locks ----------------------------------------------- 54
Organization and personnel ---------------54
Operation --------------------------------------------- 54
Maintenance -------------------------------------------- 55
Construction and new equipment ------------- 56
General overhauling------------ ----- 56
Pacific locks----------------- 57
Organization and personnel -----------------57
Operation ----- --------------------57
Maintenance ----------------------- 57
Miscellaneous work ------------------------------------- 60
Bitumastic work and painting of lock gates and submerged
parts ------------------------------------------------ 60
Painting ----------------------------------------------- 61
Electrical division --- ----------------------------------------- 62
Character and extent of the work ----------------------------- 62
Organization and personnel ----------------------------------- 62
Office and design ------------------------------------------- 62
Power-plant extensions ------------------------ -------- 63
Water consumption, hydroelectric station --------------------- 63
Substation and transmission-line improvements---------------- 64
Distribution lines ------------------------------------------ 65
Operation of power system --------------------------------- 65
Tables-
Monthly output in kilowatt-hours ----------------------------- 66
Cost of power in its various states of distribution ----------66
Principal loads in kilowatts added during year, principal
loads to be added in the future -------------------------- 67
Telephones and telegraph ----------------------------------- 67
Fire-alarm system ------------------------------------------ 68
Railway signal system -------------------------------------- 6
Table-Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year------ 69
Miscellaneous electrical work ------------------------ ---------70
Municipal engineering division ----------------------------------- 71
Organization and personnel ---------------------------------- 71
Table-Average quantity of water pumped at pumping stations,
with average cost per 1,000 gallons-------------------------- 72
SSale of water to vessels ------------------------------------- 72
Panama water office --------------------------- ----- 73





TABLE OF CONTENTS. III

Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Municipal engineering division-Continued. Page.
Report of water-collection office, Colon ------------------------ 73
Status of capital-cost account for municipal improvements in Pan-
ama and Colon --------------------------------------- 74
New construction ------------------------------------------ 75
Work for other divisions ---------------------------------- 75
Laboratory tests of concrete --------------------------------- 76
Summary of determinations made in connection with the work on
concrete aggregates -------------------------------------- 77
Work performed in connection with the operation of water puri-
fication plants ------------------------------------------- 80
Section of meteorology and hydrography ---------------------- 81
Personnel ----------------------------------------------- 81
Meteorology ------------------------------------------- 81
Tables a accompanying meteorological section, li-t of -------- 85
Hydrography ------------------------------------------ 90
Tiial conditions ------------ ------------------- 90
Special investigations -------------------------------- 92
1Water-supply studies ------------------------------------ 92
Branch hydrographic office. Cri Tables ccotLupanyinlg lh\droagr,'iilic.il section. lii t ,f -------- 93
Section of surveys ------------------------------------------- 99
Building lots ------------------------------------------ 99
Gatun Dam --------------------------------------------- 99
Supply department ----------------------------------------- 100
Health department --------- ------------------------ 100
Municipal division ------------------------------------------ 100
Joint land commis ion --------------------------------------100
Survey-Panama. Ancon. Balboa ----------------------------- 100
Triangulation -------------------------------------------- 101
Bench marks -------------------------------------- 101
Canal Zone boundary monuments--------------------------- 101
Cristobal coaling plant ------------------------------------- 101
Miscellaneous --------------------------------------------- 101
Section of office engineer -------------------------------------- 102

APPENDIX B.

Report of the resident engineer, building division----------------------103
Organization ------------------------------------------------ 103
Building operations ------------------------------------------- 103
Pier No. 6, floor for ------------- ----------------------- 104
Boat landing and launch house, Cristolal --------------------- 106
Industrial plant. Panama Railroad ----------------------- 107
Mindi dairy farm ------------------------------------------ 109
Tivoli Hotel kitchen ------------------------------------ 109
Local freight and baggage building ---------------- ---------- 110
Mount Hope oil tank ------------------------------ --------- 110
Ancon Hospital ---------------------------------------- 110
Larvacide plant ------------------------------------------- 112
Nurses' quarters, Colon Hospital ----------------------------- 113
Gatun dispensary ----------------------- --------- -------- 113






IV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the resident engineer, building division-Continued.
Building operations-Continued. Page.
Gatun hydroelectric station extension ------------------------- 113
Balboa garbage incinerator --------------------------------- 114
Tables-
Buildings on-which construction work was performed dur-
ing the year ------------------------------------ 114
Comparative unit costs of buildings ------------------- l1

APPENDIX C.

Report of the superintendent of dredging-------------------- ----- 119
Organization ---- --------------- 119
Dredging plant ------------------------------------------------ 119
Dredging -------------------------------------------------- 121
Tables-
Output of all dredges, with total and unit costs----- 122
Yardage removed from the -42-foot mean sea-level coura.iir
in the Atlantic Ocean -------------------------------- 122
Yardage removed from Gaillard Cut -------------_ 123
Yardage removed, Pedro Miguel Lock to the -45-foot mean
sea level in the Pacific Ocean----------------------- 12
Dredging, canal prism --------------------------------------- 12
Yardage removed from the canal prism ------------------- 123
Yardage remaining to be removed from canal prism ------- 124
Distribution of material removed from Gaillard Cut -------- 125
Dumps ---------------------------------------- 1201
Subaqueous rock excavation -------------------------------- 120
Tables-
Mining, performance of drill boat Teredo No. 2 120
Mining, performance of well and tripod drills ----------127
Miscellaneous dredging -------------___-------- ----------------127
Sand and gravel production ------------------------------ ___ 12
Diversions and drainage------------------------------ ---------- 12S
Slide inspection and reports ------------------------------------12S
Mindi dikes and groins -----------------------------------------12
Water hyacinths ---------------------------- ---------- 1
Surveys -------------------------------------------------- 129
Office ---------------- ----- 129

APPENDIX D.

Report of the marine superintendent ------------------------------ 131
Personnel------------------- ____ __ 131
Operation incident to a state of war ----------------- _____
Steamboat-inspection service ------------- __ ___
Report of board of local inspectors ------------------- _--____ 1
Admeasurement of vessels and application of tolls ----------------- 133
Tables-
Sunnmmnary of traffic through the canal during fiscal year and
since Its opening to commercial traffic----------------------- 135
Number of vessels of various nationalities passing through the
canal--






TABLE OF CONTENTS. V

APPENDIX E.
Page.
Report of the superintendent. mec-hauical division __--------------------- 139
Organization -------------------------------------- 139
War activities ..-----1---------------------------------------- 139
War work ------- ----------- ------ 140
Principal work performed ---------- ----- 140
Results accomplished ----------------------------------- 141
Needs for coming fiscal year-------------------------------------- 143
Tables accompanying report, list of ------------------------------- 143

APPENDIX F.

Report of the chief quartermaster. supply department ------------------- 151
Orga niza tioll ---------------------------------------------------- 151
Personnel --------------------------------------------------------____ 52
Lablor..-- ---------------------------------------------------- 152
Quarter --------- ------------------------------ 1_52
Zone -anitation -_____ ------------------------------------------ 15.3
Motor t raI Iport;aionlo------------ ---------------------------------.__
Material and supplies --.------------------------------------------ 154
Distribution in storehloines --------------------------------___ 1.55
Sales----------------------------------------------------....... 155
Surplus and obsolete material. equipment, and ,cr;I __----------- 155
Scr;i1 .-------..---------------------------------------------. -5
Fuel-oil plants -----------.-----------------..----------------- 15
(;soliue stoIa let.----------------------------- --------------156
Gasoline storage ----------- ------ 156
Paina ('an;al Pres -____-1--------------------------- --------- 156
Subsistence ..------------------------------- ------------------ 157
ConimmIsa ry operations ---------- ---------------------___------__ 158
Transfer of plantations an l f;l' 0---------------------------- 160
New commissa-ries ------------------------------------------- 160
Changes in retail stores ----------------------------- 100
Soap factory ---- ---------------------------------- 161
Milk .------------------------------------- -----... __ 161
Sausage factory ------------------------------------------- 161
Done mill -----------------------------------------------.-- 161
Tailor shop ----------------------------------------------- 162
Bakery ---------------------------------------------------_ 162
Flour -------......--------...-----------..--------- 162
Beef-corning plant ----------------------------------------- 162
Industrial laboratory products------------------------------- 162
Relief of Guatemala City during earthquake ------- ---___ 163
Central American sugar ------------------------------------- 164
New ice and cold-storage plant and ab;ittoir_------------------ 164
Cattle industry----------------------------------------------...- 164
Pastures, health, breeding, sales, etc-------------------------- 166
Plantations-------------------------------------- ----- 167
Poultry farm----......------------------------------------------ 1S
Hog farm----------------------------------------------------169
Dairy farm --------------------------------------------------- 169
Tables:
Occupants of Panawa Canal and Panama Railroad quarters.
June 30, 1918 --------------------..----------------- -------170





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief quarterimaster, supply depa:rtimeut-Continued.
Tables-Continued.. Page.
Applications for married quarters on file June 30, 1918---------- 170
Sales --------------------------170
Value of initerial received during fiscal year 1917-18 on requisi-
tion ---------------------------------------------------- 171
Statement showing sales of material, supplies, and equipment
heretofore purchased or acquired for the construction of The
Panama Canal, made by authority of the governor withQiut
advertisement amnd on which time did not permit securing ap-
proval of the Secretary of War, required by Executive order
of May 12, 1915 ----------------------------------------173
Houses, apartments, and occupants, by districts, of gold and
silver quarters, as of June 30, 191 ------------------------- 173
Operation of Hotel Tivoli ----------------------------------- 17
Summary of operations of restaurant_ ------------------------ 174
Summary of operations, laborer' s_---------------------- 175
Obsolete and surplus material -------------------------------175
American seralp operations ---------------------------------- 173
Fuel oil handled ..---------------___----------------------------_______ 17
Comparative statement of output of imInuflactuiring plaint coIm-
missa ry di vision, supply department, fiscal years 1913-14 tro
1917-18 -------------------------------------------------.. 176
Statement showing quantities of certain staple articles pur-
chased during the fiscal 3ear as compared with the previous
year --------------------------------------------------- 177
Statement of comparative selling prices for June 30, 1918, as
against June 117__ ------------------_________ ------------------- 177
Statement of articles purchased by the products buyer in Costa
Rica -----------------------------------------____----------17S
Statement of Haitian, Colombia n, and local purchases..-----..... 178
Produce furninilhed the commissary divisionl by vi-ri.us pIlanta-
tions ------------......---------------------------------------_______ 179

A IPIENDIIX G.
Report of the au'litir------------------------------------------- 1
Organization ----------------------------------------------- 11
Paymaster ------------------------------------------------ 11
Collector --------------------___________--------------------------------- 182
Accounting to the Treasury for collecti.ns---____________-------------------182
Tolls ---__. --- ------------------------------------- 182
Claims for dh iainges to vessels passing through the lock--._ --_-___ 183
Examination of pay rolls ---------------------------------------13
Liberty loans-----_______-------------_______------------------------------- 183
Canal appropriations ----------------
Exchange of pr.Ioperty with I'Inaim: Iilra;i __. ----------..___ 185
Public works, l'in., m and Colon -
Public works-----------------------------............................. 5
Operation and nmintenanc .------------------------------------- 186
Business operation ---------------------------------------- 187

Construction of canal and capital adldi.-ion .... --.. ________
Manufacturing ilia nts ------------------------------- 191
Canal Zone :iccotint. ------------..... .. ._ _---- 191
Clubhouse accuts --------------- _----------------------------191





TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII

Report of the auditor-Continued. Page.
Claims for injuries and deaths ------------------------- 192
Coupon books ------------------------------------------------- 192
Inspection of accounts-----------------------------------------193
Time inspection ----------------------------------------------- 193
Freight claims --------------------- ------ 193
Bonds of employees ---------------------------------------------- 194
Operations with Panama Rallrond Co.'s funds --------------------- 194
Railroad, harbor, terminals, etc ---------------------------- 194
Conumissary---------------------------------------------- 195
Farm industries ---------------------------------------- 196
Tables accompanying report, list of -------------------------- 197

APPENDIX H.
Report of the executive secretary --------------------------------- 255
Organization ------------------------------------------------- 255
Special work ---------------------------- 256
Working force ------------------------------------------------ 257
Tables-
Force actually at work on June 19, 191S ------------------258
Force reports by months, ft-cal year 1917-1 ------------ 259
High and low force records, December, 1906. to June 30,
1918. by fiscal years------------------------------ 259
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds--------------------------------260
Division of civil affairs -------------------------- ------ 261
Bureau of posts ------------------------------------------- 261
Bureau of cutonms--------------------------------- 263
Shipping conmniissiotmr ------------------------------------ 263
Administration of et;ites----------------------------------- 264
Licenses and taxes ---------------------------------------- 264
Police and fire division-----------------------------------------264
Police section ---------- ------ -------- ----- 265
Fire section ---------------------------------- 267
Division of schools ----------------------------------------- 268
The courts ----------------------------------------------- 269
Special attorney and district attorney --------------- 270
United States marshal for the Canal Zone --------- 270
Relations with Panama ----------------------------------- 270
Legislation --------------------------------------------------- 272
Tables-
Postal Service ----------------- -------------- 272
Receipts and disbursements------------------------------ 272
Total cash transactions of Canal Zone postal system for fi.-cal
year 191S ---------------------------------------------73
Letters and parcels registered and parcels insured for fiscal
year 191S -------------------------------------------- 273
Number of in sured and C. 0. D. parcel-post parcels and
registered articles delivered by offices during fiscal year
1918 ___---------------------------------------------- 274
Number of mail parcels on which duty has been paid to the
Government of Pananma, and the amount of duty as shown
by receipts on file. by offices, during fiscal year 191S-- 274
Statement of vessels entered and cleared and of seamen shipped
and discharged at Balboa and Cristobal, fiscal year 191S ------ 274






VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Tables-Continued. Page.
Number of estates received anil settle.] and amount of funds
handled during fiscal year 191S --------------------------- 275
Police section -------------------------------------------- 275
Police force as of June 30. 1918 -------------------------- 27
Distribution of police force iby stations and substations 275
Number of arrests, by fiscal y.\:rs. made on Canal Zone since
organization ---------------------------------------- 27
Number of arrests, by months, male during fiscal ye:ir 191S- 270
Statement of disposition of persons arrested during fiscal
year 1918 ------------------------------------------- 277
Charges against persons arrested during fiscal year 1918- 277
Nationality of persons arrested during fiscal year 191S ... 278
Occupation of persons arrested during fiscal year 118 ------ 27!f
Number of prisoners in custody in coilnon jails at the close
of each month during fiscal year 191S ------------------ SO
Value of labor performed bly common jail pri-,ners during
fiscal year 1918 ------------......--------------------------28
House-to-house canvass of the civil IpopIlation of thle Canal
Zone taken between June 20 andI 30., 191So i.\ i~ l police
and fire division -- ----------------------------------- 21
Warden section -------------------------------------------- 2S2
Convicts received at penitentiary dluinn tisc:al ye:tr 1918' S 2
Convicts discharged from penitentiary during Iiscal year
1918 ------------------------------------------------ 2S3
Crimes committed by con ictz continue in penitentiary on
June 30, 1918, and their aggregate sentence;------------ 283
Nationality of the convicts continued in the peniteiitiairy on
June 30, 1918 2S4
Sentences of convicts confined in the peniteuti:ry on June
30, 1918 ---------------24--------------------------- 24
Value of labor performed Iby convicts employed on Ipllic im-
provements, and value of labor of cnivicts assigned to
inside labor at the penitentiary durinL tlical year 1918_- 284
Cost of subsisting, guarding. and clotliing con vi.tt.s .,onineld
in the penitentiary during, 11,':l yL 1918-------------- 285
Convicts and common jail pri .oir..-, d*.1-,piirt,.ed during fiscal
year 1918 ------------------------------------------- 25
Coroner section -------------------------------------------- 25
Deaths, by months, inve-.tigated I Iy coroniier during li'canl
year 1918 --------------------------------------- 285
Causes of deaths investigated b.y corolnr during fiscal year
1918 ------------------------------------------------ 285
Fire section ----------------------------------------------286
Fire personnel as on June 30, 1918 ----------- 2-.,
Distribution of fire personnel, by .-t:itioni', June 30. 1918... 250
Statement of damage resulting fronm fires during fiscal ear
1918 -------___-----_ ---------------------------------- 2SG
Statement of property involved in tires during fiscal year
1918 ------------------------------------------------ 286
School section ------ _--_ -------______________ 287
Monthly enrollment and average daily attendance-......... 287
Enrollment for fiscal year 1918, by schools ------------- 287





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Tables--Continued.
School section-Continued. Page.
Enrollment by grades ----------------------------------- 287
Number of teachers employed in schools ---------------------288
Report of annual physical examinations of children of white
grade schools during October,. 191__ ----------------------_ 288
Epitome of more important statistics for tlie year' ended
June 30, 1915, to June 30, 1917, inclusive---------------- 288

APPENDIX I.

Report of the district attorney ------------------------------------- 289
Criminal prosecutions during fiscal year 191------------------- 291

APPENDIX J.

Report of the special attorney ---------------------------------------- 293
Land claims--- ------------------------------------------- 293
Panama Canal land licenses in effect within the C-nail Zone at the
end of fiscal year 1918 --------------------------------------- 295
Panama Railroad Co. matters ------------------------------- 296
Statement of Panama Railroad leas-e.-s aiid licenses in effect
July 1, 1918------------------------------------------ 296
Panama Railroad litigation ---------------------------------- 298
District court, division of Balboa ---------------------- 298
District court, division of Cristohal -------------------- 298
Magistrate's court, division of Balboa ---------------------298
Magistrate's court, division of Cristobal ----------------- 299
Panama Railroad cases pending at end of fiscal year -------- 299
District court, division of Balboa ------------------------- 299
District court, division of Cristobal ----------------------- 299
Pending on writ of error from Supreme Court of the Unite d
State, and United States Circuit Court of Appeals, Nev.
Orleans -------------------------------------------- 301
Legislation---------------------------------------------------302

AP E'NDIX K.
Report of the chief health officer------------------------------------ 305
Organization -------------------------------------------------- 305
Vital statistics ---------------------------------------------------306
Employees --------------------------------------------- 306
Effects of race_ -------------------------------------------- 307
Canal Zone-----------------------------------------------307
Panama City------------------------------------------ 307
Colon -------------------------------------------------- 308
Special remarks --------------------------------------------- 308
Cerebrospinal meningitis------------------------------------ 308
Venereal diseases ------------------------------------------ 309
Meat inspection -------------------------------------------- 311
Ancon Hospital-----------------------------------------------311
Permanent buildings-------------------------------------- 311
Buildings evacuated --------------------------------------- 311
Grounds -------------- ------------------------------------ 312
Administration-clinics building ------------------------------ 312






X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the chief health officer-Continued.
Ancon Hospital-Continued. Page.
Administration--------------------------------------- 312
Surgical clinic ---- ------------------------------------ 313
Medical clinic ------------------------------------- 313
Eye and ear clinic -------------------------------------- 313
X-ray clinic ------------------------------------------- 314
Steward's department -------------------------------------- 314
Linen room ------------------------------------------ 314
Maintenance and repair, buildings and equipment------------ 315
Motor transportation ----------- ----------------------- 315
Statistics regarding patients ------------------------------ 316
Corozal Hospital ----------------------------------------------317
Buildings------------------------------- ------------- 317
Hospital department ------------- ------- ----- 317
Farm department ------------------------------------------ 31
General remarks --------------------------------------- 319
Colon Hospital ------------------------- 319
Buildings ------------------------- 319
Personnel ---------------------------------------------
Palo Seco Leper Asylum ----------------------------------------2.
Santo Tomas Hospital--- ---------- ------------ 320
District dispensaries------------------------------------- 320
Sanitation --------- -------------- ------ 320
Canal Zone --- --------------------- 320
Panama City ------------------------------------------ 321
Colon ----------------------------------------------------324
Quarantine division ------------------------------------------- 327
Tables accompanying report, list of ------------------------------ 32

APPENDIX L.

Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office--- 345

APPENDIX M.

Acts of Congress and Executive orders relating to The Panama Canal and
to the Canal Zone index-.. ______--________ ______ 3861














LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



[Report of the governor.]
Plate.
1. Chart showing organization of The Panama Canal, July 1, 1918.

APPENDIX' A.
[Report of the engineer of maintenance.]

2. Five and eight conductor, lead-sheathed control cables removed from
the middle cross-over tunnel at Miraflores locks.
3. Transmission system; Gatun hydroelectric station-typical daily load
curves.
4. Transmission system, causes and dates of power interruptions.
5. Concrete road between Corozal and Miraflores.
6. Typical section of 18-foot concrete roadbed with sheet asphalt wearing
surface.
7. Monthly rainfall year 1917 and station averages.
S. Distribution of rainfall in the Canal Zone; maximum, minimum, current,
and average years.
9. Operating uses of Gatun Lake water supply, year 1917-dry season 1918.
10. Gatun Lake watershed; yields and losses; masses curved-year 1917.
11. Gatun Lake watershed; total yields; year 1917, dry season 1918, and
7-year average.
12. Gatun Lake watershed; total yields massed; maximum, minimum,
average, and current years, 1911-1917.
13. Chagres River drainage basin; mean monthly discharge at Alhajuela,
year 1917, dry season 1918 and 16-year average.
14. Chagres River drainage basin; massed curves-discharge at Alhajuela,
maximum, minimum, average, and current years.
15. Studies in water supply available for canal uses based on average net
yield of Gatun Lake basin for 7-year period 1911-1917.
16. Studies in water supply available for canal uses based on lowest net
yield of record December, 1911, to December, 1912.

APPENDIX B.
[Report of the resident engineer, building division.]

17. Ancon Hospital. Administration building.
18. Ancon Hospital. Kitchen and mess.
19. Ancon Hospital. Isolation ward.
20. Gatun hydroelectric station. View from bridge showing one spillway
gate open. June 6, 1918.
21. Atlantic terminals. General view of pier No. 6, Cristobal.
22. Atlantic terminals. Reinforced concrete girders and arches to support
floor system of pier No. 6, Cristobal.




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX C.

[Report of resident engineer, dredging division.]
Plate.
23. Gaillard Cut. Looking north from Contractor's Hill, showing east and
west banks. June, 1918.
24. Gaillard Cut. Looking south, showing conditions on west bank. June,
1918.
25. Topography east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.
26. Typical cross sections Culebra slides.

APPENDIX E.

[Report of superintendent, mechanical division.]

27. Charts showing classes of work and source of revenue.
28. Balboa shops gross overhead expense percentage compared with the
total direct labor charges, fiscal years 1916-17 and 1917-18.
29. Chart showing development of shop work for outsiders concurrent \vith
the decrease of canal and Panama Railroad work since the official
opening of The Panama Canal.

APPENDIX H.
[Report of the executive secretary.]

30. Ancon, Canal Zone, public school. Flag raising. March, 1918.
31. Cristobal schoolhouse. May, 1918.


XII










ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL.


THE PANAMA CANAL,
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, September 21, 1918.
S in: I have the honor to submit the annual report covering the con-
struction, operation, maintenance, and sanitation of The Panama
Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918.

ORGANIZATION.
The war emergency has caused several changes in personnel. The
following officers of the Army and Navy were relieved from duty
with The Panama Canal on the dates indicated:
Commander H. I. Cone, marine superintendent, August 21, 1917.
Lieut. Col. J. J. Morrow, engineer of maintenance, August 31, 1917.
Lieut. Col. W. R. Grove, chief quartermaster, September 22, 1917.
Col. D. C. Howard, chief health officer, October 4, 1917, and his
successor. Col. A. E. Truby, February 26, 1918.
Capt. F. H. Smith, assistant chief quartermaster, October 10,1917.
Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon, electrical engineer, February 6, 1918.
Lieut. Commander P. P. Bassett, captain of the port, Cristobal,
August 14, 1917.
Lieut. Commander A. B. Reed, captain of the port, Balboa, August
14, 1917.
Capt. H. D. Mitchell. chief of police, July 8, 1917.
Lieut. Col. Earl I. Brown, chief of the Washington office, August
25. 1917, and his successor, Maj. Benedict Crowell, December 1, 1917.
The position of engineer of maintenance remained vacant through-
out the remainder of the fiscal year. Mr. Walter J. Douglas, who was
appointed to fill the position on May 13, 1918, assumed the duties on
July 1, 1918. The position of marine superintendent was filled on
January 23, 1918, by the appointment of Commander L. R. Sargent,
United States Navy, who was detailed by the Navy Department for
duty under the Governor of The Panama Canal and assignment to
the position. The vacancy as chief quartermaster was filled by the
appointment of Mr. R. K. Morris, who had been employed for a num-




THE PANAMA CANAL.


ber of years in important capacities in that department. The position
of chief health officer vacated by Col. Truby was filled by the ap-
pointment of Maj. A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps. Mr. A.
L. Flint, chief clerk, was appointed chief of the Washington office
as successor to Maj. Crowell, who resigned that position upon his ap-
pointment as Assistant Secretary of War. In addition to the officers
mentioned, a total of 296 employees of The Panama Canal in various
capacities resigned in order to enter the military or naval service, or
to assume positions in the National Red Cross and other organiza-
tions immediately engaged on war work. During the existence of the
vacancies in the positions of engineer of maintenance and marine
superintendent, the duties of those positions were directly assumed by
the Governor. During the absence of the Governor on duty in the
United States, from December 13, 1917, to January 23, 1918, his
duties on the Isthmus were assumed, by authority of the Secretary of
War, by Judge Frank Feuille, as acting governor. Judge Feuille
acted in the same capacity during the illness of the Governor from
January 28, 1918, to February 25, 1918.
Except as above stated the heads of the departments and divisions
reporting to the Governor remained as stated in last year's report.
To assist in the administration of the electrical division and the
operation and maintenance of the locks in the absence of an engineer
of maintenance, Lieut. Col. Dillon was given immediate supervision
over the conduct of those branches of the work until his relief from
duty with the canal, when he was succeeded in those duties by Mr.
Hartley Rowe.
DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
On August'4, 1917, Mr. T. B. Monniche, engineer of docks, re-
signed, and his duties were transferred to the resident engineer of
the building division on August 5, 1917. Thereafter the construction
of the terminal structures in progress which had been conducted
under the immediate supervision of the engineer of maintenance,
was continued under the charge of Mr. Hartley Rowe, resident engi-
neer, head of the building division.
BUILDING DIVISION.
Pier No. 6, Cristobal.-The construction of Pier No. 6 at Cristobal,
authorized by the sundry civil act of July 1, 1916, was continued.
At the beginning of the year the driving of the foundation cylinders
was 70 per cent complete. The excavation of material from the
cylinders was 73 per cent complete, and the filling of the cylinders
with concrete was 50 per cent complete. The driving of the cylinders
was completed September 7, 1917, with a total of 22,610 linear feet





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


in place. The excavation of material from the cylinders was com-
pleted September 19, 1917, with a total of 14,382 cubic yards
removed. The filling of the cylinders with concrete was completed
on October 19, 1'.17, with a total of 22,005 yards poured. The total
cost of the completed cylinders, including excavation and concreting,
was $550,894.20,' and the total cost of the substructure, including
trestle, false work, power and water lines, i'ailway tracks, etc., was
$6S7,677.04. Certain changes in the construction plant and in the
design of the floor structure, in order to overcome so far as possible
increased costs of materials, were described in the report for last
year. As stated therein, when bids were received for the steel work
the prices had advanced to such an extent as to make necessary the
abandonment of the steel construction for the floor system and the
substitution of reinforced concrete construction. On account of the
heavy loads and of the large spans involved, and especially on ac-
count of the lack of rigidity against lateral movement of the long
cylinders supporting the structure, considerable difficulty was expe-
rienced in determining a satisfactory design. The problem was suc-
cessfully solved and the construction proceeded with a material
saving in cost as compared with the original design, but in spite of
the economnie. applied it became evident that on account of the abnor-
mal increase in the prices of materials the completed structure could
not. be built for the original limit cost of $1,500.000 fixed by law.
Upon representation to Congress an additional appropriation of
$592.190 was obtained in the urgent deficiency bill which became a
law on March 28, 1918.
The original plans for the superstructure contemplated a shed of
structural Teell of a design similar to that of Pier No. 7. Upon ob-
taining bids for the material involved in this superstructure it was
found necessary to redesign the shed, abandoning the structural steel
plans and adopting reinforced concrete, with an estimated saving of
$177,1000.
At the close of the year the state of completion was as follows:
Floor, 35 per cent; cylinders, 100 per cent; pier as a whole, 60 per
cent. The construction of the shed had not been started at the end
of the year.
Notl land;nfg and launch house between Piers Nos. 7 and 8, Cristo-
bal.-At the beginning of the year work on this structure was in sus-
pense awaiting material for the superstructure The erection was re-
sumed on October (, 1917, upon arrival of the materials, and by Octo-
ber 25, 1917, the entire amount of 511,570 pounds of structural steel
for the floor and shed had been erected. The pouring of the con-
crete for encasing the girders and for the floor slab was begun on
October 31, 1917, and completed December 8, 1917. The concrete
863720-1S-2




THE PANAMA CANAL.


work for the shed was started Dece-mnber 6, 1917, and completed
January 12, 1918. The structure was entirely completed in March,
1918, and turned over to the marine division for use. The total cost
of the completed structu re was $109,93.-.07.
Miscellaneous buildinq.s.-Other than the construction of the ter-
minal facilities the operations of the building division included the
continuation of the Ancon Hospital groupl of buildings, quarters for
nurses at Colon Hospital, a dispensary at Gatun, the extension of the
building housing the hydroelectric generating plant at Gatun, the
garbage incinerator at Balboa, the local freight and baggage building
for the Panama Railroad at Docks Nos. 9 and 10, Cristobal, cold
storage building and industrial plant for the Panama Railroad at
Mount Hope, an oil tank for the supl)ly department at Mount Hope,
buildings for the Mindi dairy farm, quarters for canal and Panama
Railroad employees, and various quarters and other buildings for
the Army and Navy provided for in apl)ropriations of Congress and
allowed to the Governor of The Panama Canal for expenditure.
The buildings completed and under construction in the Ancon Hos-
pital group complete the project initiated in 1015. They include the
following: Administrative and clinics building; kitchen and mess;
section A, ward group; section B, ward gioutp; section C, ward
group; section D, ward group; isolation w\vrd; dispensary; medical
storehouse; laboratory and crematory; power house: sul)erintend-
ent's home; nurses' quarters; and garage. The plant provides a
thoroughly equipped hospital of '(;0 beds, and is capable of expan-
sion without undue crowding to SSS beds. The structures are all of
permanent material and replace old French buildings. Several frame
buildings occupied as quarters by the hospital staff and the old frame
wards Nos. 17 to 23, inclusive, will remain within the hospital grounds
and be utilized until their deterioration progresses sutificiently to
justify their removal. Work was in progress during the year on
the administration building, kitchen and mess, section C and section
D ward groups, the isolation ward, the nurses' home, power house,
and the garage, and covered passageways connecting different groupl)s
of buildings. By the end of the year there were completed and occu-
pied the administration building with connecting covered ways:
kitchen and mess, and the isolation ward. Section C ward group
was 60 per cent complete, section D ward group -140 per cent com-
plete, the nurses' home 98 per cent, thie power house 95 per cent, and
the garage.50 per cent complete. The total cost. of the completed
building project for the new Ancon Hospital- will be $1,768,762,
of which $1,292,835.04 was expended by the end of the year. The
two large ward groups, C and D, are of uniform type and design
of construction with the other ward groups heretofore completed.




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


The nurses' home, located in convenient proximity to the ward build-
ings, is three stories in height. 233 feet long, and 46 feet wide, and
provides accommodations for 72 nurses and one chief nurse. The
power house is a reinforced concrete structure with corrugated as-
bestos roof, and is one story high, 48 feet 6 inches by 62 feet 6 inches,.
with open sides and wide overhanging eaves. The building con-
tains two 50-H. P. oil-burning boilers and supplies steam to all
the hospital buiildings and the shop for the hospital carpenter and
plumber. The garage contains stalls for 8 hospital trucks and
ambulances. It is a one-;tory structure 21 feet 3 inches by 80 feet 6
inches.
The nuir-es' home at Colon Hospital, begun in September, 1917,
was completed during the year at a cost of $34,387.51. It is a two-
story buildinN. 45 feet by 70 feet, situated on the beach adjacent to
Colon Hospital, and provides quarters for 13 nurses and 2 maids.
The construction is of reinforced concrete columns, girders, and floor
slabs, with walls and partitions of hollow concrete blocks; the roof
is of red tile.
A dispensary was constructed at Gatun containing living apart-
ments for the district )]physician, office of the district dentist, and the
necessary office for the dispensing of medicines. The building is .two
stories high, 36 feet by 66 feet, of hollow block concrete construction.
except the bearing columns and floor slabs, which are of reinforced
concrete. The cost of the completed structure was $34,490.17.
The extension of the house inclosing the hydroelectric plant at
Gatun, which was begun in November, 1916, was 99 per cent com-
pleted at the end of the year. The extension doubles the original size
of the building and forms a continuation thereof. It is constructed
with the same kinds of materials and of identical design.
The garbage incinerator plant for the consumption of garbage
from tIle towns at the Pacific terminal of the canal and from the
city of Panama, was completed. The structure is 42 feet by 66 feet
6 inches, of concrete construction, with a tile roof. Its location on a
point of land formerly known as Gavilan Island was determined,
with reference to convenience of access from the different localities
supplying the garbage, reducing as much as possible the passage of
garbage wagons through streets of populated districts. The building
was constructed of sufficient capacity to allow for an increase in the
number of incinerating units as the increase of population might
make necessary. The total cost of the plant, including building and
equipment, is $116,055.92.
The report of the resident engineer, Appendix B, gives descrip-
tions in detail of the buildings constructed and detailed items of
cost.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


LoiKS OPERATION.
There were 1,936 commercial and 335 noncommercial lockages at
Gatun, and 2,096 commercial vessels were passed; at Pedro Miguel
there were 2,041 commercial and 379 noiicomimercial lockages, and
2,083 commercial vessels were passed; at Miraflores there were 2,017
commercial and 326 noncommercial lockages, and 2.081 commercial
vessels were passed. The number of ships passed..exceeded the num-
ber of lockages on account of passing more than one ship through in
one lockage under certain cornditiorn. There were no delays to ships
due to the failure of the operating machinery of the locks, and as
heretofore the damage to vessels has been chiefly due to the breaking
of chocks and bitts.
The maintenance work consisted of constant inspection of and
attention to all of the lock operating machinery and such painting of
gates and other steel parts as was required. Tlie wall fenders
originally installed have in some cases become uns-erviceable through
decay and have been replaced by timbers of aloliendra, a native hard-
wood. Four new towing locomotives manufactured in the me-
chanical division shops were completed and placed in service during
the year, two at Gatun locks and two at the Pacific locks. The in-
stallation of electric equipment on these locomotives w-as" done by the
lock forces. For purposes of inspection and maintenance work, lock
chambers were unwatered at tie different lock as as follows: At
Gatun, west chamber, middle and lower levels, from January 14 to
February 23; east chamber, middle and lower levels, from March 1
to March 23; east chamber, upper level, April 9 to April 15. At
Miraflores, east chamber, lower level, from Augustt 229 to Septem-
ber 30.
Besides the necessity for painting I)ortions of the gates, the chief
indications of deterioration developing during thee inspections were
as heretofore the corrosion due to electrolytic action on valves and
their fittings. Further inspection of tlhe valves at Miraflores locks
where greenheart lumber was used to repl)lae metal valve seats and
lignnm-vite side seals in place of machinery steel, indicated the sub-
stitutions to be the best means thus far investigated for checking the
trouble, and accordingly the same means were applied this year at
Gatun. At Miraflores locks trouble has been experienced from the
grounding of the control cables. As originally installed these cables
were insulated with varnished cambric and were lead sheathed. On
investigation it was found that the lead sheathing had become badly
pitted, and in some places had entirely disappeared. A total of six
control cables in the middle crossover were found to be defective to
varying degrees. Every case was found to be in the side wall of the
vertical shafts in a position where the lead was exposed to contact
with water that had seeped through the concrete, and the corrosion





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


and destruction of the lead covering proved to be due to the chemical
action of the seepage water which contained lime salts of sufficient
strength to act iupon the lead. The cables affected were withdrawn
and new cables were installed in a different location, supported on
hangers, where they would not be exposed to the seepage water, and
no further trouble has developed since the change. The timber
fenders at the end of the south lpplroach wall at Pedro Miguel locks
were renewed on account of the deterioration of the original fenders
by the teredo. Repairs due to the same cause but to a less extent
were made to the fender at the end of the north approach wall at
Miraflores locks. In order to maintain the level of Miraflores Lake
within the prescribed limits it was necessary to make 254 operations
of the Miraflores spillway gates. To provide a settling basin and
reduce maintenance of the channel int Miraflores Lake,,an earthern dam
was constructed before the completion of the canal across the Rio
Grande River that discharges into Miraflores Lake on the west of
the Pedro Miguel lock,. On September '', 1917, after a heavy rain-
fall, the discharge from this river exceeded the capacity of the spill-
way in the dam and the damin overflowed, carrying it out for about
SO feet and suddenly releasing 8 feet head of water. This caused a
sudden and heavy discharge into Miraflores Lake and necessitated
the opening of three gates in the Miraflores spillway for 40 minutes
in order to prevent an excessive rise in Miraflores Lake.
The contract, with tihe American Bitutmastic Enamels Company
under which the original painting of the interior of lock gates was
done with a guarantee for a period of 5 years, expires in January,
1019. Under an arrangement agreed upon in January, 1918, the
contractors withdrew their representative and men and turned the
maintenance work under their contract over to the canal, the cost
of the work to be billed to the count actors. Inspection of the in-
terior of the gates and thle application of the bitumastic wherever
necessary is in progress so as to have everything in order at the ex-
piration of the original guarantee.

ELECTRICAL DivisION.
Upon the relief from duty with the canal of Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon,
United States Army, on February 5, 1918, he was succeeded as elec-
trical engineer by Mr. Walter L. Hersh. The operation and main-
tenaince of the steam and hydroelectric power plants, substations,
transmission lines and power distribution systems, street and house
lighting systems, telephone and telegraph, fire alarm, railway block
signal systems, and railway interlocking plants, all under the super-
vision of the electrical division, were satisfactorily conducted. New
work was carried on in connection with the electrical installation for
light, heat, and power at additions to the Army and Navy establish-




THE PANAMA CANAL.


ments in the Canal Zone, as well as for the extensions of canal en-
terprises. The principal construction work in progress wvas the ex-
tension of the hydroelectric plant at Gatun spillway, as described in
the report for last year. In this project three additional penstocks
were installed at the Gatun spillway. providing for the No. 4 gen-
erating unit and for the two units, Nos. 5 and 6, that when installed
will develop the plant to its maximum capacity. In the installation
of these penstocks it was necessary to excavate 14,946 yards of ma-
terial. The material was used in part in making a fill along the
xxis of the dam just west of its junction with Gatun locks, in order
to restore to full dimensions a portion of the dam, that since its con-
struction had settled below its original elevation. The head gate
house, head gates, trash racks, and head gate operating machinery,
including switchboard and wiring involved in the installation of
the additional penstocks, were completed. The 4,500 K. W'. genera-
tor unit and the 6,750 H. P. Pelton Francis turbine were received
in May and erection was started on June 1. The 275 K. W. turbine
exciter set was completed. The extension of this plant as now au-
thorized will be completed by January 1, 1919, resulting in a capacity
of 13,140 K. W., with provisions for future installations of two addi-
tional 4,500 K. W. units, making a total capacity of the plant of
22,140 K. W.
The changes and additions at the generating .-tation at Gatun
necessitated certain modifications at the Gatun substation to adapt it.
to the 6,600-volt instead of the 2,200-volt generation. The work in-
volves the installation of one 8,400 K. V. A. 6,600-44,000 volt
water-cooled transformer; the complete remodeling of concrete cells
for oil circuit breakers and for instrument transformers; the in-
stallation of higher capacity circuit breakers; changes and additions
to the existing switchboard; the installation of two 1,500 K. V. A.
6,600-2,200 volt water-cooled transformers; the reconnection of two
4,000 K. V. A. 2,200-44,000 transformers for 6,600-44,000 volt opera-
tion; and the removal of two 2,667 K. V. A. 2,200-44.000 volt traifs-
formers. These changes were in progress at the close of the fiscal
year, and when complete the Gatun substation will be equipped with
two 1,500 K. V. A. 6,600-2,200 volt transformers for local distribu-
tion, and two 4,000 K. V. A. and one 8.400 K. V. A. 6,600-44,000 volt
transformers for distant transmission, with provisions for future in-
stallation of one 8,400 K. V. A. transformer. At the Miraflorcs sub-
station certain changes were made, as described in detail in the report
of the electrical engineer, for the purpose of releasing equipment for
service at one of the naval establishments, in the Canal Zone. thus
affording temporary power facilities nine months in advance of the
possible receipt from the manufacturers in the States of the perma-
nent equipment required.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


At the Balboa substation an additional 2,200-volt feeder equip-
ment was installed for the operation of the air compressing plant in
Balboa shops, and a similar unit for feeding auxiliary power to the
Pacific forts. The principal items involved in extensions and im-
provements to the underground power distribution system included
extensions to the townsite of New Cristobal, new cold storage plant
at Cristobal, and to the naval reservation.
The net output of power generated averaged 4,419,192 K. W. H. per
month, as compared with 4,190,020 K. W. H. per month last year.
The increase in output has been generated principally at the hydro-
electric station at Gatun, and the fuel oil consumption at the
auxiliary steam plant at Miraflores was reduced from an average of
3,428 barrels per month to 2,900 barrels per month. The average cost
of current generated and distributed for power purposes for the
year was 0.7782 cent per K. W. H. The average cost of current per
K. W. H. for lighting purposes, including cost of generation and
transmission, maintenance of house lighting systems and lamp
renewals, was 0.013179 cent. The Miraflores steam generating plant
carries a load only at such times as the total load exceeds the capacity
of the hydroelectric station at Gatun. During the year there was a
total additional load on the generating plants of 1,900 K. W. for
power and 270 K. W. for light.
There were 29 failures of the transmission line, as compared with
17 during the preceding year, due to insulation troubles.
There was a net increase of 36!) telephone installations, and the
average number of telephone calls per day of eight hours was 21,816.
Two additional fire-alarm boxes were installed at New Cristobal;
four on the clock at. La Boca, and a new fire alarm register at Ancon
fire station.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix A.

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.
The work of this division under the supervision of Mr.,D. E.
Wright, as municipal engineer, included the care and maintenance of
water reservoirs, maintenance and operation of pumping stations and
filtration plants, maintenance and repair of municipal improvements
in the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, the municipal
construction work in the townsites of the Canal Zone and at the Army
and Navy establishments. In the supply of water for all purposes the
total number of gallons pumped during the year at the various stations
was as follows: At Mount. Hope, 1,442,275,000; at Agua Clara, 428,-
401,000; at Gamboa, 3,462,016,000; at Miraflores, 379,460,000; at Bal-
boa, 2,3S3,059,575; and at Paraiso, 74,540,000. The average division
cost per thousand gallons for water delivered to the various districts
of the Canal Zone was as follows: Cristobal, $0.08; Gatun, $0.11;




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Gamboa, $0.09; Paraiso, $0.06; Pedro Miguel, $0.06; Miraflores,
$0.06; and Balboa-Ancon, $0.07. These figures include the charges
for pumping and the operation and imiaintenaince of the filtration
plants. At Cristobal 1,420 ships were supplied with 44,875,000 gallons
of water, and at Balboa S27 vessels were supplied with 24.067,600
gallons. The city of Panamiia consumed S58,402.000 gallons, and the
city of Colon, including The Painamia Canal arid Panama Railroad
reservations in Colon, conTsumed 591,'-,1l)5 gallons. The water
revenue derived from private consiumier'- iii Paiinama totaled $152,-
100.05, and in Colon $105,0902.45. In the cities of Panama and Colon
the municipal division expended $154,it00.$5 in the upkeep of streets
and water aind sewer systems. Tliis expense is reimbursed, under the
canal treaty, from the water revenues in the two cities. For new
construction work by the IImunicipal division in the towns and villages
occupied by the Panama Canal employees, a total of $545,723.55 was
spent. The items included the grading of grounds and extensions
of roads, water and sewer systems for the new buildiing- in the hos-
pital grounds at Ancon; the grading of grounds arid installation of
water and sewer systems in connection with tlie new schoolhouses at
Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miiguel, Gatun, and Cristobal; resurfacing of
the streets in old Cristobal and iii Gatin, the Mount Hope-Colorn road,
Ancon-Corozal road, Corozal-Pedro Miguel road, East La Boca road,
Sosa Hill road, and roads in the Balboa shop district; and the con-
struction of new and extension of old sidewalks in the various towns
occupied by canal employees. For the United States Army the
municipal division performed work at a total expense of $258,416.59,
including the completion of work under way tlie prec-edinfg year in
the various posts; construction of concrete streets and sidewalks,
extension of water and sewer systems, arid the installation of water
and sewer pumping station at Fort Sherman. There was also
included the making of the necessary surveys and the preparation
of plans and estimates for the proposed inew Army posts at Gatun,
Miraflores, Corozal, Diablo, and Corundu River. For the Panama
Railroad this division performed work at a cost of $187,401.82, in-
cluding the completion of the Corundii River storm -ewer, the filling
of and installation of water, sewers, and streets for the Folks River
section of Colon extension; the installation of water, sewers, streets,
and sidewalks for the chicken farm at New Culebra, renalned Sumn-
mit; the installation of water lines arid pumitps for irrigating work on
the various plantations; thlie construction of roads and sewers for the
hog farm near Mindi: and the construction of road- and water and
sewer systems for the Mindi dairy farm.
In the performance of work for various outsiders, including the
construction of roads, ewvers, and water lines for the area to be
occupied by the cable company, concrete construction work for the





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Panama Tramway Co., repairs to streets in Panama and Colon where
gas connections were made, and making water and sewer connections
for private parties in the cities of Colon and Panama, there was
a total expense of $42.2S_.04, covered by deposits made by the inter-
ested parties.
For ratproofing of docks Nos. 13. 14, 15. and pier No. 18 a total of
$5),$9I.93 was expended. On work requests from the building divi-
sion for municipal workk in connection with new buildings con-
structed, work was performed at a total cost of $91,419.28. In the
construction of concrete ditches and drains, filling of swamp areas,
preparation of estimates for proposed work, and maintenance of
pumping station at Palo Seco leper colony, the sum of $37,325.83
was spent for the health department. Miscellaneous construction
jobs at a total cost of $118,092.70 were (:one for the divisions of
fortifications, clubs and playgrounds, locks, electrical, marine, dredg-
ing, mechanical, and supply.
During the year a total of 224.581 square yards of concrete streets
and roads was constrilucteld, and 12.28 square yards of roadway
with Telford and manca(lal base. with a wearing surface of asphaltic
concrete and Tarvia.
In the chemical laboratory at Mi raflores water purification plant
investigations were made of the concrete aggregates in general use
on the canal in order to determine the necessity or otherwise of
washing the agglregate before incorl)orating it in the concrete. From
these investigations it has been determined that the extra expense
in washing thie aggregate is justified where uniformity of product
and especially where the full strength of concrete is desired. This
laboratory analyzed samples of paint, lime, alum, fertilizers, etc.,
and made special investigations of the cause of corrosion of the lead-
sheathed cables at Mirafolres locks. In addition the laboratory per-
formed its normal duties in connection with the operation of the
water purification plants. Tile filtered and treated water from the
purification plants was maintained at a high standard of excellence.
For details of the operations of the munllicipal division, see report
of the municipal engineer. Appendix A.
IMIETEOrOLOGY A.ND HIYDrOGRAPHY.
Tile former head of this division. Mr. F. D. Willson, chief
hydrographer, resigned, effective July 17, 1917, and was succeeded
by Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick. Mr. Kirkpatrick resigned, effective April
13. 191S. to enter tile military service, and Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite
was appointed his successor. The existing observation stations were
continued in operation and certain new stations were established,
as follows: A station for the measurement of rainfall on Bohio
Island, November 1, 1917. equipped with standard rain gauge; equip-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


ment for the measurement of evaporation at Alhajuela, February 23,
1918; standard rain gauge on the Pedro Miguel River, June 25, 1918;
standard rain gauge at Taboga, January 10, 1918, and a rainfall
station at Darien on June 29, 1918.
The rainfall during the calendar year 1917 was above normal in
the interior sections 'of the Canal Zone, and below normal along the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The least rainfall for the calendar year
was at Balboa, 64.11 inches, and the greate-t rainfall was 145.96
inches at the Gatun River station. In the Pacific section the average
for the year was 80.37 inches; in the Central section, 103.17; and
in the Atlantic section 131.01 inches. The maximum 24-hour rainfall
recorded was 8.58 inches at Gatun on April 28-29. During the first
six months of the calendar year 1918 the rainfall averaged approxi-
mately normal at all stations.
The air temperature for the calendar year 1917 averaged from 10 to
20 F. below normal. The highest temperature recorded was in April
and the lowest in February. At Balboa Heights the maxinium tem-
perature recorded was 940 F. on April 25, and the minimum recorded
was 580 F. at Alhajuela on February 5. During the first six months
of the calendar year 1918 the temperature has been generally below
normal.
The wind movements over the Canal Zone have been normal. The
maximum velocity recorded was at Colon on November 24. 42 miles
an hour.
The evaporation from the surface of Gatun Lake. as measured at
Gatun, was slightly below normal during the year. The usual l)rev-
alence of fogs occurred at the interior stations, and there were no
fogs at either entrance of the canal. As the fogs are. as a general
rule, dissipated by 8.45 a. m., no difficulties were experienced on their
account in the navigation of the canal.
Thirty seismic disturbances were recorded at the Balboa Heights
station during the fiscal year. They were all of low intensity, tilhe
maximum being that of August 31, 1917. which registered III on the
Rossi-Forel scale. No damage resulted in the Canal Zone from any
of these disturbances. The destructive carthqituiakes in Guzatamala
City and vicinity in December, 1917. and January. 1918, were re-
corded at the Balboa Heights instrument, but the intensity here
was low.
No changes were made in the hydro graphic stations and equip-
ment. A water-stage register was established at Gatiuncillo at the
head of the Chagres River arm of Gatun Lake. There were four
freshets in the Chagres River, the largest of which occurred on May
5, 1918, and gave a maximum momentary discharge of 61.200 cubic
feet per second. This has been exceeded but three times in 20 years
at Alhajuela, December, 1906, and November and December, 1909.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


On January 1, 1918, Gatun Lake was at elevation plus 87.02.
During the dry season it gradually fell to a minimum elevation of
plus S4.52 on April 21. The consumption of water from Gatun
Lake was due to causes with percentages stated as follows: Spillway
discharge 67 per cent; hydroelectric station 16 per cent; evaporation
9 per cent; canal lockages and miscellaneous uses and losses 7 per
cent. The spillway discharge represents the necessary waste during
the wet season in order to maintain the surface of the lake at and
below the prescribed maximum eight. As discussed in last year's
report, the annual water supply for Gatun Lake has proved to be
sufficient for the use of the canal to its capacity. In dry seasons of
exceptional length and intensity it will be necessary to conserve the
water used at hydroelectric generating plant in order to maintain
the lake level above the minimum of plus 80, when the number of
lockages approaches the practicable limit of an average of 36 per
day. At such time the deficiency in the electrical output of the gen-
erating station at Gatun may be supplemented by the operation of
the steam generating plant at Miraflores.
For details see the report of the chief hydrographer, Appendix A.

SURVEYS.
Upon the resignation of Mr. 0. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer, to
accept a commission in the Army, the survey work was placed in
charge of Mr. F. R. Fitch, assistant engineer, September 11, 1917.
In Colon, corner and grade stakes were set on 46 lots and alley
stakes on 35 lots. Sixteen block monuments were lowered to side-
walk level, and eight monuments were set in the section east of E
Street. In Panama 19 block monuments, which had been destroyed
by street improvements, were replaced ; 2S block monuments were set
in Guachapali section. Monthly observations were continued on
settlement hubs at Gatun dam, which indicated normal settlement.
Levels were run over the settlement hubs on Cairo Saddle dam, indi-
cating a settlement hardly appreciable. Surveys were completed of
pastures of the supply department as follows: Caimito, Pedro
Miguel, Miraflores, Arango, Monte Lirio, Summit, and Mandinga.
The total area surveyed was about 24,000 acres. A topographical
survey was made for the health department, of the swamp area east
of Margarita railroad for the purpose of estimating the cost of a
hydraulic fill. A topographical survey was made for the municipal
engineering division for use in its estimates for the construction of
Army posts at Miraflores dump, and of a tract east of the old road
between Panama and Pedro Mliguel. Surveys of several estates were
made and maps prepared for the use of the special attorney in the
hearings before the Joint Commission in the settlement of land
claims. The survey of the Panama-Ancon-Balboa district, begun




THE PANAMA CANAL.


last year. was completed. Two new triangulation were established,
Corozal," near the old hotel at Corozal, arnd Mole," on tile outer
end of the mole at Cristobal. A precise bench mark was established
at Margarita. Fifty-one of the precise bench marks heretofore estab-
lished in the transisthmian service were cleared, repaired, and
painted. Three Canal Zone boundary monuments were reset on
account of having been dcestroved by street construction, and seven
extra monuments were set on the boundary line between the Canal
Zone and the city of Panama. The Colon Hospital, Quarantine, and
Radio reservations were surveyed and monuments set on their
boundaries.
For further details see Appendix A.

OFFICE ENGIN-ErE.

This office continued tiunder the supervision of Mr. C. J. Eimbree,
and performed the engineering, architectural, electrical, and mis-
cellaneous designing work for all of the divisions of the canal ex-
cept the mechanical division. A total of N!64 working drawings were
prepared. The blue-print room attached to this office turned out a
total of 292.,885 square feet of prints of all kinds, at an average cost of
0.0123 cent per square foot.

A\InEis DIVISION.

Between August 21, 1B17. the date of the relief from duty with
the canal of Commander H. I. Cone. United States Navy, marine
superintendent, and January "24, 191S. the date of the Zappointment
of his successor, Commander L. P. Sargent. United States Navy, the
supervision of this division was assumed by the Governor, the cap-
tains of the ports reporting directly to him. The operations of the
division included, as heretofore, all matters pertaining to trans-
actions with the canal by ships using its facilities, including the
actual transit through the canal. To these normal duties there were
added in April, 1918, the local administration, under the Governor,
of Title II of the espionage act of June 15, 1917. As the local rep-
resentative of the War Trade Board the Governor also charged the
marine superintendent with the enforcement of bunker license regu-
lations of the War Trade Board, and for the performance of this
function the marine superintendent and the two port captains have
been designated special agents of the Bureaum of Transportation.
There was an increase in tiallic as compared with former years. A
total of 2,130 ships of all classes passed through, of which 921 were
bound from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 1,-0') from the Pacific to
the Atlantic. The cargo carried through the canal totaled 7,562.133
tons of 2,240 pounds. The average net tonnage of all ships was




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


3,126, anO the average net tonnage of ships carrying cargo was 3,242.
The actual weight of cargo transported per ship was 3,681 tons of
2,240 polund -. During the preceding year there was a total of 1,876
ships passing through the canal, of which 905 were from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, and 971 from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The total
cargo transported through the canal in the preceding fiscal year was
7,02 9. .'2 tons of 2,240 pounds. The tolls collected for the year end-
ing June 30, 11,S, amounted to $0,4:0,083.00. Attention has hereto-
fore been called to the necessity for legislation revising the present
law so as to make applicable to all vessels the Panama Canal rules of
admneasurement.- The legislation requested has been pending in
Congress and the merits of the case have been fully set forth in
special reports and in hearings before the appropriate committees of
Congress. If the new law had been available during the past fiscal
year, the tolls collected would have been $7,522,195.68, an increase in
revenue for the canal of $1,083,111.09. This increase in'revenue is
not the only advantage that would have accrued, as the present law
and regulations result in lack of uniformity in levying tolls on ships
of different types of construction, and make it necessary to consider
in each case two systems of measurement, one according to the canal
rules and the other according to the United States rules of admeas-
urement.
In enforcing certain regulations made necessary on account of the
war, the personnel and e, equipment of the marine division have co-
operated with the military and naval branches of the Government.
For further details see the report of the marine superintendent,
Appendix D.
Dr:EDG.NG DIVISION.

The work of this division had so far diminished during the first
six months of tlie year that on January 1, 1918, it was found ad-
visible to place tlhe dredging units on a single shift of eight hours per
day, and on April 1, 1918, it was practicable to consolidate the two
districts and to direct all the dredging operations from the division
headquarters at Paraiso. The resident engineer, Mr. W. G. Comber,
under whose direction the dredging operations throughout the canal
had been conducted since May 1, 1913, and who had completed 13
years' service with the canal, resigned on June 14, 1918, effective at
the expiration of his leave of absence. The position of resident en-
gineer was abolished.
The work having practically reached a maintenance basis, the
division was attached to the supervision of the engineer of mainte-
nance immediately after the close of the fiscal year. As superintend-
ent in charge of the dredging division, AIr. J. M. Pratt was appointed,
effective July 1, 1918.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


The following equipment was in operation as stated in each case:
The seagoing suction dredge Cu. 'bra, from July 1 to 20, 1917, in
Gaillard Cut; from July 21 to October 8, 1917. in the service of the
supply department as a boat for the- transportation of cattle from
Colombia; from October 9 to 13. 1017. salvaging and wrecking opera-
tions for the rescue of the steamer Somc:s.et, at Old Providence Is-
land; from October 14, 1917, to April 3, 191S, maintaining and deep-
ening the Pacific entrance channel and inner harbor at Balboa, and
excavating and transporting sand from Cham e Point; from April 4
to 10, 1918, salvaging and wrecking operations for the steamship
Grays Harbor, grounded at Old Providence Island'.and from April
11 to the end of the year in the service of the siipply department as
a cattle boat. The dipper dredge 'asc,.s. \\a is operated in the Paci-
fic entrance channel and in the inner harbor at Balboa; ex-avating
a basin for the naval establishment at Coco Solo; deepening the
channel at the Fort De Lesseps wharf; and wideningg, the. Cristobal
approach channel. The dipper dredge _Gumtboa w\:i. operated in
Gaillard Cut, at the Cuiciracha and Clilebra slides. a:nd in tihe work
of widening the canal channel at Paraiso. Tlje dipper dredge Prais
was operated at the Culebra and Ccii-racha slides and at tlie cliinnel
improvements at Paraiso. The sea going ladder dredgeie _'oroz.lI was
at work in Balboa Harbor widening and deepening the Pacific en-
trance channel. The 20-inch pipe line dredges .Vo.s. ,S;?2 8'.' 85,
and 86 were engaged on various work at different times, including
the digging of sand and gravel for construction purposes in the
Chagres River above Gam boa; excava tiont at the naval establishment
at. Coco Solo; filling swamp areas; and maintaining the channel in
Gaillard Cut. Dredge Yo. 82 was permanently retired from canal
service on May 26, 1918, and dredge .o. 85 on I\lay 11, 1918. and both
dredges were transferred to the construction bureau of the office of
the Quartermaster General, United States Army. Of the 10 tugboats
in the dredging service on July 1, 1917, 3 were transferred to the
marine division, 1 to the War Department in the States, and 1
to the Navy Department. The tug R:linc,: was sunk off the west
breakwater at Cristobal on December 27, 1916, and was floated and
towed to Cristobal shops for overhaul; it was again placed in com-
mission on August 19, 1917. Dredges operating in the canal prism
at the Atlantic and Pacific terminals and in the sand and gravel
service, removed a total of 6,705,031 cubic yards of material, at an
average unit cost of 45.95 cents per yard, as against a total in 1917 of
15,445,885 cubic yards at an average unit cost of 27.78S cents. Teli
increase in cost was chiefly due to the diminished output, and in the
sea-level portions of the canal to restrictions in operations im-
posed by war conditions. In maintaining the canal there were re-
moved from the canal prism quantities in the different sections as




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


follows: Atlantic entrance, 19,452 cubic yards; Gatun Lake, 0; Gail-
lard Cuit, 2,285,273 cubic yards; Miraflores Lake, 0; Pacific entrance,
596,975 cubic yards. Original excavation in the canal prism charge-
able to construction included 120,000 culbic yards in Gaillard Cut and
319.SS0 cubic yards at the Pacific entrance, making a total for the
canal prism throughout the length of the canal of 439,880 cubic
yards.. At the end of the fiscal year there remained to be removed
from the canal prism, chargeable to construction, quantities as fol-
lows: Atlantic entrance, 0; Gatiin Lake, 50,000 cubic yards; Gaillard
Cut, 25,000 cubic yards; Pacific entrance, 378,200 cubic yards;
chargeable to maintenance: Atlantic entrance, 732,210; Gatun Lake,
165.000: Gaillard Cut.. 933,400; Miraflores Lake, 175,000; and Pacific
entrance, 1,712,830 cubic yards.
The slides at Culebra and at Cucluraclha have reached a condition
in which they require only intermittent dredging. At no time during
the year was shipping delayed on account of slides, and a channel
of practically full dimensions was maintained by the removal dur-
ing the year of a total of 1,316.315 cubic yards. Excavation of an
indeterminate but relatively small amount. will be necessary in the
future to maintain full dimensions in the canal prism as the slides
move from time to time in their approach to permanent stability.
Advantage was taken of the periods during which no dredging was
necessary at the slides to effect improved conditions at two points in
the canal. Immediately below the Miiraflores locks on the'west bank
of the canal there was a projecting point of land which complicated
the tidal currents and the currents resulting from the discharge of
water from Miraflores Lake through the Miraflores locks in lock
operations, and which interfered with the safe handling of ships. A
project involving the excavation by dredging of 230,000 cubic yards
of earth and 225,000 cubic yards of rock was approved, and of these
quantities 6S,400 cubic yards of earth and 14,600 cubic yards of rock
had been removed on June 30, 1918. At the Paraiso point of inter-
section, one-half mile north of Pedro Miguel locks, and immediately
south of the pontoon bridge at Paraiso, a high point of land ob-
structed the view at a place where north and south-bound ships fre-
quently meet. An improvement at this point was authorized, consist-
ing of a slight widening of the canal and the removal of the high
bank, involving a total removal of 66,000 cubic yards of earth and
370,000 cubic yards of rock. Of these quantities, 21,100 cubic yards
of earth and 81,000 cubic yards of rock had been excavated at the
close of the year. Inspections of slide areas were made from time to
time. with especial reference to the maintenance of drainage condi-
tions. Periodical instrumental observations were taken on the points
established in 1916 on Gold, Zion, Contractors, and Purple Hills,
indicating no movement.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Miscellaneous dredging included the removal of 1,150,510 cubic
yards of earth and (144,838 cubic yards of rock from the Atlantic
terminal, and 1,1G0,(03 cubic yards of earth and 152,975 cubic yards
of rock from the Pacific terminal.
The rock and timber dike, at Mi ndi Beach, south of Limon Bay,
were maintained. only minor repairs being necessary. No new dikes
were const ructed.
In the elimination of water hyacinths from the waters of the canal,
32S,859 square yards of hy(aciniths were cleared by arsenic spraying,
and =0 4,132 young pIlants were uprooted and destroyed.
For further details, reference is invited to the report of the super-
intendent in charge of dredging. Appendix C.

1MECH.\NIC.\L DIVISION.
The work of this division continued in char-ge of Comnimainder R. D.
Gatewood, naval constructor, and tile mechanical plants remained
as reported last year with the exception that the Paraiso shops were
closed down on August '25, 1917. owing to the greatly diminished
amount of repair work required for the dredging division in that
vicinity. On October 1, 1917, the electrical forces of the mechanical
division were transferred to the electrical division, except two elec-
tricians at Balboa shops and two at Cristohal shops for the main-
tenance oft aplit work. Owing to the congested condition of tlhe
shipyards and docks in tlie States, an abnormal amount of repairs
to ships was conducted, including the thorough overhaul of two large
ships for the Navy and the steamship Ancon of the Panama Railroad
Steamship Line. Minor repairs were made to various ships of the
Navy as they passed through the canal. Construction work was
performed for the local Army and Navy establishments. Canal equip-
ment was placed in tlie dry docks for repairs at Cristobal and Bal-
boa as follows: Dredges .Vos. .5'?, S .5', .*'., .5', C'h( ,( .', (as'ca a.s,
C'ul/-,ra-, Corozal, Ge Ibo,oa. 1, uoni, and Parai'so; '26 barges and .5
scows; and tugs Port'o L//,lo, C("aini:, E'n. ,r' lir'af ore:.s', De L.s'-
.s'/p.s La T'/all/y, Bol;o, La BDoe,I and MJarii,.r. Repairs not requiring
thile use of the dry docks were made to the tug R'.li/an quired extensive overhaul: tugs La loca, Mlraft'or., and Mariner.
There were overhauled and shipped for the Alaskan Engineering
Commission and private firms 70 locoinotives, 5 steam shovels, 400
flat cars, 30 Rodger ballast cars, and 30 du1111111p ars. On account of
the high cost and difficulty of transporting lumber from the States,
this division has investigated the native Iulmber field, with the result
that about 2,.000,000 feet of lumber have been obtained. Changes and
improvements in the Balboa shops included tile construction of a
steel paling fence around the inclosure; the removal of the old Pan-
ama Railroad shed covering Pier No. 15, making the space available




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


as repair wharves; the extension of the roof over the west end of
the foundry; an extension at the north end of building No. 2; an.
extension to the car shop; the installation of a pipe-bending machine
for the sheet-metal shop; bending rolls and plate planer in the boiler
shop; and of a band-saw mill with capacity to handle hardwood
!ogs 4S inches in diameter by 60 feet long.
At the Cristobal shops, repairs were made to the dry-dock gates,
and new equipment has been installed as follows: Pipe threading
and cutting machine, a power hack saw, 14-inch drill press, and an
electric welding machine.
For further details see report of the superintendent, mechanical
division, Appendix E.

SUPPLY DEPARTMENT.
Following the relief from duty with the canal of Lieut. Col. WV. R.
Grove as chief quartermaster, and Capt. F. H. Smith as assistant
chief quartermaster, changes in the organization of the department
were made. The position of assistant chief quartermaster was
abolished, and the work of the. department was subdivided into sev-
eral branceles, as follows:
(a) District quartermasters, hotels, restaurants, messes, and store-
houses, under the direct supervision of a superintendent, reporting
to the chief quartermaster.
(b) Commissary division, operated under a general manager, re-
porting to the chief quartermaster, and including commissary ware-
houses, cold storage plants, manufacturing plants, abattoir, laundries,
and retail commissaries.
(c) Pastures, plantations, hog farms, chicken farms, and dairies,
under the immediate supervision of a superintendent, cattle industry,
who has also direct charge of the operation of the cattle boats, and
who reports to the chief quartermaster.
(d) Purchase of live stock and cattle, in charge of a cattle buyer,
wvho reports to the chief quartermaster.
ke) United States requisition bureau, under the chief of bureau,
reporting to the chief quartermaster.
(f) Printing plant, designated as The Panama Canal Press, and
operated under the charge of a printer, who reports to the chief
quartermaster.
The commissaries, cattle industry, pastures, plantations, dairies,
etc., and the Washington Hotel, are financed by the Panama Rail-
road, but the operations are conducted under the supervision of the
chief quartermaster of The Panama Canal.
Labor.-There was a marked reduction in the number of employees
on the silver roll accomplished gradually during the year. On June
30, 1918. the number employed was 16,157, as compared with 20,597
863720-18---3




THE PANAMA. CANAL.


on June 30, 1917. The decrease resulted from the completion of con-
struction work. The problem of caring for thle cunemp1)loyed, who
were in general living in the cities of Panama and Colon, was some-
what simplified by the voluntary departure of a number to Cuba
and the United States, and by the repatriation (f others to the
islands whence they came.
Quarters.-Applications by gold employees for family quarters
were reduced from 257 on file June 30, 1917, to 92"2 on June 30,
1918. At the end of the fiscal years there were 1,721 a-)pplications on
file by silver employees for married quarters, distrilibuted as follows:
Balboa, 602; Pedro Miguel, 114; Gatun, 30; and Cri9toba 075.
On account of the reduction in the volume of dredge work at
Gaillard Cut, the village of Paraiso was abandoned as a re-idence
for gold employees, and 30 family quarters vacated were converted
into quarters for silver employees, providing a total of SO apart-
ments for occupation by silver employees of the dredging division,
of the Pedro Miguel locks, and of other branches of canal work
centered at Pedro Miguel.
The situation as to bachelor quarter- for gold employees- has im-
proved so that 60 per cenit of all bachelors are provided for at the
rate of one man to a room. Additional bachelor quarters should
ultimately be provided, but the matter is held in abeyance for the
duration of the war.
Further experience with electric ranges in gold quarters, referred
to in last year's report, indicates that they are slightly more ex-
pensive than coal-burning ranges, and no further installations are
being made. The increased cost is due, not to the relative expense of
electric current, but to the high cost of maintenance of the ranges.
Corrals.-The number of animals in the corrals was reduced from
52 horses and 289 mules on July 1, 1917, to 39 horses and 210 mules
on June 30, 1918. The reduction of animals in the corrals wa; due
to deaths, condemnation and sale, and transfers to plantation work.
There was an increase from 115 to 176 in the number of motor vehi-
cles of all descriptions, including trucks for handling supplies for
the construction divisions and vehicles for commissary deliveries,
mail deliveries, and garbage collection. Experience shows not only
a saving in time, but a decreased cost of operation in the use of
motor-driven as compared with animal-drawn vehicles.
Materials and supplics.-There was a considerable red iu:tion in
the number of requisitions prepared and forwarded to the general
purchasing officer in Washington, and in the value of the materials
received, compared with the preceding year. For the year covered
by this report there was a total of 880 requisitions for supplies, of
a total value of $8,700,356.62, as compared with 1,347 requisitions to
the value of $10,817,106.51 for the preceding year. There was a




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


reduction in the value of local purchases, being $1,349,783.84, as
compared with $1,516,914.79 for the preceding year.
The valine of material in stock on June 30, 1918, was $6,747,688.26,
showing an increase of $698,703.56 during the year. This increase is
mainly due to the greater cost of material and the upward tendency
of the market. A comparison of prices shows an average value in-
.rease of 131 per cent during the last four years, with a particularly
marked increase during the last year, and although the amount of
stores on ha;ind howss an increase in money value, in total quantity
it is smaller. Also owing to conditions resulting from the war,
an increased stock had to be carried of certain commodities. Sales
to Govern meant departments and commercial steamships aggregated
$1.630.S27.00, an increase of $1,037,204.60 over the preceding year.
The principal items sold were lumber, building material, general
hardware, rope, cable, gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils. The
consumption of cement for the year was 149,039 barrels, as compared
with 270.05) "- barrels for the preceding year. The details of the col-
lections and sales of obsolete material, equipment, and scrap are con-
tained in the report of the chief quartermaster, Appendix E.
Fuel oil plants.-A contract with the Standard Oil Co. of Cali-
fornia for the delivery at Balboa of 700,000 barrels, expires Septem-
ber 1, 1918. On June 30, 1918,.a balance of 188,357 barrels remained
to be delivered. A contract with the Atlantic Refining Co. for the
delivery of 240,000 barrels of fuel oil at Cristobal expired June 30,
191.S, with 75,000 barrels under order remaining to be delivered. The
canal equipment for storing oil is to be increased by the construction
of a 55,000-1iarrel capacity concrete fuel oil tank at Mount Hope,
which was 75 per cent completed at the end of the year. A total of
2,517.217 barrels of fuel oil was handled by the Balboa and Mount
Hope fuel oil plants, for a total of 438 vessels.
[7,1a Ponio a Canal Press.-Equipment was added to the printing
plant at a cost of $3,072.21. The value of stock on hand on June
30, 1018, was $80,542.96, as compared with $81,767.72 for the preced-
ing year. Unserviceable items were surveyed and disposed of to
the value of $220.27.
Sul,/i shce..-The net revenue from the restaurants and messes
operated by the canal was $598,153.51, a decrease of $42,914.08 under
the preceding year. The cost of operations was $594,395.99, a de-
crease of $39,751.34. The charges for building repairs, fuel, and
light are not included in these figures. They are absorbed by canal
appropriations, the reason being that these charges are not made
to employees living in family quarters, and it would be unfair to
include them in the cost of meals to the employees patronizing the
restaurants and messes. The new lunch room at the Balboa shops
was completed and occupied on September 7, 1917. There was a




THE PANAMA CANAL.


considerable decrease in revenue at the hotels Tivoli and Washing-
ton. The operation of the Hotel Tivoli showed a net loss of $8,109.95,
and the Hotel Washington showed a net loss of $15,465.92. The
losses are due entirely to diminished patronage which results from
lack of travel on account of war conditions. The hotels must be
kept open as necessary utilities for the public having business with
the canal. It is not practicable to prevent losses by increasing rates,
and the cost of operation has been reduced to the minimum consistent
with providing hotel facilities. There is no apparent. reason why,
on the resumption of normal conditions, the operation of these hotels
should be a burden upon the canal appropriations or upon the funds
of the Panama Railroad.
The efforts of the supply department to reduce the dependence of
the Canal Zone population upon outside sources, especially the United
States, for foodstuffs, referred to in report for last year, have been
continued, and considerable progress has been made. The industries
involved are financed by the Panama Railroad, but in this report it
is appropriate to make a brief review of the results obtained. The
production of native beef for consumption on the Isthmus and by
the steamship trade utilizing the canal, has grown to such an extent
that it was not necessary during the year to import beef from the
United States. The hog industry has been developed so as to provide
in sufficient quantities, ham, bacon, and sausage. The chicken farmn
has been developed to the extent of providing 23,.)14 dozen eggs dur-
ing the past six months. At the Mindi dairy farm, which was placed
in operation in January, 1918, there has been a monthly production
of milk that has increased from 971 gallons in January to 5,373
gallons in June. The plantations have provided in significant quan-
tities, various fruits and vegetables, including among the principal
items, string beans, cucumbers, green corn, coconuts, onions, rI:d-
ishes, tomatoes, eggplant, sweet potatoes, oranges, okra, ynams, plan-
tain, bananas, alligator pears, papaya, and mangoes.
With the approval of the Secretary of War, Army conmissaries
were established under the administration of the quartermaster de-
partment of the Army, at the military posts of Fort Sheriman, Fort
Randolph, Las Cascadas, Empire, Culebra, and Corozal. The canal
commissaries at those points were consequently abandoned, except
that in order to provide for' the Panama Canal employees working
on the west bank of the canal a commissary at Empire was continued.
The regulations of the Food Administration at Washington have
been applied on the Canal Zone wherever the commodities affecteAl
were imported from the United States.
For further details see the report of the chief quartermaster,
Appendix F.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT.
This department continued under the charge of Mr. H. A. A.
Smith, auditor. It is subdivided into the division of auditing and
accounting, under the direction of the auditor, assisted by Mr. Elwyn
Green; division of collections, under the collector, Mr. T. L. Clear;
and the division of disbursements, under the paymaster, Mr. J. H.
McLenn. Disbursements were made by the paymaster in the amount
of $29,962,040.32, of which $11,273,280.32 were on account of the
Panama Railroad. Employees on the gold rolls of the canal were
paid $0,269,614.59. and on the silver roll $5,442,626.14. The sum of
$6,976,425.'27 was paid on miscellaneous vouchers. Collections on
p)ay rolls totaled $3,S97.644.15, of which $3,018,091.07 were collected
for coupon books and meal tickets; $87,002.45 for rent; and the re-
mainder for miscellaneous items. The Panama branch of the Com-
mercial National Bank of Washington, D. C., was transferred on
July 10, 1918, to the American Foreign Banking Corporation, the
latter continuing as a Government depository and fiscal agent. Small
deposits of United Staitei. Government and Panama Railroad funds
are carried iin this bank. The use of gold and of Panaman silver in
making 1)ayments has been practically discontinued, and paper cur-
rency and American silver substituted therefore. The sum of $1,622,-
(000 has been imported by the canal for use in making payments.
Collections repaid to alpp)roplriations totaled $8,625,298.20. De-
posits by owners and .gents of ships for payment of tolls and charges
for supplies and services rendered by canal facilities totaled $13,859,-
407.05, of which $0,6,90.341.45 xfere deposited with the collector on the
Isthmus, and tlie remainder. $4.1(09,125.60, with the Assistant Treas-
urer of the United States to the credit of the collector. Of the total
depositedl the sum of $091,044.36 was refunded on settlement of
accounts. There were transferred to the Postmaster General of the
United States, in payment of money orders drawn on the United
States, funds to the amount of $1,655,000.
The tolls actually collected on vessels transiting the canal during
the year iLmoLunted to $G,439,0S3.99. The sum of $2,321.25 was col-
lected in addition for tolls on a vessel that passed through the canal
during the preceding year. In further reference to the loss of
revenue to the canal on account of the present legislation relating
to rules of measurement of vessels, it may be stated here that, includ-
ing the amounts refunded during the year, under authority of the
act of Congress of JTune 12, 1917, the total loss of revenue since the
opening of the canal has aggregated $2,797,260.26. The chief bene-
ficiaries of the present rules of measurement have been vessels under
foreign register.





THE PANAMA CANAL.


The sum of $26,525.82 was paid in settlement of small claims for
damage to vessels passing through the locks. These claims iiave
thus far been adjusted and settled by mutual agreement without re-
course to the courts, as authorized by the Panama Canal act.
Through an arrangement with the local banks, st ubscriptions to
the First, Second, and Third Liberty Loans were settled for by pay-
roll deductions in five equal monthly installments for each bond
issued. In this manner collections were made of $218,;18.t7 for tlhe
First Liberty Loan; $339,960.35 for the Second Liberty Loan; and
$260,870.49 for the Third Liberty Loan. Collection were also made
by pay-roll deductions of $6,142.73 for War Savings Stamps. and
$34,276.80 for Red Cross War Relief Fund.
To June 30, 1918, the total appropriated by Con'gress for the
canal and fortifications was $441,375,781.44. For the construction of
the canal and its immediate adjuncts the sum of $379,105,043.92 has
been appropriated. Omitting from this sum amounts appropriated
for colliers and coal barges; for the construction of Dock No. 6 at
Cristobal; for reboilering and repairing the steawmship.S Alcon and
Cristobal, all of which were specifically exempted by law as charge.
against the authorized bond issue, the amount appropriated charge-
able against the bond issue is $372,391,853.92, leaving a balance avail-
able for canal construction within the limit of t lie cost and tlie
authorized bond issue of $2,831,302.08. The amount repaid on the.
cost of construction from miscellaneous receipts to June 30, 1918. was
$6,879,278.03, which being deducted from the total sums appropri.lted
chargeable against the bond issue leaves the sum of $ 6.,512.57,'.8' as
the total amount expended and on hand for expenditure for projects
included within estimates upon which the cost of the canal was based.
The amount shown as the cost of constructing the c:inal will be
further reduced by receipts from the sale of construction material
and equipment, and by collections to be made to cover the i money
expended for waterworks, sewers, and pavements in the cities of
Panama and Colon. As a matter of bookkeeping, the canal is en-
titled also to credit for the value of buildings and other public
works, equipment and plant, transferred to the Arm'y, tle Alask:an
Engineering Commission, and the State Department without actual
payment therefore. The estimated value of items so transferred is
$1,973,011.17.
Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, expenditures
to June 30, 1918, of a total of $4,361,790.56 have been made on con-
struction, operation and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and
pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon. These expenditures
are to be reimbursed to the United States at the expiration of 50
years from July 1, 1907. There has been thus far reimbursed or is
immediately due, the sum of $2,339,860.10. The amount immediately





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


due is $(62,404.4, andi the remaining total of $2,021,930.46 is payable
in installments in tile next 42 years.
The principal expeondlitures chargeable to capital cost paid from
construction and maintenance and operation appropriations, are as
follows: Fromi Gatuni to Pedro Miguel, 120,000 cubic yards of origi-
nal rock ex-eavation at a cost of $67,864.78; from Pedro Miguel to
the Pacilic Ocean :1!,S._S cubic yards of dredged material, of which
4S per cent was earth and 52 per cent rock, at a total cost of
$290,5,S.52. For the power producing and transmitting systems a
total of $;1S.SS0;.7T2 was expended, which includes payments on the
extension of the (Gatitan hydroelectric station, operating machinery for
the sa me, transformer sl1ubstations, duct lines, and distribution lines.
In continuing the co(Instruiction of the Atlantic terminal there was
expended at the Cristobal coaling plant the sum of $26,127.55 and at
Mount iHope fuel-oil plant $41,243.18. In the construction of con-
crete walls and piers at Cristobal, $611,142.44 were expended toward
the construction of Pier No. ( and boathouse between Piers Nos. 7
and S. At the Pacific terminal there were expended for removal by
dreldging of the dry dock colferdam, $47,792.85; dredging inner har-
bor, M$37,57o.SS, involving the removal of 1,225,833 cubic yards of
material and the pumping of 687,713 cubic yards of spoil in connec-
tion with the filling of swamp areas. At Balboa shops the sum of
$204,50.S.07 was exl)ended, of which the principal item was $146,-
9906.40, for addlitiolal equipment. Rat-proofing walls and piers,
$5S,307.>7. Dredging. out berth at the fuel-oil plant, $21,171.49. For
permnanenlt townrsites there was a total of $174,281.57 expended, the
principal itemis being, Balboa townsite, $65,423.03, and Colon Beach
tow nsite, $78,581..3. For permanent buildings there were expended
$1,284,.35,.04, of which the principal items were, storehouse, $12,-
500.58; hotels and mess halls, $29,669.08; gold quarters, $46,464.13;
silver quarters, $049,20.70; hospitals, $774,038.17, of which $35,235.01
wa., at the Coloni Hospital and $738,803.16 at the Ancon Hospital;
dispensarie-, $,$4,.:54.74; schoolhouses, $56,188.48; incinerator at Bal-
boa, $105,0u34.. For road construction not included in townsites
there were expended $150,707.79. In payment of awards of the Joint
Commis.cion and settlemnenits by the land office there were expended
$2_ '9..550.17.
Collection for licenses aind taxes totaled $12,532.39; court fees and
fines, $10,;8.2S; postal receipts, $107,165.85. These revenues de-
rived by the Canal Zone Government have been deposited in the
Treasuiry of the United States as miscellaneous receipts. Revenues
derived from operation of the various clubhouses amounted to $365.-
701.50, as compared with $2,33,544.22 recelyed. during the previous
\'cal.'. -, ,
/ :: .3 .. ..





THE PANAMA CANAL.


During the year there were reported 3,413 accidental injuriess, and
35 accidental deaths of employees, as compared with 4,008 accidental
injuries and 39 accidental deaths reported during the prior year.
Claims for compensation on account of these injuries and deaths were
allowed in 1,495 cases of injuries and 3 cases of death. The sumn
of $42,396.54 was allowed on account of injuries to employees, in-
cluding the canal and the railroad, and the sum of $3,848.77 on ac-
count of deaths, making a total of $46,2541.31 allowed during the
year under the act of September 2, 1916.
There were expended in the operation and maintenance of the
canal, $5,903,719.69, as compared with $6,788,147.00 during the previ-
ous year. The reduction was due to the decreased expenditure for
dredging in Gaillard Cut on account of the impro\ ement in the slide
conditions. The expenses for operation aind maintenIance of the locks
increased from $737,430.39 during 1917 to $744,'0'1.00 for 1918. The
expenses of the marine division were reduced fromii $313,030O.40 in
1917 to $293,546.28 in 1918. The direct charges for operation and
maintenance totaled $3,077,068.37, as against $4,250,102.9. in 1917.
The overhead expense charged to operation aind maintenance in ar-
riving at the total sum of $5,903,719.69 was $2,820,0;1.32, including
charges for civil government, $678,232.88; hospitals, quarantine,
and sanitation, $635,854.03; and for administration, $1,512,504.44, in-
cluding the executive department, accounting department, Wash-
ington office, operation of and repairs to storehouses and quarters for
employees, lighting of streets, operation and maintenance of water-
works, and maintenance of sewer systems and roads. Offsetting the
total expense of $5,903,719.69 are amounts earned as tolls, $0,454,-
198.35; licenses and taxes, court fees and finies, $140,918.01; profits
on business operations, $6,159.56, making a total of $60,0601,275.0"2.
These figures indicate revenues earned in excess of expenses amount-
ing to $697,556.23, as against a loss of $791,048.90 for the previous
year. Except for a few minor items the charges to operation and
maintenance above given do not include charges for depleciation of
plant or interest on the capital investment.
The total revenue derived from business operations carried on with
Panama Canal funds, amounted to $10,324,071.91, as against a total
of $7,579,588.44 during the previous year. The net profit resulting
from these operations and covered into the treas-ury as miscellaneou's
receipts, was for the year $6,159.56. In reporting this fact it should
be stated that shop work, work for the Panama Railroad and other
departments of the Government, and all services rendered for em-
ployees are performed at cost, except that subsistence and hospital
services to employees are rendered at less than cost. Fair profits are
made on the sales qf-w:ater, dry dockage at Balboa, and on the sale
of fuel. oil. The capital for-car.rvying on the business operations of





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


the canal is supplied by the appropriation for maintenance and oper-
ation.
The appropriations for operation and maintenance have been lim-
ited to the amounts required for current expenses, and in order to
provide a sufficient fund for carrying a stock of materials required in
the conduct of the operations of the canal a special item for stock is
necessary and will be estimated for.
For further details see the report of the auditor, Appendix G.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.
This department continued under the Governor with Mr. C. A.
McIlvaine as executive secretary. In addition to the usual work,
operations were expanded for the administration of laws and regula-
tions of local application made and issued on account of war
conditions. Of these the main items are the censorship of mails and
the enforcement of regulations of the War Trade Board. For these
purposes it was necessary to increase the number of employees of the
division of civil affairs by 52 men. The division of schools employed
13 additional teachers to care for the increased enrollment of pupils.
There was a reduction in the police and fire division of 21 employees,
due primarily to the withdrawal of special police detailed at the
locks, the guarding of these structures having been taken over by the
Army.
With the outbreak of the war, admission to certain areas in the
Canal Zone was limited to employees and others having business
therein, and permits and means of identification were required. Ar-
rangements are in progress for the establishment of a system of
photo-metal checks, similar to those used by the munition plants
and Navy yards in the United States, which will take the place of
the permits and which provide a positive means of identification and
minimize the possibilities of unauthorized or fraudulent use.
The bureau of statistics, created during the preceding fiscal year,
has compiled much data of wages paid in the United States for work
comparable with that on the Isthmus. This work has been abnor-
mally large on account of the frequent changes of wages in Govern-
ment establishments in the States, which changes are followed and
put into effect on the canal. Investigations were made and statistics
kept of living conditions of silver employees, whose rates of pay were
twice advanced during the year to meet the increased cost of living.

BUREAU OF CLUBS AND PLAYGROUNDS.
Clubs for gold employees were maintained at Cristobal, Gatun,
Paraiso, Pedro Miguel, Ancon, and Balboa, and for silver employees
at. Cristobal, Gatun, and La Boca. The clubhouses are social centers
of the Canal Zone population and are indispensable to satisfactory





THE PANAMA CANAL.


community life, in the necessary absence of any other facilities for
a like purpose. The clubhouses were established in the early days
of the construction period and the buildings are of frame construc-
tion and in general are old and inadequate in size, arrangements, and
equipment. When normal conditions are restored after the war,
the clubhouses should be rebuilt of permanent material, and with
enlarged facilities and equipment. The entertainments provided
have been practically limited to moving-picture exhibitions, except
on a few occasions there have been entertainments by local aminteus
or by professional entertainers who chanced to be in Panama en route
to other places. The stadium on the athletic field at Balboa has
been in frequent use for patriotic exercises on national holidays and
for special entertainments provided for the Liberty Loan anld Red'
Cross activities. It has also been regularly used during thle baseball
season. The encouragement of the popular and distinctly American
game of baseball has been of benefit to a large class of employees.

DIVISION OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.

Bureau of Posts.-The number of post offices remained at 16. of
which 14 are money-order offices. The total revenues from the
postal service, including box rents, payments from the Panama Rail-
road Company, from the Republic of Panama for transportation of
its mail between Panama and Colon, and from the United St-tus Post
Office Department for handling United States transit mails, were
$145,231.81, as compared with $110,741.41 for the preceding year.
There was a total of 167,504 money orders, amounting to $"-),372,-
973.55, issued, on which fees amounting to $11,918.3) were collected.
On June 30, 1918, there was on deposit the sum of $1;,''7.1:5 as in-
paid money orders drawn on Canal Zone post offices in favor of
remitters. The deposit money orders totaled $1.244,:335. Pay-
ments on deposit money orders aggregated $1,441,22.,. The hbl-
ance on deposit on June 30, 1918, was $499,490. The deposits have
been less during the year, on account of subscriptions by depositors
to liberty bonds and war savings stamps. Intere-t on deposit
money orders was paid to the amount of $8,441.71, as compll)ared
with $1,813.93 for the previous year. The registry business at the
post offices was largely increased; 266,867 parcels and letters were
handled, of which 130,894 were dispatched, and 135,10-73 were re-
ceived. There were received in the mails from the United States
15,629 parcels containing articles imported by employee- of tlhe
United States Government on the Canal Zone, as coump:)ared w\it],
13,938 for the preceding year. The office of the director of posts
issued 1,308 duplicates of lost or stolen money orders, investigated
136 cases of losses and nondelivery of registered mail, and tnder-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


took investigations for the United States Post Office Department of
mail in transit through the Canal Zone. Several arrests were made
during the year for misuse of the mails, including the misuse of can-
celed postage stamps, false personation in attempts to cash money or-
ders. fraudulent use of the mails in violation of section 1707, Postal
Laws and Regulations. Six arrests were made and five convictions
secured for rifling mail aboard United Fruit Co.'s steamers
while in port at Cristobal. On account of the establishment of cen-
sorship of mail. the bureau of posts, in December, 1917, took charge
of the handling of all mails entering and dispatched from the Canal
Zone. Formerly certain countries in Central and South America
maintained postal agents in the cities of Panama and Colon, who
received and opened mail bags arriving from those countries and
who dispatched mails originating in Panama, destined to those
countries.
IHltrau of C us/omns.-The total number of vessels entered was 4,447,
and the total number cleared was 4,443, as compared with 3,718 en-
tered and 3,721 cleared in the previous year. There arrived on the
Isthmus 447 prohibited aliens'-255 at Balboa and 192 at Cristobal. Of
t he-e. 223 were admitted to the Republic of Panama by authority of
that Government, the remainder proceeded to their ultimate destina-
tion or were returned to the port of embarkation. This bureau is
charged witli the enforcement of the President's Executive order of
FeIb:ruar'y u;, 1917, relating to the exclusion of Chinese. There were
seven arrests for attempted smuggling, resulting in six convictions
;and one acquittal. Under the arrangements with the Republic of
Painama, by which employees of the United States Government are
allowed free enter y of goods imported for their own use, there were
approved 1.81 requests for free entry, compared with 2,533 for the
previous year. The inspection and certification of household goods
packed for shipmentt to the United States has been unusually heavy
on account of the frequent departures of canal employees and Army
ollicers transferred to the States. Merchandise arriving at canal ports
tor delivery w-ithin the Republic of Panama is released to the Panama
officials upon receipt of papers showing the payment of duty on such
merchandise. There were 5,690 permits for such releases at Cristobal
anmd 10 at Balboa.
The assistant chief of the division of civil affairs, as shipping com-
missioner, with the chief customs inspectors as deputies, has
charge of signing on and discharging American seamen in Canal
Zone ports and the settlement of disputes between the masters and
n,embers of such crews regarding wages, advance fines, and general
treatment. There were 2,834; seamnen shipped on American vessels
and 2.549 discharged. Seamen's wages were received for deposit at
the port of Balboa in the total sum of $5,293.31, of which all but





THE PANAMA CANAL.


$320.91 were disbursed. At Cristobal $13,300.55 were received, and
$1,009.23 remained not disbursed on June 30, 1918.
There were administered 199 estates of deceased and insane em-
ployees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company.
and 35 were in the course of settlement at the end of the year. Of
the 199 estates settled, 112 were delivered to the consular or diplo-
matic representative in the Republic of Panama or the United States.
of the countries of which the deceased or insane persons were citizens.
60 estates were settled directly with the heirs; 5 settled with admin-
istrators or guardians; 2 were repaid to persons who had recovered
their sanity; and the net proceeds of 20 estates were applied to settle
the claims against them. The total amount involved in the 199 estates
was $13,562.07.
A total of 2,873 licenses were issued for motor vehicles, bicycles,
hunting permits, and the keeping and carrying of firearms. The fees
collected amounted to $7,359.15.

POLICE AND FIRE DIVIsiON.
Upon the relief of Capt. H. D. Mitchell, United States Army, on
July 8, 1917, Mr. Guy Johannes was appointed as his successor as
chief of the police and fire division. Besides their normal duties, the
police division of the canal performed considerable extra work inci-
dent to the war in connection with the protection of the canal and
the general interests of the United States on the Isthmus. This
work was performed in cooperation with the Army authorities. Fifty-
two first-class policemen and 16 colored policemen were appointed;
and 51 first-class policemen and 2 colored policemen left the service.
There were 4,426 arrests made; 4,125 males and 301 females. The
common-jail prisoners averaged 85.83 per month; and all those physi-
cally able were employed in road work. The total value of such labor
amounted to $14,199.80, figured at the rates in effect for common la-
bor. There were two arrests and prosecutions in the district court
on charges of transporting or trafficking in opium in the Canal
Zone. In one case the charge for violation of the opium act was
dismissed, but the accused was found guilty of violation of customs
regulations and fined $100. In the other case the accused was found
guilty and sentenced to pay a fine of $50. The police division main-
tained a continuous patrol of the harbors at Balboa and Cristobal for
the enforcement of the navigation laws and prevention of sm ualling
and irregular traffic, and to assist in the enforcement of military
regulations. Launches were maintained at two points on Gatun Lake
for the same purpose. A motorcycle patrol service was maintained
for the enforcement of automobile and other vehicular regulations,
and for special emergency police service. Twenty-five arrests were
made for trespassing on Canal Zone lands, and 24 convictions were




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


secured. Eighty-four persons were deported from the Canal Zone,
of whom 47 were convicts who had completed their term of imprison-
ment, and 37 were persons who had been convicted of misdemeanor
charges and were deemed undesirable persons to be permitted to re-
main on the Zone. Seventy-two convicts were received at the peniten-
tiary duiiring the year. The terms of 52 convicts were completed
and the convicts discharged. At the end of the year there were 54
convicts in custody at the penitentiary, as compared with 35 at the
close of the preceding year. The cost of subsisting and guarding
convicts was $)20,113.77, of which $4,900.35 were expended for sub-
sistenice of convicts; $1,319.32 for subsistence of guards; $8,902.38
for salaries of ollicers and guards at the penitentiary; and $4,991.72
for salaries of ollicers and guards employed to guard convicts on
road work. Four convicts were pardoned, and parts of sentences
were remitted in seven cases. There were two escapes from the peni-
tenjtiary on June 23, 1918. One was recaptured on the day of the
escape, and one remained at large until his recapture on July 4, 1918.
There were investigations by the coroner in 52 cases of death, of
which 20 were due to accidental drowning and 21 to accidental
traumatism.
For the fire division a new motor combination pumping engine and
hose wagon was installed at Balboa on January 30, 1918. This equip-
ment completes the substitution of motor-drawn for horse-drawn ap-
paatuhisro thr out the Canal Zone. Periodical inspections of Gov-
ernmen1 t buildings, docks, storehouses, yards, and other establish-
merits were maintained to determine the condition of fire extin-
guishers, minor apparatus, and hose. There were 69 fires and 5 false
alarms. The total fire loss amounted to $259,351.60, of which $230,000
represents loss due to a fire on the Panama Railroad steamship
Panama, which arrived at Cristobal with a fire in her hold.

DIVISION OF SCHOOLS.

Regular sessions were resumed on October 8, 1917, in the new
buildings at Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal,
there being a slight delay on account of the late arrival of furniture
and equipment for these buildings. The remainder of the Canal
Zone schools were opened on October 1, with the exception of the
La Boca school, where an epidemic of measles and whooping cough
delayed the opening until October 8. The average daily attendance
for the school year was 1,963.2-1,322.9 in the white schools and 640.2
in the colored schools; compared with 1,709.2-1,212.2, and 495.6, re-
spectively, for the previous year. The regular physical examination
of pupils was made, resulting in the.treatment of 679 pupils for
defects discovered, consisting in the largest proportion of defective
teeth. Courses of manual training and household arts were con-




THE PANAMA CANAL.


ducted at Cristobal, for Cristobal and Gatun pupils, and at Balboa,
for Balboa, Ancon, and Pedro Miguel pupils. The apprentice de-
partment has been in effective operation with 40 pupil-. Thu classes
are conducted in the office building of the shops at Balboa, and in a
warehouse in close proximity to the Cristobal shop-. The course of
physical training and athletics was continued with satisfactory re-
sults. There were 28 pupils graduated from the high school, giving
a total of 89 graduates since the establishment of the high school.
COURTS.
In the district courts, 194 cases were pending at the beginning of
the year; 930 cases were filed, and 900 cases settled during the year,
leaving a total of 224 cases pending at the close of the year. There
were 139 sessions. A total of 790 marriage licenses were issued, and
17 deeds were recorded. The collections of the courts totaled
$6,248.20, consisting of civil costs, fines, forfeitures, and various fees.
The magistrate's court at Balboa had seven cases pending at the be-
ginning of the year, and during the year 1,863 were filed, of which
1,793 were criminal and 70 civil. Of the criminal cases tried, there
were 1,330 convictions, 314 were committed to the district court, and
23 were dismissed. Total collections of fines, fees, and costs
amounted to $8,086.15. The magistrate's court at Cristobal had two
cases pending from last year; 1,938 cases were filed during the year,
of which 1,913 were criminal and 25 civil. Of the criminal cases,
there were 1,374 convictions, 263 acquittals, 26 suspensions, 39 dis-
missals, and 209 committed to the district court. Total. collections
for fines, fees, and costs amounted to $5,667.03.
The report of the district attorney is printed as appendix I.
The office of the marshal for the Canal Zone received 659 writs of
process in civil cases, of which 602 were served. The marshal or
his deputy attended 139 sessions of the district court at Balboa and
Cristobal. Witnesses attending court were paid a total of $65.10.
Collections for the service of court papers in civil cases amounted to
$402.40.
RELATIONS WITH PANAMA.
Negotiations by correspondence or personal conference bet ween the
executive secretary of The Panama Canal and the secretary of foreign
relations of the Republic of Panama included the following\l s.llb-
jects, in addition to routine matters:
Installation of buoys to mark the restricted area in the Bay of
Panama for the guidance of navigators, etc.
Purchases at Canal Zone commissaries by unauthorized persons.
Exportation of coin and bar silver of the Republic of Panama.
New schedule of coach and automobile tariff in the districts of
Panama and Colon and the Canal Zone.




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Desirability of not advertising departure of vessels in newspapers
in connection with the closing of mails.
Discontinuance of discharge of cargo at Balboa consigned to
I'anaina by the South American Steamship Company.
Preservation of neutrality of the Canal Zone and the Republic of
Panama and treatment of vessels in the service of the entente
powers arriving and departing from Canal Zone ports and passing
through the canal.
Extradition from the Republic of Panama to the Canal Zone of
the former vice president of the Continental Banking and Trust Co.
Collection of customs duty on dutiable merchandise arriving at
Canal Zone post offices.
Police protection at Colon Beach.
Delay ii receiving money to the credit of a deceased employee in
a bank in the city of Panama by the administrator of estates.
Permiits for the construction of wooden houses on Colon Beach for
the United Fruit Co.
Permission granted to Arraijan farmers to cross canal at Balboa
without restrictions as to time.
Laying of underground cable from the Canal Zone to Santo Tomas
Hospital, the American consulate, and the American legation in
the city of PIaiina, for the purpose of furnishing them with electric
current.
Preliminary survey for the extension of the Chiriqui Railroad in
Ihe Province of Chiriqui.
Handling of transit cargo at Cristobal without filing of bond to
cover customs duty with the Panaman Government.
Construciition of sanitoriums for tuberculosis patients in the Re-
public o_-f Pana ma.
Construction of a slaughterhouse at Colon.
Exemption of payment of taxes for Panama Railroad Company's
stables in cities of Panama and Colon.
The newly relaimed area of land belonging to the Panama Rail-
road Companiy on the shore of Panama Bay adjoining the old Ameri-
can pier.
Furnishing of free medicine by the Santo Tomas Hospital to out-
patients prescribed for by the Red Cross clinics.
Refmnd of fine imposed on chauffeur of the mail car of the Ancon
post ollice for a collision for which he was not responsible by the
police in the city of Panama.
Release of parcels post packages addressed .to an interned alien
without payment of customs duties.
- Regulations to prevent the introduction of tuberculosis among
domestic animals in the Canal Zone.
Indebtedness of the Republic of Panama to The Panama Canal.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Escape of prohibited aliens in transit. through the Canal Zone.
Violations of the defensive area act by Panamans in entering the
restricted area at the entrances of the canal.
Alleged sales of second-hand furniture by employees and officials
of The Panama Canal and minebers of the military forces on the
Isthmus to residents of the Republic of Panama on which no customs
duty was collected at the time of importation.
Conservation of products native to Panama.
Refusal to allow settlement and cultivation of strip of land be-
tween the water level of Gatuin Lake and the U1 0i-foot contour line.
Construction of a telegraph line by the Republic of Panama be-
tween Colon and Porto Bello, which is to pass through the Canal
Zone.
Anchorage of dynamite lighter in Panamla Bay, and proposed con-
struction of an explosive magazine for the Republic of Panama.
Advisability of permitting removal of sand from the .-)each between
Punta Paitilla and the sea wall in the city of Panama.
Receiving and filing bills of health from the incoming vessels at
the port of Bocas del Toro.
Outbreak of smallpox at Bocas del Toro and failure of Republic
of Panama to provide necessary funds, etc., for subsisting and caring
for quarantined persons.
Installation of fire-alarm system in the city of Colon.
Release and failure of Republic of Panama to prosecute certain
persons arrested for gambling, and control of the gambling situnl-
tion in the city of Colon.
Proposed sanitary improvements in Las Sabanas and Pueblo
Nuevo districts.
Importation of fuel oil into the Canal Zone to be sold to sea-going
vessels without the payment of consular fees to the Republic of
Panama.
Clandestine landing of passengers from small vessels arriving at
Panama from Colombia and Ecuador before reporting to the quar-
antine authorities for inspection and entry.
Censorship of mail.
Construction of highways in the Republic of Panama.
Counterfeiting in the city of Panama.
For further details see Appendix H.
OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL ATTORNEY.
Judge Frank Feuille continued as special attorney, and as such
represented the Government's interests before the Joint Commission
for adjusting land claims, prepared drafts for executive orders
necessary to put into effect certain provisions of law, and in addition
served as counsel for the Panama Rail road Company on the Isthmus,




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


There were 37 land claims, aggregating $80,113.90 that were settled
by agreement without reference to the Joint Commission. Since the
President's order of December 5, 1912, including the 37 claims just
mentioned, a total of 4,418 claims, aggregating $1,072,137.20, have
been thus directly made, including the settlements made prior to that
order, and after August 6, 1908, authorizing the law department of
the canal to make direct settlements where agreements could be
reached. The total number of claims for damages for land and im-
prove;,ients claimed by private parties and taken over for canal and
railroad purposes was 5,480, aggregating the sum of $1,321,040.50.
During the year ending June 30, 1918, the Joint Commission disposed
of 10 claims in 8 awards, aggregating $125,190. The umpire,
appointed by the Government of the United States and the Govern-
ment of Panama, under the provisions of article 15 of the Panama
Canal treaty, disposed of 9 claims during the fiscal year, aggregating
the sumt of $118,061.38. The Joint Commission dismissed 29 claims
during the year; 19 on account of previous adjustment by direct
settlement between the Government and the claimants; 4 by default
on account of the nonappearance of claimants; 1 for lack of sufficient
evidence to support the claim; 1 because of lack of jurisdiction of the
commission to try the claim; and 4 because the improvements
claimed were situated on lands held under revocable leases. Two
claims were certified to the umpire by the Joint Commission. The
aggregate amount paid by the United States for lands and improve-
ments to the end of. the fiscal year was $2,716,382.52, covering 6,270
claims. There is a grand total of 890 claims brought before the
Joint Commission and umpires, appointed under articles 11 and 15 of
the Panama Canal treaty, and settled by them. The amounts paid
under these awards totaled $1,395,242.02. Of these, 21 awards, aggre-
gating the sum of $304,588, were made prior to the President's
depopulation order of December 5, 1912. On June 30, 1918, 139
claims, involving $8,005,408.90, appeared on the Joint Commission
dockets. Of these, 48, aggregating the sum of $226,790.55, are based
on Panama Railroad leases and have been withdrawn from the
jurisdiction of the Joint Commission by section 2 of the sundry civil
appropriation act of July 1, 1916. In addition, 9 claims, aggregating
$24,264.50, for improvements on lands admittedly owned by the
United States and held under revocable lease from the Government,
in accordance with previous rulings, will be dismissed for want
of jurisdiction. There remained, therefore, on June 30, 1918, for
adjudication and settlement by the Joint Commission, 82 claims,
involving the sum of $7,754,353.85. Two vacancies occurred in the
membership of the Joint Commission during the year; one due to
the death of Mr. Nicholas Cornet, and the other due to the resigna-
86372-18---4





THE PANAMA CANAL.


tion of Mr. Clement L. Bouve. These vacancies were filled by the
President of the United States by the appointment of Judge 11Burt
New, of Indiana, and Judge George A. Connollv, of California, by
Executive order of October 3, 1917. The new commissioners arrived
on the Isthmus on November 26, 1017, and immediately assumed their
duties.
There were in effect on June 30, 191S, 51 lot licenses issued by the
land agent on behalf of The Panama Canal. Of tlis liilnlber. 7
were issued during the fiscal year. The licenses were granted to
various parties to erect oil tanks, steamship office buildings, ch rches,
lodge halls, and residences for the employees of steamship colpl)anies
and oil companies. The rents collected on tlese leases for the fiscal
year aggregated the sum of $15,04-2.02. No rental was charged on
licenses to churches or other religious. organizations.
The Canal Zone and The Panama Canal are included in several
acts of Congress enacted during the fiscal year, but there has been
no congressional legislation limited in its scope to the canal. An
Executive order was issued on January 12. 1918, establishing maxi-
mum rates of fare and governing t rainsportioii of passenge rs for hire
in the Canal Zone. This Executive order was issued by virtue of the
act of August 21, 1916. On May -28, 1918, the President issued an
Executive order relating to the anchorage ;nd movement of vessels
in Canal Zone waters, under authority granted to him by section I,
Title II, of the act of June 15, 1917, commonly known as the espion-
age act. By the terms of the order the (overnor of The Panama
Canal is authorized to exercise, within thle territorial waters of the
Canal Zone, all the powers mentioned in said section of the .aid act,
to the same extent as is conferred therein on the Secretary of the
Treasury with regard to the territorial waters- of the United States.
HEALTH DEPARTMENT.
Two changes in the head of this orga nization occurred dullring the
year. On October 4, 1917, Col. D. C. Toward. Medical Corps,
United States Army, was relieved froiim duty with The Panama
Canal, and on February 26, 1918, his successor, C(l. A. E. Trluby,
Medical Corps, United States Army. was also relieved. He was
succeeded by Maj. A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps, on the
date of his relief.
The health conditions of the employees and other resident_ of the
Canal Zone have continued good. No cases. of yellow fever or plague
occurred on the Zone, in the cities of Panama and Colon, or in the
vicinity of the Canal Zone in the Republic of Panama. The number
of hospital admissions for malaria during.q the year was 022, dis-
tributed as follows: Employees residing" in, the city of Panama, 22;
employees residing in the city of Colon, 64; employees residing in




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Cristobal, S1: employees residing within other sanitated districts of
the Canal Zone. G6; employees working outside of sanitated districts,
3SI;. The malarial rate in the sanitated districts is 6.77 per 1,000,
as compared with 128 per 1,000 in the insanitated districts.
The average civil population of the Canal Zone was 24,038, as com-
pared with 31,04S for the preceding year. In this population the
death rate from disease was 10.61 per 1,000, as compared with 8.95
for the preceding year.
City of Panama.-The average population was 61,369, compared
with 60,77S for the preceding year. In this population the death
rate from disease was 24.18, as compared with 27.93 for the preceding
year.
C'it/ of Colon.-The average population was 26,078, as compared
with 24.0;93 for the preceding year. In this population the death
rate from disease was 24.96, as compared with 24.54 for the preceding
y'ear.
DIVISION OF HOSPITALS.
ANCON HOSPITAL.
In the progress of construction of the new hospital plant 10 of the
the old frame buildings were evacuated and the buildings razed. The
new permanent buildings occupied included the administration-
clinics building in December, and the new kitchen and mess halls
building in March. There was a total of 10,865 patients admitted to
the hospital duIring the year. In the surgical clinic there were 1,525
major operations and 2,692 minor operations performed; 3,892 cases
visited the out-patient department. In the medical clinic out-patient
department 3.31-2 cases were treated. In the eye and ear clinic 6,099
cases were trevtvd, and 976 operations performed.
Coozal Hoslfital and Farm.-This institution for the care and
treatment. of insane patients continued under the supervision of the
superintendent of Ancon Hospital, with a superintendent in local
charge. At the close of the year there were 374 patients, as com-
pared with 354 on June 30, 1917. There were 185 cases admitted,
of whom 38 were assigned to the chronic ward. The increase in the
number of patients has made it necessary to crowd to an undesirable
extent the existing capacity of the wards, and makes necessary an
additional ward building. The hospital provides for patients from
the Republic of Panama, on a pay or charity basis, as circumstances
require. As a part of the course of treatment for patients in condi-
tion to be benefited by it, the patients are engaged in some light oc-
cupation. The women do sewing, embroidering, rug and hat-making.
The male patients are generally speaking fitted only for common
labor and agricultural work, and under the supervision of male at-
tendants are given plots of land to cultivate in the near vicinity of




THE PANAMA CANAL.


the hospital. Amusements provided for the well being of the pa-
tients include moving pictures, phonograph concerts, band concerts,
and walks in the vicinity of the hospital. Church services are also
provided. An adjunct to this institution is the hospital farm and
dairy, which provides employment for a number of cripples injured
during their course of employment with the canal, and who are in
practically destitute circumstances. At the dairy, besides the milk
supplied for the hospitals, about 200 quarts of milk were available
for daily sale to sick adults and children, on physicians' prescriptions.

COLON HOSPITAL.

The new nurses' home was completed during the year and was
occupied on June 5, 1918. There were 526 major and 99 minor opera-
tions performed at this hospital during the year, and 2,313 patients
were admitted for treatment.

PALO SECO LEPER ASYLUM.

No additional buildings were constructed at this asylum dIuring the
year. The average number of patients constantly cared for during
the year was 68. There were 70 patients on June 30. 1I18. as com-
pared with 65 on the same date last year. Thirteen were admitted,
5 died, and 2 were discharged.

SANTO TOMAS HOSPITAL.

This hospital is located in the city of Panama and is owned by the
Government of Panama, but is operated by agreement under the
supervision of the health department of The Panama Canal. The
average daily number of patients was 440.5, as compared with 440
for the previous year.

DISTRICT DISPENSARIES.

The dispensary at Paraiso was closed on May 14, 1918, and on ac-
count of the increased population at and near Gamboa the Paraiso
dispensary will be transferred to that point. The new concrete dis-
pensary at Gatun was completed and occupied on July 9, 1918. At
the dispensaries throughout the Canal Zone a total of 5:2,8(4 per-
sons, including employees and nonemployees, was treated. TIhe dis-
trict physicians treated 6,525 employees in quarters.

SANITATION.

The sanitary work within the Canal Zone was practically limited
to the keeping down of malaria. The principal work was pei-forrned
in the Colon-Cristobal district, which is more affected by swamp con-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


editions than the remainder of the Zone. The swamp to the north-
east of the village of New Cristobal was drained during the year, and
reclamation by clearing and ditching was conducted in the swampy
area south of the coaling plant at Cristobal. South of Mount Hope,
to tlhe west of the Panama Railroad tracks, tidewater drains were
constructed in large swamps, with marked reduction in the malaria
incidence in the population living and working in the vicinity. In
connection with drainage work there was a total of 92,112 linear yards
of ditches dug, 5,152 linear yards of concrete ditches installed, and
17,114 cubic yards of fill deposited. In addition, 119,365 linear feet
of ditches were maintained.
The sanitary work in Panama and Colon is carried on under the
immediate supervision of the chief health officer of the canal by the
health officers of the respective cities, who are employed by The
Panama Canal. In the city of Panama, as a means of improving
conditions concerning the incidence of tuberculosis, particular atten-
tion was paid to the elimination of dark and poorly ventilated rooms.
In this work 534 buildings were altered and repaired, 4,000 windows
were installed, and 30 rooms eliminated. The regulations for the
inspection of foods, supervision of building construction, garbage
collection, street cleaning, and preventive measures against disease in
general, were enforced. In Colon similar work was done.

QUARANTINE DivisioN.
A serious outbreak of cerebrospinal menegitis occurred on the
Japanese steamer Anyo .Varu, en route from Yokohama to Callao,
Peru. Between Yokohama and San Francisco several cases of this
disease occurred, and after leaving Balboa, a port of call, for Callao,
there was a recrudescence of the disease, as a result of which the
Peruvian authorities refused to receive the vessel. She returned- to
Balboa, and on her arrival, on May 28, 1918, 585 passengers and 16
of the crew were disembarked and placed in quarantine. The per-
sons suffering from the disease, upon their arrival at Balboa, were
successfully treated, and all such cases recovered without sequel.
The ship was thoroughly disinfected and permitted to proceed on its
voyage without the passengers. Active steps were taken to prevent
spread of the disease among the noninfected persons removed from
thle ship and retained in quarantine, and no additional cases occurred.
As the result of this incident, ships having cases of cerebrospinal
meningitis will have their sick evacuated here, passengers and crew
examined, and all carriers of the disease will be detained until they
are no longer a source of danger to others.
In February, 1918, 3 cases of smallpox arrived at Bocas del Toro,
Republic of Panama, from the islands of San Andres and Old Provi-
dence. Smallpox was reported at Bluefields, Nicaragua, and at




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Cartagena, Colombia. In September, 1917, 2 cases of leprosy ar-
rived at Cristobal, 1 from Colombia and 1 from Bocas del Toro.
Bubonic plague was generally reported along the South American
coast from Valparaiso, Chile, north. Yellow fever conditions re-
mained unimproved in Guayaquil and vicinity. On the Atlantic side
plague has been reported in the vicinity of Caracas, Venezuela.
These conditions as to bubonic plague and yellow fever have made
it necessary to continue quarantine restrictions to vessels arriving
from ports in which the diseases are reported.
For further details, attention is invited to the report of the chief
health officer, Appendix K.
WASHINGTON OFFICE.
On December 1, 1917, Mr. A. L. Flint was appointed general pur-
chasing officer and chief of the Washington office, in succession to
Maj. Benedict Crowell, United States Engineer Olficers' Reserve
Corps, who resigned on November 11, 1917, on his appointment as As-
sistant Secretary of War.
The abnormal labor conditions in the United States increased the
difficulties heretofore experienced in filling requisitions from the
Isthmus for skilled labor, especially in marine work. Tenders of em-
ployment were declined in 60 per cent of all classes. One thousand
and ninety-four persons were tendered employment in the grades
above that of laborer, of which number 432 accepted, covering 65 dif-
ferent positions. Additional work was entailed upon the correspond-
ence and record division on account of correspondence with respect
to matters that had to be referred.-on account of war conditions, to
the War Trade Board and its various bureaus, the Shipping Board,
Fuel Administration, Alien Property Custodian, and "other new
Government establishments. In the office of the assistant auditor of
the canal, stationed in the Washington office, 15,099 claims were
passed for payment, leaving on hand on June 30, 191S, 382 claims.
There was a decrease of 2,190 claims received during the year, as com-
pared with the preceding year, and a decrease of 2,32 claims passed
for payment. During the year, 13,474 vouchers for payment, amount-
ing to $9,643,732.81; 232 collection vouchers, amounting to $335,-
040.15; and 3,075 settlements by transfers of appropriation, aggregat-
ing $1,893,490.47, were given administrative examination. There was
a decrease of $1,209,549.87 in disbursements as compared with the
previous year. One hundred and four contracts were prepared,
amounting to $3,521,474.53, a decrease of 65 in number and
$1,575,514.93 in amount, as compared with the previous year. The
assistant auditor, as the legal officer in the United States of The
Panama Canal, has continued to render assistance to the Department
of Justice in the preparation for trial, and at the trial, in the courts,




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


of all cases in connection with contracts made with The Panama
Canal.
The usual routine methods of procuring and shipping materials
have been materially interfered with on account of war conditions.
Thljis is especially true of materials in which a shortage exists or is
imminent in the States. All such cases must be reported to the War
Industries Board, in compliance with the instructions of the Presi-
(lent to the War Industries Board, contained in his letter of March
4, 1918, with the exceptions as prescribed by executive order signed
by the Secretary of War, dated May 18, 1918, with especial reference
to The Panama Canal. The chief of the Washington office has been
designated as representative of The Panama Canal on the Clearance
Committee and the Requirements Division of the War Industries
Board. Tlih new conditions referred to inevitably entailed increased
work upon the Washington office.
The principal purchases in filling requisitions from the Isthmus
have been made by the Washington office, although branch offices
have been continued in charge of assistant purchasing officers at New
York, New Orleans, and San Francisco. Preliminary inspection
has been made in the States of materials purchased by a corps of in-
spectors under the supervision of the inspecting engineer of the
Waslington office. The work of inspection has been facilitated, as
heretofore, by assistance rendered by the district officers of the Corps
of Engineers, United States Army, by the Bureau of Standards, the
Bureau of Mines, Bureau of Chemistry, and the Medical Department,
Ordnance Department, Signal Corps, and the Quartermaster Corps
of the United States Army.
The number of orders for materials and supplies during the year
was The total value of the materials on the orders placed was $8,019,-
0OS.9n for the year, as compared with $10,405,157.27 for the previous
year. The grand total of purchases made for the canal through the
Was:shington ollice since the year 1904 is $136,582,840.43.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix L.
Respect fully submitted.
CHESTER HARDING,
Governor, The Panama Canal.
Hoin. NEW'TON D. BAKER,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.








GOVERNOR
OF
THE PANAMA CANAL
Co' C,,'IS/ER ht h?.US US.A
PRESIDENT or THE FANAMA R R C,


rnE PaN'MA R R C2
W HFA I D


MIECHANiCAL DIviSiOPJ
R 1) CAICIccD
A,.a ./ .-. 'S.


I


BUILrING Di JiIOrJ
HART/fY Re's'E
7re'q,.i.-' i's "e=


MaRInE DiviSION
,4.CGf.'. USA
\'Q.'. -' 5." -'' /*-
a,.- J SG frS i5 ARf

. -.*-t C.M05 .59,fS3aV&Yfi
I.* ;,- 1z ^2 .


DISTRICT COURT
W A JACICAOV..A..
Af 4 r07cc90. W.-,a'
MAGISTRATES- COURTS
V W8 BaACICfBr'A .. Sa i.
/W r.fOtfPSoN.C C..*t''


BO R', Or *'.P.1rC i)BEr.IErT EC'RD CF LOCAL *rSPECIORE
-BRO s4RC .9D C'sV . o. .' a f/L7 s ./ 9 C

V, C t4: ,'S 'ISV .* -,-C-45O3.A d SS VUJlt
,-.. Ch'C.'.-4.t-cc.i .I' .' Z4C t4 e: 627SV


ORlT.rniAriOrj SECTIONS
- it CA ... CC U. 4-
.. .. v .


-. -


ORGANIZATION OF" THE PANAMA CANAL JULY 1.1918


Plate I.














APPENDIX A.


REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


THE PANAMA CANAL,
OFFICE OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, July 20, 1918.
SIR: The following report of work done under the jurisdiction of
this office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, is submitted:

ORGANIZATION.

The duties of the engineer of maintenance were not changed dur-
ing the year. The office continued under your charge throughout
the year. Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow was ordered to duty in the
United States and resigned as engineer of maintenance on August 30,
1917. On this date the division of lock operation, the section of
office engineer, the section of meteorology and hydrography, and the
section of surveys were transferred to supervision of the electrical
engineer, Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon.
The heads of the remaining divisions reporting to the engineer
of maintenance were ordered to report direct to you on this date.
Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon was ordered to duty in the United States
and resigned as electrical engineer on February 6, 1918. On this date
the electrical division, the division of lock operation, the section of
office engineer, and the section of meteorology and hydrography were
transferred to the supervision of resident engineer, building division,
and continued under his supervision until the end of the fiscal year.
Tlhe remaining divisions and sections of this office reported direct
to vO' l.
The various divisions and sections have been in charge of the
following personnel:
Electrical division.-Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon continued as elec-
trical engineer until his relief from duty with The Panama Canal
on February 6, 1918, when Mr. Walter L. Hersh was appointed elec-
trical engineer.
Building division.-Mr. Hartley Rowe, resident engineer, con-
tinued in charge of the building division.
Locks division.-Mr. E. D. Stillwell continued in charge of the
Atlantic locks and Mr. W. R. Holloway continued in charge of the
Pacific locks.
43




THE PANAMA CANAL.


.ltunicipal division.-MNr. D. E. Wright, municipal engineer, con-
tinued in charge of this division.
Temninal construction.-Mr. T. B. Monniche, engineer of docks,
resigned August 4, 1917, when this work was transferred to the
resident engineer, building) division.
AMr. A. R. Brown, assistant engineer, resigned October 1S, 1917,
and the uncompleted part of this work was transferred to the resi-
dent engineer, building diviision.
Section of m Cteorolo!y and hq 'drographl..-Mr. F. D. Willson
resigned July 17, 1917, and was succeeded by Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick
on August 1', 1917. Mr. Kirkpatrick resigned Apiil 13, 191S, to
accept a commission in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps, and was
succeeded byI Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite, appointed April 14, 1918.
Section of oGlice engincer.-Mr. C. J. Embree, office engineer, con-
tinued in charge of this section.
Section of 0srveys.-Mr. O. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer, re-
signed from this police September 10, 1917, to accept a commission
in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps, and was succeeded by Mr.
F. R. Fitch on Septermiber 11, 1917.

LociKs DIVISION.

LOCK AGES.

The following table gives the total commercial and noncommer-
cial lockages of tile year:

SCommer- Commer- Noncom-
PDate. l -T:oge c ;al c;al mni,:reial
locLage;. ve~sel._. loIekatges..

Gatun-
Tr July 1, 1917 ........................................... 4. 15'. 3,.2?0 3, 49 935
During se. l year ........................................ 2,271 193 2.i, 33
To July 1. 1'IS ............................................. 42. C. 4'i;. ,i5 9Ox,
Pedro Mnigel-
T' Julv 1, '1 17 ............................................. 4.3.4N 3 .1,2'2 3.,3 71.3
D during flcs al year ...... ....... ... ................. 2,420 2, i041 2, :53 3,9
T o: July 1. 191" ... ........................................ i'C. ., (. 63 .. 94( i 1,142
Mfir.fl,,rem-
T O July 1, 1917............................................. 4,302 3,:34 3. .5 '.S
During iheal year.......................................... 2,313 2, 017 2?,o l 32.
T o July 1, 191S................................... ......... (..'4. ;., .1 C.,9.37 ,,4

The average number of lockages rmiade at all locks for each month
of the fiscal year was 195.39 or about 6.5 through lockages per day.
The greatest number of lockages made in any month of the year oc-
curred in May when the Atlilntic locks made 229 lockages and the
Pacific locks 225 blockages.




REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 45

WATER CONSUMPTION-GATUN LAKE.

Complete data regarding the hydrography of Gatun Lake for the
calendar year are given hereinafter, but the following data have been
compiled for the fiscal year, July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918:

Millions :f P.r cent Ier cent
Average quantity per month. cubic feet l:s. or (r .f ,. .
of water. used. f

Water lost:
By evaporatin ........ ......................................... .,02S. 'S 11.511 S. 'VGI
By wa;taee over Gfatun spillway .... .................. ........... 15,5,1. IS S5. 13.2 ..S. .21
B y leak wA e, Gatun spillw-ly .................... ................... 1'.21 -i5. .0I4"
By tramnfer t: Miratlore, Lake ...... ............................ 5 Ii.; 1
By leakage at all locks .............................................. 2 1';3 127
Total water l:st ....... ..................................... . 17',.2,.. 1 t0 ......
Water used:
For pum ping ....................................................... I.'. 1. .3'. .302
For lockacet. A tlant ic............................................. S12. 47 1'.. 21 3. .Sy
For l.:ckape., Pacific ............................................... .,95. '93 13. S>A 3.1174
For hvdroelectric station...................................... 3,31;. 37 C'.. .23 14. -',3
Gain in storage, GaLun Lake ........................... ........... I ll.... 2. 32S .515
Total water used ................................. ....... ....... 5, 1111. S9 111'. 10 1 11))
Total water, lost and used ................. .................. 22.3. J .. ..'....... ..........

Useful waler 1= = 22.13. per cent.
Water used for lockages ='...'G, per cent.

It is always endeavored to have Gatun Lake level at or near its
maximum allowable elevation, plus ST7 feet, at the beginning of the
dry season, so that there is a maximum amount of water in storage
for the dry months of the year. Gatun Lake was at elevation plus
ST.06 on Januaxy 1 and 2, and remained at approximately this eleva-
tion until February 1, when storage in the lake was drawn on, due
to lack of rainfall. The lake level lowered gradually until it reached
its minimum elevation of the year on April 21 at plus 84.52.
It will be noted by the above table that the hydroelectric station
uses most of the water drawn from storage, and as lockages increase
in number the use of water during the dry season by the hydroelectric
station will have to be limited by the necessities of the locks. If no
water had been used by the hydroelectric station during the dry
season months-February, March, and April-the net loss in storage
due to all other causes would have carried the lake level from plus
87 on February 1 t.o plus SO.83 on the last day of April. In other
words, the lake elevation would have remained practically stationary
during the dry season if no water had been used by the hydroelectric
station, and this condition would have existed in spite of the fact
that the average number of lockages during these months was 106.O.
per month, or 6.5 through lockages per day.
A material saving in water can be accomplished at the locks by
cross filling and operating tandem lockages. Precautions of this
nature have not been necessary to date owing to the plentiful supply
of water for all purposes, although tandem lockages are used when-
ever possible without causing a delay to shipping.




46 THE PANAMA CANAL.

GATUN DAM.

Monthly surveys of Gatun dam indicate a gradual consolidation
similar to former years and no fills were necessary to replace settle-
ment this year. During the year that portion of the dam over the
new penstock at the hydroelectric station was backfilled. The usual
maintenance work on the dam, tracks, and borrow pits w\'is performed.

TOWING LOCOMOTIVES.

The four new towing locomotives constructed upon the Isthmus
were completed, and all machines of this type are continuing to
render excellent service.

SPARE PARTS.

The warehouse at Corozal was transferred duri ni the year from the
quartermaster to the locks division, and in addition to the spare
parts which were in the building all of the lock-gate spares (except
the gate girders) which were formerly at Paraiso have been added.
All lock-gate spares at Corozal are being repainted an( put into
first-class condition.
At the beginning of the past fiscal year there were 15 United
States requisitions in the process of manufacture. These have been
completed. Twenty-six United States.requisitions were issued dur-
ing the year, 20 of them have been filled to date, the material on the
balance being in process of manufacture.

APPROACH WALL FENDEP CHIBS.

At the end of each approach wall there are installed fender cribs
constructed of piling and heavy timbers, to prevent serious damage
to any vessel that may approach the lockl out of control.
In October, 1917, it was noted that the fender cribbing- at lower
Pedro Miguel appeared to be very insecure and upon withdrawing
one of the piles it was found to be practically honeycombed by the
teredo. The fender was reconstructed with the use of creosoted
piling and timbers and the work was completed in December, 1917.
The above cribbing was in Miraflores Lake, 54 feet above sea
level which lake is fed entirely by fresh water from Gatun Lake
and the watershed in the vicinity. The fact that the cribbing was
attacked by the teredo is a peculiar confirmation of the fact that
Miraflores Lake is gradually becoming saline through the back feed-
ing of sea water through Miraflores locks.
On March 16, 1918, when the steamship Capto approached Pedro
Miguel locks from the north, she rammed the fender cribbing at the
end of the north approach wall and made it necessary to install new
piling and cribbing on the east side.

PAINT-ING LOCK GATES.

During the year all of the gates and machines at the Atlantic
locks were examined and the enamel removed and replaced where it
was found to be in bad condition. A complete report on this subject




REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


will be found in the report of the superintendent which follows here-
ina after.
It has been impossible to find an oil paint that will stand up under
the severe conditions found at the locks. Arrangements have been
made to apply bituininous enamel to certain of the exposed portions
of the gate leaves as well as the submerged portions. It is hoped that
this experiment will prove successful, in this way decreasing the
maintenance work on the gates.

LOCK POWER AND CONTROL CABLES.

The installation of all power and control cables at the locks was
practically completed by August, 1913. During the four years which
elapsed between that time and the beginning of the present fiscal
year, practically no serious trouble has been experienced with the
lead sheathed control cables.
It has been found.- however, that the rubber insulated double
braided wires were being attacked by the "termite" or white ant
and it became necessary to open up all closed wall chases carrying
this type of wire to the lighting outlets. It was also found that the
rubber insulated telephone conductors to the lamp standard outlets
were beconiing grounded due to the dampness in the chases and it
became necessary to replace these with lead sheathed cables. These
faults were to be expected, however, and it is believed that the present
method of running all wires in exposed chases on the walls of the
tunnels will keep them dried out and as the "termite cannot live
and work in the light no further harm should come to the exposed
wires other than gradual deterioration which occurs in any climate.
It had been expected that our lead sheathed cables would last for
a number of years before showing signs of deterioration. However,
a series of breakdowns at Miraflores locks beginning September,
1916, were experienced, and by June, 1917, about seven lead sheathed
control cables had Ibroken down' and were replaced temporarily by
other cables until the maintenance work on the lock gates and valves
could be completed, after which the trouble was investigated
thoroughly.
As all control cable are run with two, three, and four cables to the
duct, it was dillicult to remove one without removing the others,
therefore the investigation was begun in the crossover tunnel where
the cables run under the lock chamber in very damp ducts. Several
ducts were broken open and tests were made between the lead sheaths
and the water in the siump at the base of the shaft with the follow-
ing results:
Readings taken in West Crossover-No tunnel lining-TWalls very wet.
Volts.
From cable lying on top of ducts very wet to iron ground -----0.18
Same cable to copper float in water of sump --------------------- 32
Same cable to galvanized-iron wire in water of sump------------------- .16
Readings taken in East Crossover Tunnel-Steel lining is in place-Tunnel walls
dry.
Volts.
From cables to top of ducts to ground ----------------0.05
Front cables to top of ducts to copper float in sump---------- .14
From cables to top of ducts to concrete floor ----------- ...----------- .02




THE PANAMA CANAL.


The above readings were taken with the telephone cables con-
nected in their battery supply. It. was thought advisable to remove
all possibility of direct current from an external source and repeat
the readings. The direct-current supply to the telephone cables was
cut and the readings again repeated with results practically identical
to those quoted above.
While working in the tunnel one of the men complained of the
fact that the seepage water froin the ducts appeared caustic in its
effect on his hands. Furthermore, in opening some of the ducts,
water and a peculiar sediment came out. Some of the material dis-
charged was black and some almost clear white. Samples of each
were sent to the laboratory for analysis with the result that. the black
sediment was found to be a lead salt. Furthermore, the seepage
water was found to carry a large amount. of lead in solution.
Two pieces of sheet lead 5 inches by 2 inches were placed at the
base of the shaft, one of them in seepage water and grounded and
the other in a position where seepage water would drip over its.sur-
face. The grounded sample did not appear to be materially affected
by electrolytic action. The other sample exposed to seepage water
weighed 1824 grams at the beginning of the test, and in two weeks
it had lost 31 grams, or about 1.192 per cent of its weight, and this in
spite of the fact that the seepage water had been flowing over about
70 feet of cable and must have had considerable lead in solution
before striking the test sample.
All the defective cables were then removed and found to be in the
condition shown on plate No. 2.
All control cables used have either five or eight conductor- of No.
10 B. & S. gauge, each insulated with 1 '1-inch varnished cambric
with 1/32-inch varnished cambric over all, and a lead sheath 1 '16
inch thick. The five conductor cables are about 7 S inch in diameter
and the eight conductor cables are about. 1-1 'S inch in diameter.
This information may be of assistance in studying plate No. 2.
As a result of this condition found in the center crossover tunnel
at Miraflores, all similar installations at all locks were examined but
no further indications of trouble were found. To guard against
further damage from seepage water, arrangements will be made to
install all replace cables in ducts away from the wall of the tunnel
shaft, in this way using the outside or wall ducts as drains for the
seepage water. Replace cables at 1Miraflores were lung on porcelain
hangers, and if necessity should arise and should further precaution
be advisable arrangements will be made to place all cables on porce-
lain hangers and coat them with an insulating material such as
bituminous compound.
The following report has been submitted by the chemist of the
municipal engineering division who investigated the cause of the
chemical action above referred to:
CORROSION OF THE LEAD SHEATHS OF CABLES AT MIRAF.ORES LOCKS.
The corrosion of the -ihenthlis of some of the cables nt Mirallores locks was
first called to the chemists' attention in August. 10917. An inspection was made
of the cables exposed at tie w\e-t enil of the midlle crossover tun nel. There
were irregular shaped deposits of a white e scale on the cahles over which water
was dripping. A bottle \nas placed so as to catch some of the drippings on
August 9, and the drippings were sent to this laboratory on August 11 for
analysis,









PLATE 2.


.' i .. ..--- '
L.'; 3" -_ -.--*. ,,. ,.C


.... l


FIVE AND EIGHT CONDUCTOR, LEAD SHEATHED CONTROL CABLES REMOVED
FROM THE MIDDLE CROSS-OVER TUNNEL AT MIRAFLORES LOCKS.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 49

PrevioutI- to tile inspection several .sapliles of materials collected in the
locks were i-im.111titted for analysis. Qualitative analyses ,of these samples
were di le. tile resitlIts olituille'] are s foll ow :
1. A 1.r1c Iiisl I.h red mallterial collected frolil the dllct lines inll 1 lowe'l" cross -
over'. The Sample conltaied larUe a;molliounit of irol,, ;tilt small amnioulnts of
calcillinm anIll sili(a.
2. White material collecteil from tile dluct line on the west end of tihe imidhlle
crossover itunillel. Tlte s:Itliiple Cn'litaineil l arre :llOnllnts of callilti.ium car'hollate
anit.I hIydlrxide ;uitl a; small a:rn llo t of lentd. The clla of the helpier tlit \\whe
collecting this sample something ate thlroll.il tile .kini on his ha;nd-l must
li;i\'( leen i due to the line.
.I. -I'lclk suiil:st;ance collecteil from the ;-tine Inl(;tion ;s s ;ninhle No. 2 co)n-
tailnel lar.,e 1 a limon1ts of leald, caletiitm. :itl nimall a;iiiont of iroti andl the fol-
lowvin.g :acid radli(les f simulphide. siulphatte. a;nil eatrlioii;te. The sulp[:hjide inilist
have f-oriet le by the ,lecoinipositiLon of vegetable matter.
The first s;nilple of W\ ter collected \v;ia l c ractrize, li, ;a total Zlk;aIilit.y
to c(rymstlhrsine of 1.74140 p'rts p[er million of which 1.(N0O parts were c s.-tie or
hydl roxitle ;Ilk linity. The chlorine onitenrt \\a- 1,' 1- I;rts per iillioi. The
wa -ter 'cln tinied 5(I iarts 1 l, per million of let;ld.
(OlI AU.2lust 12 ald 2'0 t\o m% ore s;iinples of idrip pi,,'iz from thle middle crOSs-
ovel it Miralllores lock-l were collected a;ll] thl,? tliiner;il n;iln:u -s "f tile sa;litpls
We're l:t follo\\s, illn lflits pI'"r mtlillion


S m ple Sample
No. 2.1 No 3 2

rI TdTroxiilde al Ialinit a ', C C'-. ...... ................................. ......... .1 . I o00
Carbonnalele ja lini ,y a a in r i irar lonali ,CaC' 'i ... ............. ................. I. 321)ij
s li. a I .I.r ,11 . ........ ... .. .. ........................... . .......... 7
Iron and aluiirin it FIe An, i .A . ............ ............ ...... ...... 2 2
Cakiium 'Ca ....... ... ................. .... . ..................... 2 1 I 1 4
M a rne iu m ( i p ......................................................... .......... 2r I I",
L eadl I P l, ..................................................... ....... ...... . j 2.4
Sodi 1 m i N a i ................ ... .. . ... .. ........ .. 2, j 1 2, 3"1)
P otra i ulm l )j .......................... .... ... ......................... .. .. 4.7 ........
Chlorine Cl ................ ....................................... 2, .j 2, 2
Carbonal e C', ........................... ..... .. ........ .. .............. 1 J'2
Suilpha',c iSi, .. ................................................................... 11- 7 7.' I

r Dalc of iolle: Ion, A.'g 12, I'r,7. Ila of, f ol i: ion, A. g. 2,, Vi'J7.
Port land recent (conain: )u to r..i per cut of :ali im ol\ide.

According to va;rioIts itlithorities "hlien the cemlent sets ;ionl other corm-
lpIfttis large :tiiiouits crystallized cal0iuim itydroxide, and sonie ealcitum tiluiii-
nate form. C(alciuitil hyiroxidle is quite ;-olulile ill water, so ) \vlih after r comes
in contnet with concrete, ncacittmi hydlroxide goes into solution. (C;lcium :tlumi-
lnate is lec'lnlpos.e ttiml hydroxide.
From tile ablo\'e numieral ;aii;aly sps it cotl be seen- that the caustic alk tliinity
and calcium contents of the drippi:.iZ water is quite liigh us compared \ith tlhe
mineral llanlyses of water obitainled Aii .\An-,t 2:3. ll0T. froin tht, lock (hiamnlirs
at Mir'illores, which was as follows in n,; rt:- pler illinii:
Hydlroxide nlknlinity a:s ((lCOa ) -------------_____ 0
Carbonate nlkalinity as (C:,i'0Ci) ----------------------------- ___-- (0
Silica i iO:> --- .---- .--: ------. ---------------2... 23
Iron ( Fe) ---------------------------------------------.. .._. Trace.
Allimilum Al)l .- .----------------------.. ------.._.__. 0
Calcium ( .Ca.-------------------------------------------._._.._._ :35
Magn.esium M'iI) ...........------------------------------- -_--_-_.__ 42
Sfiliimn aidl ptassitin (NI a _id 1 . .-------------------------.... . -425
Chlorine i CI)-- - - ---------------------------------------4....
Bicarbonate H('O3) - -------------------------------------- ____ -1:34
Dissolved oxygen-- ---- --------------.. -.-- ------------------ -____ -0.8
Tern perat uLre degrees centigrade -----------__________ 27
Per cent saturation - - ----..----------- --------..... - -85





50 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The corrosion of the lead sheaths of cables can be due to two reasons. (1)
alternating current electrolysis, and (2) to the chemical action :,of the dripping
water saturated with lime salts from concrete. We thought the coriro.-ion was
due mainly to the second reason above stated. In order to substantiate this
theory we carried out the following experiments in the laboratory :
The lead sheath of an unattached cable was cut open, and strips of lead were
cut measuring 6 to 7 centimeters long, 2.5 to 2.8 centimeters wide,. and 0.2 cen-
timeters thick. These strips' of lead were numbered and weighed Nccurately
to the forth place. Some water was obtained from the lock chambers and
placed in bottles holding one liter. The bottles were also numbered, and
different amounts of calcium hydroxide solution were added to each to get
the desired alkalinity. The alkalinity of the contents of each bottle w\as deter-
mined by titration. When the bottles were ready the strips of lend bearing
corresponding numbers to the bottles were placed in them. The strips were
taken out from time to time, dried very quickly, and weighed to find out the
weight dissolved. Two series of these experiments were carried on and the
following tables show the results obtained:





TABLE No. 1.-R'suon of the e.cperiment to determine the rate o/ solution o/ lea/d l in tih e lo':k: 'atr alter the ad'lition ofj diller(l ainounts of calcium
hi'.ror,rid: solution to change the :coicentration of the h..dro. A'l ion.


No.
ol
sam-
ple.


1.... .




4.....
8.....
9.....


OI1alk:.- CO3 al a-
linitv o linit'. 01
'he riate'r the walker
is (C'a(C'O (Is CSC',O
in ..p.m. in p.p.m.


0 HC~I ll i
-I.-
1,1 0 (2i .i
1.1 0 (I
1, 30V. 360
1.41 1. 31i.i0
1 .40, 2-11.1
1,610 400
1,670 520
1, 810' 380


Ve'oight
i0 the
strips
in
pram s.


24. 4194
24. 904 1
30. i.144
31'. 2r'.92
29. 4310
31. O.s
31.5250
31.1185
28. 6460


Number Ol milligrams or lel1 di.;solI ed per lOi pranks O1 lead Ihavin: the same thick.ne_< a; the -triri.s alter immersing
in the dilieren' samples oi wa'jer lor the rperiroJs ,l ti me Ii hioirs as indicJae-J eL.lov.


LengIth
ol srip
hi c1nj.




4. 15
3.9()
4.2
4. 25
4.2
4.25

4.10
4.20


Widt Thick-
01 n&'col
strip sTri.
in m. irn m.


2.2 *)5 h.
2.', .22
2. .25,.

2. 7 '. ,

2. 8 .25
2.75 .25
2.60 .25


140 163


2':. 2r'. 9
2". ,1 2 .
491. 5.3. 6
41.9 4'J'J
493.4 3..3. 2
4':,. .13.
444.2 4 -3...
433. 1 49. 1
450. 4 455. 4


205 249 275 325


27.7 25.6 31 32.6
32.. 35.3 35.9, 41.7
5s'i. 2 4. S 717.3' 's'.
.,1.7 I.L,. I r-i. i4 2 7
.' .;1. ,-142. 4 720. S' 7S3
,r.-0. 2 '.2,. 1 F .',9 I 7'3
521.2 576.4 'i';.,. 720
5301.3 54 3.OI r:124. 47 73
.30. ,'. '91. 1 174. 735


415.


33.5
43.
S46
.14
435
,02-1
7S6'
722
792


34. C
46.'-
91 1

S92
"73

76"
$31


r.54 '46


34.6 3.4S
4 .3 ,2.':
9i.4 1 ,1.134
912 95,3

924 99'.4
,9' 4 r'.,7
$03 "'1I
47 1.1 94 2


1,1.113

37

1 .1
1,1i. .7
1, 070
1, I.i.7

926
1, 003


26 4'.


9.6 14.
11.2 14.I
173. 4 252.
i1.. 2 246."
173.3 2'i ,
I :2. 4 23,e. 1
I63. 241. 1
1.'53.5.! 231.3
1'0. 9 0 '4 3


NOTE.-Sample No. I is the original lock-chamber water nnnd sample No. 2 i< pure distilled water. Tlh st rips hal a hole with a diameter o01 0.4 centimeter.
Throughout this report by expression of "the rate of sol.ri r.n oI lead %e dro not m rn thIt all the lead goes into solution as lead h, droxide. Lead hydroxide is somewhat
soluble in water; after the solubility product of the lead hydroxide is reached lead bhydro.,ide precipitates.


...........


73 1 90 117


16._ 22.1 22. 1
16 0 21.6 21. ,
32,.5. 391 4 441. 1
321.1 4 375. 426. '
339i ', 399 .,1.5
331 2 379 426.7
317 1 3r6.3 411.5
3112 5 3.4 ri:9. 4
314.5,. 374.2 413.4







TABLE No. 2.-Resum6 of the experiment to determine the rate of solution of lead in the lock water after the addition of different amounts of calcium
hydroxide solution to change the concentration of the hydroxide ion.


Al alinity of the samples Number of milligrams of lead dissolved per 100 grams of lead having
a.ter immersing the strips the same thickness as the strips, after immersing in the different
OH alka- CO3 alka- for 740 hours. Weight Thick- samples of water for periods of time in hours as indicated below.
linity of linity of of the Length Width ness ofT
No. of sample, the water the water stri in of strip of strip stri
as CaCO3 as CaCOa OH alka- CO, alka- HCOa al- strips in cm. in cm. of stp
in p. p.m. n p.p.m. linity as linity as kalinity grams. 47 95 143 215 311 406 549 740
CaCO, in CaCOa in as CaC 03
p.p.m. p.p.m. inp.p.m.

10 ....................... 20 180 0 0 80 45.1182 7 2.5 0.25 9.3 11.9 13.9 19.5 22.1 23.9 25.7 31
11 ....................... 85 190 0 40 60 45.0486 7 2.5 .25 9.1 13.6 14.6 21 30.6 34.8 38.4 44.8
12 ...................... 120 220 0 160 32 45.6827 7 2.5 .25 17.2 22.3 25.6 30.4 34.5 39.8 48.1 56.9
13 ....................... 270 220 80 224 0 45.4382 7 2.5 .25 12.7 20.6 26.1 36.7 48.8 58.9 96.1 167.8
14 ...................... 450 240 190 268 0 45.8475 7 2.5 .25 115.5 152.8 173 195 215 240 276 305
15 ...................... 580 220 486 328 0 45.1844 7 2.5 .25 151.4 200 247 320 428 529 653 745
16 ...................... 700 200 588 328 0 45.2499 7 2.5 .25 163 220 261 344 396 508 642 805
17 ...................... 820 200 588 388 0 45.0240 7 2.5 .25 179 233 280 347 401 488 573 675
18 ...................... 840 320 S02 388 0 46.0327 7 2.5 .25 187 243 291 368 450 518 648 792
19 ....................... 0 170 HCO3 0 0 162 46.0518 7 2.5 .25 4.3 7.6 10.6 22.8 24.5 29.5 33 55.8
20 ...................... 170 320 0 0 346 45.1608 7 2.5 .25 79.1 113.6 132.2 149.2 158 160.7 163.8 169

NOTE.-Sample No. 19 is undiluted sea water and sample No. 20 is undiluted sea water plus calcium hydroxide. The strips had a hole with a diameter of 0.55 centimeter.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 53

If milligrams of lead sli-olvesl are plotted in the above experiments, per hun-
lre l grams of lead of 0.25 ceitioleter thickness against the time in hours,
cuIrves showing their interrelation will lie ol.tained.
The carves clearly indliate that the rate of solution of lead is directly pro-
p'lrtit onall to the co:ncentration of OH ion: that is, the higher the concentration
,f OH ion., the n10ro kIaIl goe, into ,olutioin. This fact was already known
li,-fore tlhe experiment was started. Tlils gradation of the lead going
into solution is more clearly seen, especially toward the beginning of the ex-
p'?rinienit rather than at tlie etil, liecaucl thie stronger solution becomes weaker
souler by absirlin 4'CO:.. frill tile atmosphere than a weaker solution. There-
f'ire, the di rffTrece in thie am nounit i.f lead dissolved between the weak and strong
soil tions is not so inmucli towardI thle end, of the experiment. It is also inter-
(.*stiig to see that sampl-e No. 1 on pnze 51 and sample No. 19 on page 52, which
arc original lock ~lianiiler ;all s;a water', dlidl not attack the lead even as much
as sii*iple No. 2 on p:i:-e ,1. distilled pure water. This is due to the fact that,
in tile latter case. under tle joint actiionl of water and dissolved oxygen, lead
h:,lIroxidle is p-odlluc'd. wvli:hl is slightly soluble in water, and therefore does
not protect the lead. Ill inlmpure anter, such as samples Nos. 1 and 19, which
coita in sulphate and ,:'arblonate radiicles, the corresponding lead salts are formed
vhiicl have extremely small solubility, and form firmly an adhering layer on
thie lead.
Thie conditions in tile above experitmen-ts are not similar to those in the duct
lines, le.ner-nu, tle tripss of lead were c:'on tionally immersed in the same watel
except W11lher tlIey were taken ont to he wei :ghed, while in the duct lines satu-
rated lime solution l'rips :.oitirniia lly to the same spot or around it, and it is
natural that. the reaction between fresli drip and the lead goes on much faster.
In order to measure quaintitively h,,\\ fa-t the lead was corroded by the drip-
pin'g water in the duct lines. the followxhing experiment was performed: A strip
of sheet lena ineansuring 17.1 ce:ntimetersor long, 5.8 centimeters wide, 0.12 centi-
imeters thii:; aind eighili 1.S2.S grams w\\as tied with a strip of lead to one of
the lead inbles at %-we-t end of the mi]iddle crossover at Miraflores locks. Wires
of volt motor attached to ends of pie:e of lead cable gave no reading. Water
dripped from ablile to this pie_.e of lead. The strip was removed after 12
days and weighed. Weight of the strip plln the scale, was 184.55 grams. The
wei-lht of the strip after the reinival of thl.- scale was 179.6 grains. The loss
Af the .strip was 3.2 g-rain. Thi. corrosive action of the dripping water was
plainly iil.ie on tlrhe sliet lead andl the composition of the white scale was
found to Ib-e leal Iyilroxide and enarlinate At this rate the whole sheet of lead
would corrondi- in ,;'S.~.5 days. itnut the corrosion was only around where the
winter wa- dlrilppiii': if thle water i.hal dripped all over the surface at one time
the sheet lead] w\ouild corrode in a 2'1.'o.1 leal less than 685.5 days.
Similar experiini-ts were tried with another sheet of lead measuring 16.8
i enUtiieters lon0:, 2.. .i3 cetininters x\i-sle, 0.12 centimeters thick and weighing
1S2.5 -'rais. Thie piece of lead \\as tiedl to a different lead cable at west end
of mi'sddlhe crossover by copper wire. Onue end of the wire was fastened to lead
cable a al tlhe other end ton a copl per fli.'it. Heading between end of copper wire
attached to le;d cable and enal attadied to ,cpper float gave 0.06 volts. Water
dropped from cal-li.' to the piece of leall. The strip of lead was removed after
12 days., tile weight of the strip plus -c'ale ,was 182.35 grams; the weight of the
.-nin :- trip after the renio\al of the scale was 181.7 grams. The loss of the lead
was ).S gr';-mins. In thi- ca:ni. the loss was not as much as in the first case; prob-
ably the dripping was not as strong.
W while the alcove experilmmit w\\a going on in the locks a similar experiment
was started in thle laboratory. A 15-gal.loni carboy was filled with lock chamber
water and satullrated wiitl, caliitlll hydroxide. The alkalinity of the water was
:is follows: Hydroxide alkal; inity ;a- c.ilciiuin arbonate, 1,640 p. p. m. ; carbonate
alk:;linity as cal'iumi carbonate. -1lZi p. p). i.
The ciarboy Nvwas pla'cel o'in a p itfoiri and a burrette was lowered into it to
draw iTff tll.:' water. Tvwo ini:hes I.elow tlie tip of the Iul'rrette a lead cable of
12 feet lonii-g wn' living on a support, and tile Iurrette \\' turned over it so
that 2.2 c. c. of the water dripped onu the calble per minute. The drippings
were caught in another vessel elow oni tlie floor. Tlie drilpili.-g water was
analyze.l and hydroxide alkalinity as calciuLm carltona te \w'as 1.-100 p. p. m., car-
loinate alkIlinity as caIiuni carbonate 24-0 p. p. tm., aid tlhe water contained 288
p. p. in. lead. Wlien the carboy was emptied it was refilled and the dripping
was continued. At the end of three weeks the corrosion on the surface of the





THE PANAMA CANAL.


cable was plainly visible, which was brought about by the actionn of thi. drip-
ping water. There was no chance for alternating current electro:ilysis in this
experiment. as there was no current of any sort near the sulppol't where the
cable was hung.
CONCLUSIONS.

The following conclusions can be drawn from the above experiments:
1. The rate of going into solution of lead, immersed in waters hai'viing diiffer-
ent concentrations of hydroxide ion, is directly proportional t., thle Ihyiroxide
ion.
2. Lock chamber and sea water do not attack the lend as lulchi as distil l,-l
pure water.
3. The corrosion of the lead sheaths of cables at Mir;iillmire. hi, kI< i< dlue
exclusively to the chemical action of the dripping water si:tui'rated with lime
salts from the concrete and not to the alternating current el~c-trilyi. TIn-
third conclusion is substantiated by the experiment described in thle last poar:-
graph of page 53. and also by the fact that the corrosion in tlie caili-< i-< -t it.iei
in certain localities of the duct lines where water is dri jping a i, no.- a' tion i-
noticed where the cables are free from drippings. Accord ing'- to Mir. .1. C.
Myrick's report of September 19, 1917, to Mr. H. II. Hollowaway: -Ii 1Ice
horizontal runs of all the crossovers the duct lines lhve iinm-li more w\at,.-r
than the vertical runs and an equally good condition for electrolytic a-1,tini.
In no case have we found any sign of action in the horizontal rniis."
This fact could be explained very easily for the reason that. by the time tlhi
water reaches the horizontal runs of the crossover all tlhe hiylroxhie oiiiteint
of the water would be used up and therefore no action is seen in the Iioriz.iital
r1uns.
Following are extracts from reports of the lock sulperintenlents,
covering details of operation and maintenance of the locks.

GATUN LOCKS.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Mr. E. D. Stillwell and Mr. H. M. Thomas continued :a siipelrintenident anil
assistant superintendent, respectively, throughout the year. <.n .July 1. 1917.
Mr. F. M. Easter was appointed to fill the position of iiim'cinnicail stIpri-'i<,ir
which had been vacant since June 12, 1917. Mr. C. W. olb.i-rts, elecriia.il
supervisor, was transferred to the electrical division oun St'ieilber 24. 1Il-7.
and on October 3, 1917, Mr. P. R. Kiger was appointed to fill thi. v:i,';ni-y.
MAr. Kiger resigned on April 24, 1918, in order to enter thi- i'ilit;iry S:.rvi.e.
iMr. A. E. Wood being appointed electrical supervisor on that ,litt.
The positions of recorder and property clerk were comiiliined anI thi wirk
is now done by one man.
The personnel of the organization has changed considerably ,dirin'_' tlie :'ar.
due to resignations and transfers. A total of four men resi-gned to eIer' tlite
military service, three of whom received commissions.

OPERATION.

The same system of operation continued in effect as iin thle pa-t year. T ie
operation was carried on by two shifts covering the perilI frmill 7 a. in. to
S.30 p. m. It has been necessary, frequently, to extend this i period tm .:- Late
as midnight in order to clear the north bound ships the .-:iie l:iy tlhey eiileredi
the canal on account of the unusual conditions due to tle war.
Delays due to failure of the operating machinery and : :icileiins tin es-els
during the passage through the locks have been few and of megligible mngiii-
tude. The damage to vessels has been chiefly the break kiiin of hllock. iall,
bitts due to not being adapted for towing purposes.
The. most serious damage occurred on February 2, 1i18. l tli. tc.iiilhipiI
Republic, southbound, which hit the northeast wing wa:ll milnd d;iii.intil t l-.-
plates on the port bow above the water line. The accident i-urrii, il l-'ifore
the ship entered the lock and was under control of the lo,.,inti\es.
The longest ship, although not the greatest ton inae, Ii.'ke i tirlir-'hli tmo ,late
was the steamship Ceramic, northbound, on December 12. 1 17. '['lie Ceramnic
is 655 feet long and 69.2 feet beam. Actual time of lockage vwas 60 minutes.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


The water consunmption at Gatin locks" \\'las follows:
Cubic feet.
ekag--------------------------------------------------- 18,985, 000
Lka ---------------------_____------_____ 9,952, 110, 000

Tol; ------------------------------------------------ 10,139,095,000
Thei : ;a :i'a" e;* an.'lllt of water t ik l f'rniiit (;;itJ Ii L tke per lockage was
4.*2_ '0.I1; CiuliC feet.
Thie lel'?rcy lilis WeIoe opera ted tea'ih nlotli excO ept during the overhaul-
illng pet:l'intd. Na e ell 1gell.y Operatillo s e \\ m'e 1 e-es; Ia'y.
Nio emlergtency tests of tlie chain felnderI- wi'ere ni.e dil'ring tlie year.

MAI NTENA NCE.

Mailitoenalce work w\as carried on during the year as \\'as necessary to keep
the niacnlinery anil eIiiiliionerit ill good operating condtlition. A number of changes
we(ore .mad1e iIh order toi facilitate inspection, repair s or operation of the ma-
chill- E. Eq lii ient viil'li \\'as fourni ti lit-e iniiet-i:- 1-ai'y \\as removed and
pincel ill stock for rieis-.i te t'> otiltr ileipartinierlt.
Loronoitl irce.> inl tifi' l.it .-' \\o Ie\\' loco'iin tives imi.e liy tlihe mechanical divi-
sion sl-ilts at HBallioa were received and placed ii, service diriing the year. The
installation of the electrical e(lliiienrit \'as done I., tl-e ]h :k forces.
Several accitlents have haplipened to tIe l iniiiotiitives il all the locks due to
not lini-intg a positive ira ke w\liich i-onuld le applied under all conditions. Experi-
Illellr. v.'ere made. liIt iioit 'oilile ted. (ill a typie of \veilhtue I'rake which has for
its l. ra ingl power the friction lbetweeli rIte surface of tlie concrete and a steel
\\edt e \ldicli takes part of tlie weight of tli( locomotive.
En<-'trricy dil./aniv.-Thle electrical inter'lo.'-is on the gare c -ontactors were re-
move(d and i replaced ly .a positive nieih:aliai:cal ioterlo-ck oq bii oth dams.
All the meters ill the coniiAl panels of the plains were remoiiived and turned in
to tlie Ball'oa stortl.hol(-e., as tlie e iliplenlt w\as iinecessary aid was deteriorat-
ing.
.Mliter gaItc..-Altireboundiing'I devices were installed in tlihe contractors of all
the gate liiaclines.
On all ti,' intermediate .ate.s tle liandtrail motors, ;ear boxes, and limit
swi tchees with tlie wiring were rem edl and place I inu tore. The cost of main-
taining thli.s etfllipiliilein[ was llighi I a ind it \\as considered? not essential to the
operation.
Workl was lractically completed ,n fitting hinged :-o\ers and a removable
section over the ialunnfiil equipiiient oin thlie gates in order to allow ready access
for inspection and repairs to the equipment.
Ili.si/yg .ci/- rIlri.s.--All intereitldiate rising stein valves with the roller
trains and rodis-, vaIlve stem, and tihe guide Iieariii ngs have been placed in good
cond.-lition anld hell necessary to use the short lengths of lock will be rein-
stalled. They have also served to replace other valves during the period of
overhauling.
Ch ini f inurk.-Wooden blocks with spr ings lve been installed in the pits
of all clhain-fender machines. The springs take up tlie shock of the intermedi-
ate cylinder ..t tlie end of the upstroke.
Ca(.'-t.so tiil Ilinp bitrgtc.-The loIk icaisson \\as used from January 14 to
April 15, 1 15, iin unwatering the lock chambers. At the completion of the work
all the paint on the ilinterior was toulhedi up and tle nimaclhines and equipment
put in g':old condition.
The spillnway caisson was played o thle west lock \\'all for painting; repairs
were iliade to the wooden seals and decking and some aligle irons and U bolts
were stral Irliteiied.
Pululmp large No. 16'.9 was- dry-docled in the upper chainmber and the interior
and exterior of thlie hull painted.
Ji.hcclln~mon..-.-The lovers on approximately 1-l4,01i) liineari feet of the chases
for rthe lighting and telephone wvires in the operating tiinn-els were removed.
This was made ne'essn.ary tldue to the trouble? on these circuits caused by water
and mud ftilling tie chases.
Water level indli:ator board and switclies wire installed at the top of the
shunfts ait all crossai rlder sniup-l-nllp nimoto'rs. The switches operating the sump
lpunils are nowv thro'-n naminally when the indi-cator show's ithe sumps are full.
Aln ildini-ating device has been installed on tile loc'l control board to show
the p-iaition of the arrow oi thlie south approach'li \all which can not be seen





56 THE PANAMA CANAL.

by the control-board operator. The device is operated by a transmitter and
receiver similar to those on the control board.
Approximately 3,600 feet of lead-covered telephone- cable e have 1,eeni pulled in
from the lamp-posts to the chases in the operating tunnel to replace the jute-
covered cable which was unserviceable.
New wall fenders of alemendra, a native hardwood, are being used to replace
the old timber fenders as fast as they are broken a nid have to be renewed.

CONSTRUCTION AND NEW EQUIPMENT.

One new rowboat was constructed. A power-driven hack saw has been idledd
to the equipment for the machine shop. A motor-oper;ited jointer machine wa'<
made by the lock forces for the carpenter shop and a secondhand bandl saw is
also being installed. Concrete scrap bins and an oil house have been placed on
the platform in rear of the storeroom building. A new frame buildin' wa-
erected by the building division on the middle level, east wall, for u-e as a
paint shop and storeroom. A rope shelter with concrete roof a nd posts has
been erected on all wing and approach walls.

GENERAL OVERHAULING.

From January 14 to April 15, 1918, the lock chambers were unwatered in
order to paint the gates and make necessary repairs to the va'lvis and sublinerged
parts.
The following dates of placing and removing the caisson show the complletioln
of the work in the various chambers:
West chamber, middle and lower levels: Caisson placed on January 1-1, and
raised on February 23.
East chamber, middle and lower levels: Caisson placed on March 1, and raised
on March 23.
East chamber, upper level: Caisson placed on April 9, and raised on April 1.-.
The work on the rising stem valves in addition to toucliin;- up the lIitini:istic
enamel, covered the renewal of all parts worn due to corrosion and electrolytic
action, replacing broken bronze spring strips on the side seals and grindin-z off
the bottom seats of the valves, which were badly pitted. A number of floor
plates were found missing and these were replaced.
The machinery steel removable side strips on the box c.stin'_s were replacedl
with lignum-vitie strips on all valves in the middle a rd Iower levels. The BLalb-
bitt seat was replaced with greenheart on all valves, except the intermieliate,
in the middle and lower levels.
The work on the cylindrical valves consisted of the replacing of the worn
leather seals and nuts. Only the valves in the milddlle and lower levels were
overhauled.
The channel irons and rollers in the roller trainn, the roller train tracks on
both the wall and the valve, and the front wearin'I, pad on the rising S-temn valves
all showed marked wear and corrosion. Extensive repairs and renewal of parts
will be necessary at the next overhauling of these valves.
From July to November, 1915, the exterior surfaces of the loci; -ates on both
sides from the bottom to the freeing ports, except on -ates Nos. 2-, ; 4. 7. 37. S-
39, 40, on which to the full height on both sides, and on gates Nos. 33, 34, 35. 30'
to the full height, only on the upstream side, were painted by the American
Bitumastic Enamels Co. with bitumastic solution aund enamel under a five-year
guarantee. A contract has been entered into by which The Panama Canal is
to do the necessary work to repair the paint on tlihee gates, ilhe c,-t of same
to be billed against the American Bitumastic Enamels Co.
During the period the locks were unwatered; the lock forces painted these
gates where necessary. In the lower level the bitunmastic ename! had failed
to such an extent that practically all the exterior surfaces of the '-ates in the
lower level had to be cleaned and were repainted with liermnastic solution and
poison enamel furnished by the contractor. The interior of the writer chaim-
bers of the gates, which are under water, were also painted at this time.
At the end of this fiscal year, the work of touching up the paint under the
contract on the exterior of the gates and on the interior of the gates in both tihe
air and water compartments was about 90 per cent complete and will be entirely
completed in about one more month.
The five-year guarantee for the interior of the gates in the water and air com-
partments expires in January, 1919.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 57

Herniastic solution and enamel is being used to paint the lock gates on the
exterior surfaces which were not covered by the contractor. At the end of the
fiscal y.ear 19 s-ides of gates were completed, and the work will be carried on as
fast as the oil paint fails and the surfaces need repainting.
Inl tile last anlLtl report mention was made of applying a zinc coating by the
Schoop process to one rising stem valve and portable parts and section of two
of thle lock gates below sea level. These parts were unwatered one year after
the zinc had been applied, and it was found that practically all the zinc coating
lhad gone and all parts were rusting, showing that this process can not be used
for a protective coating on gates and valves.

PACIFIC LOCKS.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Mr. William R. Holloway as superintendent continued throughout the entire
fiscal year, imaldin- his headquarters at Pedro Miguel locks, Mr. Jesse C.
Myrick as a:-istaiit superintendent, being located at Miraflores locks, Mr.
Robert S. Mills as electrical supervisor and Mr. George L. Viberg as mechanical
supervisor, divided their time between the two locks. The personnel of the
organization was slightly changed, eight employees resigning their positions
to enter into the United States Army and United States Navy service, making
it necessary to till their positions by promotion.

OPERATION.

The lock force haIs continued working on the two-shift basis, as outlined in the
previou. annual report, covering a period from 7 a. in. to 8 p. m. This plan
has been made suit.' ble to meet all requirements of the increased traffic.
At Pedro Miguel locks 2,420 lockages were made or an average of 6.63 per
day, and at Mirafloies locks 2,343 blockages were made or an average of 6.40 per
day.
The trattic for the month of May broke all-previous records as to number
of lockages, commercial vessels and tonnage passing through the canal. The
conimercial vessels numbered 212, which is 17 more than any previous month.
The total number of lockages made at Pedro Miguel locks was 229, exceeding
the previous high record by 9.
The steamship Ci.ramic locked through on December 12 northbound, is the
lon_,est shil that has been handled in the locks to date-length, 655 feet;
beamn. 9.2: draft, 29.2 feet in fresh water-was towed by eight locomotives,
being under perfect control at all times.
EIach emerency dam was operated once a month through the year for drill
and inspection. All gold employees on the operating shift on duty respond to
the signal v.histle. The towing locomotive operators are all qualified to
operate the gate and girder hoisting machines and the general operators to
swing the dams.
Thle spillway at Miraflores locks was operated as necessary to keep the
elevation of Miraflores Lake within the prescribed limits.
There was a total of 254 spillway operations made during the year.
The greatest discharge through the spillway to date occurred on September 6,
1917. when three gates were raised 5.2 feet for 40 minutes. This was due to
the failure of the dam for the settling basin on the west side of Pedro Miguel
looks, during an unusually heavy rain. The water overflowed the dam, tearing
it out for about SO feet and releasing 8 feet head of water. As a result of this
heavy discharge through the spillway, some damage was sustained by the
railroad trestle bridge south of Miraflores locks and some dredging was re-
quired in the canal channel opposite this bridge.

MAINTENANCE.

Cables.-Two or three cases of trouble developed in the control cables. On
inspection it was found that one 5 and one 8 conductor, varnished cambric in-
sulated, lead sheathed cables in the middle crossover at Miraflores locks were
grounded. These two cables were located in a closed duct, back of the other
cables, next to the lock walls. Upon removal the lead sheathing was found to
be badly pitted and entirely gone in places, due to seepage of water through
the concrete, which entered these ducts near top of shaft, causing the chemical






58 THE PANAMA CAN.AL.

action, which was explained in report on cables to Col. Dillon 'Intedl September
24, 1917.
A total of six control cables in the middle crosSover were foundI to be a;f-
fected to.varying degrees and the affected cables were repllcedl with new ,,ones.
Every case of cable failure was found to be ii, the side wall of the vertical
shafts in the outside row of ducts, on the upstream side of liuct lines :It Miria-
flores locks. To obviate this the new cables were installed in a different loc:i-
tion supported on hangers, keeping them 2 or 3 inr:lies from the :.-ir'face
of the concrete. Since this change has been made no further trouble lhis de-
veloped and all cables are in good condition.
Chain fender machines.-To facilitate testing and setting of Itoss valves, the
top cylinders of all machines are drilled, tapped :an nipples nild valves appliteil
for a three-fourths-inch pipe connection, allowing diiret colinn action to tilt hi.zl-
pressure testing pump. The air-operated high-[preSsure pium[p ised for above
testing was overhauled and rebuilt to increase it-, capacity.
Every three months all chain fender machines are tested with high-p're pumps, the Ross valves reset and adjusted to release at 3;".1i and 41.i- pound,.- ,t
pressure, then sealed with lead car seals to prevent being tainperedl with. All
overflow tanks are washed out and refilled with fresh water at the -aine time.
Control houscs.-The control house, control board,-. and all a,::essori- ha\'e
been completely overhauled and kept in perfect operating ,oijditionvs at both
locks.
Emergency dams.-Mechanical interlocks have been instilled on contacts at
panels for all gate and girder hoists, replacing the electrical interlock,.
Having been found to be unnecessary, all ammeters- and wattlelers, with their
current transformers and Y-box resistances, have been reinoy\ed from all laws
and returned to stock at Balboa storehouse.
Fenders.-The fender timbers on all approach and w ing walls at b"'al lck-
have been maintained. It has been necessary to replace miany of these timbl'-e
during the year, some from decay or rot,. and others being flunaied lby sl:1,;p
striking them.
The crib fenders at the end of south approach w\;ill at Pedro Miguel licks
were practically destroyed by teredos, making it necessary to in-t:all : complete
new crib fender. One hundred and twenty new creosoted piling were driven
and new fender frame installed around same.
The crib fender at the north end of Pedro Miguel loh,-ks was damaged, caius,-d
by a collision of the steamship Capto on March 16. This nec-essit:iteul replacing
60 of the piling and an entirely new fender frame.
New chains for holding the low-tide fender timbers in place during high-tidle
water on south approach wall at Miraflores locks were instulied to replace cables
used originally, which had rusted away.
Crib fender at end of north approach wall at Miraflores locks was al.-o re-
paired. Eighteen new piles were driven in connection with this work.
Miter gate machines.-All machines were thoroughly overhauled, motors tested
and inspected. The bullwheel openings at the upper guard gates at both locks
were protected by one-half-inch mesh steel guards to prevent access from the
outside.
Miter lock gates.-Soundings were taken in all air-tight compartments \eekly
which were pumped out where necessary.
All sump pumps were operated for test weekly and given a thorough inspec-
tion each month.
Rising stem valves.-Steel footwalks and handrails were installed over -ll
pits at all machines at both locks, to facilitate maintenance and promote safety
for employees.
To insure the bevel gears remaining in proper mesh, a fDalubbitt collar has been
cast on vertical shaft under the gear and a split iron collar placed on the vertical
shaft between the gear and the bearing; this work has been completed on all
machines at both locks.
In September, 1917, the east chamber was unwatered for the inspection of the
miter gates and other submerged parts by the contractor. At this time the lohk
forces made a thorough inspection of the rising stem alves at the lower end of
the east and center walls. The valves and fixed irons hall been coated with
bitumastic the previous years, at which time the steel side seal strili- and the
Babbitt bottom seals had been replaced with lignuim-vit;e and greenlieart wood,
respectively. The bitumastic enamel was found to be in good ':oiidition and
required very little touching up. The new woo'd seals have been found very
satisfactory and showed very little wear and no evidence as yet of teredlos.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Siillir-w.-(G:l'.iniiie-l-iron pans were made and installed under the worms
fr ,.;i'li ,if the z: te-',operating machines, to c:t'rlh the oil drippings which formerly
wi-nt t, wPIste: Ihis ,il is now being filtered and used again.
'Irhl rlil le It lie lliing system.-Considerable trouble has been experienced
i.\![li tle telepholniii sys.-n during the past year. On inspection, it was found
I:t:,( tlie julte-: erei wire originally installed was the cause of the trouble; this
j.ilt'-iiisiulled %.ii'- has all been replaced with lead-covered cable. Rubber-
i--iil;lateil wi ire originally installed in the exterior lamp-posts for lighting, has
;ls been repl,:1cel \wilh lead-covered cable at both locks, which has practically
elimlin;ited all trouble "''i these circuits.
The installing o': lead-covered cable, replacing jute-covered wire, in the
,-liies- in all tunnels .xas completed, the chases being left open for inspection
:iid ventilation. These chases were originally closed up with cement blocks;
.1n reumving these blocks, the chases were found to be very damp and wet and
I lie wires covered d with mold; leaving the chase open has prevented any further
trouble.
Ternmiial Ibo,:;irdh l ha.e been installed under the control boards in control
Houses. : 'i telephone cables, to facilitate testing and locating trouble.
LDistril-iitiiion terminal boards were also installed in all crossover rooms in
opliera til-- tunniel- rto facilitate testing and locating trouble on telephone system.
Touring locoioli'e.-R.-The two new locomotives manufactured at the Balboa
shops were received ;it Miraflores locks in June, 1917. The cars as received
li;il 111: electrical woli done on them. Panel boards have since been installed,
together with o-ther electrical accessories, and the cars wired complete; they
are sivin_. satisfactory service.
Several changes were made in the design of these locomotives, i. e., the cab
w-as increased I in ihes in height, and is a decided improvement. Electrically
Ioperated Ibrlkes were installed on the slow coiling motors, to prevent them
from ovieruhaulini. a feature previously installed on one locomotive for experi-
Ineolal li'rposes, which proved very satisfactory and a valuable improvement.
It is the intention to Intstall same style brakes on all towing locomotives, using
the brakes from Ihe discarded miter forcing machines for this purpose. Open-
ings were :ut andl sliding panels made and installed in the back of each cal
on all locomotives to give access to the wiring on the rear of the switchboard
panels. Pipe felnders were installed on all locomotives to prevent cables from
runi bing tlie sides.
All l:io,,motives have been maintained both electrically and mechanically and
kept in pjr'tia:nlly i.erfect operating condition.
Touritng track .s.'.s\/d.-On account of faulty construction, many of the rail
joints of towing tracks and the sections over the miter gate recesses were found
to be loo:,se. nece.sitating removing the concrete and also removing the remov-
able section.s. .:orret iin the base plate, by placing steel shims under the rails,
to level them. after \which the concrete was put back in place, making these
tracks miiechanically perfect at the present time. The vibration of these. loose
joints caused many of the copper bonds connecting the rails together to break
loose. which Iand to be renewed.
T'transforiicer roo,.s.-Ventilators were designed, cast out of concrete and in-
stalled in the decking covers, 20 in all, one at each transformer room at both
Iocks.
The oil in all transformer and oil switch cases at both locks was tested and
filtered, or renewed %% here necessary.
IResuscitation instructions and one-line diagrams of high-tension distribut-
ing system were provided with frames and hung on the walls in every trans-
former r,"'oom for rlte benefit of employees.
Cai'.son.-Tlie Iliiting caisson previous to being sent to Gatun locks, was
pumped out to reduce the draft to 331 feet, and left Pedro Miguel locks on
October 29. 1917.
Decl. ligl, i.--Brken glasses were removed and new glasses placed where
necessary at both lo,,ks. Approximately 8,000 new glasses were installed.
Backhfills iand dloan .-The backfills and dams at both sets of locks have been
maintained throughout the year. '
All railroad rra,:ks at both locks were maintained and resurfaced.
The grass ,on ;ill backfills and dniams liis been kept ..:ut during the rainy
season; during the dry season part of this force was u-ed in caring for and
clearing i:u bu icktills, grading, dilclhilng, and draining same.
Four locomotive repair pits halve been installed, one on the upper level and
one on the lower level on each side at Miraflores locks. Spurs connecting these





60 THE PANAMA CANAL.

pits with the return tracks on the lock walls and with the main railroad tracks
have been installed, requiring a large amount of grading on the west side.
The west dam at Miraflores locks was riprapped from launch aIndinu to lock
wall, a distance of about 300 feet.
A 5-foot concrete walk was made from west lock wall to bachelor quarters
and a 5-foot oil and gravel walk connecting this with the launch landing at
Miraflores locks.
Launches and boats.-Launch Mary S was taken out of water, completely
overhauled, and put back into service.
The assembling of the new launch (knocked down) ordered from the States
has been started and is well under way.
Five flat-bottom and three round-bottom rowboats were built and put into
service.
Locomotive cranes.-All locomotive cranes were kept in serviceable condition,
ready for instant use.
Lock machine shops.-The machine shops have been able to turn out nearly
all parts necessary for the maintenance of the loci: eqiiIil)ument, with the excep-
tion of a very few very heavy pieces of work, which were sent to the Balboa
shops.
A retaining wall was built for the platform in front of the machine shop at
Mliraflores. The platform was finished off with gravel and screenings. This
wall was mainly built out of concrete slabs left over from the construction of
the locks.
MISCELLANEOUS WORK.

Scaffolds.-Twelve scaffolds were made for painter, for use in painting miter
gates.
Cocoli shed.-All machinery and material stored at Cocoli shed was cleaned
up and painted with tar paint.
One carload of piping 2 to 6 inches, four carloads of scrap iron, and two
cars of scrap rail were sent to storehouse for credit.
A run around railroad track with two switches, was laid around Cocoli shed.
Trees obstructing the view from the control house were cut off Cocoli shed,
south of Miraflores locks.

BITUMASTIC WORK AND PAINTING OF LOCK GATES AND SURMERGED PARTS.

The floating caisson was sunk at the lower end of the east chamber at Mirn-
flores locks on August 29, for the purpose of making an inspection and touching
up of the miter gates, valves, and other submerged parts. All painting work
was completed and the chamber again flooded on September 20, 1917.
The water was lowered in the west chamber on September 29, for an inspec-
tion of the miter gates, which were found to be in very good condition.
The' contractor who had coated the portion of the gates under water with
bitumastic enamel performed the necessary touching up of this work.
His work had not stood up as well as anticipated and necessitated quite a
lot of touching up. He was unable to procure the same kind of material origi-
nally used, so was allowed to substitute a practically new material, which is
manufactured under the name of Hermastic enamel." This seems to have
formed a perfect bond and has proved satisfactory so far.
Under date of- January 11, 1918, a new contract was entered into by the
American Bitumastic Enamels Co. with The Panama Canal, to do the necessary
repair work to the enamel on these gates, to complete their five-year guarantee.
They withdrew their representative from the Isthmus; since this time the lock
forces have taken care of this work in a more satisfactory manner than it was
done heretofore, the cost of same being billed against the contractors.
The interior of the gates is now being inspected and the necessary touching
up is being done, as the five-year guarantee on the interior of all gates expires
during 1918. The work will be done as near the expiration of the contract as
possible.
Gates Nos. 100-101, 102-103 at Miraflores and gates Nos. 50-51, 52-53. 70-71,
and 72-73 at Pedro Miguel have been completed. Those at Pedro Miguel locks
were in fair condition, while those at Miraflores locks require about one-third
of the surface to be reenameled. The material has held up well where it was
applied, but inspection proved that in some places no enamel had been applied.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 61

The upper portion of the gates, which had been coated with graphite and
lead paint. was g0one over by the lock force at the same time, with the excep-
ti(on of four gates. Nos. 112-113, 116-117. Two of these gates (Nos. 116-117)
were treated 'ith heriiastic enamel and solution furnished by the manufac-
turer. the other two gates (Nos. 112-113) being treated with enamel over
Navy solution formula No. 5S, for the purpose of determining which was the
better. Preliminary results have proven that the latter treatment forms a
more perfect Iond.].
The exterior surface of all miter gates at Pedro Miguel locks which were
coatedl with Navy hitumen enamel and solution, formula No. 58-59-60, during
the lnst fiscal year. and reported as having been done by the lock forces in the
last annual report, has been inspected and found very satisfactory up to the
present time.

PAINTING.

In addilioni to caring for the bitumastic work and the painting of the spare
parts; at Corozal storehouse, the following painting has been done:
Chain feilers.-Fournoen machines at Miraflores and two at Pedro Miguel
locks have lieen painted completely and the walls of the pits whitewashed dur-
ing the year. All of the chains have been painted with an especially prepared
tar paint, which lhas proved very successful for this purpose.
l.isjil .ic,,m ralcv's.-The rising stem valves in the east and center wall cul-
verts at Mirallore- lIock, were inspected. These had been coated with bitumas-
tic the year previous by the contractors. They were found in very good condi-
tion ;nd the very SL;-II amount of touching up necessary was done by the
oin lIti t-or.
Troi'ing/ locomotices.-All locomotives have been painted during the year,
receivin- two 'oats of tcray paint and two coats of spar varnish. The gray
color is more lastilig. absorbs the heat less, and is easier to keep clean than the
original black.
L'mcrgciw, dalnli.-Eniergency dams at both sets of locks were due to be
p:-inted .Jniun;i ry. 1019'. :is they are supposed to be painted every two years,
but upon inspetion, they being found in fairly good condition, it was decided
to do some ieces-ary touching up and leave a general coating go until next year.
.Spillicait.-Tlhe upstream side of the spillway gates was touched up with
hitumastic and the downstream side and bridge structure painted.
lo,'rli,itls.--Fl:,t ;illd round bottom rowboats used around the locks to han-
dle lines and to put the pilots aboard ships were severely attacked by teredos,
more daIm:l being done at Miraflores locks than has been reported at any
other pline -.n tli- I-tliunis. To obviate this these boats were coated with a
special copper paint. which has been used since last November with good results.
('incrce-floor p,,inlt.-After considerable study, to get a suitable paint to
hold on the.con'-rete floors of the operating tunnels and machine rooms, a
small order was secured from the Trus Con laboratories which seems to
be more satisftactory th:in that heretofore used.
Co,,dictor-slot corers.-All conductor-slot covers have been coated with tar
paint.
Test platcs.-A series of about 30 test plates have been made up and several
difl'erent plaints of various manufacturers and some paints locally manufactured
by the lock forces :ire being tested to determine just what will make the best
coating for the protectioii of the steel structure both under and above water.
This was done on account of the climatic conditions found here. It is hoped
that some very valuable information will be obtained from these test plates for
future 11use.
Paitd mi-ring and grinding machines.-Due to the large quantities of paints
required for maintenance at the locks, it was considered advisable to have a
paint machine. Accordingly, a 30-inch single water-cooled Kaestner & Hecht
paint machine was installed in the paint shop at Pedro Miguel locks. This mill
has proved to he a valuable addition to our equipment, as a better paint is ob-
tained and at a lower cost by buying the raw materials and doing our own
mixing andl grinldiing. A considerable saving is also effected by regrinding old
paint that has dried and hardened. This machine is belt driven by a 7-horse-
power induction motor secured from the stock of miter-forcing machine motors,
which were considered unnecessary and were removed.
Miscellaneous.-The necessary painting of all operating machinery has been
kept up during the year.





THE PANAMA CANAL.


ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the electrical division during the
fiscal year are covered in the report of the electrical engineer, which
follows:
ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

IV. L. Hcrsh, Electrical Engineer.
CHARACTER AND EXTENT OF THE \iOPRK.
The duties of the electrical division, during the fisea-il year just closed, co-m-
prised the necessary work of design, construction, operation, ;iiind maintenance
of the steam and hydroelectiric power plants, sulb.stations, t'ra-nsmission lines
and power distribution systems; municipal, street, shopr. dock, building. and
house lighting systems; telephone, telegraph, fire-;latrio ;md ril\tay ldock-
signal systems, and the railway interlocking plants; the eletr ic" stor;ae battery
cargo handling trucks at the terminal docks and storehou.e-;: a id the install.i-
tion and repair of all classes of electrical apparatus for Tlle IP'an-ina Canal.
Panama Railroad Company. United States Army and Navy, .iiid of all d>'[:art-
ments and divisions therein, and of commercial and IUnited St:ates Navy ste;in-
ships.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Col. T. H. Dillon, United States Army, continued as electrical en'rineer until
he was ordered to Washington on February 5, 1918. w\hen Mr. Walter L. HIl-rsl
was appointed electrical engineer. This 'change made the po-ition of super-
intendent of power open, to which Mr. Baxter R. G(rier \\-. ;ilprointed. 41n
April 24, 1918, Mr. W. L. Fey, superintendent of maintenmnc ailid const'ruction,
resigned to accept a commission in the United St,.te- E'inineoer Ie-erve Cir'is,.
tnd his position was filled by Mr. Albert C. Garlington. IMr. Carl XV. Malrklih.in,
in charge of the office and requisitions, resigned on Ai.urust 11, 1917. to accept
a commission in the United States Engineer Reserve Corls, a;,dI his position
was filled by Mr. M. P. Benninger. The five divisions into wihicl the work wvas
divided remains unchanged except as above, and is a;s fo'llo'vw:
Office and requisitions, M. P. Benninger.
Power and transmission system, B. R. Grier, superintendent.
Construction and maintenance. A. C. Garlington, si,[eriniteidlenit.
Telephone and telegraph, C. L. Bleakley, superintendent.
Railway signal system, E. C. McDonald, supervisor.
On June 30, 1918, there were 208 gold and 393 silver emiployee- in this divl-
sion. The average monthly pay roll for the division \\-is $4i.;,i0: average
monthly expenditures were about $127,000, of which S0 tier -e:-t was for \-ork
done for other departments and divisions.

OFFICE AND DESIGN.

The usual miscellaneous office work was done throughout tlte year, including
correspondence, reports, work orders, estimates and the |irp;;iratini of 10
material requisitions, including specifications for 2,045. items totaling in i value
$783,903.
The general plans of last year were developed in complete detail for the
extension to the hydroelectric generating station and the transformer substa-
tion at Gatun. Plans were developed, specifications pireprarie, nI d reiluisitioins
placed for the complete electrical installations for li-lit, hebot, a.1Ii power ;It tihe
Navy submarine base and the Army and Navy aero stations.
Plans were prepared for the lighting and applicatioit of electric poo\ver inl all
buildings erected as new or remodeled by The Panama Canal., and ill a few
buildings for other interests located on the Canal Zone.
Plans were prepared for the necessary extensions to thle underground con-
duit and cable distribution system for light, power, telephone and telegraph, and
fire-alarm service in the permanent towns of the canal, iicltiulin g tie A.rliy aind
Navy reservations.
A complete revision of forms and method of handling work orders has been
made and the new system is going into operation July 1, 191S.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 63

I' \WI.II-PLANT E.TE:NIONS.

The pr-'jec',t of extending tile hyd.roelectric development at tnatin spillway,
inllliling the inl tallatioii of one :-h.litionll generator init of 4.-rfif kilowatt
capacity, w\\as carried -n thrA.lghout the 'e:'ar. -i'ln-iderabl' deIlay was ex-
perienced in this work iliue' to til --j dificulty of obtaining equipi Imcnt and mate-
rials from the States. Most of this delay a\\s i:anied by \\o;ir conditions, the
im.ge.sted.l factories of the eomitl'4ators supplying this equiplient, ain the diffi-
culty of railrlrail and 0e01ean transportation.
I'y the -ind of the year tle building extension proper wa\\'s practi,:ally com-
pletel, inelilling con rlt'- ellsls for oil Kreuit lbreal:rs, anl ,nerete shelving
for duplie:!te set of .C00 volt Wiuse. The lie!stoc:.-ls for thie proplosmdl No. 4 unit
;niil for the future units Nos. 5 and 63 were eomnuileteil, in.1i'lingi II:iekfill and
inisimle eo:t of .hitLuizii sati,' ilna;llel. The lien:d-';ite hlion--, [lie lutl.nd ''ates, the
trasli rIIcks, andl the henl d-.a;lte opmirating itl i 1liilmery, iirn lt, lin', s'. itCelii.oard and
wvirinli, wvOre iolltlpete'd.
Thi' 'reoition of the 275 kilo\\att hlirizontal turliille exciter sot hlias been com-
plete I. l.iit no final test has a- yetr ['-ell nmad,-. The i ;.7.50 li..r--io,\\'o'er Pelton
Frl'nl'nis verti(a;l turlbine, and the 45,0) kIilo\vatt gelnel'ratr unit were received
in 11., anild tlie er-.tion was started by .Tune 1. The- oil Iiinl[,- and pipe
foi i1in: oil sy.-'tem ere 'i'elived ailnd their 'reption w\.-s starfedl diiring Jnne.
Thiu v. itelil) Iot l and switiil'll'e 1 ] I el t "er iver'e tile l t 111 i:ter'lil t'l Ihor received,
:nd i \\ere dleliverel ton the I ili.-talled for the extension of Iis No. 1, andi the work on Iuins No. 2 \\-as started.
Ti'e \\ork of placing switcl .U'.ir in the comiijp rtnieilts for the oil ,.irlili. hrerikers
aY- started. This work wars delayed to sone extent \\ Ilti:n thi' ll me were taken
fr'in this w'orlk for more nlrgent 'work ini line .\illi national dleeleir>-.
After the installation of tlhe No. 4 unit, tlhe lhilroelm:.'ltric piniit will have a
en l.nity of three 2.SSO Ivilo''atts and one -U.5iii kilowatt nnirs, toa;lin.ng 13.140
kiliwav:rtt willth romi-ilns for the future installation of two 4,;'in kilowatt units,
nmalkilg a total ultimate capllity of 22.141) kilowttlts.

WATER CONSUtMPTION-Y-HYIiOEL[ECTIIC Sf.\TION.

A stidy has li l ni lade of the Ipos-dile quIl:intity of tai-er to I',e consumedd
f,-ir the generation of ele'trie power at tihe iydroelec'tri ..-( t;,i'i at Gatun
sli;ll\.vay. After this linnt lhas heeli dleveloied to it-s ultialltl clmieacity, the
Omlilpinenot .1 riven by turbines m will '.o msist of lhree 2.-SSMi IIilo\':,!t and three
4,-.500 kilow:amtt generating' units. and one 27.I kilo-matt excit'r uilt. Actual
ti-'nires coverinl ;- six months' period develop the fa:t tlliat lthe existing three
2,,SAi Iilmh att units w-ere oleratingI a it an oiveraL'e haild ,t 7.5 per emint of their
(cllapcity. Under av'era'e lod of t75 per ewiit of their apimeit.y, it w\\.l computed
that thlliie three mlisit \\ill eacili on ns1 iiie waiter at :1 rnle -f 411i --nhic feet
pi,'r -e ,ld. Under IliNaxilli in l l I.;11rit. land, it ,ha been c_' iliniile, that these
three uinitl will consul e .'52&S, ,i tl.ic feir cI,:I' -ec'.'dll. liI tlies:-c -iiimnui nations. the
eiliciency of tlie generatorss Ih s Ie'-ii I seil on the nin:1 lal tiirer''- faIc:Lory tests
irnd the ttnriiine efliieiln' on the lost mad:ie at tile time of flim' re--,eptance of the
Ia -'e" ,' ai I: ily [tll r ine wheels ilientliolled.l in last yeal '' 'epirl.
In e-tiilat ing the \wn er to be 'olsiiie,.l by tihe 4,.-1 ki lw I al\ tt units, Nos. 4,
,5, amd n,. no actual test data ifre avail:l.ile. This 'miilt;atilon \' s I.i-med on the
turbine and generator eliciencies as I'rolosed I,0 tihe inii ,ntntriil'r.~. From these
proposed values, it has been 'olilnpted that water will 1be consumed by each
of these units, when Iondead on the Aver(-'e to T5 per eent **f th-eir caipacity, at
a rate of 6i.7 cubli feet per se',cond, and when loaded to full inlap;eity this rate
will lie S52 ublic feet per second. The wa-iter onsiililmption of tlte new 275
kilmiwatt exciter set, when based n generator iandl tllrbine elliien'cies as s pro-
po-,ted by the nluinufacturers, is omill pted to Ihe .5'.,> luic feet per -econd.
Tile total witr t.onsilliptioln at lihe h ilroelectrie .-;: itioni. \\lit tlhe ultimate
six unit tapa:city of 22.1-1"1 kilowatts is operated under m;vern':ic land of 75 per
cent, is siinimled up as follmI s:
Cubic feet
per second.
For three 2.SS0-kilowiat generatr llits-------------------------------- 1,230
For three 4.iH.ikilo,.xtt 'enelrlatorl' ilni------------------------------ 1,971
For lone 27.5 kilmowatt *.xtiter unit------------------------------------- 58.3

Total ------------------------------------------------------- 3,259.3





64 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The total water consumption at tins plant, when developed to its ultimate
capacity of 22,140 kilowatts and fully loaded, is sumlind up as follows:
Cn'llie foot
p er s'e-ond.
For three 2,890-kilowatt generator units---------------------_____ 1, FS-
For three 4,500-kilowiatt generator units ------------------.-.-------- 2,- 526
For one 275-kilowatt exciter unit---------------------- --------- 5'. 3

Total ------------------------------------- --- 4, 1S. 3
The estimate of 3.2.020 cllic feet per secJn is a very e,,i ervative figure for
the rate of water c'onsumlption for tle average losing of this station when
developed to the ultimate capacity.
The value 4.1!8 c(iubic feet per second wouhl rejirereout the rate of water con-
sumption in case thie minimum or valley output exceeded thlie plant's ultimate
capacity requiring the g-ineration of loads in excess of 22,140 kilowatts at
Miraflores steam or othei' plants. But while .uch conditions are not iiii-po-sible,
there is at this time no indication i.,f their prolb:al.ility for some indefinite time
in the future.

SirPST.\rTON AND TRANSMISSION LINE IMPROVEMENTS.

At Gatun substation, preipl-arations were made to adarp t this station to the
conditions obtaining after the conversion of the li],11i' station from 2,200)
volt to 6,600 volt :.,_neiiration. This- work inicludles the ins-tallatiuon of one 8,400-
kilovolt-ampere G.,lO-4 4,000-volt water-cooled trai''former the complete re-
modeling of concrete cells for oil circuit i.breakers anl for instrument tranu-
formers; the in ,tallation of hi'zher caianeity circuit breakers; the remodeling
of a greater part of and addlitions to existini,- switchboard: tl c rinodieliin:. of
bus layout, ineludinw both 2.200 o and lt rind 6 vit secondary bu-es; the in-
stallation of two 1. 00-kilovolt-anmere .0(i0-2.200-volt \\ater-coilded trans-
formers; the ii-nst illatioin of a coolinii water system ti. sIupp-ly raw lake water
to cool new transformers: the reconnectioii of two 4.000-kiiovlt-:.iipere 2.200-
44,000-volt radialt.,r-typr, transformers for l,16100-44,000-volt operation; and the
removing of two l.' 2.iT-kilovilt-aniper,' 2.200-44,000-volt ratliat:ir-type tralns-
formers.
This work has been under way for con!e time. but liha bteiil elayvet to soerie
extent due to e-,sues incident to ithe l conldition-:, sutchI as the congestion of
the factories of the contractors suipplyiit new e qiiipient, to the dilliculty o-If
railroad and ocean transportation, and to the tbbneed of calling. men from tillis
work in favor of work in the line of national defen-Pe.
When these clhani'_es now in proi'esr have iee'i completed, tie- Gatiin sub-
station will be equipped with tw'o 1.500-lilovolt-an pere 1,600-2d200-volt trans-
formers for local ,listrilhntion, lln with t i l:) 4.Wri-klilovolt-aimipel'ei anid one
8,400-kilovolt-minpi-re i,;0.I-i-14,0i0.-volt tiran i'riin.: forl distant traiis sionI
with provisions for the e tire inistillatioii of one S.100-kilovl.t-anipere water-
cooled transformer.
At the Cristioal sul,-tation one of the two 2,67-kilovolt-amipere 44,0010-2,200
transformers has l.beeni relbilt arl reratel to 2,.500-kilovol t-a lpere 4.1,000-11,000
volts. There has ileen installed an 11,000-volt lms with complete switch tzear
and the nece-sarvy sw'itihboiard iniprovemelits for acomiiiilOatiiig two trans-
formers rebuilt ;is above two ou t'-oing 11,000-volt feederc- to refri 'zera ting plant
and submarine base, withl provi-ions to iacolorniate the two future outs' 'in g
11,000 feeders. A second 2.667-kiloivlt-amplere tr:tnsforiiir i.s to hIe rliiilt
and rerated to 2,5.l00-kllovolt-amlllpu es iilioii remiio\al from Gatin -nlustation.
When this last-inentioned itOem i'. cuinlpleted, this station will l'e e-'ulipped withl
two 2,667-kilovolt-ainpere tranii formn er- for 12.20. -volt local distribution, arni two
2,500-kilovolt-amipore transformers for distant 11,000-v.ilt ilistrilbution. At this
Cristobal substrition, one 2,200 feetler equipment lii' licell installed for supl, ly-
ing current to tlhe tow\\'si.te at New Cri-toal.
At the Mirall.iire siil'Statiioii on'e 2,i;l;7-kil:volt-aip.'re 44,0 .--IIl 200,2 ) volt tralis-
former has been reliiilt and rerited "2.5' 0-kiloviolt-aiii.re *l-li000i-11.00i volt.t.
This transformer w\a-' removetl froli (;atunl sib-stati.,ii, relbllilt and located at
Miraflores in orler that three 500I-kilovolt-ampere tr.ansformers can be released
for service at tli Coo Solo sulbmiarie bn:lte. A mllall telmpl.,rlry 1,000-kilovilt-
ampere 11,000-volt -iil,-tation, was built at Gil Hill from ecoiil-hand trans-
formers and materials, and energized from Mirallores. By this exipediient tlIere
were released three 500-kilovilt-ampere transformi.rs for use at the Coco Solo





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


submarine base. After these changes of rebuilding and rerating transformer
equipment the Miratliores substation is now equipped with three 2,667-kilovolt-
ampere 44,000-2,200-volt transformers, and one 2,500-kilovolt-ampere 44,000-
11.000-v olt transformer.
Through the releasing of a total of'six 500-kilovolt-ampere transformers,
sufficient transfiorumer equipment was secured to,arrange for temporary power
facilities at the Navy submarine base and aero stations practically nine months
in advance of the proposed receipt of permanent equipment from manufacturers
in, the States.
At the PIalboa substation two 2,200 volt feeder equipment were installed;
one additional feeder to the air-compressing plant in building No. 29, and the
second for feeding auxiliary power to the Pacific forts. Requisition has been
placed for equipping this station with 400 kilovolt amperes transformer capac-
ity, and necessary details to supply auxiliary power to the Pacific forts at a
potential of 6,600 volts. The main power installation of this station, consisting
of three 2,667 kilov'olt amperes, 44,000-2,200 volt transformers, remains practi-
cally unchanged.
Transmission line improvements consisted of the insertion of line-section
switches at G4amboa. At this point four 3-pole sets of an improved-, type of dis-
connecting sNwitch, arranged for steel tower mounting with facilities for oper-
ating from the ground, were installed. This installation proved so convenient
and time saving in times of line faults, that all the original type of line sec-
tion s'.vitches. which required the operator to climb part way up the tower,
were replaced by this improved type of switch. The total installation of this
type now consists of four 3-pole switches at Miraflores, four 3-pole switches at
Gambon, and four 3-pole switches at Gatun.

DISTRIBUTION LINES.

Extensions and improvements to the underground power distribution system
included the laying of approximately 75,240 duct feet of vitrified tile duct;
25,000 duct feet of fiber duct, and the installation of 382,720 feet of lead-cov-
ered cable of all sizes and voltages.
The princip-.il items of work included in these figures are the distribution
system extensions to the townsite of New Cristobal, the new cold-storage
plant, Cristobal, to the submarine base at Coco Solo, and the aero station at
Manzaniilo. In these tiuares there are also included the installations of com-
plete nldergroi)ind distribution systems at Balboa radio station, at Corozal
ordnance depot, at Fort Sherman, and the local distribution systems within the
reservations at the submarine base and aero stations.
Iliscellaneous other items of distribution improvements include the building
of a small pole line to serve Mindi dairy farm; the placing of the greater part
of the overlieand s':c:ondary distribution at Ancon and Balboa underground;
extensive changes to rainge and beacon circuits whereby these circuits, previ-
ousIly energized from Pedro Miguel locks, are now energized from Gambon;
and an uiilercround circuit in the city of Panama to supply light and power to
Panama Cannal and other Government interests in that city.
The principal ailditions to the street-lighting systems were those at New
Cristobal rind Fort (Grant, and several improvements were made to the existing
installations requiring a total addition of 70 standard type lighting posts and
approximately 14,i:,x) feet of lead-covered cable.

OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM.

The power system was operated throughout the year with an average net
generated output of 4,419,192 kilowatt hours per month, as compared with
4.199,020 kilowatt hours per month last year. The increase in output has
been largely generated at the hydroelectric station, and the fuel-oil consumption
at the Miraflores steam plant for stand-by service has been reduced from an
average of 3,428 barrels per month last year to 2,906 barrels per month this
year. The average cost of distributed power for the year was 0.7782 cent per
kilowatt hour, as compared with 0.7301 cent per kilowatt hour last year.
This increase in cost of power has been caused largely by the increased cost of
labor for operation and maintenance.
Plate No. 3 shows the typical curves of Sunday and week-day loads carried
at the hydroelectric station. The Miraflores steam station is operated on a





THE PANAMA CANAL.


reserve basis carrying loeail only at such times as the total-system loiad exceeds
the present three-unit en cityciy of the hyil ro s'ttion. The lii\\'er usil ti, miiotor
the two or more generaltorss a;t Mit-tflores o'ier .ted as syllchlrronoull oen delnser,;
for power-fneti';try (orrecttion exceeds the power generated at this plant. This
accounts for the iiegative '. utput fo-r this plant as tabulated in the following
abstract ,showing the monthly output generated at both plants:

Tabl shooi'irfr monthly. oul puts in kilowa',it hours.


Not oltjut [ in kirloj '.tt s" tm
hodr;. losse..,
incl_____________________ iDll.3
Total net ir:tns-
Month. pner "ei mission,
.tin M r l or p- pro ter. tr nsl'or-
hbvdro Si, In mi ion,
str ioo. s .llon, a l Il.i
sili in. rR'~Io(s .o 'n


P'-117
July....... ............ .......................
August........... ........ . ...........
September ........................... .. .................
October.... ......... .. ... .......................
N ovem ber............ ... .. . ...... ............
Decem ber......... .... ..... ...................
191I.
Jan uary ................... . .. .. .. .................
F ebruary .................... ...........................
M arch.......................................... ..........
A p ril........ ...... ....... ........ ...... . ......
M ay.................. ............... ..... ........ .
June ................... ... ......... ........

Average .... ............................
Averagelasi y:.eir... .......................... .


4,516, 7ili
4, 7.3"1.,1 "i
4, :7i'i, lii
4. -'1 .1 0 11
-I. 52".,,'.-
4, 312, 277

4, S1.5, 71'j
4, 61l, ICll ,
4, 431,7114
4, 4v.'s,, 74

4 .5 1 .52,9
4, 13.2, 6'20


-1 44,6 21))
- 56, 121.1
- SIl, l2ii
- -2,''.0i


- .13, 7711


-140, illi
- l1"6, .5 11
- lilt, 26i

20i, 1i411
- 6.1,771"

-l14,t.4'i


4, 421,930
4,644, I'm 1

4,341, S50i
-, 397,75S
4, 2.35, .7

4, 675,70(
4, 154. 1t 11.
4,5.77, 541i
4,326, 354
4, .5 iS 14
4. 257, 1 t

4, 41 192'l


14 4
13. .
14.S
15 4
16 2
15 0

14 7
14 .


The follo.winr_, talle ihow-< the 'o-1 f i.\v.wer in its.- variun. state- of distribu-
tion. Co-t ligni'e- are I -aei) i.ii deulelry to (colmsnuer and iot on the net amount
actually generated.


Net consum .lion .... ..................k lo. .itt hour.-..

Cost of oper anon 111nl mni- let, n tnc -ie, hydro SIt it on.......
Costofopert rion and! rn'iint-e!i ancOe, nMi r lore; it islea "ru p1lili .
Cost of operial on Lan!1 Laitnten IceC o- l su li sal loins........
Cost of m aaini-n:ne- trinmni-.,onil li es.............. ....
Cost of m arnten:iclee, di;stribi.ii ai l lii-:; ........... .......
Depreciation, Ir asu mission s:,iiin ... .. ...........

Total rost of current for power distribi.ilion .....
Net consumption, lightwg eurr.nl.......kilo'valt hours

Cost of matiutenan:ie., bouisi. l.htitin- :,st.tm, in:ludin;
lam o ren :. a .............. . .... . ... ......


T.,al,
fis i i vi. r ,
i1 -l.Ir



45, 2 1.', 117

.' 57 r. r52
7S.321 Iy
R.4,"5lj 99
2, 313 '1
41;, 75.3 i1
96+(,"l (f'll
31', 4'.4 91

111. 345., 4 2;

'.j, -12 44'


Cost of lighting current [eir LIlo ail t liour................. ) .....


per mob h


A ver..ice eos;l per
lilohwatt hour.


This year


3,7 7,- '2 : ........ ...

$3,214 6.3 II I Innl
1, 526 77 .01173J2
5,33 S 31 .0l1l !1'
2,353.5 .6i Oi2i' I
3, .'i6 r .'ll'i ill
, nMiii (HI .i''2t.21

2. 137 91 .i1'7'- 2
.S :' ,152 ............

q4,i;:'3 1 ii 'i5.397

.......... 1 179


. I'l 1155r.



' 'r21 5

.11. 1 .i 1.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 67

The principal lands in kilowatts added during tlie last year are tabulated as
follows:

Power. Light. Power. Light.

Submarine h.rging s station 'tem- Series street lighting .................... 10
porary).................... .... 1,000 ........ Munic pal pflmping station, Em-
Storage bartte ry charging star i,-n, 'ire......... ..... ........... .. 120 ........
(Cri-tobal.......... ............ .. 1 ) ........ Municpal pum ping staiton, P'-
Armv quarters and l.uiJdns ....2. '0 ; rais.............. ...... 50 ........
New Hospital, Aneon...... ....... 100 100 Buit.lint.s at Re.I Tank ........... ........ 20
New hospital, Criktoiaal........... .... 20 Bu.Jdings at New Cristolbal....... ........ 90
Mindi a r \ arm............... 10 ........ -
Bilboa shops, adltonnalI machin- Total.................... 1,900 270
ervand miscellaneous.... ...... 2..,0 ... ..
Air ctompressor, Iuilrling 2', 1,000
cu l.i: fee: ....................... 200 ........


The principal loads to lie addled in the future are tabulateld :s follows:

Pover Licht. Power. Light.

Submarine base ................ 2,000 100 New A nCon rhosp. -il ............. 40 60
Navv aero stai ion............ .. 30 50 Nev- hlot!, Pe-ir.N MNlel ......... 10 5
Army acro station............... 3;0 50 Municipal pumpmi st ianon, Rio
Cold.-torage plant, Cristobal...... 1,'0)0 40 .;randle. .................. ..... 150 ........
Pa-cifi flirts ..................... 215 150 An ron laun.dr,, new ma-hin-b ry. 20 ........
New piers. No. 6.............. ... 200 300
Series street lighting.......... ............ .0 T n . ............ . . 4,545 805
Industrial school.............. 20 ........


Considerable trouble was experienced in tmaintainin 1 tire hardened steel
roller type thrust Ibearingi,- in units 1, 2, an :- 3 ;it the lihydroelectric station at
Gatun. This trouble le'-anime sio serioiirs that some liht-e \vi- necessary and
other bearings of an imprioveld spirin''-sllpJorteal nemental typle were placed
on requisition. Three of these new bea rintis. were received. but liy June 30 only
ione hall been installed. with intilications that the change will prove satisfactory.
Some trouble h-as been experienc-ed with the governors of these same three
inits, and goovernors of a dilitfer'ent typIe were played on requisitioin. The new
ma trial w"as receiivc] ,but w.a.s not eretledl by the end of June.
The substation apparatus caiised three interription-i iIIn lti-h-tension service
due to the failure iof porc-elain Iiiilin'-rs of hilgh-tensiion oil-:ir:-iiit breakers.
Due to the failure in service of porcelain insulatori- onu the high-tension
trans.,uisi.on line. this service \as interrupteild : total of "2l: times as com-
pared with 17 tilues last year. It has been proposeil to redu]t-e this trouble by
the uiie of insulator strinL-s of four uinits instead of three ns at present. Mate-
rials to ai:-:-omplish this were ]ili<,eil on requisition but were not received during
the time covered Iiy this report. These transm-ission line troubles are briefly
tabulated in plate No. 4.
There were a total of 11)4 irnsulators on the transmission lines renewed dur-
ing the year. Of this total numIer 34 failed in servi-e; 34 failed under line
tests; anld ,l, classed as miscellaneous, inslirile those :considlere l in a suspi-
clouls condition or found I roklen Iy the patrolmen and tbho-e broken from ex-
ternal violence.
TELEPHONES AND TELEGRI.\APH.

During the fiscal year S2'i telephones were in-tailed and 451 removed, leaving
2.523 iin service June 311. 101S. an increase Iof 300 for the year. The average
number of telephone 'ails per -Iday of eight hioui-r ohltained by peg count, was
21.816. or 2,724 per lihor. The average number of telephone trouble cases
was 9.5 per day. itn comparison with S per i -day last year.
Seventy-four thousand eih ht hundlredi and forty-three feet of lead-covered
paper telephone -able. of all sizes, rar-icinz froin F. to 21111 pair. were installed
anil 19.,367 feet renimoved. leaviiinu 592.23'i feet it, service. On this entire cable
installation there \were 14 c;-is of cable trouibll during thie year. The prin-
803720-18-6





THE PANAMA CANAL.


cipal items of cable installation included in these figures are a trunk cable
to submarine base and necessary extensions to the underground system at
Balboa Heights, Cristobal, and Pedro Miguel.
TI)e Transisthmian duct line was broken by a slide near Mile Post 17. on
November 18, 1917, making necessary the rebuilding of 150 feet of 4-wvay luiet
and the transfer of cables. Also a 600-foot section of this dr.:t line was re-
built at Mile Post 38, new cable installed, and the overhead cable remov\el at
this point.
The principal items of work performed by the telephone department include
the installation of a new cable in the Transisthmian duct line for tlie Central
& South American Cable Co.; the installation of one private branel exchange
at Quarry Heights, and a second at the submarine base; and the installation
of a complete 14 station interphone system at the Balboa radio station.
Central office improvements included the installation of additional switch-
board sections, consisting of two operating positions at Cristobal exchange.
two positions at Pedro Miguel exchange, and one position at Balboa Heights
exchange.
The question of new telephone equipment for the Cristobal exlha,'ne is be-
ing investigated to determine the best type of apparatus to in-tall. Th.ise
under consideration are the improved type of manual with automatic listing
and ringing, semiautomatic, and full automatic.

FIRE-ALARM SYSTEM.

The work of inspecting and maintaining the fire-alarm system has been
combined with the telephone department. New installations consisted of two
additional fire-alarm boxes at New Cristobal, four auxiliary fire-alarm boxes
on dock at La Boca, and a new fire-alarm register at the'Ancon fire --tation.
One case of trouble was reported during the year; this was a defective alarm
box at Cristobal. The complete system has been inspected and worked over.
and worn parts have been renewed where necessary to keep the system in
good state of repair and in positive operating condition.

RAILWAY SIGNAL SYSTEM.

There were a few changes made on the railway signal system during the
year on account of track changes; at Gamboa a new spur track was connected
to main line; Gamboa passing track was extended 50 feet southil, making it
necessary to move one train-order signal and two automatic si..als: minor
track changes at Monte Lirio required some changes in signal sy.-stem; the
power-operated train-order signals at Frijoles were taken out of service on
account of discontinuing this as an operating station; railway switch at Rio
Grande was remove and switch signals removed.
The overhead signal cable at slide near Mile Post 38 was taken down and
cable installed in rebuilt duct line around this slide. Also new piece of cable
cut in at north end of Bohio siding on account of threatened slide, new duct line
having been built. Two highway-crossing bells were installed at Cristobal
street crossings. All signals were thoroughly adjusted for kick offt, aiid trouble
from this cause has been practically eliminated. Derails were ins.talledl at
several places on hand-thrown switches.
There were 2,404,176 registered arm movements with 131 resp.,o,-ibl:. signal
interruptions, compared with 2,474,210 arm movements and 115 simnial inter-
ruptions of the previous year. This gave an average of 18,352 arm movements
per signal failure for 1918 and 21,515 arm movements per failure for yea;r of
1917. There were 556 train-minutes delay in 1918. compared withl -431 train-
minutes delay for 1917. There was an average of 4.2 minutes for ,al delayed
train on account of flagging. There was one reported false clear aspect on
the 120 automatic, 16 semiautomatic, 14 power operated, 12 neclianical, and
11 train-order signals for the 2,404,176 arm movements. Thi.- lone failure
occurred in November, 1917, and was- caused by broken-down installation in
cable splice.
In the following are tabulated the responsible signal failures, arm movements,
train-minutes delay for each month during the year:






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Total s;L-nal
S:,; I ure:. Tot, I
Total arm train-
Date. mo'e- min-
R-.- Nonre- m'-.nts. utes
sprnr- :pori- dlel.,.
sible. sible.

JuJy, 1 17 .... .. ..... ................................... ....... 15 0 21 2 414-1 S
A u' st, 1917 ..................... ................................... 4 211.0..2 33
S' ptem bhtr. 191 ... ................. ... ..... ................... 14 1 21i., S74 97
O ctober, 1917 ....................... . ........................... 5 2 2.51 427 2
N ovem ber, 1917 ............... ................. ....... ......... 0 221,1 ', .5
D eceC m b r. 1 17 ................................. ...... ......... If 0 01, 51)
January, 191 ............. .... 6 0 19 2,39 1
February 1'.. 2 177,111 20
Fe-hrur,-, 1 .......... ........ ................. .... 7 2 177,141 2(
M arch, 19 S ..... ............................... . . .... 3 1 IS0S ,563 20
A. pril, .19! ................ .1..6........ . .......... 11 3 1I i.'16 42
M av, 191 ... .... .... ............. ii 0 1 2, 12 6i)
June, 191' S....... .. ....... .. .......... .... .... .... 1 4 173,2 5 ..i)
T o ta l . . ... .... .. ...... .. . .. .............. . .. 1i .1 s 2 4 11, .


There wfls .in Iaverag e of -14 trnin minutes' delay and' 10.0 respounsi le si-tnal
failures per month.
There were three dernlinieints at tlie interlocking plants as (c:'mpa red with
nine for tlie prei:ellingi ye;ir-oiie in Fl'.bru;iry. nt tlme pintoon liriilre. rau-eil by
lift rail not tering properly seated; .se'-ond in Mlarch. nt Batlbl)o Helhits. caused
lv err Ir in opierntion Iy levernimn iln :l-;in. third in A\pril. at Balboa Heights.,
cau-se remiii i unknown. There was but one derftilniment nt switches equipped
with hand-throw derails: this was ca;ised by colored lirakeuimn tlhrowinmt derail
under n'l, \in all- ir. There \\as one failure of power-oipelirated train-ordier signal,
apparently caused by poor contact adjustment.
There were GO reported signal failures at interlo'.-king iiplants for the year.
This includes bIotli meclhanicl an;d electrical s nals. This was an increase
over the preceding year. The grefiter i--irt of thee failures .**,i'urreil at the
pontoon l'riilge. maiinly from caiIses foreign to the sigugil depli'rtilent. Raphl
filling of Pedlro Mi'li el locks lowers tlie water level at this I rtilg- e about G or 7
inches in a few minutes. This. and! thle action of a lanrZe Ilipper dredge which
lihs b.een w*orkirn: very cli ie to, the bridl'e for several months, lnioeilIeit of the poniltooli which resIults in opening oif electrical contacts a ld
loosening of ineclihanical joints.

IR.?sliOn..iibli .*iIla i ll hintrrut' ion-s. fr fir r's l iy ar curdinqg J.Ilu .30, 191S.


Jul Aug. Sepr. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Track circuits:
Switci box out of adjustment; shunting track.................. ......... .... .
Poor or defective track battery, dirtvy in(.s, poor connection... 3 3 -3 4 ...... .....
Leakage. duc to low re.i tjnce, cro.st its, roa. becd, drain l'.e.............. 2 .........
Track rails not Iond d ........................................ ... .. ..... ...... ...... ...... 2
B ad1 relav contact ....... ...................................... ..... .... .. ..
Bad track wireconec t iori:: boot lg ..... ..............................
Brol:t-n ond wir................................................. ...... ...... ..............
Relay o t djustm -rit ....................... .............. 1 2 ...... .... .....
O pen track battcryv l rm final ....... ... ............... ... .... ..... I ...... ...... 1
Broken splitcotter kl ,: on sw i-tchbox pii .................... .... ....... ...... ...... ......
Discharged or e:.hausted sloraj'e batter: ;carcless mainte-rianct.... 2 ...... I ............ .....
Signal light ut ................... ............... .. .. ............. ...... 1 ...........
Signal licht out, on account of badly keroen oil............. ..... ...... 9 ...... ...... ...... ... ..
Ui nkno v i ......................................................... 4 4 4 I 'I
Op'-n coil on cont rol r ..................................... ...... ...... ...... ........ ......
Open coil on sial slot arm......................... ...... ........ ...... ...... ..... ... ...... ......
Op'en rire froni simal to main cable, in cable coun-ection ................ ............ ...... ...... 3
Pole changer; loose con ection.................................... .. .. ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
Commutator stick-ing i.n si-nal meter, account. dirty bru-hes-
rough commutation: sanded ................................ ...... ............ ..... ......
Broken sldrt arm sl ring. ........................................ 1 ..... ...... 1 ...... ......
Reversed polarity in primarv batter ......................... .. .... ...... . ..... ......
Circuit breaker on si'rnal not'properly a.jui[ted ................... ...... I ..... .... ..... ......
Loose connect ion on meter batt [er.............................. ..... ...... ...... .... ...... 2
Rich r-sist.ance iu mn,-net coils. accoiuit ch.-mical action on wire. .... .... ...... ...... ...... ......
O pen s itch............. .............. ................ .. ... .. ..... .... ...... ...... .....
T otal. .. ........................... .. . . . ... .- 11 9 i6






'(U THE PANAMA CANAL.

Rcsponstibler sign in i-rrupIi.Os .for fi..ralI y/ ar rndinj Jner 30, 19S18-Continued.


Pe rcen-
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. Total. tae- for
,ea r.

Track circuits:
Swirch box out ofadiustment:shuntirngtrack. ...... ..... ..... ... ... ... ...... 1.53
Poor or defective track 1t..'ttr.ry, dirtY zjinc.
poor connection ............................ ... ..... .. .... .. ...... ..... . I 7. SM
Leakage due to low resistance.,crn;;t ie., road-
I.ed, drainree .................... ...... ...... ...... ..... .... ... ..... 2 1.53
T rack rails not bonded.................. .... .... . .. ... .. ..... ....... 2 1. 53
B ad re. lay contact ........................... ..... . ... ...... 1 I ...... ..... .77
Bad track wire? connection; boot leg... .......... ..... .... .... .... 1 .77
B roken hand %vir, e............................ .. . . .... ... 5 3. .!
R elay out of adiurtm.nt.................... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 6 4.57
Open track batterv terminal .... ............ ...... . .. . ... 2 1. 53
Broken split cott'.-r key of swiichl.'ox pin ..... ...... ...... ..... ..... ...... 1 .77
Discharge'd or exhausted st orae ttttery :ca reless
m ainten nc.................... ............... . ...... . ... ...... ...... ..5 3. S1
Signal lieht out............................. .. .... .. . . . .... 6 4.57
Signallieht out on account of bad kerosene oil........... .. .. ........ .... ... 9 6.S7
Unknown.................. .................. .... 2 ". 5 | 10 45 34.55
Open c il on con t rol rel ........................... .. ... .. .. ... ... ..... 77
Open coil on signal slot arm ....... ............ ... .. .. 3 1 ..... 3.5
Open wnire- from s-ivTal to main cable, in ca'le
connect ion .................... . ..... ... . 1 1 ..... ..... 6 4.57
Polechaneer: loo_;' connection .................. ..... ..... .. ... .... ...... 2 1.53
Commutator sticking on siniial meter, account
dirtv t.'ru'lhe: roiigh commutation: ;s nd d .... ...... ...... ..... ...... 6 1 6. 10
Broken slont arm spring.......................... ..... .... ... . .... ...... ...... 2 .3
ReverdI polarity iin primary batter\. ......... .... ...... ...... ... .. .... ...... 1. F,3
Circuit l.ireaker on signal not properly adiu;ted. .. ............ ...... ........... 1 .77
Loos.- connection on mrnt-ter tattr .. ............ . .......... .............. ...... 2 1.53
High reistanc(. in magnet coil'. account chemical
action on w ire...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 5 3. 1
O pen ;w irc.li ..................................... .... . .... 1 .77
Total....................... .. ......... 6 7 3 16 10 12 131 100


MISCELLANEOUS EI.ECTHICAL WORK.

The principal items of electrical Iwork not otherwise classified or mentioned
include: Tlie install tion of two .5110) kilo,%antt rotary converters for the Navy
for use in charging the liatteries of sil'marines: the temporary installation of
two 11.06)i--2.21ii-volt ibiox-co r portable substatious, one at Coco Solo submarine
base, ani one at Manzanillo nero station: the installation of motor-dlriven
pumps for the mlunicil'i:l division at Paraiso and Emiiiire: the installation of
lighting system in 72 Ibuildin.irs for the Army, 12 for the Navy, (;2 hiildings for
The Panama Canal. and 12 others. niakin. a total of 156 Itlildings illuminated.
The viwork at tlie electric repair shop, excltL'uive Iof work lone in the field or
which rei niired the men to leave the shilopl, is Iriefly summarized and include
the following::
Arniatures rewound, motors and i enerators I to 7001 horsepow\or_. -----------
Tra itsforiIiieL's, colllpetipcators, etc., repatiredl and] iewoliilln ,----------- -_-- -
Magneto and fans reliaired and re tlound-------------------------------- 71
Miscellaneous electric appliance,, repaired ------------------------------ 47
Switchboard panels manufacture ----------------------------------- 3
The work nt the marine electric shop included miscellaneous classes of repair
work, new installations, and additions or rept airs to exi-tin installations on
189 comniiiorcinl vessels, and 77 vessels of the Uniteil Stales Navy.
The work included the installations Eif ,complete \wireless uLItt 'in the steam-
ship C('rrifiban and a 10-kilowatt steam-turbine generator -;et on tlie U. S. S.
Perry. and the complete renewal (of the lightinri circuits on the dredge Coro:al.
The major items of marine electric work included tlie complete retiewal of
lighting and anuntciator systemss on tlie steamship, .n-.oi and tlihe complete
. remodelini2 of and miikin:r ad U. S. S. 'on SIbrit, 1 and tli U. S. S. Koninyin 1cr Xc'dcrlan vicn as required to
convert these vessels for transport service.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 71

Some items orf rmisc(ellaneous electrical material and* supplies consumed in
the work done by the electrical division during the year are briefly expressed
in the following tabulation:
Wire, rulbber-covered twin, total all sizes --------------------feet- 339, 000
Wire. rublber-covered single, total all sizes -- ------- do---- 503,200
Wire, base copper, total all sizes --------------------------- do-- 38, 600
Lamp eor1d --------- do-- 29,000
Heater cord --------------------------------------------do-- 25, 000
Calle. lead-cuvred, t,'tal sizes and types ----------- do- 383. 000
Coijnduit. rigid steel, all sizes -------------do--- 349, 100
'ondulet fittings ----------------------------------- units-- 17, 650
Outlet boxes ------- ------------------do .... 6, 025
Electric lamps, all sizes -----------------------do-- 199,700
Sockets and rceeptieles. all types ----------------do-- 35, 500
Fuses, all sizes___----------------------------------------do-- 35,600
Lighting fixtures, house -------------------------------------do-- 5,250
Lilhtit l fixtur-es. marine --------------- do .. 1.050
Distribution tranusforners, total 229 all sizes ------------kilowatts- 1,140
Electric division motor vehicles traveled -------------------miles- 43,950

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the municipal engineering division
during the fiscal year are covered in the report of the municipal
engineer which follows:

DI VISION OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING.

The construction arid general maintenance of the division of municipal
eng.iueerinz was divided into two districts, the Southern, under the supervision
of Mr. W. J. Slpalligir. extending from Darien to Flamenco Island; and the
Northern. under the supervision of Mr. E. H. Chandler, extending from Frijoles
to Magarita.
Tle Southern district includes Darien, Gamboa, Las Cascadas, Empire,
Culehra, Paraiso. Pedro Miguel, Red Tank, Corozal, Ancon, Balboa, La Boca
and the city of Panania, Republic of Panama. The total population of this
district. exclusive of United States Military and Naval forces, is approximately

The Northern district includes Frijoles, Monte Lirio, Gatun, Mount Hope,
Cristobal, New Cristobal, Toro Point, Magarita, and the city of Colon, Re-
public of Panama. The population of this district, exclusive of the United
States AMilitary and Naval forces is approximately 40,400.
The operation of the water purification plants, the care of the sources of
water supply, the laboratory control work on concrete, sheet asphalt, concrete
asphalt, tar\ia, investigation and experimental work on paints, analysis of
.soils. by-products from slaughterhouses, etc., were under the. supervision of
Mr. George C. Bun1ler. physiologist. The staff of the physiologist was composed
of the following members:
H. W'. Nightingale, biologist.
H. T. Campio,u. superintendent of the Mount Hope filter plant up to March
0. 191S. stneceeded l by H. Gunning.
H. F. Selinidt. superintendent of Agua Clara filter plant up to July 7, 1917,
succeeded liy W. C. Dinn.
H. W. Green. engineer of tests.
A. H. Khehahadoorian, chief chemist.
H. Schluber. assistant chemist.
C. W. Saxe. assistant chemist.
J. Congo, filter operator.
R. G. Shell. filter operator.
G. C. Chevalier. filter operator.
E. J. Tucker. chief a-sistant, resigned September 22, 1917, to enter the San-
itary Corps of the United States National Army.





72 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The following is list of the morIe importtaint itonems Of t material u'edl on
construction ainid mi;-tirirena c: \\w-ork by the municipal division .luring the. fiscal
year:


70,4S0 Itarrels if ,.e: i-rt.
5,003 cut'ii ya\rdr of -nnal.
5,247 culu ic 3a .1k- 1 ti-li- h l r.i....k.
2,362 cu illic yar'l- o(f -i.r:'iieing-..
52,459 .'uih' vnrds 'of rin.-'f-i.ank gravel.
634,552 feet b. m. :.f niimlt,.r.
673,500 pi:.unds of reinfir, ing sleStl.
31,900 lin:anr feet' t it vitrifiilcd -.>.:r Ipili:'.
67,829 linp.e r f:.':r of gnlraniz.-A1ir:.nu ,:.r
pipe.
6,371 ]ina.:r feet .:,f 2i.iunch and 24 inch
concrete pilp:..


22.111) lint-ar feet :.. .:nlstiron water pip,.
51 three-way v fir hbydraiul.
2.2237 hmrrels of crude oil.
.-.5 anter uieterr.
Sli;..i ipo:uindij s f le alite.
;t. I,,tl rtneik of lead.
2. 1 i: p'' :,illu s of jutl'.
1-.i.'r. Iayviug brid''..
i.'11.311 p,:ound: of a.sphlt.
"2-'1.'.-1 gall,.u. 'if tarrin.
2.241'; tns .:f c al.
-'.,41'5 w\oirb .:.f mi:tr repair parts.


Equipment iitirc:-ltIei colsi-isteld ofr tW\i 4-L,000 gallons per I minute sewer pumps-
for New ( Cristbo)nl t"o self-lpropllig 11 cinli:- feet concrete imixers; riumpin.
equipment ftor the \\'nteir and sewe\v(r puliping stations at To")o Point and Ct'oco
Solo; 1 Iroquois portnble ?asphalt mixin..l plant; gasoline driven cen(-trifugal
pumps for tile pinu pit,g stations ait Frijtoles and MoInte Livio; mi.celhiineos
equipmentit fr rond relpinir work.
A la rgo portion of the ah l)\ovE listed nitterinia \ wa's used for mainteIn a :nce? n iil.
upkeep of vatt?r .plaints. roi'a.ls. streets, sile\vallks, tand.l aer and sew"?r sys-
tems in tihe Ca'nal Zone, on wljichli a tot''l oif $5'-s,0-1,41.50 was spent.
The follow i, ilr- stntelliejit shio\\'s thl? qua.litity of water [] tiiint1d l t e;h-ll of
the pump stntitos d during thle y'nar a ndi thle Ii 'n vi-ge quantity per mi,-nth with I
the average cost I)p?r tlhoisnuQad gallons for JpumIpilng:


Total callon Averae'e v.\rae'.
Pumping :ration. u p. nurnl:,r ',ct r.r1
durig_" ..ar. [,,r month, pumphig.


M ount H op' . ............. ...... .......................... 1, 412. 27 ,00) 120, I l .9, 4.! + ?i0 01605
Agua Clar ................. ... ............................... 42 -i1l,)1 0, 0 35, 70.1, ,:l'3 + .0:i?11
Frijoles ...................................... ......... 40i- 2r,5 71 0, 6_& 7 + .2 102
Monte Lirio) ... .... .. . ... . . ..... . ... .. ... 3: l". 20 4.237 + 41 :;3
Gam boa U S. No. I ..................... ...... . . 3, '2, 016, 0 24' r.i,0l.333 .
Miraflors U S. No). 2 ................................... .... 379, 460.0, 000 ,621, 666 .021i.
Balboa U S. N ). 3 ........................................... 2,.353, r,9,,75 19 t', 5,297 .010,5
P araiso ........................... .. ....... .. ....... . 74. 5 t). 11 ,. 211. .C ,620
Cucuracna (Mount Zin i ............ . .. ..... ...... 121,070, i000 1l.0 9, 16 ............
Cam acho (tanks) ........................................... 97, 176, 2 0 ,( ', O)1 ..i....
Camacho ,into main ) ......................................... l6 159, 15, 0 9 79,925 .



The following g stantintnt shows tih? division c-ost of water .hleliveri'Al it] tir.
various 'listric-ts of tlie Cnnial Zone:


I'iri.:i Cost. ,i ri.: Co- .'

C ristobal .... ............................. 10. e, r.: i. ........... .................. .. 0.
G atun ..................... .............. 11 ,lirailor. ................................ .)'
Gam boa ................... ..... ..... ., a B Ill .)a- .\ n r .) ... ...... ............... .07
P araiso ...... ............. .............. ,

IDivi. i,:.n ,c,-.-t for \unt>.r .]..l-iver.Il I erio<.l ending June 31), 11l11 (iier ILousan.J gall:.n-).

The litttiiipil ,li-is'ioJn rl-e..ive?'l i:'eli for tih? cost v0ttli :, of \water furnisliedl
other -.l--partiu.s its ti Ii\'i'i s of Thie Pl'nattt Cnal, itl e P jtlin., 1:ailroaNl,
the Paint:intL Gov(; iriLent, othlr deip;i'rttuents of tiie U nitedl Stn tes <(ioverlnitjt,
and indii'vilutil.-, :1n;il colujpuieP., niiotiitin;t ini all tt.i .$17j.!I'.1.225 ,.Itiri..i the tyeir.
The 'niale ,if water to vessels at thei- dock. nt (Cristol:al and at Bailloi \va.-,
handled l.y tlie iuii[ihipnil ilivisitii. Thei r-nte ci;rii'gld for water \\'is 50 'cents
per thousA nid 1-nill'ns, with ;t liilii[ntill clrlr.e -of $.3r'. Tlie f llowiviig tnlale shows
the tot;il q ntllll.it.ty of waitelr -.tI 1 a:t e:-i'4 It ti,? two Ii-rt, in thle (Cntal Zone,
with the Inuule.'r oIf vessels making \'water during the10 year:






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 73




Prort. 1suppl. :
A -it h w t ;, ,. ,- ,_.ld .


Xurmbefr. Au l,.(rr.
Cr istol.. ......................... ............................ ... ...... ......... ..., 420 4 4, 7,, (1 )
B alb,_a3... ..... ................................. . .. .. ... ... .. ........... ..7 2 1, )0 7, )


In the cities of Panaima amn C 0olon, the snian of 17.-14.'.ii]iI.S,5 was sp:'ent for the
upl)keep oif streets and \\'water an id eer sy ,te*us. All expense in connection with
this work is repaid y waiter rental, which are collected by the niiitcipa)l div\i-
sioIn. The following table shnlo\\ the quantity of \water used in each of the two
cities duiriur the fiscal year, by quar ters, together with the amount of w ter
rentals:
PANAMA WATER OFFICE.

C'on.sumnlplio l pcr1 quarter.


Paine 1 ubli Daily
Quarter ended-- c.-nn-c- Privat.t. hydrants T.tal. a.vera.-e
t i,, and taps. .,_n um p-


G.,o 'l. G7 I,'1..: ,,. G7.1.'.. Onll,,..'
S-pt. 30, 1917 ......... ..... ......... 2,2 1, 3., 001 2 39,010) 205,222.000 ?,' 2 i),1(4m
11. 1, 1 01 7............. .. ......... 2, 42.,' 1 41,0312,0 00 t67, 752,1'00)' 2 ., 7.'4, (00 2, 1201) (' )
M ar. 31, I101 .................... ..... .. 2.12'. 152,.5.'-, ( 0) 71, 7 j,I ( ) 224, 3 4 4, 000 2, 1' '2,010
June 30, 1I15.................. ... ... 2, 1 5 152,(i), 11)1) e ,I0:22,I00) 22:. 052, (1)0) 2. 14 l, )(lh)

T...tal fur y3 ar.................... .. ........ 49 ,6 03, (0) 263. Sil), 0 i %.;', 4102, (in) 2,3514, 2.50


Colltct ;.ios.


Quarter (.nde-id-


Amn.hunat
collctad
fr.,ni pri-
Valer (.cD-
.um1-rs.u


A '.'ra e

1 !In p.:.r
prva.ie on-
n,. -ion per
quart-r.


Av-erace
private
quarterly
bill.


Sbamp t. ".i, I . .. .. . . . .. . .... ... ............ . S, 1 71Q. 6 1, i01)i) 1i 5. 7"2
D ec. 31, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . ,11 5 000 11.
M ar. 31, IAIS ............. ......... ...... ............... . ... . .. .3i.. .? 6 ,1 )00) 1t 10
June 31, '1 IS.................. .. . .. .. ... . . . ........ . . 7 1. 5 2, ()i) 1 .55.

T ..tA fr y ar........... ... . . ....... .. .. ....... .. 2. 100. ( 2 3, i .1 r0.2. 5.

I Inclu .s all I bills rc nir,. 1 again. I 3namn n '.i-.-rnil ntl fi.r v .'a :,r cuIn _'um d.1 in pulI..:h I..uil. in s in
Pa n n r -.
2 Net am,_unLt A. I.ills.

REPOR'I OF WATER COLLECTIONS OFrCE-COLON.

C(0ista Xiplti, of i/ater.

C.-nrumrniti.n per quart-r.


Quarter ende-d--


S-pt 30................
Dec.31. ... ......
M ar. 31 ........... .
Junie 0 ...............

Total for yir...


Num-
ler of

i,..rns.
a V U1i


F'rivate
1.)nn,.-5



Gi lko'n.'.
i ),i)42),0i)
3i,.44-12,WiI
',7; 4 7.5', 7.'I


Panam Panama
Panar Canal 1'' Puil..lic -re
-v a1 r-_?- pital and lIy.1rarncs
?rvaion. quarantine. andl ta?.


4. 7,.5. 7 )
4. '.,7,0001)
5.47-'.750
.",, 2' ,7.70,


GaUllr..
6. 5"'' 77,i)
6,627, (.n)
6, 15). 750.")
',717, 2'i

............


T c.ril ,.,_n-
suim'iii.in.


G .7 ..'*n e .. .7 /10, .
7i), l) ....")-. l44, 4 r;".
7', I, 7., r.75 1.,3, 191.1 5
72, 6 71, 17.) l '4.; ,. 1)
t66,6 t t ,'I.7., I 1 1.,,) -' 2 45

........ .. . I l, 2 '.1 12.,


Av erac.a
Lilly
ron.urnp-





I 6W, i),
1. 7 0. ,7

1 ;.'o). 07
1,* 11 ,727

I, 1,-I2,2-147


I -


Galli.i.





THE PANA.MfA CANAL.


I EPO iT OF WATER C(OLL..I I ION S f)I-' I. C-COLON- COti Ile d.

WnIalr ), .'u l coll cl'ions.


Quarter ended-


Sept. 30 ..........
D ec. 31 .... .....
Mar : . . .
June 311 ..... ....

TotaIl f'r year


,I ci ed
ir,,m |ri-
Vjle ci,-
siumer-.


A m,:, n t
l lRC. [ e.l
frm I' hn-
ami fR. R;.


A m,_, ,lit
col lec led
from I'm-
Ima Canal.


A rl h t
pini or tip
lie paid y,

S ern-=
I.eliht.


.92.:., 0' 5. 411 .1,427. 10 .1, I..'-l ,) .? t'4I .;..
21',4 ,:: 7 1. '. 1, .. -' O :;0 3 i',.. *MI
2 .;, l l i, I.'.. ) 1, I1,, 311 ,, i l .,
2". 177.3]5 1 ..''. ) 1,71.,. 7 ......... .
..,i'2. I. 1322 ' I 7. .31 2, ... .......


Tc.otl re'--
lire per
Ijuarter.


?30,i.';.3 S
33.551.3
32,33:9 h.
311. 4I ,5


Aver-



privare

lion per
u artLer.


Av.r-
private
ciu.ir-
ter
bill.


4,7, '1 Z27. 2.
t i,;.,l l 2_ 73
I, I 2N. 7:3
42',1 27. ':i0)
........ 111(. 74


The fdollowi R A ,taitemneit siho\\- lie -t atl oI f the cllci ta l ,o-t ac (-'couit for the
nitLiiciJip'l illmprovel-lelment, il the citie( of I'ahij;ima aI]d C('ololn at tthe close of the
fisct:al year. Thi-s statement also shows the tatuis 1of the accouIlt onM July 1,
1911i, with detail of the dlebit', anid clu-re]-lit each year since int date :according
to the azr'eeilient of Septelimber 2i2. 191i, \\ith tlie 1-Repblic of Panama, under
authority of whitli qtliarterly stIt:ImeLiilts of tIle at:cCOu1t lare made:

Slatlu. of c (pifill cov.l (c'illl fu it r 1nici;pjrl ii'pror -c c' l. c in, Prnainto nl d Colon.


Itms. I'inatuia. Colon.


Cost :of .:riinal rater .and sev (r system v. ithiti city prior to July 1, 1'10....... '.,i1,-ll.J ,7 1 .314,76.1.'.'
Ccst of :,riirnal r-avements v ilh in city pri,.. I. lily l '191 ..... ... .. . 417.4 .9'. 2. 221,07. '2
Cc t :of exItensi,:ns ta v. itter and sever sv; t:-ms. within city prior to. Jul!, 1, I'111. 122, 1 .'2 1 ', 1..2
Cost f eXrensio s t(1: ] .meli 5s trir Ir 'o- July 1, 19o. . . ...... '2, 1'3. us SS, i967. 2,
Intere:vt cn ca pita I cost v ter anid sewer systems and pav.m.nts pri Ir CJul 1, I.
I l0 . .... .. .................................................... 77,742.27 4 .314. 17
Pr,:op.,r in int i re.t on apita I ost res-rvoirs, pumpingtitations, and pipe lines
prir to July I. VI'11. . ......... .................... .. .. i, 21'.I 3 ., 12.',. 0I
Cost of mi;ant'enance later and sewer sy- t,,ms al nd pa- veuleit s and pro p-.rti cn
ost of miniaintenance revserv.wirs, pumping station s, and pipel ine: prior I( July
1. 011) ..... ............ . .... ........ .. ... .... . .[... .7 'l. 17 14 .,025.27
W ac.tr rennl coellctiuc prior toi I ly 1, I'll)-... .... .. .. .......... 12 37-- 212, 37.21- 2I:, 411. 71
Capit l cost w"ait:r and sev er system and pav M. rr nts July 1, I'!. I '': I ,,.:.'.. 4'' 1l,'3 ,36'. '7
Capital cos r-.servoirs, pipe lines. pump lit ionst i nd filt':.r plants in Z. ine July
1, hd1 ..... ...................................................... ........ . 1, 7 222.. 1 5,5,, 12. S

'anamin Gnv-rnment paj.,'s proportion of interest ,n these sunis. at 2 per cent based cni relation of
total q ua itity Of4 iat:r usl :-d I' Panima and Colon t., totil quality :f '.a jer p reduced by system.

P. N A MA.


New cr.n- MNinte- Arppli- in Water
F;c.al y a.r ending- stru .tin ,n .c'e Intertst. I'-r l .- rIel da ,
it C *. t' rk. Ital COst. deficienc.is.


Junr :3 I'll. ... .. 1 ..1, '. 71 .$3i, 121. 13 2"., 75,.. 2 i' 1'. II1. .- 4e67. 71
June 31. l112. .3 . . 3 7 1.. :3.",, '..i 3 2',;. I::2 31, : i... 1. 1 )7, 7;2. 2.2
Jun,:, 3o I'u 3. ......... ..... ... 1' I 1.. 77 3C, 47'. 7,. 2'7. I'S. !I 4 ,':];. 71 114, 7C..6 .
June 30. 191 .... . l, ':i 1 :7 I01 41'.1. 2.. I. i ..29 32, 4iS. II i ., 214. 12
June 3., 1l' . 31. 13 ,iI. 2, 414. '.r 24,.5 4.1 2",,2 7.75 ]3\ li'. .
June 3i,. l1'1,..... . ................ ... ... .. ..... ,.,4:3. :32, .11 21.2 2 .,2 .3. hi 141.''21. It,
Juie 2'i, I':17 ............... .. .... .... . 7 14. i :: 2.:. 2 .11. 7 1.,:3. 1 ;31
June :3 191. S ...... ...... . ..... ..... ... .. 1 2 *, -3'. 23 2', 2:s. 1i, i: '.2

T .,t .l .................. .... ...... '' ,)' ,2 ;. 1. i .?. : 22 ,, ,2 2 i.'jl.. II l i. ', 22. S

I Indicate, credit 0I., ', lji'l9ruLeIjF.


Aver-
1',:,e
per hy-
dr.n t.


$1-. 17
31.17
21'. 1i






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


sf'ifI.us of .puaiil tj0.sf floOstllf .0' jin oh n''i l 7 imi'pruociteil.ni in Panama aitd
Colon-C oiltiuued.

COLON.

June 1.1, 1911 ............ ............... .?1 11-.'i, 24 1 l I111l.9 1 .fli i .2. l ,''I 9.'.' 1 ?7'%,, 7i. 2.S
June i.', I '2 ..................... ..... S ',2. 1 -.. 17o.i. S) 21, 7- 1.37 21i,'9-1. 410 95, 41. Is
June 3 1913 . .. . ......... . *, 1. : .i, 1i.1. .0 21, li l.i. i... :,.9'3.2 9' 1.. 19
Juni 30, ]Ill......... ... ..... ... 11,31.1.ir ..1,542.71 '..-2- 2.3. 24, JI..5 112,2 2 .7- 4
June 31., 1Il ............................ 1, 113 4 3. 33 I 125. S.. 2 .1.11. 47 2-1,..13. 22 11 ,27i.. 21
lune 31.1, 1l91 . .. . . . ). 2 i. 1. t .I ''2 2Y.'a. 2 1,..*. .. 2S 13.., 99 1.
June 3,. 1917. .... ... . . .... ., 4,7 '..7 1 .0,77T 1. I "2), 22 21 .S.S. 10', 7-, .. 2S
]une 3i.1, 191S ....................... .... 1, 7'9 *i.i 7".,1'..71.1 2 4 .3.;j? 1 '.,"' 1.92 12:., 9 .. .S
T ot' al ......... .... ... . 1l ,1., I... -1 -1.. 'i l' l-.s 9 17., .'A9 C' .., 35 1. 29


IUnde,_r the lien'. 'ffe new\v construction yiV theI munifi[.lil ilivision in the? towns
anid villi:,es O(i'upiliiel by P';nanin Canll empIIlo.h yees in the (Cnnal Zone, a total
,oif $545,723.55 was -pint. Thli? p riln(i[i;il items oif 'oniistrui'tion under thin hea'l-
Ing w\\elr? tIh? .-traliU]i 01' oL'rounils andl thlie ?xtein:iiol f i''io:i. Wntd?r in'l sewer
systems for the? ne?\\' lililin-s; ?r:et[?i in the hospital ground']s at Anoun ; the
grading of rtiounils, ii'stanlition of \\;ter an'] sewe-r -rstenis around the ne\v
s-t-hool hIul s eri- te I at Alli:ol, Il:tllii;n, Ped'ro M i_'liel. (atian, aln.l Cristohal:
the resI.urfa' ;in.; witli 'I':rete ol tiI- streets in oi1I Cristo'hIal, the Mount Hope-
Colon Io;ndl, MAlin Street. .Gaiiin. IhNe An,.oin-C('rozal Ii.i, [ile C'l'ozfll-i[',iri
M i'el Ii-;tna1, tlie Ea-t L-i B>ori Rtoad, So'isn Hill Roadi, anil roadls in the Btalloia
sho.lp listrie't: ie il'onstr:.leltion of i ,\ .n111] ext-,ension of old .siiile alksI in then?
valriotiIS towns o''l-ipie' lby (:ainal empliloyees anI.l vrionu extensions to th exist-
int;v wn;-ter an'] sewer lines.
Undiler the head of work for other divisions, thbe following: sunim were ex-
lienlde] iand] the more iluportant itelis of work iuniier this Il.ni'nlilng were as
listed 1:ielow :
Unite:, ,StAtcs .Irnv.-Total expenditure $26F,41(G.Vt-. The principlIn work
under this heading \\ns the comnipletion of on-structhif undl'er \\vly il tlie
various' posts at the end of the i an fil year 191T, 1 ;inl. sichl nmintelnan-'ce an']
I'fpair work as wal re-lueStedll, eo0illi;ict Iz tillly oi f gl':inling anl iI pIhltinr of
gra;i ''ol-'ltii'-t[in oif cIOcl'r?[t sti-'??[reets a sidel-waill-.. extenIion of vwter ain]
sower tion of water a.Ind perfo6rmeil under this liealdintg the making oif .uirvey'. an!d the preplaration of
plans anId estininte, fr ithe plroposeil new Army po-t fat (;;itut, Mirntliore',
Corozal, Diaiilo, ;ll,]j C'orunlu Iiti er, anid general mjLinitenani:ce at] repair work
in Army ,aii-ps.
The Pui'tinto ii ilromti.-Thle -111 of $1S7,401.2l \v'as expendled. The pirin-
vipial items of (iontustruction iiinder thin IlalnliInL w,'ere the completion of the
(Corlninu River sto'ni and stri:t!-. for the Folks Itiver .-e':tiion .f Colon extension; the installation of
water. sew-ers, street, a;id siiltwiallks for the Summit elli'kn firm ; the in-
stillatit.ii of water r lines alnld pills f'or irri'-tinz \\wi-rl on the various plaint:t-
tills: the coistru'lcion of rlo:is aid sewers 'ir the liog firm; the I'rnd]ing for
and con-truc'tion of rioiil andi tlle neces(-'_sry I Vlter nd seller ystei-' ant rtle
Mlinli dairy fatrm. In addition. InniieroI,- iiiellaneou- .ijle' were Ierforiledl.
Onutiicdrs.-The rotal elsxpenditUiri rw\\ $423.42 .9-. The w.v-rk done insistedd
principni-aly of that for w'liidi l-deposits were n'il]e an'] included the h on-tr'ucion
of roads. sewers, and water lilies for the area toi lie), o','-upied liy tlhe Souith itnd
Cei-.'til Am'ileric'in (CCale (-'tC., Coi-,leret cons'trul"tion W '.rk fur lthe? Panniint TIraI-
Nay Co.. replairo t. s tI',00r's h IeIt?e ?'a .-. ,OIle tIi, 0n ec?'? wl lwe?; li:lkil wat[-?r
rtl' Sewer coilr"-etiiri- for l'ri';ite plIrtie-' ill tlie 'itieW Of Cololn alld P inianma.
Tc'rminwl'.-.A 4* tail f .$.iy;.'-i!;.~!:il \\aIs exeliin].]. ,consi-ti nL in the maiin ;of
'Irntliiroo;i' under dol.ks Noi'. 1I, 1-!. 1.i, aidl pilre No. IS, a total of 12,2010 sIla'-re
yanrdl' if rlin1'for',el :oiil,:relte bein il phl-e1: ;ie]d thli extesilun of rounds in the
shop'. lietritt.
BIil.lini dirisioi.-iA total of $!1.41t9.2S \' -lpent. The work consisted] of
the installation of wnter in]d -Wlver conniicptionii for new llildinls eionstructee ;
tlie erectionl of 'lotie'slilne'w flr j K. quairter-': htle i',epari lratioii oft illil]ill
.siteso: thea il,-talltiiu 'iinf \ilu'ar linei-: tiri uOnltin'g ste-r -ylteni from Mindi
diversion ;ld < rin;struction of ronds ',. tlie ,'h ol] ,Itor;Ie plaIt ; thl. grlldinlg





76 THE PANAMA CANAL.

for the buiililIn site of Mindi dairy farm; numeroulis miscellaneous jobs of
"work.
Hrialtih dilprtinit.-The sum of .37T.:'-25.'-. was spent on such engineering
and general construction work as was requested by thie henith department; the
const'llructiIn o concrete glitches an] drains; filling of swam p reas; prepa-
ratioln of estimates for proposed work; maintenance of pumpi ng station at
tilet P;ilo Se:-ro leper colony.
.1.1s(-chlinicoiis..-For tlie divisions of fortifications, clubs and playground nds,
locks, elect.rivil, umairino. ilredi-inig, imelitaniiail, quatorerma'.tOr anld supply there
wa^s a totNil Of $11S,(092.710 spent. Thlis work conjsistedi of misi.e)llloueons (on-
str luctioni jobs.
During~ tlie yecr a total of 224,551 square ynri ls of concrete .streets andl roads
were coistilict-ll, 'S.i,''11.1 squila'e yalri,]f of which w,\re covered with a wealrin'ig
surface of -]meet ansplhllt; I2,2. sq i)arte yards of roldivoay \\elre constructed witIll
Telford Illd iiata in' lta la IIse> Xitl a wea riing sii'rface of ;is-lia ltic concrete tinud
hot tarvia mixed.l. The toi.l liiumber of square yards of road constructed during
the year was 28:i.$490.
Trouble experienced on the C-'annl Zone with courrete aggreLgates due to
their coiitainii-. ,.xcese-ive alnulilt-, of Iy., l.a i;i, aln silt resulted in insti-
tutiuncg a laboratory at iMirnfl.,res water purit.icntion p'lait. During the past
year tile work % haI been oIf a pi rctical tnaturet. er. little re'oer-hli work having
been ii idert aken. The first problem liha- been to furnisli cionvinicing evidence
that the concrete as lnial varies gieatl: in cotini'essive strength diue to lack of
uniformity of this n.uiare.uate. ;iiitd th.-ir sul:ticient care has not been taken in
mixing, policing, and curitiLg the (courete.
The inspection of \;iriclus c.uii-tructi.in jobs w-is mile will the aid of i1) the
coinpressioii cylinders In:idle as -hlow1n iii the folliwing- talIles. (2'i thle n dialysis of
the aggreeate-, <3' the time studies ,n t ilie iixer-. 4i'1 the determination of
thle am,,unt of water used, and (5,1 the methods employed by the various fore-


C'iylinUd i'.ns .l(d and brol',--i ditrin. i l till j/-'1 (rar, froni ..It'fi t rto Itl 310, llS.

[Le inches in diiani't,:-r, 12 inches high.1

C:,yli -der's-r. Age Iof e.-.n:rete, in 'Jo. s.
Loc.ition. L-
M.ile. 7r,.k-n. 7 2-' ') 12

P .icill" [.... ... .................... .................. 4 5 2 ?. ...... '2 17 I ) 142..
P i c e.', .ll -................................... 2 21 ........ ...... ...... ...... ......
A tlantie ro0 . .... ................... ..... .... 11i. 17 ...... 21 ...... 16
Ancorn H .rspit ....c.................................. 2 312 .... .7 1 ......
C l,:.i-- t,0.l Ig I nt .................................. 1"5 12*) I ...... 44 ..... ......
P i' rI N I:. C ri t:l- I...... . .. .. .............. 21 ........ .1 ...... I ...... ......
I.ir v.-n 'id factiorv. ....................... ... .. .... .I -' 4 4 .... ......
O il i i ......... ..................................... 2 4I 24 1 20 ...... ......
T l.t ... ..................................... 122 1, 24 6912 u 10 21 1.5'


II, making reports of the lqi,_i-imenus tested the following fliin was used:

COMPi:;iSSI\I: STRENGTH ''F CONCRETE.

[G i.y 12 inch e.ylinders.]
Specimerns were taken : Jarnuanr.% 1'. 191S. by II. W. Green.
.Sp:ei ci -iis \wcre lir.Il en : May 1.. 11S, Iby LI. W. (reetu.
Lu.'atii,.n: CIt:r,.zal-1I .ir7iiii:-I Hru:ndR at 172 + 75.
F.,r.-inm n : Alli.-rt Lt? i.-.'
NIniil-er Iof stb.?,linir:n< t'laen : 1i .
Mlix-.r: l'rItclh. iniunted Ilatforin.
SM ix : :i;. iii.,t-til'd .
C-'onsi-eicnty : .)ii;'king liwmby.
Tim,: ii m ix : -1 .s.-. nl -.
I'.-ri'.ii l ,i i i ix. : 1 ini i le 41)0 sto' ,tnrds.
.\ggregat:: C'.ut-'., 'CI.1 re. i -r riou ,.f lan k ,it g'I,..1] qjiility.


I In rpeI tcI.J 11. \V. I.; c-rn.




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