<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the chairman and chief...
 Appendix A: Report of the assistant...
 Appendix B: Report of the division...
 Appendix C: Report of the division...
 Appendix D: Report of the resident...
 Appendix E: Report of the resident...
 Appendix F: Report of the assistant...
 Appendix G: Report of the inspector...
 Appendix H: Report of the chief...
 Appendix I: Report of cost-keeping...
 Appendix J: Report of the chief...
 Appendix K: Report of the subsistence...
 Appendix L: Report of the examiner...
 Appendix M: Report of the disbursing...
 Appendix N: Report of the head...
 Appendix O: Report of the head...
 Appendix P: Report of the chief...
 Appendix Q: Report of the superintendent...
 Appendix R: Report of the general...
 Appendix S: Report of the...
 Appendix T: Tables showing increases...
 Appendix U: Acts of Congress affecting...
 Appendix V: Charts showing organization...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


DLOC PCANAL



Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097363/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended .. ( 1914 )
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill., maps (some col., folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.)
Publisher: United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Creation Date: 1913
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Canals, Interoceanic -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Navigation -- Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Dec. 1, 1905-June 30, 1914.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. for 1905-1906 report year ends Dec. 1; vol. for 1907-1914 fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note: Reports for <1909/10-1911/12> each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
General Note: Vol. for 1913/14 contain also the report of the governor of the Canal Zone.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07782320
lccn - sn 86045158
System ID: UF00097363:00003
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    List of Illustrations
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    Report of the chairman and chief engineer
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Appendix A: Report of the assistant chief engineer in charge of first division of the office of the chief engineer
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    Appendix B: Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division
        Page 111
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    Appendix C: Report of the division engineer, central division
        Page 139
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    Appendix D: Report of the resident engineer, fifth division
        Page 161
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    Appendix E: Report of the resident engineer, sixth division
        Page 187
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    Appendix F: Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the office of the chief engineer
        Page 193
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    Appendix G: Report of the inspector of shops, department of construction and engineering
        Page 255
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    Appendix H: Report of the chief engineer, Panama Railroad relocation
        Page 269
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    Appendix I: Report of cost-keeping accountant
        Page 273
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    Appendix J: Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of quartermaster's department
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    Appendix K: Report of the subsistence officer in charge of subsistence department
        Page 395
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    Appendix L: Report of the examiner of accounts
        Page 411
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    Appendix M: Report of the disbursing officer
        Page 457
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    Appendix N: Report of the head of the department of civil administration
        Page 459
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    Appendix O: Report of the head of the department of law
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    Appendix P: Report of the chief sanitary officer, head of the department of sanitation
        Page 527
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    Appendix Q: Report of the superintendent of club houses
        Page 555
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    Appendix R: Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
        Page 561
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        Page 563
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    Appendix S: Report of the geologist
        Page 565
        Page 566
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    Appendix T: Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel
        Page 583
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    Appendix U: Acts of Congress affecting the Isthmian Canal and Executive orders relating to the Canal Zone
        Page 605
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        Page 627
        Page 628
        Page 629
        Page 630
        Page 631
        Page 632
    Appendix V: Charts showing organization of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1913
        Page 633
        Page 634
    Back Matter
        Page 635
        Page 636
        Page 637
        Page 638
        Page 639
        Page 640
    Back Cover
        Page 641
        Page 642
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ANNUAL


REPORT


OF


THE


THMIAN


CO


MMISSI


AN


N


--e
rOR Inn


FISCAL YEAR


ENDED


JUNE


1913


AL


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TABLEOF CONTENTS.






Report of the chairman and chief egineer......................... 1.......
Oz'i zatio .. . . . . . - : ' f - - . . f , f . . - : - * - . - 1
Sctio d en peering - - - . - - - - - - - - - * a - a - - - - - 2

l+ A.r'n 0


x x n: 1 .--..~ . V w . . .me e e m
�X A UJ~ tP ^A. V A JJ Ft t tS t - ft S ft f ft ft-ft-
Atlantic div8on...........

Central dtvsionB.,.n- s...- -


Sixth division.......---........
Seonnnd driaini


Iftm - - t - t a m* *w a- ft - ft ft a- - ft ft ft ft ft ft - - - -s ft ft - ft f ft ft 4 a
.- a i ft f f f ft f ft - ft ft - f ft - ft ft - ft f t- *t > - f *h *k f t - ft ft f f - ft f - t


- - a - ft ft ft: ft f
* ft ft. ft ft ft ft ft ft ft


** ft af - - ft ft ft ft* *r ft ft: ft
ft ft ft -t f ft ** - ft - t ft ft ft:


ft: ft ft ft ft a a * a* ft ft ft ft S ft ft - f ft ft ft ft
a -* f ft ftf ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft aI- ft ft ft ft ft
t at ft ft ft- ft - ft - - -t ft ft S :ft ft ft a ft ft ft ft ft
*ft a ft* ft * 4* ft ft f ** f: ft* ft a ft ft ft ft t ft ft

ft ftr ft fth ft ak ft ft ft: ft *ft ft *ft< ft ft ft ft ft ft- ft ft ft a
ft ft -* ft - ft ft ft ft ft ftn ft* ft: ft ft - � - ft ft: ft-


* ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f ^ fttff -kr - VK-tU a�* fttt ftd~~u- ~ - -t --- - --- ft ftW --- ft ft -- :t f-.-
Consatraction of the new Panama Railroad ....
.- .-. Fortifications .. a . .....ft..ft......t t
otn keeping... .......... . .................f f f f f

Quartermaster's department. ..... ...............

Subsistence d department ...... . .......... .. ......
Examination o accounts and disbursements......
Examination of accounts..f.t.... ..f .......- f f fff
S.isburse ents.. . :t ...ftfttttt.. f...t.......-f.

Departments of civil administration and law. ..


Civil administration..............
Department of law ---.....-..... .-..
Department of sanitation .. ...

Recreation of employees. ............
Washington office. ... . ..---- . .. . . . .-. .-
...e eie.a. re.iarks. ... - - ft - ft ft f - . . .


ft ft ft ft .M a f - ft ft ft ft ft ft a � a . - a ft ft ft: t ft ft - a - - . ft f f a
.ft f ft ft ft ft ft ft f ft ft ft ft f a ft.a ft. . ftIft f ft ft ft a . ft f f -
ft ft ft ft ft f ft ft ft ft ft: ft f> ft f fM t ft ft t t ft -ft M : ft ft I ft ft ft ftw fte ft ft


APPENDIX A.


Report of the assistant chief engineer in charge of first division of the office of the
SIHLi d~'' engrneer^AJL-l .S^ -* a aw ai:*- - f1 ft ft f - ft ft ft * ft ft ft* ft ft ft ft .* a* f a ft ft ft -* a a ft ft** - ft ft - ft ** a ft ft. ft::� ft ft ft ft .* - - ft a a
ae i engineers . . ...c.c. ..,.t-. ..... . .. . .. . a .-. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . - ....
..snry.n lock structures...,,me .................. ,... ,.....,


J~i'f&^il Ak^Ift ft SH ft- ft 5* ft S* a . ft ft ft t ft* -- ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ftri - ft ft ft f
Valves aid ixed irons- ... --.ft

Design and contract.... ft....
Ihxnstalilationi f... ft-tt t -.
Fixed irons for spillways, spillway

eTsiign* -a t o t r t............ftft f
Desin and contract. .fl���


Erection and installation............. ....

raWings.... . . . . .. .. . . ... ... . . .... . . . . ....
flR - a


ft ft-- ft ft ft ft ft - ft ak ft ft ft ft ft:> ft ft ft ft - ft ft ft ft a * * * ft ftf tf

ft I I * t * * ft- ft ft- ft: ft> a f ft ft ft ft- *> ** a* aii ai - f ft ft ft ft - ft ft f
- ft.- t ft ft a j- ft fth 5* ft I ft ft ft a H a k ft ft f ft ft- ai a* ft - - a

gates, cmassons, footbridges, and
6gates,3 caissons,3 footbridgesB, ixnd


ff ft ft ft ft
a a ft ft f


f f ft ft a ft


*e v






TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the assistant chief engineer, etc.--Continued.
Operating machinery and electrical installation ......


Page.
87


Rising stem valve machines.-............
Fixed irons for rising stem gate valves...
Test on rising stem gate-valve machines.
Operation of the valve in the dry....
Cylindrical valve machines .............-- -.....
Auxiliary culvert valve machines........- ...


l- a - - a.
- - -. - a


- a - a* I-
* - -
* a a


- � - i -- - k - i - - - ' i- - a k a a t a a


- -k ir a* a* a- a a - - a - � a r a :-


- - ah - -t *- a* - :a a- a - -b a~ -r *
* a a - - a aa aa. a.


Test and correction for leakage of cylindrical valves- - ...... -
Tests of cylindrical and auxiliary culvert valve machines.


Guard valve machinery ....... .. ........
Miter-gate moving machines..... .....--
Miter-gate forcing machine..... ..... .....


Test of miter-gate machine
Miter-forcing tests..........-
Towing track material.. -a


Class
Class
Class
Class
Class


1 a a a - a a a - a a - a a a
2 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a -
3 a a a a a a a - a - a a - a a a -
4 a a a a a a a a a a - a a a - a a
5 a a a a a a a a - a a a a a a a a


y_...


a a a. aaa - - a a -


-.-. - -.-- -- a - - a- -a a a a
* - a a a a aa a- aa a-.a ....a a


^i- - a> * - a a* a a a a a - a a a* a a a a a a a a a* - a a - - -a - a a* - - ak






a> a - - a* a - - - - - - a* - a a� a a a a a a - a a a a a a a a a - r - a - a a
- .aa aa a a -.. - a. a . a - -. a a a. a a. - - - a a a.-..a.
a a a a a a a. -.aa a-.--.--.-- -- - .- .. a. a a .a.


Towing locomotives. .......................................... ...
Towing tests-Panama Railroad steamships........................
Spillway gate machines .......--...-........................- .......-- ...
Test of spillway gate machines. --..-....-......-a-....-aa ..a--
Transformer room equipment ......-.............-.......- ... . . .-.......-
Insulated cable . a.a.aa.. . ..-.a--.-.-a......-a . a-a...- -a...a.. a ...
7Wire and cable on order.......-...-............... ........ .....
Lock control and indicating equipment.............................
Illumination. ......- . ...............---- -..............--........--. ......
Hydroelectric plant- ....... .......--- --........-..................-... ...
Transmission line- -- ---............... -............... ..................-.
Cover seats for crank gear-machinery rooms. - .................- ......
Concrete.... - ....... .......... ..........-.. .. ... ....-..... .......-
Redesign of cargo-handling cranes-Balboa-Panama Railroad docks.


Inspection of machinery
General .. .- .- . . . ... ........
Emergency dams.............
Inspection in the United
First test aa..aa-...a

Second test .........
Third test... ...... .
Shipments. -.....--......
Method of erection......
A~ .4 * A


and electrical e ui ment


States.


*.a.aa *a .
a a - - a.


ih ~ ~ - *i.a - a* a a ai - - a* - a a* a a* a1 a a �
a a .a a a a . . a .a a . . .a a. a - a a a a . a
. w aa.a a.a a a a.a a aa a a aa a
- a a a aa.a a.a a a a aa aa a. a a


a -^ a a a: a a aw a a aw a a a a' a - a - a a a a a a a a a a - a a a a a a> a a a

a< a 4i a a a af a a aw a a - - - ar a a a a* a* - a a a a a a a a a ar a a* a a> a- a a a


:* a� a a a ai a a a a a a w - a- - a a r -> a> a> a* a. a ai ai a a * ar a a a a a a a
a a a. a aa aa aa a a..a aa aa aa a a a aa aa aa a . a a


a


a
a

a

a
a
a
a
a
V



*
I-





*V K


*ft-

'Ij<'


Report of the assistant chief engineer,
Aids to navigation-Continued.
A j * p . , - - 3 . , - . -
* ::ts and rilln~ atien
G z s a a a - - - * a � , ---- - - - � -�
EXHIBITm 1.-List of muncompleted
I 31 ,- ' - . * a a a a a a a a . * . a a a -


- a a - - w a .a a
Sa--.--- -- a


* a a a a a - * 4 a a a a a a - a a a a a
* --aa4 a--aa


* - a* a* a
* a a a -*


- a a 4 . a d a a a s a. a a a . a .a a . a ,
contracte-First division-as of July 1,


a - a - a a - * i a a a a 4 ,


etc.--Conutiued.


APPENDIX


portt of the division engineer, Atlantic division.


Division office....,.....
Division designing force..
West breakwater quarry..
Detailed statement of
Water transportation. , -..


*t a a a a a a- - a


* *- at a a al a a
. . . . . -. -. - -


work done* and cost
work done and cost


West breakwater-Colon.... . - ... .... .. - - ....
Comparative statement-Porto Bello large rock....


Gatun locks......a aa.......aa
Excavation......-........aa
Piling.. .a . .. . . .* . .- * .. . a .. ....
Concrete work.......... ......
Comparative statement of

Concrete material.. .... .a.
Unloading plant. ..........
Handling and mixing plant.. -
Gate erection-.- --....aa-a.a
Fixed steel.- ... .... . . . . . . .
Back fil-l a ............... aaaa..
Miscellaneous work........
Control house.. .. . -. . .... . . .
Power plant... ......... .... -
Gatun Dam and spillway.....a.--
Gatun Dam............. .....
Statement of progress of cc
Material handled, place m


- -


-....
it -


-a a - a - a -- a a- --aaa-- . .. . -
a- a- - a - - - a a - a a - - - * a a a - 4 a a a


* - - - - a a - aa a - a � a a -
* a* a a a a a a a* a* ar ar a a a a a
* a* a a a a, a a a a, ai - a * a a a
* - * a - a a a a - - a . * - a a
a a- - S a ia - a � a. -. a
. . . ..r. . .


a - a -a -a a a a a - a a a a a a - - - a , a a a - . - . .


-** - a. a� �M ^a -^^ a a a a a - 4 a a a - - a a a aaaa- a a aw a


- - - - -a - - a a - - - - -- - - - a- a a a a a . . aa - . a a a a a
-aaaaaa aa- a aa aa---aaaaaa-- aaa ... a
-------------------------------......


a a - - -a a a, a - - a -a a-- a - a a -- - - -a a* a - - a a - a. - -


nstructiona


S- a - a-- a- - a a a a a - -4


a a- a a" a a - - a . a , a a a a a , - - a a
- - - -a- - - - .. .. . . . . .. -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . .
- - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . .


Dry fill deposited......
Output of steam shovels


teril ---a------- b -y aragesaa-at--a a a a as
Material handled by dredges, borrow-pit measurement.


Comparative statement of costs...
Gatun spillwaya..a.aaaaaaa---- a
Progress in excavation..,.. -.aaa
Permanent power plant ..... ...
Comparative statement of costs...


.,, Municipal engmeerin . . ... .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .


a a - - a . - a a


- - a - - a aa -

* -� a a* a at aa


a - a a a a
- - r - :* .i, - I


S-a -- a --


* - a a a a a- a a - - a
costs-locks masonry


111
112
112
113
113
113
114
115
115
117
117
119
120
121
121
121
121
121
122
122
122
122
122

123
123
125
125
126
127
328
129
130
130
Vt'


easurement.......
a- a aa a a- a aa a- a-


.4
a1 a a a a - a a a a -. a a .


a a a -a - , - a a - a - - - . . a. a a .a ... a


a. . - - a aa a a - a -a - - a a a . a a a . a
a a a a a 4 a a a a a - -


Page,
108
109
109


110


R. ts . * *





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


APPENDIX C.


Report of the division engineer, central division..
Excavation-. . . ---. . . * . -. - ...- .-..-
From canal prism.. - .-.-. --...-....-.......
From Obispo diversion........ .. .. .......
Outside work. .. --....-.-...-. ..... ... ... -.
Total, including accessory work...........
Mofnnthl'r for fiscal er


* . a . - - - a a a a a a a a - a
- - a - a a a - a - a a -: a .4 a a a .
a a - a a a - a - - a a - a a - - - a


a * - a - a a-- a a� l- M- a a a- a a a ar
- a - a a a a . a a a. - a - a..a a


.LLJ AV-A U. UL* 3 .JAJ Jt. j-u JvuJ ta v a , a. a� a a a a- a -. a a a�� a - a a - a-. a a a - a a a - a-�r a a
Revised estimate of the quantity of material yet to be removed .....
Blasting......... ........................-.......................
Steam shovels...... ....... .... . -.............-......- --..............--
Class.......... ................ - - - - - - - ........................ ......


-: *a - a a *
*f a* - a a at
- a a a a a.
.... .. t k*


a a a a - a
-.-.-a a
- a a a


Highest daily, monthly, and annual records ..............a...a......
Average performance for each month, fiscal years 1908, 1909, 1910,


1911, 1912, and 1913.. .....


Plant-.. ...... . ..................... .. .............
Transportation.... ...... .--..........................
Average number of locomotives working per day.
Average number of cars loaded daily............
Largest number of cars handled in one day. -....
Trains in service at close of fiscal year...... .. ...


TI'Cracks - a a- a ..a a a a a - a ..aa- a a aaa
Location and distribution- .........-


- a..a.-a.-


Dum ps...................... ....... .. ..........
Disposition of material excavated ... ...---.....
Average amount of material dumped per day.


Amount of trestli
Diversions. . ......
Hand excavation by
Clearing channel....
Noas Island dike...


-* ab * - - -* - a - a - - - a a* al a
.* . .* . . . . . . . .� .i . . . . . M r *

^ * - - - - a - a. a. a a* - -* - a aa
a - a - a a� * - a * - - - -* -* a a a*


-. a a a a a a a* a^ a - - a a� a *a a A a ak
* - .a aa - -.aa a .a.aa .a..a . a


e driven.......


contract...,...
a.a.aa.a aa a a- a a
a a..a a aa a- a a


Slides and breaks........ ..-..... --
Estimate outside of slope line a


Cost of excavation.. ........
Coal and fuel oil consumed..
-a
Air and water service ......
Municipal work.............-
Road building ....... .....
Waterworks ......... . . .. ... .
Labor conditions. ...... .....
Changes in organization.. ....
Changes in personnel........


* a a a a. - a -t a a a - a a - a a * a a - a * a * a a - a a a a a a a * a *-
-.a. - a . a .aa.aa.aa a a a..a aa a-.a-.- - . a


-- a- a- a- a a a a a -- a
a a.a .a a a a a
a a.aa a - aa a.


* a a * a. - - a a a a a* - a* - a a a* a a* - a
* a a. a a a a . a aa .a- -a .a .a a a
* -. a - aa.aa.a a a -a -a . a


a a *


a a* a al a -r a a - a a a - a a a a a a a a a a� a a a- a - ai a a a a a a a a a a a"

a* a a ak a af ai a a> a* a a a a a a a a* a* a a a - a a a a* a* a a* a -* a - a a* a a a a


I a aF a -- * - '-
. . . . . . � *�


S- a - a - a a - a a a a* a* a a a� a* a a a a a" a a a a a a a a a a'
a - - a a a a a^ a a a a a a a a� a* * a* a - - a a a a a


Page
189
139
139
139
140
140
140
141
142
148
143
144


144
146
147
147
147
147
147
148
148
149
149
150
'151
151
152
152
152
153
154
155
155
155
156
156
157
159
159
160


APPENDIX D.


a .t S * flAt' U






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Construction tracks.......- ..
Placing concrete.......... .

Amount placed..........
Performance of auxiliary
Miscellaneous lock work....


Back 'ling . a.... -._
Killing west dam....
Miraflores locks, dam, aid
Construction tracks...
Lock foundations..... -
Excavation......


- *a- a -
* - a - - -
plant -


- - a - -


- - a a a a a - -
a a - *k a a A a a
spillway.
S- ....... -
. a - a a a a a .
<* a a - a a a a


* - *
--a


* - �** #
... a *N


- a - a a.- : --. - a a a a a a a a a
- - S -a - a a a - a a - -- a


�r- - - - a ai C �* * �C -: a a a a- * a a* at a a a a-

* a a � - a a a. - -. a a a
. w:.... .. .. .. .. . .. �� �* ,w � t~fk r


- a - - - -
- a a . - -
as a a *


Concrete-handling plant. - . . ........
Placing concrete.... -..---........ - - -..
Performance of berm cranes.. -....
Performance of chamber cranes.-
Performance of auxiliary concrete pla
Amount of concrete placed...........


Concrete forms ...
Miscellaneous lock
West dam..... .
Back filling. --... -
Spillway dam.....
Excavation.. -.


Concrete work, A
Amount of c'
Performance
Dry excavation. .
In canal prism..
Performance of si
Performance of s1
Mining. .......----
district ......* . ......


work

- --- A- -

a - a a -
A - - - -


* - a - S - a a a - a a a a - a. - - - .


* - S S S 5 5 a a - . .- a a a a - a. a a
* ........... �* ** . � .t� . w.. ft.


* . - a a aa -
* a -a - a a aa
nt........


- - - - a a
- a a -


a a-a a -a ..-a a ... a


Sa a a . a a a . a a - . . a a . a - a I . a a a a i
a- - a, a a1 a aM a - - aW , a a a a a. a� a a a aaa


firaflores spillway. a.
concrete placed.. ....- .


a a
- K ek a


- a -


of auxiliary concrete plant..
a- *� a1 a�f a aa a - a- a � a at -, ,* ^ * a


a S - a a


a . . . . a. .- a a .a a - a a a - a a - a a a - a a
team shovels at Pedro Miguel- -.
team shovels at Miraflores.......


* a a a a
- a a- a


Municipal and sanitary work..
Municipal engineering.. -..


- *--I -
a a a a a -


a a a a a a a a a a a


- - a a* - ar a- 5- a a
a 4 a a a a : a -
a a a a a . a


a a * a a -a a a - - a. - r a. - . a - 5 a
a - S - - a * a a a a - a a a- a a a a . a - . a
a t - - - . a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a -
5 a a a - a a - a a a a - a - a a a a a a a a a. a


Ancon pumping and filtration station.


Details of work pnd
Cocoli pumping plant.. -
Details of work and
Rio Grande and Cocoli r
Water consumption.
n..� j~ ��


cost..
* a . r
cosL..


..a .. a
a a -a a a
a . 5 a a


eservoirs...
1:...ae f


a- - - a - a -a a - .-


a. - -a - a a a a a a a a a a a a a . a. a .- a .


* a ".- -1 a 1 a a a a a a aa a.. a a a a a a


Report of the resident engineer, fifth division-ontinued.
FistdisM'ictClontinued.
Loh- ams, spillway, and dry excavatiow-4ontinued.
A~Pedro Miguel locks and dams--Continued.


Third


Page,
163
163
164
164
165

165
165
166
166

167.
166

167
167
167

168
169
170
170
171
171
171
172
172
173
173
173
174
174
175
175
176
176
176
176
176
176
177
177
178
178
178





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the resident engineer, fifth division-Continued.
Third district-Continued.
Municipal and sanitary work-Continued.


Zone sewer system............--.
Work performed- -.............. - -
Maintenance.. -. - - -.-..--..........
Zone roads........-....-..............
Maintenance and repairs......-..
Macadamizing and oiling ........


Sanitary work.... .......
Work performed- ......
Fourth district ...... .... .--.........-
Ancon quarry and crushers...
Mining ....a.a .. .----..
Explosives used -......
Hydraulic excavation. ............
Designs, maps, and office work....


S * -- a a


-* a - - a* a* ai - a- a a a * - -* - -. - t ai ai ar a - - -f -
- - -..- - .- -- a- aa aa - a . a a a


- aa - ah -t a - at a - - -� - - aij - a a a - a * - a aB a t a a ai ar - - a
* - --. a a - - a a - - - - - - * - - - a a - . . . . - .a. - a . a a

** - a a - - a a a -* a a * - a a a* a a a -' a a - a a -w a � ah a -r - af a.

--- . .. . . .a . .a -- . - a a a a -. .-. a aa.a a - a.


* *- * - - - **** - - * a* -* - - - -* h a a - ar - ai - -k - S S at�
a - a - . - a aa.aa --.-. aa.--.- - a a..a a


Page.
182
182
182
182
183
183
183
183
184
184
184
184
185
186


APPENDIX E.


Report of resident engineer, sixth division........
Division organization -....-........a...-
First district.--.......--..... .-.. . . .- .-.--.-....- . .....
Operations.......... ........... ....--- .....
Dredges in operation........-........ -
Yardage removed --.... ---.......-............
Subaqueous rock excavation .....--- .......
Location of rock shoals worked and i
Balboa shops and shipways..... --........
Clearings and diversions .................
Miscellaneous -............-...............
Surveys and mapping...........-........
Sec6nd division. ...... ................... ..
Operations a - a a - a a ---aaaaaaa
Dredges in operation ......... -.....
Monthly output of dredges...........
Dredging, ocean to Gatun locks..........
Subaqueous rock excavation..............
Cristobal terminals........- -..-...a.
Miscellaneous-....-- ...................a

Surveys and mapping...................
02 -f11ce....a.a .... ....... ........ a aaaa


a* a - - *- a - - af a ai a a a a( a a a a a ar - ar aa - aM
a* a a- a a -. 5 - - *- - - - a1 a - - C* Si at a� a-- a* *
. . . a . . a . . . a a . . . . . - . . a a a . a




volume removed.............


a a - a - a* - a -* - - -* -* a a a - a - a ar a a af a a
a - 5. - . .- --.-- --.aa a a a. a.


*B - a a a a -> a - a � - a* - a a al af at ak ak a a a a a
a a a a a - . - a a a - a - - a - a a a a a a a .
*. a - aa a. a aa a. a aa. S a aa.a
*. - a . a . a a . a a a a a a..a. a. a.
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a * a a a a a a a a .


APPENDIX F.

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the


office of the chief engineer. ........


a a a - - - a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a


VIII




* - ... :: x^ x: r

TflL OF f

x x xxL


CONTENTS.


Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, etc-Continued.

Terminals-Continued.
Construction-Pacific terminalsa-Continued.

Dry Dock No. 1, entrance basin, and coaling plan


Page.


t


*- aa - - � a a a j a �a wi ae-*a* a - S S a a a * wa a *i
a - a.. a a .....- . - a a - a a . a a - -. a . a . a a


Auxiliary Dry Dock
Oofferdam. ji . ..... ...

Quay walls and Pier
Permanent shops...
Clearing site....
Fll.a...- a..... a

Foundations....

Number of j


Lo. 2 ...........


N~o. 1 a..a .a .a

* ......... a 4 a a a






iles driven.,.


Concrete...........
Operating tunInel . .. . ...
Foundations for shop tools,
Inner harbor excavation .. a

Tracks.- aaaa.aa aaa... ...a
Highway and ditches.--a-aa
dzthe. .....


General. . .......... .. .....


Statement of work done
Excavation...e....

Drilling...........


Filling and embankment

Reenforcing...a-----

Concrete..... ..... . ....
Construction tracks....

Contract worka.a..... .. a- a....


a a a a a
* a a a a
a a a a a
S.a a a a


*
a


- ai aM a a a aI aa - ar a - - - ai a a a t* *r


w " � I: * m 4k * ' w � 4k - 4k k r " w - * w
*- a a a - ai ai ai a- a -~ a a: ai aa - r a ak a - a*
a a a a aa.a. aa. - a a a . a. a a - -..a


- - - - - a -* a .1 - a - - - .a. - a a * a a a a - -


.* a a. - a a 3 * a. a * a a a - - - a
- .a a a a a - :r a a a a a a a a a a

a a - - a a a 4 t a a - a a a a . . a a

as, - - ... . 5 a a 5 a - - -


S. machinery, etc..
machinery, etc..


a a a a a
- - a a


* - a* a- a *a a - ak a a a a a1 a a a a a* a f a *- -: a a f a a -***� -a

* Ci C aB a jS ai~ a i� - a k a f a a a i a - a a i ai a a a ai ak a- a a a - a a�
a 4a a a* ar ar a a ak a a -r a - - a * a a a a a a * a * a a- a a B a a a - -


� - a a


a aaa a .a a


a� . a a- a* a -


a a a a - -* -


a. a a* a ai a - ah a - - - - air a a ar aii ai a a -
a a a * a - a a a a a a a aa. . a a a a a a a
- -. a a. a aa aa aa 5a a a a .a

a aaa m Ma a a a aa ma a m- a meaamaam


Buildings authorized and floor area.

Cotruction-o Atlantic terminals. -........... .-


Wharves, piers, and dredging....m.....


Main coaling plant..............
Office work-terminals -----
Permanent shops....... .. -. .. ....

General description..........
Interior arrangements, power
Rated horsepower of all m
Contracts...... .. ...... a a...... a
Material.........................
Vjljj~~i^^^ � W �� *� *� t M� � �* ww * ** a* -:w

Equtipment....... .............. .

Dry docks, coaling plants, and floating
General description of dry docks...


p


af > S aI a* a a - a� a* a* a* a a - a a: a* aB a- - a a
- - - a a iti - a aw a a a a a a a a a ai - -a-
a a a a a* - a a af a a* -f ai a a� a ak aii ai - a


a* a - *a.a


md light.


otors�..



* a a ai a* a* a

cranes,
* -�ftw I:**- NI.


a - a a a a a a a a a a a a a. -
a a a a a - a a a a a... .. aa - . a a a


ii * a *- a a - ar*






*B a - Ib a b
a a a aa.a.


a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a a a
a a - a - a a a a a a a a a
a * a n a i a a a a a k a


Tisrr 1- ni VNTll A~ 1 ,n.--^/~tt tn n< .'n 1 A ^Hn�nrt,


Monthly excavation.., aaaa

Performance of steam shovels


a* . a a a a a a aa a a a -
- - -. a a .a.... - * a a a.. a. a a .a a a a a




TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, etc.--Continued.
Terminals-Continued.
Quay walls and Pier No. 1...'. . ..... ... .....
General description, quay wall section "g-h-i"...


Pier No. 1.. ..... .. . ---...-.---...
Small boat landings. ...........
Quay wall, section "e-f "- ....
Permanent settlements .................
Meteorological and hydrographic section.
General --...... .......-.......--.......
Office work- --......-...................
Meteorology - - - . . . . ..-. -.........
W either ........... - -.... - .. -.......
Precipitation- .... ---........-
Temperature...- ...............-
Means and extremes.. -......
Absolute temperatures of rec
W inds- ..... . .. ... -.. . .. .....
Maximum velocity.........
Atmospheric pressure- .........
Relative humidity ..........
Cloudiness.1 . . . . . a . - . - - . . -
Cloudiness.....................
Evaporation.- ..... ...-..........
F ogs - .... . .. . .... . . .-... ....
Sea temperature. .............-
Tidal conditions. ..-... ....
Seismology -..........-- ...........
Monthly rainfall on the Isthmus
Monthly rainfall, by sections, ye
Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone


of Panama ..........
ar 1912 and averages.


Hourly distribution of rainfall in the Canal Zone..-......


Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Compara
Monthly


-, a <* a a� a - -� -* a


a.a .a-.-.aa.a . a


a


meteorological data-Ancon, year 1912.........-....
meteorological data-Culebra, year 1912. ...........
meteorological data-Colon, year 1912 - ..............


* a ab a a

t 4- a� - a


tive wind records-Ancon and Sosa .................... .
evaporation-Canal Zone, years 1912, 1913, and averages


- - a - - a a - a a- -l a - a a . . . . . . - a - a a C


a --h - - 4 -- *-- - - - - - a a a a a a ak A - a - - a - - a. a a- a
a a -* a -* a a - - - - -* -h - - -> if- a a a aw a� aa -* -* -* a� a

* - - - a - . a - a -* a a a ail a - - -* a* a a a - ak a
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Sea temperatures, 1912.........-...-..........
Tidal conditions, 1912.......................
Seismograph records, Ancon, fiscal year- - - ......
Hydrology .......-.....-............. ............
Station equipment and field work..........
Freshets..........a.. . ..................... -
Special work............... . ...... .......

Run-off at Alhajuela and Gatun ..............
Monthly discharge of Chagres River, 1912, at


a.a..a..a..a..a.
- a. a a a a


- - -* -* a a- a a aii a ai - -r - a a a
*i ar a a a - a a a ai i ab af ai af aj ak aa
a a a - a a a a. - a.
- a..a. a.....a a a a a.


Alhajuela, Gamboa,


_ N1 1


Page.
219
219

2219
220
220
220
220
220

221
221
221
22]
222
223
223
223
224
224
224
224
224
224
225
225
225
226
228
228
228
229
230
231
232
232


Xord.


- a
a a
- a


- a a - a - a - a a a a - -- - a l - -a aa - a* a a a a - - a t


- a - - -- - - a a - a - a . . a - - - a a . .a a a - a a .
a.a....a..aa.-. - a aa a a a aa a-.-..-






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report Of the assistant to the chief engineer, etc.-Continued.


xx x xx


Statement of rolling stock owned by the commission .......


Sec tion of ge ner al su rve y s. ..............
Mechanical --work-.--............................
act o epaia per ervMe day ......
*:Total cost of repairs to equipment
Avrge cost of dry excavation..

Ae cost of concrete laid.................
Cost of repair to marine equipment..a.....
't :eHlug eng neer. - ?. --.... S -...c.-l- - - ..a --
insc~ton of lubricants and equipment
. Consumption and cost.......... ..... ........
uel consumed. . . . . ............ . . . . .... . . .


- S .t
I* a


Statement of floating equipment on the Isthmus...............
Statement of equipment owned by the Panama Railroad... ...


* a a - a a a a a a a
aWaaWW aa..a a-t
a aW - a a a a a a
a:i --r.aa .. a


Sa a -. :


APPENDIX G.


Brort of the inspector of shops,
Personnel....- .a--- ----
Total pay roll. ... ... . . ....
Total overtime.*aa. -...S..-a
Shop-expense per cent. ..... -
f3loetyMXIij a a �- - a - * �. a a a a a �r-aa
COrtobal shops.. .. . .-.-.- .--
Porto Bello, Toro Point, and
DIry-doek shops.... -- . .-. ..
Gatun shop.. . .. .. . . . . . . ..a
Gamboa shop..... .a.a...a aa
Gold Hif JJ..ll... ...- a a a a a - a a


Las Cascadas shop.... ..-- ...
Pedro Miguel shop......5.
Empire shop .-....-- ...... a


Balboa shop . .......... -
Gorgona shopa -...... -
Output and cost of iron


cas


department of construction and engineering..
ft** * a - a 5 a 5 a i� a* a a a* a a - - a - a a - a a 5 * a * a � a a a a - a a - -


spillway shops... -
spillway shops.-


.* . . . .* . . . .t . . ._ �i � . . . . . .f . ft .v iv . w iH . ir . .i .i . .� . .� . . . .
* a a a a - - a - a - a . . a a a - a a a . . . . . . a a a a * - - a a a . .a a a

a a - a - - a - a f-> at a a - - a- - -t a aa- a a a-ft a a a� a� a -_


* a a a a a a - a a a a a . . . .a . . a . . . aa a - a - a a a a a a a a - a a a a a
- a a a - - - . . f . . . . . f f f . aa a S a a a a a - a - a a a . a . a .a a - a a
S a a a a .a a .a a a a a . . a a . a a a a aaa a.a.a. a. a a-
tin� ^ < ^ - r � . - t � � � � � f , � , t � ^ , � , ^ ^ _ ,
gs . ...... . .. . . ... .. .. . .. .


Output and cost of steel castingd..
Output and coat ofi brass castings ..

laAStJ ali.L di JLo.a.... .t.. ...
Volume of work performed....
Repairs to locomotive ........
Shop and field repairs........
Repairs to equipment other tih


I* *- at a*
.. a a


a a a .


* . . . . . 1 .a . a a a - aa a a * * . . . a a. a a a a a . *
a M a t a a -� aW a aN aW aH a- a a - a> a� lw a a wW S 5- a a


-n locomotives and cars... -
an locomotives and cars.-


- - a a * f a a W a
a.. a St - � a - * -


Number of employees on pay roll.. - -.....


, -. S .at a. a a


* at-.afa f - - - a A * ...t... a
***a*a Ma ft fta atat *a* a a- a-F: t* 1 ttn. ip
** aM at t ft , at - a a* a f a at at a - A -* -* -* ai
a* :f t tft ~ ft:a W * :- - f , at ft aaia ft-:1:� *:* >

t* a 4 t a at ** a. a: - -h :* a a a a: a a* a a a
�* a* a* -* a -: ft at ft ft ft at S ft f - aH * 4: Ia ft

ftf S - t 0 t t a t - -* a . a ft a f * a -: -: a� a* -


Office engineer..... ....


xx
x xx


Page.
244
244
245
245
245
246
246
247
247
248
249
250
251
252
253


-





TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


APPENDIX I.


Report of cost-keeping accountant.........-- ......... ........ --........- -.
EXHIBIT A.-Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913.


Total division cost for various units of work


EXHIBIT B
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
EXHIBIT C.
EXHIBIT D
TABLE
TABLE


.-Detailed cost per unit of work..- ..


1.-Dry excavation......
2.-Dredging excavation...
3.-Hydraulic excavation..
4.-Masonry......--........
5.-Dry filling.....-.......-
6.-Hydraulic filling. --......--
8.-Breakwaters...........-
9.-Stone production .....
10.-Sand production......
12.-Power plants.... ...


-Detailed cost to June 30, 1913
.-Performance sheets... -.......-
4.-BRock crusher...............
3.-Unloading plant.. ..--.....--.


5, 6, and 7.-Mixing plants.


TABLES 2, 7, and 8.-Placing plants a


*l a a a* - a*
*.-.a..a a


Page.
273
274


* a a S--- -�S* * S * - - -* 4 a a - a a a a


- a a a a - - *- -" - - a a a a - - -� a S w * a* a a


* ... a a a a a - a -- - a a�* I * .I| -


*l a a a1 a 5f * aB a -i - a - - a a a a a a a* - a - a a a a a aI :f


- - a a - a* ai a* - - a a - a* - a* a* - - - f - a a -* i- - a - a> a a a*�*

* - a - - - - a( -' a a a* a a a a a* - a( a a a* a - - A - a� a- 51 a�


a* - aih a aB a - -t S * - a at at at - a - ai - - r a a at a a a

a* a: a - a a a� a a - - a a a t -t t at a a* a* a ai - ak a a at
a aa aa aa aa a.. .. . - a - - a -
a a a a.aa - a aa - - aa - a aa a a


EXHIBIT E.-Administrative and general expenses.....................
EXHIBIT F.-Salary disbursements by departments and divisions .-......
EXHIBITS to report (for Table of Contents, see p. 289).... ... ...........

APPENDIX J.

Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of quartermaster's department....


Organization....
Personnel.......
ILabor .. .. . . . .. .
Quarters........-
Zone sanitation.
Corrals.........


- - a a a a a a a a a - . . . - a - a * a - a - - a a -. a - . a - - a a . - - -. a a a a a a a a a a .
a. a a a a a a a a a a . .a a a. * a a a a a a a - - a a a a a a a . a. . a a a a a a a a a . . a a a


-I a a* af at


Building construction.
Material and supplies.
Receipts..........
Issues.... ..... ..


a . . . . . . .- a a a a - a a a a a . - - a a a aaa - a a a -a a a - a S a a a a a a a a


a a a a * - a a - a -* - - a a( * a -' a a a* a a a a a - ' * ft a a i- a a- a a a a a� a a a a. S an a
- - - a - a a - - * - * a * a a - a a a a a � -� a a aa - a� a- a a a * - -k a a a a a* a- a a* a ai a a>
a a- - a aaa- a a a a a- - S aa aa aa aa aa --a-aa-a *a--a-aa-a- a-

* a a a a - a a a a a a a - a - a a - a a a - a a a a a . a a - a a a a a 5 - a a a a


Stocks..
Operation
Scrap...
Sales....
ExHIBITrr
EXHIBIT
year. .
Exurrm R


a
1
a


of dock a . ..
of docks..a.


a a a a a a a - - a a a a - - a a a a - - a a -4
a a. a aa a. . - a a. a. . a. a


- - - a - a - a a - a- a a a * * a - - - - - aa a
- - a a a a a.a a .. . a . a a a a a a .a


- a a a a a a a a a a - - a a a a a a a a - - a a a - - a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a * a ,
1.-Force actually at work on June 30, 1913 .............a
2.-Force report, by months (including contractor's force),


a
3


* a a a a
* a a* a a *
fiscal


--Hlirh and low force records. December. 1906. to June 30. 191


* -
a3.


TABLES 1,




;r


TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief quartermaster, etc.-Continued.
Exrn 12-Value of material received, fiscal year,
V OouO ..... ... . . * . . .. - . *. . *. *...* ..a.
Em 18 -t-Freight statement, fiscal year ....m
nrn 14. Important items due on United Stat


flru


on requisitions of the
* C C - * C C C 4,, .5. - - - C . C -
* C * t- , - . .. C � S 0 .- - a
3s requisitions, cal


Page.

389
391


^^f' --- - *flb** at - a* C - �-�* S * * *: ** a - - - � C. a
sWT 15.-Important items of material
work, 1904, to June 80, 1913..........
xmDT 16.-Important items of material
EBxwrr 17.-Classification of material in
EXHIBITzr 18.-Values of stock on hand at
Ex nr 19.--Material returned to stock
fiscal year........ ...- . .. .. . ... .. . ...


purchased from inception of canal


l received, fiscal year.
stock at storehouses.
storehouses........ .
by departments an


dC - S 4 C - - d ain
-* * a *- S. * C: * - *- -

d divisions,


APPENDIX K.


Report of the subsistence officer in charge of subsistence department
Relative value of food consumed per meal in line hotels...... . .
Relative value of ration supplied European laborers' messes....
Relative value of ration supplied common laborers' kitchene....
Quantities and gross costs of principal articles consumed in line
taurants, messes, and kitchens..............-......... .......
Comparative statement of profits and losses of Hotel Tivoli - -..


* S-f - C C S

* ft S C ** - -


hotels, res-
hotels, res-


Quantities and gross values of principal articles consumed at Hotel Tivoli.


Profits resulting from department's o
Repairs to Hotel TivoliL.............
TABLE 1.-Statement of operations,
ltitchens-.... ..... .. -......- . .....
TABnII 2.---Statement of operations, lI
TABLE 3.-Statement of operations, I
TABLE 4.-Statement of operations, o
TABLE 5.-Statement of operations, E
TABLE 6.-Summary of operations...
TABE 7.-Smmarty of operations, H


operations. +


* - . . - es - C s a - a, as a . C - - C, a a a - * - -
line hotels, restaurants, messes, an<


C C* - S S -C C - -* S -f C C -* *- St ? a - C C -* S
ine hotels and restaurants.
Suropean laborers' messes.
ommon laborers' kitchens.
[otel Tivqli........ ...... - -

otel Tivoli.... - -.......


* a Ci Cr - - - -r - C
* - C: C ** C C - - a


k* C ** S� S C C
. . . W � * * f


- 397
. 398
. 398
. 399
. 399
d
. 400
. 402
. 404
- 406
. 407
. 408
. 409


APPENDIX L.


Report of the examiner of accounts... ........ ...... .
Canal Zone government accounts. ..............
Claims for injury and death..............
Accounting system for the permanent organization
Canal appropriations and expenditures.. ........
Tables submitted with report (for index see p. 420:


*. ...C .. - a a a . - C C-5
C S C. C C C C - - C C C C C Ci .- S C C.


- .
) .


. - C S S - . S S C C C C C -. -.SB

* t t a - ** - . a a* a a* 5( 5 0 ,kw


APPENDIX M,
Report of the disbursing officer.. ... .... ........... .. . .........
: lu~nkiii +4i n~lrraj n nn nnnnnn kttiv rt n ^/ l�rn :fhf. aA.^� Anaa.n- ^ ^ - . -_


C CC S C - .- -


J t f






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the head of the department of civil administration-Continued.


Page.


Division of posts, customs, and
Postal service....-........
Customs service..........
Lands and buildings .-.-. .-.-
Taxes and license fees - ..
Administration of estates..
Summary of revenues and


Division of
Division of
Division of

Division of
Canal Zone
flniirtn


revenues.


- -* - - a* a - a a a
- a- ar ai af a < :- a'
-*r ji a a af a - - ar


- collections
Collections.


police and prisons ... ..
fire protection ........
public works.... .
schools. . . . . . . ....

treasury and zone funds.


- a a a - a - a -* a -


* -* a> - a - - -* a -* a


Sa a a a a a a a a.
* a a - -..-.


- a a a a a a -- a a
Sa a - a a a. a - a a * a -
a a . a a - a f af a a :


a a a - - a - - a - aR a a - - - - . - a a - . a. - -
* a a a - a a - - a a n - a a ^ - a a a a -- - a a - a-.


- a a a a a a a - a a a a a a a - a a a - a - a - a - - - a - a
a.a. - a.-a aa a . a - aa aa.a a. a a- aa a -


AppendicesA tJ - a - a - a - a - a a a a a -( a a -t ab - - - a a - a a a a a - - a -
Appendices to report (for table of contents see p


476) ... - -- . - - - - .. - .............
476 ) -J - a� a a* a * - a a| h jr a a a* a* a a*-


APPENDIX O.


Report of the head of the department of law


Prosecuting attorney's office ....
Criminal cases in the circuit
Criminal cases in the supren
Civil cases ................ .-..
In the first circuit -.. ....
In the second circuit .... . .
In the third circuit ........


courts. ..
ie court. ..


- a a- a - a a.a- a aa.a aa a -- a
a - a - - a a a a- a a a a -a -


Land matters of the commission.
Panama Railroad Co. matters . -
Circuit courts ... ... . .....


first circuit - ...
second circuit - ..
third circuit. . .. -.
second circuit. . .
third circuit.....
first circuit . . - . . -


Supreme court aa.................
Panama Railroad lands............
Panama Railroad leases in effect


a a a at a a - a - �- a a a a a a a - h a - a - a a a a a a a a 5 - a. a a a�


- - - a a - . . . a aa a a a . .a .- a a .a - a . - . . -- a a- a a a


- a * - -- a* a- a -* a a a - - a* al a a - -. a1 - a a- a* a* -- * a* a. a a - a A
a..-....a. a a a- a aa - a a -.. .. . a.a.*.a- .as ..
* - a a a a . .-....a - .a.a a... . a a a - a aa a


a a* a a a a a a a^ a a ai a* - a a *


APPENDIX


Report of the chief sanitary officer, head of the department of sanitation... ... .
Letter of transmittal. ....... ...............- .... . .......... ..... ...........
Vital statistics:
Deaths of employees of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Rail-


r' odt.t . . t.. . � f i . .. .e n - . . -t - a c.. i - -* a � . t . . c i - * I - ? n. - a . . .


a a a a a a a. a


a a a* a* - a * a a a




xx4

iARI r ONTE B.


Causes and place of deaths of employees and civil population .....
Discharge anddeaths of employees in hospitals of the commission. ..
Consolidated sital report ...... . . . - . . . .-.... . . . . . .
l sick-eamp r..ort.. .. . .. .............

Conaolidated report of employees sick in quarters....-. ..... -
Consolidated hospital, sick camp, and sick-in-quarters report..........
Consolidated dispenEary report.-...................................
Average number of employees constantly sick in hospitals, sick cam
�q arters-.Q .. . . * . n . ... - . - n - meaq. - ate..,.,
uwarter- ....... ..... ........ ....** * ........................ .... ...
i; nuber of dysqrs treatment pear employee m hospitals, rock cari


tztstence and operating expenses................................
ide patients treated in hospitals, and amounts collected for their trees
Surgical operations perfIoned lmi hospitals............................
(Xprations and work performed in eye, ear, nose, and throat clinical s...
Consolidated ward laboratory report of all hospitals....................

reportt of--
Ajcon Hospita............aa...a-a......a-...a-...........a.a.aa


Colon Hospital....- .......
Otlebra :Hopital....... .
Palo Seco Leper Aylum. ..-
Taboga Sanitarium.........
Santo Tomas Hospital......
* A ' * y


Board of Health Laborator
Issuesof quinine.........
animation:
P~fla~mI~ta9 a a a. sa a a *si. ate a a-*
Colon (including Cristobal,
(aal Zone...............--
Quarantine service:
Panama-Ancon and Colon-(
Bocas Del Tom........
Persoannel report...............
Hospital-eases of malaria amonig


S.


..... a
. . . - s.
. Ce-s


--.....
ps, and

tps, and


atment.

.* -a .a. C


......* a


- - - - - - - ..S 5....a* * . S
.*-- a a a a a a - - - ** t W ** *~ a* at at 5*s
S * tt lt * S * 5i - S - S - *- S - ai ai a* a - * *k *S


* a a - - - - -
* a a* * a* S C - -


g....
T a em.
Sea.*


- - a a a a - � .


- a a - - a a a - - 5-.


a..---
* 5.* SS S


Mount Hope, Toro Point, and Margarita Point).


.ristobal.


* aaa**aA a


S- employees. .
emp~hln'royeu .


a ---..- .aa ....a.a.... 553
.... a. a.............. 553


APPENDIX


Report of the superintendent
Change in buildingss. - -
ma
Memberlp . b i a . d n p
nt erGtmimentI e... .... a a .
Bowling, billiards, and p


of club houses.
* . a a a a . - - a - a a a


* a M: m a a a .
oo1 - - a Ss.


hysial work and athletics...,.


e o work....... ........


S a S Sa * * a a a C . .


* w *
a-a .
ma. .


S* S - *- *I S * aI a* a a
a sssa -* a- - :- ar* * k


- a a a a - - - . a S a


.. 555
.. 555

.. 556

.. 557
a, 557


xV

Page.
534
537
541
542
542
542
543

543

544
544
545
545
546
547

547
548
549
549
550
550
551

552

552
552
553





TABLE


01 COONTETS.


APPENDIX


Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington of.e....


APPENDIX


Report of the geologist (for table of contents see p. 585).........


APPENDIX


Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel.


Department of
Department of
Department of
Quartermaster'
Department of
Department of


construction and engineering
civil administration. .....--------..
sanitation ..... - . . . . ....
s department ....... ..-.. .-..
disbursements ... .-. .-. -. . ...
law. .. . . .. .- -. .- .- .- .- -


* ... . - - St - * - . * -�
S S S S C . S - - - S S S S a a - S
- CS..,, * . . .-, . . S.


* 5 * S S - a . - . - S S S S - * * S S S S . *. . S .


Washington office..........


APPENDIX


Acts of Congress affecting the Isthmian Canal and Executive orders relating
to the Canal Zone (for index see p. 605)...................................


APPENDIX


Charts showing organization of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama
HilroadCo., July, 1913 (for index see p. 633)...........................-


Pg1












LST


OF


ILLUSTRATIONS


Frontispiece: Map showing Isthmus with completed caaL


APPENDIX


[Report of the assistant chief engineer Au charge of rst division of the office of the chief engineer.


Gatun lower Icks.


Lowe gard gates, west chamber, ready for entrance of


Atlantic Ocean water.


June 14


1913.


2. Gatun lower locks.


North entrane to west chamber, showing sea gates


under full pressure, keeping locks free from water.


3. (atun lIwer locks.
Juliy 2, 1913.


June, 1913.


Looking north, showing west sea gates underpressure.


4. Miter gate recess cover.
t. Hydroelectric plant, Gatun.
From west wall of tairace, t


t Gatun upper locks.


Final test


lock, and wicket girders bei


General view of location and status of work.
Qoking southeast. June 27, 1913.
of east emergency dam. Dam swung across
ng lowered. May 20j, 1913.


7. Gatun upper locks,.


Final test of east emergency dam.


lock, and third horizontal tier of gates being lowered.


8. Gatun upper locks.
position across lock.
9. Gatun upper locks.
TiwA 20, 191$.


Final test of east emergency dam
May 20, 1913.


Dam swung across
May 20, 1913.
. Dam in. closed


East emergency dam in act of swinging across lock.


10. Pedro Miguel Lock,
top chord. May 2


E~e emergency dam.
1, 1913.


Driving pin for eye bar of


It. Special milling machine (for correcting fixed irons of rising stem valves.
Miafiores lower lock, east wall, looking upstream.


12. High tension oil switch group, transformer room equipment.
Lock.
IS, Lw-tenpion switchboard, transformer room equipment. ]
lock.


Pedro Miguel


!iraflores lower


14. Cylindrical


upper


yvave machine


locks,


Mirafores.


No. 717, and control
Chamber walls, floor


panel
and


Middle wall,


panel


partially


June 20 1918&


A Rang Tow No. 1, atu. LSke sectjon, showing subrmiepe foundation.
10. Range Tower No. 18, (Gatu Lake mention.


Beacon No. 5, Pacific division.


Typili concrete beat wv ing limits


aS l a l - --at I.._- _ . f. I. - _.-..1


I A.


PLArT






XVIIIm


PLATE 80.


LIST


Chain fender for locks.


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

. General assembly of fenders in lower approach at


Miraflores Locks.


Lock entrance caisson.
Lock entrance caisson.


line No.


General drawing.
Typical cross frames, and cross frames at center


6 and No.


Upper guard valves.
Upper guard valves.


85. Towing tests.


Machinery for all locks.
Machinery for all locks.


Limon Bay


Assembly.
Assembly.


April and May, 1913.


Typical sketch of erection tracks for emergency dam, all locks.


Lighting and buoying canal.
vation and section.


West breakwater light and tog signal, ele-


APPENDIX


[Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division.


PLATE 19.


Gatun lower locks, north end.


from top of slide.
20. Gatun lower locks.


January


The slide in the east bank, looking west


1913.


Placing iron girders on north approach wall.


May


23, 1913.
Gatun lower lo
Gatun locks.


cks.


Interior view of north approach wall.


North approach wall, looking northwest.


May 26, 1913.


Dredge grounded


55 feet below sea level.


June 14, 1913.


Gatun Locks, looking north, showing intermediate and lower locks.


25, 1913.
Sea-level section


June


, north of Gatun Locks, showing causeway for track lead-


ing to dam.


Atlantic entrance in the distance.


July 18, 1913.


Gatun Locks, looking south, showing emergency dams and lake.


June 20,


1913.


26. Gatun Dam and lake approach to locks.


View from water tower, looking


west.


July 13,


Gatun Dam.
Gatun Dam.


1913.


General view from west hill.


Paving lake slope.


July


May 26, 1913.


1913.


Gatun Spillway Dam, showing all crest gates in position,


through temporary openings.
Toro Point Breakwater. View


water running


June, 1913.
from lighthouse, showing derrick barges,


placing armor rock from Porto Bello.


July 12,


1913.


Toro Point Breakwater.


View from station 3500, looking toward shore.


Breakwater practically completed to this point.


July 12,


1913.


Following plates, 88 to 92, in portfolio.

88. General map of territory between Caribbean Sea and Gatun Lake.


Plan showing methods of construction,
General plan of Gatun Locks and Dam.
Sections of Gatun Dam.


north end of Gatun Locks.


St_ - - . .P fl -A - Tr


* S -�


-. fhq af


� - - ****-.- -.--- -- - �.. n- t& th e * ** j I *tB * !.J


a' C





K ^ ^ /:
K K ^-^^ .K'^ '^S...^^ ...^^^..... .K^ i^atHK .^*uujj.uuj.jj.: K ^^^.^..........^. .........KK .........^....... aA^^ .Jf|^^^---jj^fa-. ^ .Jj.u^uJ.....J^. _^^;i: :4^^: J^^k j^&fafr.
-�-*-�-fc-j A. ^LJFJJ ..a.... * .j g.-.j- ILJ kj _j. _xJ�4C*. JL *LV^ i&^l kJ"itiCT p^- *twff'8 TTiT'lrN^1!*^^1^ ^!^!!
IHHHHMM:fHMH IR^MR' WMW Tl" ^^^Pv *ll^^^m--^^'^^Jl" ' *^^^' ^*^^ *"JT"T'.I^TT--^'-^^^-!J^"- ^""^"� ^f�w- T^^T ^^^T 11 ?* ^*r IR


PLATE


Following plates, 93 to 96, in portfolio.


Diagram of yardage and rainfall,
Diagram of performanceof steam
Profile and yardage estimate.
Plan of Balboa dumps and Naos
permanent townsites and propc


central division. -
shovels, central division.


Island breakwater, showing location of
'sed shops, dry docks, etc.


APPENDIX D.
[Report of the resident engineer, fifth division
PATE 47 Bird's-ejre view Pedro Miguel Locks. June, 1913.
48. North guide wall and west dam, Pedro Miguel. June, 1913.
49. Mirafloree lower locks. View looking north from west bank, showing
,nnnapl nl",rs thiaato.nnm Anrl a 101$l


35. Culebra Cut, Cllebra. Completion of bottom pioneer cut, steam shovels
Na, 280 ard 222 meeting at grade, looking north from west bank. May

36, Culebra Cut. Looking north from one-quarter mile south of Suspension
�Bridge at Empire. Cut completed at bridge. All tracks on completed
bottom of canal. June 16, 1913.
87. Culebra Cut, Empire. Looking north from Suspension Bridge, showing
cut completed, except toe of slide on right. Drainage ditch is below
bottom of canal. June 16, 1913.
38. Oulebra Out, Empire. Looking south from Suspension Bridge, showing
terracing on upper levels of east bank to prevent slides. Lower shovels
are working on bottomef canal. June 16, 1913.
39. Oulebra Cut, Oulebra. Deepest excavated portion of Panama Canal, show-
ing Gold Hill on the right and Contractors Hill on the left. June, 1913.
40. Culebra Cut, Las Cascadas. Looking north from east bank. June, 1913.
41. Culebra Cut, Empire. Break in east bank at La Pita (station 1651), tak-
ing in Obispo Diversion Channel, looking north. August 21, 1912.
42. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Break in east bank between stations 1746-1758.
Steam shovel No. 201 in midst of upheaved material and displaced
tracks, looking south. February 6, 1913.
48. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Break in the east bank between stations 1746-
1758. Top view of rear portion of slide, looking north. February 6,
1913.
44. Oulebra Cut, Culebra. Bottom of canal, steam shovel No. 260 overturned
by slide from east slope. June 12, 1913.
45. Culebra Out, Culebra. Looking north from west bank, south of Contrac-
tors Hill, showing shovel No. 256 caught in Cucaracha Slide. February
7, 1913.
46. Dump in Pacific Ocean, at Balboa, made from material taken from Culebra
Cut.





LIST


O ILLUSTRATIONS.


Following plates 97 to 10Q in portfolio.


PLATE 97.


Concrete progress sheet.


Pedro Miguel Locke.


Diagram showing monthly progress of sinking caissons.
north approach wall Miraflores Lock.


Concrete progress sheet.


Foundation of


Miraflores Locks.


100. Performance of


plant.


Concrete


placed


Miraforea


Pedro


Miguel locks and dams.


June 30, 1913.


Performance of chamber cranes at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks, to


Junme 30, 1913.
Map showing conditions as of June 30, 1913.


Fifth division.


APPENDIX F.
[Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the office of the chief engineer.]


PLATE 55.


General


view


of excavation


for dry-dock approach and


coaling plant,


Balboa.


56. Balboa new shops.


Planing mill looking east,


showing operating tunnel


in foreground.


June 16, 1913.


Balboa new shops. Patt
crane running at right.


ern storage, looking northwest.


Planing mill at left.


June 17


Foundry yard
1913.


58. Operating tunnel, Balboa shops, for pipes and cables, showing how joints
in adjoining sections are made water tight by means of yellow metal
strips.
59. Forty-five-ton steam shovel on skids, rigged up to excavate for conduit


tunnel, Balboa shops,


"moving up.


60. Reinforced concrete caissons for Pier No. 1


, Balboa, taken from inshore


end, looking toward canal.
Sinking reinforced concrete caissous for wharf at Balboa by weighting
them with concrete and cast-iron blocks.


Following plates 103 to


, in portfolio.


Chart showing excavation and expenditures.


104. Balboa terminal docks.
105. Balboa terminal docks.
106. Balboa terminal docks.
107. Balboa terminal docks.


Manufacturing and sinking of caissons.
Standard section of concrete pier shell.
Bottom section of concrete pier shell.
Plant for manufacturing pier shells.


108. Annual rainfall along canal location, years 1911,1912, and station averages.


109. Wind roses, year 1912.
110. Hydrograph of Gatun Lake.
of sluice gates.
111. Hydrograph of Gatun Lake.


of sluice gates.
112. Chagres drainage basin.
113. Chagres drainage basin.
114. Chagres drainage basin.


115 'hasrns drainage basin.


July to December, 1912,


January to June, 1913,


showing regulation


showing regulation


Mass curves of net yield at Alhajuela.
Mass curves of net yield at Gamboa.
Mass curves of net yield at Gatun.


Curve of discharge duration.


aleniahlA


1912.


- J ..--





LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS


APPENDIX H.


eprt of th engine of the Panam Railroad relocation. )


rin 862. Gin River Bascue Bridge No. 140, looking east.


Lift span just starting


to op~en.
a Automatic signal No. 1054, looking north.
84. Automatic signals Nos. 654 and 655, at north end of Gatun passing track,
looking south.


APPENDIX S.
[Report of geologist]
PRA 65. Hill type of topography, looking southward from Zion Hill, Culebra.
s66. Hill type of topography, looking northward from Zion Hill, Culebra.
67. Coastal plain type of topography.
68. Geological section across the Isthmus.
69. Generalized section-Canal Zone formations.
70. Shows character of volcanic agglomerate.
71. Bedded rocks of Culebra formation.
72. Basalt dike cutting Oucaracha formation, in Culebra Cut.
S73. Emperador limestone beds, near Las Cascadas.
74. Ancon Hill and quarry.
75. Gold Hill, showing northern fault contact.
76. Contractors Hill, showing fault contact.
77. Fault on west side of Culebra Out south of Las Cascadas.


Plate in portfolio.


PLATE 123.


Geological cross sections of Culebra Out showing sliding ground.


APPENDIX V.
[Charts showing organization of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1913.]
PATE 124. Geeral organization of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
lthmian offices.


PMTN 125.


Office lrce of chairman and chief engineer, assistant chief engineer, and
assistant to the chief engineer.


126. First dilhion of chief engineer's office.
127. Second division of chief engineer's office.
128. Central di& vision.
129. Atlantic diliion.
130. Fifth divisan of chief engineer's office.


Sixth divisn of chief engineer's office, and secretary of the commission.


132. Mechanical vision.
l8t Chief ouarteinaster.






*4




































































; In












ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
OmICE OF THE CHAIRMAN,


Ctlebr; Canal Zone, September


1913.


Sin: I have the honor to submit the annual report for the Isthmian
Canal Commission for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913.


ORGANIZATION.


The


organization


continued


as outlined


in previous


annual


port, with
Williamson,


but


mnor


division


Changes,
engineer


until


January
Pacific


1915.


division,


Mr. S. B.
concluding


that the work of his division had advanced


to such a state that the


comxnasson


was not warranted in continuing


his position,


tendered


bi resignation, elective Decemrber


1912; and it was reluctantly


acte Pacifictd.
tAe Pacific


This action necessitated a reorgamnization of the


side.


That part


relating


terminalI


work on
s. which


d"ing the previous fscal year had been assigned to the Pacific divi-
dJ g prv' fi J-I l jl yea I _ H adtT iI'1 > T


was transferred


the second


division,


which


had


charge


preparing the designs for the shops, dry docks, and coaling stations.
T looks, daxn% spiUway, dry excavation between and below the
loch, theI uary, a>d the uiipal engineering work was organized


into te


Ath. di o of the eer s office and placed in


charge of Mr. H.


0oe as resident engineer.


Th


the operation for the procurement of sand were
"ith division of the chief engineer's ofie, under Mr.


...... Ix r1


dredging and
constituted the
W. G. Comber


ient engineer.


KS ",, " !' "!! ,fi
K K -K % X


.:...= I. . "


., -





REPORT ISTHMIAN


OANAL


COMMISSION.


obtained


from


this consolidation


were


so satisfactory


as to


lead


conclusion


would


result


that economy


consolidating


, without any


impairment of


timekeeping under


accuracy,
one head.


Accordingly this was done gradually under the examiner of accounts,


in order


this


kind


division,


that
for


might
the


was combined,


It be properly st
departments and


arted,


and


divisions,


when
except


work


t


the timekeeping force was turned


he central
over as a


part of the organization of the fourth division of the chief engineer'


office on July


1, 1913.


For similar reasons the cost keeping that had formerly been


done


various


under the chief


divisions


work


accountant, so that at


was


gradually


the close of the


consolidated


year


he had


charge


work


this character,


with


the exception


of that of


the central and mechanical divisions.
An architectural force was organized


under


Mr. Austin


W. Lord,


architect,
building,


, July


1912


a general


sch


to draw
eme for


the plans of the
establishment of


administration


new


town


that is to be created at Balboa, near the Pacific entrance of the canal,


and


prepare designs


for the houses for the


permanent operating


force.


When it


was


finally


decided


turn


water


into


Culebra


Cut


in October,
dredges, all


1913,
the d


and


redging


complete


on the


Isthmus


remaining


was


excavation


combined


under


head,
could


with


dredging


a view


used
work


organizing the


best


under


advantage.


Atlantic


work


so that


Effective


division


was


May


equipment


, 1913,


transferred


sixth division of the chief engineer's


office


, thus consolidating it with


dredging


organization


Pacific


side.


this


same


date


the dry-dock shops at Cristobal
division.


were


transferred


the mechanical


Effective


May


, 1913,


a change


was


made


offices


examiner of accounts and the disbursing officer by which the system


formerly in


vogue of separate checking of vouchers and pay rolls in


each


office


was


eliminated,


thereby


conforming to


provisions of


the act of August 23,


1912, making appropriations for the legislative,


executive, and


judicial


~J! nnnr~w~nfc. IC, flj"Vfl7


expenses of the Government.


t~d A nac.naniA hi0 l~ni' I-ha nnniironr


The examiner
fnf f1-h aoomn11n+


nnl .. o-, ,o h ^jcT'/'i ?'!I





REPORT OF


CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


xxxx xxx xxx x^ x x xxx x xx xx xxx .,xxxx x xxiJa


ENGINEER.


scores; the design and construction of aids to navigation; the inspec-


tion


of the manufacture


and


erection,


under contract or otherwise,


of the lock gates, operating machinery, gates and valves, emergency
dams, and chain fenders; and of the placing of such concrete in the
locks as was omitted until the installation of the machinery.


he designing work


for the


locks,


including


detail


drawings


needed by the working force in the field, as well as for the spillways,


approach


piers, and


wing walls,


was completed.


After performing


some


work for the second division


on the coaling plants and


canal


terminals,


force


charge


these


designs


was


disbanded


June


1, 1918.


The complete installation for a set of rising stem


valves requires


setting the valves, placing the stems, roller trains, crossheads, motors,


and control panels.


It developed that the fixed ironwork for


guid-


ing the valves


and


for forming the


water


seals required


correction


before installation could be begun.


all but two at Pedro


and


grinding


with


For all the valves at Gatun and


Miguel the corrections were made by


pneumatic


hand


tools;


two


chipping
at Pedro


Miguel and all the valves at Miraflores it was done by a specially de-
signed milling machine. Ninety-four per cent of the fixed irons had


been corrected at the close of the year.


During the year


102 rising


stemn


valve


chambers


were


prepared,


including


Gatun,


Pedro Miguel, and 24 at Miraflores, and 104


valves, including trains


and


sealing


devices,


were


placed


in position


in the


locks.


Of this


latter number,
i iraflores.


were


Gatun,


Pedro


Miguel,


and


Tesis were made,


with satisfactory results, on 39 rising stem gate-


valve machines at Gatun, 20 at


Al machines
latter consists


were given a


Pedro


preliminary


cycles


made


Miguel,
and an


and 8


at Miraflores.


acceptance


five-minute


tedt,


intervals.
1 J
T~~r~r"iQ %


the
The


t st crew must run silently; the temperature of the crosshead nluts
mst not exceed 500,0., and no heavy vibration is permissible


Six side-wall intake


screens were


placed


Gatun


and


bulk-


hoads
outlet.
p-aed


center-wall


intakes


were


removed


and


placed


At Gatun the four lower side-wall bulkhead gates were also


S"^ .. .^ -m*i' �- �r ** *.





REPORT ISTHMIAN


GANAL COMMISSION.


excepting the motors, limit switch, counterweight bases, and counter


weights, and


50 per cent of the machines were delivered


before


close of the year.
The last of the cylindrical
tract was delivered January


valve
15, 19


machines


13.


purchased


The mechanical


under con-
installation


of the


cylindrical


valves


was completed


June


, 1918,


and


electrical work of installing control panels and cables with necessary
conduits for these machines was 41.6 per cent complete for all locks.
As the result of tests made to determine the leakage of the cylindrical


valves


it was decided to regrind all valves so as to allow a maximum


average opening around the seat of 0.004 of an inch.


The operating


machinery is the same for both cylindrical valve and auxiliary culvert
valve machines, except that 60-inch and 36-inch strokes are required


60-inch


and


36-inch


auxiliary


culvert


valves,


respectively,


instead


made


32-inch


determine


stroke of the
time required


cylindrical


open


valve.


Tests


various


were


types


valves,


with the result that the cylindrical valves required 10 seconds,


the 60-inch auxiliary culvert valve 16 seconds, and the 36-inch auxil-
iary valve 10 seconds.
Tests of discharge were made on the cylindrical valve and the three


rising stem gate


valves in the spillway.


The first series of observa-


tions,


with heads


varying from


8.94


feet


above


center of


the valve, gave values of the coefficient of discharge for the cylindri-
cal valve of 0.445 as the mean of three observations, and for the gate


valves of 0.592


as the mean of six observations.


These observations


were complicated by the screens at the culvert entrances, which became


clogged


with


dirt and


debris.


After the screens


had


been


removed


considerably


increased


coefficient


discharge


resulted


rising stem valves; the a
head of 29.81 feet above
of the coefficient of 0.68.


average of


58 observations,


the middle point
It is probable


with an average


of the valve, gave a
that a less favorable


value
value


will be obtained in operating the lock culverts on account of the fric-
tion and changes of direction in the stream after it passes the valve.
The cylindrical valve was removed before the later and more reliable
observations were made.


During the year, 14 gates and 1


caisson for the spillway at Gatun


a: .- -.--r _ !_- Jttn 1,.. A .^4 ii 'n I4ir1 annt> n, a- w.^-r aHr-v~' an/'�/ nnttuikrfj a


i





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


The device for shifting the gate upstream a slight distance after it is
clear of the water and the mechanism for raising the roller train out


of the water
properly. At
started on 12


aftei
the


of the


pressure


close of the


on the


year the


14 machines at


gate


is relieved


mechanical


Gatun and


work


operated
had been


per cent of the


mechanical work on all machines was completed.
The construction and erection of the lock gates was continued dur-


ing the


year under contract


with


the McClintic-Marshall


Construe-


thi on dated June 21, 1910.


All shop drawings were completed, as


was the manufacture of all material for the gates, aggregating 57,500


tons; the final shipment was made in April.


In addition, about 2,100


tos of structural work for spare parts were built and delivered on the
Ithmus, completing this part of the contract with the exception of a


few


castings,


bolts, and rivets.


The spare


parts comprise


sufficient


material for partly


or completely rebuilding any two-gate leaves on


thecanal in case of accidental injury.


The work of erecting the lock


gates proper began at Gatun May 17, 1911, at Pedro Miguel Au
7, 1911, and the Srst work at Miraflores was done on September
1919. At the beginning of the fiscal year work was in progress


-o -o -/ .- -- - - 1~~ --- - �-


rJ,������


uist
10,
Ion


half the total number in all the locks, but none of them had been en-


timely


completed.


The


total


amount


steel


assembled


was


only


19,881 tons or about 84 per cent of the total, and much of this was only


partly reamed


and


riveted.


The


total


number


field


rivets


about 963,00, or about 18 per cent of a total of over 5,700,000.


was
The


work


had


been


allowed


drag


so that


task


completing it


within a reasonable time seemed hopeless.


T


upona change in their local management and


'he contractors decided
, beginning about Sep-


tembher


installed


much


additional


machinery,


largely


increased


their force,
l eirBI^! Ti~~t


and arranged for more efficient supervision.


Within


e oths the improvements in the organization became manifest;


a high degree of efficiency was reached,


with a correspondingly large


increase


work done.


Some idea of the improvement may be


judged from the fact that during the month


of 60,000 rivets were driven,


of March a maximum


while the highest number driven in any


one month


prior to


September


, 1919,


was


213,000.


June


1913 over 97 per cent of all material was assembled in the gates. All
44IAC Ud m7 I ;I1 X *h0~l road nchan of. Alfl/-nfnn <30~A +~~ltnC~ nor4 nlr.nrka n+~S^


r�





(6 REPORT ISTHMIAN

1913; the latter sustain the maxin
without appreciable leakage.


CANAL COMMISSION.

mum working head of about 40 feet


supplemental


contract


was


entered


into


with


contractors


under date


January


1913,


by which


certain restrictions


gov-


erring payments were modified, as the original provisions proved to


unnecessarily


severe


and


was


clear


that


a more


speedy


cornm-


pletion


would


for successive


assured


partial


relaxing.


payments on


each


The
gate


modification


when


provides


assembling,


riveting, finishing, and


painting have


been


completed


and


accepted.


further supplemental agreement was signed May 20, 1913,


which


gave


an extension


of time


completing the gates.


A number


delays occurred for which


according to the terms of the contract, the


contractors


could


to shipwrecks


slon.


and


held


strikes


responsible.


as well


as delays


The rate under which the liquidated


These
caused


vere


in part due


by the


damages are to


commis-
be corn-


puted
were


was


increased,


fixed


while


completion


on the other hand, new


several


gates.


and later dates


June


, 1913,


was the date fixed for the upper guard gates at


Pedro


Miguel, and


June
Pedro
lower


1913


the guard


Miguel


and


guard gates


and


gates at the lower approaches to


upper


approach


at Miraflores are


other


gates


necessary


) Miraflores
finished by
o permit ft


Gatun


Locks.


and
The


September


lockage


vessel


through one side of each flight,


from ocean to ocean, must be


completed
completion
for Gatun


later


than


October


remaining


and


Pedro


Miguel,


1913


gates


and


while


is fixed


March


date


at January


, 1914,


final


, 1914,


Miraflores.


From


progress


being made


by the contractors


these


dates


be anticipated unless some unforeseen contingency should arise.


total
float


weight of


switches,


the castings


gates


motors


and


on the canal,


conduits,


excluding pumps, floats


and


other


electrical


for attaching the operating struts, and


will
The
and


apparatus,
miter fore-


ing machines,
be embedded


57,552


tons.


The


the masonry were in


castings


part


and


structural


furnished


parts


under the con-


tract


for the


lock gates and


were erected


by the commission in con-


nection


with


concrete


construction.


The


total


amount


thus


expended is $4,820,019.32, of which $4,065,39Z.01


was paid


under the


contract


'a.) '..r


balance


inspection


and


. ..... . .


457$ 627 31


and


was




~xt,


REPORT OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


The miter


upper


gate-moving machines


guard


chinery ox July


so that


when


gates at G
11, 1912.
strut arm


the gates were closed
offtve-thirty-seconds


seconds


inch.


The


with a
inch a


limit


atun


The
was


had


and a


been


installed


test was made


gate-moving machine


I


at dead.


compression


mnd


switches


Sthe
were


traveled from its full miter position


recess, at which


gates


were


position in t
one leaf was


started


point the machine


from


recess


1 minute


a miter


and
and


again
51s


center


on the


complete on
of this ma-
vas adjusted


crank


of the strut


other


leaf


adjusted


gear
leaf


nine-thirty-


so that


the opposite position in


was again


position
closed.


seconds


an


and
The
d fo


on dead


opened
time of
r the ot


center.


their


operation


her


gate


the
The


hull
of


minute


and 50% seconds.


The operation was completed a second time.


Dur-


ing both operations the mitering of the leaves was perfect.


The gates


also


had


installed


a miter-forcing


machine


which


had


been


pur-


chased under contract, and this was tested out on the same date, under


approximately actual operating conditions.


One leaf was left in its


closed


position and


other


opened


a distance


2 inches.


The


miter-forcing machine wa


then operated and it brought the gate to


within


three-fourths


inch


of perfect miter.


Another trial,


with an


opening of8 inches, brought the gate to a point five-eighths inch from


miter.
against


During these tests the miter-forcing machine was operating


resistance


imposed


strut.


result


test several changes were made and the option under the contract of
purchasing the remainder of the miter-forcing machines required for
all the locks was allowed to lapse and new proposals invited. Under
the new contract all the machines required have been delivered. The


work


of installation,


however,


was


delayed


on account of noncom-


pletion of the work on the structural gate parts.


account of the studies


made


determine


most


desirable


type of


chain fender,


together with


elected for the construction


of a


trial


a description


unit,


of the


was given in


design se-
the annual


report


1911.


Under the


contract


entered


into


on November


t911, all material for the trial fender was delivered on


the Isthmus


December,


1912.


The erection


was


begun about January


1 and


practically


completed


March


1913.


During


months


March and Anril a number of tests were made.


The first series con-


^


j





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL OOMMISSIO.


entirely within


the chases


in the


walls.


A second


series of


experi-


ments was made by use of a Lidgerwood unloader to test the opera-


tion
will
such


of the
prevail


fender under conditions somewhat similar to those that


when


circumstances


chain


the chain


is struck


will


a moving vessel.


gradually pay


Under


, touching the


curved


surface of


hawsepipe


castings


in the


walls,


over a con-


stantly increasing arc of contact.


The movement will be resisted in


part by the friction of the chain along the hawsepipes, in part by the


internal


friction


machinery,


mainly


by the


hydrostatic


pressure which acts against the upper surface of the moving cylinder.


final


tests made


the maximum


pressure


reached


630 pounds


per square inch,


when the chain


parted near or on one of the lower


sheaves.


This pressure corresponded to a stress on the chain of less


than one-half the breaking strength obtained in the shop tests.


The


result


obtained


seem


warrant


belief that a


vessel,


unless of


very gr
stopped


at size
without


or moving
breaking


excessive
chain, pi


speed,
ovided


can
the


be cl
latter


decked


is struc-


turally sound.


The great tidal range below


Miraflores locks made a


modified


design


necessary.


The


same


system


cylinders


is used


and


machinery


chain is stretched


in all


parts


across the lock


al


is practically ti
; either of two


e same, DUt me
levels, according


to the stage of the tide.


The chain is endless and


, by a stop mecha-


nism
The


, may
chain


operated


that


passes


electrically


through


from


either


central


hawsepipe


control


is connected


house.


with


the operating machinery and is raised or lowered, that which passes
through the other hawsepipe remaining at rest.


Plans


and


specifications


floating


caissons,


referred


previous annual reports,


were completed and invitation for proposals


issued
upper
them,


on May


and
and


lower
will c


pumping


1913.


entrances


.ontain
locks.


The caissons


lock


a pumping


They


will


used


chambers


plant


are ship


closing


when


sufficient


caissons,


with


unwatering


capacity'


vertical


ends


and curved surfaces throughout.


Their extreme length is 113 feet 10


inches


molded breadth 36 feet


, breadth of the top deck 18 feet, and


depth at the side 65


feet.


With fixed ballast only,


the caissons will


float at a draft of 32 feet,


which


will be increased to a maximum of


feet bv flooding them


wh~nm


ht ey are


nut in


ulace on


e ht deepest


. . a. LJLJ V--- .s ,a * ara ,^ 9 'iN� w* .*r-l a^ a^rt -- - V - W �'* *'-- - r -v -- -. r -- Wf-.T-


e


. ,-




ADA A NA
&


REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


The pum ps and


ventilating fan


will be electrically driven,


while the


cranes and windlasses will be operated by hand.
All the remaining parts of the towing track material to be furnished
under contract were delivered on the Isthmus before the close of the


The


linear fee

distribute


installation


total


and
of


I


delivered aggregated


at th. close of the


with


concrete,


treay to


most of the return


year 36,908


11,168


linear
linear


md
be


track has been


feet
feet


ha
ha'


concreted


performed


53,950
d been
d been
. The
by the


Atlantic and Pacife divisions during their construction


Bids were invited


for towing


locomotives


on design


work.


prepared


the electrical subdivision, and a contract was entered into for furnish-
ing 1 locomotive with the option of purchasing 39 more, or of substi-
tuting for this locomotive one built according to the design submitted


successful


bidder.


The


locomotive


was


delivered


Isthmus January 25, 1913, and ready for operation February 7, after


which it was tested.


The result of the test developed defects, so that


chang and improvements were necessary in order to fulfill the con-


editions


required.


While


contract


provided


making


minor


changes if found necessary, the changes and improvements which it


was


decided


should


made


in order


make


machine


satis-


factory


could not be classed


as minor ones.


As a result, advantage


was taken of the option in the contract and an order was placed for


the required number of locomotives on


the design submitted


by the


General Electric Co., abandoning the design of the commission.
A series of tests was made in Limon Bay on ships of the Panama
Railroad flet, at various speeds and rates of acceleration, to serve as


a check on the basis used for the design


of the


towing locomotives.


The size of the ships ranged from 3,500 tons to 10,400 tons displace-


mentat actual draft at the time of the tests.


A tug was used


which


could exert a maximum


pull


standstill


about


15,000


pounds.


A manila towrope of 7-inch girth indicated a pull on a dynamometer
coisisting of spiral springs working between circular end plates with


a steel sale for indicating the compression of the springs.


was made


from


rest,


position


alongside


dock,


The start


and


ship


accelerated to the desired speed as quickly


permitted.


as the power of the tug


year.


amount


t and


complete


bolted


approximately


aligned and


The speed was then held constant until a sufficient num-





REPORT ISTHMIAI


CAN1tAL


COMMISSION.


remainder,


cable.


delivered


977,510


About


complete.


feet,


rubber-covered


cent


total


total


double-braided


amount


wire


required


feet of lead-sheathed


and
been
cable


been


pulled


into


ducts,


ducts has been rodded and


and


a large


cleaned and is wired


part of the


with fish


remaining
wires for


pulling in the remainder of the cable as needed.


All cable is pulled


in ducts


a special


winch


made


on the


Isthmus


and


driven


small motor.
the rate of 70


The cable is greased
feet per minute. A


and


few


pulled through


the ducts at


lengths as long as 900


feet


where
S
strain
large


duct


on the
number


conditions


cable


were


favorable,


or appreciable


observations


were


were


pulled


abrasion


taken


without


lead


determine


undue


sheath.


amount


of pull for various lengths and combinations of different cables.


During


year


control


scheme


various


locks


was


completed and


contemplates the control


of every piece of machinery


the lock walls from


of the


upper


locks


a central station


where


situated


an uninterrupted


view


on the center wall
of the entire lock


or flight of
switchboard
mechanism.


locks


may


connected with


had.


every


this


house


local control


The switchboard is so arranged


located


a control


panel and indicating


that the


indicator and


control
relative


switch o:
position


each


gate or valve


other


indicators


machine


and


is placed


control


in the same


switches


as that


occupied


by the actual machines, so


that by means of red and green


lights and small models of gates and valves operated by synchronous


transmitting


mechanisms


a glance


switchboard
shipped by


indications.


operator


condition


in any


is expected


in the


part
that


control


of the


first


tower


locks


board


is able


from


will


August


The general features of the illumination of the locks were described


last


bracket


arms


annual


and


report.
reflectors


hollow


was


concrete


designed


pole


with


architect


concrete
for sup-


porting the lamps for exterior illumination of the locks and grounds.


The


center-wall


poles


carry


a single


bracket


and


lamp


projecting


toward


chamber,


and


side-wall


poles


carry


double


bracket


lamps, so as to give a broad illumination over the lock chambers and


the ground surrounding the locks.


The poles are arranged in 4 rows


nlninn. 4-be


- V. . 1 .


^.� t-L.


I a-. rt%1-. I


h US ~ aruc*L~ I y~y il *L* EI *I*u * *3S.Sl * Etl''K K


.t"


rtn aaot


wll anti 9


462,729


Qirlo


k


*w-






the end of the 'rear. The erection of the penstocks is comniete snd


is dependent


set.


upon the


The


completion


balance of the work of installation-
baNl~ancef 1vthe 'woprko in' stallation


of the


building


housing the


elet"iel equipment.
Du the year it was decided to install for the transmission line
Sovehead system of 44,000 volts, extending from Balboa to Cris-
ba and connecting the Gatun hydroelectric power station with


the prese
operatedS


Miraflores


separately


steam


power


or in parallel,


station,


so that


as necessary.


Four


they


may


substations


are provided, and located at Cristobal, Gatun, Miraflores, and Balboa.
The complete line consists of duplicate three-phase lines, one of which
is carried on each side of track-span bridges spaced 300 feet apart on


tangents


and


feet


on curves


along


whole


length


Panama Railroad.


The bridges are of structural steel,


with a clear


track span


of 36


feet,


and


an over-all height of


feet.


The


con-


duetors are to be 2/0 stranded copper wire spaced with a clearance of


5 eet.


They


supported


from


brackets outside of towers,


with


three-part suspension insulators,


with noncorroding connecting links


to allow a maximum life and a minimum of line troubles.


During th
dams were


e year the
completed


remaining shop


and


approved.


drawings
Full-sized


for the emergency


tests


were


made


upon


gates


prior


shipment,


as required


tions, the object being to insure that the


under


friction upon


the specifica-
the rails will


not be so great as to prevent the lowering of the gates by their weight
alone and that no objectionable distortions or permanent sets will be
produced by the maximum pressure to which the gates will be sub-
jected. Practically all structural material for the turning and wedg-


ing machinery for the emergency


and,


dams was shipped


to the Isthmus


with a few exceptions, has arrived in excellent condition.


The


assembling of the east dam at Gatun was begun July


1, 1912, and was


practically


was


begun on


completed


on March


November 9,


1912


1, 1911
, and


Erection of the west dam


was practically


completed in


five and a hal months, or March 1 1913.


The material for the west


dam


Pedro


Miguel


was


received


time


begin


erection


February


1, 1913, and practically all of the material has been assem-


bled.


Work was


begun


on April


1913,


on the east dam,


and


Jun 30 over


50 per cent of the material had been assembled in


, , ^ t1


*..* * m


--a-bj


m





REPORT IIYHMIAS


CAAL


COMMISSION.


30 seconds.


After three complete operations of the dam, as required


by the contract, the second part of the test was started, consisting of


operating the turning and


wedging machinery for 20 days, at inter-


vals


made


depending


principally


upon


for the


heating
purpose


motors.


These


of limbering up


tests


turning


were
and


wedging machinery.


After completing the second


part of the tests,


three


additional


complete


operations were made


in accordance


with


the contract; the last completely closed the passage in 42. minutes and


17 seconds,
occupied in


which


was


19 minutes and


13 seconds less than the time


the first test.


Under the aids to navigation 12 range towers were' completed,


some minor exceptions in the Gatun Lake section.


of reenforced concrete


with


These towers are


With heights from base to focal plane varying


feet


from


beacons,


Miraflores,


inches


marking


were


feet


edge


completed.


Eighteen


inches.
channel


Three


between


concrete-steel


skeleton


Balboa


reference


tower


and
and


range targets were completed in the Gatun Lake section.


There will


be approximately 32 of this type, by means of which gas buoys may


located


from


previously


determined


angles.


Bohio,


Pena


Blanca


Caimito


Mamei


Juan


Grande


, and Bas Obispo


these refer-


ence targets also form
short tangents at those


unlighted ranges which mark the axes of the


places.


The reenforced


concrete caisson for


west breakwater


of last year,


light and fog signal,


was completed


which


to a height of 25


was begun in


feet and


June


was sunk


at the inner end of Limon Bay in 20 feet of water,


where it will re-


main


until its riprap foundation at the outer end


of the


breakwater


has reached its final settlement.


The plans for the west breakwater


light and fog signal were revised under the supervision of the archi


tect


and


revised


structure


supersedes the one shown


in the


last


annual report.


Fifty-one concrete buoy sinkers 48 by 48 by 26 inches


and forty-five 24 by 24 by


inches were constructed at the


Balboa


plant of the lighthouse subdivision.


A reenforced concrete wharf 70


feet


long


and


feet


wide


, adjoining


small


boat


landing


Gatun


, was built for use of the lighting establishment of the canal by


the Panama Railroad.


It will be used for storing,


painting, and re-


pairing gas


and


spar


buoys


belonging


SW,


Gatun




Lake


section.
1,T


5 * 1 --------------A. - - - - a - - - ..I - A. F * - - nan A. - I a - ~. - - a.-. - - S S -


rv j





REPORT O]


CHAIRMAN


AND


ORIEF ENGINEER.


Approximately 250 acres of canal prism


Blanca


from San Pablo to


Pena


180 acres


of land were cleared of trees in the vicinity of Mamei for the dredg-
ing division.
For detailed information concerning the operation of this division,
attention is invited to Appendix A.

ATLANTIC DIVISION.


The


work


of this division


embraces the construction


of the


locks


atd dam at Gatun,


the quaxry at


Porto


Bello,


the sand supply,


breakwater for the shelter of shipping and


protection


of the chan-


nel


Limon


various


Bay,


settlements


municipal


embraced


improvements


within


territorial


Colon
limits


and
of


division, and such sanitary engineering work within the same limits
x-y x-* xx


as is prescribed by the sanitary


department.


The


work


excavat-


channel


between


Gatun


locks


Caribbean was in charge of this division


sixth


division


and


dec


until May


of the


chief


p water
1, 1913,
engineer


when it
's office.


On this same date th
mechanical division.


Col.


William L. Siber


e dry


dock and shops were transferred


The work of the division is in charge of Lieut.
t, United States Army, as division engineer.


At the beginning of the fiscal year dredges were at work excavat-


ing an area north of the caisson sills of the locks,
flare or wing walls and the north approach pie]


structed.


The


wing walls are


built on rock and


partly on roct, but for the greater part on piling.


within
were


which the


the approach


con-
pier


For the former it


was necessary in


some


places


remove


material


a depth


feet below sea level in order to uncover the rock; and as the dredges


eol$ ecavate only to a depth


of 41 feet,


the level


of the pool had


tD 'be lowered
a :to dam v


for them


perform


s built geros


work.


excavated


t


dredges


his
to


reach thi
inclosgr


area,


*nd,


when


completed,


was lowered by pumping with
*wasL>' H: I viif


water


the dredges.


the resulting
The excava-


tion jor the flarp walls was carried well
a * -


iw de for the walls agd for a rock 011


the rear and made suf-


which


-. llk I


al back of it from sliding as the watet was lowered.


This


were cared of trees and brut, and approximately


was transferred


To accomplish


was to sustain


'


r





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


For


depth


approach
feet below


pier the
sea level


dredges
and for a


removed


width


material


of 140 feet along


center


in November,


excavated


1912,


area.


was filled


completion


with


water,


the clay


dredging
dam re-


moved, a dipper


dredge and


one suction


dredge


taken


and


suction


dredge,


a pump


barge,


and


two


coal


barges


left


inside


area.


The


clay


dam


was


then


rebuilt


and


water


pumped


out,


posing the foundations.


The dredge was grounded at 55


feet below


level


and


was


used


keep


water


below


foundations.


Two


steam


shovels


worked


over


that


portion


center


wall


foundations where rock appeared, and also excavated such material


from


the approach


west locks as


could


handled


them.


The channel excavation and the preparation of the foundations were
accomplished by shovel, crane, cableways, and by hand.


The


flare


walls are built solid.


The north approach


wall


or pier


feet wide and consists of a series of piers placed 50 feet centers


longitudinally
connected bv


spanned
therefore


create


, heavily


and
arches


feet


laterally


of 22-foot


span,


which


while


steel girders incased in concrete.


feet.


feet


reenforced


The


with


piers
rails


direction


longitudinally
In plan the


rest
near


upon


a slab


and


they are
they are
piers are


con-


bottom,


built on the piling.


The first six of the openings north of the locks


closed


curtain


walls


prevent


objectionable


cross


currents


while


locks


emptying.


The


plan


originally


contemplated


a pier 1,200 feet in length, measured from the angle of the flare walls.


In December, 1912,


the division engineer recommended that the wall


be shortened 200 feet.


A slide had occurred at the north end


of the


pit when it was dewatered, covering the foundation of this portion of


the wall, and the removal of this slide,


which


would have to be done


largely


It,


furthermore,


land,
this


would
would


tedious


make


hand
north


require c(
approach


considerable


wall


time;


correspond


more nearly to


local
as to


conditions


make


the one at the south,


where


cost


south


which is 994.5


wall


building the


was


additional


feet long.


terminated


length


were


The
such


prohibitive;


however,


as a considerable saving in


time of


completion


would


sult, the recommendation


was approved and the length of the north


- - - a - -





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


0


largely


sluicing


and


pumping,


dredge


handling


material from the sump into which it was washed.


The con cate in


the flare


walls


was laid


by the cableways,


which


were also used for so much of the center pier as could be reached by


them ,


The remaininMg portion of the latter was laid


cranes and


by means


dump


ears


operated


construction


locomotives,


doncerte being supplied by the cableways through hoppers and chutes.


The


total


amount


concrete


laid


locks


proper


aggregated


164750 cubic yards; of this amount 137,218 cubic yards were classed


as plain concrete, and
reenforced, and cost


cost $6.5383 per cubic yard; the


$10.5762


cubic


yard.


balance


addition,


was
5,530


cubic yards of concrete were used for the construction of lamp-posts


and their bases, snubbing-button bases, machinery-room


covers, con-


trol house, paving between the upper lock and the Panama Railroad


station,


under the emergency


dams,


and


work


first


division, making the total handled


cubic yards. Th
Atlantic division
gated 2,040 715 e
i~elU|AriVXV! L o<


by the


Atlantic division 170,280


e total amount of concrete laid in


the close of the


ubic


yards,


fiscal


an average di


locks by the


year therefore aggre-
vision cost of $7.1220


per cubic yard.
Last fall it was estimated that the concrete work of the locks would


be
pie


completed


r


complete
lim p-post


feet,


on Ju]
bases,


July
the c
ne 14,


1913.


concrete,
1913.


shortening the


except


Th


snubbing-button


miscellaneous


miscellaneous
bases, mooring


north


finis


work


-post


approach
ring, was
insists of


bases


stair-


well parapets, paving, and the closing of a few


left for construction purposes.


openings which were


Of the amount of concrete laid dur-


ing the year, 2,742 cubic yards were produced


auxiliary mixers,


1,944 cubic yards were mixed by hand, and the balance by the 2-yard


mixers installed in the construction
I addition to handling sand fn


plant.
om the


barges to


the stock pile,


the unloading cableways were


used


for transferring sand


and rock


from the stock piles to the tunnel hoppers and for loading rock for


sale to outside parties.


There was sufficient broken stone in storage


that none was crushed during the year.


* A total of 171,866 cubic


yards was taken from the storage pile for use by the division, 1,568.5


:'~~a 1*- - 1 .� * � . I . 1_ J I .r2-J-. - 3- -^ _,L ,


CHIEF ENGINEER.


C(





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


The back filling of the side walls and the filling of the center wall
was made of material obtained from borrow pits and from the canal


prism,
shovels.


aggregating 637,226 cubic yards, all


Of this amount


of it removed by steam


,565,756 cubic yards were placed behind the


side walls at a cost of $0.3805 per cubic yard, and 15,872 cubic yards


in the
yard.


center wall


The


total


by the cableways


amount


of material


it a cost of $0.8320
used for back fill v


cubic


to June


30, 1913,
walls at


aggregated


2,027,830


cubic


an average cost of $0.4586


yards


placed


cubic


yard,


behind


and a


side


total


113,163 cubic yards placed in the center wall at a cost of $0.7780 per


cubic yard.


Teams and scrapers were


put to


work in March, 1913,


and


continued


the end


of the fiscal


year bringing the back fill to


final grade and for the construction of a


wagon road along the east


side of the l
in this way,
was decided


icks.
ata


About 1,500 cubic yards of material were handled
total expenditure for this purpose of $9,296.82. It


to pave the exposed surface of the back fill between the


locks and the Panama Railroad station


with concrete slabs 5 feet by


5 feet by 6 inches, extending from elevation 78 to the top of the slope,


and laid


on from 4 to 6 inches of broken stone from Ancon


quarry


Below this concrete


paving the slope was to be covered with riprap


stone down


to elevation


The concrete


paving was estimated


cost


$8,000.


June


1913


surfacing


broken


stone


was completed and 125 square yards of the concrete paving hed been
finished at a total cost for the latter to that date of $1,172.91.


The 1
structed


amp-posts


this


and


bases


division,


for
bas


illuminating
is erected in


the l
place,


tcks
and


were
the


con-
lamp


standards cast


of the latter,


were made at a cost of $149.4299 per


lamp-post.
The construction of the control house, designed by the first division,


in conjunction
April, 1913.


I


with


the architect


, for the Gatun locks was begun in


At the close of the year the three floors and the walls


for the first and second stories of the building were completed; the


total
At


amount expende
the close of the


was


$20,287.51.


previous fiscal


year the Gatun Dam had been


raised to an elevation of 103.35 feet for a length of 1,000 feet east of
the spillway, and for the balance of this portion of the dam the dry
- - - - - . ~ . - jk a * A , . 1 n*- - j1


.I





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


was secured from the borrow pit which had been opened during


previous


fiscal


year,


beyond


west end


of the


dam,


and


lay a to top the hydraulic fill from borrow pits north of the


dam and inm the vicinity of the locks.


From two to six steam shovels


were engaged in procuring this material and removed 2,159,159 cubic


yards, boow-pit
designated as rock.


measurement,


of which


The hydraulic


922,877


cubic


was supplied


yards


were


by three pipe-


lint suction dredges operated in
sutton o crate


borrow


pits upwards


miles


dis-


tant, the maximum lift being


borrow-pit


measurement,


was


100 feet.
493,145


The total amount handled,


cubic


yards.


The


hydraulic


fill was'stopped in September, 1912.


No complete survey was made


during the


fiscal


until February,


year,


1913,


from


partial
which


cross


sections were


material in


place


run monthly


was calcu-


lated, and for the following months, estimates were based on borrow-


pit measurement.


Under these circumstances it is estimated that the


dry fill


deposited


aggregated 1,714,367


cubic


yards,


or a


loss of 21


per


cent of the


borrow-pit


measurement,


due


to consolidation.


the hydraulic fill, it was estimated that there was a loss of 324,141


cubic yards Or 65.8 per cent due to waste through dram


pipes, leak-


age, and consolidation.


The total


consolidated fill for the year ag-


gregated


1,967,841


cubic


yards.


The


cost


dry


in place


amounted to $0.3755 per cubic yard and of the hydraulic fill $0.2654


per cubic yard.
ing settlement,


Levels were run monthly with a


observations


being taken


hubs


view to determin-


placed


about


feet apart longitudinally and about 100 feet apart transversely.


morning of


began


along the


north


August* 29
slope of t


a bulging and


dam


near


sliding movement


west


end.


o'clock in the morning of this date the track which was at the top of
the dry fill, elevation 101, settled vertically about 3 feet over a length


about


feet,


while


track at


elevation


down


sl6pe,


showed


samen


85-foot


slight


day


indications


a lateral


contour and


movement,


displacement
5.1 feet on 1


feet


50-foot


had


afternoon
occurred


contour;


there


on the


was


movement on


the 30-foot contour.


On the morning of August 30 a


further settlement


and


bulging


had


occurred,


giving


an additional


lateral movement of 3.4 feet on


the 85-foot contour, 3.2


feet on


^J4 St


A


I "1


-.1 --- -


--� l1


.rik t twr~ 'in f ntf^fit an JV^ .f� .. ' ~rr -i V * flk r -^ n. ron.^i n-- r ^ *r n fla rrtn 0^W^.~ fr-^ : 3. n~rr fl� -V rwun ^jrT ri flu ^** n


� ....................


...... _ "_ � 1





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


The
feet,
feet.


total


on the


lateral


50-foot


displacement


level 31.2


along


feet,


85-foot


and


contour


was


on the 30-foot contour


The south slope of the dam remained undisturbed.


38.9
18.1


The slope


of the portion of the dam which moved was originally fixed at 1 on 5


(section DD, plate 19, annual report,


1909), and this was authorized


"because


rock


is near the


surface


and


fairly


horizontal.


The


only thing to be provided against in this slope is the slipping of the


dam


material


on itself."


Because


of the


character


of the


material


along this portion underlying the structure there could be no question


that the movement was within


the dam itself, consequently test pits


were not resorted to as in the case of the movement on the east part


of the dam, reported a year ago.


samples was made.


A line of wash borings with drive


These borings clearly indicated that the relative


proportions of hydraulic fill and dry fill which would bring about the


desired section of hydraulic fill-wedge shape,


with the point down-


had not been


secured,


but that on the contrary the


hydraulic


fill in


section


was


provision
material


face of the


the opposite of this.


had


been


itself.


east portion


made


in the
of the


Furthermore,


against


case
dam,


was


e slipping
movement


was


evident


on the


that
dam


north


heavily reenforced


and the slope flattened to an average of about 1 on


7.67.


To prevent injury to


the dam that might result from


wash


south slope by waves in the lake caused by strong south winds,


of the
which


prevail at times, it was necessary to pave such


portion


of this slope


as is liable to such action.


Concrete paving was at first considered,


but because of settlement, due to consolidation and the irregularity of


the surface, it was decided to use riprap laid on broken stone.


estimated


that


waves 5


feet


in height might


at times


exist,


It was
so that


the paving was extended over that portion of the slope lying between


elevations 74 and


A layer of


crushed stone, supplied


Ancon


quarry


was laid


over the dam


within


these


limit


to a


thickness of


about 4 inches.


Over this a sufficient thickness of riprap was placed


to protect the broken stone from the action of the waves.


.was


first


procured


from


a quarry


in the


vicinity


The riprap
Quebrancha


and was estimated to cost $1 per cubic yard in place on the dam.


the cost, however, after a


trial


of two


month


amounted


to $2.1027


- . - S - - .- S - S., S





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


-


CHIEF ENGINEER.


beginning


complete
tion 69,


ed,


including the


fiscal


year


abutments, ogee,


spillway


dam


and crest piers,


had been
to eleva-


while the central portion, about 870 feet in length measured


along the crest,


had been practically


completed to elevation 50.


previously noted, four sluices had been left-three closed by Stoney
gates and on by a cylindrical valve-to permit control of the water


during


construction


dam.


During


fiscal


year


fln were carried


to completion,


while the central


portion,


which


had been finished to elevation 50,


was left at this height to allow the


ood waters to escape during the rainy season.


Work on the closing


of these openings


was commenced


as soon as the


level


of the


lake


could be dropped below elevation 50 and the work pushed.


was erected on the flanks at elevation 95 and


A trestle


was extended entirely


around the dam


when the full height of 69 feet was reached.


From


it the west abutment and part of the crest piers were built to eleva-


tion 115, or full height, and


14 crest gates were


installed.


the completion of the west abutment the trestle beside each gate was


d imntled


mn succession


and


upstream


side of the


pier, inter-
pImr,1 T rte-QL


fred.


with


by the


trestle,


was constructed.


operated by the cylindrical valve was closed,


In February the sluice
but it was impracticable


complete


remaining


crest


piers


and


east


abutment


until


three remaining sluices could be closed.


The water in the lake, con-


trolled


by the sluices,


was held at


about elevation


32 until


the last


week in August,


when the completion of the guard gates and caisson


sills of the looks permitted it to


raised.


During


November and


the early part of December the


of 56.3,
central


notwithstanding the
part of the dam and


water reached a maximum elevation


flow


through


through


the opening


the sluices.


After


left
Sthe


in the
rainy


season the water was lowered to elevation 48 so that work might be


resumed


on the spillway, and the sluices were finally closed on June


27, as the plans contemplated raising the lake to


full height during


the present rainy season, start'ihrg with the water at Gatun at eleva-


tion 50 on July
date was 49.15.


1, 1913.


The elevation of the lake at Gatun on this


Advantage was taken of the flow over the spillway
**"*"* :L- a


dispose of


which


a number


the rising waters


of floating islands,


had


snags,


E


brought into existence


nd <
and


timbers


which


_......... ... - . - ._ _ _ . . _ _-._ : *I. ^ ^ - . ^ ^ ^ J -c M * * * h .& - J - * ^ . * - . -. * - _ - __ - I _ _ _


i 1


I I i


1 I


mLt _


31


*i


-I


ft -�


*





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


Concrete laid in the spillway for the year aggregated 21,19 cubic


yards, at a cost of $8.1227


per cubic yard.


The excavation amounted


to 175 cubic yards and cost $2.3913 per cubic yard.


concrete


thus


placed


in the


spillway


was,


The total amount
therefore, 224,132


cubic yards, at an average cost of $7.4838 per cubic yard.


Architectural


features


were


added


plans


prepared


first division of the chief engineer'


office for the hydroelectric power


plant to
$147,950


constructed


and


below


construction


the spillway
undertaken I


an estimated


Atlantic


cost


division.


The excavation was completed and during the year 14,948 cubic yards


of material
cubic yard;


were removed-rock and


earth-at a cost of $0.4022 per


in the preparation of the foundations 11,684 cubic yards,


costing $1.7973


cubic


yard,


were


removed


total


excavation


date,


therefore,


including


preparation


foundations,


98,751 cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.5486 per cubic yard.


was
The


steel


work


structure


was


advertised


and


lowest


amounted


$25,456.37


The successful


bidder offered


to erect


steel structure in 45 days and at an additional cost of $6,496.74.


the Atlantic division estimated


that the erection


could be done in 42


days by its own


forces and


completed at a cost of $4,643,


this work


was assigned to the Atlantic division.


was commenced on May


The erection of the steel work


, and at the close of the year about 65 per


cent had been erected and 90 per cent of the field rivets driven.


amount thus far expanded was $6,154.36.


The


The penstocks were encased


with


concrete,


except


for the


curved


portions


near


head


gates.


The forebay walls with trash-rack and stop-plank grooves are about
95 per cent completed.


Work


west


breakwater


Limon


Bay


was


continued


throughout


year.


length


feet of trestle,


single


track,


was


added, making the total length of trestle 11,526 feet.


The total


amount of rock received from Porto


Bello and


placed


on the break-


water was


183,762


cubic


yards,


which


102,508


cubic


yards


were


handled


from


barges


Lidgerwood


cars


locomotive cranes and


subsequently plowed off.


The balance was placed by derrick barges.


addition


this


source


supply


about


220,433


cubic


yards


rock removed from


the channel by the dredges were dumped


on the


- a- - it *0 * S





A1D


OEIEP


ENGINEER.


cent large rock could not be secured from the two benches to complete
the breakwater, so that this development was temporarily suspended.
and in November, 1912, operations were resumed by one steam shovel
in the id erushed-rock quarry, above the two benches; after the first


of the year two more shovels were put to work on this higher


level.


The broad -gauge equipment,


which


was


substituted


for the


narrow


gauge
1912,


previously in service,


and


October


was


output


placed


was


in operation


increased


from


on October


two


three


barges per day.


securing rock of proper size about 60 per cent


of the output was wasted.
As previously noted, the Toro Point breakwater is intended for the
protection of the harbor and the shelter of vessels against northers,
and its line of direction is normal to the prevailing wind during these


storms.


It is not intended to give protection against the waves pro-


duced by the trade winds,


which generally are from north to north-


east and which are not dangerous to shipping that will use the canal.


The


waves


from


trade


winds


have


been


washing the


shores


limon Bay in the vicinity of the canal entrance,


and survey made in


March, 1913, showed that the channel in the vicinity of the shore line,


which


had


been


dredged


full


depth,


had


filled


so as to give an


available depth of only 27 feet and that in the center of the channel.


It was


also estimated


that


the silt deposited in


channel


during


the previous 12 months was 2,213,082 cubic yards.


As the result of


investigation


believed


that


this


silting is ar ely


due


action disturbing the soft material of the bottom of the bay,


. is taken up and carried in suspension and subsequently


the deeper channel.


wave
which


deposited in


The deposit is generally uniform except in that


part near the shores of the bay.


The Atlantic Fleet during its visit


to the


canal


last


winter anchored


under the


lee of the


west


break-


wok and at times the trade winds made it difficult for small boats


to reach the ships, and, as a consequence,


Navy


advocated


the construction of


the General Board


a detached


breakwater


of the
for the


protection of the
dangerous and, a


anchorage area, stating that at times it


t times, impossible


gaged in coaling battleships


for small
alongside.


boats


and


Under the


would


barges en-
se circum-


stances, and as such


a breakwater will protect the channel


to some


.I* r it S C - 9 � *-


REPORT A OFAflGMAN





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


plant.


This project was approved on July


12, 1912, at a total cost of


$193,768.


contemplates


a tunnel


through


divide


separating


the Gatun Lake from the Brazos Brook Reservoir within which is to
be laid a 20-inch main, with its inlet at an elevation of approximately


5 feet below the extreme low water level in Gatun Lake.


This pipe-


line, 600 feet in length, extends to the Brazos Brook Reservoir, and by
means of a control house the water in the reservoir is maintained at a
minimum low level of 1 foot below the spillway crest, so that any ad-
ditional amount of water required over that furnished by the water-


shed


will


taken


from


Gatun Lake.


additional


20-inch main


was laid from Brazos Brook Reservoir to Mount Hope, the site of the


new


purification


plant


and


pumping


station.


connection


with


these


there are


included an aeration basin, sedimentation basin, and


filters after passing which the water enters a clear-water basin having


a capacity of approximately 650,000 gallons.


This basin is connected


by an underground conduit to the pump sump beneath the floor of the


pumping


station.


The


pumps will


be operated


electrically.


Work


was commenced in October, 1912, and at the close of the fiscal year all


work between


Gatun Lake and Brazos


Brook Reservoir was practi-


cally


complete.


The


pumping station


was completed


ready


for the


installation of the machinery; the filter building was completed up to


and


including


operating floor;


sedimentation


basin


was


cent


completed


and


foundations


and


floors


mixing


chambers and aeration basin were laid.


In addition to the operation


of the purification plant at the Agua Clara Reservoir, the usual main-


tenance


work was carried


on during the year.


Approximately 70,000 square yards of macadam


were laid and re-


paired,


44,000


linear


feet


road


ditches


cleaned


and


dug,


9,500


linear feet of curb and gutter laid, and 4,600 feet of sewers installed.
In addition, municipal improvements were carried on in Colon under


an appropriation by Congress for the purpose.


Of the appropriation


$800,000


made


March


1909,


extending


municipal improvements in Colon and Panama,


there were expended


during the year in


the former locality $53,939.15,


making a total ex-


pended in Colon to the end of the fiscal year of $505,909.54.


In ad-


edition


completing


improvements


previously


undertaken,




I^eKiIIiK N,, ^.K K


REPORT


CHAIRMAN


CHIEF


E flerEn.


CENTRAL DIVISION.


The


work


of this division


embraces


excavation


between


atun D a Pedro Miguel Looks, including diversion


channels ,


the construction of the Naos Island Breakwater, municipal improve-


ments in


"the


various settlements included within the division limits,


and sach sanitary engineering work in the same area as is prescribed


by the sanitary


department.


The


work is in


charge of Lieut.


Col.


- , I. Gaillard, United States Army, as division engineer.


Excavation


Culebra


Cut,


for the


and


canal


12,582,124


prism
cubic


during the


yards


were


year was confined


removed.


to


tion to this, 155,376 cubic yards were excavated in changing portions
of the Obispo diversion and 35,888 cubic yards outside of the canal
prism for auxiliary work; the total amount of material handled by
the central division, therefore, aggregated 12,773,388 cubic yards, of


which


10,098,099


amount remo
this amount


cubic


yards


were


classed


as rock.


The


estimated


because of slides was 5,899,200 cubic yards and


1,593,070 cubic yards of material


were


taken from


upper reaches of the banks to reduce the quantity to be taken from the


bottom,


or as a preventive


other words, 46.67


measure


against


slides


and


breaks.


per cent removed from the Cut was due to slides,


as against 35.90 per cent during the previous fiscal year.


remaining


removed


was


again


increased


The amount


close


year, and aggregates for the Culebra Cut 8,200,000 cubic yards; in


other words,


there


will be


an increase


central


division


9,280,237
report.
the canal


cubic yards over the estimate submitted in the last annual


Of this


total


remaining,


1,324,944 cubic


yards


were


inside


prism lines and 6,860,500 cubic yards estimated for slides,


a a ~- -


whch estimate includes the amount for benching back


& us to relieve the pressure v
may either increase the extent
The total amount o material


rhich,


crushing the


of the


banks


underlying strata,


of existing slides or cause new


due


to slides


so far removed


ones.


aggre-


gates 22,570,200 cubic yards, or an increase of 2,304,200 cubic yards


over that estimated in the last annual report.


creased as the (ut was deepened.


Slides and breaks in-


No treatment has proven effective


for ides when once developed except that of excavating and hauling


*,, -- a^A ^� 2 . JPt_ -L - - ._. _.i* -. -l


AND


addi-


ved





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


canal had been reached and


the widening cuts had


progressed satis-


factorily until within approximately 60 feet of the line of the prism


was reached


on the


east side


when


on January 20 the


basalt rocks


broke and there slid into the Cut approximately 2,000,000 cubic yards


of material extending completely


on the


67-foot


level


and


complete


across the Cut,
Kly stopping the


topping the tracks
passage of trains


from


north.


Bottom


grade


was subsequently reached


for suffi-


cient width to put in drainage pipes for handling the water from the


north,


rains


saturating


loosened


material


occasioned


flattening


slope,


thus


causing


another


movement,


and


weight of the superimposed mass


broke


pipes.


Work was con-


tinued on


the slide during the year, but principally for the


of maintaining the


tracks on


the 67-foot level


open for the


purpose
passage


of trains.


This slide at the close of the fiscal year covered an area


of approximately 50 acres.


The total amount removed thus far since


July


1905


when it


began moving, is


3,859,500 cubic yards,


leaving


approximately
rial on the sot


li


1,500,000 cubic yards still to be removed.
Ih side of the slide is practically all clay,


The mate-
the middle


of it consists of clay and spalls,


and the north side of it rock with a


mixture


clay.


The


clay


and


clay


and


spalls


easily


handled by suction dredges,


while the material


on the north side can


handled


dipper and


ladder


dredges.


From


West Culebra slide


1,922,700 cubic yards were removed


during the year,
making a total fr


including material


taken


from


the time this slide developed in


upper benches,
October, 1907,


of 8,687,600 cubic yards, leaving approximately 2,390,000 cubic yards


remove


material


on the


top of the bank is taken


out.


This slide covers an area of 68


acres.


From the slide at East Culebra 1,676,300 cubic yards were removed


during


year,


making


a total


5,966,200


cubic


yards


removed


since the slide first


developed in January,


1907, and


is estimated


that


2,000,000


cubic


yards


remain.


This


slide


covers


an area


approximately 55 acres and extends from the north side of Gold Hill


approximately


5,500


feet.


The shov


taken


els on the
in August,


upper reaches of the


1912


and


replaced


East Culebra slide were


January,


1913.


One


-. - - - . -





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


porary channel constructed for the diversion.


The shovels were con-


centrated


on the


summit


stretch


and


continued


there


and


on the


upper


banks


until


dry


season.


After


a new


channel


had


been


excavated for the Obispo diversion the slide was attacked and 181,100
bic yards removed during the remainder of the year.
On the east ide of the Cut, north of Gold Hill, there is a French


dumap


included


within


the. East


Culebra


slide.


crack


developed


about April 1, 1918, parallel to the Cut and 635 feet distant from its
edge, but it does not join the Cut at any point, beginning and ending


on the


which


appeared.


Steps


were


taken,


means


steam shovels,


bench


this portion


of the


bank and


arrangements


made for sluicing as much as possible into the valley to the east.
The summit of drainage in the Cut continued about opposite Cule-
bra until the two shovels cutting to grade on the bottom produced one


out through


grade


on June


1913.


The


water


south


summit was drained into the Pacific through


the central


culvert of


the Pedro Miguel Locks.


The dike separating the Cut on the north


side from the Chagres River remained intact and the pumping plant
previously described continued in service to handle the water which
drains to the north from the summit, with the addition of two French
centrifugal pumps, 17-inch discharge, added after the break north of
La Pita Point.


With the opening in the spillway at plus 50,


with the upper gates


Pedro


I


might top


iiguel not complete, it
the dike at Gamboa and


was
do


feared


that


injury to


a heavy


the locks.


freshet
It was


therefore decided to raise the Gamboa dike to elevation


78.2, carry-


this


elevation


along


west


dike


which


separates


west


diversion channel from the Cut.


The amount of material utilized for


this purpose aggregated 37,080 cubic yards


As cracks developed


the appearance of


the sides of the


Obispo


additional slides which, if they


diversion,
occurred,


giving
would


let the water of the diversion into the Cut, it was decided to relocate


the diversion farth6t to the east itd this was done in


three places,


one


opposite


Whitehouse,


another


opposite


division


office


Empire, and another around the break north of La Pta Point.
necessitated the handling of 128,076 cubic yards.


i1_ _ r . __ .. _1 ___ . ..... -. 1- . .. - -


This


-^^ *- -h .t1. - an._ * I- Ia a. -. am- -- a - 111 S~r2k ii1 1 _


ur
~4U


J- L-k.


i


---M-





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


tion, the steam shovels were placed closer together and necessitated an
average of six locomotives daily to handle the trains to and from the
shovels, besides those used in hauling the trains to the dumps.
Due to the development of slides and beginning February 20, 1913,


split-shift


system


was


inaugurated


on shovels


working


in the


slides and


on the upper


benches, so as to secure


12 hours'


work per


day.


While this increased the cost to some extent, it was more than


justified, after the decision had been reached to admit the water into
the Cut in October, in order to remove as much of the remaining rock
in the dry as possible.
The dumps in use during the year were those at Miraflores, Balboa,


along the


line


railroad


relocation


north


Gamboa,


swamp


lands


in the


vicinity


Ancon,


and


a new


dump


opened


along the


line of the Panama Railroad south of Pedro


Miguel.


It was neces-


sary to abandon the old line of the Panama Railroad in the


vicinity


of Miraflores Locks,


permit the construction


of the spillway, and


subsequent to March 4 trains had to be operated over the single track


through the tunnel.


This reduced the number of trains that could be


operated to the south and caused the opening up of the Pedro Miguel


dump.


Material


taken


from


upper


benches on


the east side of


the Cut was wasted partly in extending the dump north of Gold Hill


that


was started


two


years


ago,


and


remainder was


dumped at


Miraflores, Ancon, and Balboa, operating over the Gold Hill cut-off


Panama


west


side


Railroad.


was


wasted


That


taken


on the


from


dump


e upper
Culebra


benches


and


on the


dumps to the south.
the east side of the


wasted;
Balboa


3,985,129


and


wasted


A total of


Cut


cubic


284,755 cubic yards were dumped on


At Miraflores


yards


on the


were


Balboa


used


dump;


1,288,262 cubic
for reclaiming


440,725


cubic


yards


were


swamps at
yards were


used for filling swamp lands northeast of Ancon Hill


and 4,376,080


cubic


yards


Panama


Railroad


relocation


dumps


between


Caimito
Balboa,


and


making


Gamboa.


a total


During the


acres


year 90


in all


acres


were


reclaimed


filled


this


in at
point.


Between Balboa


and Sosa Hill 54 acres of marshy land that it was


impossible


drain


properly were


filled


during the


year.


addi-


tion


,487,108 cubic yards of waste material were furnished other divi-




:ID'AN~:~Nai~A " N


REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEEB.


plan suggested by
adopted. The p


Mr.


an


W. G. Comber was considered by a board and


consists of the building of


a double trestle ex-


tending to "an stand, dumping to be done on either side, thereby


sprd the fil over the treacherous


bottom,


and


carrying


itto


mean


tide as


far as the island.


When


this was done, filling was to


commence at the island carrying it to full height.


fail, ample length


Should the trestle


th. end of the fnished


enpiredy
entirely


pile


driver


portion,
s.On


completed and filled,


while the broken


June


with


1913,


the exception


portion
s trestle


was being
had been


600 feet long.


The total amount of material


used


for this


purpose


aggregated


653,242


cubic yards.


The soft material was


pushed


and up forming a ridge of mud, intermixed with stones that had been
dumped in and carried up by the soft material, parallel to the break-


water


and


a distance


approximately


feet


from


The


total amount extended


on the dike


by the


central


division and


Pacic division up to June 30, 1913,
per linear foot.


was $384,540.89, or about $22.14


The


average


division


cost


exc


plant charges and all items which
was $0.5525 per cubic yard. The to
tral division since American occun


aviation for
entered into


year,


including


its accomplishment,


year was
cubic yard


107,189,181


cubic yards at


an average cost of $0.7105


Oilebra Cut.
Actual construction work on the Empire-Chorrera Road was com-


plated,


the convict


labor


employed


on it


was


transferred


other


work, and a small force of paid labor was established for the pur-


pose of placing screenings and


doing other work necessary for the


copp lotion
19129 the


of the


road


const-ruction


Zone


a 16-foot


boundary.
macadam


On
road


November


from


to a point on the Las Cascadas plantation road, about 3,600 feet from


enast


end


the


Empire


s suspension


bridge,


was


u


This road will have a total length of a little over 5 miles.


undertaken.
A stock-


ade was erected


gaged


on it.


at Gamboa


The


Empire-P


to house the
araiso Road


prison labor which is en-


was relocated


and rebuilt


a iS* *A L A - afi" S 4� * - - *- - - -


would be left for dumping between the break and


a stretch about


ital amount removed from the cen-
ation up to the close of the fiscal


Of this total, 93,805,975 cubic yards were removed from


Gamboa





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


For


the maintenance of water supply


to the shops


and for other


construction


purposes,


additional


pumps


were


installed


and


oper-


ated at Lirio, Sardanilla River,


Gamboa, and


Gorgona shops.


Sanitary
regrading
ditches, la
linear feet


work
602,578


ying
of


consisted


linear


6,426
concret


feel


linear


digging


Sof
feet


gutters,


ditches,


cleaning


4,6'8


linear


cleaning
drains, c
847,852 l1


feet


1,327,676


onstructing


near


feet


ditches,
feet of


3,852
con-


create ditches, and


clearing 908,331 square


yards of brush and grass.


For further information


concerning the operations of the central


division, attention is invited to Appendix C.

FIFTH DIVISION.


As already noted, on the resignation


of Mr. S. B.


Williamson


Pacific division


fifth


and


sixth


was


abolished


divisions


effective


chief


December
engineer's


1912


office


and


organized.


The fifth division has charge of the construction of the locks, dams,


spillway,
below th


excavation


locks


in the


dry


operation


Ancon


canal


prism


quarry,


between


municipal


and
engi-


neering work within


and


such


sanitary


the area covered


engineering


work


by the
as may


works of the division,
be prescribed by the


sanitary


department


within


the same area.


The


work is in


charge


of Mr. H.


O. Cole as resident engineer.


Excavation in


connection


with


Pedro


Miguel Locks was corn-


pleted during the year by the removal of 3,044 cubic yards from


locks proper


at a


cost of $0.4078


cubic


yard.


The


bulk


of the


excavation consisted of the removal


lock site, and the material


of the French


was utilized for back fil


the excavation necessary for completing the locks,


dump east of the
I. In addition to
2,190 cubic yards


were


removed


for the construction


northeast


core


wall


built


prevent the


passage of water


back


of the east wall,


which might


otherwise


occur.


This


excavation


was


done


hand


and


extended


under the tracks of the old Panama Railroad which are in use by the


central


division


cost


was


$3.4297


cubic


yard.


prevent


flooding the locks, a cofferdam had been left to the south


until


com-


pletion of the concrete work of the locks, and the subsequent increase


in thfi


io ncth Af tha Q3lnth


annmach


nirm to


1OAA


nrevented its


fl.I *i * U *flA *~ * SUE flE Si'..' * a~Zflfl' ~ Si L'A. ti V LJAA.LtJLA. L.~


feet





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


^::::::::~~~~~ Ia :**jkj


ENGINEBR.


nor


auxiliary
th end o


mixers


consisting


Sthe locks on


two


2-cubic-yard


mixers


west side and of an average of 3.05


half-cubic yard mixers which were moved about as necessity required.


The concrete


was


handled


either


by derricks and locomotive cranes


cbdumped direct into
cubic yards were plain


place


through


chutes.


this


concrete at a cost. of $6.5432


total


39,465


per cubic yard


and 1,00 cubic yards were reenforced concrete at a cost of $9.7989


per cubic yard.


The total amount of concrete placed prior to July 1,


191,in the Pedro Miguel Locks was 906,293 cubic yards at an average


cost of $5.5061


per cubic yard.


The back filling of the lock,


wing walls, and center wall was cornm-


pleted during the year, and the riprap finish at the ends of the south


wing walls was partially placed.


was 3G7,150 cubic


yards,


The amount


U


of which 193,212 cubic


sed in
yards


back fill


were


center wall at a cost of $0.3895 per cubic yard, and the balance behind


the side walls at a cost of $0.4642 per cubic yard. The total amount
of back fill placed up to June 30, 1913, was 806,538 cubic yards back
of the lock walls at an average cost of $0.3889 per cubic yard, and
215,149 cubic yards in the center wall at a cost of $0.4480 per cubic
yard.
The west dam at Pedro Miguel, consisting of rock-filled sides and
puddled-clay core, was completed and the top finished at elevation 107


with


clay.


The


north


face


was


riprapped


with


hard


stone


85-foot level.


During the year 114,117 cubic yards of fill were added,


making the total in the cam 696,558 cubic yards.


sion cost


during the


year was


$0.3312


per cubic


The average divi-


yard;


average


division cost for the entire dam was $0.4471 per cubic yard.


The


Miraflores


Locks,


the placing of concrete,


including


excavation


were carried to completion


foundations


and


during the year.


The


foundation


work


for the


lower west


wall


was


seriously


inter-


fed with and retarded by slides and by the water-bearing strata of


the backs.


In some places it was necessary to build retaining walls


to prevent mud from flowing onto the foundation areas, and the slides


which


occurred


carried


the use of auxiliary


away


berm-crane


concrete mixers for


tracks,


laying the wal


nec
Ilb


diently high to secure a bearing for the berm-crane tracks.


_., ^. �-- S * -


-�~ I J. f : ..I i- . _.. . *_ .K .- -- nA -.A - t. aww .A *n -Jk * n- �:"


1essitating
ases suffi-
Similar
J"& / -. -


1T


* * **





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


of the wall constituting the return bulged slightly, but further move-
ment was checked by depositing material along the face of the return,
thus adding a counterweight.


The center approach


1,200
is of


feet


each


cellular


from


reenforced


piers


were constructed


angle


concrete


of the flare


walls.


construction


and


the full length


The


north


wall


is founded


concrete caissons sunk to rock.


These caissons consist of reenforced


concrete shells 7�


feet in


diameter and 1


foot thick,


built up


in sec-


tions 6 feet long and sunk progressively, the bottom shell being fitted


with a steel shoe for a cutting edge.


The caissons were sunk to bed-


rock at an average depth of 29.43


feet and filled


with concrete, thus


forming


solid


columns


rock.


They


were


spaced


15-foot


centers


longitudinally


and 27-foot centers transversely.


The


wall


was then


supported


on heavily reenforced


concrete girders spanning the cais-


sons in both directions.


The south approach wall is of massive con-


create and is founded on natural rock.


The construction


plant,


consisting


four


berm


and


four


cham-


cranes,


supplied


concrete


in the


manner


described


in the


last


annual report.


The


total amount of


concrete laid


in the Miraflores


Locks during the year was 450,792 cubic yards,. of which 402,607 cubic


yards


were


plain


concrete


an average


cost


$5.0273


cubic


yard and 48,185 cubic yards of reenforced concrete at an average cost


of $10.8023 per cubic yard.


Of the total amount, 308,914 cubic yards


were


laid


four


berm


cranes.


The


chamber


cranes


handled


218,135


cubic


yards


concrete


and


92,359


cubic


yards


the center wall.


The concrete


was furnished


in part by the


mixers


on the


berm


cranes


and


the 2-yard


mixers


installed


on the east


wall which operated from July 1


1912, to October 26,


1912, producing


97,603 cubic yards.


In addition


to the regular plant, an


average of


3.12 half-yard portable mixers were used throughout the year.


The


total


amount


concrete


laid


the Miraflores


Locks


the close of the year was 1,476,895 cubic yards at an average cost of


$5.0224 p
completed


zr cubic yard.


on May


The concrete work


the locks proper was


, except the reenforced concrete floor and stair-


way in the middle wall at the junction of the upper and lower locks,


which


1 ..I


were


completed


1 _


on June


There


remain


_ ---. - I


completed
Jt.- �


n 'rvh n�V nk nn^ n^T- �flr nnr'/- nw'r nn-u n�y^ rf- *^nuurr n.'wt nflfln nflr w.- a.*r n V.' Uw^ U~~~ WU rr^ U* WUS.. t-� UB WU Uf -� f *.





REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF ENGINEERB.


of the lock walls proper was placed at an average cost of $04068 per
cubic yard and that in the center wall and the centr approach piers
at an average cost of $0.5978 per cubic yard.


The


total amount of the back


placed


behind


the walls up to


June 30,1913,


was 2,006,054 cubic yards at an average cost of $0.8466


per cbic yard,


and


center


wall


157,2183


cubic


yards


storage cost Cf 6182 per cubic yard.


During September and
avatd for the spillway


limited


space


and


October, 1912, 9,896 cubic yards were ex-


dam


by the


excessive


rai


hydraulic
fall this


method.
method


Owing to
had to be


abandoned


and


no work was


done


until


beginning


dry


season, when


excavation


was


resumed


use of


steam shovels


and also by hand loading into skips which were handled by derricks


and


locomotive


cranes.


The


situation


was


complicated


due


fact that the central division tracks for hauling spoil from the Cut


to the


south


passed


through


spillway


site,


and


was


desired


to give the central division as much advantage during the dry season


as possible
September


It was assumed that the spillway must be completed by


1913,


and


meet


this


required


removal


central division tracks from the site by


March 1,1913; this was not


accomplished


until March 4, and


when the excavation


of the entire


could


proceed


was


found


that


more


material had


moved


than


was anticipated and


consequently


a greater amount of


concrete


was


needed.


Difficulty


was


also


experienced


due


fact that the Rio Grande passed through the site of the dam and had


to be


diverted


twice.


After the


concrete


west


end


damr
dike


was brought up


was


constructed


the elevation


confining


of the


water


bottom


a space


of the


river, a


sufficient


enable


discharge


through


an opening


that


was


left


concrete of the dam, and another dike built on the south side to con-


fin
were


water


fin shed


after


further


passage
trouble


through


from


this


opening.


source


was


After these
avoided. To


credit of


those engaged


the


construction,,


structure


was


completed,


notwith standing


natural


for which they were not responsible,
ig the pacing of the gates and the


thd walknvr on inn.


diffulties


on September


erection


and


1I, 1913,


of the steel


delays
includ-


work for


The oneninw for thA namsrn tf tha fin flranda





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


average


cost


$5.7556


cubic


yard


and


cubic


yards


reenforced concrete at an average cost of $19.60 per cubic yard.


were
In


laying


this


concrete


narrow-gauge


tracks


were


laid


from


berm


cranes located


on the east side of the locks to


the south


toe of the


danm,
the


ending
concretee


various


mixed


spurs
ie bern


leading
n cranes


derricks


and


which


delivered


handled


on transfer


cars in 2-yard buckets.


The berm cranes mixed for use at the spill-


way 27,619 cubic yards, bucket measurement.


1.43


1-yard mixers


and


one


In addition, an


half-yard mixer


supplied


aver-
38,551


cubic
The


yards,


bucket measurement.


west dam at Miraflores was completed


during the


year,


with


the exception of the junction of the dam with the back fill along the


west


lock wall.


The


hydraulic


fill in


west dam


was completed


during the previous fiscal year and the total amount of dry fill added


was 418,375 cubic yards at a cost of $0.4076 per cubic yard.


As this


dry fill


was advanced over the hydraulic fill the softer material


was


crowded


sufficiently
side of th


the
hard
dam


center


t


and


o bear t
through




increased
tracks,


which


in height
an outlet


as much


i


and,


wvas
the


as


cut
soft


If


1 it was
on the
material


not
lest
as


possible


was crowded


assisted


a water jet.


What remained


was pushed over .on the west slope of the dam by raising and crowd-


ing the east dry fill.


this way


a complete covering was made to


full


grade,


leaving relatively


little


soft


material


within


dam.
Excavation in the dry between Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks


and south
being used
in swamp


of the locks was continued throughout the year, the spoil


back filling the


areas on


the east and


lock walls, for the dams, and filling


west sides of the canal.


The


total


amount removed


during the year was 379,626 cubic yards, car meas-


urement.


order


divide


more


equally


excavation


between


steam


shovels and dredges, so as to keep the latter at work, a new dike was
built across the canal approximately 3,300 feet north of the old one.


After closing down


the hydraulic excavating plant which had exca-


vated the area between these dikes to rock at elevation approximately


minus 20


the area


was drilled


minus 45 and


blasted


preparatory


i-~-~ h~; n iv n-srr.n .ini i-~A hr Arnrln.nc nfl-ar +h0 crab ta' ~ * fl * - * -K I k 'S SZ~43* *


- ~ ~ ~ 4- ~ A


riy-rlrvcio-Ry +TIAa rLayjaci





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF ENGINEER.


The Ancon


quarry was operated throughout the year with a cornm-


paratively


small


amount


time


lost o


repairs.


had


been


operation for oabut three years without a general overhauling until
May 16, 1913, when it was shut down for 10 days for the putting in


various


repair


parts,


including


shaft


in main crusher, general


overhauing of th four
driving shafts, etc A


6 rushers, lining up of screens, motors,


small No. 5 gyratory


crusher taken from the


o Rio rande quarry was installed on the floor of the south end
t the rock bins for the purpose of crushing a portion of the larger
rok in order to supply the increased demand for smaller sized stone.
The total amount produced was 688,301 cubic yards, of which 424,860
cubic yards were placed in storage, 21,301 cubic yards supplied to the
H^ X Cb


minaeipal su
divisions and


division,


and


departments.


161,311


The


total


cubic


yards


supplied


cost of the rock


other


delivered in


storage at the locks was $0.7795 per cubic yard; that furnished other
divisions and departments was supplied at a cost of $0.7853 per cubic

The hydraulic excavating plant continued at work until December
1, 1912, when it was taken out of service owing to the fact that most


of the remaining excavation


was hard rock.


The material removed


by this method


was used


for reclaiming tidal swamp


lands east of


and adjacent to the canal prism.


The total amount removed during


the year was 451,631 cubic yards, at a cost of $1.0113 per cubic yard,
making a total removed by this method of 1,549,904 cubic yards, at


an average cost of $0.69b9 per cubic yard.


At this cost


the entire


plant charge, $432,841.92,


was absorbed.


This


plant


was made by
o it be utili


was still in serviceable
Assistant Engineer W. I
zed in sluicing the soft


condition,


and


the suggestion


. Thompson that at least a part


material


which


was


found


te north side of Gold Hill and on


the top of the east bank


of the


0 Isbra Cut.


This bank had been to a certain extent stepped back


by steam shovels in the process of lightening the loads on the upper
part of the bank, but this work was stopped in August, 1912, on the
score that Lidgerwood ears could hot be spared for this service and
that the material could not be handled eononmically with steel side-


dump cars during the wet season.


The rain had


cracked


the bank


L.j. .. ^_J1 --� . A - - I /1 --t ^ ^E � . 11 ,^ ; 4^ +^




..... U ,, J"


L





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


might


make,


and


calculations


indicated


that


a sufficient


pool


could


be created


furnish


water for


pumps


sluice


back


into


depression to the east some of the clay that would otherwise fall into


the Cut.
division,


The proposition did not appeal to the officials of the central


after


renewed


activity


Cucaracha


slide


was


decided to make use of the sluicing plant for this purpose.


tion selected for the pumps and
Cucaracha Hill could be taken <


pipe line


and


The loca-


was such that the rear of


washed


back into


valley


to the east by the use of relay pumps and, further,


whatever material


remained on the Cut side of Cucaracha Hill could be washed down to


the dredges,


thereby finishing up Cucaracha slide


good


and


These considerations led to the adoption of this method


of sluicing,


and
fifth


work was


division.


placed in


Work


on the


charge of the


installation


resident


of the


engineer


of the


hydraulic pumping


mains and flumes was started on February


1, 1913.


Two boilers and


two


Worthington


pumps


were


erected,


with


necessary


flumes.


The dam has created a lake of approximately


180 acres,


with


a drainage area of


4 square miles.


The elevation


at the


bottom


the suction at the pumping plant is 214 feet above sea level, and the


elevation


of the pipes forming the spillway is 228.


The material is


washed back into the depression which forms the lake, and discharges


such a distance


sluicing is returned


from


pumping plant


the lake and


used


that


over again,


water used


thus requiring


only a small inflow to keep the lake at constant elevation.


Sluicing


was begun on June 17, 1913, and 57,274 cubic yards were removed by


this method


at an average cost of $0.1835


per cubic yard.


Booster


pumps have been ordered


and when received operations for attacking


the rear of Cucaracha Hill will be begun.
To meet an increased demand for water at Ancon and Panama two


pressure


filters were


removed from


Miraflores


power


house and


installed in the Ancon filtration


dation
Pedro


16-inch


Miguel


and


Rio


Grande


plant.
water


Miraflores


On account of future


main


power


was


house,


taken


and


inun-


between


work


relaying it along the Panama Railroad line was partially completed


close


year.


Construction


work


on the


locks


made


necessary tu
I


- .- -a - A~


relay
ii S


portions


A .


of the


O11


10-inch main


"4n * I


between


Cocoli


11


C. " n. - C. ~n ne . n wr C - Vt fl * a~ .. ' a rt m .... fl r S.' fl tI* * un n nfl





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


the year of $3,323.95, of which
road roller. The total amount
ments up to June 30, 1913, was


$2,879.80 was for the


purchase of


expended in Panama for the improve-
$226,289.91.


Work was started on the permanent town site at Balboa in March
and included the installation of 750 linear feet of reenforced-concrete
storm sewer and 1,222 linear feet of reenforced-concrete drains, filling
hydraulically of a portion of the town site with material pumped from


inner


harbor excavation


, laying out of the


permanent laborers'


bmcks, and the location of the permanent administration building.


lI eonaection


mat1al


with


were excavated


latter,


approximately


preparatory to


36,500 cubic yards


installation


founda-


tion, concrete piers for the columns were placed, and the erection of
the stl frame for the superstructure was begun.


Sanitary work


consisted


cleaning


593,127


drains, excavating 5,079 cubic yards of new


1p023382


linear


feet of


cement


drains,


filling


linear


sarth
2,86


feet


earth


drains, sweeping


2


cubic


yards


holes and swamps, laying 2,520


linear feet of tile drains, construct-


img


10,566


linear


feet


cement


drains,


and


clearing


acres


vegetation.


For


further


information


concerning


operations


fifth


division, attention is invited to Appendix D.
SIXTH DIVISION.


As alr
dredging
purposes


eady
and
were


c ief engi never.


Ct in


p esent


October,


keeps


noted,


on the


procuring


organized


into


abolition


sand


from


a separate


Pacific


Cham6
district


It was decided in February, 1913,


1918, by removal
it the waters of


of the dike at


lake.


division


construction


reporting


flood


Gamboa,


was


Culebra


which


estimated


that


- - a


dbsovdi 30,000 cubic yards had to be removed from the lake section
north *of -Gambon and that this could be done most economically by


dredging


small


spalls,


Oucaracha


could


slide, whi
Removed


kh consists la
economically


srgel
by


steam


clay


and


shovels


after the heavy rains had set in, but could be handled efficiently by


suction


dredges;


the conclusion


quent to the admission


was


reached,


of water into the


therefore,


Cut in


that subse-


October the


work


1KI ::


1c





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


The fleet available on the Atlantic side of the canal consists of the


seagoing


dredge


Caribbean


S5-yard


dipper


dredges


Chagre 8


and


Mindi, French ladder


tion


dredges.


One


dredges Nos. 1
f the pipe-line


and 5, and five


dredges,


after


pipe-line suc-
finishing the


hydraulic fill in the dam,


was overhauled and laid up in Gatun Lake


until


water in


lake


was of a sufficient depth


for it to begin


operations north


of Gamboa


, the other dredges operated


within


canal


prism


north


about


milepost


covering


a length


about


5 miles of the channel, removing therefrom during the year 5,730,379


cubic yards of


earth and


753,029 cubic yards of rock, at an average


cost of $0.2093 per cubic yard.


On July


1, 1913,


there remained


be removed from the prism 1,837,000 cubic yards of earth and 99,600


cubic


yards


rock.


rock


680,176 cubic yards were dumped in


excavated


vicinity


from 1
of the


channel,


west break-


water, making a


total to date furnished by the dredges for this pur-


pose of 1,810,108 cubic yards.


Of this amount,


651,000 cubic


yards


were dumped within the breakwater section proper.


In the removal


of rock from the channel


the drill boat Terrier drilled 43,062


linear


feet in the prism, breaking a total of 394,526 cubic yards of material.
At the end of the fiscal year 40 feet of water could be carried through
approximately the first mile and a half of the channel, 35 feet through


next


5 miles,


and


between


this


and


locks


depth


varied


from


feet.


The


siltage


in the


canal


prism


year


amounted to 2,084,000 cubic yards.


addition


to work in


the channel and in


the excavation for the


wing walls and north


center approach


pier


of the


locks already re-


ported, t
Cristobal


he dredges
, of the dry


operated


in the


dock at the


same


vicinity


new


docks


locality, of the mouth of the


Mindi


French


canal


and


Margarita


Island.


proach channel to the new


docks at Cristobal


665,018 cubic yards of


earth were removed at an average cost of $0.0614 per cubic yard, and


from
cubic


the slip


yards


between Piers 16 and


earth


and


189,284


on the new terminals 155,693


cubic


yards


coral


rock


were


dredged


at an average cost of $0.3089 per cubic yard.


The


Terrier


also drilled 4,511 feet at the site of the permanent bridge across the


French


canal


railroad


connection


with


coaling


plant,


~a.


and





REPORT


CHAIRMAf


AND CHIEF


ENGINEER.


Ah Paifl tnnce of the canal


going suction


dredge Culebra, 5-yard


there were employed the sea-
dipper dredge Cardenas, four


French ladder dredges, the seagoing ladder dredge Corozal, and one


pipe- ie suction


dredge.


The


pipe-line


suction


dredge


was


trans-


fr from the Atlantic end when it had completed its work on the


hydraulic f1l for the Gatun Dam.


It was dismantled, the hull cut in


section and moved over by railroad to Balboa,


was put in com mission
was3b in commlJl wIissi-on


on November


1912.


For the


remainder


of the year it was employed


principally in


dredging material from


the site of the proposed inner harbor and terminal basin at Balboa.


The total amount removed from


the canal


prism during the year


aggregated 4,321,956 cubic yards, of which 1,047,929 cubic yards were
rok. The average cost during the year was $0.3238 per cubic yard.
At the close of the fiscal year there remained to be removed from the


prism
rock.
121,161
Teredo


1,847,774


cubic


yards


earth


and


1,600,000


Of the total amount of rock removed from


cubi
and


c


yards


were


drilled


broken by the


rock


cubic y
,he canal


dril


breaker


yards


I prism,
1 barge
Vulcan.


The remainder includes


operations


inm previous


rock which had


years


and


material


been br
l which


ken by
could 1


Star


drill


handled


by the dredges without drilling and blasting.


Auxiliary


dredging outside of the canal


342 cubic yards, of which


prism aggregated


3,695 cubic yards were of rock.


1,457,-
Of this


auxiliary work, 1,453,647


cubic yards of earth and 3,695 cubic yards


of rock were removed from the inner harbor and terminal basin site.
At the close of the year there remained to be removed from the inner
harbor and terminal basin, 6,363,240 cubic yards of earth and 372,062


cubic yards of rock.


The clearing of this site extended over an area


of 1,050,988 square feet and consisted of cutting brush and trees and


blasting
diversion


stumps.
channel,


An
for


orange-peel
draining s


dredge


wamp


excavated


lands


7,800


Balboa


feet
be


claimed by hydraulic filling.
During the year, 445,658 cubic yards of sand, bucket measurement,
were procured from Cham6 by dredging and transferred to the sand


bins at Balboa at a cost of $0.5378 per cubic yard in
this amount, 435 758 cubic yards were transferred to


a^^ :^ .A- aH -Jf -~ j^ - ... _.-. -^


AnnKK KKKnnK


and after reerection


65,953 cubic


and


yards


blasted


the bins.


the stock piles


I


*


ri


o]


(





REPORT


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Arrangements


Corosal


will


were
moved


made
L into


which


Culebra


i two suction
Cut as soon


dredges and


as the


locks


the
will


permit of their passage and the depth of water is sufficient, with a view


attacking Cucaracha slide.


The suction


dredges will remove the


clay and,


assisted by relay pumps located on the 95-foot level on the


west bank,


will discharge into the Rio Grande


Valley.


The Corozal


will


handle


heavier material,


depositing it


in the


low


areas


Gatun Lake.


Anticipating the necessity for completing the Cut by


dredges,


a contract


was entered


into


on January


1913,


construction


largest


and


and


most


delivery
powerful


Colon


type


in use.


two


dipper


dredges of the
to be equipped


with 15-yard


buckets or dippers


for dredging soft material and


yard


buckets


for rock.


Deliveries


are expected


tidewater in


United States
and January :


, ready for shipment to the Isthmus, December


, 1914.


1, 1913,


To serve these dredges six dump scows of 1,000


cubic yards capacity were contracted for under date of June 13, 1913;
two of these scows are to be delivered on or before December 12, 1913,


two


on or before


January


1914,


and


remaining


two


on or


before March 13


1914.


For further details attention


is invited


Appendix E.


SECOND DIVISION.


This


division


charge


design


and


construction


terminal facilities, meteorological


work, supervision


of the mechani-


cal division


, and of expenditures and allotment


for the work.


It is


charge of Mr. H.
the chief engineer.


H. Rousseau


United


States Navy, as assistant


The act approved August 28,


1902, authorizing the construction of


canal


directed


President


"also


construct


such


safe


and


commodious harbors at the termini of said canal as shall be necessary


for the safe and


convenient


use thereof."


The estimate of the cost


canal


construction ol
thing for such


, prepared


in December,


1908,


breakwaters,


harbor improvements


as m8


made
but did
y be cl


provision


assed


for the


as terminal


facilities,


which h


iad
rt.


been


operated


and


provided


heretofore by the


-- n- -- J^ kkka nq- ice. nnm-1 -h


They


Sthe necessary


not include any-




I T \
N'^ni W


REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


Railroad or otherwise; dry docks, repair shops, yards, docks, wharves,
warehouses, storehouses, and other necessary facilities for the purpose


providing


coal


and


other


materials,


labor,


repairs,


and


supplies


for vessels of the Government of the United States and, incidentally,


for supplying such


a reasonable


price


passing vessels."


The


sndry oii act approved August 24,1912, made the necessary appro-


priations for the work.


While, in anticipation of favorable action by


Congress, some preliminary work was undertaken, active operations
could not be begun until last fall; consequently the terminal facilities
can not be completed by the time the canal is ready for passing vessels.


The Pe ficl terminals,


which are being constructed by the commis-


sion,


will consist of a main


dry


dock


capable of docking any vessel


that can utilize the lo ks, a smaller dry


dock for the use of smaller


craft, a plant for supplying coal and fuel oil to vessels, the necessary
rharves and piers for commercial purposes, and the permanent shops
for use in connection with the dry docks.


The Atlantic terminals consist of wharves and


including the Cristobal mole,


piers at Cristobal,


all of which are being constructed by


Panama


Railroad


own


expense,


and


main


plant


supplying coal and fuel


to vessels; the cost of the coaling plant


will
Co.,


be divided


while


between


commission


the commission


will


furnish


and


facilities


Panama


Railroad
General


drawings showing the layout of these terminals will be found in the


annual report for


1912.


As already noted, the larger dry dock will be able to dock a vessel


1,00 feet long and


will


have an


entrance


width


110 feet.


The


depth of water over the top of the blocks at mean sea level


will be


feet, at mean high


water 41.5


feet,


and at mean low water 29.8


This dock will rest on rock and for a considerable portion of


its depth will be in solid rock.


The general design of the dry docks


has


been


worked


out and


preparation


detail


drawings cornm-


minced.


Mitering


lock


gates,


similar


those


canal


locks


and operated in the same manner, will forp the closure to the dock,


and


beyond


gates proper


a seat


for the floating


caisson


which


will be constructed for general canal use.


The dock will be flooded


by means of longitudinal ducts in the side walls communicating with
�L - 2f -. .� L.H -. .A 1- 11 ". nn itS "1 .2 :s n n *i -~ iL LI a a1 a T J r~L L . t4


feet.





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CASAL


COMMISSION.


water.


Suitable


tracks


a 50-ton


locomotive


crane


will


provided entirely around the dock.


All necessary capstans and bol-


lards will


be installed and a pipe tunnel,


with suitable outlets,


will


be constructed around the dock.


Stairways leading to the floor will


be built on each side at the entrance, on each side at the head, and at


two


points along the length


of each side wall.


At the intermediate


points arrangements will be made
into the dock. A contract was ent


e


by which material
red into October 22


can


, 1912,


passed
for one


pair


steel


delivered


canal


mitering


on the


locks


leaves


Isthmus.


that


and


These


miter and


fixed
gates
quoin


irons 1
differ


ends


fabricated


from


and


those


fitted


with


green heart bearing pieces, rather than


provided for lock gates.


with the metal bearing pieces


This change was adopted in the interest of


increased water-tightness, as the dock will stand dry for the greater


portion


of the time, and the amount of metal


exposed


to the action


of sea


water will


be reduced.


The smaller dry dock will have sufficient length to dock a ship 350


feet long, a


width at entrance of 71 feet,


with a depth of water over


the top of the keel
mean high water of


blocks at mean sea level


of 16 feet


10 inches, at


feet 4 inches, and at mean low water of 11 feet


inches.


This


dock


was


substituted


two


marine


railways


originally
preference


contemplated,


such


a dock


Navy


and


Department


local


conditions


having


expressed


favoring


This


dock will be founded on rock


of gravity section.


, but the greater part of its walls will be


The dock will be closed by a floating steel caisson


bearing against granite sills when in place.


The method of flooding


will be similar to that for the larger dock and the flow of water will


be similarly


controlled.


For emptying the dock the


pumping plant


of the


larger dock will be


utilized.


Access to the


floor of the dock


will be by means of four stairways, two at the entrance and two at the


head


alongside each


latter two


material


slides


will


con-


structed.


It will be provided with the same accessories as the larger


dock.


The


wharves


and


docks contemplated


will


consist of a quay wall


1,238 feet long between the head of Slip No. 1 and the northeast end
of the new Panama Railroad concrete dock, and 1 pier 1,000 feet long


- -- - . a . S -


*- - 0l t -I


4I **i -4 -I J- . W


*l fl U. A.. .U - I I . *L _ . A-- * -- ... s I I- * I ... . I - - . J I **- . - ..I - - -- �~ -.I -





KEPORT


a :'!: a - j l k - - . :*-. . . -- . . .


ORAIRMAN


AND


IP9u-~s 1u i- (J1NGINEERt


cavatedto 45 feet below mean tide.


The elevation of Pier No. 1 and


the adjoining wharves at the head of the slips has been placed at 16


fat B inches.


T he . el of the quay wall adjoining the Panama Rail-


road D k has been fixed at elevation 17, the same level as the Panama
RiWrond Dock.
The coaling station on the Pacific side will be adjacent to the site
of the dry dock and will be capable of handling and storing 100,000


tons of


coal,


with a


possible


increase of


cent.


Subaqueous


storage willbe provided for 50,000 ton


Specifications were issued


for the coal-handling plants at the two terminals and proposals asked


for plants in accordance with the general specifications.


These plants


are to be delivered and


erected in


place


by the contractor,


the sub-


structure and all other work in connection therewith to be performed


by the commission


with its own forces.


Bids were opened on June


14, and


when


award is


determined


plans conforming


with


machinery will be prepared for the substructure.


The specified rate


for unloading coal from vessels into the storage piles has been fixed
at 250 tons per hour for e ch machine, and the desire is to unload two
vessels at one time at the Atlantic plant, with two unloading machines
to each vessel, and one vessel at the Pacific plant with two machines.
The reloading capacity-that is, transferring coal from storage into
collier or barge-has been fixed, after consideration of the reloading


capacity


of modernm


commercial


plants in


United States,


at the


rate of 500 tons per hour for each machine.


It is proposed to equip


the Atlantic plant so thattwo vessels can be loaded at one time,


with


two machines serving each vessel, and on the Pacific side so that one


vessel can be loaded


with


two machines.


The main machine shops were located at Gorgona,


which


will


flooded by the lake as the waters rise.


The shops at Balboa and Cris-


tohal, in connection with the shipways and dry docks at these locali-


ties,


were generally


adequate for the maintenance and repair of the


dre4ging


fleet.


With


adoption


of the


policy


giving


repair


facilities to any vessel that could use the locks, as well as to the Navy,


the construction of new


shops near the dry docks became necessary.


The permanent shops proper will consist of 18 buildings for the ma-
chine, erecting, and tool shops; forge shop; steel storage shed; boiler
nun hitnfittn Ar * (hTInn rnnaal Qthnrahncim Tninst chnmn. rnQ Qcr * nlaln





REPORT


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


which formed


the old town.


The Panama Railroad yard was aban-


doned after a new yard
porary use. Considerab


work expeditiously


and


track facilities were


)le difficulty


and


provided for ternm-


was experienced in


economically


carrying on


because of the interests of


other


divisions


and


departments


whose


work


and.


operations


could


not be interrupted.


To provide room around the head of the location


of the
French


main
pier,


dry


dock for tracks and a


highway


the northwest slope of Sosa Hill


leading to


was removed,


the old
184,682


cubic yards of rock and


181,729


cubic yards of


earth


or a total


366,411 cubic yards being excavated.


The total quantity excavated in


preparing the site


was 389,567


cubic yards at a cost of


$0.5447


cubic yard.


The greater part of this material


was used to fill in the


adjacent swamp to bring the area up to the adopted grade,


and some


of the rock was furnished the Atlantic division for paving the south


slope of Gatun Dam.


The original surface elevation of the dry-dock


was


the deepest general


excavation


for the


foundation


will


therefore


be about


feet.


The lowest


shovel


cut on


June


30 was


12 feet below


sea level


on the coaling-plant site at the southwest


end of the excavation.


From this site


203,699 cubic yards of material


were removed, at an average cost of $0.8461


per cubic yard, of which


56,900 cubic yards were rock.


The site


for the smaller dry


dock is


at present occupied by the shipways and shops of the dredging divi-


sion,


which


abandoned


until


other


repair


facilities


floating equipment are available elsewhere.


To protect the entrance


of the main dry dock and the entire area to be occupied by the smaller


dock, and to enable the removal in


the dry


of as much rock as pos-


sible


from


facilitate


a cofferdam


entrance


the construction


composed


basin


main


dry


dock,


as well


of the coaling-plant quay wall and


clay


riprapped


with


rock


around


as to
basin,
these


various works was


begun


on April 1,


1913.


When


complete it will


be about 1,000 feet in length.
For the construction of the quay walls and pier the rock is found


at an average elevation of 60 feet below mean tide,


in some cases be-


ing as high as 33 feet and in others as low as 66 feet below this level.


The elevation


of the


original


swamp


was


about


9 and


the material


through


which the concrete cylinders are to be sunk is a fine, sticky,


- - -~ - a a




2~ C
<4>


REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


fUAND CHeF ENGINEER.


iron and concrete weights in conjunction with the water jet.


considered


that the
service i


progress
Available.


advisable


this late


sinking the


After


cylin


date


cylinders were
Elders were


0 increase
depended


sunk


It was


plant,


on the


several


feel


crane
into


rock they were filled with concrete.


forced


concrete


beams


for


They are to be capped by reen-


supporting


floor.


The


area


within


which the quay walls and pier are to be constructed was inclosed by


dike


which


was


begun in July


of 1912.


During the


year, of the


2,500 feet of cylinders that


will be required


to complete the


work,


12,435


feet


were


placed.


Of this


amount


, 8,450


feet


were


main quay wall, 289 feet for the walls at the head of Slips 1 and 2,


and 3,696
averaged


feet for
$18.4708


Pier
per


The cost of these cylinders in


linear


place


foot.


During the year the greater portion of the area to be occupied by


the
land


shops


was


brought


with material


made


ip to grade
available by


filling


excavating


low


operation


swampy
is. The


natural surface of the ground


was not sufficiently stable to hold


the buildings, so it was found necessary to reach rock for the founda-


tions


excavating to


it where sufficiently near the surface,


or by


driving piles to the rock,


sea level.


cylinders,


which in places was as low as 56 feet below


Near the water front it was necessary to use 4-foot steel


filled


with


concrete


and


sunk


rock,


foundations.


During the year the number of piles driven was 3,750 at an average


cost of $0.4820 per linear foot,


and 7,787


cubic yards of concrete at a


cost of $9.2091 per cubic yard were placed in the footings and in the


tannel.


operating


tunnel,


running


through


center


and


right


angles to the length of the main shop buildings, is under construction


for carrying and making accessible all pipe and cable conduits.


The


main trunk will have a clear height of 6


feet and a.


width of 4 feet


6 inches,


and


with


branches


the same


height and


a width


feet 6 inches.
fire-alarm


The tunnel will contain all power, light, telephone, and


bbles,


and


water,


mains, and the main sewer.


occupied
drains.


shop


steam,


Rain


buildings


fuel-oil,


and


water will be carri


means


surface


For its construction a steam shovel mounted


- r_


compressed-air
ed off the area


gutters


on skids,
nfL


and
with
- 1


!


__J dfk J �-*L





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


necessary for these and for the floor of the building was complete
during the year.
A little more than 25 miles of track were laid during the year, of


which


Panama


road


amount


9,212


feet


were


remainder


Sosa Hill,


tracks


construction


which had


use of the


purposes.


reconstructed,


The
was


3,300 feet long.


The


6,000


steel
tons,


framework


being


furnished


shop
and


buildings,


erected


aggregating


contract


about
dated


October


1912


$0.036


pound


main


buildings.


supplemental order was given


on January 25, 1913, for the steel for


nine


toilet buildings and


began


last week


paint


February


house.


and


The


rolling of the steel


the first shipment left


Balti-


more on March 30.


On June 30 the status of the work was about as


follows


material had


been rolled in


the mill,


66.5


per cent


finished in shops, 56.5 per cent shipped to tidewater, and 43 per cent
shipped to the Isthmus.
A contract was made October 24, 1912, for 6,500 squares of reen-


forced
chine


cement


shops


ile roofing
$10.25 per


for all
square


quarter-pitched


delivered


and


roofs


of the


$13.25


ma-


square


erected


in place,


commission


furnishing


certain


materials,


such


as sand and cement, and facilities, such as suitable buildings, power,


and water.


All tile is being manufactured on the Isthmus, at Paraiso.


The contract required all plant to be on the Isthmus by


January 25,


1913, and


the completion of manufacture by


June 25, 1913.


close of the year 49.12 per cent had been manufactured
cent had been laid.


and


At the
7.9 per


For the Atlantic terminals the quay wall and


one pier were prac-


tically


completed


Panama


Railroad


during


year,


material purchased for the steel work for the sheds, and a subsequent


contract


made


diamond-drill


erection.


The


of the


coaling


Railroad


station


also
and


made
work


was begun


by the dredging division


in June,


1913


on drilling and


blasting preparatory to dredging alongside the proposed coaling pier.


designing the


permanent shops the


principle


was


aimed


reduce to a minimum the cost of repairs and renewals,


without exceed-


---------------------------- - Li - f k- 21I :-- __ L. l - Eat a^:- *q L - a i jk a - j43 Hf.a..4a J at 4! aL .- hN Ia j-h C i a. *-


Railroad,
he foot of


permanent


under


borings


Panama





-frM 0 *RIf:AN


AND OHIEP ENGINEER.


tion


will be employed.


Buildings which require it will be closed in


with wails of hollow terra-cotta tile, plastered


with cement mortar;


other


buildings,


such


as the main metal


and


wood


working


shops,


which d tnot require to be closed in


will be surrounded


with a con-


create


wall


feet 6


inches high,


above


which


there


will


movable


metal shutters or louvers as protection against wind and rain.


The


pattern shop and storehouse will have a second floor consisting of a


reenforced


concrete


slab


resting on steel


beams and


girders incased


Concrete.


The lumber shed and steel-storage


shed


will have


fet floors surfaced with cinders, sand, or gravel.


In the main shops


the floor will consist of a concrete base covered with 3Si-inch creosoted
wooden blocks.
The selection and location of equipment in the different shops was


practically


completed


during the


year.


The


greater number of the


machines and
present shops.


tools for the permanent shops will be taken from the
While many of them have seen hard service and are


less efficient than those of recent design, it is considered


to install an11 d use them
IJsital

until


the character and


quantity


economical
of work to


performed


new


plant


become


definitely


known,


so as to


enable the types and sizes of machines best adapted to the work to be


selected.


Electric


power


44,000


volts


delivered


transmission line to a substation adjacent to


the pump


well


of Dry


Dock No. 1, where the voltage will be reduced to 2,200 volts for dis-
tribution. The shops have been arranged in four groups as regards
electric distribution and bach group provided with transformers and


switchboards for reducing the voltage.


All power used in the plant


will


be 3-phase, 25-cycle, 220-volt,


except 220-volt direct current in


the machine shop for variable-speed tools.


Duplicate motor-genera-


sets


will


installed


machine


shop


furnishing


current required.


In a
pletion


anticipation


of requirements that will


develop


after


of the canal, investigations and inspections were


cornm-


made dur-


ing the past two years of the principal floating cranes in the


States and Canada, as well as abroad,


United


with a view to determining the


type
ei *^***


crane that


will


best


meet


canal


requirements.


The


con-


clusion was reached that two floating cranes of the largest size would





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


investigation


and


inspection


of the


most


modern


and largest


harbor tugs in use on the Atlantic coast of the


United States and in


the leading
years, and


ports
the e


England


timates


was
the


also
fiscal


made
year


during
1913-14


last


included


two
an


amount


considered


sufficient


purchase


four


such


tugs.


Arrangements were made at the close of the past year for the prep-
aration of plans and specifications for suitable tugs for the purpose.


Numerous


applications


have


been


received


from


coal


dealers


loading space for the handling of their coal in supplying vessels that


will use the canal.


No authority exists for leasing any land or land


under water in the Canal Zone, except the act of February 27, 1909,
which provides for the leasing of land for agricultural purposes only.


was


nopoly


never intended


of the coal


that


business


Government


on the


should


Isthmus,


exercise
utilize t


a mo-


coal


stored here for the use of the Navy in maintaining uniform prices of


this


product


shipping.


order


encourage


individuals


and


companies in the business of furnishing coal to vessels which use the


canal


, the policy has been adopted of providing storage in connection


with
Spaniel


both
swh


coaling plants


)


desire


for the coal


participate


in the


piles of individuals


business.


There


and
will


com-


certain rental charge for the areas and


in addition, a real estate tax


of 1


per cent of the


value of the improvements, should any be made,


and a merchandise tax of 5 cents for each 2,000 pounds of coal sold.
The Government will do all the handling and charges for putting the
coal into storage and taking it out, charges for the use of coal barges,


and


other


price to
adopted


labor in


connection


Government


with reference to oil.


vicinity


with
such


this service


service.


will


The


be fixed at cost


same


It is proposed to equip the


of the coaling station at the


13 and 14 at Mount Hope on


Pacific terminus and


the Atlantic side


with


policy


was


wharf in


docks


fuel-oil supply


and


delivery mains in


duplicate,


together with


the necessary pumps,


so that the Government will be able to handle satisfactorily


all fuel


oil, including fuel oil of individuals and companies who may wish to
participate in the fuel-oil business on the Isthmus, on the same gen-
eral terms as those applying to the coal business.


contract was entered into


on October


, 1912, for four storage


tnnir


iA1 ia ma4ir


anri


fnot


hTiahhf.


acrh


h'avnna


.... ... . .


fant


... f


*




iV" - ...- ^-: _ --: ___ . - __. ~~: ___ � -, __ _ -: - *-,-* . *w:i- W kj IIrl~tBiU ~ H t W -h�- M:l.lc- 1 ** < - ^f B *^


REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND OHTit ENGINEER.


records were
Twenty-six


kept
'ainfall


t Gatun
Stations


Pedr
were


m


Miguel,


S a,


in operation,


and
of


Miraflores.


which


were


equipped with standard and 11


with automatic ramin gauges.


Evapo-


ration stations were maintained at Ancon, Rio Grande,


Gatun Lake,


BwasosBrook reservoir


and


Colon.


Seismograph


stations


were


operation at
we located


Ancon and


Colon


Gatun.


and


Duplicate automatic tide registers


Balboa.


For


Fortification


Board


maximumrn and minimum temperatures were recorded


Mfraflores dumps.


Regular gauging work was discontinued


on the
on the


smaller streams at the end of the year 1912, the work being interfered


with by ba ckwater from


Gatun Lake.


The most important hydrological change during the year was the


rig, of Gatun Lake.


July


1912,


the elevation


was 31.


The


stage of the water fluctuated, as regulated at the spillway, reaching


an extreme


height


56.28


feet


above


level


on November


From studies made it appears that the lake basin is subject to


very


little


seepage


other


underground


losses.


The


records


Chagres River and its tributaries show the calendar year, 1912, to be


second in order of dryness since American


largest freshet since December,


1910,


occupation in 1904.


occurred


on November 28


The
and


29, 1912,


when there was a rise of 19.6 feet at


Vigia and of 12.3 feet


at Alhajuela, the discharge at the latter point being 54,000 cubic feet
per second.


The


haboye


average
normal,


temperature for
especially

calendar


dry


year


season.


1912


March


was


well


was


warmest


month


Ancon


and


April


Culebra


and


Colon.


The


highest temperatures recorded in April-97�


at Culebra-established new


high


F. at Ancon a


temperature records


nd 96� F.
these sta-


tons.


November was the coolest month at all stations, the minimum


rpcorded being 65�
The rainfall du


F. at Culebra.


ring


1912


was


below


normal


everywhere


except


immediately along the Pacific coast, although generally heavier than


the annual rainfall for


1911.


The heaviest precipitation


was


147.61


inches, at Porto
at Ancon.


Bello, and the minimum rainfall


was


71.78 inches,


There was a notable excess in


wind movement during


1912.


The


Mrik ft a


-1 .. . -


-W s- a


dlPT 0 TT


1 E' 0 i


A


nfl a nfl - A


a tTowe dhw Tra 8t 8 .





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


CO MISSION.


Surveys


were


made


Miraflores


lake


watershed,


Corozal


Hospital


farm, Darien Radio Station reservation for the Navy


De-


apartment, Chagres River from Gamboa to the Zone boundaryto locate


gravel banks, and the area in


the vicinity of Mount


Hope


proposed


for oil storage.
the Canal Zone


The boundary line between the city


was run


out and monuments


of Panama and


located.


error of


100 meters was found in the recorded distance between triangulation
stations Gamboa and Obispo, the recorded distance being 1,093.34 and


the correct distance


1,193.34 meters.


Considerable survey work was


also done for the department of law and the joint land commission.
Further details concerning the work of the second division will be
found in Appendix F.


The mechanical


work,


performed


by the mechanical


division


and


elsewhere on the Isthmus, will be found in report of Lieut. Col.
Dickson, United States Army, forming Appendix G.


CONSTRUCTION OF THE NEW PANAMA RAILROAD.


The


construction


new


line


Panama


Railroad


was


practically


completed on May 25, 1912,


when


the portion of the line


from


Gamboa


over to t
consisted


Pedro


railroad


Miguel


and


company and


back


accepted.


Gold
Work


Hill


was turned


during the year


of riprapping the slopes of the embankments through


Gatun Lake section,


building a lift span


of the bascule type


bridge


spanning


Gatun


River


automatic signals throughout the


Lieut.


Frederick Mears,


line.


United States


Monte
Their
Army,


Lirio,


and


work was in


chief


installing
charge of


engineer


of the


Panama Railroad.
Material from Culebra Cutwas utilized during the year in strength-
ening the embankments near mile posts 20, 21, and 24, and also the


embankment


in the


Brazos


Valley.


The


total


amount


material


used for the purpose was 257,831 cubic yards.
The bridge across the Gatun River at Monte Lirio consists of the
three plate-girder spans formerly used on the old line of the railroad


crossing the


Chagres


River


Barbacoas.


The


center


span,


103-foot plate girder,


was converted into a lift span by the addition


lifting


trusses,


lifting


mechanism


and


counterweight.


will





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


the main


tracks are


not on


permanent


grade


and


alig" ent.


The


signals placed between Pedro Miguel and Cooz were moved
when it became necessary to use the nw hine ofthe railroad for the


passage of


dirt trains to enule the c ing


of the old line


for the


construction of the Miraflores spilwy.
For further details, attetion is invited to Appendix H.


JRAIGA $ONS.


approved


August


1912,


.
$1 000,000 was made for the gun and mortar batteries for the defense
of the canal against naval attack making the total 'a
appropriate


$3,000,000,
the ~work.


which


is sufficient


addition,


---_--


for the completion


$200,000


were


- - l.'


of this


appropriated


--r. r-- r- - ,ww ^,-


portion
Island


senses.


Work was continued during the year on the gun and mortar bat-


tries.


The


detailed


surveys


necessary


location


land


defenses were


well advanced


to completion and arrangements made


begin


work


on July


, 1913,


on the


construction


redoubts


accordance with


plans prepared


a board


appointed for the pur-


pose and approved by the Secretary of War.


During the year 416,542.5 cubic yards of excavation, at an average


cost of $0.9225


per cubic yard,


were done;


131,952.8 cubic yards af


concrete,


an average


cost of $7.0670 per


cubic


yard,


were


93,808 linear feet of piling, at a cost of $0.4311 per linear foot,
driven; and 100,957 cubic yards of filling, at a cost of $0.172


laid;
were
0 per


oubic yard,


were done by one of the dredges.


The amount expended


ror gun
$41790.95.


and


mortar


batteries


was


$1,432,767.01,


I


Thework was in charge of Lieut. George R. Goethals, United


Army, assisted by Lieut. A. LH. Aeher,
1. M. Elder and Mr. H. P. Warre


surveys

States


United States Army, and Mr.


n as


superintendents


con-


struction.


COST KREPfNG.


the -me thods of cost keeping
continued throughout the year.


adopted


on Jwruary


1, 010,


were


In addition to thoereported a year


aUo. cost accounts were initiated for theernetion 1f rmnent hid-


By


appropriation


� --row V





REPORT


ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


the office.


These projects, as well as the construction of the dock at


Cristobal and of the new


Washington Hotel at Colon, are in charge


of the Panama Railroad Co., and their costs are not included in this


report.


The


costs


made


labor


engaged


in and


material applied


to the work, an arbitrary to absorb


the cost of the


plant,


and


a proper


proportion


division


overhead


charges.


The general expenses of the commission are prorated to the different
parts of the work and must be added to the division costs in order to


determine


sarily


have


total


control


costs.
over


division


items


which


engineers
make un


neces-


these


general


expenses, the costs reported are the division costs, except where noted


contrary.


The


cost-keeping


accountant


Mr.


Ad.


Faure,


ports d
October


directly i
1, 1912,


chief


engineer.


in supervising and


His


duties


consisted,


verifying the statements of costs


furnished


division


engineers,


establishing


accounts


new


work,


and


tion


preparing


detail


costs


statistical


for the


data.
aids 1


October


navigation


1 the


was


prepara-


transferred


his office


on January


1 that for the reorganized


divisions of the


former
gineer's
though


Pacific
office;


division


and


the details


and


on April


costs


that


furnished


first


for the


division


Atlantic


chief


division.


have greatly increased in


past year, the expense of securing this data has decreased from about
$3,600 per month to $3,000 per month.


distribution


general


expenses,


the central


division


con-


tinues to carry the


larger proportion,


due


fact that


prior to


1907 but little work was done except in this division, so that all
overhead charges were properly added to it.


Excavation


by steam shovels in


the central


division


shows an in-


creased


cost over last year of $0.0410, the


principal item


of increase


being in the cost of repairs to equipment-$0.0297.
In the Atlantic division the costs for dredging in


lower this year than last,


due


larger


ratio


prism


of material


were
exca-


vated


by pipe-line suction


dredges.


the Pacific division


the cost


was higher than last year,


due to the larger ratio of rock excavation


and


increased


depth,


which is attended


with additional expense


because of the great tidal


variations.


Hydraulic


exavatioafn in


channel


hblnw


1iraflnres


LTnck r


*& _* W tA-tEA JUt t* L 7..J tttb . tjAI tIE t' .J.L AJ. flE-- mA&_f . taa - tt tJ*,_� ,*a* .'^A.. NJ ~t * *Y*...l.-i -- ^r,^- *** -- %k^RJ -^ " WV-i - w- - - --


was





REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


E IGINEER.


There Was a t0t l of 771,907 cubic yards of masonry laid in the
locks and spillwaysduring the year, as against 1,443,570 cubic yards
lo and sp*** ^*illways lil ^ *"W^


during the p
first division


previous year.


connection


Thi


is inclusive of masonry


with


installation


laid by the


operating ma-


chiiery.


The


costs


cubic


yard


masonry


were:


Gatun


Lo , $7.t274; -atn spillway, $8.1227; Gatun power house, $8.5739;
Pedro Miguel Damr, $5.0240; Pedro Miguel Locks, $7.5976; Miraflores


at Dm, $4.8880; Mirafliores aspillway, $5.8497;


Mirafl ores Locks,


$80445.


Plain


concrete


shows


projet4 except Gatun Locks,


increased


due to


cost


reduced


over


last


year in


quantities of concrete


laid and to the use of a larger ratio of auxiliary mixers.


Loks plain concrete shows a decrease of $0.5934,


At Gatun


principally in


coat of sand


and stone,


expense


steel


forms


and


arbitrary for plant, the decrease in the cost of sand and stone being


due to readjustment of


stock


prices


(revised


cross-section measure-


ment of the stock piles having shown more stone in storage than


was


carried on


the books), and


to securing sand from


Gatun instead of from Nombre de Dies.


the borrow pit at


At Miraflores Locks plain


concrete shows an increase of $0.4406 per cubic yard, principally in
I I*A ^r //^1mg* " _


cement, mixing
of reenforced


wood forms,


and


placing.


Fluctuations in


the cost


concrete are due to the different classes of reenforced


concrete laid during the two years.


The dam at Gatun


was increased by


1,714,367


cubic yards of dry


at a division


cost


of $0.2755


cubic


yard,


and


169,114 cubic


yard of hydraulic fill at d division


cost of $0.2654


per cubic yard.


At the close of the year there were in place at Gatun Dam 11,578,268


cubic


'yards


dry


a cost


$0.4063


cubic


yard,


and


10,124,089 cubic yards of hydraulic fill at a cost of $0.2933 per cubic
yar d.


During the


fiscal


year


1913


no filling for


Colon


Breakwater


was secured from


Toro Point; 183,762 cubic yards of large rock se-


cured from Porto Bello quarry were placed in the breakwater at an


average division cost of $4.8250 per cubic yard.


This yardage is the


volume of rock in


bank.


Last year


65,138 cubic yards


of this


rock were placed in the breakwater at a division cost of $4.3064 per


cubic


yard.


^flit * A- - -JK a^.AW Jietm a. aWMW I ni aVW nh i�|i|- Sff a~ Zn^^ -k-� ~ .aJi Ctf .. AtS� W ~ 1^ -if nL - -. a


= � ,=


g,





REPORT


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


sand at an average cost of $0.7111 per cubic yard delivered in stowage.
To the end of the fiscal year there has been secured from this soure
1.741,196 cubic yards of sand at an average cost of $0.7666 per cubic


yard.


From the pit at Nombre de Dies on the Atlantic side,


which


was opened in March, 1909, anrd closed in November, 1911, there was


secured
$1.9176


785,893


cubic


per cubic yard


yards of


sand


delivered in storage.


an average division


cost of


During the year there


was secured from the borrow pit near Gatun dam 43,851 cubic yards
of sand at an average cost of $0.5188 per cubic yard.
To the close of the year the following amounts had been expended:


On spillway
$40,625.69.


gates


and


caissons at Gatun, $73,732.22;


at Miraflores,


spillway gate machines and their erection, at Gatun,


$91,122.95


at Miraflores


, $64,299.22.


On lock gates and


their erec-


tion, at Gatun


$2,225,084.30


at Pedro Miguel, $1,373,537.13; at Mira-


flores, $1
Miguel,


Pedro


,233


,845.37.


$21.37


Miguel,


On fender chains, at Gatun, $3,886.95; at Pedro


emergency


$512,480.47;


dams,


Miraflores,


Gatun,


$38,803.75.


$816,184.77;


lock


rating machinery,


installation


Miguel


including towing-track system,


of machines, etc., at Gatun


$1,361,873.92


concrete


$2,592,232.64


at Miraflores, $1,561,817.40.


used in
SPedro


For the towing-


track system the following number of linear feet of return track were


laid by the construction divisions at the various locks


Gatun


, 10,527


average division


cost $1.3261


Pedro


Miguel,


4,33, average division


cost $1.1065


Miraflores, 5,925, average division cost $2.5637


and by


first


division at


Gatun,


1,449,


average


division


cost $1.9273;


Pedro


Miguel,


2,043,


1,082, average division


average


division


cost $0.6085 per


cost


$2.3678;


linear foot.


at Miraflores,
The number of


linear feet of track,


with rack installed by the first division, and the


average cost per linear foot were: At Gatun,


21,000, average division


cost $2.3128


at Pedro


at Miraflores, 14,137


connection


with


Miguel


, 12,199,


average division
the erection of


average division
cost $1.2291.


cost $2.0180;


operating machinery, installa-


tion


June 30,


towing


1913


tracks,


and


, 36,710 cubic


decking,
yards of


first


concrete as


division


follows


had


laid


At Gatun


locks
yard


16,706


cubic


Pedro


yards,


Miguel


average


Locks,


division


10,190 cubic


cost $18.4124


yards,


cubic


average division


a


a .* a. I 1 *


, "at It - r L 1 W .... n^ _4_1__" . . .. !11 _�





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


cubic yard.
harbor at t


of $0.1547
excavated


There
s latter


had


been


point


per cubic yard. F
145,478 cubic yards


dredged


in: p eparation


71,814 ti yar
t^~ ^
b the main dry
of material, and


at an


aver age


dock there had


inner
cost
been


for the coaling sta-


tion 58,221 cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.8461 per cubic yard.
In preparing the foundations for the shops 29,684 cubic yards of ma-


trial had been removed at an average cost of $1.5607


per cubic yard;


7,787 cubic yards of
spa60 percubic yia


conrete had been
d; 135,42 linear


er
limna feet of concrete piles had


and


$8.2&5S


per


linear


been
foot,


placed at an average cost of
feet of wood piles and 3,060


driven,


at an average


respectively.


cost of


constructing


thei doks12,435


linear feet of


concrete


caissons


were


placed


at an


vege, including excavation, of $18.4708 per linear foot.


The had been expended in the preparation


sites


$52458.77


and


construction


of permanent


permanent


town-


buildings


$55,918.76.
building 38,(


In the preparation of foundations for the administration


073


cubic yards


rnenge cofit of $0.5654


of material


had


per cubic yard, and


been excavated


at an


770 cubic yards of con-


rete had been laid in the foundations at an average cost of $12.8646


per cubi yard.


The


amount


during the fiscal


paid


year wa


bui for salary


Last


salaries
� 19.7


year it


clerks
cent


was


and
of the


20.55


supervisory


total
cent,


amour


forces
t dis-


indicating


saving in clerical and supervisory forces of about $185,000.
o father details concerning the cost of the various parts of the


wirh.and the performance of
vited to Appendix I.


the different


plants,


attention


QUARTERMASTER'S


DEPARTMENT.


The quartermaster'


of labor


care,


fl commissax


d epartmnent


is charged


with


furnishin, and assignment of quarters;
Ssumniies. and distilled water; construe


~tJ -- - I


Srecruitment
distributing
action and re-


pair all buildings; requisitioning for supplies of all kinds, together
wthe receipt and distribution of them on arrival; cutting of grass
and disposal of night soil and garbage as prescribed by the sanitary


dw wtment; and the auditing.. of all


property returns.


The depart-


$0.4820


*
:!






54

mission and
contractors


and


other


REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


the Panama Railroad and 5,644 on


handling the


contracts


work


in connection


on the lock


with


the pay rolls of the


gates,
work.


emergency


The


force


dams,


fluc-


tuated between 34,957


on June 30, 1912, to the maximum on the date


specified


December,


and


numbered


1912


43,350


became


close


necessary


recruit


fiscal


laborers,


year.


and


were


received


from


Barbados during


January


and


February,


1913.


There was a decided decrease .in immigration to the Isthmus as com-


pared


with


previous


years,


excess


arrivals


over


departures


amounting


3,510.


The


average


number


American


em-


ployees on the rolls of the commission during the year was 4,340 and


on the rolls of the Panama Railroad 870, or a


total


of 5,110.


Dur-


ing the same period there were 2,495 separations from the service of


commission,


1,010


persons


employed


in the


United


States


and


1,331


employed


on the


Isthmus,


indicating that


more


than


cent of the gold force was changed.


The commission


1,856


were


has 2,618


constructed


buildings


in the


Americans


Canal Zone,


and


of which
SFrench.


This is a decrease of 121 from the total


of the preceding year.


The


buildings


located


Nombre


Dios,


which


had


been


abandoned


when this locality ceased to be used as a source of sand supply,


were


sold.


stroyed
Culebra


addition,


fire.


Balboa


were


Those


demolished


demolished


and


were


4 blown


located


down


Bas


or de-


Obispo,


, and Naos Island, and the destruction was necessary


reason


work


or on account


slides.


Those


demolished


were small and of no


value.


New


construction


during the year was


less than


at any previous


additions made


time


to existing


20 new


ones.


buildings


The buildings


were


were


small


and
and


only two cost over $2,000.


The additions as a


rule were chargeable


to the Hotel Tivoli.


Due


to the slides at Culebra and the necessity


of transferring buildings from Gorgona and old Balboa,


the work of


removal


and


reconstruction


was on


a large


scale.


Sixty-two


build-


ings were taken down in sections and reconstructed in new locations.
The cost of the completed work amounted to $142,000, not including


buildings in the course of reconstruction on June 30, 1913, on


which


s3aa n0n


had


erla ady


hben


extended


Anr.l


1 the


lAW. cOn-


'I, . �r S V 'LJ L4Ja�. ts %4a w 0 - %i V 'W - - .w- - -, - - - - - - - - -- - -' a





REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


value to the original investment, as all unsound lumber was replaced,


new plumbing
connections put in,


andthehuetire^lliH^IAOl4"yill repalllinted


June 30,
m


1913,


there


were


23,184


men,


women,


and


children


occupying co
previous year.
European qua


mission


quarters,


practically the same


*Of these, 9,173 were in gold quarters,


rters, and


9,716


were in


West


Indian


as during the
4,295 were in


quarters.


90 per cent of the American and European employees occupy


mission quarters, but less than 25 per cent of the


Over
com-


West Indians take


advantage


of then.


The


problem


housing


employees


properly


was a difficult one. Because of the opening
there was a congestion, especially in bachelc
to. To meet the conditions it was necessa
large number of house for use as quarters.


up of the terminal work
r quarters, in this teri-
ry to move and reerect a
The demolition of the


settlements of


Balboa


and


Gorgona


complicated


the situation.


In moving Gorgona it was necessary to care for 200 American fami-
lies, 600 American bachelors, and several hundred West Indians who


occupied commission


quarters, and these were provided for at other


points.


This movement began in March and


was almost completed


at the close of the year.
The value of material received from the United States during the


year


was


greater


than


any


preceding


year;


amounted


$13,980,071, not including $2,535,860 paid to the McClintic-Marshall


Construction


or the


value


local


purchases


on the


Isthmus


amounting to $2,733,867. -'1
1,00,000 barrels in 1912 to


he consumption of cement decreased from


1,200,000


barrels in 1913; the total


con-


awmption to date amounted to 5,797,910 barrels.


During the year all


cement


was


purchased


in sacks,


which


83,475,408


were


received


and 29,882,968 were returned to the United States; of those returned,
8%75 sacks were rejected, or less than 1 per cent of those returned.
The consumption of lumber was approximately 27,000,000 feet board
measure, about the same as the preceding year, and the total receipts
of uInmber since the inception of the work have been 2381,000,000 feet


board


measure.


The


stock


on hand


all storehouses


on June


amounted


$3,436,995,


a decrease of


$284 ,217


from


stock


hand June 30, 1912.


The actual reduction


was greater than the net


Serease would indicate, as approximately $638,000 worth of material





REPORT ISTHMIAIN


OAlAL COMMISSTIOM.


Under the contract for the sale and removal of the French scrap


on the


Isthmus,


entered


into


September,


1911, 21,780 tons


were


collected from


points along the line sad shipped to the storage yard


Cristobal.


The


purchase


price was $215,000.


The


time


allotted


removal


of the


material


was three


years;


almost two


years


have elapsed and


the commission


has received


tract was entered into with the Chicago


House


but $13,473. .
Wrecking Co.


con-


cover-


ing all
would


American


iron


and


steel


scrap


accumulate during the fiscal


already


year.


accumulated


This scrap


totaled


or that


12,109


tons.
from


Payment


was to


Isthmus;


be made on ship's


the commission has received


f lading as shipped
only $18,571, as but


2.466 tons have been shipped.


The sale of scrap screenings removed


from


buildings


netted


$6,866


and scrap


rope'and hose


were


sold


value of $4,693.


Approximately $75,000 were


realized from


sale of copper and brass scrap that had accumulated in the operation
of the Gorgona brass foundry.
Besides the regular issues to departments and divisions of the corn-


mission


and


the Panama


employees, contractors,


Railroad a number of sales


were


private individuals, and companies,


made to
the total


amount aggregating $106,037.77


The value of stock on hand at the


obsolete storehouse on June 30 was $431,916, an


increase of $70,000


over the total on hand at the close of the previous fiscal


year.


Invi-


stations for bids were issued offering for sale a large amount of mate-
rial in the obsolete storehouse on February 28, 1912; of the 24 classes


advertised awards were made on but 6


as either no bids were received


on the other classes or the bids were below the upset price of the ma-


trial.


Under the circular issued on February 1,1913, satisfactory bids


were received on only four of the 27 classes advertised.


Results from


these sales demonstrate that this method of sale of the entire equipment


and material is not satisfactory.


Finnrms or contractors desiring ma-


trial buy only when they need it, and their necessities may not coin-


cide


with


particular time


when


advertisement


is made


so that


only the scrap dealer or middleman is benefited.
best results would be obtained by placing a fair


It is believed that
upset price on such


material


and


equipment


and selling it


when


opportunity


offers.


board of appraisal


was appointed to place values on all articles that





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


Railroad
supplies
stamps.


Co.,
from


leaving


$22,672.81


local merchants.


for the purchase of miscellaneous


The


balance


was


used


for postage


The


work


done


for the


sanitary


dpartmet,


consisting of gas


and brush cutting,


heretofore.


disposal of night soni ad garbage, continued aq


All grass was cut on request fro1 the sanitary depart-


mere
were


The


cut by


total amount cut was 7,5 acres, of


scythe,


at an average cost of $p05


which


4i$22


acres


per acre, and 2,534


hp hose mowe,


average


cast of $1.77


per acre.


The


area covered


by this sanitary work


was


approximately 2,980 acres.


taout of the sanitary work done
went amounted to $195,98 .2L


by the quartermaster's depart-


The supply


of animal


transportation


was inadequate to meet the


demands


, and 50 mules were pur*asexbt w cost ot $1,5602 teaching


the Isthmus May 26.


These scarcely replaced the animals which were


condemned or which died during the year.


Six horses and 20 mules


wae5ondqmnd and destroyodandS horses and 4 mules died, a total
ot 35 animals.
Fe father iniomnation opening thf operations of this depart-
ment attention is invited to Appendix J.

SYBSISTROE DEEDtAa
snsmThta roEy'R T~ !PflN~tjT.rsn


The subsist nce d partr ent is charged with


the operation


of the


Isthmian
charge of


Canal
Lieut.


Commission hotelh, messes,


0o4.


Te.


Wilson,


and kitchens,


United


States


and


is in


Army,


On3n O 30, 191, the dpawrtment wn3 opertAting the Hotel Tivoli,


tline


hotels,


g night


restaurants,


European


laborers'


ad 1 coxnmori l lkrers kitchen a decrease of 2 hotels, S
and 2 kitchens from last year: The hotel at Balboa was ci


messe;
messes,
osed on


July


and


consolidated


with the one at


East


BSlboa.


The


hotel


nar the spili wy at Wtun wa dosed arch 31 i nd


the messes at


Cerro, Haut


Obispo,


Gatun


(No.


68),


and Naos Ishland


were dosed


du rthe year, and one at Bas (ispo opened.
dp ened at Bus Obispo, while thbos at Anco


A new kitchen was
, OBrro, and H*tt


iaflfla nlnanA^ rbi tjrkent yrrvfl4 ftht l"h^n* hntet rt n-





REPORT ISTIHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


last


year


123,001.


The


net expense


salaries


and


wages


was


$166,398.65, an increase of $4,391.88


as compared


with


previous


fiscal year.


As the result of the year's operations the line hotels and


restaurants showed a loss of $3,837.71, an increase of $8,247.66 over


last


year;


European laborers'


messes showed


a profit of $26,845.24,


a decrease


$11,610.54,


and


common


laborers'


kitchens


showed


profit of $6,269.55, a decrease of $4,877.69.
A laundry was installed in the Hotel Tivoli to handle guests' work,


and


was


opened


December,


1912.


The


hotel


was


operated


at a


profit of $76,256.55.
For further particulars concerning the operation of the subsistence
department attention is invited to Appendix K.


EXAMINATION


ACCOUNTS


AND


DISBURSEMENTS.


EXAMINATION


OF ACCOUNTS.


The duties of the examiner of accounts were outlined in


detail in


the annual report of 1909 and continued with but little change dur-


ing the year just ended.
A. Smith.


The department is in charge of Mr. H. A.


legislative,


executive,


and


judicial


appropriation


proved August 23,


1912, a provision


was inserted relative to the ad-


ministrative


examination


public


accounts


and


stated


that


"dis-


bursing officers shall make only such examination of vouchers as may
be necessary to ascertain whether they represent legal claims against


United States."


After discussing the meaning of this provision


with
were


Committee


issued, effective May


on Appropriations


, 1913,


House,


instructions


by which the greater part of the


detail check made by the disbursing officer of every voucher, pay roll


and


pay


receipt


was


discontinued,


and


responsibility


formerly


carried by the clerks of the disbursing office for such check was trans-


ferred


clerks


in the


pay


roll


and


voucher


division


examiner


accounts'


office.


Effective January


1, 1913,


the timekeeping division


was organized


by consolidating the work of preparing time and pay rolls for various


departments


nnd


and


oc ntinued


under


this


department


. ~. s/ a- V L a& -Kk Wf st'J - a. a %^ a * J i aw ahh a , %^ *�-� - - --^ -i - - - *- ' "- I- �-' --- - --- - <-


oisivid ns





REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF


fetGINEE.


new account opened which is designed to provide a more exact record
of material and supplies on hand and issued. The continuance of


method of absorbing plant
d? f


and


equipment


charges


resulted


distributing plant charges to the amount of $27,550,635.24 to the con-
strution s to June 80, 1913, leaving a balance to be absorbed


on that date of $1,941,488.61.


far as appeared


practicable, cash


payments for materials and supplies furnished and services rendered
was adopted during the year. The work involved in the collection of
money due the commission from employees and others was consider-


'ably


reduced


and


liability


loss


due


giving


credit


was


removed.


Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama for reimbusing


the


United States for expenditures incurred in


connection


with


construction and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and pavements
in the cities of Panama and Colon, the total amount expended in the


city of Panama


was $1,626,267.58, and in the city


of Colon $1,550,


080.46, or a total of $3,176,298.04, including accrued interest to date at


rate


cent


annum.


This


interest


has


aggregated


$970,733.72.


At the close of the fiscal year $975,439.71 has been re-


imbursed.


" Included


this amount


$32,785.01,


representing the


value of water used by the commission in the two cities.
The duty of purchasing and issuing commissary coupon books was


transferred


Panama


Railroad


Co.,


but,


as the


method


con-


tinued of issuing coupon books to employees of the commission and


making collections therefore by deductions on the pay roll, the


department


was


reduced


little;


60,790


hotel


books


work
land


1,863,100 meal tickets were issued, for which collections were made on


the


pay


rolls.


addition,


$3,235,122


worth


commissary


books


were issued and collected on the pay rolls.
The administrative examination of the disbursing officer's accounts


was


made


ofcers'


monthly,


records


and


of financial


e periodical
transactions


examination


and


auditing


accounts were continued, involving a complete check


of the


fiscal


of their
records


and


cash


and


cash


values in


hands of


over


200


financially re-


sponsible
payment


officers.
audited


There


vouchers


were


passed


amounting


disbursing


$9,022,000


and


officer


pay


rolls


- -





REPORT 1IS!MPTA


CANAL


COMM4ISSIOt


Under


1908,


provisions of the


as amended


section


J


ijury ft
1of the


compensation


March


act of May 30,


1911,


1,809


claims for compensation on account of injuries received in the course
of employment were filed during the year, and 41 claims were filed on


account of deaths-a total of 1,850


of these, 1,452 claims for injuries


were allowed and
ployees claiming


130 were disallowed
mpensation i
compensation were ii


for the


reason


capacitated


that
less


the em-


than


days, in


which


cases payments


were


made as meritorious sick leave


under the act of February 24, 1909


in addition to these


185 claims.


including 25 claims pending from the previous year,


for some one of the following reasons


were disallowed


On account of negligence and


misconduct


employees;


because


employees


were


course of employment,


or not employees of the commission;


because


accident


described


was not


cause


incapacity


because


lack of sufficient evidence to establish connection between the alleged


injury


medical


and


incapacity


treatment.


and


death


because


claims


failure


were


to secure
allowed,


proper
while 8


were disallowed for the reason


that in


6 of them


the claimants were


not considered dependent parents within the meaning of the act, and


in 2 of them death was due to negligence.


24, 1909


Under the act of February


authorizing meritorious sick leave to injured employees for


not exceeding 30 days in any one year, 4,715 cases were allowed.


The


average duration of disability of cases for which injury compensation


claims were filed


was 58 days,


whereas in meritorious sick leave cases


the average duration was 5 days.


The total amount expended during


the year in settlement of these claims was $224,071.72, making a total


from August 1, 1909,


to June 30, 1913, of $915,824.79.


Congress has appropriated a total of $349,505,223.14 for canal con-


struction,


including appropriations contained in


the act of June 23,


1913.


Of this amount, $10,676,950 were


for fortifications,


which


$4,870,000
$21,411.56


were
were


appropriated
for the relief


by
of


June


private


persons.


23,
Th4


1913,


and


balance,


$338,806,861.58,


including


$16,265,393


appropriated


June 23, 1913,


was appropriated for the construction of the canal and


is a charge against


total


authorized


bond issue of


$375,200,900.


This


leaves available


appropriation


a balance of $36,394,038.42.





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


the


revenues


xx x
XXX XX XX. .X
*K. XXX X XXX XXX XX
xxyuuK xx .xx *A^.
JLT * " *^ ' |�'
therefrom.
!^ * :


Canal


Zone gvnmnt


and


expenditures


The amount of revenues derived frm entails and taxa-


tion decreased from $259,759. 68 in 1912t 12*M66.88 ir 11i8.
on eC~crase- omlI~ ,p^ . ~7uO 1U1 �-2 .e m^.�Bv0 .MaA


The


disbursement of Canal Zone revenues increased from $14000 in 1912
to $233,000 in 1913, the increase being principally due to sanitary
work 4n ages end increased expenditure for maintenance of


Canal Zone roads and


trails.


For further particulars, attention is invited to
D
DirtfEn''io SBSB ifC N YES


Appendix L.


The


work


of this department embraces


securing


and


dis-


burning the necessary funds and the accounting for all moneys paid
out or collected, as well as the issuance of hotel and commissary books


and meal tickets to the


various


departments of the commission.


was in charge of Mr. E. J.


Williams, disbursing officer.


The


total


amount


paid


out by the disbursing


officer


on pay rolls


aggregated


$20,524,705.75,


in addition


which


$9,035,630.18


were


paid out in settlement of public bills and on reimbursement vouchers.
The value of hotel books, commissary books, and meal tickets issued


totaled


$1,305,405.


For further details


, attention is invited to Appendix M.


DEPARTMENTS Or cvi x4xMINIBTNxATION


AND


LAW.


CIYIL ADMINISTRATION.


The


organisation


of the department ofl


civil


administration


mined substantially as described in former annual reports and con-


tined in


charge of Mr.


Mauriee


Thatcher until June


1013,


whenhe entered on leave of absence, at the expiration of which his
srvites were terminated by resignation.,


Seven


acts of


Congress and


four


joint


resolutions


afecting the


Panuma Oinal and he Canal lone were enseted during the year, the


most t being the Pnaa


Canal aet,


approved August


1912, providing for the opening, maintenance, protection, and opera-
tion nfthe Panama Canal and the snitatior and government of the


Cnal Zone.


Four ordinances weresenaoted by the Isthmzni


. hi..m-- :- *- a. - e-k -J ^~i,





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


duties in the cities of Colon and Panama; the reciprocal licensing of


carts and


wagons


used in


transportation


of merchandise


Republic and the Canal Zone; municipal and sanitary improvements


in Colon and Panama


the superior right of the United States under


the treaty to use the rivers and streams of the Republic; the deporta-
tion to the Republic of ex-convicts who have served terms of imprison-
ment in the Canal Zone; the admission of merchandise shipments con-
signed to the commission, the Marine Corps, the Tenth Infantry, and
the wireless stations, without the intervention of Panamanian customs


officials


delay


in customs


release


covering


shipments


consigned


commission


and Panama


Railroad


employees


collection


customs


duties on parcel-post packages coming through the post offices of the


Canal


Zone


establishment


a uniform


schedule


rates


charged


transporting


passengers


automobile


between


points


in the Canal Zone and the cities of Colon and Panama; the collection


a tax


Panama


upon


steamship


tickets


covering


passage


foreign


ports;


and


upon


steamship


agencies


doing


business


in the Canal Zone and in the Republic of Panama.


The relations of


the commission with the Republic of Panama and with foreign repre-


sentatives continued


satisfactory.


During the year the board of local inspectors issued 88 licenses to


pilots;
licenses


masters,
o mates;


19 of which


and


were


issued


engmneers-a


as joint master-pilot


total


of 209


licenses.


Under the provisions of the Executipe order of July 21, 1911, certifi-


cates were issued to 94


vessels, of which 18 were over


100 gross tons


burden.


One hundred and sixty-two licenses as navigators of motor


boats were granted.


Licenses were also issued to 120 chauffeurs.


Postage sales for the fiscal year amounted to $100,804.38, an increase


of $13,109.97


over the previous year.


There were


160,742


registered


letters and parcels handled,


of which 41


per cent was official matter.


Money


orders


number


238,316,


having


a total


value


$4,883,624.13,


were issued, on which


the fees amounted to $23,347.12.


money


orders


issued


during the


year,


orders


amounting


$3,917,899.30 were made payable without and $965,724.83 within the


limits of the Canal Zone.


the close of the fiscal


year there


was


on deposit in the postal savings banks a total of $645,690.


There were


a a. -yr A .^r- -T . *q I S -





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


During the year amou
collected from general
. co. '^


LI


Lted to $4
taxes and


,792.9&


licenses;


A


total


of $53,855.95


was


of this amount, $9,130.55


were for distillation taxes, $43,800 for licenses for the sale of liquor


at retail $1,180.38 for
hi am i the . Una.
vox xxx x x


license
Zone,


fees from insurance companies doing
fees from insurance dmpames doing


and


$2,240.50


licenses


motor


During thq


yer 470 estates were


settled,


and


on June 80,


1913,


on count of the administration of estates was $30,124.24.
o reorganization of the division of police and prisons was effected
a eptember 1,1912, as a result of which the authorized strength of


the force


was reduced


from


247.


There


made, of which number 6,079 were males and


otl.W number
June> 30, 1913,
practically all


of persons


cent


were


748 f
were


were 133 convicts confined in


were kept at


on the


6,827


males.


arrests
Of the


convicted.


the penitentiary;
public roads, and


the value of their work was $26,561.75.


The cost of guarding, sub-


sing, aand


clothing the convicts


was $30,178.23.


The stockade


the Mandingo River was closed during the year and all convicts were
transferred to a new stockade erected near Gamboa bridge; the pris-
oners will be housed here during the construction of the wagon road
leading from Gamboa to connect with the Panama-Empire Road.


Although no change was made in


division of fire protection,
as compared with the nun


the authorized strength


of


of the
15 men


year; the reduction was
ions fr the department.


made necessary


a cut in


the appropria-


mentioned in the last annual report, made possible the discontinuance
of the one-man stations at Balboa and Mount Hope, the consolidation


of the


two


Ancon


stations, and


the sale of six fire horses.


All fire


eqUipment installed in the


buildings at Gorgona


was removed


upon


the abandonment of that settlement and most of it has been installed


the buildings reconstructed at Corozal


and


Balboa.


There


were


220 alarms of fire responded to, 18 of which were false.


Of the 202


fires,
were


1 was in the city


Government


of Panama and


property


T in


and


the city


property


of Colon; 104
f the Panama


Railroad


' .


The


value of Government and railroad


urovertv in-


were 78 estates inthe course of settlement.


The money handled


arrested


there


of these


work


there was actually a reduction


ber in service at the close of the previous


Purchase of two automobile fire engines.


� m





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


The


mailed


authorized


unchanged


organization


division


throughout the year,


although


public wo"s re-
the deficiency in


the department's appropriations made it necessary to dispense with
O


two inspectors.


All municipal improvements in the city of Panama


undertaken


under


appropriation


of $800,000


which


were


corn-


pleted were turned


over to


this division for maintenance.


On June


30, 1913,
Panama
elections <


2,101


and


water


connections


on that date


water


rents


had


been


applications


from


private


made


were


in the


pending.


consumers


city


The


first


col-


three


quarters of the year in the city of Panama were $81,727.75, and bills


rendered


last


quarter


aggregated


$32,583.75.


For


first


three quarters of the year the water collections exceeded requirements


$13,219.69,


which


was


applied


reduction


cost


waterworks, sewers, and


pavements.


the city


of Colon


866 con-


sections


had


been


made


with


water


mains


and


on that


date


there


were


applications


pending.


Collections


in Colon


from


private


consumers and from the commission and Panama Railroad


Co. dur-


first


three


quarters


amounted


$64,058.15,


and


amount of bills rendered for the fourth quarter was $24,168.80.


the city


For


of Colon the Republic of Panama paid $9,675.05 in order to


liquidate


proportionate


share


cost


water,


sewer,


and


street systems for the first three quarters of the fiscal


year.


In the


Canal Zone 695 water connections have been made.


From the eight


public


markets in


operation


during the


year a revenue


of $3,805.50


was


derived


in rent.


The organization


of the division of schools consisted of 1 superin-


tendent, 1 supervisor of upper grades and high schools, 1 supervisor


of primary grades,


2 clerks


, 2 supervisors of children


principal of


high school, 6 principals of grammar schools,


and


72 teachers.


The


school


year


opened


children-1,157


whiti


October
es and ]


, 1912,


,042


with


blacks.


an enrollment


2,199


close of the fiscal


year 29 school buildings were in use-14 for whites and 15 for blacks.
Medical inspection of all pupils was continued and 1,044 pupils were


treated


during the


school


year.


The supreme court held 26 ses
decisions of the circuit courts in


sions during the year.


two


and


reversed


It affirmed
decisions of


a S A - A * - A. f J





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND OTh ENGINEER.

AI 1 - . A 1 ad OKO 1


At me


nigeb ni n g of the


a


year there were $ , .1


Zone


Treasury,


and


during


year


collections


' amounted


$336,603.33.


For


Expenditures for the year totaled $74,868.04.


further particulars concerning the work of this department,


attention is invited to


Appendix N.


DEPARTMENT OF LAW.

The department continued in charge of Judge Frank Feuille and
the duties are as outlined in previous annual reports.


In anticipation of the inundation of the Gatun Lake area,


Brt -of


towns


along the


line


Panama


Railroad


a num-
between


Gorgona and Gatun were cleared of their population; as a result, the
admmstrative district of Gorgona was abolished and its territory


added to the district of Empire for judicial, -administrative, and po-


litica
The


I


purposes,


an Executive


order also abolished


order


issued


September


the office of senior district


judge


2, 1912,
and re-


duced the number of district judges to 3.
The Panama Canal act, approved August 24, 1912, authorized the


President to declare that all land


and


land


under water within


limits of the


Canal


Zone


necessary


tenance, operation, sanitation, and


for the construction


protection


of the Panama


main-
Canal.


Pursuant to these provisions an Executive order was issued under date


of December


S1912,


directing that all


land


and


land


under water


within the limits of the Canal Zone be taken possession of on behalf


of the
ticable,


United


States


claims


and


and


to extinguish,


titles of


adverse


agreement


claimants to


when


prac-


occupancy


of land and land under water.


Due to the additional work that was


thrown


upon


department by reason


the purpose of representing the
-. " - -- - -* -: al a


ide blMinis m


which had


been


United
S


appointed
jfcte 4


of this


order,


States before
in compliance


and


the
witi


also


joint


for
land


the pro-


visions of the treaty, the personnel


of the department was increased


by one clerk and a land inspector during the latter part of the fiscal


year.
and
Las
Zdne


As negotiations have been pending between the


t


Republic


of Panama


for the exchange


Sabanas, lying contiguous to the city


k


for


A.


certain


harbor areas


the city


United States


lands
a


of Panama, in


Colon,


known


Canal


an Executive


scal


w





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


regardless of the value of the estates, the maximum value previously


fixed being $1,000.


Under existing law, therefore, the estates of de-


ceased or insane employees of the Canal Commission, the Canal Zone


government, and


collector


of revenues


the Panama Railroad


free of


cost.


The


actions


administered by the
of the collector are


subject to


the supervision and approval


of the Circuit Court of the


First Judicial


Circuit of the Canal Zone.


Complaints had


been made


from


time


time


that the agents of


foreign


corporations


whose


financial


condition


was


doubtful


were


doing


business


in the


Canal


Zone,


exploitation


our


em-


ployees.


was


issued


> prevent
on March


this


as far


1913,


possible


requiring


foreign


Executive


order


corporations


joint stock


companies to


file their articles of incorporation


with


collector of revenues for, the Canal Zone, together with such informa-


tion


as will


enable


the collector of revenues to base a conclusion as


to the solvency of the concern.


In addition to this, foreign corpora-


tions are required to file authorization with the collector of revenues


represent


them


in all


suits


and


legal


proceedings


in the


Canal


Zone, and to pay an annual tax of $50.


The order has had a salutary


effect in keeping out undesirable concerns.


On April 15,


1913, maritime quarantine


regulations for the Canal


Zone


and


harbors


cities


Panama


and


Colon


in the


Republic of Panama


lations to


take effect


were established


upon


date on


Executive order,


which the


Panama


the regu-
Canal is


officially and formally opened for use and operation by proclamation


President


of the


United


States.


The


regulations


were


pro-


mulgated in advance in order that shipping interests and the travel-
ing public may have information in regard to the quarantine require-
ments of the canal and the Canal Zone.


Due


fact


that


prosecuting


attorney


devoted


time


almost exclusively to the adjustment of land claims, especially those


coming
criminal


before


cases


joint


land


was conducted


commission,


by the


assistant


prosecution


prosecuting


attorney


and


criminal cases were disposed of in the three circuits; of the


total


number


defendants


tried,


were


convicted,


were


acquitted,
- A -


the charges against 54


were dismissed, and in


- *5 a a *. *


7 cases the
-





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGTIN fSEB.iw


March 31
lots and I


were


building


, 1913, all
agriculture
leases, cov


lots


whici


unexpired
i property
rering 99 1
1 would h


Canal Commission leases for building


were


terminated;


ieetares of


tve


on that


agricultural


remained


force


land
until


date there


and
June


^ a"*Ih
Iltll~~ ~~ 1 ECI - ^vl rfryf F 11i iffa P T ^TfIilkItll
yL 1918,ha it notf been for1 the border of c~ancellt~ion.^A


evocable licenses to the number of 312, covering 347 building lots,


were


force


on June


1913,


calling


an annual


rental


$2,816.96.
For further details concerning this department, attention is invited
to Appendix O.


DEPARTMENT


SANITATION.


This department has charge of sanitary work in the cities of Colon
and Panama and of oiling ditches and other water in the Canal Zone.


It designates the remaining sanitary work to be done in


Zone and


exercises


such supervision


proper performance of the


charge


hospitals


work.


and


as may


In addition,


quarantine.


necessary


Canal
insure


the department
in charge of


has
Col.


William C. Gorgas,


United States Army, as chief sanitary officer.


The work in the terminal cities consists in cutting grass and brush,
oiling pools, constructing and maintaining ditches for drainage pur-


poses, re
cleaning.


and


Toro Point to Colon


the same


Panama.


reason


According


moval


garbage


these are included in


grounds
submitted,


Panama consisted in cleaning 200 miles of ditches, digging


and


night


soil,


fumigation,


and


street


with


of ditches, and clearing 114 acres of weeds and grass, in addition to


fIlling


and


fimiigating.


cleaning


cesspools


the Colon


and


district,


wells,
from


oilffing,


disinfecting,


the same source,


and


miles


of ditches were maintained, 77


miles of ditches were constructed, and


29 acres were cleared of vegetation, in addition
ing, and fmigating


to oiling,


disinfect-


The


total


expense


for sanitary


work


Canal


Zone


and


the cities of Panama and Colon was $510,529.17, of which $62,955.06


was for sanitation


proper in the


two cities,


$871,844.90


for sanita-


On account of the juxtaposition of Cristobal, Mount Hope,


Ancon


Hospital
report s


Colon


area, and


included


work


done


1.2 miles


i





REBBPORT ISTHMIAN


OANAL


COMMISSION.


distributing


was


$21,320.39


and


$19,567.39,


respectively.


work performed by the construction divisions and the quartermaster's
department was done under the direction of the sanitary department.


The removal


of garbage and night soil in the Zone


was done by the


quartermaster'


department.


Admissions to hospitals and sick camps during the year, including


those


sick in


quarters,


totaled


33,779; the


daily


average


number


employees sick was 19.04 out of every thousand,


as against


.91 for


1911-12 and 24.77


1910-11-this on the basis that the total num-


bers


employed


during the years mentioned


were


54,000,


50,008,


and


49,129,


was


respectively.
. of which :


The


were


total


number


Americans,


deaths


were


among


white


employees


employees


other nationalities, and 389 were blacks.


The total number of deaths


from


violence among all


employees


was


164, as


against


for the


preceding year.


In addition, on the recommendation


of the medical


examining


board


, 183 deportations


were


made-134


disease


and


49 on account of injuries.
For further details concerning this department attention is invited
to Appendix P.


RECREATION OF EMPLOYEES.


June


Empire, G
Porto Bello


orgona


1913,
. Gatu


clubhouses
n. and Cr5


were


istobal


operation


Corozal,


Canal Zone, and


about 20 miles down the Atlantic coast.


The


clubhouse


Culebra


was


removed


because


slides


and


portion


of the building was reerected


at the rear of the administra-


tion
fund


building annex


s.


a cost of


about $1,700,


paid


from


clubhouse


Bowling alleys, pool and billiard tables, soda fountain, bar-


ber shop, and a reading room


were


thus provided in


thia new


loca


tion.


Entertainments were given


in the second story


of the school-


house.
The
against


average


1,944


monthly


membership


previous


year.


for
The


year


largest


was


2,023,


membership


any


given month was 2,127


The total expenditures fr


the largest since organization.
om commission funds for the support of


these #clubhouses aggregated $49,925.96.


- a - - a a -





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


4l^ J ^^*<'' ' '* *** * '*~ti <*< *


CHIEF


E GINGER.


During
tendered


year 2,065


persons


employment for duty


of laborer, 1,183 accepted and


within


United


States


were


on the Isthmus in grades above that
were ap intd, covering 59 different


^Te total anmount of purchase orders placed for the fiscal year was


$12, 335,973.12.


equipment:


The


most


For structural


important
mat1 ial


contracts


locks


were


and


permanent


spillways,


$241,


S.3&;
tines ad
rbtterial,


aichlnery for their operation,


tracks, $548 T39 2.7;


$571,723.48;


shop


buildings


$740,302.02;


and


electric locomo-


dock


$598,649.51;


transmission


ranes,


line,


$837,500.


$688,508.38 ;
Other prince


and


ipal


two
items


250-ton
of pur


revolving


chase


floating


included


15-yard dipper dredges, 6,310,000 pounds of dynamite, and 23,505,695


feet lumber.


A supplemental contract was entered into September


13, 1912, covering the additional quantity of cement necessary to cornm-


plete


work.


During the


year


1,303,762


barrels of


cement


were


purchased.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix R.
' 4


GENERAL


REMARKS.


Since the submission of the last annual report the concrete work of
the locks has been completed, and but for slides which developed ex-


cavation in the central division would also have been finished.


last


annual report


completion


of the canal


by the close


In the
of the


fiscal year was predicated on the completion of the lock gates by the


contractor
completion


and th
of the


slides.


already


gates has been


noted,


contract


contemplates


rg up all work on one flight throughout by October


1, 1913.


finish-
Work


on the installation of the operating machinery was concentrated so as


to meet this condition of the lock gates, and it is believed


that one


flight of locks throughout will be ready for operation October 1, 1913,


except


fender chains and


the control houses,


but electrical


cur-


rent from existing power plants will be usable until the completion


of the


hydroelectric


station.


Assuming the


lake


level


at elevation


50, July 1,


with an average rainy season the lake should reach eleva-


tion 85 by December 1, 1913.


The rainfall during the month of May


* -- - t ^** '* IU *-W -. - W


hydroelectric station, $72,540.34;


machinery,


two


extended and


I


m





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


until


April,


1914.


The


material


handled


expeditiously


by steam shovels during the wet season, but lends itself to economical


removal


hydraulic


dredges.


Except


Cucaracha,


existing


channel by the slides is to full


depth and of a


width of at least 200


feet


bottom.


Assuming that all


the slides


were removed


steam


shovels in


the dry,


water in


lake could not


be raised


above elevation 60 and still be kept out of the Cut by the dike at Gam-


, so that after the advent of the dry season it would not be


pos-


sible


under normal conditions


or November,


1914.


The


to secure full lake level until


material


the slides can


October
handled


advantageously


dredging fleet


augmented


as it


will


later


by the two 15-yard dipper dredges under contract.


They will operate


against


banks in


every


case and


will


be excavating for the


full


depth


of 45


feet.


The sea level sections by the time the dredges can


be moved into the Cut will


be in


condition


for the passage of ships


of the heaviest draft.


been


general


belief


that the effect of the


water in


Cut would


tend


to retard slides and


the experience below the Gatun


locks


this
the


in the


belief
water


was


sustaining power of water against slides


on the


may


made


other
some
1909


hand,
extent


over


geologist


develop
3 seamy


new


of the


slides.


character


fully justifies
opinion that
Again, much


rock


on the


Isthmus, through


which


water flows quite rapidly


in consequence of


which
seams


the question


and


crevices.


was raised


these


that the


things


lake might leak


liable


occur,


out through


sooner


the better


if the official


opening of the canal


is to occur


January


1915
May


; for if water were not admitted this fall but were deferred until
1, 1914, the full height could not be reached until October, 1914,


leaving


little


time


for the determination


of these


questions.


These


considerations led


into


to the conclusion


Cut at the earliest date


that


practicable


the water should be turned


for getting the dredges


work


on the slides.


Dredges can


passed


through into the Cut


as soon


reasonably
rainfall, tl


as the


lock


certain
e lake


gates


case


should


reach


flight


completed,


October


elevation


With


4


approximately


and
the
70


this


average


tober


and a


greater


height of


water


against the


dike


which


- -


a


- - .. ., I. EU I I I U J I.


m




�A.AA -JMJ


REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF ENGINElrER.


erroneous


impression


been


caused


that the water will be turned into the Cut October


ie announcement
10, as it seems to


have been assumed that the canal will be practically finished on that


date.


Before boats can be passed it will be necessary to remove


Gamboa


dike


dredges


and


remove


slides


as already


out-


lined.


The


upon the


passage


time


when


commercial


proper


vessels


channels


dependent,


dredged


therefore,


through


slides;


should


additional


ones


occur,


they


will


necessarily


advance


the date when this will be accomplished.
The following appendixes are herewith:
Report of the geologist, Appendix S.
Increase in salaries and increase in numbers of employees, submitted in com-
pliance with law, Appendix T.
Laws affecting the canal recently enacted, and executive orders issued during#


the fiscal year, Appendix U.
The organization in effect July
Respectfully submitted.


1, 1913, Appendix


GEO.


Colonel, Corps of


GOETHALS,


Engineers, United States Army,


Chairman and Chief


The Hon. LINDLEY M. GARRISON,


Secretary of War,


Washington, D.


Engineer.













































































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