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|Table of Contents|
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Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Front Matter 3
Front Matter 4
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Report of the chairman and chief engineer
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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
TABLE OF CONlTEN^TS.
Report of the chairman and chief engineer
Organization..... ............ .......
Construction and engineering ..... ....
Atlantic division.......-....- ..........
- - - I- - a> a* - a* a - a a - - a -' - , .* -* a - -*
. a.. . . . . . . . a a . . . . .a
.. - ...-aa -.. . - a .- a - ..a a .a a . - ..a . a
* a - . a ..a - a aa aa.aa aa a-.a .a..a a a .a.
Stone and sand ..
�* a a a a - a
* . e - a a * a
a * - - a - - - a a a a a - - a . a a a aaa - a - a a - a a a ah a a a
a a a -..a -. - aa.aa a-.aa.aa.aa - ..a ..- a a. a
Gatun loc-s" and the Ati - anticOe a . i i. i i i i -
Gatun lockseand the Atlantic Ocean.~.-.�...,,....
Municipal improvements. ......-.
Culebra cut .......
Stone and sand...
a - a a - - - a - - . - - a - a * a - - a - - - - a a - a a a - - - a - - - - a a a - a a - - .
-* - -* - - - - - - a a - - a - a a a' a - a a* a a a a a * a* a a - f - - * - - a -h ak a - -B a -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- a a a a a a - a - - a a a a - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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a a - a - - a - - . a a . - - - - a a a a a a a - - - a a a - a a a - a a a a - a a a a
- a. - a -a.aa a a a a- -- .a - . a a a- -a .a a..- -- aa a -. -
- a-.aa a- -a.a- aa -a - - a a. - -. -... .aa.a-.a -..a.-a.aa.a ..-
Hydraulic machinery..... .......
Municipal and sanitary work.-- ....
Improvements in Colon and Panamaa
%Jolon .....a.a.....a ..a.a..a.aa....a.aa...
IE'UsxriU ax i a* a a a* a a a ar a - - a a* a a, a a a a ai a
Panamasio .. .... .. ....P.- ..Il.
Construction of the new Panama Railr
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
* - a a a.. . . a a.. . - . .a a - a .a a a a a
o ad - . a.. . . . . . . . - - a a a a
Mechanical division-... ........
River hydraulics, meteorology, and
a* a* a - a
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a a a aa a -
a.a . a a a a.
Examination of accounts and disbursements. - .... -
Examiner of accounts ........aa-aa..--aa.a.a
Disbursemients.. a. ...........-... -......
Civil government ......... ...................
Posts, customs, and revenues. ...........
fl. a am a
S* a a - a -A a - a a a - a a - a a a ai -> a a -
a a- a� a- S a ar a - a a a- a a - - a a a -- - a* a- a~
Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of fit division of the office of
the chief engineer ... .. .. .......
MaBonry and lock structure.....
Valves and fixed parts.... ..
Contracts. ..a ...aa....aa -
Castings made on Isthmus.e
Lock gates and protective devices...
Lock gates- ...... .- ... . .- ..... . . ..
Number of leaves, O........ .. .
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- - a - a a* a* i - 0 S * ar 1 a* :- - - - a * -i a* -: a* a a a** - - aw a a -: *: a:
a* : a* a a a -: a* ar a ai - a t :a *a a* a -> - - a - r - -* a. a* *k aa - -* -* a� t- a .i
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a a a a a a a a - a a a : - a a - a a a a - a a a . a - a a a a a a
Fixed parts .......... ....... . .-
Floating caisson gates....... .
Operating machinery.... ....... ...
Stoney valve machinery.......
Limit switch. - ............- .....
t -. at a - - a -t
* a a -a - a
a ik i a a a - at fa - * - a a a aaa. a a a a. -
Gate-operating machinery ........
.Machinery for spillway gates. .... -
:f a a t a - a a
- a a a a a a a aa aaa. a a a 0 a a a a 0 .
aI ft a. - a - a - a a a a a a a a a a ... a : al
Machinery for wickets and girders of movable dams..
Layout of circuits .....-........... .... .. .... ...-....,
Generating stations ... ............. -................
Miscellaneous.- .... .. .. . -
*. a a a a A a a a f a . f - -r a a a 5 * * . . . .. a- a : *Wa
a- t - a at at a at ai at a -ll t a> a a at at a aI aW a a at a at a at a aM a i a
Dams at Gatun and Pedro Miguel
Dam at Miraflores..
at a, at f a* a a - aB*
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Model... . . .... .
*t af a a ft a a t
a a a a a a
Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of first division of the office of
the chief engineer,
to the advisability
of using intermediate
gates in the locks of the Panama Canal.
Lock flight at Gatun.a...... ..... . ...
T - 1 fl � .i L .- .jn _. _ _
a.a . a a
. a t a aa. : f.a a t a a a t t a f f a a - f a * .
General formula for a flight of locks, as 1
Large locks at Gatun, cross-filled...
1,000-foot lock, cross-filled........
550-foot lock at Gatun, cross-filled..
850-foot lock at Gatun, cross-filled..
Single-lift lock at Pedro Miguel.....--....
Double-lift lock at Miraflores...........
- - - . .
* - -..
- * : , . . . - - - .-- - - - - - ---
- - a- * * * -. * i - . - - *
S. cross-filled . . --...
- . -. -. - - -. . a
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S.- * . - .* . . . * . ** - - *. ,. . * . * , . . - - . . -
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- a * a a - - S - S S - - S S - . . . * . . - - - . a . S S
* a * -.-a. a a - -. a - - - -. - a a. .- - .. - a - . S
Effect of omitting intermediate gates in the locks. ....
Separate locks....--..--........- ..............--...---......
Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division ...........................
Channel excavation from Gatun to the Atlantic Ocean; sand; stone; and
cement service; dry dock and shops; and Colon breakwater........
Dry excavation below sea level-Mindi. .............----..............
Excavation by months-Mindi-.-. ................--......-......
Cost per cubic yards. - - -..
Unloading at Mindi.........-
Dredging-Ocean to Mindi - -
Fill .. ... . .. ..... . ......
Cristobal terminals .......
Miscellaneous dredging .....
Total monthly output of
Monthly output and cost
* - a------------------------------------------------------------ S a
*-----------------------S S S
of excavation - -..
-a a -
Drill barge ,Terrier. .- ....... --..--........ ..................
Cost of dredging between Mindi and Limon Bay ................
Estimate of original excavation and amount excavated to date
Dry dock and marine shop.......
Surveys . ...... . . .-... ..- -... ..- - . -...
Porto Bello rock plant ...........-.....-
Comparative statement-Porto Bello
Procuring sand at Nombre de Dios...
Colon breakwaters ..............
Gatun locks. -.-....----- ..- ...-....-..--
. - a. a * --------------------------
SS -. a -. . a a----------------------
--------------------------------a *a .S
* - a - - - S S * S - - - - - , a....................................................
-- - - - - a----------------------------
-a - a . - - a - a a a -----------------------------------------
H :g<~.jfl ,A'~'a~i'~ '~ 'D'� ~ ~ -
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the division engineer, Atla
Gatun dam and spillway. ......
Gatun dam... . . ..... ... ..
Estimated quantities of
Gatun spillway ...........
Spillway-Mindi levee. .....
Municipal engineering...... ....
Pumping station, Gatun
Condenser plant. .....
New water supply, Gatun..
Sanitary ditches. .........
New Gatun water supply...
New Gatun sewer system...
General construction ........
Mount Hope-Gatun road
Colon water supply.........
Brazos Brook reservoir..
R ~oadis..a.-.a a.a.. . a..a.. aa
Fire protection...... ........
Sea wall, CristobaL ..........
Cristobal sewers ........ ..
Folks B.iver ... . . ....... .-
Colon improvements. a.....
Toro Point water supply .. . .
Miscellaneous. ........... -...a
Local machine shop .........
Division office ......... ...
Division drafting room......
Exhibit 1. Progress report for fisi
Lntic division-Continued. Page.
. . . . . . .. . . , . . � .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ..... . . . . . 12
.-. . ... .. . . ... . ... . . . . . . . . . .. .. .1 4
f ill laced .. ... . . . . . . * . - . . . . . . . . . 1241
aH H. - . * - - * .a aa* .aa a . - - a a - :- a *�* -iJ.. - .. , 126 5
- a - - - - - - a - a - * - - . - - . - - - * . a ... . 126
River . . aI a - -� a -a - a h 126
* . . . . . . . . a . . a . . a a a .a * a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a . a ' 127
* a a - a a. a a. a. a a a a a a a - - - a a a . a. a. a a -..a.a. 127
a a a a a a a a a a a a a - a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a J.28 2:
*.-. - - -a.a a.a a..a a a aa aa.a a - aa aa a a a.. 128 d
.* a a - . . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. ... .. . .. . . . 1 2 8
. . . . - . . . . . . . . - a . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . a . . . . . - aa 1
................. .......... ...... ...... . 3 '
130, f. ! **
. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . I . . . . - . . . . . . . �
............... ,. .... ......, . . . .. . . . .�. . 8
ca a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a- a a a a a a aa- a a a a a - a - a. a. 130
a a!* a - a W - a a > A a a a a - a a *I a a k - a a- a- a - a a a* a al a� a� a* alAl~ a::: a! a 13
a * - a a a a a * a * a a a a i a - i a _k - a a a* ak a al - ak a a a a aIH a ft a a~l. -: a 1
a a~s a- a a a aaaaaaaaaa
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. . a - . . . a a a . a a a a a a a a - a a a a - a . a a a a - a a a a a 1
L * a ai a r ai - a h a - a h a r a - a ' a a- a a a a a - a* a* a a a a a a a at a a� a a 132KJ~f7 *
cal year 1909-O..a a. a a . a , - - a - .. a a a a a a a a 134
Exhibit 2. Colon water supply-Mount Hope pump station and filter plant.
Report of the division engineer, central division .........
Excavation.... a a... ... .... .. .......a.. ....-..a...a a a
From canal prism. .... ........................
From Obispo diversion...... ...... . . .... . -.....
Ou t ide work .a..-a aaaaaaaaa .aaa.aa a a aa a a a
Total excavation, including accessory works ..... -
Monthly excavation, fiscal year.................
-m . * 1 - Lt_ _- _ tf -_ _ - ^ -z^ .A J _. ..2 _A _? 1 _._.z L
** a a a ar * a a a* a* a a- ar a a - a> aw a
. . Ml -* * ., . . . . .* . - . M W IP ** . .
.a . a a a . a a ** - a a a a 4 a *ra aa. a
i~ -. - .-a.._. - -_ -3.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the division engineer, central division-Continued.
�JTra c cka. ..iii. d. d i ib .i . .x. . . �. . - . . . . . . . . - . . - . .
Location and distribution................. .........
D um ps.............. ......... ................... ..--- --
Dumping grounds. ..... . . . .- . . . . . . .---... - .. --
Amount of trestle driven......... . ...... . .....--..---.----..
1l..,..a -at.. - - -
4.... ...... .. .-
Grande (point 5).
6 ... ..
East Mamei.... . ... --......
Mamei.. ......--- ....... --
Caimito... -......--......- . .-
San Pablo.......... --.
Cano River -........--...
Buena Vista....... .
Bohio . . ....- - . . .-.--. -
* a a . S - a a - - - if i - if - a - - - -
* a a a a - f if * a * - - . - if - - - a - if if
* if a a a - a - a - - if a a a a f if - - - - -
- - - a - a a - - S - if i f * a a a - . - * -
-* a - - - S - i . - a a a a * * a a a a a * *
- if - - a if a - a a a a a a a a a - if - - - -
. - - - a---------- ------- - * - - if * * - if - a------------------------------------ - 5 - -
- .....................................*.-* i -. - - ------------------ a.a - -
* - - ,*---------------------------------------------.a..-- ------------------a. -ifif-..-a
Sa-------------------------------- -. --- --- -- -- -------------------.a ..-
- - a a -
Hand work by the United States.. -..
Hand work by contract...-...........
Cutting timber and brush from the c
By employees of central division
By contract with B. B. Duncan.
Naos Island dike..................
Slides and breaks-....... ... . .. .. .
Cost of excavation............-.-..
Coal and fuel oil consumed... .....
Air and water service..... -
Road building - ........---..
Waterworks .S..... -.......
if - if - a
- if a -
f if - if i
Empire suspension bridge.. - ....
Labor situation..... ............
Changes in organization .... ..
Changes in personnel........ ..
- if-------------. . ----------a. a . if - - - S - - - - - .
S- a a - . . .--------------------a .a---------------------------i
channel in Lake Gatun. -.
L . . . a . . . . . . . . - ------ . - . .-
-.. .- - a a . - . - * ** * a a * - . a - . * * - - -. . a a - if . i i
- - - - - a a------------------- if a * . ifa-i a - - - a a - if a
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iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiia a- a a * -5 if-- -- --- -.-
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f if a f if - if if f if i . a if 5 i - a - . a if a . a S - a if if if if if a a
Report of the division engineer,
* - -.f. a a -. . * * a * f. i if * i
Report of the division engineer, Pacific division-Continued.
Locks, dams, and dry excavations--Continued.
Miraflores handling plant. -..
M .g.; : : g
Storage trestles a... ......
Pedro Miguel locks and dams ...
Lock excavation ....... ..
* - - a - a a - -
Backfilling. .... . ............
Filling west dam ....a.n.
Dry excavation in prism...
Excavatio n prism...
Miraflores locks and dams..
- - - a - - - 4 ~a a a - a a . . . p
- -* -. - - a: ** - a * - a* - - a* aw a* a >a - -r at. � - �
- *- - * - a * a a * . * - a a - a - - - - * - -: a - - :a -* : ** *. a:
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- a a - - - a a a - - - - a a. a a - a . . .- . * i . w . w .
Pedro Miguel lock excavation.. -
Mining - ...... .......-
Construction tracks ...
Lock foundations.... - ..
Erecting handling plan
** -: - a a a* wa:. a -* aS :a a: **- - - a - - ar * -: -. a a* -� aS a: -
-.* -: a - i - a n a * - - : a * a * �> a * - a - * - - - - - - - a ar :* : -* - -, a* - :
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LDry excavationf a. -..... ......a.-
Dry excavation, Miraflores locks
CMining.. ..s.....k..a -a..-
-m- a mmaa a a
a - a a a
a a a aj ai
a a a a a a m a - a a a a a
Dredging-. a..a.---.- a-...........a..aa-...a.. .
Performance of dredge Sandpiper at Miraflores
Erecting handling plant..
Cemen t shed. .a... a----
a a a ao.i . a-a - a - a -
.* ak a- a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaa.aa
a - . a a a a a - a - a a -
* - a a a aw a* a * - a - a* a a ra
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* . . . . . . . . . . :* * ** * 1 - - * * :�> * - >
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a . - - a . a -- a a a : -- a t a * a a * S a a * * - a a - -
and Balboa shops
Dredging.g ....... . ..................
Dredges of Pacific division.......
Dredging output, Pacific division
Subaqueous rock excavation.
* a a a a a - - a a
o a I s .. - aaa
a - 1 a .a , a* :
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* - - a 5 a S a - a a
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Performance of temporary concrete-handling plant, Pedro
Report of the division engineer, Pacific division-Continued.
Dredging, hydraulic excavation, and Balboa shops-Continued.
Sand for concrete......-..................
Sand supplied during the fiscal year.
Balboa shops and shipways a ...
New plant erected ........
Renewals and repairs.....
Thxrd district.. ...... .. ..............
Municipal and sanitary work. ....
Municipal engineering.. ......
*- ,t . i S - -nwA - * -
* a a..a a -
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* S..- a a - -
- - a - . - . - - - a * - - - . , S S * S - * a * .
* *-- ...SS a-S * .- .-..-. .. . -. . -
- a a a. . S - - - -
Ancon pumping and filtration station.
Details of work and cost...
Cocoli pumping and filtration si
Details of work and cost...
Cost of construction.........
Rio Grande quarry..- -....... .
Details of work and cost...
Rio Grande Reservoir.........
*. ...... - .- . .S. . . . - . . .. . . -
. . . .. . . .. m. ... . . ... ..
-- - -- - -- - -- - -- - - -- - -- - -- - -- - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -.............S S
* - S. a . - *---------------------S - - * S -
Consumption of water by district
New street improvements in the
Maintenance and repairs....
Statement of construction
Zone sewerage system...........
Statement of work performed
Zone roads........ ..............
Maintenance and repairs....-
Work performed on roads... - -
.* . . * *. . .B I. . . . . . . .
city of Panama
. 5 - -
- a a a
* - S . a - . - S - - -
* a.--... S -S -
* - -- a. - - - a
- - - -S -S.S S
.* ..... -
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* - . . .- .. . . .-
* y-1-a-1-. . . - -. - . . - - - a - - -a - a a - - - S - S - - - * - - a a - - * - a a . . .
Cost of construction, Palo Seco reenforced concrete reser-
reservoir - -*-............ . - . ... . ..... . . . . .. ... - -
Miscellaneous work performed during fiscal year
. . . . . . . .
a *a. S..- .
Sanitary)work....... ...- ............-...
Statement of work performed.......
Detailed statement of work.........
-*( - - * a - a* af
. . . * . - . . . -
a a S..- S - a
Fourth district. . . .. . . . . . --..-.-.. -........ . . -.. .....
Ancon quarry and crushers .....................--
* S - - - - - - S - - - - a a . . S S - -
* a S - - - -. S - - -
A 4 AW;A~~ ~ Aq.I3 A ~ ~ _____________________________
~ ~ ~
Report of the engineering department of the Panama Railroad-Continued.
From Gatimun River to Prijoles....
Frijoles to Gamboa bridge.........
Paraiso to Corozal.................
Culvert at the Frijolito River.
Culvert at Quebrancha station
Culvert at Agua Salud River,
Ballastt. .. . - a - - . . . ....... a ... . ..
Summary ...- -.... -. . . . -... .. . ..
Mount Hope line.... ..-. .-.. .. ..
*..a.a . a
a a - a a
a a a a
a . a a a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a S a i a 4 * . a .t sl.aa a *
- a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a - f a * a a a a
:- a a - - - - at -* -. * �* * a* a a a a* a* aH a -iki
a . a - a a - a - a - a a a . . . . . a a a a a a
- *. �. . . : . . . . . . .* . . . .� . . -. � .* . -- r -
Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, in charge of second division of the
office of the chief engineer ..... .. . .-.... .......-. ......- -.. -..-... .-. - ..
Quantity of work performed .. .. . . ... . -. . . a .-.-.... . .. . ... .-.-. .... -
Statement of rolling stock in use by the different dbpartments..........a
Statement of floating equipment in use by the different departments .....
Eonuinment owned and oDerated on the main line of the Panama Railroad
tools and machinery on hand,
repairs to equipment .......a
electric current for six months
repairs to plant and equipment
- a - a a . - a a a a a.� 4 a a -. - a- a - a a a a .a
)y classes and location ..
� a a a
. a a a a
a a a a
ended June 30, 1910. .........
Super unit of work accomplished.
- * - a
a -* * :U
a a. a
* a a
of expenditures for plant, absorption of plant charges by construe-
work, and balancesremaining to be absorbed. ..................
Distribution of general administrative expenses and general expenses for
eleven months, July, 1909, to May, 1910, inclusive ..-.. .- .........
General items . .......- .. - .. ... ... .. . ...... .
Headings of forms of monthly cost-keeping reports. .
Headings under which different classes of work cost
Average cost of dry and wet excavation in central,
divisions..- ..................... ........... .... -
a- a* - - - -i a ah a a a a a :* a a*
Atlantic, and Pacific
Average cost of concrete laid in Atlantic and Pacific divisions.
Report of cost-keeping accountant ........................
Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 244)....
a a a. a a
- a f a a A
aI a a ai - a a a af alla
at a a * S a a a a a -
Report of the superintendent, mechanical division, department of construction
and engineering.. . ......
Gorgona shop ....... .....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . - .. . . . . . . . * . .. 266
-- aA - a. a- aaa- a-a- a - aa
Company . ..............-....
Number of employees. ........
a S 4 - a
Report of the superintendent, etc.--ontieued.
Engine houses. . ...... . . . . . . .......
Mechanical engineer's department. .
Boiler inspection service........
Testing department.... .........
Electric-light and air-compressor subd
* - a a *
* - a a a
* a a a .
* a a . - . - a a t - - - - - a* a - . a a a a a - . a* -
* . a - - a . .1 . - * a a - a - - a a - a I a * a - -. .
SiV on* -.
a. a a . a * * - a a a
Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 270)
. a a a - a - * . a - - - * . - a a a a -
* a a .. a - a - - a a - - a a a - -
Report of the assistant engineer in
chief engineer.. .... . .. . -..
Meteorology ..- .. . . .. .. .. .....-
Stations and equipment...
charge of third division of the office of the
* a - - - - a . .
.* - - a a - - -
a ah fta - -
temperatures of record.
* a * a S S * a a
* a a a - - - a -
* a - - - a a a a
Tides. . ..- ..- ......-
Tidal extremes -
*a a a - - - - - a a a
- - . - a - - a - - - a S
* - a a a - a - a a - a -
*f p a a a 4b - a' - -J - S e - - a at * - - a a *i a: B a| al 1 - *k *
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* - f -* a- a. -* - - 1h a *S a a - - - S *h * - * � a *h W a -- -
-f a - - * - -1 - ai * a* i a ar a - -. ** -* - a* -i * a a - a a a **
S-I a - - -- - .a .a a a - -- a a a a a S *. *W . .- - -
* - a - a . -... . a - -..- .a -a a* a..-
*. - . . . . a . . . .-.. . *. S . . . a - .
a a a.. -. -. a - a-.-* *. a - -... . a
a a a - - -i a ar * wB - , a- a a a a a *& . S t S ** S - * * I a> - * -* - * a - * * aa -a
* - a a a * - -. a - . -a a- a5 -a CS *a aS -- aa aa. ... .-
* ** -* a * -- S - a- a.. . .. . . a.. --SSa a. . . ..a. . a .- ..
.* a a - a a *
-. . .S . W -S -- -5 -5
Reports and data issued- ..-.-- .. . -..... .. ........ ...-. . -...-. -...... . -...
Rainfall on the Isthmus of Panama, January, 1909, to June, 1910, in-
clusive-Accumulated monthly averages. .-.......................
Distribution of rainfall on the Canal Zone, calendar year 1909, showing
hourly periods of maximum and minimum rainfall -. ..............-
Excessive rainfall in the Canal Zone, October 1, 1905, to June 30, 1910,
arranged in periods of five minutes, one hour, and one day..........
Periods of minimum rainfall for consecutive periods and calendar
montd s _ . . -..... - ......-.. . ..a..--.. .-...a...---.....a... a-
Evaporation in Canal Zone, January,
Fogs along the canal prism (calendar
Percentage of fogs dissipated....
Meteorological summary, Canal Zone
Seismic disturbances recorded at Am
Tble estowing extreme high and low
nnge, greatest and least amplitudi
water tempetures for each month
Table owrng extreme high and low
1907, to June, 1910, inclusive.
year 1909). .......-...........
* S -
a - ...a a. - .-
a a a- a a S* -
en, Canal Zone, fiscal year.
r water, maximum and minimum
, dnd the highest and lowest sea-
, Baiba tides. a - ..a. ... ....
water, maximum sd minimmm
Report of the assistant engineer, etc.-Continued.
Important features of freshets of Chagres since 1906...............
Maximum rates of run-off during freshet periods for floods exceeding
elevation 60 at Gam
Chagres River survey
Rio Grande watershed
Precise level bench m
Zone boundary marks
Triangulation survey -
Survey of Zone lands.
Explorations... . ..-......
Arroya...-..... .. .....
Lagarto............... - -
La~garto. a a a aa S a a
Quebrancha ..... ...
boa, year ending June 30, 1910............ 296
S- S S * * S - a * - . - . S - - - a a S a * a - a a : a :- , � t n - - .29
** . . ...... - - - - .. - - . . . . ** . - . - . . - . a - - . . - - - 297f
L . . . . . . i: . . . .a *. . . . . .- . S . - . * . . . . . , . . . . * * . :i,�a .a. .- 2 9
,* . - - * a - a - s - -a-- a........ .....a. 297
* a - a . a a a a a a . a - a a a - a a - a . - a . . . . . . . I . . W .a * a a * . 297
................. ..... ............ ........... 302
... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ..302
* - s a a a - a a * a a a a a. a s a a. . . . . . . . a* * a a . a . a a . a a a a , 290 l
*. a - - - - - a . a a - a a a a a a - - a a a . . - .* * * . . * *. a a . a .a a a 30
.* a - s a - a a. a a. - a0 : a a a 5 a a a a a - . - a - a ar a a a - a a * a - a a a 3
�* - a - -: -: a s> a* a* a - * - a *** - - a>* - a* a - a a> - al ak aW - a a af a� a M a a a aM a - N a , 302y
- - - a 1 � - a* a, a a a - a u - i i a - i- - a s a a - a 1 a - :- a - - a * -i a� sK a* a i- a ar a''JJ
* :* .* sans--a - a - sass W - -sa ai as ak eas tit k� >*** *fa as. - *i *: amea* 303< * �:* -iw ~ J
Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of quartermaster's department
.* - - - a *- - a 5 a a . - a. a .- . a a - - - - - * . . - a a a - a * a a .* a a .. . - . - - aa - -a aa
* a a* - 5 C 5 - a - a a S 5 a a a , i - - a - - a a if a 5 . . - a a a a a a a a a a .a a a a a
- if a* 5 * ** a * a a a ift W I-- - - a- af *f - * - a* -- a 5: -t St ft a a a at aF a - a* a. a* a* - 5 5 a a -- a - a a* a* a
Building and construction..
Material and supplies. .....
- 5 *. C . a
** S a - a - -
a 5a a
--. . k : k * f
a a a if a- a. a a- a� �- a 5 5 a a* a- s- a- a a* at -- 5*-** -- a- -- a aI- -
. . .* . . .h .i . i- - . . . - . *. . . . *�. . . . . . . . iii . . �b . N
a a -I - a a a a a. .a *i a * a-s - a - - a a a . a - a -
* a a a a a a-- :a a - a - a a - a - a a� * a. a* - S a * a * a * a .a a
a .a s a .a aa a. . **:
5 . 5 . . . .. a
Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p.
*.- ..aa . - -a -
Report of subsistence officer in charge of subsistence department .....
. St *44 S
Relative value of food consumed per day per person in Commission hotels.
Relative weight and value of the ration supplied European laborers' messes.
Average weight and cost of supplies per ration for common laborers' kitchens
Value of principal articles consumed in Commission hotels, messes; and
- a. - 1
' !M '
Report of the examiner of accounts ................
Accounts of the Canal Zone government ..........
Appendix 1. Statement of receipts, disbursements,
SJune 30, 1910..-.... ..-.. ....... -..........
Exhibit A. Statement of aDnronriations by C
- . .- - . - - n * - .c ..B.., * a
*- S *: - B a S * , * S *- - S* S*. j - *i Si *i -.
and balances available
- 0 5 * * - - . <- - a a - a * * * * . -
. . . . . . . - - . . . . . .. .
. . . .. -- .... ... . . . ..-.-. . . .
Exhibit B. Detail of receipts for sale of property, services rendered,
etc., which revert to the United States Treasury as miscellaneous
-receipts, to June 30, 1910........... ....... ........ .............
Exhibit C. Detailed statement of classified expenditures from the
acts of Cc
g of the work to June 30, 1910. ...-......................-
Statement of receipts and disbursements from appropria-
fiscal year . .. . . .. .. ................ ...... ... ......
Detailed statement of collections repaid to appropriations
s .------------------------- - 5 - - 0 - - - - 5 5 0 - 0 a a a - a - a - - S * * - - - a . - S S S - - .
Detailed statement of classified expenditures for fiscal year..
Statement of collections made on pay rolls of the Commission
fiscal year .- .-.-..... - ..- . -.....-. --. ...-.-........ .. - - - - .........
Statement of hotel coupons and meal tickets honored during
*Sta * . a a * . * - - s b i - - r i r- -- - * - - - - - c - l a. d - a
Statement of Commission bills registered for collection during
.. .- ..*.* . * S S 5 . * * - - S - - - S - - * - * . - - - * - - - 5 - . _ - - - - a . - a - 5 * S - - -
6. Statement of injuries sustained by employees of the Corn-
fiscal year, for which compensation was due or claimed under
gress of May 30, 1908, and February 24, 1909
Statement of amounts paid under act of
May 30, 1908,
employees as compensation and on account of death of employees
injured in course of employment, fiscal year, and amounts paid under
act of February 24, 1909, for injuries lasting fifteen days or less-........
Appendix 8. Receipts and expenditures, fiscal year...................
Revenues collected..... -. ------. .-.......-.......... ..........
Expenditures.. ..-.- ........... ........a.....a....................
Appendix 9. Statement of balances in treasury, by appropriations, June
- - M .- StS
* - * W* S - - - * S - a - -* - - - - - - - - - - -' - - - *- , � * - - . * a a S * a - - �- * a - - . - S * S , *
Statement showing total value of money orders issued, paid,
ding, and balance of money-order funds June 30, 1910 .-.....-
Statement of money-order business and stamp sales, fiscal
- , - * a- - - S * U - S S - - - S S S S - a - S S * - - - 4 5 5 - *- - lS S S - * S S -w S S S U S - - - S - S - -
12. Statement of money-order business of the Canal Zone postal
fiscal year ... a - - .- .-a - a- -*.aaaa-�--
Report of the disbursing off
a SS S- . 4. - S * .
V TABLE OF CONTENTS.
fYTABLE OP CONTENTS.
Report of the head of the depart me
Division of posts, customs, and
Taxes and license fees.....
Administration of estates..
police and prisons. a
schools- -.. .. ...
Prosecuting attorney's office. a
Canal Zone funds... :a...t....
Co rties r ...........a a ....
Appendices to report (for table
d civilt " """
nt of civil administration-Continued.
revenues - .'* * ..... ..a a 3
.H- a V - . .- K *- - a t - - a * *. *t S S: a *:W�. Ht- t -- * * *a we*a a M -: a -l~
4*- a - - a :* a - * a - - �* M: ik a -- i- a � a - - a -*: - - - a � a a a - 5 * 30 lO^l'yl^::::^ ':
** *- * - a a * :* :* - - i a * a * 0 C a : a :- a * *- a1 -: a*r - a - - a t - a a a a ' a a a*?'~'^ ^^^^^ : ::'::'.i!
w *- ** - - a * a : ** - - - > -* a- a* a* -: -: - 4- -* - -* -: -: a - a a<* w - C -* a ww'^~ l' i
* M-M a *n a- a S *. - a - a ** *a - -* C C -, - a** *: R ** - - �* * : * .M M. - a - C C J^ll'! '
i * a * a a - a - - a *- :� *:- - - a a a* , a at aF - - - a| a a a� , *: * W S W a S* - -ll l.1 -
.. . . . . . . . . .. . , . . . . . . . 365 * K
>* � * *** a a a a a - - a - C a a �a -t - a - -- -w ar a - a a a - aM li ^ - a
* a a a a * a a - - - a a a a a - - - -. - at a at a - a. a al a a> a a a a� 370 WW^ i||
-* - - * - a- - * - - * - a a* :* a* a* - *c - a a a� a �*� - a a *>a a a* ai ar aB ai ai - a�11 X37I2 '
i ** ** a - - a at*Ratta ea a* - a - a a a a a - W- **:- a11| a* a* ea t . a* a:* * :::fi'l*lll
.* a a a a at a a a a at a a a a aB a -b -> - at - a * - � - k a . a a i a w a � a r a r a a a a aF 378 li-f*
*k af a� a - af ai ai aii a : fc - a r a B a a a a a I a aa -r - -* - 41 a a*4- - a a - aI^ 37dI~i
o.fCOn6Etente Se ep. 37 5).aaeaata a.a . aaa aa.a . iy.
.K ..N iT4
o ot e73
Reported Bthe4jiefeapi ty cancer, head 4 the d4parnent of anitatio-.
Vital statistics, fiscal year a a a.a.-.a.*.a . a*a.aaa aaa
..aa . -
of emploeya of the Coewinigia and Pawaia RailrQad ,1m-
in the i of Paf nud Colon and the Canwl Zone....
by ae, l yr, .a . a.a.a........ .......... -...... .... ......
atses of death of efmpiyees of the ACommission and Panama Ra
apany......................... .... ......... a........... -
Deaths of white employees from the uid States...............
Deaths of white women ~ad children rom the United States.... - -
Death rate among Amerieans on the I8twUs..... c...............
Causes and places of death of employees and civil p
Table showing discharges and deaths of employees
e wmwion, from all causes, for iseal year. -..
Consolidated hospital report....... . .. .... . .-.... .. -
CoU eidta~ dispensary repo t... .. . . . .a . . . . . . . . . . .
Consolidated ikp sport ....... . .. ..... ......
(ousolidated hospital, sickcamp, and sick-in-quart
Average number of employees constantly sick in hos
Average number of employees constantly sick, per
Subsistence and operating expenses.................
Outside patients treated in hospitals, and amounts
rnuSkai k ot
. a B a *
a aa a
a a a a a
in the hospitals of
* � a. a
a ---a a a
a. * a a
a.:�. a a a a a a a a
* a a a a a a . aa a
- . .a a a a a a a ia -
a 4h a a - 4 t a S* at� MW: * a a
pitals, sick camps,
S i--~-www a a* -t
colleeted for their
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the chief sanitary officer, etc.-Continued.
Statement of issues of quinine............... -...
City of Panama.........................
Colon, Cristobal, Mount Hope.............
* a a a a * a a ak . . a a -. a a a - *t aa - a a
-* a a a a - a -* - am a a a - ai a a a - - a .( a a a
Ports of Panama-Ancon and Colon-Cristobal...
Bocas del Toro ..............
Hospital cases of malaria among employees...
Report of the superintendent of clubhouses.....
Advisory committee and executive councils.
Activities -....--...................-- ........- ..-
Bowling, billiards, and pool..
Libraries and reading rooms. .
Physical work ..............
Religious work-. ...............
Barber shops and pressing clubs.
Dormitories .. .....
* .* a - a a - - a* a a . - - - - - a a . - - a a - -. - - . -l a - a a-
a a * - a a a - - - - a - - - - a a - - - a - a -
a - a a* - - a - - - a a a a - a a a a a a - - - - a a a a
Privileges for ladies ......
Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office...
Charts showing organization of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Rail-
road Company, August, 1910 (for index see p. 443) ........................
xx xM xx. x x.
**x x x:** -
* xx '. ::
xx xxx x x x xx
*~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ xx ***.***** ""w *""'"
Frontispiece: Map of Canal Zone.
(Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of first division of the office of the chief engineer.]
used for experiments.
of water checked
Following plates, 75 to 94, in portfolio.
Side approach and wing walls, Pedro Miguel lock.
Details of buffer, buffer castings, anchors, etc., for all locks.
Gatun and Miraflores spillways, general drawing of Stoney gates.
Stoney gate valves, machinery for all locks, assembly side elevation.
Stoney gate valves, machinery for all locks,
Stoney gate valves, machinery for all locks,
assembly end elevation.
Cylindrical valves, machinery for all locks, assembly and sections.
Mitering lock gates,
proposed arrangement of operating machinery,
sectional side elevation.
83. Mitering lock gates,
proposed arrangement of operating machinery, section
Mitering lock gates, proposed machinery for forcing perfect miter and lock-
ing in mitered position.
Electric locomotive proposed for towing ships through flights of locks.
Numbering system, showing location of machines for all locks.
Emergency dams, general drawing.
88. Emergency dams,
89. Emergency dams,
90. Emergency dams,
91. Emergency dams,
turning and wedging machinery for short arm,
turning and wedging machinery for short arm,
wedging machinery at center, general drawing.
wedging and latching machinery for long arm,
anhf r' . 1 1 II I. I,*
[Report of the divialon engineer, Atlantic divihon.]
PLATE 3. Sites of Gatun dam and locks from the east, June, 1910.
4. Toro Point, showing camp and shelter cove, July, 1910.
5. Atlantic division, harbor and channel section, May 23, 11
south along canal near Mindi; width of channel about or
6. Atlantic division, harbor and channel section, May 23, 1910.
der dredge working in the canal channel near Mindi.
7. Atlantic division, harbor and channel section, July, 1910.
along axis of canal at Mindi; dredge about to cut through into French
8. Gatun lock site, looking north from east bank, August 25, 1909.
9. Gatun locks, looking north from west wall, March 15, 1910.
10. Gatun locks, July 19, 1910, looking south, showing walls of upper locks and
floor under construction in middle locks.
11. Gatun locks, July, 1910. General view of upper locks and forebay, looking
12. Gatun locks, July, 1910. Monoliths in middle wall.
13. Gatun dam, south toe, west of spillway, July, 1910 Dry fill at elevation
+35 to +50; hydraulic fill at elevation +16.
14. Gatun dam, hydraulic fill east of spillway, July, 1910. Discharge from
dredge and relay pump; lift, 63 feet; length of pipe, 4,300 feet.
15. Gatun spillway, looking north from west wall. Foundations for valve and
cofferdam piers in foreground,
16. Gatun spillway, looking north,
17. Agua Clara reservoir, Gatun, Jul
18. Porto Bello quarry, July 30, 11
plant and shipping bins.
April 24, 1910.
July, 1910. Outflow from Gatun Lake at
ly, 1910. Dam nearly completed.
910. View from harbor showing crushing
19. Constructing a storm sewer in D street, Colon, July, 1910.
20. Method of excavating for storm sewer, D street, Colon, July, 1910.
Following plates, 96 to 101, in portfolio.
96. General map showing Gatun locks and dam, breakwaters in Colon Harbor,
and channel excavation to date.
97. Gatun locks, excavation progress sheet.
98. Gatun locks, concrete temperature curves.
99. Gatun locks, concrete construction progress sheet.
X00. Gatun dam, section showing progress to June 30, 1910.
01. Agua Clara waterworks, general plan.
25. Out between Empire and Las OCascadas, looking south from a point just
north of the break in the bank, shown in plate 24.
26. The cut at Bas Obispo, looking south, June 30, 1910.
27. The cut at Bas Obispo during flood of November 19, 1909, looking north.
Steam shovels submerged.
28. The Chagres River breaking through protection dike at Point One, No-
vember 19, 1909.
29. Point Two, looking north, showing deposits of sand and gravel brought
down by high floods in November and December, 1909.
30. Steam shovel commencing work at Point Four, June 20, 1910, showing
two old French ladder dredges in the foreground.
31. Contract hand work near Bohio, June, 1910. Workmen are using old
French Decauville push cars on portable tracks.
32. Hand work near Bohio by contractors, showing method of dumping
33. Cucaracha slide, June 21, 1910. The total area involved in this slide
since the commencement of operations is 47.1 acres.
34. Cucaracha slide, looking south, June 23, 1910, showing how the weight
of the broken bantik on the left has pushed material into the cut, com-
pletely stopping up the pioneer drainage cut.
35. Break in the west bank at Culebra, looking south toward Gold Hill, June
36. Break in west bank of the canal at Culebra, October, 1909.
37. Break in west bank at Culebra, October 16, 1909, showing four steam
shovels working on the broken and moving mass. The two upper
shovels are casting material over the berm to be loaded by the two
lower shovels into the Lidgerwood train.
38. Break in the east bank of the canal, opposite Culebra, June, 1910.
39. Break in the east bank at Culebra, showing how the pressure of the broken
bank, shown in plate 38, has raised the bottom, for a short distance,
to a height of 18 feet above its original level.
40. Slide in the east bank of the canal opposite White House Yard, June 21,
41. Excavation at East Mamei, looking south, June, 1910.
Following plates, 102 to 106, in portfolio.
Diagram of yardage and rainfall.
Diagram of performance of steamshovels.
Cucaracha slide, contour map and sections.
Slide at site of former village of New Culebra (station 1744).
Profile and yardage estimate of Panama Canal.
plant at Agna
during erection, June 30, 1910.
Reenforced concrete barge.
heads and girders, May
Interior view showing reinforcement of bulk-
50. Launching reenforced concrete barge, Pacific division, June, 1910.
51. General view of Ancon quarry, June 30, 1910.
52. Sand unloading cranes at Balboa, April 12, 1910.
Reenforced concrete reservoir, 100,000 gallons capacity
at Naos Island,
Following plates, 107 to 119, in portfolio.
107. Pacific division, Pedro Miguel to Panama Bay.
108. Pedro Miguel lock, proposed layout of handling plant.
109. Pedro Miguel lock, arrangement of material handling cranes.
110. Miraflores locks, proposed layout of handling plant.
111. Miraflores locks, arrangement of material handling cranes.
112. Pedro Miguel lock, concrete progress sheet.
113. Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks, forms for lock walls.
114. Hydraulic excavating plant at Miraflores, general plan.
115. Concrete barge to support hydraulic pump, details.
116. Sand unloader at Balboa, showing crane, storage bins,
117. Cocoli pumping and filtration plant.
118. Map showing Panama improvements.
119. Reservoir at Naos Island, 100,000 gallons capacity.
[Report of the engineering department of the Panama Railroad.]
Relocation Panama Railroad.
The Quebrancha bottom, looking north.
Putting in the first deck of this fill to elevation +50, June, 1910.
Relocation Panama Railroad.
embankment across this valley,
The Brazos bottom
4,200 feet long,
, looking south. The
will contain 1,500,000
cubic yards, June,
on the curve
height and secure better bottom, June, 1910.
Gatun River in first stage of construction, June, 1910.
Relocation Panama Railroad.
One of the old P
R. girder spans taken
out of the Barbacoas Bridge at San Pablo.
Used on this temporary cross-
Gatun River at Monte Lirio to accommodate traffic while
building the permanent bridge.
13 a j-le, 4 v an l nW TX trn^ �n 1T? n 41 w/tf n A li
/^-i-a/ 1 .KIn 911t Qfrt iPn 4i ninwfmadn annro a~~~tn�
[Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, in charge of second division of the office of the chief engineer.]
Chart showing excavation and expenditures to July
[Report of the assistant engineer in charge of third division of the office of the chief engineer.]
Interior of seismograph room,
Ancon Observatory, 1910.
Fluviograph station on Chagres River at Bohio, 1910.
Triangulation station on the top of Ancon Hill, August,
Following plates, 125 to 137, in Portfolio.
125. Chart of rainfall along Canal Zone, 1908-9,
and station averages.
126. Chart of comparative monthly distribution of rainfall.
127. Wind roses showing mean hourly velocity and direction during dry season
128. Wind roses showing mean hourly velocity and direction during wet season
129. Evaporation and allied phenomena for Brazos Brook station.
130. Evaporation and allied phenomena for Rio Grande station.
131. Chagres River drainage basin,
cycle of average monthly discharge for a
period of twenty years.
132. Mass curves of discharge of Chagres River at Gatun for a period of twenty
133. Curves of discharge duration at Gatun during 1909.
134. Fluviograph and mass curves relating to discharge of Chagres River during
the flood of December, 1909.
135. Curves of discharge duration at Gatun, 1890 to 1909, inclusive.
136. Diagram showing two largest freshets of the Chagres
years 1906 and 1909.
River at Gamboa,
Map of triangulation system showing stage of completeness.
[Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of the quartermaster's department.]
Labor train arriving at dry dock,
Unloading dynamite from ship at Pier 13,
Quartermaster's corral at Ancon,
Mount Hope, 1910.
[Report of the chief sanitary officer, head of the department of sanitation.]
[Charts showing organtation of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Company, August
(All plates in portfolio.)
PLATE 138. General organization of Isthmian Canal Commission.
139. Office force of chairman and chief engineer, assistant chief engineer, and
assistant to the chief engineer.
140. Central division.
141. Atlantic division.
142. Pacific division.
143. Secretary of the Commission.
144. Mechanical division.
145. Chief quartermaster.
146. Subsistence officer.
148. Chief sanitary officer.
149. Disbursing officer.
150. Examiner of accounts.
151. Panama Railroad Company,
including New York offices.
152. Panama Railroad Company, relocated line.
153. General purchasing officer.
ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN,
Oulebra, Canal Zone, September 1, 1910.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the annual report for the Isthmian
Canal Commission for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1910.
The Hon. Jo. C. S. Blackburn vacated his position as a member
of the commission
, by resignation,
vacancy was filled by the appointment of Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher
on April 12, 1910.
The position of counsel and chief attorney was created and the
duties defined by executive order of April 16,
were made in the organization along the general lines indicated in
the last annual report, the most important being the abolition of the
mechanical division as it formerly existed.
The work at the Empire
shops was limited to repairs to and manufacture of spare parts of
steam shovels, arid placed under the charge of the division engineer
of the central division.
To the Gorgona shops were added the car
charge, under whose control were also placed the night jostling and
repair of engines, the electric-lighting and the air-compressor plants,
the boiler-inspection service, and material testing, with such mechani-
cal designing as is necessary for manufacturing work.
of shops was added
whose duties are to look
after the economical distribution of work among the. different shops,
their charge, and
the pay of positions is now standardized,
no variation being allowed except in cases where increased responsi-
abilities and duties devolve upon its occupant.
The first division of the office of the chief
the design of the locks,
dams, regulating works,
of the locks,
as the drawings of the
Pedro Miguel, were published in the annual report for
the working forces engaged in
the construction of these locks.
the flight at Miraflores have
As it was concluded
that an approach
wall in prolongation of the
vessels should moor, and that the wing walls of the locks should not
ceeded along these lines.
The south approach wall at Pedro Miguel
The northeast wing wall will also
and reenforced concrete
larger part of it is con-
be of massive concrete,
been designed for the northwest,
wing walls in the same
for Gatun and Miraflores,
been tentatively prepared.
The description and drawings of the valves adopted for controlling
the flow of water into and from the locks are given in the last annual
was entered into on March 2,
frames for the gate
the main culverts for
entered into on July
Pedro Miguel lc
the close of the
0, 1909, for the
frames and moving parts for
two sets of Stoney valves; up to the close of the fiscal year but little
of the material had been delivered.
Forty cylindrical valves were contracted for on July
wn.,,-%knr,^T w^ Cn, flmn ^^ *F^w * 4nryTn tn^i-ci nlF lr^tnlrc� -*'iwn Mnr nnnci^wiln+.lnnvy
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
During the fiscal year, such general and detailed drawings of the
lock gates as were necessary to advertise for all the gates required to
fully equip the locks were completed.
The advertisement issued on
April 16, 1910, and bids were opened for delivery of the material and
for erecting the gates in place.
The lowest bid, that of the McClintic-
Marshall Construction Company, Pittsburg, Pa., was accepted,
pound for structural steel erected, 2.62 cents per pound for structural
steel not erected, and $5,374,474.82 for the entire work.
tisement called for the
or 92 leaves,
strikes and other accidents beyond the control of the contractors,
the McClintic-Marshall Construction Company
complete the work
byJune 1, 1913.
Under the contract the work
of erection at Gatun is to begin on January 1, 1911, and to be com-
pleted on February 1, 1913; at Pedro Miguel the work of erection is
to begin March 1, 1911, and to be completed May
Miraflores work is to begin January
1912; and at
1912, and to be completed
work completed to meet this schedule.
The design of the machinery for operating the Stoney gate valves
for the main culverts has been completed in detail.
be operated electrically, and
The valves will
the machinery is arranged for either
local or remote control, auxiliary hand apparatus being provided to
the gates should
the machinery fail
a valve is in
The machinery for operating the cylindrical valves,
of which there will be 120 in the six twin locks, is complete in all its
In order to try out the machinery as designed, before pur-
chasing the large number required, specifications have been prepared
and bids invited for two machines of each class.
Much study has been given to the question of the machinery for
operating the gate leaves.
As the result, the recess in the wall into
which the leaf fits when open was modified so as to permit of freer exit
of the water around the miter post when the gate is near the position
, and a type of machine was adopted in which the force applied
increases and the rate of motion decreases near the beginning and
And nf tfho. mnv~mn.nm
lrnAfl'r fhg rnr linr-T caAnrtr+aA ,nncica-c, ^�4 ,
CA JAL COMMISSION,
desirable to provide on the gate leaves a positive lock which hold
them together against wave action, and at the same time it has seemed
possible to arrange a locking device which will force the gates to meet
device adopted is a new one and will be tried carefully bef
The general design for the spillway dam at Gatun was completed.
The cross sectionof the dam isan ogee, made up of an arc of aparabola,
a tangent, and the arc of a circle, the parabola being such that when
the stream flowing over the crest is 6 feet or more in depth the nappe
will adhere to the downstream face of the dam.
The trace of the dam is a semicircular arc, which secures not only
the necessary development of crest, but also partial neutralization of
the energy of the converging stream
that will flow
further destroy the energy, two rows of baffle piers are placed on arsea
of circles concentric with the dam.
The crest of the dam is divided
piers and 2
means of Stoney gates operating on
trains of live rollers moving on
castings set in the piers.
With the lake at plus 87
, one bay with the
11,000 cubic foot-seconds,
14 fully opened will discharge about
greater amount than the maximum
foot-seconds, or a
discharge of the Chagres
River continued during a period of thirty-three hours, which is 137,500
cubic foot-seconds at Gatun.
Since the coping and top of the gates
at upper Gatun and Pedro Miguel locks have been placed at plus 92,
would require a
and as it
in the Gatun Lake
take the maximum continued discharge
137,500 cubic foot-seconds nine hours and twenty minutes to raise the
level of the lake
were no gates of the spillway opened during
take care of the floods
that may occur, even should there be any negligence or delay in the
Chagres during the building of the main dam, the construction of the
spillway dam will be one of the last parts of the work completed, and
cnnnt-sl Wmannac ymo rt r-mrrn4- h ncrA^n +nf 'r�yw4 +o nnnaruinif~ir�nn~y AI-iniiWnn fbaj~
probably during the next dry season, and by their aid the lake level
can be regulated during the construction of the remainder of the dam,
the concrete being kept ahead of the slowly rising lake surface.
culverts will subsequently be filled with concrete.
The general plan of the machinery to be used in raising and lowering
the Stoney gates on the crest of the spillway has been prepared.
machinery will be mounted in a tunnel in the main body of the dam
ror me purpose
which extends over the gates.
A design has been prepared for an electric locomotive,
which it is
thought will prove satisfactory to tow vessels through the locks and
have full control of them from the time they approach until they are
locked through to a point beyond which they can proceed under their
Work on the movable or emergency dams,
the preliminary design
of which was given in the last annual report, has been continued dur-
ing the year,
the various details settled
, and the necessary drawings
for the delivery
material and erection in place.
For further details concerning the designs, attention is invited
affected by the design adopted for the locks has been carried on during
the past year.
indicate that during ordinary years there
will be a considerable surplus of water, even in the dry season, and that
the water supply of the worst-known dry season for the last nineteen
that of 1908
, would be sufficient to maintain through
the canal an
or four times
as great as the average number now passing the Suez Canal.
after making reasonable deductions for evaporation, leakage,
increases somewhat the expenditure of water over what it
locks separated into single lifts.
/\�-yvvy /A- 4-vI, .n^
effect at Mira-
*t~.t T JI.f. . .. *. jirfji> r c* u d*.j ^rw 3. *j *r. r,. J * * rT .*i I *i.3 EU i t.E * E1 US !4..S ** '1 *4 U.. l* *-4 r Nt f �* ItE *�i -f*
, the san
of the lock
d supply a
Nombre de Dios, the excavation between the locks and deep water in
the Caribbean, the breakwaters for the shelter of shipping and protec-
tion of the channel in Limon Bay, municipal improvements in Colon
and various settlements embraced within the territorial limits of the
and such sanitary
engineering construction as is prescribed
by the sanitary
William L. Sibert
, Corps of Engineers, U
work is in
charge of Lieut.
. S. Army, as division engineer.
to some extent
resulting in the removal in lock chambers of 3,965,699 cubic yards in
and 435,178 cubic yards in the wet.
In addition to this work
including dredging in the French canal.
of material in
tion in the upper locks was completed, including the trenching for the
curtain walls and for the lateral culverts in that portion where these
culverts were below the excavated area.
the exception of the
375,000 cubic yards remain to
The average cost of the
foundations for the concrete, including the excavation for the trenches
for the lateral culverts,
33,843 cubic yards were removed
past six months at an average cost of $2.515 per cubic yard, including
plant charges and division expenses.
Prior to January
1 this expense
The anchorages in the upper locks for tying the concrete to the natural
where the plans contemplated their use,
were completed, as well
concrete of the
upper part of the upper locks, in accordance with the plans adopted
and noted in the last annual report.
At the close of
1909 the unloading
The unsatisfactory operation developed
during the early stages of
their use resulted in the construction of an additional unloading plant
of 200 cubic
the automatic cars,
having capacities of 300
200 cubic yards, respectively;
derricks were also erected, one at each
of the bins
, for unloading sand and rock from barges.
gravity into cars, and
pile or to an auxiliary
concrete plant placed at the south
were subsequently supplemented,
in order to secure a
proper supply of material
by a stiff leg derrick erected at Mindi,
for unloading sand
the floods in November prevented
French canal by tugs and barges arrangements were made for unload-
ing barges at Dock 13,
using a locomotive crane to pass the material
to dump cars.
November to June
, and the plant at Dock 13 from December.to April.
To. deliver material
the stock pile sand
over the east
The unloading plant has been operated twenty-four hours per day
2,458 cubic yards of large
yards of crushed stone, and 155,458 cubic yards of sand,
of which the
and 138.813 cubic
yards of sand.
The greatest output was in June;
64,797 cubic yards of material, of which
,521 cubic yards were sand.
Operating on the basis of twenty-four hours per day
48.65 per cent
of the time was consumed in actual unloading operations, the balance
lost waiting for barges (29.50 per cent) and in other delays (21
in other words, these cableways averaged
21.6 cubic yards per
hour while in the service, or 44.33 cubic yards per hour of actual time
basis of twenty-four hours per day unloaded 25,400 cubic yards
1 . i - .
_ -- - - I _
nf.11 nwinm r1 .i /nf. r* nr .I- fn "1n , Tr nfl wv'yi r^ I^^ /nv f'. ifln fl rvi *1" / . a r /ra r lTi L-tr tI' E11ri ail -TT-rn.,. roi w /fir -/i * D^
guard rail was placed where the most frequent derailments occurred
eliminating the trouble.
Cement Company commenced in July, 1909, and with the cement shed
full, the difficulties met with in the operation of the plant caused the
supply to accumulate faster than it could be used.
Rather than st
possible, even at increased cost, and for the erection of an auxiliary
plant, not only to increase the output of
concrete sufficiently to care
for the deliveries of the cement,
but as an auxiliary to
the plant in
when Sunday work was discon-
On September 6 a twelve-hour day for the permanent plant
, and continued throughout the year.
The auxiliary plant consists of two
2-yard mixers similar to those
used in the permanent plant,
but steam driven.
the cement shed and stock piles to
Material is handled
bins above the mixers
handled by narrow-gauge locomotives with cars, the latter being small
side dumps when concrete is placed in the floors,
and platform cars
buckets when concrete is placed in
In the latter case derricks are used in connection with this
It was installed, began operations in December, and has con-
tinued since on the basis of an eight-hour day.
the close of the fiscal year,
auxiliary plant, 104,422 cubic yards,
or a total of 513,803 cubic yards.
The total amount of concrete to be placed in the Gatun locks, includ-
ing the approach and wing walls, is estimated at 2,046,100 cubic yards,
the total amount remaining to
The largest amount of concrete laid in any one month was in June,
when a total of 89,869 cubic yards, bucket measurement, was reached.
The permanent mixing plant had six of its mixers in use operating,
theoretically, twelve hours per day, excluding Sundays, and in actual
cubic yards mixed was 62,202, or an average of 32.4 cubic yards per
stone laid by the cableways was 66,479, or an average of 31.42 cubic
yards of masonry per strand per hour at work. The average cost of
the concrete per yard in place for the year was $7.355, including plant
issued in November to make arrangements to embed large stone,
less than one-man size, in the masses of
of about 20 per cent of the mass. This
to an amount
was begun in March
to the close of the year aggregated a total of 10,786 cubic yards.
was selected from material
for use in constructing the toes of the dam, and
2,458 cubic yards of
Bello quarry in May
On account of the excessive cost of the latter
, $6.284 per cubic
yard delivered at the locks, this source of supply was abandoned.
Collapsible steel forms are used throughout for the main and lateral
constructing the side
and center walls.
Difficulty was experienced in handling the water as the excavation
of the lock increased,
during the heavy rains in November and
Two additional 12-inch pumps, direct connected to 220-volt induction
pumping plant will
take care of the heaviest rainfall recorded.
The foundation for 150 feet of the south approach wall, in prolonga-
tion of the separating wall between the locks,
beyond the opening of
the center wall culvert
, has been put in.
To the south of this section
of the wall the ground is low
requiring a fill which is to extend to the
intersection of the center line of the locks with the old east diversion
about 90 per cent of this work is completed.
Stone and sand.-Crushed stone
for the concrete of the
developed during the year with a single face having a length of 2,500
occasioned by the fact that a large amount of "dobying" is required
to handle the
blasted material to and from
the cars and
(I nwicb nfl i-ba Inn,
"1. I 1
-Is nfl r * ~ Cl r a * * n r a n rr n r - - 1%. fl -. a "Wan a. ~ a - In. r. a
to sixteen hours on Decemi
and this was continued dur
The total amount of ston
yards, at an average cost fo
:MIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
)er 27 by operating two eight-hour shifts,
ing the remainder of the year.
e quarried and crushed was 549,678 cubic
r the last six months of $2.6283 per cubic
: pile at Gatun, this cost including plant
cases. The greatest month's output was
in June-a total of 74,184 cubic yards-when the
the time, excluding Sundays,
plant for 70.15 per
in crushing, 19.72
per cent undergoing repairs, and 10.13 per cent not working,
for barges and on account of other delays.
The output of the crushers
averaged 176.3 cubic yards per hour in service, and 251.3 cubic yards
per hour crushing.
A new pressure pump was installed and pipe line laid for doing the
, a dynamo,
erected and put in operation, and a clubhouse to be operated by the
's Christian Association, and a commissary building were
The original purchase consisted of a strip of land on either
side and to the rear or south of Nombre de Dios,
with the understand-
ing that the town
be left intact.
Later it appeared desirable
to secure sand from the beach in front of the town, and on March 14
permission was obtained from the Panamanian Government to remove
a part of the native houses and huts in the village, at an estimated
On April 8 fire destroyed
Nombre sank in September
was raised in November,
this, sand was obtained by a clam shell dredge temporarily mounted
on a barge, by a locomotive crane, and by the dipper dredge Chagres
amount of sand obtained from Nombre de Dios amounted to
at an average cost for the last six months delivered in
stock pile at Gatun of $1.9153 per cubic yard, including plant charges
1" . - - i .1 fL- k j � - �
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN
the locks and Spillway Hill. It
AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
ras decided in January that a larger
amount of the material for the toes of the dam should be procured
from the central division, this supply to be utilized so long as it could be
economically furnished, and that such material should not be selected
and confined to Bas Obispo rock as formerly
but should be run of the
To accomplish this an additional number of steel dump
cars were ordered to provide the necessary facilities for furnishing
the largest amount of material that can be economically handled at
The discharge of the Chagres River was through the west diversion,
and so continued until April 25,
been sufficiently advanced
when the work in the spillway had
permit of its use for this discharge.
Efforts were then concentrated toward filling in the toes crossing the
Due to the fact that the rainy season had already
set in, and that the bottom of the channel eroded as the opening
narrowed, some minor slips occurred, but none of importance.
At the close of the fiscal year,
the north and south toes of the
portion of the dam east of Spillway Hill had reached an elevation of
65 feet above mean tide
, and the hydraulic fill between the toes, an
average elevation of 51 feet.
West of Spillway
Hill the north toe
had been carried to an elevation of plus 30, and the south toe to an
elevation of plus 35.
Three dredges were pumping hydraulic fill into
the west section, two from the south side and one from the north, and
a fourth dredge, delivered under contract June 28,
was put on the
east portion of the dam, but will soon be removed to the west side of
Spillway Hill until the*hydraulic fill in the west portion is sufficiently
The total amount of material placed in the dam during the
fiscal year was, dry fill 2,577,234 cubic yards, estimated on car, or
place measurement plus 25 per cent swell, and hydraulic fill 2,933,175
ascertained by cross section when practicable.
The average cost for
the last six months of the year for the dry fill, including plant charges
and division expenses, was 28.19 cents per cubic yard; for the wet fill
on the same basis, 32.54 cents per cubic yard.
Auxiliary work consisted in preparing the west valley for the recep-
tion of the hydraulic material by clearing and stripping off the top
Trestles aggregating 7,486 feet in length were constructed
during the year.
Excavation for the spillway was continued during the year, result-
127,210 cubic yards.
The excavation for the
foundation of the spillway dam was completed, except at the extreme
that for the curtain and side walls and for the floor was fully
cubic yards of
at an average cost fqr
the last six months of the year, including plant charges and division
expenses, of $8.602 per cubic yard
April 25 the side walls,
the foundation of th
warrant turning the Chagres River through
floods of November and December.
As the foundations of the dam
placed at elevation
the other channels of
, the lake has been backed up so that its surface stands at from
16 to 20 feet above sea level.
Material is carried
the west portion
of the dam by
trestles in prolongation of these toes, across the channel through the
as the trestles are liable to
be carried out during the flood
consisting of six spans on concrete'piers.
The central truss
formerly carried the old line of the Panama Railroad across the
The waters of the Chagres River passing through the west diversion
had access to the French canal
, and as silting resulted,
for closing the passage was apparent, and it should have been done in
the early fall of 1909
water of November,
the failure to do so
, caused considerable silting of
before the high
channel in Limon Bay,
and interfered seriously
with the movement of sand and stone to Gatun.
The December flood
took out what was accomplished on the dam or levee in the interval
between the floods.
The work was finally undertaken in March,
the plan contemplates the construction of a levee, connecting Spillway
Hill with Mindi Hills
, having an elevation of plus 25 at the spillway,
and sloping to plus 21 in a mile;
its length is to be 1 miles;
- - J? -- 2.-. - . - a 1 ana-1 -3 a 4 a . a iaa- .~aa a. . � l l l . ,~
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
including plant and division expenses.
The deepest part of the cut
had reached a depth of 42 feet below sea level at the time work was
The dredges in operation between the Mindi Hills and the Caribbean
consisted of the 20-inch suction seagoing dredge Caribbean;
Mindi; three French ladder dredges, and the dipper
dredge Ohagres which was transferred on December 3,
Nombre de Dios and worked in the channel the remainder of the year.
These dredges removed a total of 4,556,375 cubic yards of earth, and
399,285 cubic yards of rock from the canal prism, at an average cost
of 23.60 cents per cubic yard, including plant and division expenses.
There were also handled 3,206 cubic yards of earth from approaches
'to the Gatun docks, and 69,844 cubic yards of earth and 55,036 cubic
yards of rock from the French canal.
total of 247,537
The dredges also removed a
cubic yards of earth and rock from the Cristobal
terminals, and 501,928 cubic yards of earth and rock from the approach
channel leading from the canal to Cristobal Harbor.
The total silting
between miles 1 and 2, as shown by surveys during the year, amounted
to 493,365 cubic yards, and the fill for the year in mile 3 amounted to
461,922 cubic yards, and the total fill during the year is estimated at
3,500,000 cubic yards, of which 550,000 cubic yards resulted from the
Chagres River flood in November, 1909.
An old French hull was overhauled and fitted with 8 Star well drills,
and was worked successfully on subaqueous drilling.
Four drills are
placed on each side of the barge in quincunx order, separated 22 feet
the drills in each set of four being 15 feet apart.
drills, loads, and fires approximately 8 holes per day.
The dry dock shops were enlarged to provide for the installation of
additional machines, and the fleet of
Breakwater.-The location of the west breakwater for the protection
of the waters of Limon Bay and the canal channel through these waters
was definitely fixed on March 10, 1910, after examinations by sound-
ings and borings covering an extended area.
The plan originally
presented contemplated a breakwater running out to a 44-foot depth.
A -. .1 * a * i 1 11 1" 111 1 S -1 i * S �
REPORT ISTHMIAN OANAL COMMISSION.
Preliminary work looking toward
the laying of tracks,
land, construction of quarters, and the establishment of a permanent
water supply were undertaken preparatory to the construction of a
trestle for the actual work of building the breakwater.
with the exception of a filter plant,
was continued along
the general lines noted in the last annual report, and was completed
during the year at a total cost of $202,147.05, exclusive of the filters.
The pumping station on the Gatun River was in operation until May
28, 1910, when the supply was furnished from the new system.
new village of Gatun has been supplied with water from the new sys-
tem, and about two-thirds of the water service required is completed.
The sewer system for New Gatun was also completed during the
plumbing in the buildings.
The Mount Hope-Gatun road
was completed early in
The road was fenced on both sides from Mount Hope to Mindi, a
total length of 5� miles.
Additional roads were constructed about
Gatun to facilitate access to the commissary and corral.
The condition of the water in the reservoir at Brazos Brook was
excellent throughout the year. Owing to a slight settlement of the
dam and dikes, they were raised to elevation 55, a total of 1,715 cubic
yards of earth being required for this work. Repairs werd also made
to the concrete apron under the 48-inch waste pipe.
To prevent erosion of the beach at Cristobal by wave action from
173 concrete blocks were made and placed in line along
In addition, municipal improvements were undertaken in Colon,
under an appropriation by Congress for the purpose.
Sanitary work consisted of constructing a new drainage ditch 500
feet long, and on an average 8,200 feet of ditch were regraded, cleaned,
and widened each month.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix C.
The work of this division embraces all the excavation between the
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN
AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
1910, by which the position of assistant division engineer was abol-
that Mr. Rourke'
and the position of a general superintendent of construction created.
The five construction districts were consolidated into four, as follows:
The Chagres River district, extending from Gatun
River at Gamboa; the Empire district, extending from Gamboa to
the Empire suspension bridge; the Culebra district, extending from
the Empire suspension bridge to the railroad crossing north of Pedro
Miguel locks; and the Pedro Miguel district, embracing the excava-
tion between the railroad crossing and the locks, the dumps south of
Pedro Miguel, and the construction of the Naos Island breakwater.
The division includes the Culebra cut proper, extending from Gamboa
to Pedro Miguel.
Chagres district.-The Chagres River by crossing the axis of the
canal 23 times before it reaches Gatun forms a series of peninsulas,
which, commencing at Gamboa, are known as Point 1, Point
Work on Point 1
was commenced February 24, 1908, and
continued until June 15, 1909, when,
because of annoyance from high
water in the Chagres River, work was discontinued for the remainder
Work was resumed on January 20, 1910, and
the excavation at this point was completed May
year 286,560 cubic yards were taken out. The t
from Point 1 was 1,246,761
28, 1910; during the
otal amount removed
, which lies between Matachin and Gorgona, was completed
on May 25, 1909.
The bottom of the cut was between
2 and 3 feet
above the bottom of the Chagres River at a point where the latter
crosses the cut, and
the heavy floods of November and December
deposited about 109,000 cubic yards of gravel.
A steam shovel and
orange-peel crane were put at work in the cut to collect this gravel
for use as ballast on construction tracks, and for the building of roads;
56,238 cubic yards were removed and stored.
In consequence of this
gravel supply, the crushing plant previously installed at Bas Obispo
was put out of service, as a material saving resulted from the use of
gravel for ballast.
Point 3 lies on the east side of the Chagres River opposite Gorgona;
excavation was begun on June 12, 1909, and continued until the close
j--f S -^ a rr ^ ~ ..: nnw�rr.L a *^�L-jT 4w^ a 090 Q A a n. a- t -ri n nA-w^ ri nrrv.n^ nnni-yy j'n'ra ri-
of the rainy season.
I REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COOiMISSION.
Point 4 lies on the left bank of the Chagres River at Gorgona, an
begun on June 2,
10,646 cubic yards being
removed by the end of the fiscal year.
Point 5 is at Juan Grande, and excavation was commenced on
June 2, 1910, 23,824 cubic yards being removed before the close of
Point 6 is north of Juan Grande; work was commenced on May
2, 1910, and by the close of the fiscal year 46,741 cubic yards had been
Hand work at Point Mamei was commenced April 15, 1910, and
excavation by steam shovel on June 15.
At the close of the fiscal
year 8,315 cubic yards had been removed.
At Mamei work was commenced on September 17, 1909, and up to
the close of the fiscal year 372,671 cubic yards had been removed.
The excavation at Caimito,
the last fiscal year,
which was in progress at the close of
was continued, removing 338,675 cubic yards,
which completed the work in this locality on April 22, 1910.
excavation at this point amounts to 2,268,572 cubic yards.
During the fiscal year 5,899 cubic yards were removed from the
San Pablo section, which leaves about 258,000 cubic yards remaining
to complete the work in this locality
This can not be done until
the Panama Railroad is abandoned, as this material forms the road-
bed for the double tracks of the road.
The Cano River section lies on the west bank of the Chagres River
begun in December,
and completed on September 24, 1909; the total amount of material
removed was 707,031 cubic yards.
Work was commenced at Tabernilla on November 13, 1909, and
carried forward to June 17, 1910, 392,490 cubic yards being removed.
The Panama Railroad and the machine shop in this locality will pre-
vent completion until after they are abandoned.
Near Buena Vista, on the right bank of the Chagres, are two bills,
parts of the sides of which had to be removed in order to give the
channel the necessary width and depth.
Work was commenced with
steam shovels on June 29, 1909, and completed November 10, 1909,
by the removal of 153,026 cubic yards of material, which was trans-
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN
AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
and old French Decauville cars; certain
tasks were assigned,
payment made on the performance thereof.
That done by the com-
mission was commenced in January, 1909, and completed in Novem-
The total amount excavated in the vicinity of Bohio amounted
to 184,148 cubic yards.
A contract was made for the removal of 160,947 cubic yards from
the canal prism between San Pablo and Bohio at a cost of 35 cents
All were removed excepting 14,223 cubic yards.
Another contract was entered into for the excavation of 202,410
cubic yards between Tabernilla and Bohio at a cost of 21 cents per
yard for earth, 25 cents per yard for soft rock, and 30 cents per yard
for hard rock.
No work was done by the contractor up to the close
of the fiscal year.
A third contract was entered into on February 10 to excavate 397
cubic yards on miles 14 and 15 and miles 19 and 20 at a cost of 40
cents per cubic yard.
This was finished March 15.
the Chagres section from
beginning of operations in 1907 to the close of the last fiscal year
was 9,497,673 cubic yards, leaving still to be excavated an estimated
amount of 3,415,944 cubic yards.
This estimated amount has been
increased over the estimate of September,
by 251,965 cubic
yards, thus providing for excavating to elevation 39 above sea level
instead of 40, wade necessary on account of silting by floods, and by
allowing 670,000 cubic yards for silting, due to the fact that during
the rainy season of 1909,
152,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel
were deposited by the river at Santa Cruz and Matachin.
At the beginning of the dry season
the clearing, grubbing, and
burning of trees in the channel of Lake Gatun were commenced, and
resulted in clearing 950.4 acres.
There still remained 162 acres to
clear to complete the entire width of channel throughout the central
were excavated from
the Culebra cut, leaving 34,893,531
cubic yards to be removed in order to complete this section of the
cubic yards over the estimate made in September, 1908.
...~t n r - * -, /l- 4-~ .-. IT I nkv e-r r 4-1n nani rf�1- i i rd 1t nC P�+1 rn nwi4 a'T/- iw~ lllvn n\| |a n^rty ri/v ^
4 *~AA A A AA~ ~ V
CANAL OCO WT
breaks have occurred in the banks of the canal.
At the points who
these breaks exist the underlying rock is of poor quality, intersed
by vertical seams, or seams sloping toward the canal.
upper surface of the
of the bank remained
weight of the
directly below it in the bottom or on the berms of the canal.
is taken away the upper part gradually set-
tles and moves toward
the axis of
the canal until the entire broken
portion is removed.
In widening the canal so as to secure the requisite 300 foot bottom
or berms that existed
this method reduced
to a minimum
the amount of additional exca-
vation it exposed fresh surfaces
to the action of tropical
and at the same time increased the pressure at
expected that slides would occur,
and in the estimates provision was
cracks that show in
upper surface adjacent to the faces of the cut,
that sufficient allow-
ance had not
the estimates were corrected
the new conditions.
Of the slides proper,
the most important is the one at Cucaracha,
The total area embraced since the
Prior 1 July
cubic yards of material had
been removed from this slide,
639,239 cubic yards were removed during the fiscal year.
ie next largest slide is on the west bank of the canal where the
movement of a large French dump into the canal.
The area involved
The third slide covers an area of
and is located on the
bank of the canal directly
, 1909, 50,800 cubic yards of material had been removed, and
110,000 cubic yards were removed
The fourth slide covers an area of
during the present fiscal year.
1.7 acres on the east bank of the
,-r. S * * . -- -^^ .- Sr" I a '*t j t ^
displaces laterally the
! ! �
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN
AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
The second largest
covers an area of 114 acres on the east side of the canal; during the
year 314,184 cubic yards were removed, making a total from this
locality of 480,202 cubic yards.
The third break was at La Pita Point, and permitted the waters of
the Obispo diversion to flow into the canal for a period of three days,
drowning out some of the shovels at the north end.
gates about 40,000 cubic yards,
This break aggre-
but will not be disturbed until the
A flume has been constructed of timber and concrete
to carry the flow of the diversion past the break.
The total amount of material removed from all slides and breaks
in the central division during the fiscal year amounted to 2,649,563
cubic yards, or about 15 per cent of the amount removed from the
The floods seriously interfered with the progress of the work, and
the one of December 26 overflowed the dike separating the cut from
the Chagres River, cutting a channel through it about 200 feet long
and 21 feet deep.
As soon as the flood subsided steps were taken to
rebuild it; this was accomplished, and by extra efforts the dike was
maintained through the flood of December 30.
Subsequently it was
strengthened and carried to an elevation of 73 at the top of the rail.
The track on the dike connects the relocated line at Gamboa with the
main line of the Panama Railroad at Matachin.
A new pump having
a capacity of 18,000 gallons a minute has been ordered to be added
to those already installed in the north end of the cut to handle the
water accumulating from various sources.
During the year 17,749,306 cubic yards of material were deposited
in various dumps.
The most important of these are at Tabernilla,
Miraflores, and at Balboa.
In addition, over 1,150,000 cubic yards
and deposited in
the toes of the dam.
dumps of limited
capacity were opened up in the Chagres section to take care of the
Tabernilla and Miraflores outside of the relocation of the railroad
That dumped on
the Panama Railroad relocation is
iianA 4 flh *il--nrw f-yrncflacc atnd nrTT lro~ctin +hm n\rrnbnnlrry-�nn�n~c /j! +bKr nnfm
REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COM1IISSION.
the cost of
easier by protecting vessels from the existing cross currents.
Prior to July 1, 1909, the trestle had been constructed for a distance
of a little over 2 miles, and during the fiscal year this trestle was
extended 1,123 feet, giving a total length from shore of 2.4 miles.
The end of the trestle was within 4,900 feet of Naos Island, and the
filling extended to within 400 feet of the end of the trestle.
trouble was experienced in extending the outer end of the dike, due
to the sliding of the bottom when the weight of the stone filling was
dumped from the trestle. This sl
of the last 4,000 feet of the dike,
iding has taken place at every foot
and a continual settlement of the
roadbed for two or three months, after which it gradually diminishes,
and finally ceases. The work so far accomplished has been of material
benefit in securing the objects originally sought.
The average cost of excavation for the year was 66.99 cents per
including plant charges and division expenses.
Empire shops.-On November 5, 1907, a force of. mechanics was
organized to work in the cut at night in repairing steam shovels; as
the result, it is found that greater efficiency is obtained in steam-shovel
work, and all repairs possible are made in the field without sending
the shovels to the shop.
In the interest of economy, the repairing of steam shovels and the
manufacture and repair of steam-shovel
parts for the entire canal
on which date the Empire shops were transferred from the mechanical
Empire shops was transferred to the Gorgona shops.
Municipal work.-A wagon road 8 feet wide was constructed from
Empire to Las Cascadas plantation, a distance of 2.6 miles, and corn-
pleted on October 31.
The construction of the road between Empire
and Paraiso was continued during the year, and was 75 per cent cornm-
on June 30.
between Empire and
continued, and 52 per cent completed.
A suspension bridge across
the canal at Empire was completed on July 31, 1909.
It is constructed
towers 60 feet high.
The span is 600 feet long.
This bridge was
i n 1 a l . . 1 .2 _
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
The work in this division consists of the construction of the locks
and dam at Pedro Miguel,
and dams at Miraflores,
dredging for sand at Cham6, excavating a channel
between the locks and below Miraflores locks to deep water in the
Pacific, such municipal work as may be required within the territorial
limits of the division, and such sanitary engineering work as may be
prescribed by the sanitary department within
the same area.
work is in charge of Mr. S
. Williamson, as division engineer.
Miguel.--Work was continued in
excavating the lock site
and the approaches thereto from the south.
When the excavation
was nearly completed two slides occurred on the east side, delaying
the work and increasing the amount to be removed by 75,299 cubic
yards of earth and rock.
The total amount of excavation during the
year was 277,935 cubic yards by steam shovels,
yards by hand, of which 44,948 cubic yards were classed as preparing
done at an
average cost of
$1.188 per cubic yard, including plant charges and division expenses.
Subsequent to the completion of steam-shovel work the prepara-
tion of the foundations for the reception of concrete was undertaken
by removing the loose rock which remained
and by excavating 42
, 13 feet wide, 11 feet deep, and 137 feet long for the lateral
culverts, and an area of 2,500 square feet to a depth of 5 feet below
the floor level at the miter sills.
The greater portion of the material
was handled by pick and shovel into buckets or skips,
unloaded into cars by the use of locomotive cranes or derricks. A
small portion was handled directly into cars by a Thew shovel. In
the preparation of the foundations a total of 64,084 cubic yards were
removed, at an average cost for the last six months of $2.8193 per
cubic yard, including plant charges and division expenses.
Bids were invited for the lock construction plant under date of
October 8, 1908.
The largest amount of concrete in the division is
to be laid at Miraflores, and while in the selection of the plant the
economical handling of this material was the guiding consideration,
another important factor was that the plant should be capable of
hiarria dnntaA tfn t.bi wnrlr nt. P .drn Miowr]
('sant/ilIc'1rr nrnn~o uTorf
cranes in the locks,
or cast iron embedded in
MIAN CANAL COMMISSION.
nill place the concrete in the center walls.
r cranes will handle forms and the steel
a n 4nn AM*
At Pedro Miguel the banks adjacent to the lock pit are such as to
prevent the berm cranes from functioning as at Miraflores, so they are
arranged with two cantilever arms, placed in the forebay of the locks,
and used solely for transporting material from the stock piles to the
the side and
as well as
the forms and
steel or iron work.
The concrete is carried from the mixers bynarrow-
gauge construction locomotives hauling two flat cars, each carrying a
2-yard bottom-dump bucket,
which is taken by the chamber crane and
the concrete deposited in the walls.
The contract required
August 20, and one berm and
two chamber cranes
tember 20, 1909.
Due to causes beyond the control of the contractor
the deliveries were delayed
and as cement deliveries were
the dates noted
, when advised of the delays, arrangements were made
to install mixers for building the lower guide or
approach wall and for
laying concrete in the floors in advance of the receipt of the construc-
three �-yard mixers were
one on the east and one on the west side of the lock pit, for laying the
lateral culverts and the floors.
chamber crane on October 25
but erection was interfered with
by the excessive rains, so that it was not until April 4, 1910,
half of the regular plant was installed and began laying concrete in the
the west side
but the one on the east side was continued in service
the close of the
The entire construction
plant at Pedro
Miguel began operations on July 15.
The storage trestles in the forebay of the locks are constructed on
both sides of and parallel to the canal axis, each having a height of 28
feet and a length of 880 feet available for storage. For this purpose
3,525 linear feet of trestle were erected.
1 1. I .1 "I __ 1 __ . 1 1__ a__ _-* . . . . . 1 . .. . _ ft " ... p � 1
he concre e.
necessitating the construction
feet of trestles for these tracks,
which are laid on an incline of 2j per
The total amount of concrete laid was 166,869 cubic yards, of which
1,656 cubic yards were large stone placed in the mass.
Of this total
the permanent plant laid 73,083 cubic yards on the basis of an eight-
. The rate per mixer per hour will be found in Appendix E.
Miguel locks was $6.089, including plant charges and division expenses.
and wing walls, is 858,600 cubic yards,
yards to complete.
so there remain 691,732 cubic
collapsible forms are
used for the
main and lateral
and wooden forms in built-up panels,
15 feet long and 8 feet high, are
The latter is placed
cantilevers on the
progresses, leaving the anchor nut embedded.
least twelve times.
Each panel is used at
was obtained from
were placed at a cost of 28.47
cents per cubic
yard, including plant
and division expenses.
The west dam at Pedro Miguel consists of two mounds or toes of all
, a large
intervening space filled with selected material, forming an impervious
The selected material is clay
excavated from the canal prism
south of the locks
, and is deposited from dump cars in layers about 6
feet deep, each layer being thoroughly wetted
Within the year 51,827
down and compacted.
cubic yards have been added to the impervious
a cost of
per cubic yard.
A total of 99,703 cubic yards were removed below the locks at Pedro
Miguel at a cost of $0.6345 per cubic yard.
The bulk of this material
was placed in the dam.
yards were placed in the toes of the Miraflores west dam, and 121,080
cubic yards used as back fill.
A 20-inch suction dredge worked in the lower lock site until Decem-
ber 20, 1909.
and the character of the n
the large number of bowlders encountered,
material, the output was small and the per-
utilized to advantage in the Atlantic division, it was transferred, and
yards at an average cost of 50.63 cents per cubic yard.
The work of preparing the foundation of the upper locks was begun
as soon as the excavation was completed sufficiently, and consisted of
cleaning up loose material and excavating for the lateral culverts and
steam shovel and by hand,
the total amount excavated being 39,381
per cubic yard.
The handling plant in these locks will consist of four berm cranes,
two of which are in operation in the forebay at Pedro Miguel,
chamber cranes, all of which are in use at Pedro Miguel. T
boom of one of the berm
cranes is in
the west side partially
on these cranes
are dismantled and
On the east side of the lock a storage trestle about 3,200 feet long
tracks for the
crane have been laid
work at Pedro
of trestles f
On June 1
the west side
concreting in the upper lock was begun on the floor and
�10 it 10
4 ~ ,~ a ~ r' I a a
~~4 1 a^ a\-/^nt
$.a flt\C *iv~w~t% nfl4
t Bi' .. | | |~ 1 n * || i ** | **tat- |*a- EIr, * I il EIIE E* r I Jt**'* .r i * * ,* . t.11 a ir, , *r* *airu.*i ll *' ! * u | *
beneath which is the basement.
One end of the building and a por-
tion of the
turbine-room floor are of temporary
depth and width of the water turbines to
be used have not yet been
the last annual report.
It furnishes power for the
for the crusher plant at Ancon,
the sand-unloading cranes at Balboa.
The west dam, extending from the head of the locks to Cocoli Hill,
consisting of two mounds or toes made up of waste material obtained
them, was continued during part of the year.
One hundred and fifty-
the toes, at an average cost of $0.6774
per cubic yard
120,910 cubic yards of impervious material were added by the dredge.
As this material
was taken from
the lock chamber
, the expense
pervious part of the dam
Stone and sand.-Broken
quarry which was opened on the west side of Ancon Hill, as described
in the last annual report.
The installation of the plant was continued
between the crushers and the storage
which delayed operations
The slide necessitated the removal of 40,960 cubic yards of earth and
the conveyer connecting the crusher and bins,
which was taken down
cubic yards of
A U S9 1 . I " -1
Prior to the operate
obtained from the Ri
ion" of the Ancon quarr stone for concrsta w
G d,.'^Q h-A f is i
o ran e quarry, w ich urn
e t lyroken stone
cubic yards, at
obtained from the Atlantic division; at a cost of $2.39 per cubic yard.
Sand for concrete is obtained from a bay formed by Point Chamr,
cubic yards capacity,'
which are towed to Balboa,
where it is removed
the barges to storage
bins by means of rapid unloading cranes.
Dump cars are loaded from the bins by gravity and
ferred to the storage trestles at the lock sites.
the sand trans-
cranes were ft
cantilever 33 feet long projecting
and Engineering Cornm-
beyond the face of the dock.
ing the erection, due
the defects that developed in
the correction of which necessitated changes.
which required modification.
The brakes originally
A total of 229,250 cubic yards of sand was secured during the year,
yards were sent
the Atlantic division for
use in concreting there.
The average cost per cubic yard for the last
yard delivered in the stock piles, plant charges and division expenses
stretch of channel below Miraflores locks amounts to about 9,650,000
cubic yards, of which over
is one of the
it was impossible
a sufficiently large dredging plant to complete this section within the
an hydraulic excavating plant was selected
as being not
- a .. a
Us I i i * a." *** . . .1. -~
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN
AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
The central station is located
canal, and in
the center of the area to
sion pumping engines with 24-inch stroke, 24�-inch water cylinders,
and 19, 30, and 50 inch steam cylinders.
Each pump is provided
with a surface condenser and a direct acting single cylinder 12
20 by 24 inch vacuum pump.
The pumps discharge into a common
delivery pipe equipped
Steam is supplied by four Babcock and Wilcox standard water tube
boilers arranged in batteries of two each.
Oil will be used for fuel,
were erected on a hill at the rear of the station so as to feed the oil
burners by gravity
. The supply pipe from the pumping station is
3,600 feet long, made up of 2,000 feet of 40-inch and 800 feet of 32-
inch lock-bar pipe, and 800 feet of 24-inch spiral riveted pipe.
main is provided with valves and tees suitably located for connect-
ing branch lines leading to the monitors.
The branch lines are 16-
inch spiral riveted pipe laid in groups of three so that two giants
may be continued at work while the third is being changed.
monitors are fitted
with motors, switchboard, and priming pump,
division engineer and constructed for the purpose.
The Rio Grande River which originally occupied a portion of the
area to be excavated has been diverted and a dike constructed across
the south end to prevent the access of tide water to the area.
the removal of loam overlying the rock by hydraulic process, the
rock will be excavated by means of steam shovel in the dry, that
method being the most economical.
South of the area to be excavated by hydraulic means, the neces-
sary depth and width of channel will be secured by ordinary dredging
the 20-inch seagoing suction dredge OCulebra, one 5-yard dipper dredge
.* 4 4*-^ - -. -
i.*- - - a _ - . .. ....... ... ._ - .- -l I[ A. *ui ) A -- - . *- - A" I w ry -I ilI
A A A I
28 . REPORT ISTHMIANI CANAL COMMISSION.
method is by drilling and mining, in which case well drills operaS
through the overlying earth to a depth below the required grade
the holes are sprung, charged, and fired.
By this means 274,339
cubic yards of rock were broken up, of which 19,392 cubic yards
were removed by the dredges.
The second method is by subaqueous blasting, for which purpose
a drill barge was constructed consisting of a steel hull 112 feet long
by 36 feet 8 inches wide, provided with timber spuds-one at each
corner of the
Three drill frames 38 feet high are located
along one of the gunnels, arranged to move lengthwise of the barge
Each frame carries a slide to which is attached a 5-inch
rock drill, and each slide is operated by a hydraulic ram and may
be moved vertically through 10 feet.
The drills are operated over
a distance of 85 feet from one position of the barge, and the holes
thus far have been spaced 5 feet apart on 6-foot centers located by
means of ranges on shore.
The barge began operations in March,
1910, and blasted over an area of 49,600 square feet.
The third method is by rock breaking, and a Lobnitz rock breaker
was placed in commission in August, 1909.
It consists of a ram or
cutter of steel fitted with a hardened steel conical point which is
alternately hoisted and dropped.
hull 100 by 28 by 8 feet. The t
The device is mounted on a steel
idal range requires the use of three
sizes of rams, 30,
40, and 56 feet,
and 194 tons.
The general practice has been to attack the surface
of a rock shoal which has been exposed by dredging with the rock
breaker at intervals of 4 feet each way, the points of attack being
located by ranges on shore and permanent marks on the bay.
the entire area of a shoal is gone over, the rock breaker is removed
area covered during the
year was 266,230 square feet,
from which 25,515 cubic yards were
The Balboa shops and ship ways were operated during the year in
new pieces of plant,
including the drill
f a floating repair
The necessary pumps,
treating and settling tanks,
erected at a total cost of $34,324.39.
capacity were constructed for the
Leper Asylum and
Miguel were completed
and a portion of the road connecting Corozal
were made to the Balboa and Sabanas roads.
the construction of 9,700
linear feet of
and 3,838 linear feet of tile drains.
For further information, attention is invited to Appendix E.
of Colon and Panama were restricted to certain portions of the towns.
purposes was considered necessary
improvements in the two cities.
The act of March 4
, 1909, making
appropriations for the canal
included an item of $800,000 for extend-
ing the improvements, and arrangements were made for undertaking
the work during the dry season of 1909-10. The amount thus appro-
priated will be added to that already expended in the two cities and
refunded at the end of the fifty-year period from collection
Colon.-The work undertaken in Colon consists of the construction
The sewer is to run from the sea at the Beach road
on the north
A A A ~AA~ ANNA -
Panama.--In the past year streets have been graded and macadam-
ized, and sewers, water mains, and concrete curbs and gutters
Cocoa Grove district... ...................
Guachapali district......- . ....-...--.......... -
Avenue B.....-..-..... ---....... -...
Santa Cruz district............-...-.........-
District 1.. . .-. .,- - . ..--"-.
Linear ft. Liuear ft.
The total cost of the improvements in Panama thus far undertaken
For further details in connection with this work attention is invited
to Appendixes C and E.
being done by the Panama Railroad
Company under an
agreement with the commission.
It was in
charge of Mr.
chief engineer of the
until he resigned September
was promoted to fill the vacancy
created, and has con-
tinued in entire charge.
At the beginning of the year work was in progress upon the entire
stretch from Gatun to Gamnboa, with i
the valley of the Gatun River. As c
the closing of the west diversion and
through the spillway
he exception of 8 miles through
anal construction contemplated
discharging the Chagres River
the elevation of the floor of which was placed
above sea level
on the relocation had
so as to give continuous communication at such
times as the
line of the Panama Railroad is flooded.
Work was therefore pushed
in order to have a through route ready and available for use in case
of necessity, and a temporary line on the 60-foot level was completed
bottoms of the Quebrancha,
Temporary provision is made for floods by use of two of the girders
formerly spanning the Chagres River at Barbacoas.
The trestles along the line from Caimito to the Gamboa Bridge were
turned over to the central division for filling and were used as waste
dumps for material from the cut; this portion of the line is practically
cated line during the construction period connection between Gamboa
and the present line of the railroad will be at Matachin over the con-
struction track of the central division laid on the barrier which sepa-
rates the cut from the Chagres River.
A number of permanent culvert
structed to take care of the various streams crossed by the embank-
central division along the new line, 2,500,000 cubic yards were exca-
concrete were laid
linear feet of temporary trestle were con-
15,000 linear feet of bridge piling were driven.
secured during the dry season from a gravel pit opened on the Chagres
1 mile above
gona gravel pit operated
the Panama Railroad. I
18,000 cubic yards of wt
stored for future use.
by the maintenance of way
n all, about 42,000 cubic yard
s were secured,
dich were placed on the line and the balance
The present plan contemplates the use of the 95-foot
berm on the
east side of Culebra cut as the location of the new railroad, and will,
if this plan be adhered to,
be finished by the central division as part
work in connection with the excavation of the canal.
During the early part of the year it was decided to push the work
on the section from Paraiso to Corozal in order that the present line
of the railroad might be turned over to the commission for its use in
moving spoil trains.
and consists largely
This section of the
from spoil from
It is practically
complete, and is laid with new 90-pound steel
- <3 I U � * 1 " .
-_ - **
of the chief engineer's office has charge of
mechanical questions that may arise and supervises expenditures, the
preparation of estimates, allotments for work, and cost keeping.
under Mr. H. H. Rousseau, U
To reduce delays on account of breakdown of machinery, plant, and
which reflect largely in the unit cost of work,
to a mini-
shops have been provided at certain points on the Isthmus, in which
men and 2.992
or a total
Other small shops employing one-half dozen or less men are
machine shops are
and in a similar way floating
machine shops are provided for repairing marine equipment.
needed after completion of the canal, but in respect to this feature the
commission at its one hundred and fifty-sixth meeting declared itself
in favor of a policy which
will, if adhered to, result in confining such
canal, equipped to
meet all the requirements of the
United States in
as well as the needs of the Panama Railroad, and those arising
from the commercial use of the canal.
of maintenance and
of salaries and
paid to reducing
the shops, including
of material and sup-
plies necessary in construction repair work.
with this policy
in all divisions,
including the Panama Railroad,
in the use of fuel and oil in connec-
amount of lubricants used, and of approximately
10 per cent in coal
na an nn n "It
rolling equipment other
steam shovels, as
as all manufacturing work.
heavy repairs to cars formerly performed at Pedro Miguel car-repair
yard is now confined to the lightest running repairs only
new car-inspection service instituted, every car in the service is given
a thorough inspection once a day.
Gorgona shops, additions to buildings and equipment have been made
Among the former may
be noted a new two-story
building 42 feet by
100 feet erected for the storage of patterns aggre-
The old pattern-storage building was converted into a brass
melting furnaces installed
arrangement enabled an enlargement of the iron foundry by the addi-
tion of 4,160 square feet of space.
During the year 4,820,762 pounds
of iron castings were made, at a cost of $0.02937 per pound, and 393,995
pounds of brass castings, at a cost of $0.17
per pound, both exclusive
but inclusive of the cost of patterns and material.
plants, except those at Gatun
, furnishing current for
between Gatun and Cristobal to convey current from the Gatun plant
to the Panama Railroad Company'
old plant at Cristobal,
The operation of the air compressors is also under this division, and
7,227,203,513 cubic feet of compressed air were generated during the
pipe line were
rebuilt on account of slides occurring through Culebra cut, and
feet of 8-inch main installed between the Balboa plant and the Ancon
crushing plant of the Pacific division.
ton �21014_ 46R AR
n.r wnt, nf fth
REPORT ISTHMIANW CANAL COMMISSION.
$4,388,511.55 were expended during the fiscal year.
1, 1909, th
monthly the proper proportion
expenditures, the plant charges
by the work on its completion.
for plant and
been completely absorbed
The division cost of an item of construction work is made up of the
all labor and material
arbitrary and a proper portion of the general administration expenses,
expenses of the quartermaster'
and subsistence departments, exam-
iner of accounts and disbursing office, and, second, a proper share of
the expenses in
the United States, and all other miscellaneous charges
in order to arrive at the total cost.
maintenance and operation of plant, equipment, and shops, attention
is invited to Appendixes G, H, and I.
The third division of the office of the chief engineer is charged with
meteorological work, such
any of the construction
such investigations as may be assigned
The division has been
in charge of Mr. C.
M. Saville, assistant engineer.
Alhajuela, on the Chagres River, at Monte Lirio on the Gatun River,
and Lagartera on the Trinidad River.
River stations are maintained
Vigia and Gamboa for the purpose of predicting floods.
The minimum flow
during the year at Bohio was in March,
1,220 cubic feet per second; the
after the beginning of the rise at Vigia the observer'
stage register were washed away
house and water-
At Alhajuela the crest of the flood
reached elevation 121,
or 2 feet
at Gamboa it reached elevation
78.2, or 3 feet lower than the
between Colon and Panama was cut off entirely for a period of three
Three first-class meteorological stations were maintained at Ancon,
Oulebra, and Cristobal.
Twenty rainfall stations were also operated,
9 supplied with standard rain gauges and 11
of the tipping-bucket type.
The temperature for the calendar year
with automatic registers
1909 was below the normal,
the average being 78�
. at Cristobal and Culebra, and 79�
The minimum temperature was 61
. at Culebra on March 1,
and the maximum at Culebra, April 15, 1909, 94� F.
The rainfall for the calendar year was greater at all stations;
recorded for the year.
The maximum monthly rainfall also occurred
fell at Alhajuela on
of May 28,
during a storm at Ancon on July
, 1909, the wind attained a maxi-
mum velocity for one minute of 70 miles an hour, and for five minutes
of 59 miles an hour, the greatest velocity of. record on the Isthmus.
Slight seismic disturbances were of frequent occurrence during the
Except in cases of minor local tremors, the records at Ancon
harmonize with records in the
, Mexico, and Europe.
Careful record of evaporations at various points along the line and
the time of duration of fogs has also been kept.
The survey of the watershed of the Chagres was completed.
A triangulation survey was
undertaken for the
durinrfg the greater part of
a ems a -. * a --
I - N N
through the range at elevation 85'is 50 feet, and at no place between
the 90-foot contours is it more than 100 feet.
Investigation of this
locality indicates that it
be necessary to increase the
another saddle will
probably require some reenforce-
Attention is invited to Appendix J for more detailed information.
The quartermaster's department
repair of all buildings;
requisitioning for supplies of all kinds,
with the receipt and distribution of them on arrival;
and disposal of night soil
cutting of grass
the auditing of
ment is in charge of Lieut.
C. A. Devol, chief quartermaster.
Some minor changes have been made in the organization during the
, 1909, the amount of
construction work con-
separate gangs by each of the construction divisions for the erection
of buildings, so that this and all repair work were transferred to the
department on December
Test inventories having disclosed
the storehouses at Gatun
transferred from the Atlantic division to the quartermaster's
, effective January
on the same date
at Balboa and Miraflores in the Pacific division were also transferred,
received for the outlay in maintaining gardens resulted in their elimi-
by the district
and garbage as prescribed by the sanitary
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
the larger part of them from Barbados.
recruiting was done in January, 1910, since which date immigration
has exceeded emigration, and, as the work has reached its maximum,
the present population of the Zone furnishes an ample labor supply.
There has always been an independent immigration from the
Indian islands, but it was not until within the last four months that
there has been any such movement on the part of European laborers.
During this period,
from Spain and Ital
however, 2,000 have come of their own volition
Ly. From the beginning of the fiscal year there
was a steady increase in the force, until a maximum-38,676-was
reached on March 30, 1910, including the Panama Railroad Company
and the relocation, and is the largest force on record.
time there has been a slight decrease, but
the total effective force
on June 30 was 35,578, as compared with 33,493 on June 30, 1909.
New quarters constructed during the year consisted of 19 houses
for married employees, accommodating 38 families.
ings, accommodating 29 families, were converted into "gold" married
The bulk of the new construction was at Ancon and Gatun.
furnish married quarters to all employed prior to January 1, 1908, and
all such employees have been supplied.
Of those employed subse-
quent to January
there are 525 applications for married
The expansion of the work at Gatun created a demand for
additional bachelor quarters, and four type 18 houses, accommodating
192 bachelors at that point, were constructed.
As far as possible every building on the Isthmus has been utilized,
and as the progress of the work has caused the number of employees
to decrease, the vacant
quarters have been
for what is termed
married quarters" for the use of employees working at points where
they are unable to secure family quarters.
Suites of two or three
rooms are assigned to each family.
The number of negroes in quarters remains practically the same-
4,925 bachelors and 1,067 families.
There has been an increase of
1,300 Europeans occupying commission quarters.
fli i P 1 P i I 1�
There are 3,078
the Canal Zone owned
by the corn-
mission, of which 1,147 were acquired by purchase from the French.
The sum of $478,000 was expended for new construction and repairs
during the fiscal year in completing 90 new buildings of every class
these 90, 50 were constructed by contract, the contractor performing
been a reduction in
the unit cost,
amounting to 30 per cent in
cost of type
per cent in
the cost of
commonly used for quarters.
buildings experience has demonstrated
that in all but minor repairs
Four traveling gangs of
penters and two of painters were organized.
The value of local purchases, including coal and oil, was $2,094,131.02
345,185 tons of
barrels of fuel
oil were used
stock in storehouses at the end of the fiscal year amounted to $4,691,-
consumption has proven satisfactory;
it has diminished
between placing of the requisition and the delivery of material on the
, resulting in fewer shortages of stock in the storehouses.
in a reduction
cargo being reduced from 40 cents per ton to 32 cents per ton.
the date of the transfer
100,000 tons of material have been handled
Additional storehouse facilities were added at Porto Bello,
Miraflores, and Balboa.
For further details, attention is invited
OTTn aoTrnrtrITf T 1W "1A DWTMWTrP
^ s 4
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
a profit of
-The total number of meals served at the line hotels
2,176,451, the price per meal being 30 cents.
The cost for supplies
per meal was 24.87 cents, and the expense in preparing and serving
was 6.23 cents.
There was a total increase of $43,964.31 in the cost
of the food supply
cents per meal.
to the line
The expense in
hotels during the year, or of 1.33
preparation and serving was de-
0.69 cent over the
total number of
rations furnished in the European messes was 1,092,487
at a cost of
30.18 cents per ration for food and 6.60 cents per ration for expense.
The number of rations served in the laborers' kitchens was 781,746, at
a cost of 22.66 cents for food and 4.63 cents for expense.
revenue from the line hotels, messes, and kitchens was $1,350,658.05,
a decrease of $168,620.08 over the previous year.
sistence department, attention is invited to Appendix L.
EXAMINATION OF ACCOUNTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.
The duties of the examiner of
accounts were outlined in detail
in the last annual report and continued unchanged.
is in charge of Mr.
W. W. Warwick, examiner of accounts.
In the work of bookkeeping, improvements have
been made in
the classification of expenditures and the compilation of statistics.
A distribution of the accumulated plant charges, formerly carried as
one item, was made, so that the plant is now shown in the expenditure
accounts by divisions and by units of the work.
bonded employees at all places on the Isthmus, and witnessing the
transfer of responsibility from one employee to another.
counts are inspected and verified at regular intervals during the year,
and an average of four or five times for each account is considered
sufficient, unless there is reason to believe that any particular account
is being incorrectly kept. Coupon and meal-ticket accounts are in-
spected about once a month. Twice during the year the cash in the
1 ._P it - _ . _ T �. ... - - , - ",
on an hourly basis were inspected three or four times a week, and some
books in the field
, 12 men have been engaged in inspecting tfimekeep-
ing in all timekeeping offices on
of the pay rolls sent in, and an e
the Isthmus to verify the accuracy
examination is made to see if pay rolls
contain only the amount of time shown on the time rolls, and the time
given on account of sickness, court attendance, etc., is verified from
One branch of the examiner of accounts'
office has to do with the
settlement of claims of employees on account of personal injuries, and
this work has largely increased; the amount paid on account of such
injuries was $96,810.33,
on account of
death claims, $21,053.22.
There was also paid on account of meritorious sick leave the sum of
was established for the
month, and in case the disability of an employee continues for a year,
or the greater part of a year, payment is made once a month. Claims
on account of the death of employees are approved for one year, and
payments made to the beneficiaries in monthly installments.
In this connection it is again to be noted that the classes of persons
Commission given relief by Congress
fewer than in any other branch of the service covered by law, and has
resulted in its application to imposing hardships in some cases.
requirement that all claims shall be acted on by the Secretary of Cornm-
merce and Labor has resulted in
delays in making payments.
Washington and the evidence which must be furnished
would not be required if settled on the Isthmus,
where the facts can
be readily determined.
The examiner of accounts is also auditor for the Canal Zone gov-
During the year more than $1,000,000 were kept on deposit
in a bank in the City of Washington, to the credit of the treasurer of
held pending settlement of the accounts with the United States Post-
was received on this deposit and credited as a revenue of
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
For details concerning the work of this department,
invited to Appendix N.
The organization of the department of civil administration remains
practically the same as outlined in the last annual report.
C. S. Blackburn resigned, effective December 4, 1909, and Mr. Maurice
H. Thatcher was appointed a member of the commission on April
12, 1910, and assigned as head of the department of civil administra-
tion on May 13, 1910.
No congressional legislation of importance affecting the Canal Zone
was passed during the year.
Among the most important executive
orders promulgated are the order of the President of July 30, 1909,
amending section 149 of the Penal Code of the Canal Zone, which pre-
scribes the penalties for murder in the first and second degrees; the
's order of November 23, 1909, penalizing the recruitment of
labor in the Canal Zone for service in foreign countries; the President's
order of April 16,
1910, defining the powers and functions of the coun-
sel and chief attorney and the prosecuting attorney, amending the
existing provisions of law respecting the filing of informations and the
execution of criminal process; the President'
order of January 26,
, providing for charging an equitable proportion of the cost of
sanitary improvements to property owners in the district in which
sanitary improvements are made.
A board of local inspectors was
created by the President'
order of October
2 for the examination and
licensing of masters, mates, engineers, and pilots of steam vessels navi-
waters of the Canal Zone.
secretary was abolished by order of the Secretary of War on May 24.
Some of the matters taken up with the officials of the Republic of
Panama and satisfactorily adjusted are the stationing of Zone police
at Nombre de Dios in the Republic of Panama, and the adoption of
sanitary regulations; the amendment of the agreement with Panama
for the maintenance and
operation of Santo
Tomas Hospital; the
maintenance of the insane of the Republic of Panama in commission
hospitals; the verification of the survey of the Canal Zone boundaries,
and the enforcement of the executive decree of Panama prohibiting
Of the orders sold,
and foreign (
$3,976,891.63 were payable in the
for the direct
and the Canal Zone, since which time orders amounting to $4,060.30
there being on June 30 unpaid money orders aggregating $323,311.15,
drawn to the order of the remitter and payable at the office of issue,
min the various offices on the Zone.
Vessels to the number of 237
entered at the port of Ancon,
a tonnage of
At Cristobal 235 vessels entered with a tonnage of 636,191,
with a tonnage of
customs fees were collected.
the close of the fiscal year there were 2,783
1,892 were for building lot
leases in force,
and 884 for agricultural lands, an
increase of 686 in the total number of leases over the preceding year.
increase over the amount collected for the year ended June 30,
An appropriation of $75,000 was made by Congress near the close of
the year for the purpose of making a general land survey of the Canal
On account of general taxes and licenses,
$107,642.58 were collected,
an increase of more than $8,000 over the preceding year.
During the year 38 estates were settled, and on June 30, 17 were in
course of settlement, involving the handling of $6,531.24.
Police and prisons.-On June 30,
, the police force consisted of
A reorganization of the division was made, effective
, 1910, at which time the Canal Zone was, for police pur-
poses, divided into four districts, coextensive with the administrative
districts as established by the order of the President dated March 13,
, the changes in the organization being made with a view to con-
-- L A m
5 were convicted;
in the insane asylum, and 3 are awaiting trial.
At the close of the fiscal year there
138 convicts confined in
been kept at
roads, grading, etc.
Eight pardons were granted during the.year and
two sentences commuted.
Schools.-During the year
12 schools for white children and
colored children were maintained
and on October
an enrollment of 745 and
School gardens have
been maintained in connection with a number of the colored schools,
and have been. productive of good results.
Fire protection.-During the
paid fire company was estab-
listed at Gatun and a fire-alarm system installed;
two new volunteer
companies were organized at Gatun, and one volunteer company was
On June 30
with a membership of 324.
year, of which 12 were in Panamanian territory
123 fires during the
the value of govern-
ment property involved, as reported by the fire chief, was $1,174,017.19
and the total loss resulting from fires, $2,796.04.
Public works.-There were 201
water connections made
in Panama during the year, the total number on June 30 being
for connections pending.
from water rents from private consumers for the first three-quarters
of the year were $50,159.15, and the net amount of the bills rendered
for the quarter ended June 30,
In Colon during the year there were 84 connections made, the total
number on June 30
applications for connections
The total collections of water rents from private consumers
and from the commission and the Panama Railroad Company during
amount of bills rendered for the fourth quarter was $19,507.90.
Colon authorized by Congress will require amendment of the existing
agreements with Panama for the collection
of water rents,
be submitted as soon as practicable.
During the year 244 private sewer and water connections were made
* .... > ^ 7 i rr .. j j. i * ... . am- a r
cases were pending at the beginning of the year, 13 were filed,
were disposed of.
In the circuit courts 382 criminal cases were filed;
were secured and 39 were acquitted
68 cases were dismissed, and 26
pending on June 30.
cases filed during the
96 were pending at the close of the
the district courts,
to the circuit courts, and 9 cases were pending on June 30.
cases were filed,
1,055 were disposed of, and
were pending at the close of the year.
Canal Zone funds.-At the beginning of the fiscal year there were
$197,531.22 on hand in the Zone treasury, and $394,422.23 were col-
during the year.
The expenditures amounted to $518,771.57
districts, and contingent expenses in the postal service.
in this department,
attention is invited to Appendix O.
DEPARTMENT OF SANITATION.
The work of this department embraces sanitary work in
of Colon and
except oiling, it designates
work to be done in the Canal Zone in order to accomplish the desired
ends, exercising such supervision as is necessary to see that the work
is satisfactorily performed
is in charge
Gorgas, Medical Corps,
U. S. Army
as chief sanitary officer.
The work in the terminal cities consists of cutting grass and brush,
)n account of
and maintaining ditches for drainage
of Cristobal and Mount
Hope to Colon these are included in the Colon area, and for the same
reason Ancon in incorporated with Panama.
In the Canal Zone, the quartermaster's department expended under
- - --
REPORT OF CHAIRMAN
AND CHIEF ENGINEER.
The health conditions on the Isthmus are reported by the chief
sanitary officer as an improvement over those of the preceding year.
The total admissions to hospitals and sick camps, including those
sick in quarters, netted for the year 26,539.
The daily average of
sick was 23.01 out of every thousand employed, as against 23.49 for
the preceding year.
The total number of deaths among employees
was 548, equivalent to an average of 10.84 per thousand, based on
figures obtained as follows: The average number of white employees is
obtained by adding the number of white employees for each month
in the year and dividing by twelve.
The white employees for each
month are the number of names on the gold roll for the previous
month, plus all European laborers at 16 and 20 cents per hour, as
appears on the-first week's force report, increased by 30 per cent to
cover those not actually at work, plus Panama Railroad gold employ-
ees, determined by the number of names on the gold pay rolls of the
The average number of black employees is deter-
mined by taking the number of names on the silver rolls and deduct-
ing therefrom the number of European laborers shown on the force
employees, plus contractor's colored employees.
In addition to the number of deaths reported among the Americans,
76, 39 were deported on the recommendation of
the medical examining boards as physically unfitted for the Tropics,
10 were recommended for extended leave without pay for the same
reasons, and 6 were given extended leave with pay in the United States
on account of injuries received in line of duty.
No cases of plague or yellow fever originated
on the Isthmus.
One death from yellow fever, in the person of a young Englishman,
occurred at Ancon Hospital
on January 24,
passed quarantine at Colon January 6 and was taken ill on January 8.
The case was diagnosed as yellow fever on January
24 a thorough fumigation was undertaken of the building in which
the deceased lived while in Panama, as well as the factory in which
.invited to Appendix P.
S S ~
REPORT ISTHMIAIT CANAL COMMISSION.
membership for the year being 1,264.
The total expenditures from
commission funds for the support of these clubhouses aggregated
A small recreation hall was constructed at Corozal Lt a cost of
$3,954.66, and since its completion was under the management of
the employees themselves.
Further details of the operations of the clubhouses is given in
The work of the Washington office was of the same scope as reported
for the preceding year, and continued in charge of Capt. F
Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.
. C. Boggs,
A slight change in the organization
was made for economic and administrative purposes by combining
the work of the record and correspondence divisions under one head.
tendered employment on the Isthmus in grades above that of laborer,
of which 1,287 accepted and were appointed, covering 125 different
The total amount of purchase orders placed during the year was
$16,107,350.34; the most important of the purchases were castings,
structural material and valves for use in
the locks, amounting to
$847,000; 4 steel barges; 2 tugboats; 3 launches; one 20-inch pipe
line suction dredge;
1 hydraulic and dredging plant; 13 dredging, dis-
and relay pumps; 449
flat cars; 10
2 rock crushers; 8,745 tons of steel rails; 655,842 cross-ties;
32,715 piles; 30,771,744 feet of lumber; 14,742,400 pounds of dyna-
mite and blasting powder.
Shipments of cement for use in the locks and dams, purchased under
contract for 4,500,000
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix R.
Diagrams showing organization in effect July 30 are appended and
GEO. W. GO
/7/J/e-^7 iSy^ m- Kn;*PorR
77 R. Anrmn.
REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. H. F. HODGES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS,
U. S. ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER, IN CHARGE OF THE FIRST
DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER.
Sm: I have the honor to make th,
during the fiscal year ending June
the office of the chief engineer.
design of the locks, dams, regulati
The organization of the division
last annual report, and consists of
as follows: (a) Masonry and lock
lock gates and protective device
movable dams, and (e) spillways.
, FIRST DIVISION,
I Zone, July 26, 1910.
report of the operations
of the first division of
on is charged with the
remains the same as stated in
subdivisions in charge of desi
structure, including valves;
s; (c) operating machinery;
This subdivision is under
engineer, assisted by Mr.
T. E. L. Lipsey, assistant
Mr. E. D. Burnell, assistant
charge of Mr.
H. F. Tucker,
t engineer, was
L. D. Cornish, designing
designing engineer; Mr.
the necessary draftsmen.
employed during part of
At the beginning of the las
upper lock at Gatun and for t
finished. Drawings of these
annual report for 1909. D
needed by the working force
i'nnr ioip1k�r at. (4atii.n fine] thli
t fiscal year the general desi
he single lock at Eedro Migui
general designs were public
during the year the detailed
in the field on the construct
PeArn Mcr,1 ]nolt br a hon
gns for the
el had been
hed in the
tion of the
Io~ one]^ Q~
has been adopted. Provision has been made at the upper and lower
ends of all lock flights for the use of a caisson by means of which the
sill of the movable dam and of the lower guard gates may be laid dry
for examination if necessary.
side approach wall of Pedro Miguel have been designed and adopted
and reinforced concrete walls for the northwest, southeast, and south-
west approach walls in the same locality. The general type of the
side approach walls is shown on drawing No. 7125. (Pl. 75.) At
Miraflores locks northeast and northwest side approach walls have
been adopted of reinforced concrete on piles. A study is now being
made of cellular reinforced middle approach walls for the north
approaches of both Pedro. Miguel and Miraflores locks. At Gatun
the design for the south approach, involving a center mooring wall of
massive concrete for a portion of its length where it rests upon rock
and of cellular reinforced concrete supported on piles for the greater
part of its length where it rests upon fill, and involving, further, side
approach walls and wing walls with arched openings to prevent con-
centrating wave action from the lake into the forebay of the locks,
has been tentatively pr
It is intended that v
not against the wing w
and the side approach v
to the axis of the lock,
type shown on drawing
ralls of the
valls, i. e.,
are to be
t not yet submitted for approval.
I moor against the middle wall and
locks. The middle wall, therefore,
the portion of the side walls parallel
provided with spring fenders of the
The Stoney gates and fixed irons for the Gatun and Miraflores
spillways have been designed and are illustrated on drawing No. 7400.
In providing detailed plans for the features hereinbefore mentioned
56 drawings have been made and approved.
On January 6, 1910,
chasing officer, on pla
division, for 22 sets of
advertisement was issued by the general pur-
ns and specifications prepared by this sub-
frames for rising-stem gate valves to control
2, 1910, with
W. Va., and
advertisement mentioned, contract was made on March
the Wheeling Mold and Foundry Company, of Wheeling,
delivery of material had begun before the close of the
Before the beginning of the fiscal year 1910, award ha
to the Penn Bridge Company, of Beaver Falls, Pa., fo
and the moving parts for two sets of Stoney valves, and
dale Foundry and Machine Company, of Pittsburg, Pa.
indrical valves. Under the first contract but little of
had been delivered up to the close of the fiscal year.
contract was then. about 90 per cent completed.
As the result of experience gained under these contracts
i been made
r the frames
to the Rose-
, for 40 cyl-
have been modified somewhat from those shown in the last
report, both by changing the section of certain of the parts,
the substitution of cast iron for cast steel as the material.
Difficulty was experienced in obtaining the heavy cylindric
ings for the valves under contract with the Rosedale Found
Machine Company. The contractors have furnished
but only after the loss of many, and the indications.
in future contracts a very much higher price would I
for these particular parts if steel should be retained
In the plans for future purchases, therefore, the d
somewhat modified to allow the substitution of a s
cast iron, which it is known, will be less expensive
The frames for the gate valves have also been design
instead of steel.
Under the plans thus modified, specifications and
been prepared for the remainder of the ironwork, fixe
for the valves for the main and lateral culverts, with 1
the movable parts of the Stoney valves. These plan
tions have been sent to the general purchasing officer,
pated that the contract will be let at an early date. It
tion to purchase the movable parts of the Stoney valve
has made further progress, since these parts can be in
advantage after completion of the masonry.
ave to be
s the mat
speciall grade of
ned for cast iron
is not t
In addition to the ironwork furnished from the 1
commission's foundry and shop at Gorgona has m
in accordance with the designs of this subdivisi
material: Four hundred and thirty-four tons of
seats. 656i tons of en.fst-irnn valv chamber lininmr
United States, the
ade or fabricated,
on, the following
. nand 107 onn.a of
REPORT ISTHMIA CAOANAL COMMISSION.
Before the end of the fiscal year 1909, general drawings of some of
the lock gates had been prepared, and a typical one was published
in the last annual report. During the fiscal year just passed, the
general drawings and the detailed drawings have been carried to
completion. This involved the preparation of six general drawings,
showing gate leaves of different heights, with the spacing of the
girders, the scantling of the parts and plates, the position of the
air chamber, and all the features wherein one leaf differs from another.
Twenty-nine detailed drawings were finished, giving the number and
arrangement of rivets, plates, and fillers, and showing where crimping,
forging, and coping is to be done. They also illustrate special details
such as manhole and shaft covers, ladders, pumping system, foot
walks, and movable hand railings. The weights of the different parts
have been calculated in detail, and specifications covering the entire
work have been prepared.
On April 16, 1910, proposals were invited by the general purchasing
officer for the lock gates for the entire canal. Bids were opened on
June 15. The lowest bidder was the McClintic-Marshall Construction
Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., whose prices were 3.785 cents per pound
for structural steel erected; 2.62 cents per pound for structure steel
not erected, and $5,374,474.82 for the entire work. The other bids
received were from the United States Steel Products Export Company,
$6,103,041.10; from the Maryland Steel Company, $8,409,369.31;
and from the Riter-Conley Manufacturing Company, $10,183,257.
Contract has been made with the McClintic-Marshall Construction
manyn, and the preliminary
vers the erection, complete,
r, or 92 leaves, and spare pai
ditional gate of two leaves
Arranged by heights the nu
work is now in progress. The contract
of all the gates in the canal, 46 in num-
rts sufficient for the construction of one
of the larger size.
mber of leaves will be as follows:
64 feet 8 inches.....
47 feet 4 inches.....
Number of leaves.
1 1 1 1
* ft af a
S* * �. -
*- - - a -a * all
* a-l - a - - a
*-r a * * --w
AND ENGINEERING--FIRST DIVISION.
At the close of the fiscal year 1909 award for those parts pertaining
to the mitering gates, which are built into the masonry, such as the
anchorages, sill castings, quoin castings, etc., was pending, bids having
already been opened. On July 10, 1909, contract was closed with the
United Engineering and Foundry Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., for
furnishing these parts at various times during the two years following,
and delivery is now in progress, about 60 per cent of the material for
the first two locks having reached the Isthmus.
Preliminary studies have been made to determine the general out-
line of the caissons to be used for closing the head and tail bays of the
lock flights, and this work is still in hand.
As a protection to the gates in the upper and lower approaches of
each lock flight, and at those other points where the destruction of a
gate might open up connection between the two levels, it has been
determined to introduce a guard to the gate in the form of a chain
fender, which has been used for similar purposes in European locks
and was described briefly in the Annual Report for 1909. Studies
have been made during the last fiscal year of various types of machin-
ery for handling this chain and for providing the necessary resistance
to its paying out when struck by a vessel. Three of the most promis-
ing types have been worked up in considerable detail, and the design
is now proceeding on the basis of using a hydraulic cylinder for this
purpose. The design, however, has not been finally adopted and is
not sufficiently complete to warrant illustration in this report.
This subdivision has been under the direct charge of Mr. Edward
Schildhauer, electrical and mechanical engineer, assisted by Mr. E. E.
Lee, assistant electrical and mechanical engineer, Messrs. C. B.
Larzelere, F. A. Browne, and F. C. Clark, assistant engineers, and the
necessary draftsmen. Mr. M. Nixon-Miller, assistant engineer, was
employed in this subdivision during part of the year.
STONEY VALVE MACHINERY.
end of the valve stem is carried by a crosshead actuated by two
vertical, revolving, nonrising screws, driven by reducing gear from
the horizontal shaft through a friction cut-off coupling by a 3-phase,
220-volt, 25-cycle induction motor. The motor is provided with a
solenoid brake in order that the revolving parts may be brought to
rest immediately after interruption of the ine current. The cross-
head is guided in its vertical travel by rollers running on rails em-
bedded in the concrete. Each revolving screw is provided with
double roller bearings at its upper end, from which it is suspended,
the bearing at the lower end serving simply to guide and hold the
screw, the weight being carried in suspension from the top.
The crosshead which lifts the valve stem actuates also the trains
of live rollers to which the valve when in action transmits the pres-
sure of the water, and on which it rolls when lifted. These roller
trains must rise with the gate, and at half its speed. To bring this
about with certainty, the upper end of each roller train is connected
to a vertical stem which passes through a stuffing box in the water-
tight bulkhead forming the bottom of the machinery chamber.
This stem is raised and lowered by a chain passing over three sheaves
and fastened to the crosshead, the arrangement of the sheaves being
such that the velocity of one end of the chain is just one-half the
. : !M
. *'* I
velocity of the
ry is arranged for either local or remote control, and
apparatus is provided for closing the gate should the
w hen it is in the
A limit switch is proj
in the travel of the cro
latitude in the down
stopping the crosshead
tion coupling is introdi
case of such overtravel.
cut off the current at the proper point
the crosshead springs allowing some
tion, and chocks on the guide rails
of extreme upward travel. The fric-
prevent injury to the mechanism in
During the last fiscal year the machinery for operating the cylin-
drical valves has been completed and approved. The valves them-
selves were described in the last annual re ort. The mechanism is
shown on drawing No. 6502. (PI. 81.) The movable drum of the
valve is connected by its cylindrical stem, rising vertically through
a shaft in the masonry, to the machinery placed in a recess, the bot-
tom of which is 8 feet below the coping level. The upper end of the
valve stem terminates in a tubular extension carrying a stationary
nut and passing through a stuffing box closing the upper end of the
rise out of the nut and slide
There will be 120 of these
account of this large number t
mnatic as possible. When the
the lower part of the screw er
sion, below the nut, which is f
portion of the screw projectin1
vertical holes in the nut into
the nut. When the motion is
on a long
machines in the six twin locks. On
he lubrication is made as nearly auto-
screw turns and the nut rises on it,
a chamber i
with oil; the
o this chamb
; reversed and the val
oil returns through the same holes into the chamber
as the latter descends on the screw.
isplaced by the
ve lowered, the
below the nut,
A limit switch to govern the motion of the different machines and
cut off the current at the proper moment has been designed and will
be tried with the first machines purchased.
In the six twin locks of the canal, there will be
for Stoney valves and 120 machines for cylindi
to try out the machinery as designed, before
number, specifications have been prepared for
class, with the option of extending the purcha
tional machines for the Stoney gates and 38 aa
the cylindrical valves. If the two first machir
satisfactory, the option may be exercised t
number, which will be sufficient for the install
and upper Gatun locks. Bids will be
machinery for the remaining four locks.
allow different prices to be named for th
for the larger number upon which the op
se to inc
ies of eac
ie first sample
tLion is desired.
es. In order
ing this large
lude 46 addi-
Ih class prove
se the larger
or the valve
ions as drawn
After studying all the best known types of machinery for mov
the gates, it has appeared that none could be counted upon to pr
satisfactory. The gate leaves are of so great size that more tl
usual care has to be exercised to regulate the force applied to the ]
in a manner approximately proportional to the resistance to
motion. The resistance is greatest when the leaf is near the 1
extremes of its path. i. e.. when near the mitered position, or
REPORT ISTHMIAN t
(Pis. 82 and 83.) The motion is imparted t(
zontal strut connected by a vertical pin to
gate leaf. The other end of the rigid strut
attached to a large horizontal gear wheel nea:
gear wheel is caused to turn by a pinion o
vertical axis, and actuated by a motor thr
reducing gear. As the large gear wheel is t
strut is practically that of a crank upon a co
in the direction of the strut approaches infirm
end of the stroke, at which time the motic
approaches zero. The rate of travel of the
from the beginning to a point just beyond
between the recess and the miter. After p
rate gradually diminishes until, just at mi
The machine is capable of. exerting its gr
at the time when the resistance is the great
of the force, however, from minimum to ma
than the rate of increase of the resistance. ]
less torque will be required of the motor as
recess than later when the gate has attained
horizontal slit in the face of the lock wall in
the leaf by a rigid hori-
the upper girder of the
is fitted to a crank pin
its circumference. The
r pinions revolving on a
ough a suitable train of
irned the effect upon the
nnecting rod. The force
rity at the beginning and
)n in the same direction
gate increases gradually
the middle of the path
passing its maximum, the
itering, it becomes very
eatest force on the strut
sst. The rate of increase
tximum, is much greater
[t follows, therefore, that
the gate moves from the
I its highest speed. The
which the strut moves is
placed with its lowest point about 6 inches above thehighest water
level in the lock. The chamber in which the large gear wheel revolves
will therefore not be actually flooded, except from some accidental
cause. It is nevertheless liable to be kept continually wet by the
action of the waves occasioned by vessels entering or leaving the
lock and by the gates in opening and closing. For this reason the
chamber in which the motor operates is separated from the chamber
containing the gear by a water-tight diaphragm, the motor shaft
passing through a stuffing box in this diap hragm. The effect of the
water on the main gear wheel and pinions will not be injurious to any
great extent. There are many cases in which similar mechanism for
operating the gates and valves of locks is kept continuously under
water. Drainage is provided to get rid of the small amount of water
entering the chamber.
It has been thought desirable to provide on the gate leaves a
tive lock which will hold them together against wave action, a
the same time it has seemed possible to combine with this l
tend to force
the gates to meet perfectly
AND1T ENGINEERING---FIRST DIVISION.
must be in perfect miter at
crosshead is of considerable
to be sufficient to force the
is a new one and will be
the top. The motor which
power and the grip of the jaw
leaves into perfect contact.
tried carefully before being
s is designed
The general plan of the machinery to be used in raising and lo
ing the Stoney crest gates on the spillways has been prepared
is shown on drawing No. 6706. (P . 92.) It will be mounted
tunnel in the main body of the spillway dam, each gate having
separate motor and counterweights. The object of placing
machinery in the tunnel is to protect the parts of the machinery
the counterweights, and at the same time to obviate the inst
tion of cumbersome and heavy material on the footbridge, w
extends over the gates.
Briefly described, the
vertically, one from ea
immediately beneath ti
which the gat
lower end of
the chain and
ing nut which
tica thrust in
end chain, are
and in the ph
the motor tur
exactly the s
travel in gui
46 by 19 feet
which the ga
roller trains 1
ing at the sa
its speed. T
a sheave, th
its top and t
which hangs a
forms the hub 4
is as follows:
of the gate, ov
way at the mas
n is made fast t
ft the screw pass
f a worm wheel
double thrust bearings and is cap
either direction. The two worm
one by a right and o
of the shaft of a mote
middle of the gate
he worm wheels revo
to travel both in the
o a s
wo chains pass
the sheave the
,crew, from the
-een the end of
rough a revolv-
worm wheel is
of taking a ver-
ls, one for each
a left worm, the
ced in the tunnel,
Sit operates. As
ame rate, thus raising or lowering the gal
an not turn, being held by the counter
des. The effect of the counterweights i
power necessary to move the gate. TI
, and weighs approximately 43 tons. As
utes operate may reach 18 feet, trains of
limimnsh the friction against the side cast.
Lhe gate rolls in its up-and-down travel,
me time in the sanie direction as the gat
'he roller trains are suspended by a chain
e dead end of the chain being fastened t
he live end to the gate itself. When th
1 1 C . i 1i **
sing the corre-
lirection and at
te. The screws
s, of course, to
he gate itself is
the head under
live rollers are
ings. On these
the trains mov-
e and with half
o the pier near
e gate is raised
i i 1 * 11t
Se I * .
CAfAL ~COMMISSI ON.
from contact with the downstream face of the gate. At this point
in the upward travel the lower sheave engages and is held by a bracket
in the masonry pier while the upper one continues to rise with the
gate. The chain between the sheaves is therefore drawn out and the
speed of motion of the roller train correspondingly increased, so that
at the end of the travel the bottom of the gate and the bottom of
the roller train will be at the same elevation and the train will be
protected from accident.
the locks- has
drawn up for
of the method of moving the vessels into and
been continued during the year, and a design h
an electric locomotive which it is thought will
torily. The design, as at present adopted, is
on drawing No. 6806 (P1. 85), which gives a general view of 1
machine, for which the detailed drawings are now being made.
It is the intention to tow vessels through the locks, using
number of these locomotives, varying with the size of the ves,
the typical case requiring four locomotives, two ahead, one on e
wall, imparting motion to the vessel, and two astern, one on e
wall, to aid in keeping the vessel in a central, position and to br
it to rest when entirely within the lock chamber. When pass
the vessels up through the locks, while the water levels are be
equalized, the forward locomotives will advance up the incline
the lock walls to the level of the next lock chamber and will not
required to exert towing effort while on these inclines. As will
seen from the drawing, the electric locomotive consists of th
distinct elements. Two of these, the
mounted upon rigid four-wheel trucks
by an independent motor controlled fi
third element is connected
ersal joints and is equipped with
hawser. The line can, therefore
the windlass, thus
ship and locomotive,
actuall motion of the
this is eminently desi
or in changing the le:
locomotive ascends tl
the two locks are ec
For general purposes
its tractive effort fro
and a pull
of the towl
incline to t
Sone of the
* S" � -**T
front and rear elements, are
, each one of which is driven
rom either end of the machin-
with the tractive elements by
a slip drum towing windlass
, be taken in or paid out by
ig the distance between the
)e exerted or relieved without
the track. The ability to do
in bringing the vessel to rest
ine, as, for instance, when the
next lock, while the levels in
s vessel necessarily stationary.
)wing, the locomotive derives
id elements, through a pinion
I A 1
maximum pull on
force a friction co
racks are provided
level portion of the
on the side rails.
the towline is fixed at 25,000
upling will relieve further sir
only on the towing tracks and
return tracks the locomotive is
Studies have been made for raising and lowering the wicket girders
and wickets of the movable dams, and the general plan will soon be
ready for action.
Much study has been given to the method and arrangement of.
the light, power, signal, and control circuits for operating the locks.
A tentative, general method and scheme has been presented, and
certain of the details which affect the masonry now under construc-
tion have been approved. The system is so extensive, however,
that it is desired to give further study to the general plan before its
final adoption. The features already provided include a continuous
tunnel running the full length of each wall with a continuous con-
duit s pace below its floor. Connections between the walls of the locks
are o obtained through vertical cable shafts and tunnels under the
lock floors. All cable manholes and junction boxes, as well as all
stationary machines and transformers or power centers will be on
the level of the floor of this tunnel and accessible from it. Drawing
No. 6115 (P1. 86) gives an idea of the number of machines. The
. adoption of the tunnel with concealed conduit space permits placing
the machines below the coping level while still retaining easy com-
munication with all of them. It thus leaves the coping free from
machines and other obstructions, reduces to a minimum the number
of manholes in the coning and avoids tearing un the masonry in the
future if additional duct space
duit space in the operating tu
eral scheme of the control and
during the year, but is not yet
is to operate all the gates and
centra point, this point to be
the twin locks and probably a
each flight. The operating ro
showing the position of each
levels in each one of the pools
to interlock the system that ti
should be required. Below the con-
nnel is a drainage tunnel. The gen-
interlocking system has been studied
complete. The basic idea, however,
valves and other apparatus from one
a tower situated on the wall between
t the lower end of the upper lock in
om will be provided with indicators
one of the machines, and the water
under its control.
he operations must
place in the
bine base condenser generators,
horsepower water-tube boilers, ar
Gatun the substation equipment,
one 300-kilowatt, 500-volt rotary
room. At Miraflores only the
central station, the two 500-voll
field station. The boilers use
installed in duplicate.
provided with steam by six
ranged in batteries of two each.
, consisting of two 500-kilowatt
converters, is located in the tur
300-volt converter is placed in
Converters being temporarily
fuel oil, the supply system b
Considerable time has been given to the study of fr<
at Balboa wharf, plans for which were embodied in a rej
mittee appointed by the chairman.
Designs have been made of a cement unloader to be
by the Panama Railroad Company. One of the mac
built in the shops at Gorgona and will soon be ready
This design was made in connection with the report o
appointed by the chairman.
port by a cornm-
used at Colon
hines is being
f a committee
This subdivision is under the immediate charge of Mr. T. B. Mon-
niche, designing engineer, assisted by Mr. C. Derrick and Mr. F. H.
Moore, assistant engineers, and the necessary draftsmen.
Before the beginning (
movable dams, as illustr
pared. During the last
details have been comply
structural work and the
such progress that it is
months. Sixty-one final
the year, and a draft of
the turning and wedgin
eral plan of the movable
illustrated in drawing N
The structural work
into the following unit
girders, and rolling gat
of the fiscal year the preliminary design of
ated in the last annual report, had been t
fiscal year studies and lay-out plans of
leted, and the final contract drawings of
turning and wedging machinery have m
hoped to advertise the work within a
l contract drawings have been made du
the specifications for the structural work
g machinery have been prepared. The g
e dams for Gatun and Pedro Miguel lock
o. 5504. (Pl. 87.)
for each dam may be conveniently divi
s: Vertical trusses, horizontal truss, wic
es. with the necessary bracing between
'TbA Trnr^/nnl +'r1clcncii era nVA 1-it a\/ nonT+ila'cra
4f- .n*^* 2l ~ f> 4- L - -__ _
- a J^-I - a I Jaf nMff^
| IIl/ U .I.. g r. *I**a-a Ul/uI | *I -**I
AND ENGINEERING--FIRST DIVISION.
s part of the span being
, subpanels are introduce
riveted members and co
tical posts of this system are submnembe
alike, simplifying all members connectii
used for the top chord members over t
and continued to the far end of the coi
of the bars on either side of the center p
that the reactions on the two center cr
The horizontal truss is of the Warrei
and riveted joints throughout. It can
in place, being supported at frequent
booms. At each panel point of the co
braced in horizontal and vertical planes,
wicket girders fit and are pivoted on h
The wicket girders are adapted to
rough usage of any character to which 1
lowering into a swift current.
being rigidly connected by ch
outside surface to the water,
same. Large holes in both
limited by the spacing of the
3d and the Warren system of
nnections, is used. The ver-
rs, and can therefore be made
ng to the same. Eye bars are
he center portion of the truss
ost are diffe
1 type with
ies no load
intervals to the o
impression chord is
in which the upper
resist torsion, side
they might be subji
e of box section, th
ends of the
e two webs
il stiffeners, and present a smooth
L a minimum exposed area to the
provide drainage and access for
painting the interior surfaces. The girders are connected in pairs by
a system of lateral bracing in the plane of the top flaige. This brac-
ing presents only a small area to the current and is omitted in the
lower panel. The lower ends permit of considerable vertical motion
relative to each other, which might be required in the event of striking
some obstruction in the pockets or of unequal action of the lowering
tackle attached to each girder. The crane rail, which is riveted
directly on the top flange, carries its proportion of the flange stress
and transfers the loads from the wheels of the rolling gates into the
girders without eccentricity and secondary stresses.
The rolling gates are frames consisting of structural beams covered
with buckle plates and supported by flanged wheels turning on roller
bearings. When these wheels are brought in position on the top
flange of the wicket girders, Z-bar guides engage under the outer side
of the head of each rail and prevent uplift of the gates, while the
flanges of the wheels prevent lateral displacement. The upper and
lower edges of each gate are wedge shaped and formed by a bent
plate filled with concrete. The bevel of adjacent edges being in the
same direction, they can be brought to a close contact when the gates
are in final position, and prevent any tendency of the ends to spring
out from the rails. Great care has been used to reduce friction and
the possibility of binding or sticking as the gates are being lowered
lengths for thi
IA I A AAhAhI~
To reduce the weight on the center pivot and to re
tions of structural members to medium thicknesses, it
to make the vertical trusses, horizontal truss, and wic
nickel steel. The. gates and bracing connecting the o
the dam are to be of carbon steel.
The general plans of the turning and wedging machine
in drawings Nos. 5529, 5531, 5534, and 5535. (Pis. 88
Before any attempt can be made to turn the dam
balanced about its center pivot while swinging. Ba
structure about its longitudminal axis will be attained b
machinery for operating the wicket girders and that
the gates as near their proper location min regard to this a
cable and then shifting the gates on the floor beams.
create block at the extreme end of the short arm giv
balance. This block is provided with pockets and the
meant will be made by placing a proper amount of pig
Dockets. In order to reduce the size of the concrete b
load on the center pivot the turning machinery is ic
extreme end of the short arm, thus forming a part of
The whole structure is turned about its center pivot
duce the see-
; is proposed
ket girders of
other units of
my are shown
, 89, 90, and
, it must be
*lance of the
y placing the
ixis as practi-
A large con-
iron in these
lock and the
)cated at the
by means of
two main pinions that are geared with a rack quadrant. These
pinions are connected to two motors by two separate trains of spur
gears and one equalizer gear, the latter being directly in mesh with
the motor pinions.
On account of the great resistances to be overcome in turning the
structure, and in order to reduce the force required for performing this
work, and the size of the two main pinions, the radius of the rack
quadrant has been made as large as conditions will allow.
The two main pinions are shrouded on their upper sides and the
teeth are of special design in order to increase their strength. The
equalizer gear serves the purpose of equalizing the tooth pressure of
the main pinions upon the rack due to imperfection in size of the teeth
of the rack.
The two motors for turning the dam have each a capacity of 112
. They are reversible, open motors, furnished with sole-
noid brakes. Each motor can be operated by its own controller and
is so connected that either controller can be used to operate either
or both motors. Ordinarily both motors will be used in turning the
dam, but each will be of sufficient capacity to turn the dam inde-
pendently. A limit switch is connected to the motors to cut off
the current when the end of the long arm of the dam is near the closed
AND ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.
of one worm and one worm gear, the latter connected to two separate
trains of spur gears, each driving one wedge by means of a double
toggle joint. The machines at both ends are connected to the motor
by a line shaft and by one reduction of spur gears.
For the purpose of centering and of locking the dam while in closed
or in open position, the dam has been provided with an end latch at
the long arm. This latch is operated in accordance with ordinary
drawbridge practice simultaneously with driving or releasing wedges.
Electric current will ordinarily be used to operate all machinery
located on the dam and will be obtained from underground cables
coming to the surface at the center casting; but in all cases provision
is made for hand power. All motors and electrical equipment have
been designed for alternating current, 25-cycle, 3-phase, and 220 volts,
delivered at the switchboard.
DAM AT MIRAFLORES.
Owing to the fact that the level of Miraflores Lake is practically
stationary, while that of Gatun may vary within considerable limits,
the depth of water in the forebay in the Miraflores Lake is 8 feet less
than the maximum depth in the forebays at Gatun and Pedro Miguel.
It follows that it has been necessary to prepare a special design for
the Miraflores movable dam, owing to the shorter length of the wicket
girders which it will carry. Before being able to prepare this design
careful investigations had to be made of the balance of the dam with
respect to its longitudinal axis when swinging. As a result of these
investigations it has been found possible to duplicate many features
of the Gatun and Pedro Miguel dams at Mirafores, using, however,
shorter wicket girders and four sets of lowering gates instead of five,
reducing also the width of the horizontal truss to correspond with the
shortened wicket girders and reducing the section of the members of
the vertical trusses.
This subdivision is under charge of Mr. E. C. Sherman,
engineer, with two draftsmen.
The spillway dams to be built will be two in number-one
capable of passing the maximum continued discharge of th
River, estimated at 137,500 cubic foot-seconds, and the
Miraflores, capable of passing the estimated discharge from I
Lake level through one of the twin locks at Pedro Miguel s
gates of the latter be carried completely away. The dis
estimated at 90,000 cubic foot-seconds.
REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.
the same length. The general design, shown on drawings Nos. 4010
and 4020 (PIs. 93 and 94), which has been adopted for the Gaitn
spillway, obtains the necessary development of crest by throwing the
trace of the dam into a circular arc. By this form the discharge is
directed toward the center, where the energy of the convert ing
stream will partially neutralize itself. To complete the neutraliza-
tion, two rows of baffle piers are to be placed on arcs of circles concentric
with the crest of the dam, the upper one being about* 140 feet below
the crest. These baffle piers are to be of concrete, faced on the up-
stream side with cast-iron plates, and project about 10 feet above the
surface of the apron. The dam has what is commonly called an
ogeee section," made up of a parabola, a short tangent, and an arc
of a circle leading to the flat apron below the dam. The parabola is
such that when the stream of water flowing over the crest is 6 feet or
more in thickness the nappe will adhere to the downstream face of
the dam. The crest of the dam is divided into fourteen bays 45 feet
wide by thirteen piers and the two abutments. Between consecutive
piers Stoney gates will be placed, rising on trains of live rollers, which
move on castings set in grooves in the piers. These gates are illus-
trated in drawing No. 7400 (PI. 77), accompanying the report of the
masonry subdivision of this office. The sill of the gates, which forms
the crest of the fixed part of the dam, is at elevation +69, or 16 feet
below the normal level of the lake, which is assumed at +85. The
highest level to which it is intended to allow the lake to rise is +87,
and at this level it will probably be maintained continuously through-
out the wet season in future years when the traffic shall require the
maximum possibilities. It is not intended to allow it to rise above
+87 at Gatun. It is, nevertheless, possible that sudden floods in the
Chagres coming at a time when the lake is at its high level may pro-
duce levels somewhat higher by backing up in the Culebra cut. The
effect of such a moderate increase, up to, say, +90, would not be
serious, but might flood the machinery pits of the upper gate-
operating mechanism at the Pedro Miguel lock. The machines
would work well enough when under water, and the conditions would
be only temporary.
With lake at elevation + 87, one bay of the crest gates when fully
opened will discharge about 11,000 cubic foot-seconds, and all fourteen
will therefore discharge about 154,000 cubic foot-seconds. This is
more than the maximum known discharge of the Chagres River
continued during a period of thirty-three hours, which is 137,500
cubic foot-seconds at Gatun. As a reserve, there are available the
lock culverts at Gatun and Pedro Miguel, which together would dis-
charge about 40,000 cubic foot-seconds at the same lake level.
*... .- -_ 1 1 . _ . . . . . 1_ i
CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.
feet per second, without counting the reserve discharge capacity of
the lock culverts. It is apparent, therefore, that the means provided
are ample to hold control of any possible flood, and even to allow for
negligence and delay in operation.
When the gates of the spillway are fully raised, the bottom is at
elevation +92. As the surface of the water must acquire a consider-
able slope before passing under the gate, there will be, with the main
lake surface at +87, a distance of about 7 feet between the surface
of the flowing water and the lowest element of the gate. This space
is considered sufficient to allow the passage of any drift which is to
be expected at the dam. Precautions may have to be taken in the
prevent the run
be very large,
at most drift
i the lake area
dam, or at the worst
such low velocity thai
ing above the dam.
passing drift have be
As it is necessary
escape of the Chagres
across its natural cha
way dam will be one
and special means wil
in the face of the wat
year the foundation
and the other chann
now going through t
the foundations of ti
16 to 20 feet above se
of the spillway dam
rushing river which
10,000 cubic foot-se
Sof heavy drift. However, inasmuch,
and the current in it extremely gentle,
coming down from the upper Chagres
will be stranded before it reaches the
will approach in such small quantity and at
it can be readily handled by small tugs operat-
For these reasons no special provisions for
n made in the design.
o use the spillway channel as a weir, for the
River during the construction of the main dam
nels, the construction of the body of the spill-
of the last parts of the work to be completed,
have to be provided to permit its construction
r rising in Gatun Lake. During the past fiscal
f the dam has been placed at elevation +10,
.s have been shut off. The river discharge is
Spillway, the lake having been backed up by
Sdam so that its surface now stands at from
level. At the place, therefore, where the body
ill eventually have to be placed, there is now a
i the wet season carries an average of about
nds. and in the dry season an average of
about 3,000 cubic foot-seconds. To pe
water when it is desired to construct this m
built projecting upward above low water fro
site of the upstream face, and about 20 fee
piers stop plank can be placed and the conc
section of the coffer-dam thus formed. In
Operation will be the installation of four lo
them regulated by Stoney valves, and the
valve, all exactly like those to be used in t
will be installed probably during the next
;n +olla+.; an/^TiQ tha 0kb0i
"na-n t- -ionr-u-n
rmit shutting off
ain dam, piers have
m the foundation, o
t apart. Between
rete laid behind the
w level culverts,
fourth by a cylindrical
he locks. These culverts
dry season. To permit
,Pr n' fth,. m rnnlohi rno'rtc?
lake above to p
as the lake wil
it is believed t
or originating i
64 REPORT ISTHMIAN
will then be filled with concrete.
installed under the shelter of cais
their rooves, and the flow will
of the dam.
During the past year the walls
way have been designed, the gen
the details of the piers and mbu
the low-level culvert gates and
lake regulation; and design ma
the masonry. A total of thirty
necessitating many calculations,
The remaining crest gates will be
sons placed between the piers above
thereafter take place over the r
of the approach channel to the spi-..........
SLeral drawings of the work prepared
tments drawn and layout made ot
operating mnachinery for tMibrarv
te of the metal work to be built intom
detail drawings have been prepared,
studies, and estimates.
behavior of the water when flowing over
tion, a model to a scale of one-thirty-s
placed where a discharge of reasonably
assured. The effect the baffle piers in
water, and the rise of the waves on the
the model, correspond very closely to th
e without gre
a weir of this
second was c(
e figures whi
at expense, the
space and -
lume could be
Energy of the
s as own
ha prevous y given * v '*.|'s"^ssi^
had previously gven. It is recogmzed, however, that the eflecL
the small volume of water flowing over the small scale model is nof a
reliable indication of the effect of the enormous volume which will
. � ( -
flow over the Gatun spillway at high lake level. The behavior of t
baffle piers when exposed to the illflow is a matter which will be
most interesting, and about which doubts may be entertained. T
photographs accompanying this report illustrate the model under
discharge. (Pis. 1 and 2.)
As stated above, the Miraflores spillway will ba designed to. pass
about 90,000 cubic foot-secondsmisted of th omparativelyin
nificant amount which flows into the Miraores laie from the watL
shed tributary to it. For obvious reasons it has been thought desi
able to use exactly the same gates and other details at Miraflores as
Gatun. Owm however, to the smaller discharge requirements,
development crestwillnot be so great and it will undoubtedly e
found practicable, in the space available, to lay out the dam
straight crest. A general plan has been prepared and is now unde
consideration, but, owing to the fact that certain of its features have
ntytbe deiitely fx
not yet been definitely ixed, no illustration of it accompanies
A .a - - m _ _n -#r a^. hs iiii-m n
In order to ascertain, as well as
9- III (I)
* 1 H
ii J 0
I.-* p V
-S - r -
REPORT OF IIEUT. COL. H. F. HODGES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS,
U. S. ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER, IN CHARGE OF THE FIRST
DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER, RELA-
TIVE TO THE ADVISABILITY OF USING INTERMEDIATE GATES
IN THE LOCKS OF THE PANAMA CANAL.
Sm: In arriving at a final decision as to the ai
intermediate gates in the locks of the Panama
necessary to give extended study to the water leave
depths in the locks which would result from using
ent sizes. I have the honor to submit the res
August 15, 1910.
disability of using
Canal, it has been
ils, lifts, and critical
chambers of differ-
ults of this study,
which form the basis for certain features of the design adopted for
the locks. In an appendix will be found the calculations on which
the results are founded.
It will be remembered that in the present design the upper locks
at Gatun and at Miraflores and the Jock at Pedro Miguel have, in
each of the twin chambers, two gates at the head, 'two gates at the
foot, and an intermediate gate separating the chambers into two
parts.. The intermediate gate is also introduced in the lower locks
of the Gatun flight, but is not present in the lower Miraflores lock.
The drawing, No. 5001 (PI. 95), accompanying shows the dimen-
sions of the chambers available between the different gates as limited
by the fender chains and the quoins above. The drawing also shows
that the lower locks differ in length from the upper locks, owing to
the fact that the extra pairs of gates and the fender chains are not
provided except in the upper locks, the guiding principle having been
to guard specially only the approaches of the system and those
interior points where an accident may lead to a connection between
the water levels above and below. With the present arrangement,
all such vital points will be thus guarded. At other points, collision
with the gates, while it may result in serious damage to the latter,
can not mean danger to the whole structure of the locks. It has been
considered that the duplication of the locks provides adeau
In the appendix
at 0, the lifts in t
feet from the upp
to the lower lock
The area of the u]
prism taken from
3,543,000 cubic fe
lift for the 1,000-
ranges between +
with the lake at +
to the middle lock
with the lake at
it is shown
ie flight of the 1,
er to the middle
, and 29.28 feet
that with the lake at + 85 and
r 1,000-foot lo
e upper level
t locks of the
and +82, the
and the sea at
27.38 feet. '
and the sea
from the 1
ck being 13
is taken as
-1, when t
ae smallest r
t +1, when
between the upper and middle lock. Whe
the sea at -1, the least draft is 41.18 feet.
be allowed to drop to +80, the minimum
be 39.80 feet.
The above data refer to the
prism used when locking with t
a large ship lying with its sten
of upper gates and its stem close
gates. This will be necessary
largest vessels which can be pi
of similar craft the space bet5
i is available, and both pa
therefore only in case of
)f the largest possible vesse]
lock," requiring the largest
3, both for all lockages of
for upstream blockages of ti
may be kept closed, and
' may be called into play.
is 123,000 square feet, the
*e. The normal lift, with
over the 1
t Gatun are 26.44
From the middle
lock to the sea.
0 square feet, the
length is used is
normal prism of
m of lift is found
ift from the upper
sm of lift is found
e lift is 25.20 feet
ke is at +82 and
1,000-foot lock only; that is, to the
he lower pair of upper gates open and
n in the space between the two pairs
ie to the fender chain above the lower
only in downbound lockages of the
passed, since in the upstream lockages
vween the lower gates and the fender
irs of upper gates can be kept closed.
the downstream blockages, in passing
ls, that what we may term the 1,000-
prism of lift, need be used. At other
vessels not more than 900 feet long
he largest vessels, both pairs of upper
what may be termed the "900-foot
. In this case the area of the upper
area of the lower locks remaining as
the lake at +85 and the sea at 0, is
lock; 28.49 feet fri
tom the lower lock
rism under these conditions
draft, with the lake at +82
ower sill of the upper lock.
and sea at
With lake a
and sea at -1, it is 38.30 feet. With the lake at +85 and sea at
0, the critical depth is 41.98 feet. It should be remembered that
this depth occurs at the lower sill of the upper or middle lock and
I--1 1 I 1 S & U, J* 1
AND ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.
The water supply available for Gatun Lake is sufficient during the
wet season, or for about eight months of the year, for a traffic very
much greater than time will allow, and during the four months' dry
season of average discharge there will alsobean ample supply of
water, no matter how great the traffic may become. It has, how-
ever, been questioned whether, during seasons of exceptional dry-
ness, there may not, for pa-t of the time, be a scarcity of water
for lockages. For this reason, as well as to hasten in some degree
the rapidity of lockage, it has been thought desirable to incorporate
into the design certain features permitting economy of water when
Before presenting the following description of these features of the
design, I wish to express the opinion that their use, purely for saving
water, will not be necessary for many years and possibly never; first,
because the water supply will be sufficient for any traffic except in
most unfavorable seasons, which occur only rarely, and, second,
because even in such exceptional seasons economy of water will be
necessary only with a traffic so large that it is not reasonably to be
expected for a long time, if at all. Nevertheless, convenience may
dictate the use of these features of the design even when no reason
exists for economizing water.
In the report of the board of consulting engineers of 1905, paae 75,
it is stated that at Gatun, where there are three locks in a fight,
intermediate gates would be omitted, as they would not furnish the
same advantage in saving water as they would at the other locks.
After the report of the board was rendered, General Abbot, in talking
the matter over with the writer, stated that saving could be made
by using intermediate gates in the three-lift flight, and he was right.
In the appendix will be found a discussion and demonstration of this
fact. The analysis of the situation proves that, with locks divided
as proposed into chambers having 350 and 550 feet of useful length,
a saving of about one-third of the lockage water can always be made,
without loss in depth, by using the 550-foot chamber for downbound
vessels, and that an interruption of the series of 550-foot down-
lockages, by the arrival of a vessel requiring "a larger lock, nullifies
none of the saving already made. In upbound lockages the 550-
foot lock can also be used with similar saving and without loss of
draft. If, however, the series of 550-foot lockages going upstream
be interrupted by the use of the larger locks, a part or the whole of
the saving due to one of the previous lockages may be nullified. If
the vessel causing the interruption draws less than 37.35 feet, it can
be passed at the normal stage bv drawing frnm tho unn er oonl a
prism only slightly greater than would be drawn i
I -- � - .. .1 I A Sf ^ i *
A8 REPORT ISTHMIA CANAL COMMISSION.
*W N- -
at 0, the li
2,300,000 cubic i
is 42.12 feet.
used in the 1,
-1, is 39.76
this lock for
* - - - - - -' -: - - .~-- -
r the normal conditions with lake at +85 andas
the upper lock is 27.88 feet, and of the two lower
The prism of lift under, these conditions is, say,
feet, and the least draft under the same conditions
he water used is therefore only 67 per cent of'that
-foot lockage, or 70 per cent of that used in the 900-
he least draft, with the lake at +82 and the sea at
, and with th
e number of vessel
e lake at
s. There i
Is. the am
+80 and sea at -1, it is
be used to advantage for
s always a saving in using
mount of water used being
less than that for a 550-foot lockage, even though the flight be made
ready immediately afterwards for a larger boat. There is no gain
and no loss in using the 350-foot lock for a single u bound vessel
followed immediately by one requiring a larger lock. If two or
more small vessels upbound follow each other, there is a considerable
saving of water by using the 350-foot lock. It should be noted that
with a fender chain above the intermediate gates in the upper lock
it is possible to pass vessels of length up to 358 feet bound upstream
by using only the chamber between the intermediate gates and the
lower set of upper gates, while to pass vessels between 278 and 358
feet long, going downstream it would be necessary to leave the lower
set of upper gates open, letting the stern project into the space
between the lower and upper set of upper gates. In this way the
upbound lockage for the 350-foot lock takes less water than does the
downbound lockage, in case of the largest vessels which are capable
of using this lock. As will be seen in the appendix, the theoretical
prism of lift-i. e., the prism which would result from a long series
of small vessels following each other-is only 804,000 cubic feet, and
the reasonably probable average prism at mean stage is 1,181,000
cubic feet, or about 30 per cent of the 1,000-foot lockage prism, and
about 58 per cent of the 550-foot lockage prism. It is seen, therefore,
that the presence of the intermediate gates in the Gatun flight
makes possible a considerable saving in water without corresponding
reduction in draft.
There is still another method of saving available, due to that
feature of the design of the locks which permits passing water from
one lock to its twin through the middle wall. The analysis given in
the appendix proves that at Gatun there is a possible saving, due to
this maneuver, of 24 per cent, with a limiting depth of 29.66 feet at
normal levels, and that a saving of 8 per cent can practically always
be made in the 1,000-foot locks with a least depth at normal levels of
34.45 feet. A similar nercentare of saving can be effected by cross