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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the chairman and chief...
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Appendix C
 Appendix D
 Appendix E
 Appendix F
 Appendix G
 Appendix H
 Appendix I
 Appendix J
 Appendix K
 Appendix L
 Appendix M
 Appendix N
 Appendix O
 Appendix P
 Appendix Q
 Appendix R
 Appendix S
 Back Cover


DLOC PCANAL



Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097363/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended .. ( 1914 )
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill., maps (some col., folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.)
Publisher: United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Creation Date: 1910
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Canals, Interoceanic -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Navigation -- Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Dec. 1, 1905-June 30, 1914.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. for 1905-1906 report year ends Dec. 1; vol. for 1907-1914 fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note: Reports for <1909/10-1911/12> each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
General Note: Vol. for 1913/14 contain also the report of the governor of the Canal Zone.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07782320
lccn - sn 86045158
System ID: UF00097363:00002
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    List of Illustrations
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    Report of the chairman and chief engineer
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 15
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        Page 37
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        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Appendix A
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
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        Page 58
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        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64-1
        Page 64-2
        Page 64-3
        Page 64-4
    Appendix B
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
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        Page 109
        Page 110
    Appendix C
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
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    Appendix D
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
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        Page 160-42
    Appendix E
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
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        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 196-1
        Page 196-2
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        Page 196-24
    Appendix F
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 204-1
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        Page 204-16
    Appendix G
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
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        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    Appendix H
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
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        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 264-1
        Page 264-2
        Page 264-3
        Page 264-4
    Appendix I
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
    Appendix J
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
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        Page 297
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        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 304-1
        Page 304-2
        Page 304-3
        Page 304-4
        Page 304-5
        Page 304-6
    Appendix K
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
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        Page 316
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        Page 322
        Page 322-1
        Page 322-2
        Page 322-3
        Page 322-4
        Page 322-5
        Page 322-6
    Appendix L
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
    Appendix M
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
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        Page 360
    Appendix N
        Page 361
        Page 362
    Appendix O
        Page 363
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        Page 365
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        Page 407
        Page 408
    Appendix P
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
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        Page 434-1
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    Appendix Q
        Page 435
        Page 436
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    Appendix R
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
    Appendix S
        Page 443
        Page 444
    Back Cover
        Page 445
        Page 446
Full Text






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ANNUAL


REPORT


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TABLE OF CONTENTS.




TABLE OF CONlTEN^TS.


Report of the chairman and chief engineer
Organization..... ............ .......
Construction and engineering ..... ....
Atlantic division.......-....- ..........


Page.


- - - I- - a> a* - a* a - a a - - a -' - , .* -* a - -*
. a.. . . . . . . . a a . . . . .a


.. - ...-aa -.. . - a .- a - ..a a .a a . - ..a . a
* a - . a ..a - a aa aa.aa aa a-.a .a..a a a .a.


Gatun locks......
Stone and sand ..
Gatundam......
Channel between
Breakwater... ...


�* a a a a - a
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a * - - a - - - a a a a a - - a . a a a aaa - a - a a - a a a ah a a a
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Gatun loc-s" and the Ati - anticOe a . i i. i i i i -
Gatun lockseand the Atlantic Ocean.~.-.�...,,....


Municipal improvements. ......-.


Central division--......
Chagres district...
Culebra cut .......

Empire shops.....
Municipal work...
Pacific division-......
Pedro Miguel.....
Miraflores........
Stone and sand...


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- a-.aa a- -a.a- aa -a - - a a. - -. -... .aa.a-.a -..a.-a.aa.a ..-


Hydraulic machinery..... .......
Municipal and sanitary work.-- ....
Improvements in Colon and Panamaa
%Jolon .....a.a.....a ..a.a..a.aa....a.aa...
IE'UsxriU ax i a* a a a* a a a ar a - - a a* a a, a a a a ai a
Panamasio .. .... .. ....P.- ..Il.

Construction of the new Panama Railr


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



ro.................................
* - a a a.. . . a a.. . - . .a a - a .a a a a a


o ad - . a.. . . . . . . . - - a a a a


Mechanical division-... ........
Gorgona shops................
Appropriations................
Cost keeping..................
River hydraulics, meteorology, and
Quartermaster's department........
Subsistence department.....-.-......


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surveys....
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a


Examination of accounts and disbursements. - .... -
Examiner of accounts ........aa-aa..--aa.a.a
Disbursemients.. a. ...........-... -......
Civil government ......... ...................

Posts, customs, and revenues. ...........
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a a- a� a- S a ar a - a a a- a a - - a a a -- - a* a- a~







OF CONTENTS.


APPENDIX A


Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of fit division of the office of


the chief engineer ... .. .. .......
MaBonry and lock structure.....


Approach walls.............
Valves and fixed parts.... ..
Drawings..................
Contracts. ..a ...aa....aa -
Castings made on Isthmus.e


Lock gates and protective devices...
Lock gates- ...... .- ... . .- ..... . . ..
Number of leaves, O........ .. .


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Page.


4 7
47

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48
48
48
48i


m* - - ao a f - - - a a *r f - t - a - - f a a a *- a *a : a an a
a a S -. a ft f t - at f-ft fa a aa.f a a a a a a fa.fa.ft ft ft ft.a...
*a a f .af* -.. a afata a a .. f a -. aft... ft
a a a a a a a a - a a a : - a a - a a a a - a a a . a - a a a a a a


Fixed parts .......... ....... . .-
Floating caisson gates....... .
Chain fenders..........--.......-
Operating machinery.... ....... ...
Stoney valve machinery.......
Cylindrical-valve machinery..
Limit switch. - ............- .....
Contracts.-a......aa...-a aaaa-a


t -. at a - - a -t

* a a -a - a


a ik i a a a - at fa - * - a a a aaa. a a a a. -


Gate-operating machinery ........
Locking device.........-.....
.Machinery for spillway gates. .... -
Towing devices-.................


:f a a t a - a a


- a a a a a a a aa aaa. a a a 0 a a a a 0 .
aI ft a. - a - a - a a a a a a a a a a ... a : al


Machinery for wickets and girders of movable dams..
Layout of circuits .....-........... .... .. .... ...-....,
Generating stations ... ............. -................


Miscellaneous.- .... .. .. . -


Movable dams..........


*. a a a a A a a a f a . f - -r a a a 5 * * . . . .. a- a : *Wa
a- t - a at at a at ai at a -ll t a> a a at at a aI aW a a at a at a at a aM a i a


Dams at Gatun and Pedro Miguel


Dam at Miraflores..
Spillways- -...............


at a, at f a* a a - aB*
a.4.a a . a 5 a


* a a - at a a sa.a at . a. a a am - a . a a a m . a a a a.
a a.a a a a a a a a a. a a- a a S a - a a a. a a a a aa a a a. aa


Gatun spillway.......
Model... . . .... .
Miraflores spillway...


*t af a a ft a a t
a a a a a a


Accessory parts...........


APPENDIX B.

Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of first division of the office of


the chief engineer,


relative


to the advisability


of using intermediate


gates in the locks of the Panama Canal.


Lock flight at Gatun.a...... ..... . ...
T - 1 fl � .i L .- .jn _. _ _


a.a . a a


. a t a aa. : f.a a t a a a t t a f f a a - f a * .


TALE


V






TABLE


CONTENTS.


General formula for a flight of locks, as 1
Large locks at Gatun, cross-filled...
1,000-foot lock, cross-filled........
550-foot lock at Gatun, cross-filled..
850-foot lock at Gatun, cross-filled..
Single-lift lock at Pedro Miguel.....--....
Double-lift lock at Miraflores...........


1,000-foot lock.
1,000-foot lock,


900-foot
900-foot
550-foot
550-foot
350-foot


lock
lock
lock
lock
lock


cross-filled
Miraflores.
Miraflores,
Miraflores -
Miraflores,
Miraflores,


before, cross-filled


- - - . .
* - -..


- * : , . . . - - - .-- - - - - - ---
- - a- * * * -. * i - . - - *
cross-filled..-..
S. cross-filled . . --...
cross-filled.. --
- . -. -. - - -. . a


* * , . - - , - , . , - , - - -r *. ,. - * * i - S * *
S.- * . - .* . . . * . ** - - *. ,. . * . * , . . - - . . -


* * . * * S - - - ** a a * * - * - S a a - a S - - - - - .-
* - - - . a a . - - . a - a * . - - - a , a a a - S - * S - .

- a * a a - - S - S S - - S S - . . . * . . - - - . a . S S

* a * -.-a. a a - -. a - - - -. - a a. .- - .. - a - . S


Effect of omitting intermediate gates in the locks. ....
Separate locks....--..--........- ..............--...---......


Page.
87
88
89
93
93
93
93
93
95
96
97
98
100
100
103
108


APPENDIX C.


Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division ...........................
Channel excavation from Gatun to the Atlantic Ocean; sand; stone; and
cement service; dry dock and shops; and Colon breakwater........
Dry excavation below sea level-Mindi. .............----..............
Excavation by months-Mindi-.-. ................--......-......


Cost per cubic yards. - - -..
Unloading at Mindi.........-
Dredging-Ocean to Mindi - -
Fill .. ... . .. ..... . ......

Cristobal terminals .......
Miscellaneous dredging .....
Total monthly output of
Monthly output and cost


* - a------------------------------------------------------------ S a
*-----------------------S S S


all dredges.......
of excavation - -..


-a a -
-a


-----------------------a---------------------------
- --------------------------------------------


Drill barge ,Terrier. .- ....... --..--........ ..................
Cost of dredging between Mindi and Limon Bay ................
Estimate of original excavation and amount excavated to date


Dry dock and marine shop.......
Surveys . ...... . . .-... ..- -... ..- - . -...
Porto Bello rock plant ...........-.....-
Comparative statement-Porto Bello


Procuring sand at Nombre de Dios...
Comparative statement-Nombre
Water transportation.......-...-
Colon breakwaters ..............
Gatun locks. -.-....----- ..- ...-....-..--


quarry


de Dios.


. - a. a * --------------------------
SS -. a -. . a a----------------------
--------------------------------a *a .S

a-------------------------------------------------


* - a - - - S S * S - - - - - , a....................................................
-- - - - - a----------------------------
-a - a . - - a - a a a -----------------------------------------




H :g<~.jfl ,A'~'a~i'~ '~ 'D'� ~ ~ -


TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the division engineer, Atla
Gatun dam and spillway. ......
Gatun dam... . . ..... ... ..
Estimated quantities of
Gatun spillway ...........
Spillway bridge...........
Spillway-Mindi levee. .....
Municipal engineering...... ....
Gatun waterworks.........,
Pumping station, Gatun
Condenser plant. .....
New water supply, Gatun..
Gatun sewers.s..aa--aa-.aa.
Sanitary ditches. .........
New Gatun water supply...
New Gatun sewer system...
General construction ........
Roads�....................
Mount Hope-Gatun road
Colon water supply.........
Brazos Brook reservoir..
R ~oadis..a.-.a a.a.. . a..a.. aa

Fire protection...... ........
Sea wall, CristobaL ..........
Cristobal sewers ........ ..
Folks B.iver ... . . ....... .-

Colon improvements. a.....
Toro Point water supply .. . .
Miscellaneous. ........... -...a
Local machine shop .........
Division office ......... ...
Division drafting room......
Exhibit 1. Progress report for fisi


Lntic division-Continued. Page.


, 194
. . . . . . .. . . , . . � .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ..... . . . . . 12
.-. . ... .. . . ... . ... . . . . . . . . . .. .. .1 4

I0
f ill laced .. ... . . . . . . * . - . . . . . . . . . 1241
aH H. - . * - - * .a aa* .aa a . - - a a - :- a *�* -iJ.. - .. , 126 5

- a - - - - - - a - a - * - - . - - . - - - * . a ... . 126


River . . aI a - -� a -a - a h 126

* . . . . . . . . a . . a . . a a a .a * a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a . a ' 127
* a a - a a. a a. a. a a a a a a a - - - a a a . a. a. a a -..a.a. 127

a a a a a a a a a a a a a - a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a J.28 2:
*.-. - - -a.a a.a a..a a a aa aa.a a - aa aa a a a.. 128 d
128
.* a a - . . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. ... .. . .. . . . 1 2 8

128






131)
. . . . - . . . . . . . . - a . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . a . . . . . - aa 1







................. .......... ...... ...... . 3 '
130, f. ! **







. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . I . . . . - . . . . . . . �







............... ,. .... ......, . . . .. . . . .�. . 8
ca a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a- a a a a a a aa- a a a a a - a - a. a. 130
a a!* a - a W - a a > A a a a a - a a *I a a k - a a- a- a - a a a* a al a� a� a* alAl~ a::: a! a 13


a * - a a a a a * a * a a a a i a - i a _k - a a a* ak a al - ak a a a a aIH a ft a a~l. -: a 1
a a~s a- a a a aaaaaaaaaa






a a a a a - a - a a a a *. . iaa - - a a a a a a a a - a . , - . . . .a.. . . aa
. . a - . . . a a a . a a a a a a a a - a a a a - a . a a a a - a a a a a 1
L * a ai a r ai - a h a - a h a r a - a ' a a- a a a a a - a* a* a a a a a a a at a a� a a 132KJ~f7 *









cal year 1909-O..a a. a a . a , - - a - .. a a a a a a a a 134


Exhibit 2. Colon water supply-Mount Hope pump station and filter plant.


APPENDIX D.


Report of the division engineer, central division .........
Excavation.... a a... ... .... .. .......a.. ....-..a...a a a
From canal prism. .... ........................
From Obispo diversion...... ...... . . .... . -.....
Ou t ide work .a..-a aaaaaaaaa .aaa.aa a a aa a a a
Total excavation, including accessory works ..... -
Monthly excavation, fiscal year.................
-m . * 1 - Lt_ _- _ tf -_ _ - ^ -z^ .A J _. ..2 _A _? 1 _._.z L


** a a a ar * a a a* a* a a- ar a a - a> aw a

. . Ml -* * ., . . . . .* . - . M W IP ** . .


.a . a a a . a a ** - a a a a 4 a *ra aa. a
i~ -. - .-a.._. - -_ -3.


137
137
137
137
138
138
1a fl.






TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the division engineer, central division-Continued.
�JTra c cka. ..iii. d. d i ib .i . .x. . . �. . - . . . . . . . . - . . - . .
Location and distribution................. .........
D um ps.............. ......... ................... ..--- --

Dumping grounds. ..... . . . .- . . . . . . .---... - .. --
Amount of trestle driven......... . ...... . .....--..---.----..


Diversions............ .
Culebra section........


Point
Point
Point
Point
Juan
Point


1l..,..a -at.. - - -



4.... ...... .. .-
Grande (point 5).
6 ... ..


East Mamei.... . ... --......
Mamei.. ......--- ....... --
Caimito... -......--......- . .-
San Pablo.......... --.
Cano River -........--...
Tabernilla .-.........--
Buena Vista....... .
Bohio . . ....- - . . .-.--. -


* a a . S - a a - - - if i - if - a - - - -
* a a a a - f if * a * - - . - if - - - a - if if


* if a a a - a - a - - if a a a a f if - - - - -


- - - a - a a - - S - if i f * a a a - . - * -
-* a - - - S - i . - a a a a * * a a a a a * *
- if - - a if a - a a a a a a a a a - if - - - -


*---------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. - - - a---------- ------- - * - - if * * - if - a------------------------------------ - 5 - -

- .....................................*.-* i -. - - ------------------ a.a - -
* - - ,*---------------------------------------------.a..-- ------------------a. -ifif-..-a
Sa-------------------------------- -. --- --- -- -- -------------------.a ..-


- - a a -


Hand work by the United States.. -..
Hand work by contract...-...........
Cutting timber and brush from the c
By employees of central division
By contract with B. B. Duncan.


Naos Island dike..................
Slides and breaks-....... ... . .. .. .
Cost of excavation............-.-..
Coal and fuel oil consumed... .....


Steam-shovel repairs......
Air and water service..... -
Municipal work.........
Road building - ........---..
Waterworks .S..... -.......


if - if - a
- if a -
f if - if i


Empire suspension bridge.. - ....
Labor situation..... ............
Changes in organization .... ..
Changes in personnel........ ..


- if-------------. . ----------a. a . if - - - S - - - - - .
S- a a - . . .--------------------a .a---------------------------i


channel in Lake Gatun. -.
L . . . a . . . . . . . . - ------ . - . .-


-.. .- - a a . - . - * ** * a a * - . a - . * * - - -. . a a - if . i i
- - - - - a a------------------- if a * . ifa-i a - - - a a - if a
* a* i.a.----------------------.i . fa- fi a.. . .a. . a.a. . -


- if if - if a a a a a a * . a a . if S if - i i if if a a - if 5 . if . . if
- -. - - a. . a a a a... . a. fS- f*i if. .if if.if.if if . i a.. a
,. - a a - - . - a --------------------- a a a if a a i - - - a a - if - if if if - if -
a - . if - - if i- - - - - - - - - - - - if . a a - if if if - i - - if if if if if if - .
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiia a- a a * -5 if-- -- --- -.-
if . . . ----------------- - if if . if if . - . . a if a if if if if 5 if a if - . a -
f if a f if - if if f if i . a if 5 i - a - . a if a . a S - a if if if if if a a


Page.
144
145
146
146
147
147
148
149
149
150
150
150
151
151
151
151
151
151
151
152
152
152
152
153
153
153
153
153
155
156
156
157
157
157
158
159
159
159
160


APPENDIX E.


Report of the division engineer,


Pacific division........


* - -.f. a a -. . * * a * f. i if * i






VIII


TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


Report of the division engineer, Pacific division-Continued.
First district--Continued.
Locks, dams, and dry excavations--Continued.


Page.


Miraflores handling plant. -..
M .g.; : : g
Storage trestles a... ......
Berm cranes
Chamber cranes.............

Pedro Miguel locks and dams ...
Lock excavation ....... ..


Miguel ...
Performance
Miguel.....


of regular
* - - a - a a - -


Concrete forms-......a...
Backfilling. .... . ............
Filling west dam ....a.n.


Dry excavation in prism...
Excavatio n prism...
Miraflores locks and dams..


- - - a - - - 4 ~a a a - a a . . . p


- -* -. - - a: ** - a * - a* - - a* aw a* a >a - -r at. � - �
- *- - * - a * a a * . * - a a - a - - - - * - -: a - - :a -* : ** *. a:
* r a* ar ft a* a - -w - a -* -* * - . -* - - -* - - . *- '- a *- ** a:� w
- a a - - - a a a - - - - a a. a a - a . . .- . * i . w . w .


Pedro Miguel lock excavation.. -


Mining - ...... .......-
Construction tracks ...
Lock foundations.... - ..
Erecting handling plan
Placing concrete-......


** -: - a a a* wa:. a -* aS :a a: **- - - a - - ar * -: -. a a* -� aS a: -
-.* -: a - i - a n a * - - : a * a * �> a * - a - * - - - - - - - a ar :* : -* - -, a* - :
*- a � -* - - a -* a* i- a*w - a a a * - - -, a- - - - * , - - a -: a ** - - a *- a***


164
165
165
165


166 V


166 d'
166
167
.N

167
.^^ .J ^ K KK KlK KK



4


168 1

168

169
169


concrete-handling plant,


a - - a ma - a a a a a a - a - a


SPedro
Pedro


* a a a a a - - a a - - -


* -* - a a .a - aaa - a a a a* a - a - a - a a -.-. a


- a a I- * 5 - a - a . a a a a a * a . - -: - - *


LDry excavationf a. -..... ......a.-
Dry excavation, Miraflores locks


CMining.. ..s.....k..a -a..-
Construction tracks--...-...


-m- a mmaa a a


a - a a a
a a a aj ai


a a a a a a m a - a a a a a


Dredging-. a..a.---.- a-...........a..aa-...a.. .
Performance of dredge Sandpiper at Miraflores


Lock foundation...


Erecting handling plant..
Placing concrete.........
Cemen t shed. .a... a----
Power house.............


a a a ao.i . a-a - a - a -
.* ak a- a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaa.aa
a - . a a a a a - a - a a -


* - a a a aw a* a * - a - a* a a ra

* -* - a-< -*- - -* - af a* a a -r a a
* . . . . . . . . . . :* * ** * 1 - - * * :�> * - >


West dam......
Second district..............


Dredging,


* a -> a a a a
a a a -- a


hydraulic excavation,


* a a . a a a* a a a a a a a a a - a a a a a - a a a
a . - - a . a -- a a a : -- a t a * a a * S a a * * - a a - -


and Balboa shops


Dredging.g ....... . ..................
Dredges of Pacific division.......
Dredging output, Pacific division


Rock excavation................
Subaqueous rock excavation.


* a a a a a - - a a
o a I s .. - aaa


a - 1 a .a , a* :
.* a - a
* a a 5-a*


* - - a 5 a S a - a a
*- a a a* a a a a
* .a.. a... a a


Performance of temporary concrete-handling plant, Pedro


169
170.
170


170
170
170
170
171


171,
171


. ./







TABLE


CONTENTS.


Report of the division engineer, Pacific division-Continued.
Second district-Continued.
Dredging, hydraulic excavation, and Balboa shops-Continued.


Sand for concrete......-..................
Sand supplied during the fiscal year.


Balboa shops and shipways a ...
New plant erected ........
Renewals and repairs.....
Thxrd district.. ...... .. ..............
Municipal and sanitary work. ....
Municipal engineering.. ......


...- ..6.


*- ,t . i S - -nwA - * -
* a a..a a -


- - - - S t -* ** - -ll - J
* S..- a a - -


- - a - . - . - - - a * - - - . , S S * S - * a * .
* *-- ...SS a-S * .- .-..-. .. . -. . -


- a a a. . S - - - -


Ancon pumping and filtration station.


Details of work and cost...
Cocoli pumping and filtration si
Details of work and cost...
Cost of construction.........
Rio Grande quarry..- -....... .
Details of work and cost...
Rio Grande Reservoir.........
Panama improvements.........


nation.


*. ...... - .- . .S. . . . - . . .. . . -


. . . .. . . .. m. ... . . ... ..


-- - -- - -- - -- - -- - - -- - -- - -- - -- - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -.............S S
* - S. a . - *---------------------S - - * S -


S


Consumption of water by district
New street improvements in the
Zone waterworks...............-
Maintenance and repairs....
Statement of construction
works.......-....-.........-
Zone sewerage system...........
Statement of work performed
Zone roads........ ..............
Maintenance and repairs....-
Work performed on roads... - -
MiROAllA.npmH ..


- S.


.* . . * *. . .B I. . . . . . . .
ts, 1909-10......
city of Panama


work performed


. 5 - -
- a a a
i on


a
.a


* - S . a - . - S - - -
* a.--... S -S -
* - -- a. - - - a
- - - -S -S.S S


.* ..... -
water-


sewers.


* - -. - . . . S . S
- - . .- - . -. . .


* - . . .- .. . . .-


* y-1-a-1-. . . - -. - . . - - - a - - -a - a a - - - S - S - - - * - - a a - - * - a a . . .
Cost of construction, Palo Seco reenforced concrete reser-
*


Page.
178
179
179
179
179
180
180
180
180
180
181
181
182
182
182
182
183
184
185
187
187


187
189
190
191
191
192
192

'192


construction,


Naos


Island


reenforced


reservoir - -*-............ . - . ... . ..... . . . . .. ... - -
Miscellaneous work performed during fiscal year


concrete
. . . . . . . .
a *a. S..- .


Sanitary)work....... ...- ............-...
Statement of work performed.......
Building construction..................
Detailed statement of work.........


-*( - - * a - a* af


. . . * . - . . . -
a a S..- S - a


Fourth district. . . .. . . . . . --..-.-.. -........ . . -.. .....
Ancon quarry and crushers .....................--


* S - - - - - - S - - - - a a . . S S - -
* a S - - - -. S - - -




A 4 AW;A~~ ~ Aq.I3 A ~ ~ _____________________________
~ ~ ~


TABLE


OOW1TENTS.


Report of the engineering department of the Panama Railroad-Continued.


From Gatimun River to Prijoles....
Frijoles to Gamboa bridge.........
Paraiso to Corozal.................
Permanent culverts...............
Culvert at the Frijolito River.
Culvert at Quebrancha station
Culvert at Agua Salud River,
Ballastt. .. . - a - - . . . ....... a ... . ..
Summary ...- -.... -. . . . -... .. . ..
Mount Hope line.... ..-. .-.. .. ..


*..a.a . a


a a - a a
a a a a
a . a a a
6+27,


a a a a a a a a a a a a a S a i a 4 * . a .t sl.aa a *
- a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a - f a * a a a a


Gatun,.


station 804


:- a a - - - - at -* -. * �* * a* a a a a* a* aH a -iki
a . a - a a - a - a - a a a . . . . . a a a a a a
- *. �. . . : . . . . . . .* . . . .� . . -. � .* . -- r -


APPENDIX G.

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, in charge of second division of the


office of the chief engineer ..... .. . .-.... .......-. ......- -.. -..-... .-. - ..
Quantity of work performed .. .. . . ... . -. . . a .-.-.... . .. . ... .-.-. .... -
Statement of rolling stock in use by the different dbpartments..........a
Statement of floating equipment in use by the different departments .....
Eonuinment owned and oDerated on the main line of the Panama Railroad


List of
Cost of
Cost of
Cost of
Details
tion


tools and machinery on hand,
repairs to equipment .......a
electric current for six months
repairs to plant and equipment


- a - a a . - a a a a a.� 4 a a -. - a- a - a a a a .a


)y classes and location ..


� a a a
. a a a a
a a a a


a
a
a
IP


ended June 30, 1910. .........
Super unit of work accomplished.


Page.
199
200
200

201
201,<
202 .
202

202
2O3


-

205
'205
a -


- * - a

a -* * :U
a a. a
* a a


of expenditures for plant, absorption of plant charges by construe-


work, and balancesremaining to be absorbed. ..................


Distribution of general administrative expenses and general expenses for
eleven months, July, 1909, to May, 1910, inclusive ..-.. .- .........


General items . .......- .. - .. ... ... .. . ...... .
Headings of forms of monthly cost-keeping reports. .
Headings under which different classes of work cost
Average cost of dry and wet excavation in central,
divisions..- ..................... ........... .... -


a- a* - - - -i a ah a a a a a :* a a*
are compiled....-....
Atlantic, and Pacific


Average cost of concrete laid in Atlantic and Pacific divisions.


APPENDIX H.


Report of cost-keeping accountant ........................
Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 244)....


a a a. a a
- a f a a A


aI a a ai - a a a af alla
at a a * S a a a a a -


APPENDIX I.


Report of the superintendent, mechanical division, department of construction


and engineering.. . ......
Gorgona shop ....... .....


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . - .. . . . . . . . * . .. 266


-- aA - a. a- aaa- a-a- a - aa
Company . ..............-....
Number of employees. ........


a


233


a S 4 - a
.....r*


I







TABLE OF


CONTENTS.


Report of the superintendent, etc.--ontieued.


Engine houses. . ...... . . . . . . .......
Mechanical engineer's department. .
Boiler inspection service........
Testing department.... .........
Electric-light and air-compressor subd
Air-compressor plants..........


* - a a *
* - a a a
* a a a .


* a a . - . - a a t - - - - - a* a - . a a a a a - . a* -
* . a - - a . .1 . - * a a - a - - a a - a I a * a - -. .


SiV on* -.
ivision-


a. a a . a * * - a a a


Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 270)


. a a a - a - * . a - - - * . - a a a a -
* a a .. a - a - - a a - - a a a - -


x1


Page.
268
268
269
269
269
270
271


APPENDIX J.


Report of the assistant engineer in
chief engineer.. .... . .. . -..
Meteorology ..- .. . . .. .. .. .....-
Stations and equipment...
Temperature. ............


Absolute
Rainfall.. -.
Humidity...
Wind.. ..-.
Evaporation. -
Fogs........


charge of third division of the office of the


* a - - - - a . .
.* - - a a - - -
a ah fta - -


temperatures of record.


* a * a S S * a a
* a a a - - - a -
* a - - - a a a a


Ocean meteorology.
Seismology. --......

Tides. . ..- ..- ......-
Tidal extremes -


*a a a - - - - - a a a
- - . - a - - a - - - a S
* - a a a - a - a a - a -


*f p a a a 4b - a' - -J - S e - - a at * - - a a *i a: B a| al 1 - *k *
* a a * *k - - a a. a a a a a - - - - . - *.. a*a a. - -.

* - f -* a- a. -* - - 1h a *S a a - - - S *h * - * � a *h W a -- -


-f a - - * - -1 - ai * a* i a ar a - -. ** -* - a* -i * a a - a a a **
S-I a - - -- - .a .a a a - -- a a a a a S *. *W . .- - -
* - a - a . -... . a - -..- .a -a a* a..-
*. - . . . . a . . . .-.. . *. S . . . a - .
a a a.. -. -. a - a-.-* *. a - -... . a


a a a - - -i a ar * wB - , a- a a a a a *& . S t S ** S - * * I a> - * -* - * a - * * aa -a
* - a a a * - -. a - . -a a- a5 -a CS *a aS -- aa aa. ... .-
* ** -* a * -- S - a- a.. . .. . . a.. --SSa a. . . ..a. . a .- ..


.* a a - a a *


-. . .S . W -S -- -5 -5


Reports and data issued- ..-.-- .. . -..... .. ........ ...-. . -...-. -...... . -...
Rainfall on the Isthmus of Panama, January, 1909, to June, 1910, in-
clusive-Accumulated monthly averages. .-.......................
Distribution of rainfall on the Canal Zone, calendar year 1909, showing
hourly periods of maximum and minimum rainfall -. ..............-
Excessive rainfall in the Canal Zone, October 1, 1905, to June 30, 1910,
arranged in periods of five minutes, one hour, and one day..........
Periods of minimum rainfall for consecutive periods and calendar
montd s _ . . -..... - ......-.. . ..a..--.. .-...a...---.....a... a-


Evaporation in Canal Zone, January,
Fogs along the canal prism (calendar
Percentage of fogs dissipated....

Meteorological summary, Canal Zone
Seismic disturbances recorded at Am
Tble estowing extreme high and low
nnge, greatest and least amplitudi

water tempetures for each month
Table owrng extreme high and low


1907, to June, 1910, inclusive.
year 1909). .......-...........


.....
* S -


a - ...a a. - .-
a a a- a a S* -


en, Canal Zone, fiscal year.


r water, maximum and minimum
, dnd the highest and lowest sea-
, Baiba tides. a - ..a. ... ....
water, maximum sd minimmm


287,288







OF CONTENTS.


Report of the assistant engineer, etc.-Continued.
Hydrography-Continued.
Important features of freshets of Chagres since 1906...............
Maximum rates of run-off during freshet periods for floods exceeding


elevation 60 at Gam
General surveys..........
Chagres River survey
Rio Grande watershed

Precise level bench m


Zone boundary marks
Triangulation survey -

Survey of Zone lands.
Explorations... . ..-......
Arroya...-..... .. .....

Lagarto............... - -
La~garto. a a a aa S a a


Gatun, west...........
Gatun,east...-......- ..
Quebrancha ..... ...

Special investigations.....


Page.
295


boa, year ending June 30, 1910............ 296


S- S S * * S - a * - . - . S - - - a a S a * a - a a : a :- , � t n - - .29
** . . ...... - - - - .. - - . . . . ** . - . - . . - . a - - . . - - - 297f

L . . . . . . i: . . . .a *. . . . . .- . S . - . * . . . . . , . . . . * * . :i,�a .a. .- 2 9
,* . - - * a - a - s - -a-- a........ .....a. 297

* a - a . a a a a a a . a - a a a - a a - a . - a . . . . . . . I . . W .a * a a * . 297

90





................. ..... ............ ........... 302

... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ..302
* - s a a a - a a * a a a a a. a s a a. . . . . . . . a* * a a . a . a a . a a a a , 290 l






*. a - - - - - a . a a - a a a a a a - - a a a . . - .* * * . . * *. a a . a .a a a 30
.* a - s a - a a. a a. - a0 : a a a 5 a a a a a - . - a - a ar a a a - a a * a - a a a 3
�* - a - -: -: a s> a* a* a - * - a *** - - a>* - a* a - a a> - al ak aW - a a af a� a M a a a aM a - N a , 302y

- - - a 1 � - a* a, a a a - a u - i i a - i- - a s a a - a 1 a - :- a - - a * -i a� sK a* a i- a ar a''JJ

* :* .* sans--a - a - sass W - -sa ai as ak eas tit k� >*** *fa as. - *i *: amea* 303< * �:* -iw ~ J


APPENDIX K.


Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of quartermaster's department


Personnel....
Labor .......

Quarters.....
Gold....
Silver...

General r
Sanitation...
Corrals.......


.* - - - a *- - a 5 a a . - a. a .- . a a - - - - - * . . - a a a - a * a a .* a a .. . - . - - aa - -a aa

* a a* - 5 C 5 - a - a a S 5 a a a , i - - a - - a a if a 5 . . - a a a a a a a a a a .a a a a a
- if a* 5 * ** a * a a a ift W I-- - - a- af *f - * - a* -- a 5: -t St ft a a a at aF a - a* a. a* a* - 5 5 a a -- a - a a* a* a


- emark-
*mark a


* -
* -


Building and construction..
Material and supplies. .....
Property returns.........


- 5 *. C . a

** S a - a - -
a 5a a
--. . k : k * f


a a a if a- a. a a- a� �- a 5 5 a a* a- s- a- a a* at -- 5*-** -- a- -- a aI- -
. . .* . . .h .i . i- - . . . - . *. . . . *�. . . . . . . . iii . . �b . N

a a -I - a a a a a. .a *i a * a-s - a - - a a a . a - a -

* a a a a a a-- :a a - a - a a - a - a a� * a. a* - S a * a * a * a .a a


a .a s a .a aa a. . **:


5 . 5 . . . .. a
a-


Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p.


3* -
311)


*.- ..aa . - -a -


APPENDIX L.


Report of subsistence officer in charge of subsistence department .....


. St *44 S


Relative value of food consumed per day per person in Commission hotels.
Relative weight and value of the ration supplied European laborers' messes.

Average weight and cost of supplies per ration for common laborers' kitchens
Value of principal articles consumed in Commission hotels, messes; and
- a. - 1


TABLE


nfl -


*:'!M:
KK KKKKKK
*KK KKKKK


.. ^

:^
' !M '
: *!M
.!M
*:i:


/3
!M:
i
!M
*i


H






TABLE


OF CONTENTS.


XtII


APPENDIX M.


Report of the examiner of accounts ................
Accounts of the Canal Zone government ..........
Appendix 1. Statement of receipts, disbursements,
SJune 30, 1910..-.... ..-.. ....... -..........
Exhibit A. Statement of aDnronriations by C


App


- . .- - . - - n * - .c ..B.., * a
*- S *: - B a S * , * S *- - S* S*. j - *i Si *i -.
and balances available
- 0 5 * * - - . <- - a a - a * * * * . -
. . . . . . . - - . . . . . .. .


. . . .. -- .... ... . . . ..-.-. . . .
Exhibit B. Detail of receipts for sale of property, services rendered,
etc., which revert to the United States Treasury as miscellaneous
-receipts, to June 30, 1910........... ....... ........ .............
Exhibit C. Detailed statement of classified expenditures from the


beginning
Exhibit D.
tions for
Exhibit E.
during fil


endix 2.


Appendix
during ti
Appendix
fiscal yea
Appendix
fiscal yea
Appendix
mission,
acts of Cc
Appendix


3.
le
4.
ir.
5.
r.r


g of the work to June 30, 1910. ...-......................-
Statement of receipts and disbursements from appropria-
fiscal year . .. . . .. .. ................ ...... ... ......
Detailed statement of collections repaid to appropriations
cal vear-


s .------------------------- - 5 - - 0 - - - - 5 5 0 - 0 a a a - a - a - - S * * - - - a . - S S S - - .
Detailed statement of classified expenditures for fiscal year..
Statement of collections made on pay rolls of the Commission
fiscal year .- .-.-..... - ..- . -.....-. --. ...-.-........ .. - - - - .........
Statement of hotel coupons and meal tickets honored during
*Sta * . a a * . * - - s b i - - r i r- -- - * - - - - - c - l a. d - a
Statement of Commission bills registered for collection during


.. .- ..*.* . * S S 5 . * * - - S - - - S - - * - * . - - - * - - - 5 - . _ - - - - a . - a - 5 * S - - -
6. Statement of injuries sustained by employees of the Corn-
fiscal year, for which compensation was due or claimed under


7.
7.


gress of May 30, 1908, and February 24, 1909
Statement of amounts paid under act of


Page.
337
342

345
346


346

347

349

350
350

353

354

354


355


May 30, 1908,


employees as compensation and on account of death of employees
injured in course of employment, fiscal year, and amounts paid under
act of February 24, 1909, for injuries lasting fifteen days or less-........
Appendix 8. Receipts and expenditures, fiscal year...................
Revenues collected..... -. ------. .-.......-.......... ..........
Expenditures.. ..-.- ........... ........a.....a....................
Appendix 9. Statement of balances in treasury, by appropriations, June
30 1910


- - M .- StS


10.
itan
11.


Appendix
and outer
Appendix
year...
Appendix
service,


* - * W* S - - - * S - a - -* - - - - - - - - - - -' - - - *- , � * - - . * a a S * a - - �- * a - - . - S * S , *
Statement showing total value of money orders issued, paid,
ding, and balance of money-order funds June 30, 1910 .-.....-
Statement of money-order business and stamp sales, fiscal


- , - * a- - - S * U - S S - - - S S S S - a - S S * - - - 4 5 5 - *- - lS S S - * S S -w S S S U S - - - S - S - -
12. Statement of money-order business of the Canal Zone postal
fiscal year ... a - - .- .-a - a- -*.aaaa-�--


APPENDIX N.


Report of the disbursing off


icer............................


a SS S- . 4. - S * .





V TABLE OF CONTENTS.
fYTABLE OP CONTENTS.


Report of the head of the depart me
Division of posts, customs, and
Postal service..............
Customs service............
Lands.........--..........- --
Taxes and license fees.....
Administration of estates..
Miscellaneous coHectpns...


Division
Division
Division
Division


police and prisons. a
fire protection......
public works.......
schools- -.. .. ...


Prosecuting attorney's office. a
Canal Zone funds... :a...t....
Co rties r ...........a a ....

Appendices to report (for table


d civilt " """
nt of civil administration-Continued.
revenues - .'* * ..... ..a a 3
.H- a V - . .- K *- - a t - - a * *. *t S S: a *:W�. Ht- t -- * * *a we*a a M -: a -l~

4*- a - - a :* a - * a - - �* M: ik a -- i- a � a - - a -*: - - - a � a a a - 5 * 30 lO^l'yl^::::^ ':
** *- * - a a * :* :* - - i a * a * 0 C a : a :- a * *- a1 -: a*r - a - - a t - a a a a ' a a a*?'~'^ ^^^^^ : ::'::'.i!
w *- ** - - a * a : ** - - - > -* a- a* a* -: -: - 4- -* - -* -: -: a - a a<* w - C -* a ww'^~ l' i
* M-M a *n a- a S *. - a - a ** *a - -* C C -, - a** *: R ** - - �* * : * .M M. - a - C C J^ll'! '
i * a * a a - a - - a *- :� *:- - - a a a* , a at aF - - - a| a a a� , *: * W S W a S* - -ll l.1 -
.. . . . . . . . . .. . , . . . . . . . 365 * K



>* � * *** a a a a a - - a - C a a �a -t - a - -- -w ar a - a a a - aM li ^ - a

* a a a a * a a - - - a a a a a - - - -. - at a at a - a. a al a a> a a a a� 370 WW^ i||
-* - - * - a- - * - - * - a a* :* a* a* - *c - a a a� a �*� - a a *>a a a* ai ar aB ai ai - a�11 X37I2 '
i ** ** a - - a at*Ratta ea a* - a - a a a a a - W- **:- a11| a* a* ea t . a* a:* * :::fi'l*lll
.* a a a a at a a a a at a a a a aB a -b -> - at - a * - � - k a . a a i a w a � a r a r a a a a aF 378 li-f*

*k af a� a - af ai ai aii a : fc - a r a B a a a a a I a aa -r - -* - 41 a a*4- - a a - aI^ 37dI~i
o.fCOn6Etente Se ep. 37 5).aaeaata a.a . aaa aa.a . iy.
N .







.K ..N iT4

o ot e73


APPENDIX


Reported Bthe4jiefeapi ty cancer, head 4 the d4parnent of anitatio-.
Vital statistics, fiscal year a a a.a.-.a.*.a . a*a.aaa aaa


Deaths
pany
Deaths
Deaths,
Deaths


..aa . -


of emploeya of the Coewinigia and Pawaia RailrQad ,1m-


in the i of Paf nud Colon and the Canwl Zone....
by ae, l yr, .a . a.a.a........ .......... -...... .... ......


atses of death of efmpiyees of the ACommission and Panama Ra
apany......................... .... ......... a........... -
Deaths of white employees from the uid States...............
Deaths of white women ~ad children rom the United States.... - -
Death rate among Amerieans on the I8twUs..... c...............


Causes and places of death of employees and civil p
Table showing discharges and deaths of employees
e wmwion, from all causes, for iseal year. -..
Consolidated hospital report....... . .. .... . .-.... .. -
CoU eidta~ dispensary repo t... .. . . . .a . . . . . . . . . . .
Consolidated ikp sport ....... . .. ..... ......

(ousolidated hospital, sickcamp, and sick-in-quart
Average number of employees constantly sick in hos
Average number of employees constantly sick......
Average number of employees constantly sick, per

Subsistence and operating expenses.................
Outside patients treated in hospitals, and amounts
rnuSkai k ot


a a-


ilroad


. a B a *
a aa a
a a a a a


pM theioi.........
in the hospitals of


* � a. a
a ---a a a
a. * a a


a.:�. a a a a a a a a
* a a a a a a . aa a
- . .a a a a a a a ia -


a 4h a a - 4 t a S* at� MW: * a a
e8xeport.........
pitals, sick camps,


1,000.
1,000.


S i--~-www a a* -t


colleeted for their


40
411

411
411



41$
412
4T x


414
415
414

410


422

4 3
423
423


424
424
424
425






TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief sanitary officer, etc.-Continued.
Statement of issues of quinine............... -...


Sanitation statistics.........................
City of Panama.........................
Colon, Cristobal, Mount Hope.............
Quarantine service........................


Page.
432


* a a a a * a a ak . . a a -. a a a - *t aa - a a
-* a a a a - a -* - am a a a - ai a a a - - a .( a a a


Ports of Panama-Ancon and Colon-Cristobal...


Bocas del Toro ..............


Personnel report.............................a
Hospital cases of malaria among employees...


APPENDIX Q.


Report of the superintendent of clubhouses.....
Equipment................................
Advisory committee and executive councils.
Membership ...............................
Activities -....--...................-- ........- ..-


Bowling, billiards, and pool..
Various clubs.................
Libraries and reading rooms. .
Physical work ..............
Entertainment ...........-.-.-


Religious work-. ...............
Barber shops and pressing clubs.
Refreshment counters...........--


Dormitories .. .....
VXisitation .............
Committees............
Attendance ............


* .* a - a a - - a* a a . - - - - - a a . - - a a - -. - - . -l a - a a-


a a * - a a a - - - - a - - - - a a - - - a - a -
a - a a* - - a - - - a a a a - a a a a a a - - - - a a a a


Boys' department........
Privileges for ladies ......
Einances...-...--...............


APPENDIX R.

Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office...

APPENDIX S.
Charts showing organization of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Rail-
road Company, August, 1910 (for index see p. 443) ........................

60057�-10--i











xx xM xx. x x.
**x x x:** -
* xx '. ::


xx xxx x x x xx





*~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ xx ***.***** ""w *""'"


I














LIST


OF


ILLUSTRATIONS.


Frontispiece: Map of Canal Zone.

APPENDIX A.
(Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of first division of the office of the chief engineer.]


PLATE 1.


Model


of Gatun


spillway


used for experiments.


Scale


1:32.


February,


1910.


Model


Gatun spillway.


Velocity


of water checked


baffles


below


spillway dam.


February, 1910.


Following plates, 75 to 94, in portfolio.
Side approach and wing walls, Pedro Miguel lock.
Details of buffer, buffer castings, anchors, etc., for all locks.
Gatun and Miraflores spillways, general drawing of Stoney gates.
Stoney gate valves, machinery for all locks, assembly side elevation.


Stoney gate valves, machinery for all locks,
Stoney gate valves, machinery for all locks,


assembly end elevation.
assembly plan.


Cylindrical valves, machinery for all locks, assembly and sections.


Mitering lock gates,


proposed arrangement of operating machinery,


plan


sectional side elevation.


83. Mitering lock gates,


proposed arrangement of operating machinery, section


and elevation.
Mitering lock gates, proposed machinery for forcing perfect miter and lock-
ing in mitered position.
Electric locomotive proposed for towing ships through flights of locks.
Numbering system, showing location of machines for all locks.
Emergency dams, general drawing.


88. Emergency dams,
drawing.
89. Emergency dams,
drawing.
90. Emergency dams,
91. Emergency dams,
drawing. .


turning and wedging machinery for short arm,


turning and wedging machinery for short arm,


wedging machinery at center, general drawing.
wedging and latching machinery for long arm,


general


general


general


anhf r' . 1 1 II I. I,*






XVIII


LIST. OF


ILLTUSTRATIOQN.


APPENDIX C.
[Report of the divialon engineer, Atlantic divihon.]
PLATE 3. Sites of Gatun dam and locks from the east, June, 1910.
4. Toro Point, showing camp and shelter cove, July, 1910.
5. Atlantic division, harbor and channel section, May 23, 11
south along canal near Mindi; width of channel about or
completed canal.
6. Atlantic division, harbor and channel section, May 23, 1910.
der dredge working in the canal channel near Mindi.
7. Atlantic division, harbor and channel section, July, 1910.


910. Lool
Le-half tha


French


Looking n


ring
t of

lad-

orth


along axis of canal at Mindi; dredge about to cut through into French
canal.
8. Gatun lock site, looking north from east bank, August 25, 1909.
9. Gatun locks, looking north from west wall, March 15, 1910.
10. Gatun locks, July 19, 1910, looking south, showing walls of upper locks and
floor under construction in middle locks.
11. Gatun locks, July, 1910. General view of upper locks and forebay, looking
north.
12. Gatun locks, July, 1910. Monoliths in middle wall.
13. Gatun dam, south toe, west of spillway, July, 1910 Dry fill at elevation
+35 to +50; hydraulic fill at elevation +16.
14. Gatun dam, hydraulic fill east of spillway, July, 1910. Discharge from
dredge and relay pump; lift, 63 feet; length of pipe, 4,300 feet.
15. Gatun spillway, looking north from west wall. Foundations for valve and


cofferdam piers in foreground,
16. Gatun spillway, looking north,
elevation +16.
17. Agua Clara reservoir, Gatun, Jul
18. Porto Bello quarry, July 30, 11
plant and shipping bins.


April 24, 1910.
July, 1910. Outflow from Gatun Lake at


ly, 1910. Dam nearly completed.
910. View from harbor showing crushing


19. Constructing a storm sewer in D street, Colon, July, 1910.
20. Method of excavating for storm sewer, D street, Colon, July, 1910.
Following plates, 96 to 101, in portfolio.
96. General map showing Gatun locks and dam, breakwaters in Colon Harbor,
and channel excavation to date.
97. Gatun locks, excavation progress sheet.
98. Gatun locks, concrete temperature curves.
99. Gatun locks, concrete construction progress sheet.
X00. Gatun dam, section showing progress to June 30, 1910.
01. Agua Clara waterworks, general plan.


APPENDIX D.






LIST


F~an
Pi T


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


25. Out between Empire and Las OCascadas, looking south from a point just
north of the break in the bank, shown in plate 24.
26. The cut at Bas Obispo, looking south, June 30, 1910.
27. The cut at Bas Obispo during flood of November 19, 1909, looking north.
Steam shovels submerged.
28. The Chagres River breaking through protection dike at Point One, No-
vember 19, 1909.
29. Point Two, looking north, showing deposits of sand and gravel brought
down by high floods in November and December, 1909.
30. Steam shovel commencing work at Point Four, June 20, 1910, showing
two old French ladder dredges in the foreground.
31. Contract hand work near Bohio, June, 1910. Workmen are using old
French Decauville push cars on portable tracks.
32. Hand work near Bohio by contractors, showing method of dumping
material.
33. Cucaracha slide, June 21, 1910. The total area involved in this slide
since the commencement of operations is 47.1 acres.
34. Cucaracha slide, looking south, June 23, 1910, showing how the weight
of the broken bantik on the left has pushed material into the cut, com-
pletely stopping up the pioneer drainage cut.
35. Break in the west bank at Culebra, looking south toward Gold Hill, June
19, 1910.
36. Break in west bank of the canal at Culebra, October, 1909.
37. Break in west bank at Culebra, October 16, 1909, showing four steam
shovels working on the broken and moving mass. The two upper
shovels are casting material over the berm to be loaded by the two
lower shovels into the Lidgerwood train.
38. Break in the east bank of the canal, opposite Culebra, June, 1910.
39. Break in the east bank at Culebra, showing how the pressure of the broken
bank, shown in plate 38, has raised the bottom, for a short distance,
to a height of 18 feet above its original level.
40. Slide in the east bank of the canal opposite White House Yard, June 21,
1910.
41. Excavation at East Mamei, looking south, June, 1910.


Following plates, 102 to 106, in portfolio.


Diagram of yardage and rainfall.
Diagram of performance of steamshovels.
Cucaracha slide, contour map and sections.
Slide at site of former village of New Culebra (station 1744).
Profile and yardage estimate of Panama Canal.


APPENDIX E.






LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE 48.


Central


pumping station,


hydraulic


excavating


plant at Agna


Duke,


during erection, June 30, 1910.


Reenforced concrete barge.


heads and girders, May


Interior view showing reinforcement of bulk-


1910.


50. Launching reenforced concrete barge, Pacific division, June, 1910.
51. General view of Ancon quarry, June 30, 1910.
52. Sand unloading cranes at Balboa, April 12, 1910.


Reenforced concrete reservoir, 100,000 gallons capacity


1910.


at Naos Island,


Following plates, 107 to 119, in portfolio.


107. Pacific division, Pedro Miguel to Panama Bay.
108. Pedro Miguel lock, proposed layout of handling plant.
109. Pedro Miguel lock, arrangement of material handling cranes.
110. Miraflores locks, proposed layout of handling plant.
111. Miraflores locks, arrangement of material handling cranes.
112. Pedro Miguel lock, concrete progress sheet.
113. Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks, forms for lock walls.
114. Hydraulic excavating plant at Miraflores, general plan.
115. Concrete barge to support hydraulic pump, details.


116. Sand unloader at Balboa, showing crane, storage bins,
117. Cocoli pumping and filtration plant.


and wharf.


118. Map showing Panama improvements.
119. Reservoir at Naos Island, 100,000 gallons capacity.

APPENDIX F.
[Report of the engineering department of the Panama Railroad.]


PLATE 54.


Relocation Panama Railroad.


The Quebrancha bottom, looking north.


Putting in the first deck of this fill to elevation +50, June, 1910.


Relocation Panama Railroad.


embankment across this valley,


The Brazos bottom


4,200 feet long,


, looking south. The
will contain 1,500,000


cubic yards, June,


1910.


56: Relocation


south.


Panama


Railroad.


The construction


Quebrancha


trestle


was driven


Baja


bottom, looking


on the curve


to reduce


height and secure better bottom, June, 1910.


. Relocation


Panama


Railroad.


Quebrancha


Baja


bottom,


looking


north


June


1910.


Relocation


Panama


Railroad.


Embankment


across


valley


Gatun River in first stage of construction, June, 1910.


Relocation Panama Railroad.


One of the old P


R. girder spans taken


out of the Barbacoas Bridge at San Pablo.


ing of


Used on this temporary cross-


Gatun River at Monte Lirio to accommodate traffic while


building the permanent bridge.
13 a j-le, 4 v an l nW TX trn^ �n 1T? n 41 w/tf n A li


June, 1910.
/^-i-a/ 1 .KIn 911t Qfrt iPn 4i ninwfmadn annro a~~~tn�


&*B .






LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX


[Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, in charge of second division of the office of the chief engineer.]


PI4TE 124.


Chart showing excavation and expenditures to July


1, 1910.


(In Port-


folio.)
APPENDIX J.
[Report of the assistant engineer in charge of third division of the office of the chief engineer.]


PLATE 62.


Interior of seismograph room,


Ancon Observatory, 1910.


Fluviograph station on Chagres River at Bohio, 1910.
Triangulation station on the top of Ancon Hill, August,


1910.


Following plates, 125 to 137, in Portfolio.


125. Chart of rainfall along Canal Zone, 1908-9,


and station averages.


126. Chart of comparative monthly distribution of rainfall.
127. Wind roses showing mean hourly velocity and direction during dry season
of 1909.
128. Wind roses showing mean hourly velocity and direction during wet season
of 1909.
129. Evaporation and allied phenomena for Brazos Brook station.
130. Evaporation and allied phenomena for Rio Grande station.


131. Chagres River drainage basin,


cycle of average monthly discharge for a


period of twenty years.
132. Mass curves of discharge of Chagres River at Gatun for a period of twenty
years.
133. Curves of discharge duration at Gatun during 1909.
134. Fluviograph and mass curves relating to discharge of Chagres River during
the flood of December, 1909.
135. Curves of discharge duration at Gatun, 1890 to 1909, inclusive.


136. Diagram showing two largest freshets of the Chagres
years 1906 and 1909.


River at Gamboa,


Map of triangulation system showing stage of completeness.


APPENDIX K.
[Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of the quartermaster's department.]


PLATE


Labor train arriving at dry dock,


Cristobal


1910.


Unloading dynamite from ship at Pier 13,


Quartermaster's corral at Ancon,


Mount Hope, 1910.


1910.


APPENDIX P.
[Report of the chief sanitary officer, head of the department of sanitation.]




~flj


XXII


LIST


OF ILLUSTRATIO*S.


APPENDIX 8:

[Charts showing organtation of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Company, August
1910.]

(All plates in portfolio.)

PLATE 138. General organization of Isthmian Canal Commission.


Isthmian offices.


139. Office force of chairman and chief engineer, assistant chief engineer, and
assistant to the chief engineer.
140. Central division.


141. Atlantic division.
142. Pacific division.


143. Secretary of the Commission.
144. Mechanical division.
145. Chief quartermaster.
146. Subsistence officer.


Civil administration.


148. Chief sanitary officer.
149. Disbursing officer.
150. Examiner of accounts.
151. Panama Railroad Company,


including New York offices.


152. Panama Railroad Company, relocated line.

Washington office.

153. General purchasing officer.


,


**











ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN,
Oulebra, Canal Zone, September 1, 1910.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the annual report for the Isthmian
Canal Commission for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1910.
I


ORGANIZATION.


The Hon. Jo. C. S. Blackburn vacated his position as a member


of the commission


, by resignation,


on December,


4 1909


and


vacancy was filled by the appointment of Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher
on April 12, 1910.
The position of counsel and chief attorney was created and the


duties defined by executive order of April 16,


1910.


Minor changes


were made in the organization along the general lines indicated in
the last annual report, the most important being the abolition of the


mechanical division as it formerly existed.


The work at the Empire


shops was limited to repairs to and manufacture of spare parts of
steam shovels, arid placed under the charge of the division engineer


of the central division.


repairs


from


Empire


To the Gorgona shops were added the car


shops,


and


superintendent


placed


charge, under whose control were also placed the night jostling and
repair of engines, the electric-lighting and the air-compressor plants,
the boiler-inspection service, and material testing, with such mechani-


cal designing as is necessary for manufacturing work.


An inspector


of shops was added


the organization,


whose duties are to look


after the economical distribution of work among the. different shops,





2

work in


REPORT ISTHMIAN


their charge, and


OANAL COMMISSION.


the pay of positions is now standardized,


no variation being allowed except in cases where increased responsi-


abilities and duties devolve upon its occupant.


CONSTRUCTION


AND ENGINEERING.


The first division of the office of the chief


Col.


Hodges,


assistant chief


engineer,


engineer,


under


continued in


Lieut.


charge of


the design of the locks,


dams, regulating works,


and accessories.


A general


description


of the locks,


as well


as the drawings of the


general


designs


upper


locks


Gatun


and


f<


Pedro Miguel, were published in the annual report for


or the
1909.


locks at
During


year such


detailed


drawings were


prepared


as were


needed


the working forces engaged in


general features


of the


the construction of these locks.


intermediate


and lower


locks


at Gatun


The
and


the flight at Miraflores have


been adopted.


As it was concluded


that an approach


wall in prolongation of the


wall


separating


twin


locks


should


provided


against


which


vessels should moor, and that the wing walls of the locks should not


utilized


this


purpose,


designs


approaches


have


pro-


ceeded along these lines.


The south approach wall at Pedro Miguel


was design
structed.


ed


of massive


concrete,


and


The northeast wing wall will also


and reenforced concrete


walls have


larger part of it is con-
be of massive concrete,


been designed for the northwest,


southeast


signs


and southwest


remaining


wing walls in the same


approach


wall


Pedro


locality
Miguel,


The


and


those


for Gatun and Miraflores,


have


been tentatively prepared.


The description and drawings of the valves adopted for controlling
the flow of water into and from the locks are given in the last annual


report.


contract


was entered into on March 2,


1910


for all


frames for the gate


valves required


to control


the main culverts for


upper


material


Gatun


began


and


before


entered into on July


Pedro Miguel lc
the close of the
0, 1909, for the


)cks,


fiscal


and


delivery


year.


contract


the
was


frames and moving parts for


two sets of Stoney valves; up to the close of the fiscal year but little
of the material had been delivered.


Forty cylindrical valves were contracted for on July


1909,


wn.,,-%knr,^T w^ Cn, flmn ^^ *F^w * 4nryTn tn^i-ci nlF lr^tnlrc� -*'iwn Mnr nnnci^wiln+.lnnvy


V.i



S4S

:0





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


During the fiscal year, such general and detailed drawings of the
lock gates as were necessary to advertise for all the gates required to


fully equip the locks were completed.


The advertisement issued on


April 16, 1910, and bids were opened for delivery of the material and


for erecting the gates in place.


The lowest bid, that of the McClintic-


Marshall Construction Company, Pittsburg, Pa., was accepted,


a contract


made


with


this


firm.


The


prices


3.785


cents


and
per


pound for structural steel erected, 2.62 cents per pound for structural


steel not erected, and $5,374,474.82 for the entire work.


The adver-


tisement called for the


erection


complete


gates in


canal,


in number,


or 92 leaves,


January


1914.


Barring


strikes and other accidents beyond the control of the contractors,


the McClintic-Marshall Construction Company


bind


themselves


complete the work


byJune 1, 1913.


Under the contract the work


of erection at Gatun is to begin on January 1, 1911, and to be com-
pleted on February 1, 1913; at Pedro Miguel the work of erection is


to begin March 1, 1911, and to be completed May


Miraflores work is to begin January


1912; and at


1912, and to be completed


June


1913.


Arrangements will


made


have


the concrete


work completed to meet this schedule.
The design of the machinery for operating the Stoney gate valves


for the main culverts has been completed in detail.


be operated electrically, and


The valves will


the machinery is arranged for either


local or remote control, auxiliary hand apparatus being provided to


close


the gates should


the machinery fail


when


a valve is in


raised position.


The machinery for operating the cylindrical valves,


of which there will be 120 in the six twin locks, is complete in all its


details.


In order to try out the machinery as designed, before pur-


chasing the large number required, specifications have been prepared
and bids invited for two machines of each class.
Much study has been given to the question of the machinery for


operating the gate leaves.


As the result, the recess in the wall into


which the leaf fits when open was modified so as to permit of freer exit
of the water around the miter post when the gate is near the position


of rest


, and a type of machine was adopted in which the force applied


increases and the rate of motion decreases near the beginning and


And nf tfho. mnv~mn.nm


lrnAfl'r fhg rnr linr-T caAnrtr+aA ,nncica-c, ^�4 ,





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CA JAL COMMISSION,


desirable to provide on the gate leaves a positive lock which hold
them together against wave action, and at the same time it has seemed
possible to arrange a locking device which will force the gates to meet


perfectly
necessary


miter,


in closing


thereby


large


lock


reducing


gates


the
avoid<


care


which


a false


mit


device adopted is a new one and will be tried carefully bef
extensively applied.


s usually
er. The
wre being


The general design for the spillway dam at Gatun was completed.
The cross sectionof the dam isan ogee, made up of an arc of aparabola,
a tangent, and the arc of a circle, the parabola being such that when


the stream flowing over the crest is 6 feet or more in depth the nappe
will adhere to the downstream face of the dam.
The trace of the dam is a semicircular arc, which secures not only
the necessary development of crest, but also partial neutralization of


the energy of the converging stream


that will flow


over it.


To still


further destroy the energy, two rows of baffle piers are placed on arsea


of circles concentric with the dam.


The crest of the dam is divided


into


bays 45


feet


wide


,by


piers and 2


abutments,


closed


means of Stoney gates operating on


trains of live rollers moving on


castings set in the piers.


With the lake at plus 87


, one bay with the


gates fully


opened


will


discharge


11,000 cubic foot-seconds,


and all


14 fully opened will discharge about
greater amount than the maximum


154.000 cubic


known


foot-seconds, or a


discharge of the Chagres


River continued during a period of thirty-three hours, which is 137,500


cubic foot-seconds at Gatun.


Since the coping and top of the gates


at upper Gatun and Pedro Miguel locks have been placed at plus 92,


would require a


damage,


and as it


rise of
would


5 feet


in the Gatun Lake


to do


material


take the maximum continued discharge


137,500 cubic foot-seconds nine hours and twenty minutes to raise the


level of the lake


1 foot,


were no gates of the spillway opened during


this time,


ample provision


has been


made to


take care of the floods


that may occur, even should there be any negligence or delay in the
operation.


spillway


channel


must


used


discharge


Chagres during the building of the main dam, the construction of the
spillway dam will be one of the last parts of the work completed, and
cnnnt-sl Wmannac ymo rt r-mrrn4- h ncrA^n +nf 'r�yw4 +o nnnaruinif~ir�nn~y AI-iniiWnn fbaj~


0�


i





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


probably during the next dry season, and by their aid the lake level
can be regulated during the construction of the remainder of the dam,


the concrete being kept ahead of the slowly rising lake surface.


The


culverts will subsequently be filled with concrete.
The general plan of the machinery to be used in raising and lowering


the Stoney gates on the crest of the spillway has been prepared.


The


machinery will be mounted in a tunnel in the main body of the dam


ror me purpose
counterweights,


protecting


this


parts


arrangement


machinery


same


time


and


obviating


installation


cumbersome


and


heavy


material


on the


footbridge


which extends over the gates.
A design has been prepared for an electric locomotive,


which it is


thought will prove satisfactory to tow vessels through the locks and
have full control of them from the time they approach until they are
locked through to a point beyond which they can proceed under their
own steam.


Work on the movable or emergency dams,


the preliminary design


of which was given in the last annual report, has been continued dur-


ing the year,


the various details settled


, and the necessary drawings


are now


being prepared


on which


invite


bids


for the delivery


material and erection in place.
For further details concerning the designs, attention is invited
Appendix A.


Investigation


expenditure


water


from


Gatun


Lake


affected by the design adopted for the locks has been carried on during


the past year.


The result


indicate that during ordinary years there


will be a considerable surplus of water, even in the dry season, and that
the water supply of the worst-known dry season for the last nineteen


years, namely


that of 1908


, would be sufficient to maintain through


the canal an


average


daily number


passages


three


or four times


as great as the average number now passing the Suez Canal.
after making reasonable deductions for evaporation, leakage,


This
power


supply
The


and lockages.
arrangement <


lifts


in flights


Gatun


and


increases somewhat the expenditure of water over what it


Miraflores
would be


were
frnina


locks separated into single lifts.


*
iin nr/nnoant,


/\�-yvvy /A- 4-vI, .n^


The tidal


effect at Mira-


4-kaJ-.


*t~.t T JI.f. . .. *. jirfji> r c* u d*.j ^rw 3. *j *r. r,. J * * rT .*i I *i.3 EU i t.E * E1 US !4..S ** '1 *4 U.. l* *-4 r Nt f �* ItE *�i -f*





REPORT


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMIBSBIOTN.


i|



st
t


ATLANTIC


DIVISION.


The


and


work in


dam


this division


Gatun,


embraces


the quarry


the construction


Porto


Bello


, the san


of the lock
d supply a


Nombre de Dios, the excavation between the locks and deep water in
the Caribbean, the breakwaters for the shelter of shipping and protec-
tion of the channel in Limon Bay, municipal improvements in Colon
and various settlements embraced within the territorial limits of the


division,


and such sanitary


engineering construction as is prescribed


by the sanitary
William L. Sibert


department.


The


, Corps of Engineers, U


work is in


charge of Lieut.


Col.


. S. Army, as division engineer.


Gatun


during


locks.---The


year


work


steam


excavating


shovels


and


locks


was


to some extent


continued
7 dredges,


resulting in the removal in lock chambers of 3,965,699 cubic yards in


the dry


and 435,178 cubic yards in the wet.


In addition to this work


excavation,


there


auxiliary work,


were


removed


646,520


cubic


yards


including dredging in the French canal.


of material in
The excava-


tion in the upper locks was completed, including the trenching for the
curtain walls and for the lateral culverts in that portion where these


culverts were below the excavated area.


With


the exception of the


trenching


required


lateral


culverts,


excavation


intermediate


locks


was completed.


The


excavation


lower


locks,


exclusive


approach


Walls,


was


also


undertaken


and


375,000 cubic yards remain to


be removed.


The average cost of the


excavation


past


six months,


including


plant


charges


and


division


expenses,


was


$0.6751


cubic


yard.


preparing


foundations for the concrete, including the excavation for the trenches


for the lateral culverts,


33,843 cubic yards were removed


during the


past six months at an average cost of $2.515 per cubic yard, including


plant charges and division expenses.


was


included


in general


excavation


Prior to January


and


no figures


1 this expense
are available.


The anchorages in the upper locks for tying the concrete to the natural


rock,


where the plans contemplated their use,


were completed, as well


as the


filling with


concrete of the


curtain


wall


trenches


around


upper part of the upper locks, in accordance with the plans adopted
and noted in the last annual report.


At the close of


fiscal year


1909 the unloading


cableways


were


0': /


w --v


v





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF'


ENGINEER.


The unsatisfactory operation developed


during the early stages of


their use resulted in the construction of an additional unloading plant


just


north


capacity


cement


of 200 cubic


shed,


yards,


consisting


which


was so


a sand


arranged


as to


having a
feed into


the automatic cars,


and


two


rock


bins


having capacities of 300


and


200 cubic yards, respectively;


derricks were also erected, one at each


of the bins


, for unloading sand and rock from barges.


The material


gravity into cars, and


pile or to an auxiliary


stone


transported


concrete plant placed at the south


to the


end


stock
of the


locks.


These


were subsequently supplemented,


in order to secure a


proper supply of material


by a stiff leg derrick erected at Mindi,


with


proper


docking facilities,


for unloading sand


and stone


from


barges


cars


and


when


the floods in November prevented


use of


French canal by tugs and barges arrangements were made for unload-


ing barges at Dock 13,


using a locomotive crane to pass the material


from


barges


to dump cars.


The


Mindi


plant


was


in service


from


November to June


, and the plant at Dock 13 from December.to April.


To. deliver material


unloaded


by these


plant


additions


the stock


pile,


and


unload in


the stock pile sand


secured


from


Pacific


division,


a trestle


feet


in length


was


constructed


over the east


sand tunnel.
The unloading plant has been operated twenty-four hours per day


since April,


when


searchlights


were


installed.


The quantity


material handled


was


2,458 cubic yards of large


rock


358,665 cubic


yards of crushed stone, and 155,458 cubic yards of sand,


of which the


unloading


cableways


handled


314,854


cubic


yards of


crushed


stone


and 138.813 cubic


yards of sand.


The greatest output was in June;


during


this


month


unloading


cableways,


five


strands,


handled


64,797 cubic yards of material, of which


,521 cubic yards were sand.


Operating on the basis of twenty-four hours per day


48.65 per cent


of the time was consumed in actual unloading operations, the balance


lost waiting for barges (29.50 per cent) and in other delays (21


.85 per


cent)


in other words, these cableways averaged


21.6 cubic yards per


hour while in the service, or 44.33 cubic yards per hour of actual time


in unloading.


During the


same


month


two


derricks


operating


basis of twenty-four hours per day unloaded 25,400 cubic yards


1 . i - .


_ -- - - I _


c-1r\ f-


nf.11 nwinm r1 .i /nf. r* nr .I- fn "1n , Tr nfl wv'yi r^ I^^ /nv f'. ifln fl rvi *1" / . a r /ra r lTi L-tr tI' E11ri ail -TT-rn.,. roi w /fir -/i * D^





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL COOMMIISSIOI.


guard rail was placed where the most frequent derailments occurred


thereby
Cemer


eliminating the trouble.


it


deliveries


under


contract


with


Atlas


Portla


Cement Company commenced in July, 1909, and with the cement shed
full, the difficulties met with in the operation of the plant caused the


supply to accumulate faster than it could be used.


deliveries,


instructions


were


issued


Rather than st


as much


concrete


possible, even at increased cost, and for the erection of an auxiliary


plant, not only to increase the output of


concrete sufficiently to care


for the deliveries of the cement,


but as an auxiliary to


the plant in


case


similar


or other


breakdowns.


Work


was


prosecuted


dai


including Sundays,


until November,


ly,


when Sunday work was discon-


tinued.


On September 6 a twelve-hour day for the permanent plant


was instituted


, and continued throughout the year.


The auxiliary plant consists of two


2-yard mixers similar to those


used in the permanent plant,


from


but steam driven.


the cement shed and stock piles to


Material is handled


bins above the mixers


standard


railroad


equipment.


The


product


imxere


handled by narrow-gauge locomotives with cars, the latter being small


side dumps when concrete is placed in the floors,


holding
the wall:
plant.


n


two to


four 2-yard


fro
s,


and platform cars


buckets when concrete is placed in


In the latter case derricks are used in connection with this


It was installed, began operations in December, and has con-


tinued since on the basis of an eight-hour day.


The
cubic


permanent


yards,


plant laid,


including


large


to
roc


the close of the fiscal year,


placed


in the


concrete,


409,381
and the


auxiliary plant, 104,422 cubic yards,


or a total of 513,803 cubic yards.


The total amount of concrete to be placed in the Gatun locks, includ-
ing the approach and wing walls, is estimated at 2,046,100 cubic yards,


so that


the total amount remaining to


placed is


1,532,297


cubic


yards.
The largest amount of concrete laid in any one month was in June,
when a total of 89,869 cubic yards, bucket measurement, was reached.
The permanent mixing plant had six of its mixers in use operating,
theoretically, twelve hours per day, excluding Sundays, and in actual


operation


an average


11.82


hours


day.


The


number


cubic yards mixed was 62,202, or an average of 32.4 cubic yards per


d,

ad


* !





pf
? :I


op
as


sk





REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


stone laid by the cableways was 66,479, or an average of 31.42 cubic
yards of masonry per strand per hour at work. The average cost of
the concrete per yard in place for the year was $7.355, including plant


charges and


division expenses.


With


a view


reducing


cost


concrete,


instructions


were


issued in November to make arrangements to embed large stone,


less than one-man size, in the masses of
of about 20 per cent of the mass. This


concrete, and


to an amount


was begun in March


to the close of the year aggregated a total of 10,786 cubic yards.


md up
The


stone


was selected from material


shipped


from


central


division


for use in constructing the toes of the dam, and


2,458 cubic yards of


large stone


were


procured from


Porto


Bello quarry in May


and


June.


On account of the excessive cost of the latter


, $6.284 per cubic


yard delivered at the locks, this source of supply was abandoned.
Collapsible steel forms are used throughout for the main and lateral


culverts, and


steel


tower forms,


which


were


purchased


and


erected


under


contract


and


in place,


are used


constructing the side


and center walls.
Difficulty was experienced in handling the water as the excavation


of the lock increased,


and


during the heavy rains in November and


December


1909


pumps


were unable


keep


down


inflow.


Two additional 12-inch pumps, direct connected to 220-volt induction


motors, have


been


ordered


and it


is hoped


that


when installed


pumping plant will


then


take care of the heaviest rainfall recorded.


The foundation for 150 feet of the south approach wall, in prolonga-


tion of the separating wall between the locks,


beyond the opening of


the center wall culvert


, has been put in.


To the south of this section


of the wall the ground is low


requiring a fill which is to extend to the


intersection of the center line of the locks with the old east diversion


channel


about 90 per cent of this work is completed.


Stone and sand.-Crushed stone


for the concrete of the


locks and


spillway


was


obtained


from


Porto


Bello


quarry


which


was


developed during the year with a single face having a length of 2,500


feet


and


a maximum


height


feet.


Considerable


delay


occasioned by the fact that a large amount of "dobying" is required


to handle the


blasted material to and from


the cars and


to feed


(I nwicb nfl i-ba Inn,


"1. I 1


-I-


m


Al


1


-Is nfl r * ~ Cl r a * * n r a n rr n r - - 1%. fl -. a "Wan a. ~ a - In. r. a


IC


a


1





REPORT


ISTH


to sixteen hours on Decemi
and this was continued dur
The total amount of ston
yards, at an average cost fo


yard d
charges


slivered in


and


the stock


division


expei


:MIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
)er 27 by operating two eight-hour shifts,
ing the remainder of the year.
e quarried and crushed was 549,678 cubic
r the last six months of $2.6283 per cubic
: pile at Gatun, this cost including plant
cases. The greatest month's output was


I-


in June-a total of 74,184 cubic yards-when the


cent of


the time, excluding Sundays,


was engaged


plant for 70.15 per
in crushing, 19.72


per cent undergoing repairs, and 10.13 per cent not working,


for barges and on account of other delays.


waiting


The output of the crushers


averaged 176.3 cubic yards per hour in service, and 251.3 cubic yards
per hour crushing.
A new pressure pump was installed and pipe line laid for doing the


necessary


engine,


stripping


and


condenser


hydraulic


were


also


process.
installed.


Two


boilers


wireless


, a dynamo,


station


was


erected and put in operation, and a clubhouse to be operated by the


Young Men


's Christian Association, and a commissary building were


constructed.


Sand


was


obtained


from


Nombre


Dios


and


from


Pacific


division.


The original purchase consisted of a strip of land on either


side and to the rear or south of Nombre de Dios,


with the understand-


ing that the town


would


be left intact.


Later it appeared desirable


to secure sand from the beach in front of the town, and on March 14
permission was obtained from the Panamanian Government to remove
a part of the native houses and huts in the village, at an estimated


cost of


$5,000.


On April 8 fire destroyed


buildings,


which


were


replaced


new


buildings


in the


rear


town.


The


dredge


Nombre sank in September


was converted


into


and


a 12-inch


was raised in November,


pipe-line


dredge,


and


began


when she
pumping


March


moving toward


deposits in


town.


In addition


this, sand was obtained by a clam shell dredge temporarily mounted
on a barge, by a locomotive crane, and by the dipper dredge Chagres


operating


until


removed


Limon


Bay


in December.


The


total


amount of sand obtained from Nombre de Dios amounted to


cubic yards,


187,183


at an average cost for the last six months delivered in


stock pile at Gatun of $1.9153 per cubic yard, including plant charges


1" . - - i .1 fL- k j � - �


q





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN

the locks and Spillway Hill. It


AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


ras decided in January that a larger


amount of the material for the toes of the dam should be procured
from the central division, this supply to be utilized so long as it could be
economically furnished, and that such material should not be selected


and confined to Bas Obispo rock as formerly


excavation.


but should be run of the


To accomplish this an additional number of steel dump


cars were ordered to provide the necessary facilities for furnishing
the largest amount of material that can be economically handled at
the dam.
The discharge of the Chagres River was through the west diversion,


and so continued until April 25,


been sufficiently advanced


when the work in the spillway had


permit of its use for this discharge.


Efforts were then concentrated toward filling in the toes crossing the


west diversion.


Due to the fact that the rainy season had already


set in, and that the bottom of the channel eroded as the opening
narrowed, some minor slips occurred, but none of importance.


At the close of the fiscal year,


the north and south toes of the


portion of the dam east of Spillway Hill had reached an elevation of


65 feet above mean tide


, and the hydraulic fill between the toes, an


average elevation of 51 feet.


West of Spillway


Hill the north toe


had been carried to an elevation of plus 30, and the south toe to an


elevation of plus 35.


Three dredges were pumping hydraulic fill into


the west section, two from the south side and one from the north, and


a fourth dredge, delivered under contract June 28,


was put on the


east portion of the dam, but will soon be removed to the west side of
Spillway Hill until the*hydraulic fill in the west portion is sufficiently


high.


The total amount of material placed in the dam during the


fiscal year was, dry fill 2,577,234 cubic yards, estimated on car, or
place measurement plus 25 per cent swell, and hydraulic fill 2,933,175


cubic


yards,


estimated


borrow


measurements,


less


losses


ascertained by cross section when practicable.


The average cost for


the last six months of the year for the dry fill, including plant charges
and division expenses, was 28.19 cents per cubic yard; for the wet fill
on the same basis, 32.54 cents per cubic yard.
Auxiliary work consisted in preparing the west valley for the recep-
tion of the hydraulic material by clearing and stripping off the top




I ~


REPORT ISTHMIAN


purpose


OANAL COMMISSION.


Trestles aggregating 7,486 feet in length were constructed


during the year.
Excavation for the spillway was continued during the year, result-


ing in


removal of


127,210 cubic yards.


The excavation for the


foundation of the spillway dam was completed, except at the extreme


end;


that for the curtain and side walls and for the floor was fully


completed.


Work


on the


floor


and


side


walls


was


continued,


53.632


cubic yards of


concrete


being placed


at an average cost fqr


the last six months of the year, including plant charges and division


expenses, of $8.602 per cubic yard


and


curtain


walls


were


completed


, and


April 25 the side walls,
the foundation of th


floor,
dam


sufficiently advanced


warrant turning the Chagres River through


spillway


. Considerable


time


was


lost


owing


excessive


floods of November and December.


As the foundations of the dam


placed at elevation


plus


and


the other channels of


the river


cut off


, the lake has been backed up so that its surface stands at from


16 to 20 feet above sea level.


Material is carried


toes on


the west portion


of the dam by


trestles in prolongation of these toes, across the channel through the


spillway;
season,


as the trestles are liable to


Permanent


bridge


across


be carried out during the flood


spillway


was


constructed,


consisting of six spans on concrete'piers.


The central truss


100-foot


span


formerly carried the old line of the Panama Railroad across the


Gatun River.
The waters of the Chagres River passing through the west diversion


had access to the French canal


, and as silting resulted,


the necessity


for closing the passage was apparent, and it should have been done in


the early fall of 1909
water of November,


the failure to do so


1909


, however,


, caused considerable silting of


before the high


French


canal and


the main


channel in Limon Bay,


and interfered seriously


with the movement of sand and stone to Gatun.


The December flood


took out what was accomplished on the dam or levee in the interval


between the floods.


The work was finally undertaken in March,


and


the plan contemplates the construction of a levee, connecting Spillway


Hill with Mindi Hills


, having an elevation of plus 25 at the spillway,


and sloping to plus 21 in a mile;


its length is to be 1 miles;


126,000


- - J? -- 2.-. - . - a 1 ana-1 -3 a 4 a . a iaa- .~aa a. . � l l l . ,~





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


including plant and division expenses.


The deepest part of the cut


had reached a depth of 42 feet below sea level at the time work was
suspended.
The dredges in operation between the Mindi Hills and the Caribbean


consisted of the 20-inch suction seagoing dredge Caribbean;


dipper dredge


5-yard


Mindi; three French ladder dredges, and the dipper


dredge Ohagres which was transferred on December 3,


1909, from


Nombre de Dios and worked in the channel the remainder of the year.
These dredges removed a total of 4,556,375 cubic yards of earth, and
399,285 cubic yards of rock from the canal prism, at an average cost
of 23.60 cents per cubic yard, including plant and division expenses.
There were also handled 3,206 cubic yards of earth from approaches
'to the Gatun docks, and 69,844 cubic yards of earth and 55,036 cubic


yards of rock from the French canal.


total of 247,537


The dredges also removed a


cubic yards of earth and rock from the Cristobal


terminals, and 501,928 cubic yards of earth and rock from the approach


channel leading from the canal to Cristobal Harbor.


The total silting


between miles 1 and 2, as shown by surveys during the year, amounted
to 493,365 cubic yards, and the fill for the year in mile 3 amounted to
461,922 cubic yards, and the total fill during the year is estimated at
3,500,000 cubic yards, of which 550,000 cubic yards resulted from the
Chagres River flood in November, 1909.
An old French hull was overhauled and fitted with 8 Star well drills,


and was worked successfully on subaqueous drilling.


Four drills are


placed on each side of the barge in quincunx order, separated 22 feet


apart,


the drills in each set of four being 15 feet apart.


The barge


drills, loads, and fires approximately 8 holes per day.
The dry dock shops were enlarged to provide for the installation of


additional machines, and the fleet of


dredges,


barges, and


tugs in


charge of


Atlantic


division


was


maintained in


a satisfactory


working condition.
Breakwater.-The location of the west breakwater for the protection
of the waters of Limon Bay and the canal channel through these waters
was definitely fixed on March 10, 1910, after examinations by sound-


ings and borings covering an extended area.


The plan originally


presented contemplated a breakwater running out to a 44-foot depth.
A -. .1 * a * i 1 11 1" 111 1 S -1 i * S �





REPORT ISTHMIAN OANAL COMMISSION.


Preliminary work looking toward


the laying of tracks,


clearing


land, construction of quarters, and the establishment of a permanent
water supply were undertaken preparatory to the construction of a
trestle for the actual work of building the breakwater.


ltunicipal


improvements.-The


construction


Agua


Clara


reservoir,


with the exception of a filter plant,


was continued along


the general lines noted in the last annual report, and was completed
during the year at a total cost of $202,147.05, exclusive of the filters.
The pumping station on the Gatun River was in operation until May


28, 1910, when the supply was furnished from the new system.


The


new village of Gatun has been supplied with water from the new sys-
tem, and about two-thirds of the water service required is completed.
The sewer system for New Gatun was also completed during the


year,


and


considerable


progress made


toward


installation


plumbing in the buildings.
The Mount Hope-Gatun road


was completed early in


the year.


The road was fenced on both sides from Mount Hope to Mindi, a


total length of 5� miles.


Additional roads were constructed about


Gatun to facilitate access to the commissary and corral.
The condition of the water in the reservoir at Brazos Brook was
excellent throughout the year. Owing to a slight settlement of the
dam and dikes, they were raised to elevation 55, a total of 1,715 cubic
yards of earth being required for this work. Repairs werd also made
to the concrete apron under the 48-inch waste pipe.
To prevent erosion of the beach at Cristobal by wave action from


Limon Bay


173 concrete blocks were made and placed in line along


the beach.
In addition, municipal improvements were undertaken in Colon,
under an appropriation by Congress for the purpose.
Sanitary work consisted of constructing a new drainage ditch 500
feet long, and on an average 8,200 feet of ditch were regraded, cleaned,
and widened each month.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix C.


CENTRAL


DIVISION.


The work of this division embraces all the excavation between the





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


1910, by which the position of assistant division engineer was abol-


ished on


the date


that Mr. Rourke'


resignation


became effective,


and the position of a general superintendent of construction created.
The five construction districts were consolidated into four, as follows:


The Chagres River district, extending from Gatun


the Chagres


River at Gamboa; the Empire district, extending from Gamboa to
the Empire suspension bridge; the Culebra district, extending from
the Empire suspension bridge to the railroad crossing north of Pedro
Miguel locks; and the Pedro Miguel district, embracing the excava-
tion between the railroad crossing and the locks, the dumps south of
Pedro Miguel, and the construction of the Naos Island breakwater.
The division includes the Culebra cut proper, extending from Gamboa
to Pedro Miguel.
Chagres district.-The Chagres River by crossing the axis of the
canal 23 times before it reaches Gatun forms a series of peninsulas,


which, commencing at Gamboa, are known as Point 1, Point


Point


3, etc.


Work on Point 1


was commenced February 24, 1908, and


continued until June 15, 1909, when,


because of annoyance from high


water in the Chagres River, work was discontinued for the remainder


Work was resumed on January 20, 1910, and


the excavation at this point was completed May
year 286,560 cubic yards were taken out. The t


from Point 1 was 1,246,761


Point


28, 1910; during the
otal amount removed


cubic yards.


, which lies between Matachin and Gorgona, was completed


on May 25, 1909.


The bottom of the cut was between


2 and 3 feet


above the bottom of the Chagres River at a point where the latter


crosses the cut, and


the heavy floods of November and December


deposited about 109,000 cubic yards of gravel.


A steam shovel and


orange-peel crane were put at work in the cut to collect this gravel
for use as ballast on construction tracks, and for the building of roads;


56,238 cubic yards were removed and stored.


In consequence of this


gravel supply, the crushing plant previously installed at Bas Obispo
was put out of service, as a material saving resulted from the use of
gravel for ballast.
Point 3 lies on the east side of the Chagres River opposite Gorgona;
excavation was begun on June 12, 1909, and continued until the close
j--f S -^ a rr ^ ~ ..: nnw�rr.L a *^�L-jT 4w^ a 090 Q A a n. a- t -ri n nA-w^ ri nrrv.n^ nnni-yy j'n'ra ri-


of the rainy season.





I REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COOiMISSION.

Point 4 lies on the left bank of the Chagres River at Gorgona, an


excavation


was


begun on June 2,


1910,


10,646 cubic yards being


removed by the end of the fiscal year.
Point 5 is at Juan Grande, and excavation was commenced on
June 2, 1910, 23,824 cubic yards being removed before the close of
the year.
Point 6 is north of Juan Grande; work was commenced on May
2, 1910, and by the close of the fiscal year 46,741 cubic yards had been
removed.
Hand work at Point Mamei was commenced April 15, 1910, and


excavation by steam shovel on June 15.


At the close of the fiscal


year 8,315 cubic yards had been removed.
At Mamei work was commenced on September 17, 1909, and up to
the close of the fiscal year 372,671 cubic yards had been removed.


The excavation at Caimito,


the last fiscal year,


which was in progress at the close of


was continued, removing 338,675 cubic yards,


which completed the work in this locality on April 22, 1910.


The total


excavation at this point amounts to 2,268,572 cubic yards.
During the fiscal year 5,899 cubic yards were removed from the
San Pablo section, which leaves about 258,000 cubic yards remaining


to complete the work in this locality


This can not be done until


the Panama Railroad is abandoned, as this material forms the road-
bed for the double tracks of the road.
The Cano River section lies on the west bank of the Chagres River


nearly


opposite


Tabernilla.


Work was


begun in December,


1908,


and completed on September 24, 1909; the total amount of material
removed was 707,031 cubic yards.
Work was commenced at Tabernilla on November 13, 1909, and
carried forward to June 17, 1910, 392,490 cubic yards being removed.
The Panama Railroad and the machine shop in this locality will pre-
vent completion until after they are abandoned.
Near Buena Vista, on the right bank of the Chagres, are two bills,
parts of the sides of which had to be removed in order to give the


channel the necessary width and depth.


Work was commenced with


steam shovels on June 29, 1909, and completed November 10, 1909,
by the removal of 153,026 cubic yards of material, which was trans-





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


and old French Decauville cars; certain


tasks were assigned,


and


payment made on the performance thereof.


That done by the com-


mission was commenced in January, 1909, and completed in Novem-


ber.


The total amount excavated in the vicinity of Bohio amounted


to 184,148 cubic yards.
A contract was made for the removal of 160,947 cubic yards from
the canal prism between San Pablo and Bohio at a cost of 35 cents


per yard.


All were removed excepting 14,223 cubic yards.


Another contract was entered into for the excavation of 202,410
cubic yards between Tabernilla and Bohio at a cost of 21 cents per
yard for earth, 25 cents per yard for soft rock, and 30 cents per yard


for hard rock.


No work was done by the contractor up to the close


of the fiscal year.
A third contract was entered into on February 10 to excavate 397
cubic yards on miles 14 and 15 and miles 19 and 20 at a cost of 40


cents per cubic yard.


This was finished March 15.


The


total


amount


removed from


the Chagres section from


beginning of operations in 1907 to the close of the last fiscal year
was 9,497,673 cubic yards, leaving still to be excavated an estimated


amount of 3,415,944 cubic yards.


This estimated amount has been


increased over the estimate of September,


1908,


by 251,965 cubic


yards, thus providing for excavating to elevation 39 above sea level
instead of 40, wade necessary on account of silting by floods, and by
allowing 670,000 cubic yards for silting, due to the fact that during


the rainy season of 1909,


152,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel


were deposited by the river at Santa Cruz and Matachin.


At the beginning of the dry season


the clearing, grubbing, and


burning of trees in the channel of Lake Gatun were commenced, and


resulted in clearing 950.4 acres.


There still remained 162 acres to


clear to complete the entire width of channel throughout the central
division.


Culebra


cut.-During the


fiscal


year


14,921,750


cubic


yards


material


were excavated from


the Culebra cut, leaving 34,893,531


cubic yards to be removed in order to complete this section of the


canal.


The


remaining


amount


includes


an increase


cubic yards over the estimate made in September, 1908.


6,408,560
This in-


...~t n r - * -, /l- 4-~ .-. IT I nkv e-r r 4-1n nani rf�1- i i rd 1t nC P�+1 rn nwi4 a'T/- iw~ lllvn n\| |a n^rty ri/v ^




4 *~AA A A AA~ ~ V
c

REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL OCO WT


breaks have occurred in the banks of the canal.


At the points who


these breaks exist the underlying rock is of poor quality, intersed


by vertical seams, or seams sloping toward the canal.


Generally, e


upper surface of the


mately
broken


horizontal


portion


broken


, settling


forces up


portion
nearly


and


of the bank remained


vertically


The


approi-


weight of the
material lying


directly below it in the bottom or on the berms of the canal.


As the


material


thus forced


is taken away the upper part gradually set-


tles and moves toward


the axis of


the canal until the entire broken


portion is removed.
In widening the canal so as to secure the requisite 300 foot bottom


width


benches


or berms that existed


were


removed


and while


this method reduced


to a minimum


the amount of additional exca-


vation it exposed fresh surfaces


to the action of tropical


and at the same time increased the pressure at


bottom.


downpours


was


expected that slides would occur,


and in the estimates provision was


made


for them


but


now


appears,


from


cracks that show in


upper surface adjacent to the faces of the cut,


that sufficient allow-


ance had not


been made,


and


the estimates were corrected


to meet


the new conditions.
Of the slides proper,


the most important is the one at Cucaracha,


referred


in previous


reports.


The total area embraced since the


commencement


operations


is 47.1


acres.


Prior 1 July


, 1909,


1.125,017


cubic yards of material had


been removed from this slide,


and


TI


639,239 cubic yards were removed during the fiscal year.
ie next largest slide is on the west bank of the canal where the


village


New


Culebra


was


located.


been


caused


movement of a large French dump into the canal.


amounts


had


been


acres.


removed


and


Prior to
327,540


July
cubic


, 1909
yards


The area involved


118.024


were


cubic


removed


yards
during


the year.
The third slide covers an area of


acres,


and is located on the


east
July


bank of the canal directly


opposite


Whitehouse yard.


Prior to


, 1909, 50,800 cubic yards of material had been removed, and


110,000 cubic yards were removed
The fourth slide covers an area of


during the present fiscal year.
1.7 acres on the east bank of the


,-r. S * * . -- -^^ .- Sr" I a '*t j t ^


displaces laterally the


! ! �


hj


i





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


The second largest


break,


directly


opposite that


just described,


covers an area of 114 acres on the east side of the canal; during the
year 314,184 cubic yards were removed, making a total from this
locality of 480,202 cubic yards.
The third break was at La Pita Point, and permitted the waters of
the Obispo diversion to flow into the canal for a period of three days,


drowning out some of the shovels at the north end.


gates about 40,000 cubic yards,


dry season.


This break aggre-


but will not be disturbed until the


A flume has been constructed of timber and concrete


to carry the flow of the diversion past the break.
The total amount of material removed from all slides and breaks
in the central division during the fiscal year amounted to 2,649,563
cubic yards, or about 15 per cent of the amount removed from the
Culebra cut.
The floods seriously interfered with the progress of the work, and
the one of December 26 overflowed the dike separating the cut from
the Chagres River, cutting a channel through it about 200 feet long


and 21 feet deep.


As soon as the flood subsided steps were taken to


rebuild it; this was accomplished, and by extra efforts the dike was


maintained through the flood of December 30.


Subsequently it was


strengthened and carried to an elevation of 73 at the top of the rail.
The track on the dike connects the relocated line at Gamboa with the


main line of the Panama Railroad at Matachin.


A new pump having


a capacity of 18,000 gallons a minute has been ordered to be added
to those already installed in the north end of the cut to handle the
water accumulating from various sources.
During the year 17,749,306 cubic yards of material were deposited


in various dumps.


The most important of these are at Tabernilla,


relocated


Panama


Railroad


between


Gamboa


and


Caimito


Miraflores, and at Balboa.


In addition, over 1,150,000 cubic yards


material


removed


from


Culebra


were


taken


Gatun


and deposited in


the toes of the dam.


Several


dumps of limited


capacity were opened up in the Chagres section to take care of the


excavation in


the immediate


vicinity.


The material


deposited


Tabernilla and Miraflores outside of the relocation of the railroad


was wasted.


That dumped on


the Panama Railroad relocation is


iianA 4 flh *il--nrw f-yrncflacc atnd nrTT lro~ctin +hm n\rrnbnnlrry-�nn�n~c /j! +bKr nnfm





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COM1IISSION.


the cost of


maintenance,


and


making navigation


channel


easier by protecting vessels from the existing cross currents.
Prior to July 1, 1909, the trestle had been constructed for a distance
of a little over 2 miles, and during the fiscal year this trestle was
extended 1,123 feet, giving a total length from shore of 2.4 miles.
The end of the trestle was within 4,900 feet of Naos Island, and the


filling extended to within 400 feet of the end of the trestle.


Much


trouble was experienced in extending the outer end of the dike, due
to the sliding of the bottom when the weight of the stone filling was


dumped from the trestle. This sl
of the last 4,000 feet of the dike,


iding has taken place at every foot
and a continual settlement of the


roadbed for two or three months, after which it gradually diminishes,
and finally ceases. The work so far accomplished has been of material
benefit in securing the objects originally sought.
The average cost of excavation for the year was 66.99 cents per


cubic yard


including plant charges and division expenses.


Empire shops.-On November 5, 1907, a force of. mechanics was
organized to work in the cut at night in repairing steam shovels; as
the result, it is found that greater efficiency is obtained in steam-shovel
work, and all repairs possible are made in the field without sending
the shovels to the shop.
In the interest of economy, the repairing of steam shovels and the


manufacture and repair of steam-shovel


parts for the entire canal


was transferred


the central


division,


effective October


1909,


on which date the Empire shops were transferred from the mechanical


division,


and


other mechanical


work formerly


handled


Empire shops was transferred to the Gorgona shops.
Municipal work.-A wagon road 8 feet wide was constructed from
Empire to Las Cascadas plantation, a distance of 2.6 miles, and corn-


pleted on October 31.


The construction of the road between Empire


and Paraiso was continued during the year, and was 75 per cent cornm-


pleted


on June 30.


The road


between Empire and


Gorgona


was


continued, and 52 per cent completed.


A suspension bridge across


the canal at Empire was completed on July 31, 1909.


It is constructed


four


galvanized


21-inch


steel


cables


strung


over


two


wooden


towers 60 feet high.


The span is 600 feet long.


This bridge was


i n 1 a l . . 1 .2 _





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


PACIFIC DIVISION.
The work in this division consists of the construction of the locks


and dam at Pedro Miguel,


locks


and dams at Miraflores,


Ancon quarry


dredging for sand at Cham6, excavating a channel


between the locks and below Miraflores locks to deep water in the
Pacific, such municipal work as may be required within the territorial
limits of the division, and such sanitary engineering work as may be


prescribed by the sanitary department within


the same area.


The


work is in charge of Mr. S


. Williamson, as division engineer.


Pedro


Miguel.--Work was continued in


excavating the lock site


and the approaches thereto from the south.


When the excavation


was nearly completed two slides occurred on the east side, delaying
the work and increasing the amount to be removed by 75,299 cubic


yards of earth and rock.


The total amount of excavation during the


year was 277,935 cubic yards by steam shovels,


and


65,513 cubic


yards by hand, of which 44,948 cubic yards were classed as preparing


foundations.


Excavation


proper was


done at an


average cost of


$1.188 per cubic yard, including plant charges and division expenses.
Subsequent to the completion of steam-shovel work the prepara-
tion of the foundations for the reception of concrete was undertaken


by removing the loose rock which remained


trenches


and by excavating 42


, 13 feet wide, 11 feet deep, and 137 feet long for the lateral


culverts, and an area of 2,500 square feet to a depth of 5 feet below


the floor level at the miter sills.


The greater portion of the material


was handled by pick and shovel into buckets or skips,


which were


unloaded into cars by the use of locomotive cranes or derricks. A
small portion was handled directly into cars by a Thew shovel. In
the preparation of the foundations a total of 64,084 cubic yards were
removed, at an average cost for the last six months of $2.8193 per
cubic yard, including plant charges and division expenses.
Bids were invited for the lock construction plant under date of


October 8, 1908.


The largest amount of concrete in the division is


to be laid at Miraflores, and while in the selection of the plant the
economical handling of this material was the guiding consideration,
another important factor was that the plant should be capable of


hiarria dnntaA tfn t.bi wnrlr nt. P .drn Miowr]


('sant/ilIc'1rr nrnn~o uTorf






REPORT


cranes in the locks,


Both


berm and


ISTH:


which
chamber


or cast iron embedded in


t


MIAN CANAL COMMISSION.

nill place the concrete in the center walls.
r cranes will handle forms and the steel
a n 4nn AM*


At Pedro Miguel the banks adjacent to the lock pit are such as to
prevent the berm cranes from functioning as at Miraflores, so they are
arranged with two cantilever arms, placed in the forebay of the locks,
and used solely for transporting material from the stock piles to the


mixers


and


for mixing.


The


chamber


cranes


place


mixture


both


the side and


center walls,


as well as


handle all


the forms and


steel or iron work.


The concrete is carried from the mixers bynarrow-


gauge construction locomotives hauling two flat cars, each carrying a


2-yard bottom-dump bucket,


which is taken by the chamber crane and


the concrete deposited in the walls.


The contract required


the delivery


one


berm


and


one chamber


crane by


August 20, and one berm and


two chamber cranes


by Sep-


tember 20, 1909.


Due to causes beyond the control of the contractor


the deliveries were delayed


and as cement deliveries were


based


the dates noted


, when advised of the delays, arrangements were made


to install mixers for building the lower guide or


approach wall and for


laying concrete in the floors in advance of the receipt of the construc-


tion plant.


this end


three �-yard mixers were


employed in


approach


walls,


and


two


2-yard


mixers


were


installed


temporarily,


one on the east and one on the west side of the lock pit, for laying the
lateral culverts and the floors.


The


first


berm


crane


was


delivered


on October


and


first


chamber crane on October 25


1909


but erection was interfered with


by the excessive rains, so that it was not until April 4, 1910,


that one-


half of the regular plant was installed and began laying concrete in the


west and


center walls.


The


temporary


mixer on


the west side


was


then dismantled


but the one on the east side was continued in service


until


the close of the


year.


The entire construction


plant at Pedro


Miguel began operations on July 15.
The storage trestles in the forebay of the locks are constructed on
both sides of and parallel to the canal axis, each having a height of 28
feet and a length of 880 feet available for storage. For this purpose
3,525 linear feet of trestle were erected.
1 1. I .1 "I __ 1 __ . 1 1__ a__ _-* . . . . . 1 . .. . _ ft " ... p � 1


he concre e.





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


the lock


chambers,


necessitating the construction


1.400


linear


feet of trestles for these tracks,


which are laid on an incline of 2j per


cent.
The total amount of concrete laid was 166,869 cubic yards, of which


1,656 cubic yards were large stone placed in the mass.


Of this total


the permanent plant laid 73,083 cubic yards on the basis of an eight-


hour day


. The rate per mixer per hour will be found in Appendix E.


The


average


cost


cubic


yard


concrete


placed


in the


Pedro


Miguel locks was $6.089, including plant charges and division expenses.


The estimated


amount of


concrete


in the


locks,


including


approach


and wing walls, is 858,600 cubic yards,
yards to complete.


so there remain 691,732 cubic


Steel


collapsible forms are


used for the


main and lateral


culverts,


and wooden forms in built-up panels,


15 feet long and 8 feet high, are


used


construction


walls.


The


panels


a series


uprights,


feet


long,


held


together


walling


strips


and


lagging.


The latter is placed
cantilevers on the


extend


into


on the


concrete


masonry


upper 6


feet


previously


2 feet,


lower 8


placed.


and


The


removed


feet


acting


anchor
as the


bolts
work


progresses, leaving the anchor nut embedded.
least twelve times.


Each panel is used at


Filling
Material


back


west


was obtained from


wall


was


the Ancon


begun


quarry


about


site,


and


9,616


June.
yards


were placed at a cost of 28.47


cents per cubic


yard, including plant


and division expenses.
The west dam at Pedro Miguel consists of two mounds or toes of all


classes


waste


material


, a large


percentage


being


rock,


with


intervening space filled with selected material, forming an impervious


core.


The selected material is clay


excavated from the canal prism


south of the locks


, and is deposited from dump cars in layers about 6


feet deep, each layer being thoroughly wetted


Within the year 51,827


down and compacted.


cubic yards have been added to the impervious


portion and


41,964 cubic


yards


toes at


a cost of


38.60


cents


per cubic yard.
A total of 99,703 cubic yards were removed below the locks at Pedro


Miguel at a cost of $0.6345 per cubic yard.


The bulk of this material


was placed in the dam.





REPORT


ISTHMIAN CANAL


COMMISSION.


yards were placed in the toes of the Miraflores west dam, and 121,080
cubic yards used as back fill.
A 20-inch suction dredge worked in the lower lock site until Decem-


ber 20, 1909.


Because of


and the character of the n


the large number of bowlders encountered,
material, the output was small and the per-


formance


dredge


unsatisfactory


this


dredge


could


utilized to advantage in the Atlantic division, it was transferred, and


arrangements


being


made


excavating


remainder


material


hydraulic


means.


The


dredge


removed


141,759


cubic


yards at an average cost of 50.63 cents per cubic yard.
The work of preparing the foundation of the upper locks was begun
as soon as the excavation was completed sufficiently, and consisted of
cleaning up loose material and excavating for the lateral culverts and


areas


above


miter


sills.


This


work


was


done


a Thew


steam shovel and by hand,


the total amount excavated being 39,381


cubic


yards.


foundations,


Excavation


was 24,655


cubic


steam
yards.


shovels,


The


classed


average cost


as preparing


was $1.947


per cubic yard.
The handling plant in these locks will consist of four berm cranes,


two of which are in operation in the forebay at Pedro Miguel,
chamber cranes, all of which are in use at Pedro Miguel. T


and four
'he tower


and movable


boom of one of the berm


cranes is in


place completely


erected,


and


another on


the west side partially


erected.


The canti-


lever
Pedro


arms


will


Miguel


placed


on these cranes


are dismantled and


when


berm


cranes at


transferred.


On the east side of the lock a storage trestle about 3,200 feet long


is under


construction,


and


1,400


linear


feet of


tracks for the


berm


crane have been laid


and


ballasted.


Two


concrete


mixers


will


installed in


create


the storage


berm


trestle on


crane


the east
placing


side


until


and


will supply


con-


mixers


permanently installed


on the


crane


after the


work at Pedro


Miguel


permits. 0]
of trestles f
assembled.
On June 1


the west side


storage


berm-crane


inm progress;


tracks


and


fourth


crane


erection
is being


concreting in the upper lock was begun on the floor and


lateral
rniynro


culverts,


�10 it 10


mixture


being


4 ~ ,~ a ~ r' I a a


furnished
~~4 1 a^ a\-/^nt


two


k Jt-~-.~.


one-half-yard
$.a flt\C *iv~w~t% nfl4


t Bi' .. | | |~ 1 n * || i ** | **tat- |*a- EIr, * I il EIIE E* r I Jt**'* .r i * * ,* . t.11 a ir, , *r* *airu.*i ll *' ! * u | *


I


f






REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


beneath which is the basement.


One end of the building and a por-


tion of the


turbine-room floor are of temporary


construction,


as the


depth and width of the water turbines to


be used have not yet been


determined.


The equipment


is similar


that


installed


Gatun,


and


described in


operation


the last annual report.


the cranes,


It furnishes power for the


for the crusher plant at Ancon,


and for


the sand-unloading cranes at Balboa.
The west dam, extending from the head of the locks to Cocoli Hill,
consisting of two mounds or toes made up of waste material obtained


from


lock


excavation,


mostly


rock,


and


hydraulic


between


them, was continued during part of the year.


One hundred and fifty-


seven


placed in


thousand


four


hundred


and


eighty-three


the toes, at an average cost of $0.6774


cubic


yards


per cubic yard


were
and


120,910 cubic yards of impervious material were added by the dredge.


As this material


was taken from


the lock chamber


, the expense


was


charged


excavation,


Miraflores


locks.


Operations


pervious part of the dam


ceased


when


the dredge


was taken


out of


commission.


Stone and sand.-Broken


stone


concrete


is furnished


by the


quarry which was opened on the west side of Ancon Hill, as described


in the last annual report.


The installation of the plant was continued


during t
October,


early


1909


part


when


a bad


year,
slide


and


was


occurred


practically


on the


complete


face


between the crushers and the storage


bins,


which delayed operations


until


provision


material


made


which


guar


had


moved


against


could


future


excavated


happenings


and
this


some
kind.


The slide necessitated the removal of 40,960 cubic yards of earth and


rock,


building


a large


amount


rock-fill


cribwork


and


replacing


the conveyer connecting the crusher and bins,


which was taken down


prevent


were


removed


damage.


opening


in preparing


necessary


quarry
grade,


2,384 cubic


and


194,112


yards
cubic


yards
begun


of stripping.
on February


crushed stone


day,


and


was


during


The


plant


, 1910,


secured.


June


was


and
The


furnished


finally


a total
quarry
32,232


installed and


175,174


is worked


cubic


operations


cubic yards of


eight


yards,


hours


cubic


yards


hour


m service


and


cubic


yards


actual


working


A U S9 1 . I " -1


m





1wtOfl~


Prior to the operate
obtained from the Ri


ion" of the Ancon quarr stone for concrsta w
G d,.'^Q h-A f is i


o ran e quarry, w ich urn


e t lyroken stone


for
until
cost


ballast


and


February


$1.28


highway


y 10
per


and
cubic


construction.


supplied
yard. ]


58,928


This


quarry


cubic yards, at


addition,


3.750


cubic


was. operated


an average
yards were


obtained from the Atlantic division; at a cost of $2.39 per cubic yard.
Sand for concrete is obtained from a bay formed by Point Chamr,


about


miles


French self-propelling
cubic yards capacity,'


Coast
ladder


from
dredge


Balboa.
and lo


Sand


aded into


which are towed to Balboa,


is secured


barges


500


where it is removed


from


the barges to storage


bins by means of rapid unloading cranes.


Dump cars are loaded from the bins by gravity and
ferred to the storage trestles at the lock sites.


the sand trans-


Under


pany


contract


three


with


unloading


the Cleveland
cranes were ft


cantilever 33 feet long projecting


cranes


operated


electrically


Crane
irnished


and Engineering Cornm-


each


having


a


beyond the face of the dock.


Considerable


delay


occurred<


single
The
d dur-


ing the erection, due


the defects that developed in


the machines,


the correction of which necessitated changes.


also develop
furnished
substituted.
cranes were


ed,
were


which required modification.


satisfactory


After the
accepted


and


requirements


and


have


since


of


Structural weaknesses
The brakes originally


air-controlled
the contract


been


brakes


were


strengthened


met


were
the


in several


particulars.
A total of 229,250 cubic yards of sand was secured during the year,


of which


101.748


cubic


yards were sent


the Atlantic division for


use in concreting there.


The average cost per cubic yard for the last


six months'is


$0.7293


delivered


bins


and


$0.9764


per cubic


yard delivered in the stock piles, plant charges and division expenses
included.


Hydraulic machinery.--The


material


removed


2-mile


stretch of channel below Miraflores locks amounts to about 9,650,000


cubic yards, of which over


1,500,000 cubic


yards


rock.


As time


is one of the


important elements


and


it was impossible


to assemble


a sufficiently large dredging plant to complete this section within the


limit fixed,


an hydraulic excavating plant was selected


as being not


- a .. a


S


Us I i i * a." *** . . .1. -~


,


t
r


*r -


R





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


pumps.


The central station is located


on the


west


bank
antil


canal, and in
mounted four


the center of the area to
Worthington horizontal,


be excavated.


direct acting,


There are


triple expan-


sion pumping engines with 24-inch stroke, 24�-inch water cylinders,


and 19, 30, and 50 inch steam cylinders.


Each pump is provided


with a surface condenser and a direct acting single cylinder 12


20 by 24 inch vacuum pump.


The pumps discharge into a common


delivery pipe equipped


with


necessary


checking


gate


valves.


Steam is supplied by four Babcock and Wilcox standard water tube


boilers arranged in batteries of two each.


Oil will be used for fuel,


for which


purpose


two steel


tanks of


2,000-barrel


capacity


each


were erected on a hill at the rear of the station so as to feed the oil


burners by gravity


. The supply pipe from the pumping station is


3,600 feet long, made up of 2,000 feet of 40-inch and 800 feet of 32-


inch lock-bar pipe, and 800 feet of 24-inch spiral riveted pipe.


The


main is provided with valves and tees suitably located for connect-


ing branch lines leading to the monitors.


The branch lines are 16-


inch spiral riveted pipe laid in groups of three so that two giants


may be continued at work while the third is being changed.


The


monitors are fitted


with special


deflecting nozzles.


The dredging


pumps,
pumps,


three
direct


These pumps,


mounted


n number,
connected


18-inch


single


655-horsepower


suction


induction


centrifugal


motor.
are all
by the


with motors, switchboard, and priming pump,


on reenforced


concrete


barges specially


designed


division engineer and constructed for the purpose.
The Rio Grande River which originally occupied a portion of the
area to be excavated has been diverted and a dike constructed across


the south end to prevent the access of tide water to the area.


After


the removal of loam overlying the rock by hydraulic process, the
rock will be excavated by means of steam shovel in the dry, that
method being the most economical.
South of the area to be excavated by hydraulic means, the neces-
sary depth and width of channel will be secured by ordinary dredging


operations.


During


year,


there


were employed


this


work


the 20-inch seagoing suction dredge OCulebra, one 5-yard dipper dredge


Cardernas,


and four


French ladder


dredges.


The


total


output of


. S


.* 4 4*-^ - -. -


i.*- - - a _ - . .. ....... ... ._ - .- -l I[ A. *ui ) A -- - . *- - A" I w ry -I ilI


- 1


-t


A A A I






28 . REPORT ISTHMIANI CANAL COMMISSION.

method is by drilling and mining, in which case well drills operaS
through the overlying earth to a depth below the required grade


the holes are sprung, charged, and fired.


By this means 274,339


cubic yards of rock were broken up, of which 19,392 cubic yards
were removed by the dredges.
The second method is by subaqueous blasting, for which purpose
a drill barge was constructed consisting of a steel hull 112 feet long
by 36 feet 8 inches wide, provided with timber spuds-one at each


corner of the


barge.


Three drill frames 38 feet high are located


along one of the gunnels, arranged to move lengthwise of the barge


on rails.


Each frame carries a slide to which is attached a 5-inch


rock drill, and each slide is operated by a hydraulic ram and may


be moved vertically through 10 feet.


The drills are operated over


a distance of 85 feet from one position of the barge, and the holes
thus far have been spaced 5 feet apart on 6-foot centers located by


means of ranges on shore.


The barge began operations in March,


1910, and blasted over an area of 49,600 square feet.


No dredging


was done.
The third method is by rock breaking, and a Lobnitz rock breaker


was placed in commission in August, 1909.


It consists of a ram or


cutter of steel fitted with a hardened steel conical point which is


alternately hoisted and dropped.
hull 100 by 28 by 8 feet. The t


The device is mounted on a steel
idal range requires the use of three


sizes of rams, 30,


40, and 56 feet,


weighing approximately


15, 16,


and 194 tons.


The general practice has been to attack the surface


of a rock shoal which has been exposed by dredging with the rock
breaker at intervals of 4 feet each way, the points of attack being


located by ranges on shore and permanent marks on the bay.


The


average


limit of


penetration


thus far


been


3.12


feet.


After


the entire area of a shoal is gone over, the rock breaker is removed


and


broken


rock


dredged out.


The


area covered during the


year was 266,230 square feet,


from which 25,515 cubic yards were


dredged.
The Balboa shops and ship ways were operated during the year in


the construction


barge,


erection


of some


dump


new pieces of plant,


scows,


construction


including the drill
f a floating repair






REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


The necessary pumps,


treating and settling tanks,


and filters


were


erected at a total cost of $34,324.39.


Reenforced


concrete


reservoirs


10.000


and


100,000


gallons


capacity were constructed for the


Palo Seco


Leper Asylum and


Culebra Island


About


9.000


quarantine station,


linear


feet


road


respectively.
connecting


Corozal


with


Pedro


Miguel were completed


and a portion of the road connecting Corozal


and


Camp


Diablo


was


added


during


year.


Extensive


repairs


were made to the Balboa and Sabanas roads.


The


sanitary


work


consisted


in cleaning


573,942


linear


feet


earth d
removal
various


rains;


2.661


points


construction


cubic


yards of


necessitating


new


earth;


earth


drains


filling swamp


handling


requiring


and


cubic


holes
yards


material


and


the construction of 9,700


linear feet of


cement drains,


and 3,838 linear feet of tile drains.
For further information, attention is invited to Appendix E.


IMPROVEMENTS


IN COLON


AND


PANAMA.


The


municipal


improvements


originally


undertaken


in the


cities


of Colon and Panama were restricted to certain portions of the towns.


The extension


vented


of Colon


sanitary


eastward


regulations,


of the


C


purposes was considered necessary


in Panama
sewer and


Congress


were
water


built


mains,


estimate


md
and


without


and


improved


additional
advisable.
extension


commission


$1,200,000


improvements in the two cities.


section


area


Certain


paving


in 1908


extending


The act of March 4


was pre-
building
districts


and


submitted


the municipal
, 1909, making


appropriations for the canal


included an item of $800,000 for extend-


ing the improvements, and arrangements were made for undertaking
the work during the dry season of 1909-10. The amount thus appro-
priated will be added to that already expended in the two cities and


refunded at the end of the fifty-year period from collection


of water


rents.
Colon.-The work undertaken in Colon consists of the construction


street


storm


sewer


estimated


cost


$136,000.


The sewer is to run from the sea at the Beach road


on the north




A A A ~AA~ ANNA -


REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Panama.--In the past year streets have been graded and macadam-


ized, and sewers, water mains, and concrete curbs and gutters
as follows:


placed


Cocoa Grove district... ...................
Guachapali district......- . ....-...--.......... -
Avenue B.....-..-..... ---....... -...
Santa Cruz district............-...-.........-
District 1.. . .-. .,- - . ..--"-.


Pavmg.


8qure ft.
70,130
195,354
36,607
91,116
24, 240


Curbing.


LMnear ft.
3,920
8,171
2,220
5,062
1,275


Sewer
mains.


Linear ft.
1,683
7,535
1,937
8,078
1,496


Sewer
laterals.


Water
mains.


Linear ft. Liuear ft.
872 2,494
1,952 8,289
665 1,847
1,952 7,692
628 1,195


Water
lateral.


Linm
4'012
4788
4,053
677


The total cost of the improvements in Panama thus far undertaken
aggregates $134,750.
For further details in connection with this work attention is invited
to Appendixes C and E.


CONSTRUCTION


OF THE


NEW


PANAMA


RAILROAD.


The


construction


a new


line


operation


of 'the


Panama


Railroad is


being done by the Panama Railroad


Company under an


agreement with the commission.


It was in


charge of Mr.


R. Budd,


chief engineer of the


Panama Railroad,


until he resigned September


, 1909,


since


which


date


Lieut.


Frederick


Mears,


First


Cavalry,


S. Army


was promoted to fill the vacancy


created, and has con-


tinued in entire charge.
At the beginning of the year work was in progress upon the entire


stretch from Gatun to Gamnboa, with i
the valley of the Gatun River. As c
the closing of the west diversion and


through the spillway


he exception of 8 miles through
anal construction contemplated
discharging the Chagres River


the elevation of the floor of which was placed


10 feet


above sea level


work


on the relocation had


arranged


so as to give continuous communication at such


times as the


mamn


line of the Panama Railroad is flooded.


Work was therefore pushed


in order to have a through route ready and available for use in case
of necessity, and a temporary line on the 60-foot level was completed


on April


accomplishing


bottoms of the Quebrancha,


this


trestles


Brazos


were
Baja,


driven


and


over


Gatun,






REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


into


a lift


span


navigation


eastern


arm


Gatun


Lake.


Temporary provision is made for floods by use of two of the girders
formerly spanning the Chagres River at Barbacoas.
The trestles along the line from Caimito to the Gamboa Bridge were
turned over to the central division for filling and were used as waste
dumps for material from the cut; this portion of the line is practically


complete.


When


flood


conditions


necessitate


relo-


cated line during the construction period connection between Gamboa
and the present line of the railroad will be at Matachin over the con-
struction track of the central division laid on the barrier which sepa-
rates the cut from the Chagres River.


A number of permanent culvert


of reenforced


concrete


were con-


structed to take care of the various streams crossed by the embank-
ments.


addition


2.350.000


cubic


yards


of material


dumped


central division along the new line, 2,500,000 cubic yards were exca-


vated


and


disposed


concrete were laid


of in
25,000


embankments


, 17,000


cubic


yards


linear feet of temporary trestle were con-


structed, and


15,000 linear feet of bridge piling were driven.


The


completed


track


most


part


was


ballasted


gravel


secured during the dry season from a gravel pit opened on the Chagres


River about


1 mile above


gona gravel pit operated
the Panama Railroad. I
18,000 cubic yards of wt
stored for future use.


Gamboa


Bridge,


and


by the maintenance of way
n all, about 42,000 cubic yard


from


Gor-


department of
s were secured,


dich were placed on the line and the balance


The present plan contemplates the use of the 95-foot


berm on the


east side of Culebra cut as the location of the new railroad, and will,


if this plan be adhered to,


of it


be finished by the central division as part


work in connection with the excavation of the canal.


During the early part of the year it was decided to push the work
on the section from Paraiso to Corozal in order that the present line
of the railroad might be turned over to the commission for its use in


moving spoil trains.
and consists largely


This section of the


line


embankments made


is about


4 miles


from spoil from


long,


Culebra


cut.
a-


It is practically


-


complete, and is laid with new 90-pound steel


- <3 I U � * 1 " .


1


m


*


-_ - **






REPORT


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


MECHANICAL


DIVISION.


The second


division


of the chief engineer's office has charge of


mechanical questions that may arise and supervises expenditures, the


preparation of estimates, allotments for work, and cost keeping.


under Mr. H. H. Rousseau, U


Itis


S. Navy.


To reduce delays on account of breakdown of machinery, plant, and


equipment,


which reflect largely in the unit cost of work,


to a mini-


mum,


and


equipment,


provide


well


proper


facilities


as manufacturing


overhauling


necessary


repair


plant
parts,


and


large


shops have been provided at certain points on the Isthmus, in which


are employ
of 4,391.


red


1.399


"gold"


men and 2.992


"silver "


men,


or a total


Other small shops employing one-half dozen or less men are


distributed


around


work


where


required.


Cars


converted


into


portable


machine shops are


also


used,


and in a similar way floating


machine shops are provided for repairing marine equipment.


general,


repair


shops


and


equipment


on the


Isthmus


adequate
Nothing


meet


as yet


requirements


been


done


during


toward


the construction


permanent


shop


period.


facilities


needed after completion of the canal, but in respect to this feature the
commission at its one hundred and fifty-sixth meeting declared itself


in favor of a policy which


will, if adhered to, result in confining such


permanent


shop


facilities


two


points,


one


near


each


end


canal, equipped to


meet all the requirements of the


United States in


connection


with


maintenance,


operation,


and


protection


canal


as well as the needs of the Panama Railroad, and those arising


from the commercial use of the canal.


During


year special


of maintenance and
the standardization


attention


operation


of salaries and


was


paid to reducing


equipment in


wages,


and


the cost


the shops, including
of material and sup-


plies necessary in construction repair work.


two
and


traveling engineers


supervismg


were


engineers,


appointed,


firemen,


and


who


In line


have


hostlers


with this policy
been instructing
in all divisions,


including the Panama Railroad,


in the use of fuel and oil in connec-


tion


therewith.


saving


resulted


fully


cent


amount of lubricants used, and of approximately


10 per cent in coal


a a
na an nn n "It





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


ferred


Gorgona


shops,


centralizing


latter


shops


repair work


rolling equipment other


than


steam shovels, as


well


as all manufacturing work.


and


Gamboa


were


abolished


The


this


car-repair


work


yards


together


Las


with


Cascadas
medium


heavy repairs to cars formerly performed at Pedro Miguel car-repair


yard


were


transferred


Gorgona.


The


work


Pedro


Miguel


yard is now confined to the lightest running repairs only


Under the


new car-inspection service instituted, every car in the service is given
a thorough inspection once a day.


provide


increased


amount


work


performed


Gorgona shops, additions to buildings and equipment have been made


when necessary


Among the former may


be noted a new two-story


building 42 feet by


100 feet erected for the storage of patterns aggre-


gating


16,000,


estimated


value


which


from


$150,000


$200,000.


The old pattern-storage building was converted into a brass


foundry, and


three crucible


melting furnaces installed


therein.


This


arrangement enabled an enlargement of the iron foundry by the addi-


tion of 4,160 square feet of space.


During the year 4,820,762 pounds


of iron castings were made, at a cost of $0.02937 per pound, and 393,995


pounds of brass castings, at a cost of $0.17


of surcharge,


per pound, both exclusive


but inclusive of the cost of patterns and material.


This


division


continued


operation


electric-power


plants, except those at Gatun


and Miraflores


, furnishing current for


about


31,000


lights.


pole


line


miles


long


was


constructed


between Gatun and Cristobal to convey current from the Gatun plant


to the Panama Railroad Company'


old plant at Cristobal,


which was


closed down.
The operation of the air compressors is also under this division, and
7,227,203,513 cubic feet of compressed air were generated during the


year.


Additional


compressors


were


installed


Empire


and


Rio


Grande


plants, and


feet of


main


pipe line were


removed and


rebuilt on account of slides occurring through Culebra cut, and


3.600


feet of 8-inch main installed between the Balboa plant and the Ancon
crushing plant of the Pacific division.


Appropriations.-The


appropriations


made


Congress


Isthmian


Canal


and


available


close


fiscal


year


1909,


arnmmnfnttAd


ton �21014_ 46R AR


nr 5fi


n.r wnt, nf fth


ntft.l nAs.imfl.ted





REPORT ISTHMIANW CANAL COMMISSION.


were


plant


and


equipment


construction


work,


which


$4,388,511.55 were expended during the fiscal year.


department
construction


lished


construction


work, and
Basis for


July
i and
plant


1, 1909, th
engineering


and


construction


plant
work.


subaccounts


were


contained


arbitraries


Thus,


were


estab-


taking


monthly the proper proportion
expenditures, the plant charges
by the work on its completion.


of charges
will have


for plant and


equipment


been completely absorbed


The division cost of an item of construction work is made up of the


cost of


all labor and material


directly


applied


work,


a plant


arbitrary and a proper portion of the general administration expenses,


including


expenses


chief


engineer'


office


and


other


general


engineering expenses.


proportion


general


division
division


expenses


cost
the


must


added, first,


commission,


a


including


expenses of the quartermaster'


and subsistence departments, exam-


iner of accounts and disbursing office, and, second, a proper share of


the expenses in


the United States, and all other miscellaneous charges


in order to arrive at the total cost.


For


further


general


information


concerning


appropriations


and


expenditures,


cost-keeping


methods,


and


unit


costs


work,


maintenance and operation of plant, equipment, and shops, attention
is invited to Appendixes G, H, and I.


RIVER


HYDRAULICS, METEOROLOGY


AND


SURVEYS.


The third division of the office of the chief engineer is charged with


hydrographic


and


meteorological work, such


general


surveys


as are


embraced within


the limit


any of the construction


divisions, and


such investigations as may be assigned


to it.


The division has been


in charge of Mr. C.


M. Saville, assistant engineer.


Gauging


stations


have


been


maintained


Gatun,


Bohio,


and


Alhajuela, on the Chagres River, at Monte Lirio on the Gatun River,


and Lagartera on the Trinidad River.


River stations are maintained


Vigia and Gamboa for the purpose of predicting floods.


The minimum flow


during the year at Bohio was in March,


1910,


when


the discharge


was


1,220 cubic feet per second; the


maximum


I, *


Cost lceepng.--Effective





REPORT


CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


after the beginning of the rise at Vigia the observer'


stage register were washed away


house and water-


At Alhajuela the crest of the flood


reached elevation 121,


or 2 feet


higher than


the flood


of December,


1906;
flood


at Gamboa it reached elevation


1906.


another freshet


reached
rupted


Before


occurred


an elevation


operation


le high
on the


78.2, or 3 feet lower than the


water


30th


feet


Panama


and


this
31st


Alhajuela.
Railroad,


flood


These


and


had
crest


subsided


floods


which
inter-


communication


between Colon and Panama was cut off entirely for a period of three
days.
Three first-class meteorological stations were maintained at Ancon,


Oulebra, and Cristobal.


Twenty rainfall stations were also operated,


9 supplied with standard rain gauges and 11
of the tipping-bucket type.


The temperature for the calendar year


with automatic registers


1909 was below the normal,


the average being 78�


. at Cristobal and Culebra, and 79�


The minimum temperature was 61


at Ancon.


. at Culebra on March 1,


1910


and the maximum at Culebra, April 15, 1909, 94� F.
The rainfall for the calendar year was greater at all stations;


maximum


noted


was


Porto


Bello,


where


inches


were


recorded for the year.


The maximum monthly rainfall also occurred


Porto


Bello


fell at Alhajuela on


December,


1909,


the afternoon


registering


of May 28,


58.17


inches.


1910.


Hail
whole,


there


was


a deficiency


wind


movement


during the


year,


though


during a storm at Ancon on July


, 1909, the wind attained a maxi-


mum velocity for one minute of 70 miles an hour, and for five minutes
of 59 miles an hour, the greatest velocity of. record on the Isthmus.
Slight seismic disturbances were of frequent occurrence during the


year,
Zone.


very few


which,


however,


were


physically


observed


Except in cases of minor local tremors, the records at Ancon


harmonize with records in the


United States


, Mexico, and Europe.


Careful record of evaporations at various points along the line and
the time of duration of fogs has also been kept.
The survey of the watershed of the Chagres was completed.


A triangulation survey was


year,


undertaken for the


under way
purpose of


durinrfg the greater part of


combining


existing sur-


a ems a -. * a --




I - N N


REPORT ISTHMIAN


CAYI&L COMMISSION.


through the range at elevation 85'is 50 feet, and at no place between


the 90-foot contours is it more than 100 feet.


Investigation of this


locality indicates that it


will


probably


be necessary to increase the


height,
East of


which
Gatun


can


readily


done


another saddle will


with


material


easily


accessible.


probably require some reenforce-


ment. -
Attention is invited to Appendix J for more detailed information.
QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT.


The quartermaster's department


is charged


with


the recruitment


of labor;


care,


furnishing,


and


assignment of


quarters;


distributing


fuel,


commissary


supplies,


and


distilled


water;


construction


and


repair of all buildings;


requisitioning for supplies of all kinds,


together


with the receipt and distribution of them on arrival;


and disposal of night soil


cutting of grass


department,


and


the auditing of


property returns.


The depart-


ment is in charge of Lieut.


Col.


C. A. Devol, chief quartermaster.


Some minor changes have been made in the organization during the


year.
nected


Effective July


with


quarters


, 1909, the amount of


and


buildings


other


construction work con-


character


had


been


reduced


such


an extent


as not


warrant


maintenance


separate gangs by each of the construction divisions for the erection
of buildings, so that this and all repair work were transferred to the


quartermaster's department.


The operation


of Dock


Cristobal,


was


transferred


from


department on December


Panama
1, 1909.


Railroad


quartermaster's


Test inventories having disclosed


unsatisfactory


methods


the storehouses at Gatun


in handling


Cristobal


and


accounting


and Porto


property,
Bello were


transferred from the Atlantic division to the quartermaster's


depart-


ment


, effective January


, 1910;


on the same date


the storehouses


at Balboa and Miraflores in the Pacific division were also transferred,


thus


placing


all storehouses


under the


quartermaster's department.


Requisitioning


master's


department


skilled
it to


labor


was


transferred


office.


from
The


the quarter-
small return


received for the outlay in maintaining gardens resulted in their elimi-


nation,


and


horticultural


work


is now


attended


by the district


and garbage as prescribed by the sanitary


dock,


chairman's





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


Laborers


recruited


during


year


aggregated


2,519


were


West Indians,


the larger part of them from Barbados.


The last


recruiting was done in January, 1910, since which date immigration
has exceeded emigration, and, as the work has reached its maximum,
the present population of the Zone furnishes an ample labor supply.


There has always been an independent immigration from the


West


Indian islands, but it was not until within the last four months that
there has been any such movement on the part of European laborers.


During this period,
from Spain and Ital


however, 2,000 have come of their own volition
Ly. From the beginning of the fiscal year there


was a steady increase in the force, until a maximum-38,676-was
reached on March 30, 1910, including the Panama Railroad Company


and the relocation, and is the largest force on record.


time there has been a slight decrease, but


Since that


the total effective force


on June 30 was 35,578, as compared with 33,493 on June 30, 1909.
New quarters constructed during the year consisted of 19 houses


for married employees, accommodating 38 families.


Eleven build-


ings, accommodating 29 families, were converted into "gold" married


quarters.


The bulk of the new construction was at Ancon and Gatun.


Under conditions


employment


commission


was


obliged


furnish married quarters to all employed prior to January 1, 1908, and


all such employees have been supplied.


Of those employed subse-


quent to January


1908,


there are 525 applications for married


quarters.


The expansion of the work at Gatun created a demand for


additional bachelor quarters, and four type 18 houses, accommodating
192 bachelors at that point, were constructed.
As far as possible every building on the Isthmus has been utilized,
and as the progress of the work has caused the number of employees


at Culebra


, Empire,


and Paraiso


to decrease, the vacant


bachelor


quarters have been


utilized


for what is termed


"nonhousekeeping


married quarters" for the use of employees working at points where


they are unable to secure family quarters.


Suites of two or three


rooms are assigned to each family.
The number of negroes in quarters remains practically the same-


4,925 bachelors and 1,067 families.


There has been an increase of


1,300 Europeans occupying commission quarters.


fli i P 1 P i I 1�





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CAKNAL


COMMISSION.


loss


mules


during


year,


due


an infectious


disease


called


"swamp fever."
There are 3,078


buildings in


the Canal Zone owned


by the corn-


mission, of which 1,147 were acquired by purchase from the French.
The sum of $478,000 was expended for new construction and repairs
during the fiscal year in completing 90 new buildings of every class


construction,


clubhouses,


hospital


wards,


corrals,


engine


houses,


storehouses


stations,


market


, schoolhouses,


and


quarters.


these 90, 50 were constructed by contract, the contractor performing


labor


and


commission


furnishing


material.


There


been a reduction in


the unit cost,


amounting to 30 per cent in


cost of type


14 and


type


houses,


and


per cent in


the cost of


type
cost


houses,
repairs


types most


buildings


commonly used for quarters.


aggregated


$78,980.


The


repair


buildings experience has demonstrated


that in all but minor repairs


work


traveling


can


gangs


handled


with


more


picked


economically


foremen.


and


expeditiously


Four traveling gangs of


car-


penters and two of painters were organized.


The


total


amount


material


received


from


United


States


during the


year aggregated


350.000


tons,


valued


at $10,103,552.34.


The value of local purchases, including coal and oil, was $2,094,131.02


345,185 tons of


coal and


465,921


barrels of fuel


oil were used


The


stock in storehouses at the end of the fiscal year amounted to $4,691,-


034.10.


The


experiment


annual


contracts


standard


articles


consumption has proven satisfactory;


it has diminished


the time


between placing of the requisition and the delivery of material on the


Isthmus


, resulting in fewer shortages of stock in the storehouses.


The


transfer


dock


from


Panama


Railroad


Company


resulted


in a reduction


charges,


rate


on handling


general


cargo being reduced from 40 cents per ton to 32 cents per ton.


the date of the transfer


Since


100,000 tons of material have been handled


over


dock


quartermaster


department.


Additional storehouse facilities were added at Porto Bello,


Miraflores, and Balboa.
For further details, attention is invited


Gatun,


Appendix K.


OTTn aoTrnrtrITf T 1W "1A DWTMWTrP


^ s 4
II





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


The


Hotel


Tivoli


was


operated


during


year


a profit of


$4,574.23.


-The total number of meals served at the line hotels


was


2,176,451, the price per meal being 30 cents.


The cost for supplies


per meal was 24.87 cents, and the expense in preparing and serving


was 6.23 cents.


There was a total increase of $43,964.31 in the cost


of the food supply
cents per meal.


to the line


The expense in


hotels during the year, or of 1.33
preparation and serving was de-


creased


0.69 cent over the


preceding year.


The


total number of


rations furnished in the European messes was 1,092,487


at a cost of


30.18 cents per ration for food and 6.60 cents per ration for expense.
The number of rations served in the laborers' kitchens was 781,746, at


a cost of 22.66 cents for food and 4.63 cents for expense.


The total


revenue from the line hotels, messes, and kitchens was $1,350,658.05,
a decrease of $168,620.08 over the previous year.


For


further


particulars


concerning


operations


sub-


sistence department, attention is invited to Appendix L.

EXAMINATION OF ACCOUNTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.


EXAMINER OF
The duties of the examiner of


' ACCOUNTS.

accounts were outlined in detail


in the last annual report and continued unchanged.


is in charge of Mr.


The department


W. W. Warwick, examiner of accounts.


In the work of bookkeeping, improvements have


been made in


the classification of expenditures and the compilation of statistics.
A distribution of the accumulated plant charges, formerly carried as
one item, was made, so that the plant is now shown in the expenditure
accounts by divisions and by units of the work.


Four


inspectors


have


been


engaged


on inspecting


accounts


bonded employees at all places on the Isthmus, and witnessing the


transfer of responsibility from one employee to another.


Cash ac-


counts are inspected and verified at regular intervals during the year,
and an average of four or five times for each account is considered
sufficient, unless there is reason to believe that any particular account
is being incorrectly kept. Coupon and meal-ticket accounts are in-
spected about once a month. Twice during the year the cash in the
1 ._P it - _ . _ T �. ... - - , - ",






REPORT


ISTHMIAN


CANAL COMMISSION.


on an hourly basis were inspected three or four times a week, and some


of them


practically


books in the field


every


day


In addition


inspecting the


time


, 12 men have been engaged in inspecting tfimekeep-


ing in all timekeeping offices on
of the pay rolls sent in, and an e


the Isthmus to verify the accuracy
examination is made to see if pay rolls


contain only the amount of time shown on the time rolls, and the time
given on account of sickness, court attendance, etc., is verified from


certificates


attached


such


rolls.


One branch of the examiner of accounts'


office has to do with the


settlement of claims of employees on account of personal injuries, and
this work has largely increased; the amount paid on account of such


injuries was $96,810.33,


and


on account of


death claims, $21,053.22.


There was also paid on account of meritorious sick leave the sum of


$16,010.30.
compensation


A separate


injured


pay roll


was established for the


employees,


which


is made


paymentof


twice


each


month, and in case the disability of an employee continues for a year,
or the greater part of a year, payment is made once a month. Claims
on account of the death of employees are approved for one year, and
payments made to the beneficiaries in monthly installments.
In this connection it is again to be noted that the classes of persons


under the


Isthmian


Canal


Commission given relief by Congress


fewer than in any other branch of the service covered by law, and has


resulted in its application to imposing hardships in some cases.


The


requirement that all claims shall be acted on by the Secretary of Cornm-


merce and Labor has resulted in


delays in making payments.


The


distance from


Washington and the evidence which must be furnished


intelligently


pass


on the


claims


have


caused


much


work


which


would not be required if settled on the Isthmus,


where the facts can


be readily determined.
The examiner of accounts is also auditor for the Canal Zone gov-


ernment.


During the year more than $1,000,000 were kept on deposit


in a bank in the City of Washington, to the credit of the treasurer of


Canal Zone.


This


represented,


principally,


money-order funds


held pending settlement of the accounts with the United States Post-


Office Dej
$36,867.94,


)artment.


Interest


cent,


amount


was received on this deposit and credited as a revenue of





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


For details concerning the work of this department,


attention is


invited to Appendix N.
CIVIL GOVERNMENT.
The organization of the department of civil administration remains


practically the same as outlined in the last annual report.


Hon. Jo.


C. S. Blackburn resigned, effective December 4, 1909, and Mr. Maurice
H. Thatcher was appointed a member of the commission on April
12, 1910, and assigned as head of the department of civil administra-
tion on May 13, 1910.
No congressional legislation of importance affecting the Canal Zone


was passed during the year.


Among the most important executive


orders promulgated are the order of the President of July 30, 1909,
amending section 149 of the Penal Code of the Canal Zone, which pre-
scribes the penalties for murder in the first and second degrees; the


President


's order of November 23, 1909, penalizing the recruitment of


labor in the Canal Zone for service in foreign countries; the President's


order of April 16,


1910, defining the powers and functions of the coun-


sel and chief attorney and the prosecuting attorney, amending the
existing provisions of law respecting the filing of informations and the


execution of criminal process; the President'


1910


order of January 26,


, providing for charging an equitable proportion of the cost of


sanitary improvements to property owners in the district in which


sanitary improvements are made.


A board of local inspectors was


created by the President'


order of October


2 for the examination and


licensing of masters, mates, engineers, and pilots of steam vessels navi-


gating the


waters of the Canal Zone.


The


position


executive


secretary was abolished by order of the Secretary of War on May 24.
Some of the matters taken up with the officials of the Republic of
Panama and satisfactorily adjusted are the stationing of Zone police
at Nombre de Dios in the Republic of Panama, and the adoption of
sanitary regulations; the amendment of the agreement with Panama


for the maintenance and


operation of Santo


Tomas Hospital; the


maintenance of the insane of the Republic of Panama in commission
hospitals; the verification of the survey of the Canal Zone boundaries,
and the enforcement of the executive decree of Panama prohibiting






REPORT


ISTHMIAN


OANAL COMMISSION.


collected.


The


preceding year's


issue


was exceeded


Of the orders sold,


and foreign (
$1,247,610.22
concluded on
postal money


Countries,


were


$3,976,891.63 were payable in the


except Martinique,


payable


August


r


orders


, 1909,


Canal


providing


between Martinique,


and
Zone.


orders
A c


for the direct


French


>y $61,812.69.
United States
amounting to


convention


was


exchange of


West


Indies,


and the Canal Zone, since which time orders amounting to $4,060.30


have been
the Canal


draw
Zone


n


payment


are extensively


in Martinique.


used


The


employees


post-offices


as depositories,


there being on June 30 unpaid money orders aggregating $323,311.15,
drawn to the order of the remitter and payable at the office of issue,
min the various offices on the Zone.


Vessels to the number of 237


entered at the port of Ancon,


with a


total toi
399.690.


nnage of


400.910


and 238


vessels cleared


with


a tonnage of


At Cristobal 235 vessels entered with a tonnage of 636,191,


and


vessels


cleared


with a tonnage of


625.958.


duties


customs fees were collected.


At
which


the close of the fiscal year there were 2,783


1,892 were for building lot


leases in force,


and 884 for agricultural lands, an


increase of 686 in the total number of leases over the preceding year.


Rents


collected


during


year


amounted


$27,282.29,


a


increase over the amount collected for the year ended June 30,


slight
1909.


An appropriation of $75,000 was made by Congress near the close of
the year for the purpose of making a general land survey of the Canal
Zone.


On account of general taxes and licenses,


$107,642.58 were collected,


an increase of more than $8,000 over the preceding year.
During the year 38 estates were settled, and on June 30, 17 were in
course of settlement, involving the handling of $6,531.24.


Police and prisons.-On June 30,


1910


, the police force consisted of


259 employees.


February


A reorganization of the division was made, effective


, 1910, at which time the Canal Zone was, for police pur-


poses, divided into four districts, coextensive with the administrative
districts as established by the order of the President dated March 13,


1907


, the changes in the organization being made with a view to con-


centrating


responsibility


The


number


arrests


made


during


4


-- L A m





REPORT


OF CHAIRMAN


AND


CHIEF


ENGINEER.


were made;,


5 were convicted;


8 acquitted;


dismissed


confined


in the insane asylum, and 3 are awaiting trial.


At the close of the fiscal year there


were


138 convicts confined in


the penitentiary


at Culebra,


who


have


been kept at


work


on public


roads, grading, etc.


Eight pardons were granted during the.year and


two sentences commuted.
Schools.-During the year


12 schools for white children and


15 for


colored children were maintained


and on October


1, 1909,


there was


an enrollment of 745 and


1,067, respectively


School gardens have


been maintained in connection with a number of the colored schools,
and have been. productive of good results.


Fire protection.-During the


year a


paid fire company was estab-


listed at Gatun and a fire-alarm system installed;


two new volunteer


companies were organized at Gatun, and one volunteer company was


discontinued


Ancon.


On June 30


there


were


volunteer


cornm-


panics,


with a membership of 324.


There were


year, of which 12 were in Panamanian territory


123 fires during the
the value of govern-


ment property involved, as reported by the fire chief, was $1,174,017.19
and the total loss resulting from fires, $2,796.04.


Public works.-There were 201


sewer and


water connections made


in Panama during the year, the total number on June 30 being


1,493,


with 84


applications


for connections pending.


The


total


collections


from water rents from private consumers for the first three-quarters
of the year were $50,159.15, and the net amount of the bills rendered


for the quarter ended June 30,


1910


was $16.384.


In Colon during the year there were 84 connections made, the total


number on June 30


being


548,


with 28


applications for connections


pending.


The total collections of water rents from private consumers


and from the commission and the Panama Railroad Company during


first


three-quarters


year


were


$56,477


and


amount of bills rendered for the fourth quarter was $19,507.90.


The


extension


water,


sewer,


and


pavmg


systems


in Panama


and


Colon authorized by Congress will require amendment of the existing


agreements with Panama for the collection


of water rents,


and


new


contracts will


be submitted as soon as practicable.


During the year 244 private sewer and water connections were made
* .... > ^ 7 i rr .. j j. i * ... . am- a r






REPORT ISTHIMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


cases were pending at the beginning of the year, 13 were filed,
were disposed of.


In the circuit courts 382 criminal cases were filed;


were secured and 39 were acquitted


and 10


249 convictions


68 cases were dismissed, and 26


cases were


pending on June 30.


Of 397


civil


cases filed during the


year,
year.


were disposed


of and


96 were pending at the close of the


the district courts,


6,732


criminal


cases


were filed;


5,215 con-


victions


secured


and


were


acquitted;


cases


were


to the circuit courts, and 9 cases were pending on June 30.


appealed
During


the year


1.123 civil


cases were filed,


1,055 were disposed of, and


were pending at the close of the year.
Canal Zone funds.-At the beginning of the fiscal year there were
$197,531.22 on hand in the Zone treasury, and $394,422.23 were col-


elected


during the year.


public


improvements,


The expenditures amounted to $518,771.57


schools,


maintenance


administrative


districts, and contingent expenses in the postal service.


For


further


particulars


concerning


work


in this department,


attention is invited to Appendix O.

DEPARTMENT OF SANITATION.


The work of this department embraces sanitary work in


the cities


of Colon and


Panama and,


except oiling, it designates


the sanitary


work to be done in the Canal Zone in order to accomplish the desired
ends, exercising such supervision as is necessary to see that the work


is satisfactorily performed


of hospitals


and


quarantine.


in addition,


The


department


department


is in charge


charge
of Col.


Gorgas, Medical Corps,


U. S. Army


as chief sanitary officer.


The work in the terminal cities consists of cutting grass and brush,


oiling pools,
purposes, re
cleaning. C


and


moval


constructing


garbage


)n account of


and maintaining ditches for drainage


and


night soil,


juxtaposition


fumigation


and street


of Cristobal and Mount


Hope to Colon these are included in the Colon area, and for the same
reason Ancon in incorporated with Panama.
In the Canal Zone, the quartermaster's department expended under


the


direction


- - --


sanitary


department


$127,923.28


in grass


and


:t





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN


AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


The health conditions on the Isthmus are reported by the chief
sanitary officer as an improvement over those of the preceding year.
The total admissions to hospitals and sick camps, including those


sick in quarters, netted for the year 26,539.


The daily average of


sick was 23.01 out of every thousand employed, as against 23.49 for


the preceding year.


The total number of deaths among employees


was 548, equivalent to an average of 10.84 per thousand, based on
figures obtained as follows: The average number of white employees is
obtained by adding the number of white employees for each month


in the year and dividing by twelve.


The white employees for each


month are the number of names on the gold roll for the previous
month, plus all European laborers at 16 and 20 cents per hour, as
appears on the-first week's force report, increased by 30 per cent to
cover those not actually at work, plus Panama Railroad gold employ-
ees, determined by the number of names on the gold pay rolls of the


railroad company.


The average number of black employees is deter-


mined by taking the number of names on the silver rolls and deduct-
ing therefrom the number of European laborers shown on the force


report


from


chairman


office,


plus


Panama


Railroad


silver


employees, plus contractor's colored employees.
In addition to the number of deaths reported among the Americans,


which aggregated


76, 39 were deported on the recommendation of


the medical examining boards as physically unfitted for the Tropics,
10 were recommended for extended leave without pay for the same
reasons, and 6 were given extended leave with pay in the United States
on account of injuries received in line of duty.


No cases of plague or yellow fever originated


on the Isthmus.


One death from yellow fever, in the person of a young Englishman,


occurred at Ancon Hospital


on January 24,


1910.


The deceased


passed quarantine at Colon January 6 and was taken ill on January 8.


The case was diagnosed as yellow fever on January


On January


24 a thorough fumigation was undertaken of the building in which
the deceased lived while in Panama, as well as the factory in which
he worked.


For


further


details


concerning


this


department,


attention


.invited to Appendix P.




S S ~


REPORT ISTHMIAIT CANAL COMMISSION.


membership for the year being 1,264.


The total expenditures from


commission funds for the support of these clubhouses aggregated
$38,812.41.
A small recreation hall was constructed at Corozal Lt a cost of
$3,954.66, and since its completion was under the management of
the employees themselves.
Further details of the operations of the clubhouses is given in
Appendix Q.
WASHINGTON OFFICE.

The work of the Washington office was of the same scope as reported


for the preceding year, and continued in charge of Capt. F


Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.


. C. Boggs,


A slight change in the organization


was made for economic and administrative purposes by combining
the work of the record and correspondence divisions under one head.


During


year


2,022


persons


within


United


States


were


tendered employment on the Isthmus in grades above that of laborer,
of which 1,287 accepted and were appointed, covering 125 different
positions.
The total amount of purchase orders placed during the year was
$16,107,350.34; the most important of the purchases were castings,


structural material and valves for use in


the locks, amounting to


$847,000; 4 steel barges; 2 tugboats; 3 launches; one 20-inch pipe


line suction dredge;


charge,
cranes;


1 hydraulic and dredging plant; 13 dredging, dis-


and relay pumps; 449


dump


and


flat cars; 10


cantilever


2 rock crushers; 8,745 tons of steel rails; 655,842 cross-ties;


32,715 piles; 30,771,744 feet of lumber; 14,742,400 pounds of dyna-
mite and blasting powder.
Shipments of cement for use in the locks and dams, purchased under


contract for 4,500,000


barrels, amounted


to 904,727


barrels up


June 30.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix R.
Diagrams showing organization in effect July 30 are appended and
marked "S."


Respectfully submitted.


GEO. W. GO
/7/J/e-^7 iSy^ m- Kn;*PorR


)ETHALS,
77 R. Anrmn.













APPENDIX


REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. H. F. HODGES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS,
U. S. ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER, IN CHARGE OF THE FIRST
DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER.


OFFICE


OF THE


ISTHMIAN CANAL
CHIEF ENGINEER


Culi
Sm: I have the honor to make th,
during the fiscal year ending June
the office of the chief engineer.
design of the locks, dams, regulati
The organization of the division
last annual report, and consists of
as follows: (a) Masonry and lock
lock gates and protective device
movable dams, and (e) spillways.


ebra,
efoll
30,
[his
ng w


Oanai
owing
1910,
divisi
works,


COMMISSION,
, FIRST DIVISION,


I Zone, July 26, 1910.
report of the operations
of the first division of
on is charged with the
and accessories.


remains the same as stated in
subdivisions in charge of desi
structure, including valves;
s; (c) operating machinery;


MASONRY


AND


LOCK


STRUCTURE.


This subdivision is under
engineer, assisted by Mr.
T. E. L. Lipsey, assistant
Mr. E. D. Burnell, assistant
the year.


charge of Mr.
H. F. Tucker,
engineer, and
t engineer, was


L. D. Cornish, designing
designing engineer; Mr.
the necessary draftsmen.
employed during part of


LOCKS.


At the beginning of the las
upper lock at Gatun and for t
finished. Drawings of these
annual report for 1909. D
needed by the working force
i'nnr ioip1k�r at. (4atii.n fine] thli


"I


t fiscal year the general desi
he single lock at Eedro Migui
general designs were public
during the year the detailed
in the field on the construct
PeArn Mcr,1 ]nolt br a hon


gns for the
el had been
hed in the
I drawings
tion of the
Io~ one]^ Q~






REPORT


ISTHIMIAN


CANAL


COMMISS0N.


has been adopted. Provision has been made at the upper and lower
ends of all lock flights for the use of a caisson by means of which the
sill of the movable dam and of the lower guard gates may be laid dry
for examination if necessary.


APPROACH


WALLS.


Massive


concrete


walls


south


middle


wall and


northeast


side approach wall of Pedro Miguel have been designed and adopted
and reinforced concrete walls for the northwest, southeast, and south-
west approach walls in the same locality. The general type of the
side approach walls is shown on drawing No. 7125. (Pl. 75.) At
Miraflores locks northeast and northwest side approach walls have
been adopted of reinforced concrete on piles. A study is now being
made of cellular reinforced middle approach walls for the north
approaches of both Pedro. Miguel and Miraflores locks. At Gatun
the design for the south approach, involving a center mooring wall of
massive concrete for a portion of its length where it rests upon rock
and of cellular reinforced concrete supported on piles for the greater
part of its length where it rests upon fill, and involving, further, side
approach walls and wing walls with arched openings to prevent con-
centrating wave action from the lake into the forebay of the locks,


has been tentatively pr
It is intended that v
not against the wing w
and the side approach v
to the axis of the lock,
type shown on drawing


epared bu
essels shal
ralls of the
valls, i. e.,
are to be
No. 7116.


VALVES


AND


t not yet submitted for approval.
I moor against the middle wall and
locks. The middle wall, therefore,
the portion of the side walls parallel
provided with spring fenders of the
(P1. 76.)


FIXED PARTS.


The Stoney gates and fixed irons for the Gatun and Miraflores
spillways have been designed and are illustrated on drawing No. 7400.
(PL. 77.)
DRAWINGS.
In providing detailed plans for the features hereinbefore mentioned
56 drawings have been made and approved.
CONTRACTS.


On January 6, 1910,
chasing officer, on pla
division, for 22 sets of


advertisement was issued by the general pur-
ns and specifications prepared by this sub-
frames for rising-stem gate valves to control


* ;


I





CONSTRUCTION


AND


ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.


Under the
2, 1910, with
W. Va., and
fiscal year.


advertisement mentioned, contract was made on March
the Wheeling Mold and Foundry Company, of Wheeling,
delivery of material had begun before the close of the


Before the beginning of the fiscal year 1910, award ha
to the Penn Bridge Company, of Beaver Falls, Pa., fo
and the moving parts for two sets of Stoney valves, and
dale Foundry and Machine Company, of Pittsburg, Pa.
indrical valves. Under the first contract but little of
had been delivered up to the close of the fiscal year.
contract was then. about 90 per cent completed.
As the result of experience gained under these contracts


i been made
r the frames
to the Rose-
, for 40 cyl-
the material
The second


i, the


have been modified somewhat from those shown in the last
report, both by changing the section of certain of the parts,
the substitution of cast iron for cast steel as the material.
Difficulty was experienced in obtaining the heavy cylindric
ings for the valves under contract with the Rosedale Found


Machine Company. The contractors have furnished
but only after the loss of many, and the indications.
in future contracts a very much higher price would I
for these particular parts if steel should be retained
In the plans for future purchases, therefore, the d
somewhat modified to allow the substitution of a s
cast iron, which it is known, will be less expensive
strong.
The frames for the gate valves have also been design
instead of steel.
Under the plans thus modified, specifications and
been prepared for the remainder of the ironwork, fixe
for the valves for the main and lateral culverts, with 1
the movable parts of the Stoney valves. These plan
tions have been sent to the general purchasing officer,
pated that the contract will be let at an early date. It
tion to purchase the movable parts of the Stoney valve
has made further progress, since these parts can be in
advantage after completion of the masonry.


these c


h
a
Ie


designs
annual
and by


al cast-


try
ast


vere clear
ave to be
s the mat
^sign has


and
ings,
that
paid
rial.
been


speciall grade of
and sufficiently


ned for cast iron


draw
d and
the exc
is and
and it
is not t
s until


stalled to


ngs have
movable,


tion of
ecifica-
antici-
e inten-
te work
better


CASTINGS


MADE


ON ISTHMUS.


In addition to the ironwork furnished from the 1
commission's foundry and shop at Gorgona has m
in accordance with the designs of this subdivisi
material: Four hundred and thirty-four tons of
seats. 656i tons of en.fst-irnn valv chamber lininmr


United States, the
ade or fabricated,
on, the following
cast-iron caisson
. nand 107 onn.a of






REPORT ISTHMIA CAOANAL COMMISSION.


LOCK GATES.


Before the end of the fiscal year 1909, general drawings of some of
the lock gates had been prepared, and a typical one was published
in the last annual report. During the fiscal year just passed, the
general drawings and the detailed drawings have been carried to
completion. This involved the preparation of six general drawings,
showing gate leaves of different heights, with the spacing of the
girders, the scantling of the parts and plates, the position of the
air chamber, and all the features wherein one leaf differs from another.
Twenty-nine detailed drawings were finished, giving the number and
arrangement of rivets, plates, and fillers, and showing where crimping,
forging, and coping is to be done. They also illustrate special details
such as manhole and shaft covers, ladders, pumping system, foot
walks, and movable hand railings. The weights of the different parts
have been calculated in detail, and specifications covering the entire
work have been prepared.
On April 16, 1910, proposals were invited by the general purchasing
officer for the lock gates for the entire canal. Bids were opened on
June 15. The lowest bidder was the McClintic-Marshall Construction
Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., whose prices were 3.785 cents per pound
for structural steel erected; 2.62 cents per pound for structure steel
not erected, and $5,374,474.82 for the entire work. The other bids
received were from the United States Steel Products Export Company,
$6,103,041.10; from the Maryland Steel Company, $8,409,369.31;
and from the Riter-Conley Manufacturing Company, $10,183,257.
Contract has been made with the McClintic-Marshall Construction


manyn, and the preliminary
vers the erection, complete,
r, or 92 leaves, and spare pai
ditional gate of two leaves
Arranged by heights the nu


work is now in progress. The contract
of all the gates in the canal, 46 in num-
rts sufficient for the construction of one
of the larger size.
mber of leaves will be as follows:


Heights.


82 feet.............
79 feet..............
77 feet.............
66 feet..............
64 feet 8 inches.....
47 feet 4 inches.....
Grand total..


Number of leaves.


Total.


4
16
48
4
8
12
92


Gatun.


1 1 1 1


* ft af a
32
* .-......
4
40


Pedro
Miguel.


S* * �. -
16
*- - - a -a * all
* a-l - a - - a
4
4
24


Mira-
flores.


4
*-r a * * --w
16
4
24
28


Co
co
CO
be
ad


]






CONSTRUCTION


AND ENGINEERING--FIRST DIVISION.


FIXED PARTS.

At the close of the fiscal year 1909 award for those parts pertaining
to the mitering gates, which are built into the masonry, such as the
anchorages, sill castings, quoin castings, etc., was pending, bids having
already been opened. On July 10, 1909, contract was closed with the
United Engineering and Foundry Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., for
furnishing these parts at various times during the two years following,
and delivery is now in progress, about 60 per cent of the material for
the first two locks having reached the Isthmus.


FLOATING CAISSON


GATES.


Preliminary studies have been made to determine the general out-
line of the caissons to be used for closing the head and tail bays of the
lock flights, and this work is still in hand.

CHAIN FENDERS.

As a protection to the gates in the upper and lower approaches of
each lock flight, and at those other points where the destruction of a
gate might open up connection between the two levels, it has been
determined to introduce a guard to the gate in the form of a chain
fender, which has been used for similar purposes in European locks
and was described briefly in the Annual Report for 1909. Studies
have been made during the last fiscal year of various types of machin-
ery for handling this chain and for providing the necessary resistance
to its paying out when struck by a vessel. Three of the most promis-
ing types have been worked up in considerable detail, and the design
is now proceeding on the basis of using a hydraulic cylinder for this
purpose. The design, however, has not been finally adopted and is
not sufficiently complete to warrant illustration in this report.

OPERATING MACHINERY.


This subdivision has been under the direct charge of Mr. Edward
Schildhauer, electrical and mechanical engineer, assisted by Mr. E. E.
Lee, assistant electrical and mechanical engineer, Messrs. C. B.
Larzelere, F. A. Browne, and F. C. Clark, assistant engineers, and the
necessary draftsmen. Mr. M. Nixon-Miller, assistant engineer, was
employed in this subdivision during part of the year.


STONEY VALVE MACHINERY.






REPORT


ISTHMIAN CANAL


COMMISSION.


end of the valve stem is carried by a crosshead actuated by two
vertical, revolving, nonrising screws, driven by reducing gear from
the horizontal shaft through a friction cut-off coupling by a 3-phase,
220-volt, 25-cycle induction motor. The motor is provided with a
solenoid brake in order that the revolving parts may be brought to
rest immediately after interruption of the ine current. The cross-
head is guided in its vertical travel by rollers running on rails em-
bedded in the concrete. Each revolving screw is provided with
double roller bearings at its upper end, from which it is suspended,
the bearing at the lower end serving simply to guide and hold the
screw, the weight being carried in suspension from the top.
The crosshead which lifts the valve stem actuates also the trains
of live rollers to which the valve when in action transmits the pres-
sure of the water, and on which it rolls when lifted. These roller
trains must rise with the gate, and at half its speed. To bring this
about with certainty, the upper end of each roller train is connected
to a vertical stem which passes through a stuffing box in the water-
tight bulkhead forming the bottom of the machinery chamber.
This stem is raised and lowered by a chain passing over three sheaves
and fastened to the crosshead, the arrangement of the sheaves being
such that the velocity of one end of the chain is just one-half the


. : !M
'IS.NI



i
. *'* I
* !M
\ 11
.1
!M
: 1
w
*3''
;/:
'l|i
*'*s
!M
S^
***I
li
'*:


velocity of the
The machine
auxiliary hand
machinery fail


other.
ry is arranged for either local or remote control, and
apparatus is provided for closing the gate should the


w hen it is in the


A limit switch is proj
in the travel of the cro
latitude in the down
stopping the crosshead
tion coupling is introdi
case of such overtravel.


)ose(
)sshe
ard
in c
uced


Ito
Sad,
mo
ase
to


raised position.
cut off the current at the proper point
the crosshead springs allowing some
tion, and chocks on the guide rails
of extreme upward travel. The fric-
prevent injury to the mechanism in


CYLINDRICAL


VALVE


MACHINERY.


During the last fiscal year the machinery for operating the cylin-
drical valves has been completed and approved. The valves them-
selves were described in the last annual re ort. The mechanism is
shown on drawing No. 6502. (PI. 81.) The movable drum of the
valve is connected by its cylindrical stem, rising vertically through
a shaft in the masonry, to the machinery placed in a recess, the bot-
tom of which is 8 feet below the coping level. The upper end of the
valve stem terminates in a tubular extension carrying a stationary
nut and passing through a stuffing box closing the upper end of the






CONSTRUCTION


AND


ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.


rise out of the nut and slide
feather key
There will be 120 of these
account of this large number t
mnatic as possible. When the
the lower part of the screw er
sion, below the nut, which is f
portion of the screw projectin1
vertical holes in the nut into
the nut. When the motion is


through


thrust


collar


on a long


machines in the six twin locks. On
he lubrication is made as nearly auto-
screw turns and the nut rises on it,


iters
illed
g int
the


a chamber i
with oil; the
o this chamb
extension of


1 the
oil d
er is
the


; reversed and the val


oil returns through the same holes into the chamber
as the latter descends on the screw.


LIMIT


tubular exten-
isplaced by the
forced through
chamber above
ve lowered, the
below the nut,


SWITCH.


A limit switch to govern the motion of the different machines and
cut off the current at the proper moment has been designed and will
be tried with the first machines purchased.

CONTRACTS.


In the six twin locks of the canal, there will be
for Stoney valves and 120 machines for cylindi
to try out the machinery as designed, before
number, specifications have been prepared for
class, with the option of extending the purcha
tional machines for the Stoney gates and 38 aa
the cylindrical valves. If the two first machir
satisfactory, the option may be exercised t
number, which will be sufficient for the install


and upper Gatun locks. Bids will be
machinery for the remaining four locks.
allow different prices to be named for th
for the larger number upon which the op


required
rical valv
purchase
two mac
se to inc
additional
ies of eac
) purcha
action at


asked later
The specificat
ie first sample
tLion is desired.


(
I1


116 machines
es. In order
ing this large
hinesof each
lude 46 addi-
machines for
Ih class prove
se the larger
Pedro Miguel
or the valve
ions as drawn
machines and


GATE-OPERATING


MACHINERY.


After studying all the best known types of machinery for mov
the gates, it has appeared that none could be counted upon to pr
satisfactory. The gate leaves are of so great size that more tl
usual care has to be exercised to regulate the force applied to the ]
in a manner approximately proportional to the resistance to
motion. The resistance is greatest when the leaf is near the 1
extremes of its path. i. e.. when near the mitered position, or


ing
ove
hian
leaf
its
two
the


:*�






REPORT ISTHMIAN t


CANAL


COMMISSION.


The


machinery


illustrated


on drawings


(Pis. 82 and 83.) The motion is imparted t(
zontal strut connected by a vertical pin to
gate leaf. The other end of the rigid strut
attached to a large horizontal gear wheel nea:
gear wheel is caused to turn by a pinion o
vertical axis, and actuated by a motor thr
reducing gear. As the large gear wheel is t
strut is practically that of a crank upon a co
in the direction of the strut approaches infirm
end of the stroke, at which time the motic
approaches zero. The rate of travel of the
from the beginning to a point just beyond
between the recess and the miter. After p
rate gradually diminishes until, just at mi
small.
The machine is capable of. exerting its gr
at the time when the resistance is the great
of the force, however, from minimum to ma
than the rate of increase of the resistance. ]
less torque will be required of the motor as
recess than later when the gate has attained
horizontal slit in the face of the lock wall in


)

r


Nos.


6206


and


6207


the leaf by a rigid hori-
the upper girder of the
is fitted to a crank pin
its circumference. The


r pinions revolving on a
ough a suitable train of
irned the effect upon the
nnecting rod. The force
rity at the beginning and
)n in the same direction
gate increases gradually
the middle of the path
passing its maximum, the
itering, it becomes very


eatest force on the strut
sst. The rate of increase
tximum, is much greater
[t follows, therefore, that
the gate moves from the
I its highest speed. The
which the strut moves is


i^:



"i

"i


placed with its lowest point about 6 inches above thehighest water
level in the lock. The chamber in which the large gear wheel revolves
will therefore not be actually flooded, except from some accidental
cause. It is nevertheless liable to be kept continually wet by the
action of the waves occasioned by vessels entering or leaving the
lock and by the gates in opening and closing. For this reason the
chamber in which the motor operates is separated from the chamber
containing the gear by a water-tight diaphragm, the motor shaft
passing through a stuffing box in this diap hragm. The effect of the
water on the main gear wheel and pinions will not be injurious to any
great extent. There are many cases in which similar mechanism for
operating the gates and valves of locks is kept continuously under
water. Drainage is provided to get rid of the small amount of water
entering the chamber.


LOCKING DEVICE.


It has been thought desirable to provide on the gate leaves a
tive lock which will hold them together against wave action, a
the same time it has seemed possible to combine with this l


device which


tend to force


the gates to meet perfectly


a


posi-
ndat
ock a
t the






CONSTRUCTION


AND1T ENGINEERING---FIRST DIVISION.


must be in perfect miter at
crosshead is of considerable
to be sufficient to force the
is a new one and will be
applied.


the top. The motor which
power and the grip of the jaw
leaves into perfect contact.
tried carefully before being


actuates the
s is designed
The device
extensively


MACHINERY


FOR


SPILLWAY


GATES.


The general plan of the machinery to be used in raising and lo
ing the Stoney crest gates on the spillways has been prepared
is shown on drawing No. 6706. (P . 92.) It will be mounted
tunnel in the main body of the spillway dam, each gate having
separate motor and counterweights. The object of placing
machinery in the tunnel is to protect the parts of the machinery
the counterweights, and at the same time to obviate the inst
tion of cumbersome and heavy material on the footbridge, w


wer-
and
in a
g its
the
and
alla-
'hich


extends over the gates.
Briefly described, the
vertically, one from ea
immediately beneath ti


4,
which the gat
descending br
lower end of
the chain and
ing nut which
equipped with
tica thrust in
end chain, are
worms forming
and in the ph
the motor tur
spending verti


exactly the s
themselves c
travel in gui
diminish the
46 by 19 feet
which the ga
provided to
roller trains 1
ing at the sa
its speed. T
a sheave, th
its top and t


e rises
anch of


machinery


ch
he


and
the


end
foot


falls.
chai


which hangs a
the counterweigi
forms the hub 4


is as follows:


of the gate, ov
way at the mas
After passing
n is made fast t
counterweight.
ft the screw pass
f a worm wheel


double thrust bearings and is cap
either direction. The two worm


actuated,


th
ine


ie ends
of the
both t
screws


one by a right and o
of the shaft of a mote
middle of the gate
he worm wheels revo
to travel both in the


ne
ri
wh
lv
s


T


er sh
;onry
over
o a s
Betw
esth
; the


abl
wh
by
pla
ich
e, c
mi


e
ee


1


wo chains pass
eaves mounted
piers between
the sheave the
,crew, from the
-een the end of
rough a revolv-
worm wheel is
of taking a ver-
ls, one for each


a left worm, the
ced in the tunnel,
Sit operates. As
uii


I


at


d
d


ame rate, thus raising or lowering the gal
an not turn, being held by the counter
des. The effect of the counterweights i
power necessary to move the gate. TI
, and weighs approximately 43 tons. As
utes operate may reach 18 feet, trains of
limimnsh the friction against the side cast.
Lhe gate rolls in its up-and-down travel,
me time in the sanie direction as the gat
'he roller trains are suspended by a chain
e dead end of the chain being fastened t
he live end to the gate itself. When th
1 1 C . i 1i **


sing the corre-
lirection and at
te. The screws
weights, which
s, of course, to
he gate itself is
the head under
live rollers are
ings. On these
the trains mov-
e and with half
passing around
o the pier near
e gate is raised
i i 1 * 11t


Se I * .


f |


v






REPORT ISTEMIAMI


CAfAL ~COMMISSI ON.


from contact with the downstream face of the gate. At this point
in the upward travel the lower sheave engages and is held by a bracket
in the masonry pier while the upper one continues to rise with the
gate. The chain between the sheaves is therefore drawn out and the
speed of motion of the roller train correspondingly increased, so that
at the end of the travel the bottom of the gate and the bottom of
the roller train will be at the same elevation and the train will be
protected from accident.


TOWING


DEVICES.


The study
the locks- has
drawn up for
work satisfac


of the method of moving the vessels into and
been continued during the year, and a design h
an electric locomotive which it is thought will
torily. The design, as at present adopted, is


as been
do the
shown


on drawing No. 6806 (P1. 85), which gives a general view of 1
machine, for which the detailed drawings are now being made.
It is the intention to tow vessels through the locks, using
number of these locomotives, varying with the size of the ves,
the typical case requiring four locomotives, two ahead, one on e
wall, imparting motion to the vessel, and two astern, one on e
wall, to aid in keeping the vessel in a central, position and to br
it to rest when entirely within the lock chamber. When pass
the vessels up through the locks, while the water levels are be
equalized, the forward locomotives will advance up the incline
the lock walls to the level of the next lock chamber and will not
required to exert towing effort while on these inclines. As will
seen from the drawing, the electric locomotive consists of th


distinct elements. Two of these, the
mounted upon rigid four-wheel trucks
by an independent motor controlled fi


ery.
univ
and


The


third element is connected


ersal joints and is equipped with
hawser. The line can, therefore


the windlass, thus
ship and locomotive,
actuall motion of the
this is eminently desi
or in changing the le:
locomotive ascends tl
the two locks are ec
For general purposes
its tractive effort fro


)ermitting
and a pull
locomotive


ira
ng
he

)m


ble
:th


, especially
of the towl


incline to t
alizing and
however, in
Sone of the


* S" � -**T


he

'a
sel;
Lch
ach
ing
ing
uig
of
be
be
ree


front and rear elements, are
, each one of which is driven
rom either end of the machin-
with the tractive elements by
a slip drum towing windlass
, be taken in or paid out by
ig the distance between the
)e exerted or relieved without
the track. The ability to do
in bringing the vessel to rest
ine, as, for instance, when the
next lock, while the levels in
s vessel necessarily stationary.
)wing, the locomotive derives
id elements, through a pinion
I A 1


I
I


[






CONSTRUCTION


AND


ENGINEERING--FIRST DIVISION.


maximum pull on
force a friction co
racks are provided
level portion of the
on the side rails.


the towline is fixed at 25,000
upling will relieve further sir
only on the towing tracks and
return tracks the locomotive is


pounds, a
am. The
inclines.
driven by


t which
central
On the
friction


MACHINERY


FOR


WICKETS


AND


GIRDERS


OF MOVABLE


DAMS.


Studies have been made for raising and lowering the wicket girders
and wickets of the movable dams, and the general plan will soon be
ready for action.


LAYOUT


OF CIRCUITS.


Much study has been given to the method and arrangement of.
the light, power, signal, and control circuits for operating the locks.
A tentative, general method and scheme has been presented, and
certain of the details which affect the masonry now under construc-
tion have been approved. The system is so extensive, however,
that it is desired to give further study to the general plan before its
final adoption. The features already provided include a continuous
tunnel running the full length of each wall with a continuous con-
duit s pace below its floor. Connections between the walls of the locks
are o obtained through vertical cable shafts and tunnels under the
lock floors. All cable manholes and junction boxes, as well as all
stationary machines and transformers or power centers will be on
the level of the floor of this tunnel and accessible from it. Drawing
No. 6115 (P1. 86) gives an idea of the number of machines. The
. adoption of the tunnel with concealed conduit space permits placing
the machines below the coping level while still retaining easy com-
munication with all of them. It thus leaves the coping free from
machines and other obstructions, reduces to a minimum the number
of manholes in the coning and avoids tearing un the masonry in the


future if additional duct space
duit space in the operating tu
eral scheme of the control and
during the year, but is not yet
is to operate all the gates and
centra point, this point to be
the twin locks and probably a
each flight. The operating ro
showing the position of each
levels in each one of the pools
to interlock the system that ti


should be required. Below the con-
nnel is a drainage tunnel. The gen-
interlocking system has been studied
complete. The basic idea, however,
valves and other apparatus from one
a tower situated on the wall between
t the lower end of the upper lock in
om will be provided with indicators
one of the machines, and the water


under its control.
he operations must


It is
take


intended so
place in the






kEPOkT ISTHMIAN


bine base condenser generators,
horsepower water-tube boilers, ar
Gatun the substation equipment,
one 300-kilowatt, 500-volt rotary
room. At Miraflores only the
central station, the two 500-voll
field station. The boilers use
installed in duplicate.


OAHAL


dCMMxhI6IO.


provided with steam by six
ranged in batteries of two each.
, consisting of two 500-kilowatt
converters, is located in the tur
300-volt converter is placed in
Converters being temporarily
fuel oil, the supply system b


400-
At
and
bine
the
in a
being


MISCELLANEOUS.


Considerable time has been given to the study of fr<
at Balboa wharf, plans for which were embodied in a rej
mittee appointed by the chairman.
Designs have been made of a cement unloader to be
by the Panama Railroad Company. One of the mac
built in the shops at Gorgona and will soon be ready
This design was made in connection with the report o
appointed by the chairman.


MOVABLE


eight handling
port by a cornm-


used at Colon
hines is being
for operation.
f a committee


DAMS.


A>


This subdivision is under the immediate charge of Mr. T. B. Mon-
niche, designing engineer, assisted by Mr. C. Derrick and Mr. F. H.
Moore, assistant engineers, and the necessary draftsmen.


DAMS


AT GATUN


AND


PEDRO


MIGUEL.


Before the beginning (
movable dams, as illustr
pared. During the last
details have been comply
structural work and the
such progress that it is
months. Sixty-one final
the year, and a draft of
the turning and wedgin
eral plan of the movable
illustrated in drawing N
The structural work
into the following unit
girders, and rolling gat


of the fiscal year the preliminary design of
ated in the last annual report, had been t
fiscal year studies and lay-out plans of
leted, and the final contract drawings of
turning and wedging machinery have m
hoped to advertise the work within a
l contract drawings have been made du
the specifications for the structural work
g machinery have been prepared. The g
e dams for Gatun and Pedro Miguel lock
o. 5504. (Pl. 87.)
for each dam may be conveniently divi
s: Vertical trusses, horizontal truss, wic
es. with the necessary bracing between


/


same.
'TbA Trnr^/nnl +'r1clcncii era nVA 1-it a\/ nonT+ila'cra


*6' C


4f- .n*^* 2l ~ f> 4- L - -__ _


the
pre-
the
the
ade
few
'ing
and
Sen-
:s is


ded
Sket
the


- a J^-I - a I Jaf nMff^


| IIl/ U .I.. g r. *I**a-a Ul/uI | *I -**I






CONSTRUCTION


AND ENGINEERING--FIRST DIVISION.


s part of the span being
, subpanels are introduce
riveted members and co


tical posts of this system are submnembe
alike, simplifying all members connectii
used for the top chord members over t
and continued to the far end of the coi
of the bars on either side of the center p
that the reactions on the two center cr
The horizontal truss is of the Warrei
and riveted joints throughout. It can
in place, being supported at frequent
booms. At each panel point of the co
braced in horizontal and vertical planes,
wicket girders fit and are pivoted on h
The wicket girders are adapted to
rough usage of any character to which 1


lowering into a swift current.
being rigidly connected by ch
outside surface to the water,
same. Large holes in both


The
anne
with
webs


y


ar


limited by the spacing of the
3d and the Warren system of
nnections, is used. The ver-
rs, and can therefore be made
ng to the same. Eye bars are
he center portion of the truss


unterweighl
ost are diffe
'oss girders
1 type with
ies no load


Sarm.
rent, an
will be
subdiv
before


intervals to the o
impression chord is
in which the upper
orizontal pins.
resist torsion, side
they might be subji
e of box section, th


The
d so
equ
ided
the


slopes
chosen
al.
panels
dam is


verhanging
a bracket,
ends of the


forces, or
ected while
e two webs


il stiffeners, and present a smooth
L a minimum exposed area to the
provide drainage and access for


painting the interior surfaces. The girders are connected in pairs by
a system of lateral bracing in the plane of the top flaige. This brac-
ing presents only a small area to the current and is omitted in the
lower panel. The lower ends permit of considerable vertical motion
relative to each other, which might be required in the event of striking
some obstruction in the pockets or of unequal action of the lowering
tackle attached to each girder. The crane rail, which is riveted
directly on the top flange, carries its proportion of the flange stress
and transfers the loads from the wheels of the rolling gates into the
girders without eccentricity and secondary stresses.
The rolling gates are frames consisting of structural beams covered
with buckle plates and supported by flanged wheels turning on roller
bearings. When these wheels are brought in position on the top
flange of the wicket girders, Z-bar guides engage under the outer side
of the head of each rail and prevent uplift of the gates, while the
flanges of the wheels prevent lateral displacement. The upper and
lower edges of each gate are wedge shaped and formed by a bent
plate filled with concrete. The bevel of adjacent edges being in the
same direction, they can be brought to a close contact when the gates
are in final position, and prevent any tendency of the ends to spring
out from the rails. Great care has been used to reduce friction and
the possibility of binding or sticking as the gates are being lowered


lengths for thi
wicket girders
bracing, with




IA I A AAhAhI~


REPORT ISTHMlAN


CAIALCOMMISSION,


To reduce the weight on the center pivot and to re
tions of structural members to medium thicknesses, it
to make the vertical trusses, horizontal truss, and wic
nickel steel. The. gates and bracing connecting the o
the dam are to be of carbon steel.
The general plans of the turning and wedging machine
in drawings Nos. 5529, 5531, 5534, and 5535. (Pis. 88
91.)
Before any attempt can be made to turn the dam
balanced about its center pivot while swinging. Ba
structure about its longitudminal axis will be attained b
machinery for operating the wicket girders and that
the gates as near their proper location min regard to this a
cable and then shifting the gates on the floor beams.
create block at the extreme end of the short arm giv
balance. This block is provided with pockets and the
meant will be made by placing a proper amount of pig
Dockets. In order to reduce the size of the concrete b


I--------------


load on the center pivot the turning machinery is ic
extreme end of the short arm, thus forming a part of
weight.
The whole structure is turned about its center pivot


duce the see-
; is proposed
ket girders of
other units of


my are shown
, 89, 90, and


, it must be
*lance of the
y placing the
for operating
ixis as practi-
A large con-
es transverse
final adjust-
iron in these
lock and the
)cated at the
the counter-


by means of


two main pinions that are geared with a rack quadrant. These
pinions are connected to two motors by two separate trains of spur
gears and one equalizer gear, the latter being directly in mesh with
the motor pinions.
On account of the great resistances to be overcome in turning the
structure, and in order to reduce the force required for performing this
work, and the size of the two main pinions, the radius of the rack
quadrant has been made as large as conditions will allow.
The two main pinions are shrouded on their upper sides and the
teeth are of special design in order to increase their strength. The
equalizer gear serves the purpose of equalizing the tooth pressure of
the main pinions upon the rack due to imperfection in size of the teeth
of the rack.
The two motors for turning the dam have each a capacity of 112


horsepower


. They are reversible, open motors, furnished with sole-


noid brakes. Each motor can be operated by its own controller and
is so connected that either controller can be used to operate either
or both motors. Ordinarily both motors will be used in turning the
dam, but each will be of sufficient capacity to turn the dam inde-
pendently. A limit switch is connected to the motors to cut off
the current when the end of the long arm of the dam is near the closed





CONSTRUCTION


AND ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.


of one worm and one worm gear, the latter connected to two separate
trains of spur gears, each driving one wedge by means of a double
toggle joint. The machines at both ends are connected to the motor
by a line shaft and by one reduction of spur gears.
For the purpose of centering and of locking the dam while in closed
or in open position, the dam has been provided with an end latch at
the long arm. This latch is operated in accordance with ordinary
drawbridge practice simultaneously with driving or releasing wedges.
Electric current will ordinarily be used to operate all machinery
located on the dam and will be obtained from underground cables
coming to the surface at the center casting; but in all cases provision
is made for hand power. All motors and electrical equipment have
been designed for alternating current, 25-cycle, 3-phase, and 220 volts,
delivered at the switchboard.
DAM AT MIRAFLORES.


Owing to the fact that the level of Miraflores Lake is practically
stationary, while that of Gatun may vary within considerable limits,
the depth of water in the forebay in the Miraflores Lake is 8 feet less
than the maximum depth in the forebays at Gatun and Pedro Miguel.
It follows that it has been necessary to prepare a special design for
the Miraflores movable dam, owing to the shorter length of the wicket
girders which it will carry. Before being able to prepare this design
careful investigations had to be made of the balance of the dam with
respect to its longitudinal axis when swinging. As a result of these
investigations it has been found possible to duplicate many features
of the Gatun and Pedro Miguel dams at Mirafores, using, however,
shorter wicket girders and four sets of lowering gates instead of five,
reducing also the width of the horizontal truss to correspond with the
shortened wicket girders and reducing the section of the members of
the vertical trusses.


SPILLWAYS.


This subdivision is under charge of Mr. E. C. Sherman,
engineer, with two draftsmen.
The spillway dams to be built will be two in number-one
capable of passing the maximum continued discharge of th
River, estimated at 137,500 cubic foot-seconds, and the
Miraflores, capable of passing the estimated discharge from I
Lake level through one of the twin locks at Pedro Miguel s
gates of the latter be carried completely away. The dis
estimated at 90,000 cubic foot-seconds.


designing


at Gatun,
e Chagres
other at
the Gatun
should the
charge is






REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


the same length. The general design, shown on drawings Nos. 4010
and 4020 (PIs. 93 and 94), which has been adopted for the Gaitn
spillway, obtains the necessary development of crest by throwing the
trace of the dam into a circular arc. By this form the discharge is
directed toward the center, where the energy of the convert ing
stream will partially neutralize itself. To complete the neutraliza-
tion, two rows of baffle piers are to be placed on arcs of circles concentric
with the crest of the dam, the upper one being about* 140 feet below
the crest. These baffle piers are to be of concrete, faced on the up-
stream side with cast-iron plates, and project about 10 feet above the
surface of the apron. The dam has what is commonly called an
ogeee section," made up of a parabola, a short tangent, and an arc
of a circle leading to the flat apron below the dam. The parabola is
such that when the stream of water flowing over the crest is 6 feet or
more in thickness the nappe will adhere to the downstream face of
the dam. The crest of the dam is divided into fourteen bays 45 feet
wide by thirteen piers and the two abutments. Between consecutive
piers Stoney gates will be placed, rising on trains of live rollers, which
move on castings set in grooves in the piers. These gates are illus-
trated in drawing No. 7400 (PI. 77), accompanying the report of the
masonry subdivision of this office. The sill of the gates, which forms
the crest of the fixed part of the dam, is at elevation +69, or 16 feet
below the normal level of the lake, which is assumed at +85. The
highest level to which it is intended to allow the lake to rise is +87,
and at this level it will probably be maintained continuously through-
out the wet season in future years when the traffic shall require the
maximum possibilities. It is not intended to allow it to rise above
+87 at Gatun. It is, nevertheless, possible that sudden floods in the
Chagres coming at a time when the lake is at its high level may pro-
duce levels somewhat higher by backing up in the Culebra cut. The
effect of such a moderate increase, up to, say, +90, would not be
serious, but might flood the machinery pits of the upper gate-
operating mechanism at the Pedro Miguel lock. The machines
would work well enough when under water, and the conditions would
be only temporary.
With lake at elevation + 87, one bay of the crest gates when fully
opened will discharge about 11,000 cubic foot-seconds, and all fourteen
will therefore discharge about 154,000 cubic foot-seconds. This is
more than the maximum known discharge of the Chagres River
continued during a period of thirty-three hours, which is 137,500
cubic foot-seconds at Gatun. As a reserve, there are available the
lock culverts at Gatun and Pedro Miguel, which together would dis-
charge about 40,000 cubic foot-seconds at the same lake level.


"-.5- -


*... .- -_ 1 1 . _ . . . . . 1_ i


X 1





CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.


feet per second, without counting the reserve discharge capacity of
the lock culverts. It is apparent, therefore, that the means provided
are ample to hold control of any possible flood, and even to allow for
negligence and delay in operation.
When the gates of the spillway are fully raised, the bottom is at
elevation +92. As the surface of the water must acquire a consider-
able slope before passing under the gate, there will be, with the main
lake surface at +87, a distance of about 7 feet between the surface
of the flowing water and the lowest element of the gate. This space
is considered sufficient to allow the passage of any drift which is to
be expected at the dam. Precautions may have to be taken in the


prevent the run
be very large,
at most drift
i the lake area


dam, or at the worst
such low velocity thai
ing above the dam.
passing drift have be
As it is necessary
escape of the Chagres
across its natural cha
way dam will be one
and special means wil
in the face of the wat
year the foundation
and the other chann


now going through t
the foundations of ti
16 to 20 feet above se
of the spillway dam
rushing river which
10,000 cubic foot-se


e

,n
ot


l
11
(G
0
a]


hei
a-
wi
ii
c(


Sof heavy drift. However, inasmuch,
and the current in it extremely gentle,
coming down from the upper Chagres
will be stranded before it reaches the


will approach in such small quantity and at
it can be readily handled by small tugs operat-
For these reasons no special provisions for
n made in the design.
o use the spillway channel as a weir, for the
River during the construction of the main dam
nels, the construction of the body of the spill-
of the last parts of the work to be completed,
have to be provided to permit its construction
r rising in Gatun Lake. During the past fiscal
f the dam has been placed at elevation +10,
.s have been shut off. The river discharge is
Spillway, the lake having been backed up by
Sdam so that its surface now stands at from
level. At the place, therefore, where the body
ill eventually have to be placed, there is now a
i the wet season carries an average of about
nds. and in the dry season an average of


about 3,000 cubic foot-seconds. To pe
water when it is desired to construct this m
built projecting upward above low water fro
site of the upstream face, and about 20 fee
piers stop plank can be placed and the conc
section of the coffer-dam thus formed. In
Operation will be the installation of four lo
them regulated by Stoney valves, and the
valve, all exactly like those to be used in t
will be installed probably during the next


;n +olla+.; an/^TiQ tha 0kb0i


"na-n t- -ionr-u-n


rmit shutting off
ain dam, piers have
m the foundation, o
t apart. Between
rete laid behind the


the meanwhile,
w level culverts,


the
been
n the
these
Spro-


the first
three of


fourth by a cylindrical
he locks. These culverts
dry season. To permit
,Pr n' fth,. m rnnlohi rno'rtc?


lake above to p
as the lake wil
it is believed t
or originating i


*w


It






64 REPORT ISTHMIAN

will then be filled with concrete.
installed under the shelter of cais
their rooves, and the flow will
of the dam.
During the past year the walls
way have been designed, the gen
the details of the piers and mbu
the low-level culvert gates and
lake regulation; and design ma
the masonry. A total of thirty


necessitating many calculations,


CANAL COMMISSION.

The remaining crest gates will be
sons placed between the piers above
thereafter take place over the r

of the approach channel to the spi-..........


SLeral drawings of the work prepared
tments drawn and layout made ot
operating mnachinery for tMibrarv
te of the metal work to be built intom
detail drawings have been prepared,
studies, and estimates.


tOnm


might b


behavior of the water when flowing over
tion, a model to a scale of one-thirty-s
placed where a discharge of reasonably
assured. The effect the baffle piers in
water, and the rise of the waves on the
the model, correspond very closely to th


e without gre
a weir of this
second was c(
constant vo
checking thn
channel wall!
e figures whi


at expense, the
space and -
)nstructed
lume could be
Energy of the
s as own
ch calculations


ha prevous y given * v '*.|'s"^ssi^
had previously gven. It is recogmzed, however, that the eflecL
the small volume of water flowing over the small scale model is nof a
reliable indication of the effect of the enormous volume which will
. � ( -
flow over the Gatun spillway at high lake level. The behavior of t
baffle piers when exposed to the illflow is a matter which will be
most interesting, and about which doubts may be entertained. T
photographs accompanying this report illustrate the model under
discharge. (Pis. 1 and 2.)
MIRAFLOlES SPILLWAY.

As stated above, the Miraflores spillway will ba designed to. pass
about 90,000 cubic foot-secondsmisted of th omparativelyin
nificant amount which flows into the Miraores laie from the watL
shed tributary to it. For obvious reasons it has been thought desi
able to use exactly the same gates and other details at Miraflores as
Gatun. Owm however, to the smaller discharge requirements,
development crestwillnot be so great and it will undoubtedly e
found practicable, in the space available, to lay out the dam
straight crest. A general plan has been prepared and is now unde
consideration, but, owing to the fact that certain of its features have
ntytbe deiitely fx
not yet been definitely ixed, no illustration of it accompanies
report.


A .a - - m _ _n -#r a^. hs iiii-m n


In order to ascertain, as well as


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4 ~4
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I
IC
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a'
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tz


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aft,.

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w
4
2
w
fr:
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a
ii J 0
9 Li~
0
w
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PLATE 2.


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APPENDIX


REPORT OF IIEUT. COL. H. F. HODGES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS,
U. S. ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER, IN CHARGE OF THE FIRST
DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER, RELA-
TIVE TO THE ADVISABILITY OF USING INTERMEDIATE GATES
IN THE LOCKS OF THE PANAMA CANAL.


OFFICE


OF THE


ISTHMIAN
CHIEF EN
Culebra,


CANAL
INEER
Canal


COMr
, FIRS
Zone,


Sm: In arriving at a final decision as to the ai
intermediate gates in the locks of the Panama
necessary to give extended study to the water leave
depths in the locks which would result from using
ent sizes. I have the honor to submit the res


MISSION,
T DIVISION,
August 15, 1910.
disability of using
Canal, it has been
ils, lifts, and critical
chambers of differ-
ults of this study,


which form the basis for certain features of the design adopted for
the locks. In an appendix will be found the calculations on which
the results are founded.
It will be remembered that in the present design the upper locks
at Gatun and at Miraflores and the Jock at Pedro Miguel have, in
each of the twin chambers, two gates at the head, 'two gates at the
foot, and an intermediate gate separating the chambers into two
parts.. The intermediate gate is also introduced in the lower locks
of the Gatun flight, but is not present in the lower Miraflores lock.
The drawing, No. 5001 (PI. 95), accompanying shows the dimen-
sions of the chambers available between the different gates as limited
by the fender chains and the quoins above. The drawing also shows
that the lower locks differ in length from the upper locks, owing to
the fact that the extra pairs of gates and the fender chains are not
provided except in the upper locks, the guiding principle having been
to guard specially only the approaches of the system and those
interior points where an accident may lead to a connection between
the water levels above and below. With the present arrangement,
all such vital points will be thus guarded. At other points, collision
with the gates, while it may result in serious damage to the latter,
can not mean danger to the whole structure of the locks. It has been


considered that the duplication of the locks provides adeau


ate relief





REPORT ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


LOOK


FLIGHT


AT GATUN.


In the appendix
at 0, the lifts in t
feet from the upp
to the lower lock
The area of the u]
prism taken from
3,543,000 cubic fe
lift for the 1,000-
ranges between +
with the lake at +
to the middle lock
with the lake at


it is shown


ie flight of the 1,
er to the middle
, and 29.28 feet


ppe;
th
et.
fool
87
87
: lS
b82


that with the lake at + 85 and


I


r 1,000-foot lo
e upper level
This prism
t locks of the
and +82, the
and the sea at
27.38 feet. '
and the sea


300-foot loc
lock, 29.28
from the 1
ck being 13
when the
is taken as


'1


aksa
feel
ower
14,00
full
the


Gatun flight
maximum
-1, when t
ae smallest r
t +1, when


between the upper and middle lock. Whe
the sea at -1, the least draft is 41.18 feet.
be allowed to drop to +80, the minimum
be 39.80 feet.


The above data refer to the
prism used when locking with t
a large ship lying with its sten
of upper gates and its stem close
gates. This will be necessary
largest vessels which can be pi
of similar craft the space bet5


chair
It is
one o
foot I
times
and
gates
lock'
lock
before
28.02
midd
sea.
feet.
39.64


i is available, and both pa
therefore only in case of
)f the largest possible vesse]
lock," requiring the largest
3, both for all lockages of
for upstream blockages of ti
may be kept closed, and
' may be called into play.
is 123,000 square feet, the
*e. The normal lift, with


efe
le
T
fe
Sfe


et
to
he
'he
;et


from the
the lower
lockage p
minimum
over the 1


er to


nthe
If1
dept


U.
ris
tol
)ril
th
la
the
h


the sea


t Gatun are 26.44
From the middle
lock to the sea.
0 square feet, the
length is used is
normal prism of
Considering lake
m of lift is found
ift from the upper
sm of lift is found
e lift is 25.20 feet
ke is at +82 and


lake
at low


level should


r tide


would


1,000-foot lock only; that is, to the
he lower pair of upper gates open and
n in the space between the two pairs
ie to the fender chain above the lower
only in downbound lockages of the
passed, since in the upstream lockages
vween the lower gates and the fender
irs of upper gates can be kept closed.
the downstream blockages, in passing
ls, that what we may term the 1,000-
prism of lift, need be used. At other
vessels not more than 900 feet long
he largest vessels, both pairs of upper
what may be termed the "900-foot
. In this case the area of the upper
area of the lower locks remaining as
the lake at +85 and the sea at 0, is


middle


and 28.49


feet fi


lock; 28.49 feet fri
tom the lower lock


rism under these conditions
draft, with the lake at +82
ower sill of the upper lock.


3


is 3,446,000
and sea at
With lake a


m the
to the
cubic
-1, is
t +80


and sea at -1, it is 38.30 feet. With the lake at +85 and sea at
0, the critical depth is 41.98 feet. It should be remembered that
this depth occurs at the lower sill of the upper or middle lock and
I--1 1 I 1 S & U, J* 1






CONSTRUCTION


AND ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION.


The water supply available for Gatun Lake is sufficient during the
wet season, or for about eight months of the year, for a traffic very
much greater than time will allow, and during the four months' dry
season of average discharge there will alsobean ample supply of
water, no matter how great the traffic may become. It has, how-
ever, been questioned whether, during seasons of exceptional dry-
ness, there may not, for pa-t of the time, be a scarcity of water
for lockages. For this reason, as well as to hasten in some degree
the rapidity of lockage, it has been thought desirable to incorporate
into the design certain features permitting economy of water when
necessary.
Before presenting the following description of these features of the
design, I wish to express the opinion that their use, purely for saving
water, will not be necessary for many years and possibly never; first,
because the water supply will be sufficient for any traffic except in
most unfavorable seasons, which occur only rarely, and, second,
because even in such exceptional seasons economy of water will be
necessary only with a traffic so large that it is not reasonably to be
expected for a long time, if at all. Nevertheless, convenience may
dictate the use of these features of the design even when no reason
exists for economizing water.
In the report of the board of consulting engineers of 1905, paae 75,
it is stated that at Gatun, where there are three locks in a fight,
intermediate gates would be omitted, as they would not furnish the
same advantage in saving water as they would at the other locks.
After the report of the board was rendered, General Abbot, in talking
the matter over with the writer, stated that saving could be made
by using intermediate gates in the three-lift flight, and he was right.
In the appendix will be found a discussion and demonstration of this
fact. The analysis of the situation proves that, with locks divided
as proposed into chambers having 350 and 550 feet of useful length,
a saving of about one-third of the lockage water can always be made,
without loss in depth, by using the 550-foot chamber for downbound
vessels, and that an interruption of the series of 550-foot down-
lockages, by the arrival of a vessel requiring "a larger lock, nullifies
none of the saving already made. In upbound lockages the 550-
foot lock can also be used with similar saving and without loss of
draft. If, however, the series of 550-foot lockages going upstream
be interrupted by the use of the larger locks, a part or the whole of
the saving due to one of the previous lockages may be nullified. If
the vessel causing the interruption draws less than 37.35 feet, it can
be passed at the normal stage bv drawing frnm tho unn er oonl a


prism only slightly greater than would be drawn i
I -- � - .. .1 I A Sf ^ i *


n an
-w


ordmary large




-

A8 REPORT ISTHMIA CANAL COMMISSION.


*W N- -


square feet.
at 0, the li
locks 28.56


Fo:
t of
feet.


2,300,000 cubic i


is 42.12 feet.
used in the 1,
foot lockage.
-1, is 39.76
38.42 feet.
a considerable
this lock for


T.
000
T]
fee
The


* - - - - - -' -: - - .~-- -
r the normal conditions with lake at +85 andas
the upper lock is 27.88 feet, and of the two lower
The prism of lift under, these conditions is, say,
feet, and the least draft under the same conditions
he water used is therefore only 67 per cent of'that
-foot lockage, or 70 per cent of that used in the 900-
he least draft, with the lake at +82 and the sea at


t


, and with th
350-foot lock


e number of vessel
downbound vesse


e lake at
may also
s. There i
Is. the am


+80 and sea at -1, it is
be used to advantage for
s always a saving in using
mount of water used being


less than that for a 550-foot lockage, even though the flight be made
ready immediately afterwards for a larger boat. There is no gain
and no loss in using the 350-foot lock for a single u bound vessel
followed immediately by one requiring a larger lock. If two or
more small vessels upbound follow each other, there is a considerable
saving of water by using the 350-foot lock. It should be noted that
with a fender chain above the intermediate gates in the upper lock
it is possible to pass vessels of length up to 358 feet bound upstream
by using only the chamber between the intermediate gates and the
lower set of upper gates, while to pass vessels between 278 and 358
feet long, going downstream it would be necessary to leave the lower
set of upper gates open, letting the stern project into the space
between the lower and upper set of upper gates. In this way the
upbound lockage for the 350-foot lock takes less water than does the
downbound lockage, in case of the largest vessels which are capable
of using this lock. As will be seen in the appendix, the theoretical
prism of lift-i. e., the prism which would result from a long series
of small vessels following each other-is only 804,000 cubic feet, and
the reasonably probable average prism at mean stage is 1,181,000
cubic feet, or about 30 per cent of the 1,000-foot lockage prism, and
about 58 per cent of the 550-foot lockage prism. It is seen, therefore,
that the presence of the intermediate gates in the Gatun flight
makes possible a considerable saving in water without corresponding
reduction in draft.
There is still another method of saving available, due to that
feature of the design of the locks which permits passing water from
one lock to its twin through the middle wall. The analysis given in
the appendix proves that at Gatun there is a possible saving, due to
this maneuver, of 24 per cent, with a limiting depth of 29.66 feet at
normal levels, and that a saving of 8 per cent can practically always
be made in the 1,000-foot locks with a least depth at normal levels of
34.45 feet. A similar nercentare of saving can be effected by cross


]