• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Map showing Isthmus with completed...
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Report of the chairman and chief...
 Appendix A: Report of the assistant...
 Appendix B: Report of the division...
 Appendix C: Report of the division...
 Appendix D: Report of the division...
 Appendix E: Report of the...
 Appendix F: Report of the assistant...
 Appendix G: Report of the superintendent,...
 Appendix H: Report of the chief...
 Appendix I: Report of cost-keeping...
 Appendix J: Report of the chief...
 Appendix K: Report of the subsistence...
 Appendix L: Report of the examiner...
 Appendix M: Report of the disbursing...
 Appendix N: Report of the head...
 Appendix O: Report of the head...
 Appendix P: Report of the chief...
 Appendix Q: Report of the superintendent...
 Appendix R: Report of the general...
 Appendix S: Tables showing increases...
 Appendix T: Acts of Congress affecting...
 Appendix U: Charts showing organization...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Title: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097363/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ..
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended .. ( 1914 )
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill., maps (some col., folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.)
Publisher: United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: 1912
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Canals, Interoceanic -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Navigation -- Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Dec. 1, 1905-June 30, 1914.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. for 1905-1906 report year ends Dec. 1; vol. for 1907-1914 fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note: Reports for <1909/10-1911/12> each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.
General Note: Vol. for 1913/14 contain also the report of the governor of the Canal Zone.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097363
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07782320
lccn - sn 86045158
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ...

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Map showing Isthmus with completed Canal
        Map
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    List of Illustrations
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    Report of the chairman and chief engineer
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    Appendix A: Report of the assistant chief engineer in charge of first division of the office of the chief engineer
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    Appendix B: Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division
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    Appendix C: Report of the division engineer, central division
        Page 143
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    Appendix D: Report of the division engineer, Pacific division
        Page 171
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    Appendix E: Report of the geologist
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    Appendix F: Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the office of the chief engineer
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    Appendix G: Report of the superintendent, mechanical division, department of construction and engineering
        Page 269
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    Appendix H: Report of the chief engineer, Panama Railroad relocation
        Page 281
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    Appendix I: Report of cost-keeping accountant
        Page 293
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    Appendix J: Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of quartermaster’s department
        Page 377
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    Appendix K: Report of the subsistence officer in charge of subsistence department
        Page 395
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    Appendix L: Report of the examiner of accounts
        Page 407
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    Appendix M: Report of the disbursing officer
        Page 453
        Page 454
    Appendix N: Report of the head of the department of civil administration
        Page 455
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    Appendix O: Report of the head of the department of law
        Page 515
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    Appendix P: Report of the chief sanitary officer, head of the department of sanitation
        Page 529
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    Appendix Q: Report of the superintendent of clubhouses
        Page 557
        Page 558
        Page 559
        Page 560
    Appendix R: Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office
        Page 561
        Page 562
        Page 563
        Page 564
    Appendix S: Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel
        Page 565
        Page 566
        Page 567
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        Page 591
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    Appendix T: Acts of Congress affecting the Isthmian Canal and Executive orders relating to the Canal Zone
        Page 593
        Page 594
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        Page 596
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        Page 618
    Appendix U: Charts showing organization of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1912
        Page 619
        Page 620
    Back Matter
        Page 621
        Page 622
        Page 623
        Page 624
    Back Cover
        Page 625
        Page 626
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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE


ISTHMIAN CANAL

COMMISSION.



FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30
1912


WASHINGTON




































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TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Page.
Report of the chairman and chief engineer................................ 1
Organization........................................................ 1
Construction and engineering.......................................... 2
First division..................................................... 2
Atlantic division................................................. 12
Central division................................................. 24
Pacific division................................................. 31
Municipal improvements in Colon and Panama...................... 38
Second division, chief engineer's office.............................. 39
Construction of the new Panama Railroad............................ 45
Fortifications. ................................. .......... ... ..... 47
Cost keeping......................................... ........... 48
Quartermaster's department .......................................... 50
Subsistence department.................. ........................... ... 53
Examination of accounts and disbursements ........................... 54
Examination of accounts......................................... 54
Disbursements.................................................. 58
Departments of civil administration and law........................... 58
Civil administration.............................................. 58
Department of law .............................................. 62
Department of sanitation ............................................. 64
Recreation of employees.............................................. 65
Washington office.................................................... 66
General remarks..................................................... 66

APPENDIX A.

Report of the assistant chief engineer in charge of first division of the office of the
chief engineer. .................................. ... ................... 69
Masonry and lock structures ......................................... 69
Locks........................................................... 69
Valves and fixed parts........................................... 70
Approach walls .................................................. 70
Drawings................................................. ....... 70
Contracts.....................................-------------------- 70
Castings made on the Isthmus..................................... 72
Installation of valves, gates, etc .................................. 72
Tests of valves..................................... ..... ......... 72
Tabulation of tests of rising stem gate valves ................... 73
Lock gates and protective devices .................................... 74
Lock gates......................................................... 74
Methods used in erecting lock gates................................ 77
Chain fenders.............................................. .... 81
III





[V TABLE OF CONTENTS.

jiReport of the assistant chief engineer in charge of firas division of the office of
7., the chief engineer-Continued.
Lock gates and protective devices-Contianued. Page.
Floating caisson gates............................................. S1
Recess covers ................................................. 82
Contracts................................ ..................... 82
Operating machinery................................................. 82
Rising stem and cylindrical valve machines ......................... 82
Limit switches.................................................... 85
Hoisting machinery for emergency danis............................ 85
Towing devices............................. .................... 8
Miter gate moving and miter-gate fo:rc ing mnach inies an d motors fo:r Fame. 87
Vitrified tile duct................................................ 87
Hydroelectric station............................................. S3
Auxiliary electrical equipment for Ga un hydroelectric station....... S3
Spillway gate machine and pump......... ...................... S9
Lock-control and indicating equipment.............................. S9
Pumps and motors................................................ 90
Insulated cable................................................. 91
Transformer room equipment....................................... 91
Miscellaneous material............................................ 92
Cover seats for crank-gear maclhincryr recc's....:........................ 92
Cast-iron covers.............................. .................... 92
Lock illumination................................................ 92
Guard valve machines............................................ 93
Transm mission lines................................................. 93
Inspection of machinery and electrical equillpment..................... 93
Erection of machinery........................................... 94
Special reports........................................................ 95
General............................................................... 95
Inspection of emergency dams......................................... 95
Aids to navigation................................................... 101
Clearing, etc...................................................... 101
Construction work................................................ 101
Central plant.................................................. 104
Illum inants........................................ ............... 104
Contracts................................. ............................ 105
Exhibit 1-Status of contracts for work under clar.-e of first di\ isi.'n of chief
engineer's office as of June 30, 1'1 12 ................................ 105

APPENDIX B.

Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division ............................ 10
Division office............ ........................................... 109
Division designing force............................................. 110
Channel excavation from Gatun to the Allantic Ocean, Colon Breakwater,
and sand, stone, and cement service for Gatun Locks and spillway, for the
year ending June 30, 1911........................................... 11
Excavation below sea level--indi................................. Ill
Levee for retaining hydraulic fill near Mindi. e.at of Painana Railroad
relocated line................................................ 111
Other construction at Mindi....................................... 112
Dredging-Ocean to Mindi......................................... 112
Dredging-Mindi to Gatun........................................ 112





TABLE OF CONTENTS. V

Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division-Continued.
Channel excavation from Gatun to the Atlantic Ocean, etc.-Continued. Page.
Cristobal terminals............................................... 112
Miscellaneous dredging............................................... 113
Total monthly output of all dredges....................... ....... 113
Monthly output and cost of excavation ........................... 113
Estimate of original excavation and amount excavated to date.... 114
Estimate of quantities remaining to be excavated................ 115
Colon fill.................... .............................. 115
Dry-dock shops ............... .............................. 115
Porto Bello.rock plant........................................... 115
Crushed-stone quarry......... ............................... 115
Detailed statement of output and cost.......................... 116
Breakwater quarry ........................ ...................... 116
Detailed statement of work done and cost ....................... 117
Comparative statement, Porto Bello quarry ......................... 117
Comparative statement, Porto Bello large rock quarry ............... 119
Water transportation.......................................... 120
Colon Breakwater.......... ............ ............................ 120
Comparative statement, Colon Breakwater ..................... 121
Procuring sand at Nombre de Dios................................ 121
Operating cost............................................... 122
Surveys........ ............................................ 122
Gatun Locks........................ .. ...... ..... ............... 122
Excavation.................................................... 122
Concrete material................... ........................... 123
Unloading plant ........................... .................... 124
Handling and mixing plants..................... ................. 124
Concrete work.......................... ......................... 124
Comparative statement of costs ............................... 125
Power plant..................................................... 127
Tests........................................................ 127
Gate erection ................................... ............. 128
Fixed steelwork.......... ................................... 128
Slides........... ......... ... ................................. 128
Back fill...... ................................................ 128
Miscellaneous work................................................ 128
Gatun Dam and Spillway............................................. 129
Gatun Dam.................................................. 129
Statement of progress of construction............................ 129
Output of steam shovels excavating material for dry fill ........ 130
High daily and monthly record made by steam shovels.......... 131
Amount of material handled ................................. 131
Gatun Spillway................................................ 131
Progress..................................................... 132
Permanent power plant............................................ 132
Comparative statement of costs, dam and spillway................... 133
Municipal engineering.......--...--..................................- 136
Gatun waterworks................................................. 136
Agua Clara filters and reservoir ............................... 136
Agua Clara Reservoir............................................. 137
Rainfall ...................................................... 137
Roads, sewers, and drains......................................... 137
Sanitary maintenance......................... .................... 137





VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division-Continued.
Municipal engineering-Continued. Page.
Cristobal and Colon.............................................. 137
Waterworks................................................. 137
Mount Hope filter and Brazos Brook Reservoir................. 139
Brazos Brook Reservoir.......................................... 139
Colon improvements.............................................. 140
Toro Point....................................................... 140
Transportation. ............. ....................... .................. 141
Appendix-Progress report for fis.'al ye.r 19!-12 ........................ 142

APPENDIX C.

Report of the division engineer, central division.............................. 143
Excavation ........................................................... 143
From canal prism ................................................ 143
From Obispo diversion............................................ 143
Outside work ..................................................... 143
Total excavation, including accessory work ......................... 144
Monthly excavation, fiscal year.................................... 144
Revised estimate'of the quantity of material yet to be removed........... 145
Blasting............................................................. 146
Steam shovels........................................................ 14S
Class............................................................. 14S
Highest daily, monthly, annl annual records......................... 14S
Average performance for each month for fiscal years ljiS, 190U!, 1!10,
1911, and 1912 .................................................. 14S
Plant.............'................................................. 150
Transportation....................... ................................ 151
Average number of locomotives working' per d.I ...................... 151
Average number of cars loaded daily ............................... 151
Largest number of cars handled in one day.......................... 151
T racks............................................. .................. 152
Location and distribution of tracks ................................. 152
Dumps................................................................ 13
Disposition of excavated material.................................. 153
Average amount of material u.lminped. pier dl.ay........................ 154
Amount of trestle driven.......................................... 155
Diversions............................................................ 156
Culebra section....................................................... 156
Point 1 .................................. 157
Point 2.............................................................. 157
Point 3.............................................................. 157
Point 4................................................................ 157
Point 4-B ........................................................... 157
San Pablo ........................................................... 157
Tabernilla ........................................................... 157
Buena Vista.......................................................... 157
Bohio.............................................................. 15S
Pena Blanca ......................................................... 15
Gatun............................................................... 15S
Handwork by contract ............................................... 15S
Clearing channel in Lake Gaun ......................................... 15S





TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII

Report of the division engineer, central division-Continued. Page.
Work in connr-ction with lighting and buoying ......................... 159
Naos Island dike...................................................... 159
Slides, and breaks .................................................... 160
Total excavation, amount removed and percentage involved.......... 161
Estimate of slides outside of slope line, and total estimates of material. 162
Cost of excavation ................................................... 164
Coal and fuel oil consumed........................................... 166
Steam-shovel repairs ................................................ 166
Air and water service ............................................... 167
Municipal work ..................... ................................. 167
Road building ..................................................... 167
Waterworks........................................................... 168
Labor situation ...................................................... 170

APPENDIX D.

Report of the division engineer, Pacific division ............................ 171
Division organization................................................. 171
Principal items of work performed................................ 171
First district ......................................................... 172
Locks, dams, and dry excavation................................. 172
Pedro Miguel locks and dams ................................ 172
Lock excavation......................................... 172
Construction tracks...................................... 172
Lock foundations........................................ 172
Excavation for foundations........................... 173
Placing concrete......................................... 173
Performance of chamber cranes....................... 174
Performance of auxiliary concrete plant ................. 174
Concrete forms .......................................... 175
Back filling............................................. 175
Filling west dam......................................... 175
Miraflores locks and dams.................................... 175
Lock excavation............... .......................... 175
Construction tracks ...................................... 176
Lock foundations......................................... 176
Excavation for foundations .......................... 176
Concrete handling plant ................................. 176
Placing concrete...................... .................... 177
Performance of berm cranes........................... 177
Performance of chamber cranes........................ 178
Performance of auxiliary concrete plant................ 178
Concrete forms .......................................... 179
West dam .............................................. 179
Back filling .............................................. 179
Concrete and fixed irons placed in Pacific locks................. 179
Dry excavation in prism.................................... 180
Excavation in canal prism............................... 180
Performance of steam shovels at Pedro Miguel................ 180
Performance of steam shovels at Miraflores................. 181
Mining ................................................ 181
Electrical department ........................................... 181





VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the division engineer, Pacific division-Continued. Page.
Second district...................................................... 1S2
Dredging, Balboa shops, and shipways............................. 1S2
Dredging..................................................... ....... S2
Pacific division dredges .................................. 1S2
Dredge Corozal. .......................................... 1S2
Movement of dredges ...................................... 1S3
Dredging output .................. ...................... 1 3
Rock excavation ........................................ 1S4
Subaqueous rock excavation .............................. 1S4
Operation of drill barge .................................. S4
Performance of drill baire Teredo. ................... 1S4
Operation of Lobnitz rock breaker......................... 1S5
Performance of rock breaker Vulcan ................... ]S5
Sand for concrete .................. ......................... 1S5
Sand produced, performance of dredge Gopher............ 1S5
Balboa shops and shipways ................................... 156
Renewals and repairs ................. .................. 16S
Ladder dredges .......................................... 1S
Miscellaneous............................................ 1S
Wharf construction ........................................... ] S
Progress in sinking caisso.ns, Panama IRailroad dock........ 18I
Balboa terminals ............................................ 1S7
Surveys and borings ..................... ............. 1S7
Dry excavation.......................................... 1S7
Miscellaneous ................................................ 1S7
Corundu River diversion ................................. 17
Third district ...................................................... ISY
Municipal and sanitary work...................................... 1SS
Municipal engineering........................................ SS
Ancon pumping and filtration station ....................... 1SS
Cocoli pumping and filtration station....................... SS
Rio Grande and Cocoli Reservoirs......................... SS
Details of work and cost, Ancon pumping and filtration sta-
tion ................................................. ISS
Details of work and cost, Cocoli pumping and filt ration station. 1S9
SWater consumption from Culebra (included) south.......... 1S9
Rio Grande Reservoir..................................... IS9
Cocoli Reservoir.......... .............. ............. 89
Pacific division reservoirs ............................. 190
Consumption of-water by districts ......................... 190
Panama improvements. ................................... 191
New street improvements and cost of work ............. 192
Zone waterworks........................................ 19-
Cost of maintenance and repairs ....................... 194
Zone sewerage system .................................... 194
Zone roads............................................... 194
Zone waterworks construction. statement of work: perl'rmned. 195
Statement of work performed on sewers..................... 199
Maintenance and repairs, Canal Zone road w:vs .............. 201
Miscellaneous ........................................... 201
Sanitary work.............................................. 201
Statement of work performed ............................ 201





TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX

Report of the division engineer, Pacific division-Continued. Page.
Fourth district....................................................... 202
Ancon quarry and crushers ...................................... 202
Mining............. ........................................ 202
Explosives used.......................................... 202
Performance of Ancon quarry and crushers ..................... 203
Fifth district......................................................... 203
Hydraulic excavation............................................ 203
Hydraulic plant excavation .................................. 203
Surveys, maps, and office work........................................ 204
Surveys.......................................... ..... .......... 204
Maps.............. ........................................... 204
Office work...................................................... 204

APPENDIX E.
Report of the geologist..................................................... 205
I. The landslides of Culebra Cut ................................... 205
II. Geological conditions............................................ 205
III. Types of slides................................................. 207
1. Structural break and deformative slides...................... 207
(a) Description............................................. 207
(b) Causes............................................... 208
(c) Remedies............................................ 209
2. Normal and gravity slides ................................... 210
3. Fault zone slides ......................................... 210
4. Sliding ground due to weathering and erosion .................. 211
IV. Blasting-Its effects on the slides.................................. 214
V. Conclusion ...................................................... 214

APPENDIX F.

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the
office of the chief engineer............................................... 215
Quantity of work performed........................................... 215
Terminals............................................................. 216
Main coaling plant.............................................. 216
Subsidiary coaling plant.......................................... 216
Fuel-oil supply.................. ................................ 217
Wharves and piers.............................................. 217
Superstructures, wharves, and piers ............................... 217
Cargo-handling appliances....................................... 218
Docking facilities................................................ 218
Repair facilities ........................... ..................... 219
Floating equipment................................................ 220
Permanent settlements.......................................... 220
Leases of land for commercial purposes. ........................... 221
Meteorological and hydrographic section ............................... 221
General .......................................................... 221
Meteorology.......................................................... . 223
W eather.................... ................................ 223
Precipitation................................................. 223
Temperature....... ........................................ 224
SAbsolute temperature of record.............................. 224





X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the
office of the chief engineer-Continued.
Meteorological and hydrographic section-Continued.
Meteorology-Continued. Page.
Wind....................................................... 224
Maximum velocities .................................... 225
Atmospheric pressure.................................... 225
Relative humidity.................................... ....... 225
Cloudiness.................................................. 225
Evaporation............................. ................... 225
Fogs.................................................226
Sea temperature ............................................. 22
Tide records................................................. 226
Seismology.................................................. 227
Monthly rainfall on the Isthmus, 1911-12, and station averages... 22S
Monthly rainfall, by sections, year 1911, and normals............ 230
Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone, October 1, 190., to June 30, 1912.. 230
Hourly distribution of rainfall in Canal Zone, 19.11.............. 231
Monthly meteorological data, Ancon, 1911 ...................... 232
Monthly meteorological dI ta, Culebra, 1911..................... 233
Monthly meteorological daia, Colon, 1911...................... 234
Monthly evaporation, Canal Zone, years 1911-12, and. averages... 235
Fogs along the canal prism, 111 .............................. 235
Sea temperatures, 1911.................................... ... 236
Tidal conditions, 1911 ......................................... 237
Seismograph records, Ancon, year ended June 30, 1'12 .......... 238
Hydrography.................................................... 239
Gaugings.. .................................................. 239
Freshets.................................... ................. 240
Special work.................................................. 241
Office work.................................................. 241
Monthly discharge, Chagres River, Janirary to June. 1912 and
1908......................................................... 242
Monthly discharge, Cha.rres River, year 1911 ................... 243
Minimum discharge of various streams during the dry season, 1912. 244
Principal freshets, 1911 ...................................... 245
Discharge at Gatun and Gamboa for dry and wet se-asons and cal-
endar years during years of maximum and minimum flow..... 246
Discharge at Gatun and G(aml.oa for wet and dry seasons and river
years during years of maximum and minimum Ilow ............ 247
Zone land survey .................................................... 247
Miscellaneous surveys................................................. 248
Mechanical work.................................... .............. 248
Amount of electric current generated and cost per kilowatt-hour for plants.. 249
Cost of air compressed at principal plants ............................... 249
Cost of repairs to equipment........................................... 249
Average cost of dry excavation in central division and of wet excavation
in Atlantic and Pacific divisions ................... ................. 250
Average cost of concrete laid in Atlantic and Pacific divisions........... 250
Cost of repairs to marine equipment ...................... ............ 250
Statement of fuel consumed by commission and Panama Railroad........... 251
Statement of rolling stock owned by the commnision...................... 252
Statement of commission floating equipment on the Isthmus.............. 253






TABLE OF CONTENTS. X1

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the
office of the chief engineer-Continued. Page.
Statement of equipment owned by the Panama Railroad Co.............. 254
Personnel............................................................ 255
Appendix--Report of inspector of shops, department of construction and
enaineerinm................................................ .......... 257
Number and pay per month of supervisors and number of gold and
silver employees and total number of employees in each shop-..... 258
Total pay roll of each shop and total pay roll of all shops per month... 259
Total overtime of each shop and total overtime of all shops per month. 260
Shop expense per cent........................................... 261
Cost of hostling.................................................... 261
Cristobal shops................................................... 261
Porto Bello, Toro Point, and spillway shops......................... 262
Dry-dock shops.................................................. 262
Gatun shop..................................................... 262
Gamboa shop................................................... 263
Gold Hill....................................................... 263
Las Cascades shop ............................................... 263
Pedro Miguel shop. .................................... ........... 263
Empire shop....................................................... 264
Balboa shop........................................................ 264
Gorgona plant...................................................... 264
General ....................................................... ... 266
Permanent shop ................................................... 267

APPENDIX G.

Report of the superintendent, mechanical division, department of construction
and engineering ................................................. ..... 269
Gorgona shops...................................................-... 271
Locomotive department ............................ ................ 271
Pipe and tin shop................................................. 271
Foundry and pattern storage....................................... 271
Car department ...................................................- 272
Planing mill.................................................- 272
Car shops ........................... ----.............. ... ...-.. 272
Paint shop ................ ..--..... .. ...................-..... 272
Engine houses ................... .......... ...............-- ----.....- 272
Mechanical engineer's department ................... ................ 273
Chief draftsman .................................................... 273
Testing department .......................-.......--- ..... ... 274
Boiler-inspection service .......................................... 274
Electric-light and air-compressor subdivision............................. 274
Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 275)..................... 276

APPENDIX H.

Report of the chief engineer, Panama Railroad relocation .................. 281
Original relocated line ..................................-............. 281
Mindi to Gamboa ................................................. 281
Completing large embankments, Gatun River section............ 281
Permanent track ........................----------- -- -- ---- -- ------ 282
Turning over completed line to Panama Railroad Co................... 283





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief engineer, Panama Railroad relocation-Continued. Pae
New Gold Hill line .................................. ............. 283
Gamboa to Pedro Miguel......................................... 283
Permanent telegraph line............................................. 284
Station building and water station................... .................. 28-
Bascule bridge....................................................... 24
Progress photographs.... ............... ............................ 284
Detailed statements of quantities and expenditures i for list of statements
see p. 284)................. ......................................... 28-

APPENDIX I.

Report of cost-keeping accountant........................................ 293
Exhibit A.-Statements of construction expenditures to June 30. 1912.... 293
Exhibit B.-Detailed cost per unit of work............................. 294
Table No. 1-Dry excavation ..................................... 294
Table No. 2-Dredging excavations................................ 295
Table No. 3-Hydraulic excavation............................... 296
Table No. 4-Masonry............................................ 297
Table No. 5-Dry filling......................................... 299
Table No. 6-Hydraulic filling.................................... 300
Table No. 8-Breakwaters................... .................... .301
Table No. 9-Stone production.................................... 301
Table No. 10-Sand production................................... 303
Tables Nos. 7 and 11-Piling for foundations ........................ 304
Table No. 12-Power plants....................................... 305
Table No. 13--Lighting and buoying canal......................... 305
Table No. 14-Hydraulic filling in city of Colon..................... 306
Table No. 15-Installation locl:s and spillways operating machinery... :F06
Exhibit C.-Performance sheets....................................... 307
Tables Nos. 1 and 7-Rock crushers............................... 307
Tables Nos. 2, 3, and S-Unloading plants ......................... 307
Tables Nos. 4 and 5---Mixing plants (Atlantic division).............. 30S
Tables Nos. 9, 11, and 12-Mixing plants (Pacific division)........... 308
Tables Nos. 6, 10, 11, and 13-Placing plants......................... 309
Exhibit D.-Comparative statement of administrative and general ex-
penses........................................................... 309
Exhibit E.-Salary disbursements by departments and division......... :310
Exhibit F.-Construction of Panama Railroad Co. dock at Balboa......... 311
Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 311) ..................... 313

APPENDIX J.

Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of quartermaster's department.... 377
Labor......... ................................. .................... 377
Quarters ....................................... ...................... 378
Zone sanitation............. ...................................... 379
Corrals ................................................................ 379
Building construction .............................................. 379
Scrap.......................................... .................... :380
Plant and equipment ............................................ ... 3S1
Material and supplies................................................. 381
Exhibits to report (for table of contents see p. 2:S i....................... 3S4






TABLE OF CONTENTS.


APPENDIX K.
Page.
Report of the subsistence officer in charge of subsistence department......... 395
Quantities and costs of principal articles consumed in line hotels, restau-
rants, messes, and kitchens.......................................... 396
Statement of operations, line hotels, restaurants, messes, and kitchens.... 397
Statement of operations, line hotel and restaurants ..................... 398
Statement of operations, European laborers' messes.................... 400
Statement of operations, common laborers' kitchens ................... 402
Statement of operations, Hotel Tivoli................................. 404
Summary of operation, Hotel Tivoli ................................... 406
Summary of operations, line hotels, restaurants, messes, and kitchens..... 406

APPENDIX L.
Report of the examiner of accounts....................................... 407
General accounting ................................................. 407
Coupon books and meal tickets....................................... 409
Division of general inspection........................................ 410
Voucher division................................................... 410
Psy-roll division ..................................................... 411
Division of time inspection........................................... 412
Schedule bond of employees............................................ 412
Contract laborers .................................................... 412
Accounts of Canal Zone Government .................................. 413
Clubhouses...................................... ...... 414
Post offices .................................................. ........... 414
Claims for injury and death .......................................... 415
Accounting system of the commission .................................. 417
Personnel.............................................................. 417
Canal appropriations and expenditures................................ 418
Tables submitted with report (for index see p. 419) .................... 420

APPENDIX M.
Report of the disbursing officer........................................... 453
Payments made by the disbursing department on the Isthmus............ 453
Coupon books and meal tickets issued by the disbursing department on the
Isthmus .......................................................... 454

APPENDIX N.
Report of the head of the department of civil administration ............... 455
Legislation......................................................... 455
Relations with Panama and foreign representatives....................... 456
Executive office..................................................... 457
Steamboat-inspection service......................................... 458
Division of posts, customs, and revenues................................ 459
Postal service................................... .................. 459
Customs service.................................................. 461
Lands and buildings............................................. 461
Taxes and license fees............... ................. ............ 461
Administration of estates........................................ 462
Revenues....................................................... 463
Division of police and prisons....................................... 463
Division of fire protection............................................. 466


XIII





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the head of the department of civil administration-Continued. Page.
Division of public works ............. .. ....... ..... ..... ...... .. . 1
Division of schools............................ ...................... 470
Canal Zone treasury and Zone funds............................ ...... 471
Courts.............. .......................................... 472
Increase of work of the department.................................... 472
Future organization............................. ................ 472
Appendices to report i for table of contents see p. 473). ................. ... 473

APPENDIX O.

Report of the head of the department of law ............................. 515
Legislation ...... .................. .............................. .... 515
Prosecuting attorney's office ......................................... 51S
Civil cases.......................................................... 520
Panama Railroad matters............ .......... ............ ........... 525

APPENDIX P.

Report of the chief sanitary officer, head of the department of sanitation...... 529
Letter of transm ittal .......... ........... .............................. 529
Vital statistics-
Deaths of employees of the commission and the Panama Railroad Co. 531
Deaths in the cities of Panama and Colon and the Canal Zone........ 531
Deaths by age, color, and sex...................................... 532
Deaths by nationalities............................................ 532
Causes of deaths..... ... .. ..................................... 533
Deaths of white employees from the United States................... 534
Deaths of white women and children from the United States......... 535
Death rate amone Americans on the Isthmiu ....................... 53
Causes and places of death of employees and civil population............ 536
Discharges and deaths of employees in hospitals of the commission, from all
causes......................................... ..... ............... 539
Consolidated hospital report......................................... 543
Consolidated sick-camp report.. ...................................... 543
Consolidated report of employees sick in quarters....................... 514
Consolidated hospital, sick-camp, and sick-in-quarters report............. 544
Consolidated dispensary report ......................................... T45
Average number of employees constantly sick in hospitals, sick camps, and
quarters.... ......................................... ........ 545
Average number of employees constantly sick ........... ............ 516
Average number of employees constantly sick, per 1,000............... 546
Average number of days' treatment per employee in hospitals, sick camps,
and quarters ..... ...................... ........ ... ..... ......... 546
Subsistence and operating expenses ................................ 547
Outside patients treated in hospitals, and amounts collected for their treat-
m ent .............. ... ............ ........................... 547
Surgical operations performed in hospitals ....................... ...... 547
Operations and work performed in eye, ear, nose, and throat clinics......... 548
Consolidated ward laboratory report of all hospitals ..................... 549
Report of-
Ancon Hospital .............. ................................... 550
Colon H ospital.................................... .............. 550
Culebra Hospital ................. .............................. 551
Palo Seco Leper Asylum ......................................... 551
Taboga Sanitari um .............. ... ..... ....................... . 552


XIV






TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV

Report of the chief sanitary officer, head of the department of sanitation-Con. Page.
Report of-Continued.
Santo Tomas Hospital........................................... 552
Board of health laboratory ....................................... 553
Issues of quinine................................................ 554
Sanitation statistics-
City of Panama................................................. 554
Colon, Cristobal, Mount Hope, Toro Point, Margarita Point............ 554
Canal Zone. ...................... .................................. 554
Quarantine service-
Ports of Panama-Ancon and Cristobal-Colon........................ 555
Bocas del Toro ............................................. 555
Personnel report......... ........ .............. ....................... 555
Hospital cases of malaria among employees ........................... 556

APPENDIX Q.

Report of the superintendent of clubhouses ............................... 557
Organization..... .............................................. 557
New equipment ................................. .. ............... .. 557
M membership ..................................... ..................... 557
Entertainments..................................................... 558
Bowling, billiards, and pool ....................................... 558
Physical work and atle ics ..........................-----------------------------..-..------ 558
R religious m eetings..................................................- 558
Educational work .. ...... .......... .... ...-- ............--- .... -- 558
Refreshment counties ................ ......-.... .....------------------ 559
Committees .........................................................-- 559
Boys' department..................................................---- 559
Finances.............................................. ............... 559

APPENDIX R.

Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office .... 561

APPENDIX S.

Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel.......................... 565
Department of construction and engineering ............................. 565
Department of civil administration.................. .................. 580
Department of sanitation ..........................- ..................- 582
Quartermaster's department. .......................................---------- 587
Subsistence department. ..................... ......- ----- --------- ----- 589
Department of examination of accounts....................-.......-....- 590
Department of law ............. ---- ..----- .-----------------....... 590
Washington office .................--...------------------------- ..............591

APPENDIX T.

Acts of Congress affecting the Isthmian Canal and Executive orders relating to
the Canal Zone (for index see p. 593)....................--.............-- 595

APPENDIX U.

Charts showing organization of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Rail-
road Co., July, 1912 (for index see p. 619) ................................. 619
61012-12--n















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Frontispi,-ce: Map showing Isthmus with completed canal.

APPENDIX A.
[Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of first division of the office of the chief engineer.]
PLATE 1. Gatun upper locks, west chamber looking north, showing upper guard gates,
operating, intermediate gates, and safety gates in process of construction,
June 7, 1912.
2. Gatun upper locks looking north from lighthouse, July 2, 1912.
3. Gatun upper locks, east chamber, looking north from forebay, showing upper
guard gates and emergency dam sill, July 7, 1912.
4. Pedro Miguel Locks looking north, showing upper guard gates, east chamber
forebay, and construction of approach wall, March 28, 1912.
5. Pedro Miguel Locks, north end of west chamber, showing construction of
upper guard gates and upper gates, June 5, 1912.
6. Pedro Miguel Locks, south end of east chamber, showing construction of
safety and lower gates, June 3, 1912.
7. Gatun upper locks, miter gate moving machine, structural steel girders for
towing locomotive track supports in foreground, June, 1912.
8. Pedro Miguel Locks, detail of construction of electric towing locomotive
rack track, June, 1912.
9. Miraflores upper locks, showing Stoney gate valve frames in position in
south end of west wall, November 8, 1911.
10. Miraflores upper locks, center wall culvert, showing Stoney gate castings in
place, June 23, 1912.
11. Cylindrical valve machine, motor, and limit switch.
12. Rising stem gate valve machine.
13. Front tower, range 5-6, Atlantic division.
14. Front tower, range 1-2, Gatun Lake section, on south middle approach wall
of Gatun Locks.
15..Range 3-4. (9-11) Pacific entrance at low tide.
16. Rear tower, range 9-11, Pacific entrance looking northwest, November 7,
1911.
17. Front tower, range 9-11, Pacific entrance looking southeast, November 7,
1911.
18. Reenforced concrete stairway in Atlantic and Pacific division type of range
towers.
Following plates, 69 to 77, in portfolio.

69. Rising stem gate valves, front elevation and section.
70. Rising stem gate valves, rear elevation and sections.
71. Rising stem gate valves, horizontal section through valve and valve chamber
and sectional details of seals and traiu.
XVII





LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE 72. Mitering lock gates, general drawing of sill on masonry.
73. Mitering lock gates, plan showing method of erection.
74. Spillways, machinery for Gatun and Mirafloren sli illways, general -ssenmbly.
75. Lighting and buoying canal, profiles of ranges showing towers.
76. Lighting and buoying canal, west breakwater light and fog signal, vertical
section and floor plans.
77. Lighting and buoying canal, general plan of beacon for acetylenpegas and
electric lights for Pacific division.

APPENDIX B.

[Report of the division engineer, .tlantic: dih' ion.l

PLATE 19. West breakwater, looking seaward from Toro Point, showing dredge at.
work placing rock on face of breakwater, June, 1912.
20. Gatun lower locks looking south from cofferdam, showing west chambers
of upper and middle locks, November 9, 1911.
21. Gatun Locks forebay, east side looking north, showing flaring approach
wall, June 7, 1912.
22. Gatun lower lock, east chamber, looking north, showing temporary coffer-
dqm at extreme end of lock chamber, June 12, 1912.
23. Gatun Locks. General view looking southwest, showing north end of the
locks, with temporary cofferdam in place, July 2, 1912.
24. Gatun Locks and Dam, looking west from water tower, showing south
center approach wall and fcrebay of Gatun Locks, with dam and spillway
in the distance, June, 1912.
25. Gatun Dam. West section of Dam looking west, showing progress of
hydraulic fill, June 12, 1912.
26. Gatun Spillway looking east tow:ird locks, showing up and downstream
faces of ogee dam, June 6, 1912.
27. Gatun Spillway looking southwest, showing downstream face of ogee dam,
June 6, 1912.

Following plates, 78 to S1, in portfolio.


78. General map showing location of Gatun Locks and
Colon Harbor, and channel excavation to: date.
79. Gatun Locks, progress sheet.
80. Gatun Spillway, progress sheet.
81. Gatun Dam, section showing progresss June 30, 1912.

APPENDIX C.

[Report of the division engineer, central division. )


Dam, breakwater in


PLATE 28. Culebra Cut, south end, looking south from bridge 57,i ;ndl showing the
partly completed anchorage basin north of Pedro Miguel Lock. Train
is on completed bottom of c;inal, elevation, +40. Juun, 1912.
29. Culebra Cut looking north from bridge 57r, ne:ir P-araiso. The train on
the left, just beyond the tr-stle bridge, is on the completed bottom of
the canal, elevation +40. June, 1912.
30. Culebra Cut looking north from a point south of Contractor's Hill, showing
quiescent state of Cucaracha slide -on right bank. The bottom of the
lowest steam shovel cut, at :, point oppositee Contractor's Hill, is about.
16 feet above the final bottom of the canal, or elevation +5;. May,
1912.


XVIII






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE 31. Heated material west side of canal, 350 yards north of Culebra Y. Extent
of heated material, 500 by 25 by 20 feet. February 16, 1912.
32. Culebra Cut looking south from Empire Suspension Bridge. The group
of well drills in the middle of the canal is about 27 feet above the bottom,
or at elevation +67. May, 1912.
33. Culebra Cut looking north from Empire Suspension Bridge. The nearest
shovel shown, in the lowest cut, is working about 12 feet above the
bottom, or at elevation +52. May, 1912.
34. Culebra Cut looking south from Cunette. The two shovels shown in the
foreground are working on the bottom of the canal, elevation +40.
May, 1912.
35. Culebia Cut looking north from Cunette. The two shovels shown in the
foreground are working on the bottom, elevation +40. The water
standing in the center drainage channel is about 6 feet below the bot-
tom, elevation +34.
36 Culebra Cut looking north from Las Cascadas. All trains are standing on
the bottom of the cut, elevation +40. May, 1912.
'37. Culebra Cut looking south from bend in east bank near Gamboa. The
train and shovel are standing on the bottom of the cut. The water in
the drainage channel is about 10 feet below the bottom of the canal, or
at elevation +30. June, 1912.
38. Channel excavated at San Pablo during dry season, 1912. This channel
is completed and is 800 feet wide, with bottom elevation at +40.
39. Embankment of old Panama Railroad excavated down to +35 in April
and May, 1912.
40. Slide in east bank cf canal near Cucaracha, June, 1912. Foj plan and
cross section oi this slide see Plate 87.
41. Culebra" Cut. Culebra. Break in east bank of canal. Amount of material
involved, 320,000 cubic yards. The train shown in foreground is about
35 feet above the bottom, or at elevation +75. February 11, 1912.
42. Slide of stratified rock, west bank of canal, Culebra-on-the-dump, looking
toward Culebra. Slide involves about 1,000,000 cubic yards and moved
about 3 feet per day on a slope of 1 vertical to 7 horizontal. The train
is standing at elevation +95. February, 1912.
43. Steam shovel 218 buried under fall of rock, west side of canal, near Las
Cascadas. This shovel was working on the bottom of the canal when
destroyed, May 31, 1912.
44. South end of Naos Island dump, 4,000 feet from island. Center at A is
80 feet from track and 25 feet above the original bottom. Elevation of
trestle, +14. December, 1911.
45. South end of Naos Island dump, 4,000 feet from island. Center at A is
75 feet from track and 25 feet above the original bottom. Elevation of
trestle, +14. December, 1911.

Following plates, 82 to 88, in portfolio.

82. Diagram of yardage and rainfall.
83. Diagram of performance of steam shovels.
84. New Culebra slide, plan and section.
85. New Culebra slide, section showing change in surface as slide develops.
86. East and West Culebra slides. Section showing amount excavated each
year.
87. Cucaracha village slide, section showing change in surface.
88. Profile of Panama Canal and yardage estimate.


XIX






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX D.

[Report of the division cngincet r PjciFic divisison.1

PLATE 46. Pedro Miguel Locks. Bird's-eye view from hill on east hank, J.uly 2_, 1912.
47. Pedro Miguel Locks. Bird's-eye view i:,f north approa.:h wall Iroum hill at
east end, July 28, 1912.
48. Pedro Miguel Locks, looking south. West :forebay with emergency dam
sill, June 5, 1912.
49. Miraflores upper locks. General view I,:,,king north fromrL Ilower west bank,
showing cylindrical valves, July 25, 1911.
50. Miraflores Locks, looking n,-irth, June 21, 1912.
51. Miraflores Locks, west chamber, loo::kinr' south, June 23, 1912.
52. Miraflores lower locks, lookin-i' east. Electrical conuduit and flooi culvert
at upper end of east lock January 19, 1912.
53. Miraflores lower locks. Slide back of[ west wall, loo::king south, March 21,
1912.
54. Miraflores locks. Sinking caissons f fr foundation of north appr:oacl h wall,
looking north, June 14, 1.12.
55. Stripping Cocoli Hill adjacent to canal prism, March 21, 1912.
56. General view of Balboa terminal site, looking north, June, 19'12.
57. Balboa lumber dock of reenl forced co(iucrete, I-oo-kin, nor tlhast, June, 1912.
58. Dredge Corozal in channel near station: 2210, June, 1912.

Following plai.s, S9 to 94, in porifolio.

89. Pedro Miguel Lock, concrete proi:ngres sheet.
90. Pedro Miguel Lock, forms for north alpruach wall.
91. Miraflores Locks, concrete handling pllant.
92. Miraflores Locks, concrete handling plant.
93. Miraflores Locks, concrete pro're.:cs sheet.
94. Panama improvements complh.ted du'rinw tiscal yearC 1911-12.

APPENDIX E.

[Report of igeoloist.)

PLATE 59. Ideal section of deforming and sliding ,'r:Lound nea C'ulebra, Canal Zone.
60. Columnar structure in hardene--d r:ows of md [i'va. This jointing afforded
passages for seepage water whicl, s,:-ftened the baal mass, already under
high pressure, and thus tended largely to promote tlie recent large slide
just north of La Pita.
61. A, Fault plane. B, crushed and shed:-red zone i:f rock. C', stronger rocks,
beds of limy sandstone. This fault i- the cl1ief cause of the l:,i. slide on
the west (opposite) side of the (.:n:-l near Lirio:. Tlele tlie :overhaurin'
rocks are not strong limy s:ind-to:lie, I:but relatively weak clay rocks, so
they easily slide out along the plane of this fault.

APPENDIX F.

[Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in clhirr:ice- i s.:.: .n.1 divi-ionii ot t le i l.: '.ngi u:.' r. ]

Following plaul s, -. I, 1 ,, i ,orItol,,,.

PLATE 95. Chart showing excavation and exlerl1itun.- I.I: July 1, }il2.
96. Map of the Canal Zone and tl:he w:;ter.-lhc'.l :of the Rio Cha-ires.
97. General plan of Balboa termninals.






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XXI

PLATE 98. Annual rainfall along canal location.
99. Wind roses, dry and rainy seasons, 1911.
100. Chagres River drainage basin, discharge at Alhajuela. Dry seasons 1908
and 1912.
101. Chagres River drainage basin, mass curves of discharge at Alhajuela, 1908,
1911, and 22-year period.
102. Chagres River drainage basin, mass curves of discharge at Gamboa, 1908,
1911, and 22-year period.
103. Chagres River drainage basin, mass curves of discharge at Gatun spillway,
1908, 1911, and 22-year period.
104. Chagres River, cross section at Gamboa gauging station.
105. Gatun Lake. Hydrograph from January to June, 1912.
106. Gatun Lake watershed. Rainfall, run-off, and retention curves.
107. Chagres River drainage basin, curve of discharge duration at Alhajuela,
1911.
108. Chagres River drainage basin, curve of discharge duration a Gamboa, 1911.
109. Chagres River drainage basin, curve of discharge duration at Gatun, 1911.

APPENDIX H.

[Report of the chief engineer of the Panama Railroad relocation.]

PLATE 62. Relocation Panama Railroad. The Quebrancha bottom, looking north,
June, 1912.
63. Relocation Panama Railroad. The Brazos bottom, looking north, June,
1912.
64. Relocation Panama Railroad. Gold Hill line, looking north up the Pedro
Miguel Valley, June, 1912.
65. Relocation Panama Railroad. Gold Hill line, looking south across deep
valley east of Paraiso, June, 1912.
66. Relocation Panama Railroad. New town of Monte Lirio, looking north,
June, 1912.
APPENDIX N.

[Report of the head of the department of civil administration.]

PLATE 67. Empire-Chorrera 16-foot macadam road under construction with Zone
prison labor, August 29, 1912.
68. Mandingo stockade for Zone convicts engaged in road building, August
1912.
APPENDIX Q.

[Report of superintendent of clubhouses.]

Plate in portfolio.

PLATE 110. Chart showing rise and fall of membership in Young Men's Christian Asso-
ciation.
APPENDIX U.

[Charts showing organization of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1912.1

All plates in portfolio.

PLATE 111. General organization of the Isthmian Canal Commission.





LIST OF ILLUSTRFATIIONS.


Isthiiman c olh'ic.


PLATE 112. Office force of chairman and chief engineer, a-si-tant chief engineer, and
assistant to the chief engineer. -
113. First division of chief engineer's office.
114. Central division.
115. Atlantic division.
116. Pacific division.
117. Secretary of the commission.
118. Mechanical division.
119. Chief quartermaster.
120. Subsistence officer.
121. Civil administration.
122. Chief sanitary officer.
123. Disbursing officer, examiner of accounts, and department of law.
124. Panama Railroad Co., including: New York offices.
125. Panama Railroad Co., relocated line

Washingtonr office.

126. General purchasing officer.


XXII











ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE

ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMIISSION,,
OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN,
Culebra, Canal Zone, September 10, 1912.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the annual report for the Isth-
mian Canal Commisison for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912.
ORGANIZATION.
When it was determined to fortify the canal it was recommended
tL.c6 the construction be done by the Isthmian Canal Commission,
utilizing its forces and such plant as could be spared from other work
under its charge, as this would result in economy in cost and avoid
the friction liable to occur if two independent organizations were
carrying on work in the same locality. It was proposed at the same
time, in order that the completed work might embody the latest
improvements in battery construction, that the plans be prepared by
the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, subject to the approval
of the Panama Fortification Board, and the batteries and accessories
built in accordance therewith. This recommendation received the
approval of the authorities at Washington. Funds for commencing
the work were provided by the sundry civil act of March 4, 1911, and
work was begun August 7, 1911, under the division engineer of the
Pacific division and continued in his charge until January 1, 1912,
when an additional division was established in the office of the chief
engineer, which took over the construction of the fortifications.
The third division of the chief engineer's office, which formerly
had charge of general surveys not embraced within the limits of
any construction division, together with the meteorological and
hydrographic work, was abolished on January 24, 1912, when the
general survey work was practically completed. What remained of
this, together with the collection of meteorological and hydrographic
data, was consolidated with the second division of the chief engineer's
office.
The locks and their various appurtenances were designed by and
under the direction of Col. Hodges, and, as noted in the last annual
610120-12-1 1




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


report, the erection of the gates, valves, fender chains, and emer-
gency dams, as well as the machinery for operating the lock acces-
sories, were also placed under the division of which he has charge.
Active field operations for erecting the machinery were undertaken
in September, 1911, and an organization was arranged to handle the
work. In the same month, under the same division, field forces were
organized to undertake the erection of the range lights and other
construction work required in connection with the aids to navigation.
Last year recommendations were submitted looking toward the
construction of a dry dock. coaling station, and terminal facilities,
and, as these seemed to be favorably considered by the congressional
committees visiting the Isthmus, a designing force was organized
under Mr. Rousseau for preparing the necessary plans for the dry
dock, coaling stations, and machine shops.
Rather than tie up some of the French dredges on the Pacific side
which could no longer work to advantage, in October, 1911, they
were put at work dredging the area which was to form the basin
between the canal and the proposed terminals. In Jiine, .191', when
pending legislation indicated that the various facilities indicated
would be authorized, and as time is an essential element. a force was
organized under the division engineer, Pacific division, and work
was begun by excavating to the north and west of Sosa Hill to en-
able the moving of the Panama Railroad tracks, so that work can be
commenced on the machine shops and terminals. The design of the
wharfs in connection with the terminals was assigned to Mr.
Williamson.
Continuing the principle of concentration which was adopted in
1908, the shops which formerly had been under the division engineer
of the Atlantic division at Gatun were transferred temporarily to
the mechanical division on April 4, 1911, and have been so continued
since that date. Effective July 1, 1912, the shops at Empire for the
repair of steam shovels, and previously in charge of the central
division, were transferred to the mechanical division.
With the exceptions noted, the organization of the forces on the
Isthmus was continued practically as outlined in previous annual
reports.
CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING.
FIRST DIVISION.

The first division of the office of the chief engineer, under Col.
H. F. Hodges, United States Army, assistant chief engineer, con-
tinued in charge of the design of the locks, dams, regulating works,
and accessories; the design and construction of aids to navigation:
the inspection of the manufacture and erection, under contract or




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


otherwise, of the lock gates, operating machinery, gates and valves,
emergency dams and fender chains, and of the placing of such
concrete in the locks as was omitted until the installation of the
machinery.
During the fiscal year the general plans for the lower portion of
the lower locks at Gatun and Miraflores were completed and ap-
proved, as well as the plans for the south middle approach wall at
MIiraflores and for the uncompleted portion of the south middle
approach wall at Pedro Miguel, which was changed from the solid
type already built to the reenforced cellular type for the remainder.
In addition, all the drawings required for decking over various ma-
chinlery chambers in the lock walls, snubbing posts, and spring buffers
were prepared, so that all the detailed plans for the locks are com-
pleted and approved.
Chambers were prepared for the rising stem gate valves by lining
up the fixed irons, and 12 completed at Gatun and 2 at Pedro Miguel
during the year; at Gatun 12 valves were placed in position. In ad-
dition, 6 bulkhead gates were placed in the side-wall intakes and 6
in the center-wall intakes at Gatun. Three rising stem gate valves
and 1 cylindrical valve were placed in the Gatun spillway. The
cylindrical valves were placed in all the locks during construction
and all of them are in position.
To determine the probable leakage around the rising stem valves,
also the force required to start the valve and to maintain the motion,
a test was made on a set of two valves which were installed in the
upper valve chamber of the west side culvert at Gatun. The en-
trance to the culvert was closed by a water-tight bulkhead, and the
culvert between the bulkhead and the valves, with the well above.
the valves to the top of the wall, was filled with water. By this
arrangement there was a greater head against the valves than will
obtain when the lock is pumped dry for examination, and consider-
ably greater than the usual operating head. Under a 79-foot head
that resulted the combined leakage of both valves was 1.82 cubic feet
per second, while the combined friction resulting from the contact
of the side seals of the gate, as well as the action of the roller trains,
averaged 21,170 pounds for each valve. It had been assumed at
31,750 pounds in the design of the machinery which was intended to
exert a lifting force of 60,000 pounds, including all friction and the
weight of the valve and its accessories. It is probable that both the
friction and the leakage will be reduced in subsequent valves, as cer-
tain improvements in detail and workmanship are found in those of
later construction.
One of the cylindrical valves in the locks at Gatun was tested for
leakage from the exterior by constructing a bulkhead across the
I




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


entrance to the valve chamber, which was then filled with water.
When the head reached 60 feet the leakage was found to vary from
a quantity too small to measure to about 0.25 of a cubic foot per
second. The average was about what was to be expected from the
tests made at Pedro Miguel and described in the last annual report.
Examination indicated that the leather seal or gasket. was sufliciently
rigid to hold up the movable portion of the valve and prevent its
seating properly. The segments which clamped the leather seal were
removed and the edge beveled slightly to allow an easier bending of
the gasket. After this was done the leakage was found by measure-
ment to be about 0.015 of a cubic foot per second, or about one-tenth
of that previously measured. The segments for all the valves are
being beveled in the manner indicated as advisable by this experiment.
The two rising-stem valve machines furnished under contract.
were tested at the works of the manufacturer and found to be satis-
factory, after which the commission exercised its option and con-
tract was entered into December 5, 1911. for furnishing all parts for
114 rising-stem gate-valve machines without motors. After suc-
cessful test of the first two cylindrical valve machines at the works
of the manufacturer, contract was awarded, on October 25, 1911, for
118 additional cylindrical valve machines without motors and 12
auxiliary culvert valve machines without motors. Up to June 30.
1912, a total of 21 rising-stem valve machines (except valve stems
and thrust screws), 34 cylindrical valve machines, and 3 auxiliary
culvert valve machines were received. Delays in shilpm:ent occurred.
caused by the strike of stevedores at Baltimore, the :point of ship-
ment.
Owing to the peculiar climatic conditions on the Isthmus, involv-
ing tropical heat and extreme humidity, and the deteriorating effect.
of these conditions on the insulation of electrical machinery, it was
necessary to investigate thoroughly the different kinds of insulation
available for use on the lock machinery. To accomplish this, 16
sample motors in all were purchased, 2 from each company offer-
ing bids for the motors required. Eight of these were sent to the
machine contractors for operating tests on the valve machines, and
the other 8 were shipped direct to the Isthmus, where they were
subjected to the extreme conditions specified in the specifications
accompanying the invitation for bids, in order to test the insulation.
They were first placed in a storehouse at Gatun and exposed to the
ordinary conditions of climate for a period of about two months,
during which time the condition of the insulation was determined
periodically by inspection and tests. In order to expedite the action
of the heat and humidity they were subjected to a steam test, in
which the extremes of temperature and humidity mentioned might
be reproduced. In order that the conditions of all motors might be




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 0

identical in all respects, the motors were placed in a small building
erected for the purpose and the tests performed on all motors simul-
taneously, so that the motors were subjected to the same humidity
and temperature for the same length of time. Briefly, the tests con-
sisted of filling the building in which the motors were located with
steam, thereby maintaining a temperature of 500 C. for a period
of 10 days, making potential tests and measurements of insulation
throughout this period. In addition to the steam test, the motors
which survived were immersed by filling the case with water at
a temperature of approximately 30 C. and maintaining this con-
dition for about five hours, during which time observations of insu-
lation resistance were made continuously. The eight motors which
were first shipped to the machine contractors were, after reaching
the Isthmus, subjected to the immersion test but not the steam test.
The tests were conducted without the presence of any representative
of the manufacturers.
The relative standing of the various types of insulation in these
tests was, in general, definite and the choice of the most suitable
insulation was clear; however, in view of the number of motors
tested, it was desirable to obtain a numerical basis of comparison. A
schedule of the various stages of the tests was therefore prepared and
a number of points assigned for the survival of each of these stages.
The motors were given four points for surviving the test; three if,
after failure during the test, the insulation recovered without re-
pair; two if, after such failure, the insulation was found possible of
repair; one if, after repair, the motor recovered; and none if they
failed to recover at all. The total points for each of the four motors
representing the manufacturer in the entire series of tests then
served as an index from which the relative value of the insulation
could be determined. The contract was awarded on the basis of the
tests as above outlined. None of the motors had been shipped on
June 30.
A series of tests was also made on the sample limit switches pur-
chased under similar conditions as the motors. Insulation and poten-
tial tests were made under the climatic conditions of the Isthmus and,
while they were not so extensive as the motor tests, sufficient infor-
mation was obtained to determine the suitability of the various
makes and the award on this class of apparatus. Satisfactory
progress has been made in the manufacture of these switches, and at
the end of the year 50 were reported as shipped from the works of
the contractor.
The lock gates are being constructed and erected under contract
dated June 21, 1910. During the past fiscal year the shop drawings
for all the different heights of gates were completed and approved.
The total steel plates and shapes accepted at the mills to the end of





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


th& fiscal year aggregated about 52,322 tons, which practically conm-
prised all the rolled material required, excepting that. for the spare
parts. About three-quarters of all the castings were made, machined,
and accepted. All specified chemical and physical tests were carried
out and the contract requirements as to the quality of material were
in all cases fully met. The only change in the material for any part
of the gates was made in the bushings for the pintles at the bottom
of certain leaves that will always be in sea water. In order to avoid
possible damage through electrolytic action, these bushings will be
made of hard-cast Vanadium steel instead of the manganese bronze
used in the other gates. Certain of the other leaves which .will be
operated in brackish water are to be protected from erosion by the
use of zinc rings placed close to the bronze bushings.
The total shipment of structural material to the end of the fiscal
year 1912 aggregated about 39,000 tons, or 76 per cent of the amount
required for all the gates. Of the above total, about 32,000 tons were
shipped during the fiscal year, so that. on June 30, 191, a total of
13,000 tons remained to be forwarded, comprising about half the
material for the gates in the intermediate locks at Gatun and the
upper locks at Miraflores and all the material for the gates in the
lower lock at Miraflores. At this rate of progress the steel work for
all the lock gates and the spare parts provided for in the contract.
will be completed in the shops before November 1, 191.
On June 30, 1912, the work of erecting the gates on the Isthmus
was in progress on 23 gates, or exactly half of the total number on the
canal, but these gates were in various stages, and none of them was
entirely completed. They comprised all the gates in the upper lock
and the intermediate gates in the lower lock at Gatun and all the
gates at Pedro Miguel excepting the lower guard gate in the west.
chamber. No material was placed at Miraflores. The total steel in
place in the several gates at the end of the fiscal year amounted to
19,631 tons, or about 34 per cent. With the exception of 412 tons
previously reported, all of this material was erected during the fiscal
year. The total number of field rivets driven to June 30, 1912-
practically all of them during the fiscal year-was 963,500 out of
5,750,000, or only 17 per cent of the total.
The completion of the several gates has fallen considerably behind
the dates specified in the contract, due in part. to the failure of the
contractors to deliver the necessary material and tools on time, and
in part to the limited number-and in some cases to the poor quality-
of mechanics and laborers. This has been the case especially in the
field riveting and the machine work necessary for the erection of the
gates. A close and continuous inspection was maintained, aind it is
believed that the completed- gates will meet. fully the standard laid




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


down in the specifications. The tests for watertightness made in the
first gate at Gatun indicate excellent workmanship in this respect.
Contracts were entered into toward the end of the previous fiscal
year for the first two miter gate-moving machines and for the first
miter forcing machine. These were completed and satisfactorily
tested at the works of the contractors and shipped to the Isthmus.
The miter gate-moving machines were installed in their respective
places, and one tested in regular service of swinging a gate in the dry.
The operation was successfully performed in 1 minute and 48 seconds,
or 12 seconds less than the estimated time. As the tests were satis-
factory, the contract for the remaining 90 miter gate-moving ma-
chines was made on February 11, 1912. The award for the motors
for these additional machines was also made. The installation of the
miter forcing machine was not completed at the close of the fiscal
year, as the structural features of the gate were not ready to permit
of its installation.
The design selected for the construction of the chain fenders was
described in the last annual report, and during the fiscal year bids
were invited and contracts entered into for the delivery on the
Isthmus of all parts of one fender except the chain, which was built
at the United States Navy Yard at Boston. Under these contracts
the commission reserves the right to purchase the material for the
other 23 fenders at prices named in the contractors' bids, if the test
of the one proves it to be satisfactory. To determine the best form
of emergency resistance valve, an elaborate series of tests was made
in the power plant of the Prudential Insurance Co. at Newark, N. J.
Three types of valves were tested under conditions approximating
those of actual operation, two of them giving satisfactory results.
The chain is the only part of the apparatus that was shipped to the
Isthmus.
All material for the structural steel covers by which the electric
locomotive track is supported over the lock-gate recesses in the
masonry has been provided for and the erection of the steel in the
field was let by contract dated July 7, 1911. At the close of the fiscal
year the erection of all the covers in the Gatun and Pedro Miguel
Locks had been practically completed, but no work had been done at
Miraflores.
The electric-towing locomotives were described in the annual re-
port of 1910. Bids for these machines were invited, and the same
policy was followed as in the case of other machines of asking the
price for one and also on the remainder if the sample proves satis-
factory. A contract was entered into for the delivery of one loco-
motive complete, with the option of purchasing the other 39 that will
be required. Under the contracts for materials in connection with





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


the locomotive track, 95 per cent of the structural parts s was cm-
pleted during the year. The delivery of the steel rack sections was
44 per cent completed; considerable difficulty was experienced at first
in producing sections which were sufficiently accurate for the purpose
intended, but this was subsequently overcome. There was delivered
on the Isthmus 60 per cent of the malleable-iron supporting brackets
for the conductor-slot covers, but these were rejected on account of
general irregularities. The contract for furnishing malleable-iron
cover plates and washers was completed. The bids first received for
crossovers and turnouts were not satisfactory and were rejected. A
readvertisement secured lower prices and a contract was entered into
for furnishing them. Up to the end of the fiscal year none had been
shipped.
Specifications were issued September 9, 1911, covering the main
generating equipment for a hydroelectric station, containing three
2,000 kilowatt units, to be located adjacent. to the spillway in Gatun
Dam. The equipment is to consist of three 2,250-kilowatt water tur-
bines, three head gates, three penstocks, three governors, three draft
tubes, three 2,000-kilowatt generators, three direct-connected 50-kilo-
watt exciters, two 100-kilowatt motor-driven exciter sets, one 30-ton
electric crane, and one lubricating system. A contract was entered
into December 2 for the hydraulic equipment, with promise of de-
livery in 150 to 195 days for the water wheels and governors, 125 to
150 days for the penstocks, and 90 to 120 days for the head gates. A
contract was entered into on the same date for the electrical equip-
ment, with promise of delivery in 170 to 200 days for the generators
and 140 to 160 days for the exciters. At the close of the year one
generator was completed and ready for test at the works of the con-
tractor. The only material delivered on the Istlmnus is 60 per cent
of the penstocks. Every effort is being made to have the remainder
of this material on the Isthmus at an early date, and the latest ad-
vices from the United States indicate that complete shipment has
been made.
There will be available sufficient water from the storage in Lake
Gatun to warrant the installation of 6,000 kilowatts in generating
capacity, including reserve. The average head throughout the year
will be approximately 75 feet, the elevation of the tail race being
about 8 feet above sea level. During the dry season it. will be neces-
sary to draw upon the storage in Gatun Lake. The maximum quan-
tity of water diverted for hydroelectric development is approxi-
mately 7 per cent of the minimum water supply and is the excess
which is not required for lockages, evaporation, and leakage.
The spillway-gate machine is designed to raise or lower, in ap-
proximately 10 minutes, a spillway Stoney crest gate for controlling
the water levels of Gatun and Miraflores Lakes. It consists essen-




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


tially of two counterweights, one at each end of the gate, connected
to it by a screw and chain, the screw being moved vertically by means
of a worm nut which is motor driven by a worm. The two screws at
the gate ends are driven simultaneously through a driving shaft
which is provided with a worm at each end for operating the worm
nuts. The screws are held in a vertical position, and the hoisting
chains pass over sheaves at the tops of the gate piers. The counter-
weights practically balance the weight of the gate, so that the
machine has to overcome only the resistance to the movement of the
gate due to water pressure. The machinery tunnel extends the full
length of the spillway, within the dam, and contains all the operat-
ing machinery. The screws for lifting the gates pass through this
tunnel, extending downward to the counterweights and upward to
the hoisting chain through openings provided for the purpose.
Bids were invited for 22 spillway-gate machines and a contract
awarded.
On January 31 specifications were issued for the purchase of
apparatus for the remote control and indication of the lock ma-
chinery and spillway gates. The system includes starting panels
for the various sizes of motors and switches; also remote indicators
for showing at the control switchboard the position of the various
machines. Bids were opened on Mhrch 15 and contracts awarded.
For supplying electric current to operate the lock machiiiery 16
transformer rooms are provided in the locks at Gatun, 8 at Pedro
Miguel, and 12 at Miraflores. Each transformer room is practically
an independent substation, interconnected with the others in the
same locks by means of primary feeders. Power is taken at 2,200
volts from the hydroelectric station and is transformed to 220 volts.
Each room is to contain two 190 kilowatt power transformers, either
one of which can carry the motor load of the section fed from one
transformer room. All equipment, including primary feeders, will
be in duplicate, to insure continuity of service. The transformer
room will also contain a 25-kilowatt lighting transformer, a bank
of 9 or 10 oil switches, a 7-panel, low-tension switchboard, and mis-
cellaneous cable and terminal equipment. In designing the trans-
former rooms every effort was made to render all operations simple
and foolproof, and care was used to avoid the possibility of shut-
downs and operating troubles.
The general features of lock illumination, both exterior and in-
terior, were fixed during the year. For exterior lighting concrete
lamp standards will be erected on the coping of the locks approxi-
mately 100 feet apart throughout the entire length of each wall. In
all there will be 211 lamp standards at Gatun, 131 at Pedro Miguel,
and 169 at Miraflores, a total of 511. The standard is of special
design and supports a reflector about 30 feet above the coping level.





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


The reflector is intended to throw the light of a 400-watt. Tungsten
lamp outward over a ship in the lock chamber and also to produce
a uniform illumination over the surface of the wall, without the glare
occasioned by the brilliancy of the lamp shining directly into the
eyes of an .approaching pilot. For interior lighting of operating
tunnels and machinery rooms, deck lights have been arranged in the
roof of the operating tunnels which will admit sufficient light in the
daytime to permit of circulation. For use at night, or when repair-
ing machinery, artificial illumination is provided by the ordinary
16-candlepower carbon filament lamps mounted in specially designed
reflectors set in the concrete of the ceiling and walls. A total of
about 7,000 lamps will be installed in all the locks.
The work of erecting the lock machinery was begun at Gatun in
September, 1911, and at Pedro Miguel in January, 1912. Owing to
delays in the receipt of machinery, the schedule of erection has not
been adhered to in all cases, but the installation and erection are pro-
gressing as fast as deliveries permit. Nine thousand four hundred
and fourteen feet of towing track, including the conductor slot chan-
nels, have been assembled, lined up, and tested, and a total of 2,348.9
cubic yards of concrete was laid in connection with the towing track
and miter gate recess covers at a cost of $16.0344 per cubic yard.
Under the contract entered into on May 16, 1911, for the construc-
tion of the emergency dams, 2,7S6 tons of material were shipped
from the various plants of the contractor in the United States, and
it is expected that all of the material for the first two dams will be
shipped before August 1. Shipments to the Isthmus were somewhat
delayed, thereby interfering with the erection work, due to a steve-
dores' strike, so that of the amount shipped only about. 1,700 tons
were received on the Isthmus. The false work and the erection
cranes for the east dam at Gatun were completed, which will enable
the contractor to begin work immediately upon receipt of those
pieces which are first required for erection. No work of any kind
has been done at any of the other dam sites.
Contracts were made for the emergency dams and gate and girder
hoisting machines, also for the electrical equipment for operating
the machines. Satisfactory progress was made during the year;
the first machine of each type was tested and the other machines
advanced so that they will soon be ready for test. Tests of the
worm gearing were carried out, so that the motor characteristics
and the hand-operating mechanism could be adapted to the results
of the tests.
Work on the detailed drawings for the floating caisson gates was
continued during the year on the basis of the general design de-
scribed in the last annual report. The plans for various decks have
been drawn out and a detailed study made of the pumps and piping.




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


Contracts aggregating $3,683,306.29 were entered into during the
year on specifications prepared by this division for various irons in
connection with the locks, for electric locomotives, tracks, machines,
pumps, electrical equipment; in short, for all necessary appliances
for completely equipping the locks for satisfactory operation, except
the machinery for the guard valves, which will be advertised in
the near future, and the material for the transmission line which
will connect the hydroelectric station at Gatun with the locks of the
Pacific division.
To enable a pilot to keep his course up to the turning point it is
necessary to have a range of two lights at each end of the longer
tangents in prolongation of the sailing line. The prolongations of
these tangents on which the lights are situated were covered by
heavy growths of brush and timber, so that trocas had to be cut
through the jungle until suitable locations were found. These trocas
are the width of the canal at the beginning and narrow down to 480
feet at the end. During the year a total of 809.85 acres was cleared,
at a cost of $22.7098 per acre, and 305,790 linear feet of trocas cut.
Field forces were organized and construction work begun on the
range towers at the Pacific entrance September 1, 1911. The towers,
which are of concrete, are being constructed by means of steel forms,
which are designed for the three types of towers used in the Atlantic
and Pacific sections. The forms are 4 feet in height and of such
size as to be easily handled by two laborers. They are made in seg-
mental sections or staves, and when the form is shifted to a higher
position the desired taper is given by omitting a section entirely or
substituting a narrower one. One set of forms answers for all tow-
ers of the type used in the sea-level sections and another set for all
towers of Gatun Lake. The forms for the watch room and lantern
room are set up and filled when the body of the tower has been fin-
ished. Eleven of the towers required by the system have been com-
pleted to date-Nos. 5 and 6, Atlantic section; Nos. 2, 9, 11, 13, and
14, Pacific section; Nos. 1, 21, 24, and 25, Gatun Lake section. In
the construction of these towers 805.88 cubic yards of concrete were
used, the larger portion reenforced. The position of 60 gas buoys
was located, referenced and checked, and three beacons in the Gatun
Lake section located. The illuminants will be gas and electricity,
the latter wherever the light is sufficiently accessible. For the float-
ing buoys and for the 23 towers and beacons, which are in inaccessible
places, compressed acetylene, dissolved in acetone, has been adopted.
White lights will be used throughout, and, in order to eliminate the
possibility of conflicting the lights with one another and with the
lights on shore, all range lights, beacons, and buoys will have indi-
vidual characteristics formed by flashes and combinations of flashes
of light and dark intervals. The candlepower of the range lights





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


will vary, according to the length of the range, from about 2,500 to
15,000 candlepower. The most powerful ones will be those marking
the sea channels at the Atlantic and Pacific entrances, which will be
visible for from about 12.5 to 18 nautical miles. The beacons and
buoy lights will have about 950 candlepower.
For further details concerning the work of this division, attention
is invited to Appendix A.
ATLANTIC DIVISION.

The work of this division embraces the construction of the locks
and dam at Gatun, the quarry at Porto Bello, the sand supply from
Nombre de Dios and elsewhere, the excavation between the locks
and deep water in the Caribbean, the breakwater for tle shelter of
shipping and protection of the channel in Limon Bay, the munici-
pal improvements in Colon and the various settlements embraced
within the territorial limits of the division, and such sanitary engi-
neering work within the same limits as is prescribed by the sanitary
department. The work is in charge of Lieut. Col. William L. Sibert,
United States Army, as division engineer.
At the close of the previous fiscal year the excavation necessary
for the construction of so much of the Gatun Locks as lie above the
lower caisson sills was completed, with the exception of the excava-
tion for the lateral culverts in the lowest lock. This was completed
during the fiscal year just ended by the removal of S,SSS cubic yards,
at a cost of $2.9598 per cubic yard. The material to be excavated
in order to permit the construction of the portions of the locks in-
cluding the wing walls and approach pier at the north end consists,
for the most part, of mud too soft to support. steam shovels, as the
water can not be entirely excluded, so that recourse must be had to
dredging. A suction dredge operated in the area between December,
1908, and June, 1909, and again between January 1. 1911, and April
14, 1911. Nothing further was done until Feb:ruary 1, 1112, or until
after the completion of the temporary dam which was mentioned in
the last annual report and which was designed to prevent the water
from flooding the locks during excavation. This dam. which was
completed on January 15, 1912, is 46 feet 4 inches high by 200 feet
long, and consists of a series of reenforced concrete buttresses sup-
porting timbers. The amount of material used was 1,040 cubic yards
of concrete and 98,736 feet b. m. of lumber. The cost of its con-
struction was $36,092.91. The total amount removed by the dredges
was 883,918 cubic yards, at a cost of $0.3129 per cubic yard, which
includes a plant charge of $0.0410 for the. cost of the temporary
dam. It is estimated that 89,570 cubic yards will complete the ex-
cavation necessary to permit unwatering of the area, so that the
construction of the wing walls and north center approach pier can




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


be begun. In order to secure suitable foundation, it was necessary
to excavate in places to a depth of 70 feet below sea level, which re-
quired closing the opening through which the dredges were admitted
by an earth dam and lowering the water so that the dredges could
work to this depth. The material removed by the dredges was
pumped behind the levee constructed east of the Panama Railroad;
a large portion escaped, filling the Mindi River and the French Canal
where these two cross, but it is stated that none reached the new
channel. After March 31, 1912, the material was pumped to the west
of the canal prism.
As noted in the last annual report, the unloading plant in connec-
tion with the sand and stone deliveries consisted of the cableways and
five derricks. From July 1, 1911, the cableways operated on a single
shift of 9 hours until June 1, 1912; subsequent to this date occa-
sional 12-hour shifts were worked to facilitate the delivery of sand
from a new source of supply in the Chagres River. During the year
the cableways unloaded 237,750 cubic yards of rock and 109,017 cubic
yards of sand; they average 30.42 cubic yards per hour while in
service, or 52.74 cubic yards per hour actual working time; in other
words, 57.69 per cent of the time was consumed in unloading opera-
tions, the balance lost in waiting for barges, 26.35 per cent, and in
other delays, 15.96 per cent. The five derricks were in use for un-
loading rock and sand until November 16, 1911, when the two sand
derricks were put out of commission; the remaining three engaged in
unloading rock ceased operations on April 29, 1912. During the time
they were in service the derricks unloaded 139,148 cubic yards of rock
and 53,768 cubic yards of sand-a total of 192,916 cubic yards of
material. This material was unloaded by the derricks at an average
rate of 25.57 cubic yards per hour while in service and 49.87 cubic
yards per hour in actual working time of unloading. The operating
cost of handling material by cableways and derricks, exclusive of
plant charges, was $0.1904 and $0.1574 per cubic yard, respectively.
In addition to unloading, the cableways also transferred rock and
sand from the stock piles to the tunnel hoppers, which added for
the last quarter of the year $0.2646 per cubic yard of concrete laid.
When the deliveries of crushed stone from Porto Bello were stopped,
the rock screen, which had been supplied by a derrick unloading di-
rectly from barges, was dismounted, placed on a car, and moved to
one side of the rock-storage pile where the cableways have access to
it, and since May 23, 1912, one duplex cableway has been employed
exclusively with the rock screen. From July 1, 1911, until April
30, 1912, when the delivery of cement in barges was discontinued, the
cement shed cranes unloaded 448,700 barrels of cement. On the latter
date arrangements were made for delivering the remainder of the
cement in cars, which will be unloaded by hand. The amount re-




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


quired at the end of the fiscal year for completing the work, in addi-
tion to that already in storage, was 190,000 barrels.
During the year an average of 4.30 of the eight 2-yard mixers in-
stalled in the construction plant furnished a total of 343,364 cubic
yards of concrete (bucket measurement) and were operated daily,
except Sundays, on the basis of 12 hours per day from July 1 to
January 31, 1912, and 9 hours per day from February 1 to June 30,
1912, at the rate of 25.52 cubic yards per mixer per hour in service,
or 59.25 cubic yards per hour at work. The auxiliary plant mixers,
two in number, operated on an average of 9 hours a day until
March 11, 1912, when the plant was shut, down and dismantled; this
plant mixed a total of 80,544 cubic yards of concrete (bucket measure-
ment) during the year, an average of 22.20 cubic yards per mixer
per hour in service, or 68.54 cubic yards per hour at work. An
average of three 1-yard mixers, together with a small portion
mixed by hand, produced a total of 15,75S cubic yards of concrete.
The product of the construction-plant mixers was placed by cable-
ways, or transferred by chutes to narrow-gauge equuipmenrIt, from
which the concrete was dumped in place. The cableways were oper-
ated 12 hours a day up to January 31, 1912, subsequent, to which
a 9-hour day was used. Of the time in service, 38.74 per cent was
consumed in handling 309,534 cubic yards of concrete and large rock,
17.77 per cent in handling forms and irons, etc., and 43.49 per cent
in delays. Each cableway handled an average of 31.40i cubic yards
of rock and concrete per hour when engaged on that work. The
narrow-gauge equipment handled, in addition to large stone, 100,990
cubic yards of concrete from mixers and 24,434 cubic yards previously
handled by cableways.
Work on the upper or south approach pier was continued through-
out the year on the fill reported in the last annual report. For the
foundation of the wall a total of 73,695 linear feet of concrete piling
was manufactured during the year, at a cost of $1.2150 per linear foot,
and 75,474 feet were driven. As previously reported, difficulty was
experienced with the longer concrete piles, and, because of this and
also to expedite the work, 51,450 feet of creosoted piles were substi-
tuted. Reenforced concrete construction was used for the south
approach pier and 31,000 cubic yards of concrete laid in it during
the year, completing about 67 per cent of it. The guide walls at the
south end of the locks were completed and i.000 cubic yards were
placed for this purpose.
The total amount of masonry-concrete and large stone-laid by the
concrete plant, auxiliary plant, portable mixers, and by hand aggre-
gated for the year 451,025 cubic yards; of this amount, 59,SS3 cubic
yards were reenforced. Of this total, 371,388 cubic yards were laid
during the time the 12-hour day was used, so that only 79,637 cubic




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


yards were laid since January 31, 1912. The division cost of the
masonry was $7.7552 per cubic yard. The large stone laid in the
concrete, aggregating 14,194 cubic yards, cost $1.3283 per cubic yard
delivered in the concrete, resulting in a saving of $49,300. The total
amount of concrete laid in the locks to the close of the fiscal year was
1,875,965 cubic yards, at an average cost of $7.1142 per cubic yard.
On the basis of 2,000,000 cubic yards, the masonry work of the
Gatun locks was 93.80 per cent completed.
The slides at the north end of the locks continued to give trouble
during the year, interfering with the extension of the cableway
tracks.
The back filling in rear of the side walls of all the locks was con-
tinued during the year. The back fill in the center wall of the upper
and middle locks was completed. Material was secured from borrow
pits and the excavation at Mindi, and a total of 922,215 cubic yards
were placed behind the side walls, at a cost of $0.4615 per cubic yard.
T.he amount of back fill placed during the year, added to that re-
ported in the last annual report, makes a total of 1,462,074 cubic
yards in place. The total fill in the center wall aggregates 97,291
cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.7692 per cubic yard.
Crushed stone for the concrete of the locks and spillway was ob-
tained from the Porto Bello quarry until April 30, 1912, when the
crusher plant was shut down, as it was estimated that there was a suf-
ficient quantity in storage at Gatun to complete the concrete work.
Though the eight-hour day was in force, the crushing plant was not
operated at full capacity, as the output was limited to three barges
per day subsequent to June 19, 1911. The total amount produced
up to the time that the quarry was shut down aggregated 440,413
cubic yards, at an average cost of $1.4280 per cubic yard. The out-
put of the crushers averaged 217.60 cubic yards per hour in service
and 436.56 cubic yards per hour crushing. The material was trans-
ported to Gatun in barges, thence transferred to the stock piles.
The cost delivered in the stock piles at Gatun averaged $2.4952 per
cubic yard.
The Porto Bello quarry is also supplying rock for the outer stone
armor of the breakwater at Toro Point. During the first month and
a half of the fiscal year just ended work was continued on the dock
for handling this stone and on the construction of tracks in the
breakwater quarry. On August 18 production was begun and on
November 20 one of the cranes ordered for the quarry was put into
service. Work with this crane developed the fact that the stone
could be loaded much more rapidly and economically by steam
shovels, and the use of cranes for this purpose was accordingly
abandoned. To enable the continuance in service of the locomotives
and some of the cars employed in the quarry for the production of




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


crushed stone, 42-inch gauge tracks in the breakwater quarry were
originally contemplated, but 18 additional flat cars which had been
ordered as part of the equipment were lost in transit and the order
was not duplicated, as experience indicated that the standard 5-foot
gauge tracks would be more satisfactory. It was not practicable to
release any of the standard equipment from work elsewhere on the
canal, and the quarry was operated at a low rate of output with the
incomplete narrow-gauge equipment and consequently at an increase
in cost. The stone-bin dock was reenforced and changed to adapt
it to the use of cranes for handling breakwater stone; it was prac-
tically completed on June 30. The breakwater quarry is on a site
lower than the quarry for the crushed stone and is being developed
in two benches. Each will have a breast of 0O feet at the highest
point. Eleven hundred linear feet of the lower bench have been
developed, and the length of the upper one will be practically 1,700
feet. The total amount quarried aggregated ;5,l133 cubic yards, at a
cost of $2.7092 per cubic yard on board barges at Porto Bello.
Sand was obtained from Nombre de Dios by use of dredge .o. 4
until November 17, 1911, when the sand storage pile at. Gatun was
filled, the work was closed down, and the plant removed. The oper-
ations of other departments at this locality also ceased. The total
amount secured from July 1, 1911, to this date, 144.123 cubic yards,
was transported in barges to Gatun. The cost. per cubic yard in the
stock pile was $2.2414. Cham6 sand was procured from the Pacific
division during January, February, and March, when the Pacific
division's equipment was not sufficient to permit further shipments:
a total of 20,315 cubic yards was placed in the stock pile from this
source, at a cost of $1.7079 per cubic yard, including an arbitrary of
$0.7890 for the unabsorbed plant at Nonibre de Dios. On May 3,
1912, the division engineer was authorized to reopen sand operations
at Nombre de Dios for obtaining by use of a suction dredge the bal-
ance of the sand needed for the locks and spillway; before this was
done, however, it was decided to use the sand secured by one of the
dredges from the old bed of the Chagres River, and since May 15,
40,531 cubic yards were obtained from this source; of this amount
1,771 cubic yards were placed in cars and the balance in barges, which
were unloaded by cableways. The cost of this sand delivered in the
stock pile was $1.2850 per cubic yard, including a Nombre de Dios
plant charge of $0.7671. For the transportation of sand, stone, and
cement an average of 3 tugs, including 1 stern-wheel towboat, G
lighters, and 16 barges were in use. Under date of February 2, 1912,
1 tugboat and 3 barges were sent around to the Pacific side of the
canal, with the intention of increasing the equipment at this locality
so as to furnish the balance of the sand required by the Atlantic
division. The tug and barges left Cristobal February 11, 1912, and





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


arrived at Balboa June 17, 1912. The source of sand supply from
the old Chagres River bed renders unnecessary the further procure-
mlent of sand from the Pacific division.
At the close of the previous fiscal year the dry fills for the east
portion of the Gatun Dam, extending from the locks to the spillway,
had been raised to an elevation of 85 feet and the hydraulic fill to 73
feet above mean sea level, while the north and south dry fills of the
portion west of the spillway were at an elevation of 60 feet and 67
feet above sea level, respectively, and the hydraulic fill between the
dry fills at 57.3 feet above sea level. At the close of the fiscal year
just ended sufficient material had been added to raise the dam for a
length of 1,000 feet east of the spillway to an elevation of 103.35
feet; for the balance of the portion east of the spillway the dry fills
had reached a general elevation of 96 feet and the hydraulic fill
between them a general elevation of 85 feet; for the portion of the
dam west of the spillway, the north and south fills had reached a
general elevation of 98 feet and the hydraulic fill an elevation vary-
ing from 87 feet at the spillway to 78 feet at the drains located in
the northwest corner. In securing the increases in elevation noted
the cross sections taken in June, 1912, show that the dry fill was
increased by 2,544,526 cubic yards and the hydraulic fill by 2,543,086
cubic yards. In obtaining this amount of 5,087,612 cubic yards of
net fill, 9,048,896 cubic yards of material (borrow pit measurement)
were handled; in other words, there was a loss of 43.8 per cent. The
dry fill in place in the dam shows a loss of 15.53 per cent resulting
from consolidation in the mass of the dry fill and from its inter-
mixture with the hydraulic iinaterial. The wet fill, measured in place,
shows that a loss of 56 per cent resulted, due mainly to waste of soft
material in suspension through the drain pipes, leakage from the
pipes, and general consolidation. The cost per cubic yard of dry
fill averaged $0.5174 and for wet fill $0.3844 per cubic yard, on the
basis of material handled; on the basis of actual increase in the dam,
these costs were $0.5303 and $0.3938, respectively. For use in the dry-
fill portions of the dam, 1,465,596 cubic yards of' spoil were obtained
from the central division between July 1, 1911, and February 15,1912,
at a cost of $0.1040 per cubic yard delivered on the dam. On the
latter date the old double-track line of the Panama Railroad south of
Gatun was abandoned, necessitating a reduction in the number of
trains per day that could be sent from Culebra Cut, if this source of
supply were continued, as they were obliged to operate over the
single track of the relocation. To supply the additional amount that
could be used economically, borrow pits must be opened, and, on the
estimate that all the dry fill could be secured subsequent to this date
more cheaply from borrow pits in the hills west of the dam, the
delivery of spoil from Culebra Cut was stopped and the borrow pits
61012-12--2





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


as a source of supply were adopted. From two to six steam shovels
operating in these pits and in the vicinity of the spillway removed
1,467,675 cubic yards at a cost of $0.3027 per cubic yard delivered on
the dam. In addition to the foregoing sources of supply, 15,962)
cubic yards were obtained from the excavation through the Mindi
Hills, 62,689 cubic yards from power house excavation, and 448
cubic yards from lock excavation.
The hydraulic fill was pumped into the dam by five pipe-line
dredges working in borrow pits upward of one and a half miles dis-
tant, the maximum lift of the material being 100 feet. Two of them
worked south of the dam and three north of that structure; of the
latter, one worked only about three months of the year in this
locality. For the longer pipe lines and higher lifts, one or two
relay pumps were installed to assist the dredges. One of the dredges
on the south side worked between February 1 and July 6 in pumping
material along the south toe of the extreme western portion of the
dam, spreading the foundation of the structure in order to over-
come the slipping that was taking place in the blanket over the face
of the hill on the west on which the dam rests. It handled 58S,410
cubic yards in this work. The other dredge on the south side han-
dled 594,495 cubic yards of material in spreading the fill which had
been made to support the south approach pier of the locks, and
which began to settle under the weight of the pier. Of this total
amount, 36,000 cubic yards were handled in September, 1011, the
balance between January 1 and May 31, 1912.
The original plan of the dam, given in the report. of the Board
of Consulting Engineers for the Panama Canal, dated February 5,
1906, contemplated a width of 100 feet at a height of 135 feet above
sea level, with side slopes on the upstream side of 1 on 3 to eleva-
tion 90 and then 1 on 2 to elevation 135. On t.he downstream face
the slopes, starting at the top, were to be 1 on 2 down to elevation
88, then 1 on 25 to elevation 20, 1 on 50 for the next 10 feet in eleva-
tion, terminating with a slope of 1 on 2 to sea level.
During 1908 difficulty was experienced with one of the Panama
Railroad embankments on the relocation south of Gatun, which
necessitated spreading the lower courses of the fill. In this case
the slope of the line joining the top of the completed embankment
with the bottom edge of the bench which was constructed to spread
the foundation over the relatively soft area was between 1 on 7 and
1 on 8. Assuming this for the slope of the dam, the division engi-
neer prepared a plan of cross section in January, 1909, in which the
upstream slope from elevation 60 was fixed at 1 on 7.67 to elevation
105, where the width was 100 feet, and the downstream slope was
1 on 11.63, continuing to elevation 30.




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


Ill 1909, when the board of engineers appointed by the President
visited the Isthmus with the President elect, for the purpose of re-
ric\ving the project to determine whether any change should be
Imade as the result of the slip which had occurred in the rock fill on
the south toe of the dam, the proposition of reducing the height of
the dam and flattening the slopes was submitted to it. The board's
report was accompanied by a typical cross section of the dam which
it advocated and which was adopted. The height of the dam had
been reduced 20 feet, or from elevation 135 feet to elevation 115 feet.
The slopes on the upstream side are 1 on 7.67 to elevation 90, with a
horizontal berm 30 feet wide at elevation 60, and then 1 on 4 to the
full height, or 115 feet. On the downstream side slopes from the top
down were fixed at 1 on 4 to elevation 90, thence 1 on 8 to elevation
60, from which to elevation 30, 1 on 16 was adopted. Below eleva-
tion 30, where a berm was provided, the slope was 1 on 8 to sea level.
According to this cross section, which will be found in the annual
report of 1909, the hydraulic fill was to extend to elevation 100, where
it was to be 100 feet wide and topped by 15 feet of rock fill. On the
upstream side the hydraulic fill was to have a slope of 1 on 2, and
in the interval between this fill and a 10-foot thickness of rock on
the outer slope of the dam was to be the cheapest filling available."
On the downstream side the hydraulic fill had a slope of 1 on 2 down
to elevation 55, and thence to sea level on a slope about parallel to the
slope of the dam, the interval between the fill and the exterior slope
of the dam to be of the cheapest filling available, rock fill preferred
for surface of slopes."
The construction of the dam proceeded in accord with these rec-
ommendations, except that for construction purposes authority was
given to continue the practically 1 on 8 slopes on upward, the change
of slopes to be made later. The cheapest filling available was that
supplied by the dredges, and it was evident that if this did not dry
out properly a condition might arise which would result in produc-
ing such a head against the dry fill that a blowout might occur.
Accordingly, in November, 1909, instructions were given to increase
the quantity of dry fill on both the upstream and downstream sides,
encroaching if necessary into the hydraulic fill so as to secure, outside
of the latter, masses such that any hydrostatic pressure that might
be produced by the hydraulic fill would tend to act downward on
the exterior masses instead of upward and outward. The drying out
that had been tried in the dry season of 1910-11 showed an unsatis-
factory condition regarding the consolidation of at least the central
portion of the hydraulic fill in that part of the dam east of the spill-
way, but it was believed that if construction proceeded along the lines
of the instructions given the soft material would be squeezed out as
the height of tire dam increased.





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


In order to determine the settlement that was taking place in the
dam, observations were required on hubs located :,s described il
the last annual report and a monthly record kept. These observe\'
tions showed a gradual settlement until on October 12, 1911, a move-
ment occurred in the east half of the dam. On the north .ide, for
a length of approximately 1,000 feet, the top of the dry fill settled
4 or 5 feet. This vertical movement was accompanied by a hori-
zontal movement, greatest at the 75-foot contour, where it amounted
to 14.2 feet, and gradually diminishing down the slope to the 31-
foot contour, where the horizontal displacement was about 3.2 feet
in a length of about 700 feet. While the crest of the slope moved
downward, the lower portions of the slope were bulged upward to
a certain extent, measurements showing a. ri-e of 1.25 feet on the
60-foot contour at a point 1,150 feet from the center of the spillway
channel. The movement was within the dam, as was verified by a
test pit sunk where the bulging was greatest, which also showed that.
the masses of dry fill desired had not been secured. Material was
piled to the north of the 31-foot contour, giving additional weight
to the toe, and a blanket of spoil sufficient to make a continuous
slope from the 31-foot berm to the top of the dam was placed over
the north face. There was no motion after this additional weight
had been added other than the gradual settlement. In addition to
these steps, instructions were issued to pump sand into the hydraulic
fill along the 1,000-foot length where the settlement occurred at the
top, and to bring the dry fill up on the regular slopes, gradually
crowding the hydraulic fill until the distance between the dry fills
on the two sides was 25 feet, after which the hydraulic fill was to be
covered with red clay secured from the vicinity and properly tamped
wet until a height of 103.35 feet was reached, where the thickness
would be 100 feet. It is proposed to continue observations and ulti-
mately to bring the dam to 105 feet above sea level and, if necessary,
subsequently to raise it to the height originally advocated.
A movement occurred about the same time on the south slope, the
greatest lateral motion being 6.5 feet on the 75-foot contour. On the
60-foot berm there was a lateral movement of 0.5 foot. A heavy toe
was added on the 60-foot level, extending from the dam to the spill-
way channel wall and to the berm.
In adapting the cross section proposed by the board in 1909 to
the ground, the slopes were modified where the dam is practically a
blanket over the spur projecting from the hills on the west side
against which the dam abuts, and here the plan proposed of making
the upstream slope 1 on 4 and the downstream slope 1 on 5 was
approved. As dry fill was added on the upstream face of the hill a
condition developed indicating that the material on the bottom ex-
tending out from the foot of the hill would not bear the weight, so




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


that it was necessary to flatten the slope, which was accordingly
authorized to be 1 on 7.67. A heavy fill was placed on the ridge that
was pushed up outside of the toe of this slope, and, in addition, one
of the dredges operating to the south of the dam extended the
foundation outside of the rock fill by distributing material over the
bottom, thus adding to the spread given the foundations.
In the construction of the spillway work was confined during the
first half of the year to the east and west flanks, where the abutments,
ogee, and crest piers were completed to elevation 69, or the top of
the dam. With the beginning of the dry season about two-thirds of
the central section, which had been held at elevation 10 except for
the construction, piers, was inclosed with a cofferdam and the concrete
work carried well above water level. The full closure was then
made within the cofferdam covering the balance of the central section.
Three Stoney gates and one cylindrical valve were installed to con-
trol the flow through the four. undersluices. The program contem-
plated the completion of the central portion to elevation 50 by April
1, so that the lake could be allowed to rise to this height at the dam.
This was done for the total length, except about 120 feet which re-
mains at elevation 45, but this portion is to be built up to the required
height in advance of the water reaching the 45-foot level. Though
the gates controlling the undersluices were closed on April 30 and
the lake allowed to rise, they were subsequently raised, as the non-
completion of the lock gates did not permit the proposed lake level.
The sluice gates were raised and lowered, depending upon circum-
stances, until August 17, 1912, when the condition of the lock gates
was such that they could be closed. On this date the lake had reached
a height of 32.01 feet. A trestle was built ,from the eastward at
elevation 95 and a derrick erected near the west abutment to enable
construction work on the east and west flanks to proceed during the
first half of the current year. The total amount of concrete laid was
58,666 cubic yards, at a cost of $7.0988 per cubic yard.
Plans prepared by the first division of the chief engineer's office
for the hydroelectric power plant, which is to be constructed below
the spillway, having been approved, excavation work was started by
the Atlantic division in May, and the total amount accomplished
during the year was 72,119 cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.3767
per cubic yard. During the year 10,062 cubic yards of back fill, at
an average cost of $0.3898 per cubic yard, were placed about the
spillway.
In the channel between Gatun locks and the Atlantic Ocean exca-
vation in the dry was continued through the Mindi Hills and, with
the exception of the dike separating the cut from the French canal,
was completed on February 24, 1912. The sluicing operations re-
ported last year were completed by the removal of 1,000 cubic yards





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


of mud. at a cost of $2.597i per cubic yard. Two stoea-n sovel re-
moved 56,703 cubic yards of earth and 368,11;9 cubli yards of rock
at, al average cost of $0.5952 per cubic yard. AWhlen the dry excava-
tion of the channel was completed the barrier was blown upl, for
which purpose 81,750 linear feet of drilling were done and 183,150
pounds of dynamite used. Of the amount of material removed from
Mind in the dry, about 350,000 cubic yards of rock were u-ed for
back filling at Gatun, the cost of dumpingbeing charged to the locks.
The dredges which operated between the Mindi IHills and deep
water in the Cai'ibbean in excavating from the canal plrism were tlhe
seagoing dredge Caribbean, 5-yard dipper dredges ('ircar. and
Mind, and the French ladder dredges No. 1 and .o. 5. They re-
moved 3,859,445 cubic yards of earth and 495,5!95 cubic yards of rock.
Channel silting during the year amounted to 3,03(,000 clbic yards,
making the net earth excavation in this section S23,44.1 cubic yards.
Between Mindi and Gatun dredges No. 4 and Said'pipcr removed
515,787 cubic yards of earth south of the old Panama Railroad line.
The total amount of dredging in the prism agglregated 4,870,827 icubic
yards, at an average cost of $0.2481 per cubic yard. In addition
to the foregoing, material aggregating 883,'.il cubic yards of earth
and rock were removed just south of the locks, as already noted.
Miscellaneous dredging outside of the prism included 3,762 cubic
yards from the dry-dock slip, 72,798 cubic yards from the east diver-
sion at Gatun, 23,496 cubic yards of earth and 872 cubic yards of
rock from the east diversion at Mount Hope, 4,767 cubic yards of
earth and 2,181 cubic yards of rock in front of the dynamite dock at
Mindi, 80,296 cubic yards of earth from pit for rock dump north of
Gatun Locks, 2,785 cubic yards of earth from in front of the fortifica-
tion trestle at Mindi, and 2,450 cubic yards of earth from the slip at
the cableways. The total output for the year from the canal prism
and lock site aggregated 5,754,745 cubic yards, and from accessory
works 444,327 cubic yards.
At the dry-dock shops the oxyacetylene and thermit welding proc-
esses were put in operation during the year, and the shops main-
tained the fleet of dredges, barges, and tugs in charge of the Atlantic
division in working condition.
The breakwater extending out from Toro Point is intended for
the protection of the harbor and the shelter of vessels against
northers, and its line of direction is normal to prevailing winds
during these storms. It is not intended to give protection against
the waves produced by the trade winds, which generally are from
the northeast. So far as the waves caused by the latter winds are
concerned, it is the consensus of opinion among seafaring men that
no shelter is necessary, and on this account the construction of the
east breakwater, the commencement of which was postponed until




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


the effect of the west breakwater could be ascertained, has not been
undertaken. It will not be required, so far as available data now
,t. hand indicate, to protect the harbor or shipping in case of
northern, though the actual occurrence of such a storm may demon-
strate to the contrary. It will not be required by shipping against
the trade winds or the waves produced by them. It may, however,
be necessary in order to protect the channel against the silting that
results both from the wave action and from the erosion of the bank
which is now taking place on the shore of the bay west of the chan-
nel. It appears that the effect of the west breakwater is to increase
the wave action on the beach at Colon, and it is possible that it may
. have some effect on the eroding process mentioned. What effect the
mole being built for the protection of the new Panama Railroad
wharves and adjacent anchorage basin at Cristobal will have is also
unknown. The question is one of determining the relative cost of
maintaining the channel by dredges, as compared with the cost of
the breakwater. Another factor which enters into consideration is
the final cost of the west breakwater. While the present indica-
tions point to the necessity of the construction of an east break-
water for the maintenance of the channel against silting, expendi-
tures in this direction are not yet warranted.
During the past fiscal year 5,514 lineal feet of double track and
48 lineal feet of single track trestle were completed, making the total
length of the trestle on July 1, 1912, 10,927 feet. Fill dumped from
the trestle aggregated 460,040 cubic yards; in addition, 6,498 cubic
yards were used for ballast and 4,680 cubic yards were furnished the
fortifications, all of which was procured from the Toro Point quarry,
which was shut down on June 22, 1912. Porto Bello rock for the
exterior of the breakwater was delivered in August, 1911. The rock
was shipped in barges, transferred to Lidgerwood trains by loco-
motive cranes, and plowed off on the north side of the trestle. Dur-
ing the year 65,133 cubic yards were unloaded in this way. Of
the rock removed by the dredges from the canal prism, 510,780
cubic yards were dumped in the vicinity of the trestle. The cost of
stone in the breakwater secured from the Toro Point quarry was
$1.3832 per cubic yard; that from Porto Bello was placed at a cost
of $4.6445 per cubic yard.
The filtration plant which was authorized for the Agua Clara
Reservoir in January, 1911, was completed on December 29, 1911,
at a total cost of $39,138.95. Due to shortage of water in Colon,
Toro Point, and Porto Bello, water was transferred from the Gatun
water supply in barges, from January 25 to May 23 to Toro Point,
from May 10 to June 24 to Cristobal, and from May 9 to 16 to Porto
Bello.




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


During the year the usual maintenance work was done on roads,
sewers, and drains. Approximately 10,000 square yards of macadam
were laid and repaired, 15,000 lineal feet of road ditches cleaned,
2,800 lineal feet of curb and gutter laid, and 3.000 feet of sewers in-
stalled. In addition, municipal improvements were carried on in
Colon under an appropriation by Congress for the purpose.
Sanitary work consisted of cleaning and grading 336,000 linear
feet of ditches; constructing approximately S.000 linear feet of
ditches, and lining with concrete approximately 2,300 linear feet of
ditches.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix B.

CENTRAL DIVISION.

The work of this division embraces all the excavation between the
Gatun Dam and Pedro Miguel Locks, including diversion channels,
the construction of the Naos Island breakwater, clearing the timber
from the channel and anchorage basin, municipal improvements in
the various settlements included within the division limits, and such
sanitary engineering work in the same area as is prescribed by the
sanitary department. The work is in charge of Lieut. Col. D. D.
Gaillard, United States Army, as division engineer.
The division is divided into four construction districts, as outlined
in the last annual report.
The Chagres district extends from the Gatun Dam to the Chagres
River at Gamboa, in which distance the Chagres River crosses the
axis of the canal 23 times, thus forming a series of peninsulas which,
beginning at Gamboa, are known as Point 1, Point 2, Point 3, etc.
The material which remained to be removed July 1, 1911, in Point 1
consisted of gravel and sand carried down by the Chagres and de-
posited in the channel that had been excavated through this penin-
sula. In all 91,300 cubic yards of material were removed from this
locality during the fiscal year just ended, of which 27,632 cubic yards
were taken from the canal prism and the balance, 63,668 cubic yards,
outside of the prism. The gravel removed was stored for use as
ballast and in concrete work. The total amount in storage at the
close of the fiscal year was 110,000 cubic yards.
No work was done at Points 2, 3, and 4; the material remaining to
be removed consists of silt aggregating 58,300 cubic yards; it is
intended to take this out by a suction dredge during the current
fiscal year.
At Point 4-B 56,380 cubic yards were removed during the fiscal
year; of this, 44,184 cubic yards were taken out by contract. A con-
tract was entered into on December 6, 1910, for excavating about
112,450 cubic yards, at a cost of $0.2150 per cubic yard; afterwards




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


increased to $0.3150, but little was done at the new rate. Work was
begun in December, 1910, and on May 16, 1912, after removing
108,992 cubic yards, the contractor signified his inability to finish it.
The work was therefore taken over and 12,196 cubic yards removed
by the forces of the central division. There remained to be removed
by dredges on June 30, 1912, 2,700 cubic yards.
At San Pablo the completion of the channel required the removal
of the bed of the old line of the Panama Railroad, which could not
be done until this line was abandoned. Work was commenced in
January, 1912, and completed in May by the removal of 305,291
cubic yards, which finished the prism at this locality.
At, Tabernilla excavation was commenced in March, 1912, and
finished the same month by the removal of 22,893 cubic yards.
At Buena Vista 100 cubic yards were removed in March, thereby
completing this part of the work.
At Bohio steam-shovel excavation was commenced in February,
1912, and finished in March; 6,997 cubic yards were removed.
At Pena Blanco 48 cubic yards were removed in March, 1912.
A contract for the removal of about 202,140 cubic yards between
Tabernilla and Bohio was entered into on March 21, 1910. Work
was commenced in October, 1910, and the contract completed in
April, 1912, by the removal of 207,132 cubic yards, of which 101,600
cubic yards were removed during the present fiscal year, at a cost of
$0.34 per cubic yard.
The excavation of the Panama Railroad embankment across the
anchorage basin south of Gatun was commenced in March, 1912, and
finished to grade 35 feet above sea level in the following month, and
required the removal of 39,568 cubic yards.
A small force was engaged in blasting stumps and trees in the
Gatun Lake Channel. The total amount expended for this work was
$2,029.51. Prior to August 31, 1911, this division also did the clear-
ing work for the first division in connection with lighting the chan-
nel. The total clearing was 652.7 acres at $21.1390 per acre, involv-
ing running 49,547 feet of profile and cutting 163,310 feet of trochas
at a cost of $0.0990 per lineal foot. Subsequent to August 31 this
work was handled by forces under the first division of the chief
engineer's office.
The total amount removed in the Chagres section during the year
aggregated 560,509 cubic yards, leaving 151,000 cubic yards of wet
excavation still remaining.
During the fiscal year 16,476,769 cubic yards of material were re-
moved from the Culebra Cut and, from estimates prepared on July
1, 1912, 11,863,540 cubic yards remained to be removed in order to
complete this section of the canal. The amount remaining was again
increased over that reported a year ago by 3,595,000 cubic yards, in





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


order to allow for slides already existingat.the beginning of the fiscal
year and for excavation along the upper levels of the banks of tile
canal, where slides had developed or were anticipated, and outside
of the canal prism lines. The total amount of material removed dur-
ing the year outside of the slope lines and because of slides aggregated
5.915,000 cubic yards, or 35.90 per cent of the total amount of mate-
rial removed from the cut as against. 30.07 per cent during the pre-
vious fiscal year. The total amount of material due to slides so far
removed aggregates 16,671,000 cubic yards. and the estimated amount
remaining is 3,595,000 cubic yards. The work in the cut has been re-
tarded on account of slides and breaks in its banks which increased as
the cut was deepened. The geological formation changes so fre-
quently and suddenly that no treatment for slides has proven effec-
tive, when once developed, except, that of excavating and hauling
away the material composing the moving mass until the slide comes
to rest or until the angle of repose for the particular material in
motion is reached. At the Cucaracha slide, which has been practi-
cally at rest for over a year, the angle of repose is somewhat steeper
than 1 on 5, while the Culebra slide on the west. bank, where the
material is still moving, the present slope is about 1 on 5. In the
slide on the west bank of the canal just north of the village of
Culebra, the moving material is of stratified rock moving in mass on
a layer of lignite which has an inclination of 1 on 7. This slide
developed early in the dry season. These very flat slopes of the
bank in the deepest portions of the cut explain the large amount of
material added by slides and breaks over the original estimates. A
number of relatively small slides developed as the cut was deepened,
but the largest one now in motion is that which results from a break
in the west bank of the canal at Culebra and covers an area of about
63 acres. From this slide 2,710,000 cubic yards were removed during
the fiscal year just ended, making a total thus far taken out of 6,765,000
cubic yards, and leaving still to be handled an estimated amount of
1,300,000 cubic yards. The next largest slide lies on the east side of
the cut, opposite Culebra, and covers an area of 50.7 acres. From
this slide 1,960,000 cubic yards were removed during the past fiscal
year, making a total of 4,290,000 cubic yards that have been taken out
since it started, in 1907; it is estimated that 600,000 cubic yards still
remain.
Work, begun in January, 1911, of decreasing the pressure on the
banks where breaks might be expected was continued throughout
the year. three steam shovels having been kept continuously at work
terracing the west bank in the vicinity of Culebra, and the same
number during the greater part of the year on similar work on the
opposite bank. By removing the weight from the top of the banks
there is less trouble and expense in maintaining the tracks at the





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


bottom of the cut and less interference with drainage, two important
considerations in prosecuting the work economically and expedi-
tiously.
With the hope that it may allay some misapprehension which seems
to be felt concerning the slides which are given sensational import-
ance whenever any occur, attention is invited to a report on the
subject prepared by Mr. Donald F. MacDonald, geologist, and given
in Appendix E.
Thus far increases in the estimates of material to be removed, made
necessary by the slides, will cause no increase in the total estimated
cost of Culebra Cut, as the division costs were reduced during the
past year, effected in part by increased efficiency of the organiza-
tion, by the fewer interruptions in the transportation service by
slides and water, by the better conditions generally of the dumps,
and by the upkeep of the output, due to the amount removed by the
shovels on the upper reaches. It is also of interest to note that
none of the slides which occurred during the year would have inter-
fered with the passage of ships had the canal been in operation.
The summit of drainage in the cut is about opposite Culebra, and
water south of this point was drained into the Pacific by pumping
from a sump at Pedro Miguel until August 15, 1911, when arrange-
ments were perfected for draining through the central culvert of the
Pedro Miguel locks. The dike separating the cut on the north side
from the Chagres River remained intact, and the pumping plant
previously described continued in service to handle the water which
drains to the north from the summit.
The diversion channel on the east side of the cut, for carrying the
waters of the Obispo River and its tributaries, gave trouble during
the year. In March, 1912, cracks appeared to the south of Empire
suspension bridge, indicating a motion of the material lying between
the diversion and the cut proper. Steps were taken to relocate this
part of the diversion farther to the eastward, so that should a slide
occur the waters of the diversion would not pour into the cut and in-
terfere with work. Excavation was begun in April and finished
during that month; in all, 26,168 cubic yards were removed; and
the new portion is 1,970 feet long and located 510 feet east of the old
diversion at its most distant point. The Empire-Paraiso wagon road
and the railroad were reconstructed on the west bank of the new di-
version. When the water was turned into the new channel the
weight of the threatening bank was lightened by removing the ma-
terial between the old portion of the diversion and the face of the cut.
The slide on the east side of the canal, opposite Whitehouse,
threatened to break back into the Obispo diversion at that point.
While the movement of the material was slow, it was deemed safer
to relocate the diversion about 100 feet eastward of its present loca-




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL CO MISSION.


,tion, and work with this in view was undertaken toward the close of
the year. It will require about 500 feet of trestle and the removal of
about 15,000 cubic yards of earth.
All trains loaded in the cut were hauled out at either end to the
dumps. The dumps used for wasting material from the canal proper
after February 15, when the service to Gatun was discontinued, were
those at Miraflores and Balboa for trains run to the south. and the
relocation dumps for trains run to the north over the Chagres River
bridge. The material excavated from the high levels on both sides
of the canal was wasted on local dumps, with the exception that a
few of the Lidgerwood trains serving shovels at Rio Grande and
Culebra were run over the Panama Railroad to the dumps at Mira-
flores and Balboa. For finishing the work at San Pablo. three old
dumps were reopened and two new river dumps utilized:. The Tab.-r-
nilla dumps were reopened and used during March. 191'2. for wasting
a part of the material excavated at that point. Between the Balboa
Y and Ancon and Sosa Hills 72 acres of marshy land that could not
be drained properly were filled in, 1,022,591 cubic yards of material
from the canal being used for this purpose. As this fill is for sanitary
purposes, the excess cost of dumping over the average cost of dump-
ing at Balboa is not included in the cost of the central division, but
is held in a suspense account to be distributed later, depending upon
the use to which the land may be put. Of the spoil hauled from the
central division, 1,585,184 cubic yards were sent to Gatun for use on
the dam in back fill of the locks; 2,872,950 cubic yards were wasted at
Miraflores; 3,930,543 cubic yards were used at Balboa, partly in
reclaiming swamp, partly in extending the breakwater, and the rest
wasted; 5,268,890 cubic yards dumped along the relocation between
Caimito and Gamboa.
In addition to the amount wasted on the central division dumps,
which aggregated 15,259,391 cubic yards, 1,883,676 cubic yards were
furnished other divisions. The material previously wasted at Mira-
flores, Balboa, and on the relocation dumps having settled firmly, it
was found more economical to place a new layer or form a new dump
on top of them than to start new ones.
The Naos Island Dike or Breakwater is to extend from the shore at
East Balboa to Naos Island, a distance of 3.29 miles from the main-
land, and is constructed for the purpose of cutting off silt-bearing
currents from the excavated channel in the Pacific, thereby reducing
the cost of maintenance and making navigation of the channel easier
by eliminating the cross currents. In constructing the dike, a pile
trestle is being driven toward the island from which material is
dumped. Prior to June 30, 1911, the trestle had been constructed for
a total distance from the shore line of 2.78 miles. During the fiscal
year this trestle was extended 1,360 feet, giving a total length of




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


trestle constructed to June 30, 1912, of 16,051 feet, or 3.04 miles.
The length of the trestle on June 30, 1912, was 1,320 feet from Naos
Island, and the fill was extended to within 2,000 feet of its end, or
3,320 feet from the island. Much trouble was experienced during the
past two years in extending the fill, due to the sliding of the bottom
under pressure, caused by the weight of the stone dumped from the
trestle. The total vertical settlement at one locality on the dike dur-
ing the year aggregated 125 feet. The elevation of the top of the
trestle is 14 feet above mean tide, and the average depth of water
for the last mile of trestle constructed is about 15 feet at mean tide,
giving a total height of trestle of about 29 feet above the original
bottom. When the rock is dumped from the trestle it begins to
settle as soon as it attains a height of a few feet, displacing adjacent
material which, pushing up, forms a parallel ridge of mud. By the
time the rock fill has been completed to full height these parallel
ridges are about 80 feet from the center of the track. Experience
shows also that the trestle is pushed out when the fill reaches the
height of mean tide and cuts off communication beyond the break.
To lessen the difficulties and to spread the foundations as much as
possible, suitable material removed by the dredges in the channel was
dumped in front of the trestle and spread for a considerable distance
on either side of the center line. A board appointed to submit a plan
for hastening progress on the construction of this breakwater recom-
mended the building of a double trestle, dumping on either side,
thereby'spreading the fill and continuing the fill to mean tide out to
the island, thereby saving the trestle, which is to be made more sub-
stantial than formerly. When the fill has been extended to the island
it is to be carried to full height, commencing at the island; should
a break then occur in the trestle, there would be considerable length
of it left to fill over. This was approved, and the double trestle is
being built. The total amount expended on the dike by the central
division up to June 30, 1912, was $186,396.79. As the work when
completed will be a benefit to the channel excavated south of Balboa,
the Pacific division pays for the cost of the trestle, which has
amounted to $70,558.01.
The average division cost of excavation for the year, including
plant charges and all items which entered into its accomplishment,
was $0.5101 per cubic yard.
The Empire machine shops continued under charge of the cen-
tral division, making shop repairs and manufacturing repair parts
for the steam shovels in use on the canal, until the close of the fiscal
year, when they were transferred to the mechanical division. Dur-
ing the year 20 steam shovels were repaired in the shops. The night
repair gang was continued for field repairs on the shovels, and the
average number repaired in the cut each night was 14.




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


The construction of the Eilpire-Chorrera Road, which was com-
menced in April, 1911, was continued throughout the year. On
June 30, 1912, macadam had been laid and rolled on 11,230 lineal
feet. In addition to this, subgrading, including necessary concrete
culverts and drains, was completed for a distance of 12,450 lineal
feet. This is a 16-foot macadam road and will extend from the \vil-
Jage of Empire to the Zone boundary, a distance of about 6 mile:,
and the Panama Government has promised to extend it to Chorrera.
The Empire-Paraiso Road wa.s relocated for a distance of 2,480
feet and reconstructed. This was made nece.-sary by the slide on the
east bank of the canal.
In the village of Culebra 1,400 feet of road were reconstructed, on
account of slides on the west bank of the canal. In the village of
Golden Green 1,650 feet of road were constructed.
In December, 1911, it was realized that. it would be necessary to
install auxiliary pumps in the Chagres to assist the reservoirs in
furnishing a sufficient amount of water for general use in the central
division until such time a- the rainy season should replenish the
supply. Purchase was made of two 3-stage centrifugal pumps, belt.
driven, with a rated capacity of 2,000,000 gallon i under a working
pressure of 150 pounds, and they were-installed under the Chagres
River bridge and put into service on January 24, 1912, acting as
feeders for the mains on the east and west banks of the canal. Dur-
ing the latter part of February, on account of draining off the supply
in the Carabali reservoir, the Chagres River pumping station was
operated to supply water to the Gorgona shops for mechanical pur-
poses. On March 12 a 6-inch line was completed connecting the
Gorgona and Gamboa systems, supplying water to the Panama Rail-
road tank at Matachin, the town of Matachin, Jamaicatown, and the
engine house at Gorgona shops. On April 18 an additional piston
pump was installed on the Sardanilla River, which increased the
supply for canal purposes at this point to 400,000 gallons per day.
On June 8 a piston pump having a capacity of 1,500 gallons per
minute under a working pressure of 250 pounds was procured from
the Atlantic division and was installed by the date that the supply
in the Camacho reservoir was exhausted. An underwriters' fire
pump procured from the subsistence department was also installed
in the Chagres River.
Sanitary work consisted of digging 5,763 lineal feet of ditches;
regrading 311,061 lineal feet of ditches; cleaning 1,613,820 lineal
feet of ditches; laying 550 lineal feet of tile drains; constructing
11,650 lineal feet of concrete gutters; cleaning 341,214 lineal feet of
concrete drains; and clearing 6,536 square yards of brush and grass.
For further information concerning the operations of the central
division, attention is invited to Appendix C.





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


PACIFIC DIVISION.

The work of this division consists of the construction of the locks
and dam at Pedro Miguel, the locks and dams at Miraflores, the
Ancon quarry, dredging for sand at Chame, excavating a channel
between the locks and below Miraflores Locks to deep water in the
Pacific, municipal work in Panama and within the various settle-
ments within the territorial limits of the division, and such sanitary
engineering work as may be prescribed by the sanitary department
within the same area. In addition, excavation necessary to prepare
for work on the terminals, including coaling station, dry dock, and
machine shops, was placed under this division. The work is in
charge of Mr. S. B. Williamson as division engineer.
The excavation for the Pedro Miguel Locks, which was reported as
completed at the end of the previous fiscal year, was extended to
include 95,156 cubic yards removed during the last year from the
French dump east of the site, making the total amount of excavation
done by this division for Pedro Miguel Lock 1,130,236 cubic yards,
exclusive of the material removed in preparing the foundations.
The cost of the work during the last year was $0.3018 per cubic yard.
In preparing the lock foundations, which consisted of removing ma-
terial below floor level in order to secure footings for the walls, foun-
dations for lateral culverts, sills, and sumps, 38,826 cubic yards were
handled at a cost of $2.1715 per cubic yard. A large portion was
removed with picks and shovels and loaded into skips which were
handled by locomotive cranes or derricks into cars. Steam shovels
were employed wherever practicable.
At the beginning of the fiscal year the construction plant had been
moved to Miraflores, with the exception of two chamber cranes. The
dismantling of these began on December 12 and February 7, respec-
tively. The total amount of concrete laid during the year at Pedro
Miguel was 182,870 cubic yards, mixed entirely by the auxiliary
plant, which consisted of one 2-yard mixer located at the south end
of the east wall until September 25, two 2-yard mixers installed at
the south end of the west storage trestle in the forebay, one of which
was moved on March 15, and an .average of 3.16 one-half yard mix-
ers, which were moved about as considered most advantageous.
Prior to dismantling, the chamber cranes handled 28,450 cubic yards
of concrete supplied by the auxiliary plant and were also engaged in
setting ironwork and filling the center wall. The remaining 154,420
-ubic yards were handled either by locomotive cranes and derricks or
poured into forms from the one-half yard mixers. The auxiliary mix-
ers operated on an 8-hour-day basis and produced 36.12 cubic yards
per mixer per hour working time and 20.96 cubic yards service time.
The total yardage for the year was made up of 134,193 cubic yards





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


of plain concrete, at an average cost of $5.7183 per cubic yard, and
48,677 cubic yards of reenforced concrete, at an average cost of $8.5195
per cubic yard. Revised estimates made on July 1, 1912. showed an
increase of 61,761 cubic yards in the total amount of concrete pre-
viously estimated for these locks. The amount placed to June 30,
1912, was 847,926 cubic yards and the estimated amount remaining
was 51,150 cubic yards.
Back filling behind the side walls was continued throughout the
year, and a total of 371,212 cubic yards were placed, of which 18,'518
cubic yards were back of the east wall, 162,757 cubic yards back of
the west wall, and 21,937 cubic yards in the center wall. The cost of
the back fill of the main walls averaged $0.3535 per cubic yard an'd in
the center wall $0.9633 per cubic yard.
The drainage from the central division was turned through the
culvert in the center wall at Pedro Miguel on August 15, which per-
mitted the resumption of building the west dam, and 321,589 cubic
yards were added during the year, at a cost of $0.5040 per cubic yard.
The dam is 87 per cent completed. The excavation for the concrete
core wall, to connect the dam with the wing wall of the lock, was be-
gun and is 95 per cent completed; the amount of material removed
was 3,937 cubic yards, at a cost of $1.5026 per cubic yard.
At Miraflores excavation of the lock pit was continued, and re-
sulted in the removal of 624,747 cubic yards, exclusive of that for
preparing foundations. Of the amount excavated, 120,351 cubic yards
were of earth and 504,396 cubic yards were of rock. The average
cost for lock excavation was $0.6566 per cubic yard. Of this total,
364,767 cubic yards were used for back filling and 259,980 cubic yards
were placed in the toes of the west dam. The surface of the rock on
which the Miraflores Locks are founded dips rapidly at the north end
of the site. The walls were originally located with their northern
extremities on rock which was only a few feet above the desired
grade. After the excavation for the locks had been begun, changes in
design necessitated extending the walls 98 feet farther north, thereby
not only increasing the amount and depth of excavation required to
secure suitable foundations, but adding materially to the difficulties
and cost, in that the additional work had to be done in a confined
space below the surface water level, and it was necessary to remove
a number of construction tracks which had been located according to
the origina-1 plan. In performing this work and preparing the lower
lock foundations 165,145 cubic yards were removed, of which 26,832
cubic yards were of earth and the remainder of rock. The average
cost was $1.5677 per cubic yard.
The construction plant, consisting of four berm and four chamber
cranes, was described in the annual report of 1910, but the arrange-
ment of cranes at Miraflores was changed since that report because




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


of slides which developed at both the east and west sides of the lower
lock. These interfered with the movements of the berm cranes,
necessitating a different system of handling made possible by utiliz-
ing the construction locomotives and cars which had been used in
connection with the plant at Pedro Miguel and no longer required at
this locality. The slide at the lower end of the lower west chamber
has been the source of greatest difficulty, has delayed the construction
of the west wall, and materially increased the cost. Instead of erect-
ing two chamber cranes in each lock, as was originally proposed,
and supplying them with concrete for the center wall from the berm
cranes, the four cranes were placed in the east chambers, two erected
in the upper and two in the lower locks. The cantilevers occupy such
a position that the longer arms extend entirely over the center wall
instead of as indicated in the report for 1910. In addition, the supply
of concrete is not furnished by the berm cranes, as originally in-
tended, but by stationary mixing plants-two in number-one in the
east wall of the upper lock and one in the east wall of the lower
lock, each containing two 2-yard mixers. The concrete is delivered
from the auxiliary mixers to the chamber cranes by narrow-gauge
equipment operating over tracks laid on the lock floors. After com-
pleting the upper lock walls one of the chamber cranes was taken to
the lower level, and at present there are three operating on the level
of the lower lock.
On June 30, 1911, there were two berm cranes in operation at
Miraflores, and the other two were put in commission on July 25 and
October 28, respectively. They handled the concrete for the side
walls, forms, and irons, and worked on a basis of an 8-hour day,
except from December 21 to May 11, and from May 15 to June 8,
when two cranes were operated on a basis of a 12-hour day. One of
the cranes was operated 12 hours at various times, aggregating 17
days. They averaged 9.65 hours per day throughout the year. The
eight mixers connected with them produced 409,651 cubic yards of
concrete, at the rate of 38.06 cubic yards of concrete per mixer per
hour of actual time working and 21.24 cubic yards per mixer per
hour of service time. During the past year these cranes, while in
service, were engaged 55.49 per cent of the time in mixing and plac-
ing concrete, and 6.51 per cent in handling forms, steel, or other
material, the rest of the time being taken up in making repairs, 5.54
per cent; waiting for forms, 14.04 per cent; moving crane, 8.52 per
cent; and other delays, 9.90 per cent.
The four chamber cranes were assembled and began placing con-
.crete, handling forms, and steel on July 13, August 3, February 15,
and March 26, respectively. The chamber cranes handled 234,520
cubic yards of concrete and 7,342 cubic yards of filling for center
wall. They were operated on a basis of an 8-hour day, with the
61012--12----3




REPORT ISTTHMTAN CANAL COMMISSION.


following exceptions: Two cranes worked 10 hours from September
21 to October 13, 1911; one crane worked 12 hours from March 5 to
March 31 ; and two cranes from April 1 to June 30, 1912; an average
of 10.23 hours per crane per day during the year. They placed an
average of 58.38 cubic yards of concrete and filling per hour actual
working time, and they averaged 32.30 cubic yards of material per
hour in service, consuming at this work 55.34 per cent of the total
time in service. During 9 per cent of the time in service the cranes
handled forms and other material, and delays amounted to 45.66 per
cent, 14.58 per cent of which was waiting for forms.
The two auxiliary 2-yard mixers installed in the east wall of the
upper locks supplied concrete until June 15, 1912, and from May S
two 2-yard mixers installed on the east wall of the lower locks were
operated, making an average of 2.09 mixers of this size for the year.
They produced 253,450 cubic yards of concrete and operated on the
same time as the chamber cranes, averaging 10.18 hours per day, or
at the rate of 66.33 cubic yards of concrete per mixer per hour work-
ing time and 40.29 cubic yards service time.
In addition to the regular plant an average of 4.24 J~-yard portable
mixers were used throughout the year, mainly in constructing the
walls of the forebay and the upper reenforced concrete approach pier.
The total amount of concrete placed in the Miraflores locks during
the past year was 751,540 cubic yards, made up of 729,096 cubic yards
of plain and 22,444 cubic yards of reenforced concrete. The construc-
tion and auxiliary plants placed 401,079 cubic yards and 350,461
cubic yards, respectively. The total amount of masonry laid in the
locks on the Pacific side was therefore 934,410 cubic yards and 174
cubic yards in the wing walls. The average cost of the concrete
placed was $4.5867 per cubic yard of plain concrete and $10.6388
per cubic yard for reenforced concrete.
The total amount of concrete laid in the Pacific division locks to
July 1, 1912, aggregated 1,874,029 cubic yards, at an average cost of
$5.0264 per cubic yard. There remained to complete the locks 51,150
cubic yards at Pedro Miguel, as already noted, and 386,729 cubic
yards at Miraflores; in addition, there will be required to complete
the cut-off walls at Pedro Miguel 3,000 cubic yards and the dam at
Miraflores 75,000 cubic yards.
Backfilling the lock walls was continued with material from locks
and prism excavation below the locks, and 450,686 cubic yards were
placed during the year, of which 315,487 cubic yards were placed
back of the east wall, 127,287 cubic yards back of the west wall, and
7,912 cubic yards in the center wall, at costs of $0.4174 per cubic yard.
for that back of the side walls and $1.0126 per cubic yard for that in
the center wall,





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


The crushed stone for concrete in the Pacific locks was obtained
from the Ancon quarry which, with the crusher plant, was operated
throughout the year. For the most part, the operation was on the
basis of a 9-hour day, but for the last few months it was necessary
to put on a night shift for a week or two at a time in order to supply
the demand. The total amount produced by the plant was 839,279
cubic yards, at a cost of $0.6720 per cubic yard in the bins. The
crushers produced 252.76 cubic yards per hour service time and 351.50
cubic yards per hour actual working time. Of the total amount
crushed, 782,818 cubic yards were placed in the storage piles for use
at the locks, 31,467 cubic yards were used in other work under charge
of the division, 21,642 cubic yards were sold to other departments
and divisions, and 3,352 cubic yards were used in municipal work.
The cost of stone delivered in the stock piles at the locks was $0.7996
per cubic yard.
Sand for the lock masonry and other concrete construction was
obtained from Chame Bay, located about 20 miles west of Balboa.
It is secured by dredging, thence loaded into barges, towed to Bal-
boa and transferred to bins by rapid unloading cranes. Of the three
electric cranes two were operated eight hours per day and one held
in reserve. During the year 564,837 cubic yards were unloaded, or
an average of 115.94 cubic yards per hour in service, or 161.41 cubic
yards per hour working, at an average operating cost of $0.1177 per
cubic yard, exclusive of charges for plant. From the bins it is loaded
by gravity into cars and transported to the storage piles at the lock
sites or to such other points as may be desired. The total amount
produced during the year was 564,837 cubic yards, at a cost of $0.5107
per cubic yard delivered in the bins. Of this amount, 509,587 cubic
yards were placed in the storage piles for use in concrete, 34,394 cubic
yards were delivered to the Atlantic division, and 20,856 cubic yards
were delivered to other divisions. The cost of the sand in stock piles
was $0.7025 per cubic yard.
The hydraulic fill in the west dam at Miraflores was completed on
December 4, 1911, and contains 625,048 cubic yards, of which 78,316
cubic yards were pumped into the dam during the past year.
Dry filling was continued throughout the year; 425,125 cubic
yards were placed, at an average division cost of $0.4044 per cubic
yard. The dam is 87 per cent completed and the remaining work
consists in connecting the north end of the present work and the lock
wall over the space now occupied by the west storage trestle and train
tracks.
Excavation of the channel by steam shovels between Pedro Miguel
and Miraflores and south of the latter was continued; 864,475 cubic
yards were removed during the year, of which 411,987 cubic yards





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


were of earth and the remainder of rock. The average cost was
$0.7527 per cubic yard.
The hydraulic excavation plant was in operation throughout the
year in the sea-level section of the canal south of Miraflores and
excavated 900,596 cubic yards of material. Of this amount, 78,316
cubic yards were dumped into the west dam at Miraflores and S22,SO0
cubic yards were deposited in the swamps east of the canal prism.
The total cost of handling this material, earth and rock, was $0.5564
per cubic yard. The material deposited on adjacent. swamps re-
claimed 76 acres of tidal swamp land east of the prism.
The dredges operating in the canal during the year below Miraflores
were the 20-inch seagoing suction dredge C'lb;ra, the 5-yard dipper
dredge Cardenas, three French ladder dredges, aind, for a period of
three months at the close of the fiscal year, the new ladder dredge
Corozal. Operating in the prism the dredges worked between sta-
tions 2100 and 2236, or for a stretch of 13,600 feet, the lower end of
which is 1,855 feet north of the French dock. During the year the
dredges removed 4,683,902 cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.19
per cubic yard. Of this amount, 3,884,287 cubic yards were removed
from the channel, including about 1,044,203 cubic yards in maintain-
ing the channel, and 799,615 cubic yards outside of the canal prism
in the vicinity of the terminals at Balboa, in maintaining the berth
at the sand dock, and in excavating a channel to Flamenco Island.
Of the latter amount, 370,607 cubic yards were removed from the
area of the basin in connection with the terminals on the Pacific
side. The ladder dredges could not dredge economically on account
of the depth of water at high tide, and rather than tie them up they
were worked in this area pending action by Congress on recom-
mendations relative to terminals. There remained at the close of the
fiscal year to complete the excavation in the channel 4,194,059 cubic
yards, including 700,000 cubic yards estimated allowance for silting.
South of station 2142 the rock that must be removed in order to
secure the required depth lies in separate shoals of relatively small
area and volume, and the rock is broken up for dredging by drilling
under water with a drill scow and breaking below water with a
Lobnitz rock breaker. Three drills were operated on the drill barge,
on two 10-hour shifts, and covered an area of approximately 236,082
square feet, through which 153,819 lineal feet of holes were drilled.
Of the amount broken up, 160,903 cubic yards were removed by
dredging. By the rock-breaker method the area covered was ap-
proximately 563,617 square feet and the depth of penetration aver-
aged 3.69 feet. The amount dredged from the area thus broken
aggregated 77,156 cubic yards.
The dredge Corozal is a self-propelling center ladder dredge de-
signed to excavate mud or sand at the rate of 1,200 cubic yards per




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


hour from a depth of 50 feet and to discharge the spoil directly
into hoppers of 1,020 cubic yards capacity or into barges alongside.
Two sets of 39 buckets are provided, one set with a capacity of 54
cubic feet per bucket for use in soft material and the other set with
a capacity of 34 cubic feet per bucket to be used when digging rock.
The dredge was delivered by the contractors at Balboa on March 27,
1912.
No equipment was assembled or erected during the year at the
Balboa shops and shipways. All necessary running repairs were
made to the plant and floating equipment at these shops. The equip-
ment, in addition to the dredges already enumerated, consisted of 5
tugs, 6 clapets, 7 dump scows, and 6 sand and 4 service barges.
In addition to the municipal improvements carried on in Panama
under a separate appropriation made by Congress, municipal im-
provements consisted in replacing the 16-inch main from Rio Grande
Reservoir by a 20-inch main at a cost of $158,562.87. The 16-inch
pipe from the reservoir to the Pedro Miguel Locks was left in posi-
tion, where, together with the 20-inch main, it is connected to a 24-
inch pipe embedded in the emergency dam sills. Both mains were
again connected on the east side of the locks and the double line ex-
tended to within 2,490 feet of the Ancon pumping supply. This
was done not only to insure the supply and pressure at the south end
of the system, but to avoid changing a large number of temporary
connections already made for construction work with the 16-inch line.
A second 10-inch line from the Cocoli pumping station to the main
at Miraflores was also added. The Cocoli pumping and filtration
plant, which was installed for the purpose of pumping water from
the Cocoli Reservoir to make up the deficiency in the Rio Grande
supply, was increased by the addition of two pumps. They are 3-
stage, motor-driven centrifugal pumps, with a capacity of 1,500
gallons per minute each against a head of 300 feet, and are direct-
connected with 200-horsepower, 3-phase, 25-cycle motors.
The reenforced concrete dock constructed for the Panama Rail-
road Co. by the Pacific division and described in the last annual
report was completed during the year, including the back filling.
The dredging in front of the wharf, aggregating 1,005,983 cubic
yards, is not yet completed, but was advanced sufficiently to permit
docking vessels for a length of 575 feet. Forty-five caissons were
sunk to rock, the greatest depth found being 64.08 feet below mean
tide and the least depth 52 feet below mean tide. The total cost of
the dock was $351,741.39.
Borings were made over the area to be occupied by the dry docks,
coaling station, terminal docks, and machine shops, and, based on
these, permanent locations were selected.





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


Sanitary work consisted in cleaning 6;54,531 linear feet of earth
drains; excavation of new earth drains, requiring the removal of
3,274 cubic yards of earth; sweeping 627,009 linear feet of cement
drains; filling swamps and holes at various points, necessitating the
handling of 975 cubic yards of material; laying 270 linear feet of
tile drains; constructing 5,164 linear feet of cement. drains: and clear-
ing 112- acres of vegetation.
For further information concerning the operations of the Pacific
division, attention is invited to Appendix D.

MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS IN COLON AND PANAMA.

The act of March 4, 1909, making appropriations for the canal,
included an item of $800,000 for extending the municipal improve-
ments in Colon and Panama, to enable the growth of the cities
beyond the areas the improvement of which was undertaken in 1905.
The amount expended in the two cities will be added to the indebted-
ness previously incurred for this purpose, to be refunded through
the collection of water rents at the end of the 50-year period.
Of the money appropriated, the sum of $550,000 was allotted for
work in Colon, which was to be expended in the construction of the
D Street storm sewer and filling in to the east of D Street, so as to
give the height of 8.5 feet above sea level at the intersection of
Ninth and E Streets, grading down to the elevations reached by the
former improvements. Work was continued during the fiscal year,
the suction dredge continuing operations until August, 1911, when
it had added 129,939 cubic yards of material (borrow pit measure-
ment) to that laid during the previous fiscal year, at an average divi-
sion cost of $0.3533 per cubic yard, exclusive of the charge for plant.
The total fill actually placed amounts to 585,527 cubic yards, showing
a loss of 29.33 per cent from borrow pit measurement due to waste
and consolidation. The average cost was $0.2999 per cubic yard.
This fill was for lots as well as streets, the former paid for by the
property owners, in this case the Panama Railroad Co., so that
$52,311.52 were chargeable to the appropriation.
In addition to the fill, 9,826 lineal feet of water mains and 9,603
lineal feet of sewer lines were laid, 3,931 square yards of macadam
added in surfacing D Street, 40,794 square yards of macadam laid
in improved areas, including 1,560 square yards of resurfacing on
other streets, 21,440 lineal feet of curb and gutter built, 1,590 square
yards of concrete alleys, and 1,341 square yards of sidewalk con-
structed. Due to settlement, 2,015 lineal feet of curb and gutter
were replaced. Chame sand was used for concrete, and, except, a
small quantity from Ancon quarry used early in the year, the stone
was from Porto Bello, from the cost of which the plant charge was




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


deducted. During the year $84,528.41 were expended, making the
total cost of improvements to June 30, $451,970.39.
Of the amount appropriated by Congress, $250,000 were allotted
for improvements in the city of Panama. The work at first under-
taken was completed. Survey and plans were made for developing
the district bounded by the Zone Line Road, B Street, Fourth of
July Avenue, and West Sixteenth Street, and the money was to be
advanced by the Government of Panama in accordance with an
agreement that the cost of all further municipal improvements in
the two cities will be paid for by that Government. As the Govern-
nment was unable to do this, as the improvements were required for
sanitary purposes, and as there was an unexpended balance of the
amount allotted for work in Panama, authority was given to make
the improvements in accordance with the plans, and the work per-
formed during the past year comprised grading and macadamizing
streets, placing concrete curbs and gutters, and laying water mains
and sewers in the portions of the city specified, as shown in the
following table:

improvements. Ancon Extension
Improvements. Boulevard. Avenue A.

Paving ........................................................ squarefeet.. 170,337 3,332
Curbing.......................- .....-.... .................... lineal feet.. 17,004 272
Sewer m ains....................................... .................... do.... 4,040 ............
Sewer laterals ........................................................1. do... 1,515 ..
W\\ it r mains .......................................................... do.... 4347 ....
Water laterals .......................................................... do.... 1,674 ............

The amount expended during the fiscal year was $38,745.05 and
the total cost of the improvements in the city of Panama was
$228,105.68.
For further details in connection with this work, attention is
invited to Appendices B and D.

SECOND DIVISION, CHIEF ENGINEER'S OFFICE.

This division has charge of all mechanical questions that may
arise and supervises expenditures and allotments for the work. The
third division of the chief engineer's office was abolished on Janu-
ary 24, 1912, after the resignation of Mr. C. M. Saville, assistant
engineer formerly in charge, and the work transferred to the second
division. To this division was also assigned the design of the dry
dock, coaling stations, shops, and appliances in the form of harbor
tugs, cranes, and barges. The division is in charge of Mr. II. H.
Rousseau, United States Navy, as assistant to the chief engineer.
On the assumption that favorable legislation would be provided,
general and detailed plans of the terminals were undertaken with a




REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


view to beginning work of construction as soon as funds should
become available. The general layout of the terminals at, the At-
lantic and Pacific entrances to the canal is arranged with the object
of affording sufficient wharves and piers to meet all requirements
when the canal is opened, and at the same time to permit of exten-
sion in case future needs so require. In addition to wharf space
for vessels, the general plan provides the necessary facilities for
docking and repairing all classes of vessels and for furnishing them
with fuel, fresh water, and supplies of all kinds. As these facilities
may be required for military purposes as well as commercial, all
general plans were submitted to the Navy Department for its views,
which have been followed in the final designs.
The main coaling plant at the Atlantic end of the canal will be
located on the north end of the island opposite Dock No. 11, at Cris-
tobal, with railroad connection across the French canal. It will be
capable of handling and storing 200,000 tons of coal, with a pos-
sible increase of 50 per cent; 100,000 tons will be in subaqueous stor-
age. The coaling plant at the Pacific terminus will be located at
Balboa, adjacent to the site of the dry dock, and will be capable
of handling and storing 100,000 tons of coal, with a possible in-
crease of 50 per cent; subaqueous storage will be provided for
50,000 tons. Arrangements are made for supplying fuel oil, and
four tanks of 40,000 barrels capacity each are under advertise-
ment, which will give an initial storage capacity of 80,000 barrels
at each terminus.
The piers or docks on the Atlantic side are to be protected against
storms by a mole or breakwater extending out in prolongation of the
line separating the Zone from Colon. They are to be 1,000 feet in
length, 209 feet in width, and 300 feet apart. At present the Panama
Railroad Co., to meet its own requirements, is engaged in building
one of the piers, with a slip on either side, and a 1,000-foot wharf,
together with the necessary length of mole or breakwater to afford
protection. On the Pacific side the piers for commercial use will be
placed at right angles to the axis of the canal, with the ends of the
piers 2,650 feet from the center of the 500-foot canal channel. The
piers will be 1,000 feet long and 200 feet wide, with 300-foot slips
between the piers. The construction of one pier is to be undertaken.
The superstructure of the commercial piers and wharves will be one-
story steel sheds, with a clear height of 25 feet. The sheds, of fire-
proof construction, will cover the entire pier except for a space of
about 18 feet along each side and the outer ends. A track will extend
along each edge of the piers at floor level, and two tracks will run
through the center of the pier sheds, so depressed as to bring the car
floor level with the floors of the sheds. Much study was given to pro-
viding for the economical handling and storing of freight at the ter-




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


minals, but the best type of cargo-handling appliances can not be
determined at this time, as the amount of freight that will be moved
from ship to ship at the terminals or will require storage is at pres-
ent unknown.
The plans provide for one dry dock capable of accommodating
any vessel that can pass through the canal locks. It will have a
usable length of 1,000 feet, an entrance width of 110 feet, and a depth
over the keel blocks of 35 feet at mean sea level. The dock will be
built in the rock, which will be lined with concrete after it has been
excavated. The borings indicate that the rock is strong, solid, and
well suited for such construction. In lieu of the marine railway at
first contemplated for smaller classes of vessels, an auxiliary dry
dock will be provided, and a suitable foundation on similar rock
has been found for it. This dock will have a usable length of 350
feet, a width at entrance of 71 feet, and a depth over the keel blocks
of 13j feet at mean tide. On the Atlantic side the present dry dock
at Cristobal, which has a usable length of 300 feet and a width at
entrance of 50 feet, with a depth over the sill of 13 feet at mean sea
level, will be retained-
Plans for the various shops, foundries, storehouses, and subsidiary
buildings have been approved, and specifications are prepared for
furnishing the material, as it is desirable to have the 'erection com-
pleted and the machine shops moved from Gorgona by July 1, 1913.
The machines now in use will be installed in the new shops, and they
will be electrically driven, both individual and group drives being
used. The floor area of the buildings in connection with the shops
aggregates 491,380 square feet. Until further requirements are more
definitely developed, the shop facilities for emergency repairs will be
retained in the vicinity of the dry dock at Cristobal.
For the expeditious and convenient handling of lock gate leaves, as
well as for commercial and other canal needs and for general wreck-
ing purposes, it will be necessary to provide a floating crane of the
largest practicable capacity at each terminus of the canal. An in-
vestigation is now under way to determine the best manner in which
these requirements can be filled.
For handling vessels of the largest size, harbor tugs of high power
will be required and must be secured, as the tugs now owned by the
commission will not be satisfactory or economical for that service.
It is intended to provide two large harbor tugs at each end for this
purpose.
It may be reasonably expected that a large quantity of coal will
have to be furnished to shipping in barges or lighters, so that the
canal must be equipped with a sufficient number, not only for this
service but also for supplying fuel oil and fresh water. The Navy
Department has recommended that provisions be made for sufficient





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


lighters to give a capacity of 16,000 tons of coal for the Atlantic
terminus and 8,000 tons for the Pacific end. This will be done.
During the year the locations of the permanent administration
building and canal headquarters and the permanent settlements for
employees have been determined. The permanent. administration
building will be on a knoll west of Ancon quarry, and quarters for
employees attached thereto will be erected in the general area adja-
cent to and northeast of this building. Employees connected with the
shops, docks, and other terminal facilities will be housed in quarters
erected in the area surrounding the slope of Sosa Hill and on the
fill adjoining the Ancon-Balboa highway. There will be a permanent
settlement at Pedro Miguel for employees of the Pacific locks and
one at Gatun for employees of the Atlantic locks. The settlement at
Cristobal will be maintained and also the one at Ancon.
During the year a number of applications have been received from
individuals and companies for leases of land in the vicinity of the
Atlantic and Pacific terminals for various purposes connected with
the operation of the canal. The question is now being considered
with a view to making recommendations in the near future.
Three first-class meteorological stations at Ancon, Culebra, and
Cristobal were continued during the year, each with a full comple-
ment of instruments and in charge of a skilled observer. There were
two second-class stations at Gatun and Pedro Miguel, at which wind
velocity, temperature, and rainfall were recorded. Twenty-six rain-
fall stations were in operation, 15 of which were equipped with
standard and 11 with automatic rain gauges. Evaporation stations
were in operation at Ancon, Rio Grande Reservoir, Gatun Lake,
Brazos Brook Reservoir, and Colon. Two seismograph stations
were in operation, one at Ancon and the other on Guarapo Island,
near Gatun. Duplicate 'automatic tide registers are located on Dock
No. 1 at Colon and two on the Panama Railroad Dock at Balboa.
Gauging stations were maintained throughout the year, one on the
Chagres River at Gatun, one at Gamboa, and one at Alhajuela. Au-
tomatic water-stage registers were put in operation above' and below
the spillway at Gatun and on the Chagres River at Bohio, Gamboa,
Alhajuela, and Vigia. The automatic registers on the Trinidad and
Pedro Miguel Rivers continued in operation throughout the year at
the old locations.
From July 1, 1911, to July 1, 1912, the minimum dry season and
total flow for 12 consecutive months for years of record occurred.
The previous minimum dry-season flow occurred during the cal-
endar year 1908. The total flow for the calendar year 1911 was the
minimum flow for calendar years of record since 1905, and new
low-water records were established at Alhajuela and Gamboa. At
Alhajuela the minimum was 91 feet on April 20, 1912, and at Gain-




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


boa 43.5 feet on May 7 and 8, 1912. The previous low-water records
were 91.86 at Alhajuela on April 26, 1905, and 44.40 at Gamboa on
April 4, 1911. According to the discharge measurements at Gam-
boa, the heaviest freshet of the year occurred on August 21, 1911,
when there was a rise at that point of 11.4 feet and the discharge was
35,120 cubic feet per second. The minimum flow at Gamboa during
the year was on April 10 and 11, 1912, and the discharge was 250
cubic feet per second. Backwater from Lake Gatun interfered with
gauging work on the Trinidad River, at Bohio, and on the Gatun
River.
The temperature for the calendar year 1911 was generally above
normal. July was the warmest month in Ancon and Culebra and
December at Colon. The highest temperature recorded during the
year was 950 F. at Ancon on October 16, and the lowest 650 F. at
Culebra on March 27.
The rainfall in the Canal Zone during 1911 was below normal at
all stations, being the lightest of record at Gamboa, Bohio, and several
of the stations for which only a few years' records are available. The
deficiencies ranged from 10 per cent at Balboa to 41 per cent at
Bohio. The dry-season rainfall amounted to 12 per cent of the
annual total in the Pacific section and 8 per cent and 9 per cent,
respectively, in the central and Atlantic sections. The average rain-
fall for the calendar year 1911 was 67.20 inches in the Pacific section,
79.10 inches in the central section, and 116.45 inches in the Atlantic
section. The number of rainy days in the Pacific section was 172,
in the central section 214, and in the Atlantic section 265. The
heaviest precipitation of the year occurred at Porto Bello on Novem-
ber 29, when during the storm 7.60 inches of rain fell in 12 hours,
the maximum fall for 5 minutes being approximately 2.48 inches.
There was a moderate excess .of wind movement at the various
stations during 1911. The prevailing direction was from the north-
west at Ancon and Culebra and from the north at Colon. The rela-
tive humidity was generally below normal during, the year 1911 and
the first half of 1912; the mean for 1911 was 81 per cent at Ancon and
84 per cent at Culebra and Colon.
Slight seismic disturbances were of frequent occurrence during the
year, but few were of sufficient intensity to be sensibly felt in the
Canal Zone.
A stadia survey was made to locate the ridge line between the
upper Gatun River and the Atlantic Ocean, and 19 miles of line were
run between Mount Bruja and Santa Rita Mountain. A stadia
survey was made of the Atlantic coast line in the vicinity of Mar-
garita Island, near Colon, and a triangulation station was established
on the island. The Majagual and Escondido Rivers were run up to





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


the limits of tidewater. Several islands and inlets not heretofore
shown on the maps were located.
There were no marked changes in the conduct, of the mechanical
work on the Isthmus during the past year. Constant efforts were
made to reduce the cost of repairs to equipment and a marked reduc-
tion was made in car repairs. All the equipment has been growing
older, and general repairs were required to a greater extent during
the past fiscal year than during any previous one. This is especially
true of locomotives, largely on account of stay bolts breaking, defec-
tive flues, and wearing out of tires.
The principal shops are located at Gorgona, and the policy of con-
centrating manufacturing work and repairs. to rolling equipment at
these shops has been continued. With the construction work drawing
to a close, the general policy of gradually reducing the amount of
repair parts and other material carried in the storehouses caused the
mechanical division to handle more and more manufacturing work
on short notice, and also resulted in the installation of a Tropenas
2-ton converter, blower, sand grinder, and all necessary apparatus for
the manufacture of steel castings. Two additional pipe cutting and
threading machines-one 8-inch and one 12-inch-were installed in
the main shops, and in the planing mill the French horizontal com-
pound engine, which formerly operated these shops, was replaced by
a stationary engine removed from the Lirio planing mill and supple-
mented with a 50-horsepower motor.
Engine houses and repair shops were operated at Pedro Miguel,
Gatun, Las Cascadas, Gamboa, and Gold Hill. The removal of ma.-
terial from the top of the slides on the Gold Hill side of the cut
required the establishment of an engine house, and a temporary
repair shop and storehouse, made of two old box cars, were installed,
with the necessary storage and cleaning tracks. The Gatun machine
and repair shop was transferred to the mechanical division, and on
July 1, 1912, the Empire shops for the repair of steam shovels were
also transferred to the same division.
The operation and maintenance of the air-compressor plants at Las
Cascadas, Empire, Rio Grande, and Balboa are also under the
mechanical division, as well as the operation and maintenance of the
electric power and lighting plants at Cristobal, Gorgona, Empire, and
Balboa. The output of all air-compressor plants operated during the
year was 8,795,157,453 cubic feet of free air at 700 F., which was
compressed and distributed at 100 pounds pressure, at an average
cost for the year of $0.0312 per thousand cubic feet. The increased
construction work on the Pacific division and the decrease of work
on the north end of the Atlantic division increased the air consump-
tion at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores to such an extent as to necessi-
tate the removal from the Las Cascadas plant and installation in the


.44




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


Aguadulce pumping plant of the Pacific division of two 2,200-foot
Ingersoll-Rand compressors, with necessary boilers and pumps. The
mechanical division's electric plants totaled an output of 4,966,953
kilowatt hours, which, with 2,279,151 kilowatt hours furnished by
the construction divisions to the mechanical division, makes a total
of 7,246,104 kilowatt hours distributed and billed by this division.
The total appropriations made by Congress up to June 30, 1912,
amounted to $293,561,468.58. By act approved August 24, 1912, ad-
ditional appropriations were made for the fiscal year 1913 amount-
ing to $28,980,000, exclusive of fortifications. On June 30, 1912,
$259,653,236.74, or about 69 per cent of the total estimated cost, had
been charged into the work. Of this amount, $34,183,183.48 were ex-
pended during the fiscal year 1911, or about 9 per cent of the total
estimated cost of the canal. The difference between the appropria-
tions and the classified expenditures to June 30, 1912, amounting to
$33,908,231.84, represents such items as receipts returned to the Treas-
ury of the United States, unexpended balances of appropriations, un-
expended material and supplies in storehouses, and other items that
will not be prorated to construction work until the construction is
completed; buildings of all descriptions, roads, sewers, and water
supplies. Of the total classified expenditures to June 30, 1912,
$32,547,720.75, or about 121 per cent, were for plant and equipment
for construction and for four steamships; of this amount, $1,254,-
697.70 were expended during the fiscal year 1912.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendices F and G.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE NEW PANAMA RAILROAD.
The construction of the new or relocated line of the Panama Rail-
road was continued by the engineering department of the Panama
Railroad Co. during the year and was in charge of Lieut. Frederick
Mears, United States Army, as chief engineer of the Panama
Railroad.
At the beginning of the year construction work was confined to the
stretch of road from Gatun to Gamboa-the Gatun Valley section-
and consisted in completing the embankments across the Quebrancha,
Brazos, and Baja bottoms, which have been under construction since
1910. The amount of material reported as necessary at the begin-
ning of the fiscal year for their completion, 850,000 cubic yards, was
exceeded and, though they were practically completed on January 1,
1912, two steam shovels were at work during the following month
and a half furnishing material for riprapping the slopes. The largest
embankment on this section of the railroad is 4,800 feet long across
the Brazos bottom. The rock in this valley is from 150 to 200 feet
below the surface of the ground, which is of fairly good clay from





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


20 to 30 feet thick, bfit between this and the rock the material is very
soft. The embankment, which is (c0.0T feet high, was given side slopes
of 1 on 2 with the hope that this would spread the foundation suffi-
ciently to enable the layer of clay to support it without disturbing
the soft strata. Just before the full height was reached, however,
the pressure became too great and the soft material moved out, up-
heaving the natural ground beyond the toes of the slopes. When this
occurred the base was widened so as to secure a slope of about 1 on 3
before any weight was added to the upper level, after which the em-
bankment was completed to grade. Trouble with settlements was
encountered in the fills over the Quebrancha and Baja bottoms, where
it was necessary to spread the base so as to secure a slope of 1 on 4;
these fills were 72.70 and GS.70 feet, respectively, above the natural sur-
face of the ground. In the 3 miles covered by these bottoms, 4,73(C,072
cubic yards of material were placed, or an average of 1,578.90 cubic
yards per mile, all necessary to secure a permanent roadbed above
the proposed lake level.
Laying the remainder of the permanent track was undertaken in
December, 1911, and completed as far as practicable by February
15, 1912. The track is of 90-pound open hearth steel, 100 per cent
splice bars, and either creosoted or hardwood crossties fitted with
"Economy" tie-plates and screw spikes. The track was ballasted
with gravel obtained from the deposits in the Chagres River.
This section was formally turned over to the Panama Railroad
Co. on February 15, 1912, on which date the operation of the
road was transferred from the old to the new line. Trains now
operate east of the canal as far as the north end of Culebra Cut,
where they switch back across the canal on a construction dike to
the old main line, following it north to Gorgona, thence south over
the old route to Panama. The operation over the new roadbed was
attended with no difficulties, except that in some cases small slides
occurred along the slopes of the embankments. The work of rip-
rapping the submerged embankments was continued and the weight
of rock has sometimes caused the sides of the fill to slide, but has not
interrupted operation.
The slides on the east side of Culebra Cut and the necessity of
maintaining through communication caused the construction of a
high line around Gold Hill and the abandonment of the original
plan of carrying the railroad on the 95-foot berm through Culebra
Cut. It was hoped that eventually the high line might be abandoned
in favor of the 95-foot berm, but all thought of this has been given
up on account of the excessive cost of rebuilding this berm throughout
the cut. The Gold Hill line joins Gamboa bridge on the north with
Pedro Miguel on the south, and is 9J miles long. The summit is near




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


Sthe La Pita divide at elevation 271 feet above mean sea level, and
the continental divide is crossed opposite Culebra at an elevation of
241 feet. above mean sea level. This section of the road was well
under construction at the beginning of the fiscal year, and the work
progressed to completion in the early part of 1912. Some difficulty
was encountered along the Pedro Miguel River on account of slides.
The laying of the permanent track was begun in May and the line was
completed and formally turned over to the Panama Railroad Co.
on May 25, 1912.
The construction of the telephone and telegraph line was continued
during the year and completed on June 30, 1912. A new frame
station building and section house were erected at the town site of
Monto Lirio on the Gatun River, and a reenforced concrete water
station constructed at Frijoles. Work of dismantling the old bridge
at Barbacoas, consisting of three girder spans, was undertaken as
soon as the original Panama Railroad was abandoned on February
15, 1912. The bridge was transferred to Monte Lirio, where it is to be
used for carrying the relocated line over the Gatun River. The
two shore spans were set in place at the new site and the center span
is to be converted into a balanced lift span, so that steamers can have
access to the upper arm of Gatun Lake.
During the year 3,209,021 cubic yards of grading were completed
at an average cost of $0.345027 per cubic yard, including the cost of
clearing 28.7 acres, and 123,463 lineal feet of permanent track laid at
a cost of $2.9863 per lineal foot; 1,820.2 cubic yards of concrete were
placed in bridge culverts.
For further details concerning this work, attention is invited to
Appendix H.
FORTIFICATIONS.

The act approved March 4, 1911, appropriated $2,000,000 for the
construction of gun and mortar batteries for the defense of the canal
against naval attack. The actual execution of the work was assigned
to the commission, and the constructions are to conform to plans
furnished by higher authority.
Work was commenced on August 7, 1911, under a provisional or-
ganization which continued until January 1, 1912, when the work
was consolidated and placed in charge of Lieut. George R. Goethals,
United States Army, reporting to the chief engineer.
During the year 408,392 cubic yards of excavation, at a cost of
$0.571, were done, 5,159 cubic yards of concrete, at a cost of $9.055
per cubic yard, were laid, and a channel excavated to one of the
islands by dredging 32,150 cubic yards, at a cost of $0.377 per cubic
yard,





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


COST KEEPING.

The methods of cost keeping adopted on January 1, 1910, were con-
tinued throughout the year. In addition to those reported a year
ago, cost accounts were prepared and kept for aids to navigation, ter-
minal facilities at Balboa, fortifications, and installation of the lock-
operating machinery. Supervision of cost data for the construction
of the docks at Cristobal and the New Washington Hotel at Colon was
added to the duties of the office; as these pieces of work are in charge
of the Panama Railroad, their costs are not included in this report.
The costs are made up of the labor engaged in and the material
applied to the work, an arbitrary to absorb the cost of the plant
and a proper proportion of the division overhead charges. As the
plant was designed by the division engineers and, within limits, they
are responsible for the organization carrying on the work, the costs
are to a certain extent comparable where the character of the work
is similar. The general expenses of the commission are prorated to
different parts of the work and must be added to the division costs
in order to determine the total cost. As the division engineers do not
necessarily have control over the items which make up these general
expenses, the costs reported are the division costs except where noted
to the contrary. The cost-keeping accountant, Mr. Ad. Faure, reports
directly to the chief engineer. His duties consist in supervising and
verifying the statements of costs furnished by the division engineers,
establishing accounts for new work, and preparing statistical data.
In the distribution of general expenses the central division con-
tinues to carry the larger proportion, due to the fact that prior to
1907 but little work was done except in this division, so that all the
overhead charges were properly added to it.
Excavation in the prism by steam shovels was cheapest in the
central division, averaging $0.5101; in the Atlantic division a lower
cost is shown than during the previous year-$0.5952 against $0.6010-
while in the Pacific division it is higher-$0.7527 against $0.6960-
and also greater than in the Atlantic division. In the preparation
of the foundations, the costs are higher in the Atlantic division
than a year ago and lower in the Pacific division, while those of the
Atlantic division are higher than in the Pacific division.
In dredging the costs were higher than for the previous year, and
for work in the channels the Pacific division shows lower than the
Atlantic division; the Pacific division dredging does not include any
arbitrary for plant, the total cost of which was absorbed prior to
the fiscal year, but on this side increase in depth is attended with
additional expense because of the great tidal variations.
There was a total of 1,443,570 cubic yards of masonry laid in the
locks and spillways during the year, as against 1,741,908 cubic yards




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


during the previous year. The unit costs for the masonry were:
Gatuin Locks, $7.7552; Gatun spillway, $7.0988; Pedro Miguel Locks,
$0.4;040; Miraflores Locks, $4.7675. With a decrease in quantity laid
of 512,315 cubic yards in the Gatun Locks, the cost of plain concrete
last year shows an increase of $0.5398 as compared with the previous
year. At Pedro Miguel, with a decrease in the amount laid of 363,-
609 cubic yards, there was an increase in cost of $1.0143, due to
forms, placing, mixing, and plant arbitrary, the construction plant
having been removed to Miraflores, with exception of two berm
cranes, which were operated until December 12, 1911, and February
7, 1912, respectively. With an increase in quantity of 456,163 cubic
yards, the cost of plain concrete at Miraflores shows a decrease of
$0.0959. The labor costs for the year per cubic yard of plain con-
crete at the various locks and spillways show lowest at Miraflores,
$0.8394; next, Gatun Locks, $1.3840; Pedro Miguel Locks, $1.4733;
and Gatun spillway, $1.5425.
The difference between the costs in the Atlantic and Pacific divi-
sions is mainly in the cost of cement, sand, and stone. While the
cement for the Atlantic division is now handled in bags, it must pass
through the cement shed, while the bulk of the cement in the Pacific
division passes directly from the cars to the work. In the produc-
tion of stone the cost in the storage bins at Gatun was $2.4952, while
in the storage pile for the locks on the Pacific side it was $0.7996 per
cubic yard, a difference of $1.6956 per cubic yard. If there be de-
ducted from this difference the extra expense attached to the Porto
Bello stone represented by the difference between the costs of towing
and unloading and that of transportation by rail, amounting to
$0.7365 per cubic yard, and the difference in plant arbitraries, amount-
ing to $0.4336, the net difference in labor cost in favor of Ancon
quarry is $0.5255 per cubic yard. Sand from Nombre de Dios in the
stock piles in the Atlantic division averaged $2.2414 as against sand
in the stock piles of the Pacific division at $0.7025, or an excess of
$1.5389 per cubic yard in the cost of Nombre de Dios sand over that
from Chami. Cham6 sand delivered in the stock pile at Gatun cost
$1.7079, including $0.7890 for unabsorbed plant charge at Nombre
de Dios. The sand secured from the Chagres River between May 15
and June 30 cost $1.2850 delivered in the stock pile, including $0.7671
for plant.
The cost of concrete piling at Gatun was $0.0679 less during the
year than in 1911, while the cost in place was $0.7088 less. The total
amount driven was 83,670 lineal feet, at a cost of $1.5719 per lineal
foot; in addition, 51,450 lineal feet of wooden piles were driven, at a
cost of $0.6516 per lineal foot. On this basis had wooden piling
only been used for the south approach pier a saving of $77,001.50
would have resulted. In the Pacific division 6,580 lineal feet of
61012-12--4





REPORT ISTHBITIA CANAL COMMISSION.


wooden piling were driven for the foundations of the northeast
wing wall, at a cost of $2.3200 per lineal foot.
In connection with division costs it is to be noted that. the amounts
paid for salaries of clerks and supervisory forces in the three con-
struction divisions were less in the central and Pacific divisions dur-
ing 1912 than those paid during the fiscal year 1911, while in the
Atlantic division the percentage was higher. These percentages were
as follows: Atlantic division, 26.09; central division, 17.39; Pacific
division, 18.94.
For further details concerning the costs of the various parts of the
work and the performance of the different plants, attention is in-
vited to Appendix I.
QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT.

The quartermaster's department is charged with the recruitment
of labor; care, furnishing, and assignment of quarters; distributing
fuel, commissary supplies, and distilled water; construction and re-
pair of all buildings; requisitioning for supplies of all kinds, together
with the receipt and distribution of them on arrival; cutting of grass
and disposal of night soil and garbage as prescribed by the sanitary
department; and the auditing of all property returns. The depart-
ment is in charge of Col. C. A. Devol, United States Army, as chief
quartermaster.
There was no change in the organization of the department during
the year.
The number of employees of the commission and Panama Rail-
road on the Isthmus fluctuated during the year; in March, 1910, the
highest recorded force was reached, aggregating 38,676; on June 30,
1911, the force totaled 32,690 men, and on June 30, 1912, 34,957 men
were employed by the two interests. While there was a decrease
as between June 30, 1911, and June 30, 1912, of approximately 2,900
men in the Atlantic division and on the relocation of the Panama
Railroad, this has been more than offset by increases because of the
construction of the docks at Cristobal under the Panama Railroad,
the terminals at Balboa under the Pacific division, the work of the
first division of the chief engineer's office, and the fortifications.
Immigration to the Isthmus continued to decrease, the excess of ar-
rivals over departures for the year amounting to 3,510. At the begin-
ning of the fiscal year 941 laborers were recruited in Barbados and the
small islands adjacent thereto, in order to meet a demand for un-
skilled labor, which could not be recruited on the Isthmus from the
unemployed living in the brush. The supply of and demand for
labor was about balanced at the end of the year. During the last three
months of the year 1,339 laborers were taken over by the United
Fruit Co. for work in Guatemala.




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


The a average number of American employees on the rolls of the
commiission during the year was 4,264, on the rolls of the Panama
Railroad 837, or a total of 5,101. During the same period there were
2,123 separations from the service of the commission, 559 persons
employed in the United States and 1,286 employed on the Isthmus,
indicating that more than 49 per cent of the force was changed.
There were 22 new buildings constructed during the year, at a
total cost of $26,000; of these the fire station at Cristobal, the care-
taker's residence at Brazos Brook reservoir, and a type 27 at Toro
Point cost $21,000; the remaining 19 were small, costing $5,000.
The fire station and the caretaker's house are permanent structures
of concrete. Eighteen additions to existing buildings were made,
at a cost of $71,000; of this amount $63,000 were expended for altera-
tions and additions to the Hotel Tivoli. Thirty-six buildings were
taken down in sections and moved to new locations, at a cost of
$58,000. Fifteen buildings were demolished, material moved to
other points and used in construction of 13 buildings, costing
$26,790.30. Of these 51 buildings, 14 were removed from Culebra
on account of slides and 25 from Tabernilla and San Pablo on
account of the flooding of the lake area. The removal and reerec-
tion of American buildings still good, but useless in their old loca-
tions, accounts for the small amount of new construction. The pur-
chase from the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. of their undivided half
interest in the islands in the Pacific brought with it 22 buildings,
which were utilized for quarters in connection with fortifications. Of
old French buildings, 149 were sold, realizing $8,000, and 131 were
demolished, a loss of 280 buildings. Of the 2,148 buildings turned
over by the French in 1904 but 850 remain. The laborers' camp at
White' House and other buildings in the Las Cascadas district were
altered and repaired as quarters for the Tenth Infantry, United
States Army. These alterations and repairs were made at an
expense of $50,000, payable from the appropriation for barracks.
and quarters, United States Army.
An analysis of the census of occupants of quarters shows a de-
crease of 300 in the number of Americans and an increase of 700
in the number of West Indians in quarters. The number of Euro-
peans remains the same. Of the Americans, 210 are employees of
the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co. This census also shows
that 48 per cent of the married men and 20 per cent of the bachelors
were hired prior to 1908. There has been no diminution in the
demand for married quarters, the number of applications on file
as of June 30 being 697, or 54 more than a year before.
The policy of reducing the stock concentrated in the storehouses.
so as to leave, when the canal is completed, the smallest accumulation
that is consistent with the continuous and efficient progress of the





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMhlISSION.


work and wise economy, has been continued. Relatively few annual
contracts were made during the spring, as on certain classes of stock
prospective requirements are so small that orders can be placed when
needed. The quantity and value of supplies received from the
United States were larger than during any previous year of the
canal work. There were received 504,004 tons of material. with a
value of $10,517,260.99. This does not include the piling nor lmate-
rial for the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co. There was a de-
crease in the cement receipts, but an increase in the amount of piling
and of over 4,000,000 feet b. m. in lumber. A large amount of mate-
rial was recovered from the work and returned to stock. The cen-
tral and Atlantic divisions and the relocation, part. of whose work
was completed, turned in material to the value of $680,000. Clean-
ups of repair shops were made, and repair parts, fittings, and miscel-
laneous material were turned in in large quantities. The total
amount of reduction in stock, including material turned in, was
$1,652,969.34.
So far, but little of the commission's plant has been retired. Mate-
rial to the value of $193,313.34 was surveyed and turned into the
storehouse for obsolete material during the year, the amount remain-
ing on hand at price-book prices being $369,000. The quantity was
such that additional facilities had to be provided and an addition to
the storehouse for obsolete material was constructed. Property to
the value of $21,704.65 was reissued and $10,708.94 was disposed of
by local sales from the storehouse for obsolete material. Much of the
obsolete material and equipment was advertised for sale in February;
the bids on 18 classes were rejected and awards made on 8 classes for
the sum of $20,858.
On September 26, 1911, a contract was entered into for the sale of
all French scrap on the Isthmus as it lies for a consideration of
$215,000. Approximately 10,000 tons have been collected for ship-
ment. About 4,603 tons of American scrap were collected at the
Empire and Gorgona shops and stored at Mount Hope. Of this
amount 1,892 tons were shipped and sold in New York at an average
price of $10.35 per ton, the net price realized being about $5 per ton.
Sales of scrap screening, rope, rubber, hose, and rubber belting con-
tinued throughout the year. A contract was entered into October 12,
1911, for delivery at New York of the screening at $8.25 per hundred-
weight, rope at $2.18 per hundredweight., rubber at $2.10 per hundred-
weight, and hose at $2.50 per hundredweight.
The work done for the sanitary department, consisting of grass
and brush cutting, disposal of night soil and garbage, continued as
heretofore. In accordance with the recommendations of a board, the
grass-cutting areas in the various districts were plotted and measured
and regulations compiled for sanitary inspectors and district quar-





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


enrliasters with reference to the method of handling work performed
by the quartermaster's department for the department of sanitation.
Less grass cutting has been done since January 9, 1912, as objection
was raised by the sanitary department that keeping the grass cut
close around quarters was not necessary except for esthetic reasons,
and that it could be allowed to grow a foot high, so far as sanitary
purposes are concerned. As there are no funds available except for
sanitary grass cutting, no work of this kind is done under existing
regulations except on requests by the sanitary department. The
cost of the sanitary work done by the quartermaster's department
amounted to $251,768.07.
The regular delivery work done by the quartermaster's department
was continued, and, in addition, delivery service was furnished to the
Tenth Infantry. Horse mowing machines were introduced into all
districts, which necessitates the use of more teams by the sanitary
department. Twenty-four horses and mules were condemned and
destroyed, 10 condemned and sold, 6 were killed, and 8 died-a total
of 48. No animals have been purchased for over three years, and the
service of those now in the corrals averages over six years.
The quartermaster's department attends to all purchases on the
Isthmus, and the amount expended aggregated $2,639,416.09, of
which $1,540,700.65 were for the purchase of coal from the Panama
Railroad Co., $978,055.26 for the purchase of crude oil from the
Union Oil Co., and $96,176.24 for miscellaneous purchases from the
Panama Railroad Co., leaving $24,035.94 for the purchase of miscel-
laneous supplies from local merchants. The balance was used for
postage stamps.
For further information concerning the operations of this de-
partment, attention is invited to Appendix J.
SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT.
The subsistence department is charged with the operation of the
Isthmian Canal Commission hotels, messes, and kitchens, and is in
charge of Lieut. Col. Eugene T. Wilson, United States Army, as
subsistence officer.
On June 30, 1912, this department was operating 19 line hotels, 3
night restaurants, 18 European laborers' messes, and 18 common
laborers' kitchens-an increase of 2 messes and 4 kitchens over last
year. The hotel and kitchen at Nombre de Dios and the hotel at
Tabernilla were closed because of completion of the work at these
points. One of the two messes at Bas Obispo was also closed.
Hotels, messes, and kitchens were opened at Naos Island and Mar-
garita Island, a mess and kitchen at Cerro, and kitchens at Rio
Grande and Paraiso. The revenue from the line hotels, restaurants,
messes, and kitchens was $1,263,869.81, an increase of $9,607.41 over






REPORT ISTH MIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


the previous year. The total cost of operations was $1,220,352.10,
an increase of $4,882.90. The profit was $37,517.0'5, an increase of
$4,724.51 over the previous year. The total number of meals served
in the line hotels was 2,075,335, 6.38 per cent less than during the
previous year; the total number of rations served in European
laborers' messes was 1,108,175, 5.09 per cent more than during the
year previous; the total number of rations served in common labor-
ers' kitchens was 584,457, 31.49 per cent more than during the previ-
ous year. The expenditures in salaries and wages for line hotels.
restaurants, messes, and kitchens was $16i2,000.7S, a saving of
$10,022.74, as compared with the previous fiscal year. As the result
of the year's operations, the line hotels and restaurants showed a
loss of $12,085.37, the European laborers' messes showed a profit of
$38,455.78, and the common laborers' kitchens showed a profit. of
$11,147.24.
The accommodations of the Hotel Tivoli were increased during the
year by building to it a new wing, thereby increasing the number of
rooms opening on private baths from 28 to 90. New furniture and
other equipment to the value of approximately $10,000 were pur-
chased, the greater part of this equipment being for the new rooms.
The hotel was operated at a profit of $53,652.36.
For further particulars concerning the operations of the subsist-
ence department, attention is invited to Appendix K.

EXAMINATION OF ACCOUNTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.
EXAMINATION OF ACCOUNTS.

The duties of the examiner of accounts were outlined in detail in
the annual report of 1909 and have continued with but little change
during the year just ended. The department was in charge of Mr.
H. A. A. Smith.
The system of bookkeeping by which a record is kept of classified
expenditures for the construction of the canal was extended to
include accounts for the department of law, terminal facilities at
Cristobal and Balboa, lighting and buoying the canal, inspection of
lock gates, installation of lock machinery, emergency dams, and the
fortifications, with their usuaf detailed distribution. Since the
establishment of the method of absorbing plant charges, begun July
1, 1909, a total of $25,226,779.74 has been charged to construction
costs up to June 30, 1912, leaving a balance of $3,590,949.49 still to
be absorbed. The classification of accounts recommended by the
Commission on Economy and Efficiency for all Government depart-
ments would necessitate a radical departure from that now in use,
and, because of the small remaining portion of the work of construc-
tion and the confusion that a change at this time would create, it





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


was recommended that the new system be not put in force on the
Isthmus until after the accounting method has been adopted for the
operation and maintenance of the canal. This was approved by the
President of the United States.
The financial accounts of employees making collections or report-
ing charges for collections were carefully audited. Bills against
employees and outside parties for charges due the commission on
account of services and materials increased during the year, the
monthly average being 490.
The required administrative examination of the disbursing offi-
cer's accounts was made monthly. A careful check was made of
unpaid salaries and wages representing amounts earned by employees,
but for various reasons not collected. The balance, which has been
accumulating since the beginning of the work, amounted to $238,-
634.02 on June 30, 1912.
Under the revised agreement with the Republic of Panama for the
construction and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and pavements
within the cities of Panama and Colon and for the reimbursement
of such expenditures to the United States, there were expended
$1,432,110.68 in the city of Panama and $1,297,566.04 in the city of
Colon, a total of $2,729,676.72, while during the same period $757,-
025.76 were reimbursed, of which $219,163.92 was for interest on
outlay, leaving a balance due the United States of $2,191,814.88.
Included in the reimbursed amount is $27,830.51, representing the
value of water used by the Isthmian Canal Commission in the two
cities.
There are 49 bonded employees engaged in issuing coupon books
and meal tickets. During the year 593,900 coupon books and over
1,700,000 meal tickets were issued and proper collections made. On
June 1, 1912, the method of selling commissary books for cash by the
commissary department of the Panama Railroad Co. was installed
at several points, in addition to the existing practice of issuing books
for payment by pay-roll deduction. This practice reduced to some
extent the work of the issuing clerks and increased the volume of
business in the commissaries during the early and latter parts of the
month on the days when the issue of commissary books was prohib-
ited. The purchase and the issue of commissary books to issuing
clerks were transferred to the Panama Railroad Co. on July 1, 1912.
During the year $3,123,220.96 were paid the railroad company on
account of commissary coupon books issued and collected by the
commission.
The accounts of all bonded employees charged with the collection
of funds were inspected at frequent and irregular periods, as in the
past. A more complete and detailed checking of the accounts of post
offices, hospitals, and Hotel Tivoli was instituted during the year,





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


made necessary by the great and increasing volume of business and
by the installation of the postal savings system. Effective November
1, 1909, the Illinois Surety Co. executed a schedule bond covering
employees of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Canal Zone
Government who were required to give bond under the regulations,
with the understanding that the bond was to run for a period of three
years. To avoid the difficulties incident to a change in surety com-
panies just as the canal work is being completed, arrangements were
made with the surety company to continue the bond in effect from
year to year from July 1, 1912, at the rate heretofore paid-$3 per
thousand.
The number of claims audited and vouchers prepared during the
year totaled 3,440, involving disbursements to the amount of
$10,440,047.25, of which over $9,000,000 represents payments to the
Panama Railroad Co. The increase in number of claims is largely
due to payments to landowners and others in the region to be occu-
pied by Gatun Lake. Unsettled claims at the end of the year
amounted to $114,176.99, of which $73,107.05 included several large
claims for land purchased but not yet completed for payment.
To the largest division of the office is assigned the duty of auditing
the pay rolls of the commission and keeping up the personnel file of
gold employees. There are 121 pay rolls each month, carrying in the
aggregate over 36,000 payments involving approximate monthly dis-
bursements of $1,500,000. They include not only the amount paid to
each employee, but deductions made on account of amounts due the
United States or the Panama Railroad Co. To this division is also
assigned the duty of examining recommendations for meritorious
sick leave, which during the year totaled 5,141 cases and resulted in
payments amounting to $55,838.25.
In the time-inspection division the number of districts has been
reduced to three, the senior inspectors being located at Ancon,
Empire, and Gatun, and a reduction in the force of inspectors was
made from 46 to 42 without detriment to the work.
Verification of the cash balance in the hands of the disbursing
officer was made by witnessing the transfers of cash and cash values
between the. disbursing officer and his assistant on September 1 and
November 1, 1911, and a complete check, including a count of all cash
on hand, was made on December 15, 1911.
The examiner of accounts handles claims that arise under the
employers' liability act. In accordance with section 5 of the act of
March 4, 1911, claims totaling 1,849 were filed during the year on
account of injuries received in the course of employment and 50
claims on account of deaths-a total of 1,899. Of these, 1,410 injury
claims and 31 claims on account of death were allowed; 167 injury
claims and 18 death claims were disapproved; 174 injury claims were





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


for less than 15 days, hence were settled on pay rolls, and at the close
of the year there were 98 injury and 1 death claims under investiga-
tion. The total amount paid out during the year in these claims was
$259,993.14. From the effective date of the act (Aug. 1, 1908) to
June 30, 1912, $691,753.07 were paid to employees for injuries re-
ceived in the course of employment, including meritorious sick leaves.
A new system of accounting will have to be introduced for the
operation and maintenance of the canal, and all accounting on the
Isthmus should be under one head. This will include receipts from
tolls and from the sale of supplies of all kinds, and disbursements
of appropriations by Congress, and of all collections resulting from
sales of supplies which the law makes applicable for use; it should
include property accountability, as well as collections, disbursements,
and auditing of the Panama Railroad on the Isthmus and of the
Canal Zone government; also cost keeping. The system should be an
up-to-date accounting system and, as the Commission on Economy
and Efficiency has established an accounting system for the various
departments of the Government, it is believed that this commission
is better able to prepare a proper system to meet the wants of the
Isthmus than can be done by a board composed of men employed
there. It has been recommended that this course be taken with a
view to outlining and adopting a system to meet the new conditions
at as early a date as practicable.
As already noted, Congress has appropriated $293,561,468.58 on
account of canal work and chargeable against the authorized bond
issue. To June 30, 1912, $5,856,426.77 were collected and returned to
the Treasury as "miscellaneous receipts," and this amount should be
deducted from the total appropriations in order to determine the net
amount available for actual canal purposes. On the other hand, the
commission has received benefit from moneys collected which was not
expected when the estimates of 1908 were prepared, namely, water
rentals paid by the Republic of Panama as a repayment of the
amount expended in installing waterworks, sewers, and pavements in
the cities of Panama and Colon, and the net receipts from the sale of
scrap. To June 30 the commission has had the use of $625,654.54, re-
ceived from the water rentals; $67,492.60, received from the sale of
French scrap, and $98,605.75, received from the sale of American
scrap, or a total of $791",752.89. The total amount available for canal
work under its various departments to June 30, 1912, was, therefore,
$288,496,794.70.
The examiner of accounts is also auditor for the Canal Zcne gov-
ernment. He receives, examines, and settles all accounts pertaining
to the revenues of the Canal Zone government and expenditures
therefrom. This includes nearly 600 monthly accounts. The total
revenues for the year were $370,272.81 and the expenditures $312,-






REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


459.75. The increase in expenditures during the year is principally
due to the increase in construction and maintenance of roads and
trails and the payments made steamship companies on account, of
ocean transportation of mails covering tlhe period from 1905 to the
present time. There has been a falling off in revenues, due to tlhe
abandonment of some of the districts, and ais other towns are aban-
doned the revenues obtained by taxation and rentals will continue
to be reduced. During the year the average monthly balance in
Washington was $1,121,707.64 and that on deposit, on the Isthmus
$43,625.73, the interest on which amounted to $'20TS4.96.
For further particulars, attention is invited to Appendix L.

DISBURSEMENTS.

The work of this department embraces the securing of and dis-
bursing the necessary funds and the accounting for all moneys paid
out or collected, as well as the issuance of hotel and commissary
books and meal tickets to the various departments of the commis-
sion. It is in charge of Mr. E. J. Williams, disbursing officer.
The total amount paid out by the disbursing officer on pay rolls
aggregated $19,407,398.90, in addition to which $10,465,634.09 were
paid out in settlement of public bills and on reimbursement vouchers.
The value of hotel books, commissary books, and meal tickets issued
totaled $4,591,510.50.
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix M.

DEPARTMENTS OF CIVIL ADMINISTRATION AND LAW.
CIVIL ADMINISTRATION.

The organization of the department of civil administration re-
mained substantially as described in former annual reports and con-
tinued in charge of Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher.
Five ordinances were enacted by the Isthmian Canal Commission
and approved by the Secretary of War; the more important were
for night quarantine inspection of vessels at the port of Colon;
establishing market regulations for the Canal Zone, and instituting
a reciprocal license tax upon motor vehicles licensed in the Canal
Zone and in the Republic of Panama.
Negotiations carried on with the officials of the Republic of Pan-
ama included the following subjects: Charging of fees by Panama
consuls in San Francisco for the certification of manifests covering
shipments designed for the port of Ancon; adoption of laws and
regulations by the Republic of Panama governing the navigation of
waters under its jurisdiction uniform with those of the Canal Zone;
occupancy of public lands of the Republic by persons forced to
vacate lands in the Gatun Lake area; exercise of Canal Zone juris-





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


diction over Gatun Lake areas lying within the territory of the
Republic; operation of the Chinese-exclusion law in the Republic
and in the Zone; adjustment of automobile license taxes; interference
with United States mails in the city of Colon; transfer by the
Panama Railroad Co. to the Panama Government of certain lots
in exchange for land situated opposite the Hotel Tivoli; operation
of schools for Panaman children by the Government of Panama
within the Canal Zone; extradition to the United States of persons
charged with carrying on white-slave traffic; extradition from the
Canal Zone to Panama of persons charged with crime; deportation
of gamblers and other undesirable characters living in Panama and
Colon; the operation of saloons in Colon near the Zone line; enforce-
ment of the laws of the Republic prohibiting the recruiting of labor-
ers; attempted exercise of police authority on Zone territory by police
officers of the Republic; administration of estates of citizens of
Panama who die in the Canal Zone; celebration of marriages in the
Republic of Panama by Protestant ministers; customs inspection of
baggage at the Panama City railroad station by officials of the Re-
public; repatriation of alien patients in the Ancon Insane Asylum at
the expense of the Panama Government; the construction of build-
ings, streets, sewers, and other improvements; and the maintenance
of proper water service in Colon and Panama. The relations of the
commission with the Republic of Panama and with foreign repre-
sentatives continued satisfactory.
In the last annual report recommendation was made for the de-
population of the Canal Zone, and the reasons on which it was based
were stated therein. The question arose as to the number of people
that would be affected if such a course were pursued. A census,
taken as of June 23, 1908, over four years ago, showed the popula-
tion to be 50,003, but the accuracy of this was questioned by the
sanitary department, which at that time was reporting a population
of upward of 70,000. This number had grown to over 90,000, and
was so much in excess of the force report that the impression obtained
that the number to be moved in case depopulation were resorted to
would be upward of 20,000 or 30,000. It was therefore thought ad-
visable to take a new census and to employ for it persons experienced
in that line of work. Arrangements were made with the Census
Bureau at Washington for transfer to the Isthmus of two of its ex-
perts, and the work was placed under the department of civil admin-
istration. The census, taken as of February 1, 1912, resulted in the
following: Zone population (including the territory of the Canal
Zone, the commission settlements at Porto Bello and Nombre de Dios,
Colon Beach and Taboga Sanitarium), 62,810. Employees of the com-
mission, Panama Railroad Co., and various canal contractors num-
bered, as of February 1, 1912, 42,174. Of the 62,810 persons enumer-





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


ated in the Canal Zone, 1,521 were Colombians and 7,363 were Pana-
mans; of the total 9,157, 4,870 were males. This number repre-
sents more closely the probable number that. would be affected by the
depopulation of the Zone. The total cost. of the census was $12,815.74.
During the year the board of local inspectors issued :31 licenses to
pilots; 9 to masters, 4 of which were issued as joint, master-pilot
licenses; 10 to mates; and 11 to engineern-a total of 04. There were
also issued between July 1, 1911, and Novem\ber 14, 1911, under the
provisions of the law then in force, 15 certificates of seaworthiness to
launches. Licenses were also issued to 97 chaulleurs under the pro-
visions of the ordinance approved by the Secretary of War on April
26, 1911.
Postage sales for the fiscal year amounted to $87.(94.41, an increase
of $4,800.69 over the previous year. There were 145,'33 registered
letters and parcels handled, of which 47 per cent was official matter.
Money orders to the number of 227,(;80, having a total value of
$4,915,077.29, were issued, on which fees aggregating $22,889.90 were
collected. Of the money orders issued during the year, orders
amounting to $3,834,251.55 were made payable without and $1,080,-
S25.74 within the limits of the Canal Zone. Under an Executive
order dated September 8, 1911, a postal savings system was estab-
lished on February 1, 1912, in the post offices of the Canal Zone. At
the close of the fiscal year there was on deposit in these postal savings
banks a total of $356,947. There were in the post offices of the Canal
Zone on the same date unpaid money orders aggregating $332,141.60,
drawn to the order of the remitter and payable at the office of issue.
During the year 327 vessels entered the port of Ancon, with a total
tonnage of 619,422, and the same number of vessels cleared, with a
tonnage of 622,023. At Cristobal 284 vessels entered, with a tonnage
of 784,156, and 282 vessels cleared, with a tonnage of 775,445.
On June 30, 1912, there were in force 858 leases, of which 575 were
for building lots and 258 for agricultural lands-a decrease of 1,383
as compared with the number of leases in force on June 30, 1911.
The leases for agricultural lands covered 352 hectares. Rents col-
lected during the year amounted to $16,033.54. A total of $122,674.54
was collected from general taxes and licenses; of this amount,
$5,083.71 were for distillation taxes; $55,200 for licenses for the sale
of liquor at retail; $1,137.83 for license fees from insurance companies
doing business in the Canal Zone; and $2,059 for licenses for motor
vehicles.
During the year 60 estates were settled, and on June 30, 1912, there
were 98 estates in the course of settlement. The money handled on
account of the administration of estates was $7,306.31.
At the end of the fiscal year the organization of the police force
remained the same as it was at the time the last annual report was




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


written. There were 7,055 arrests made during the year, of which
number 6,452 were males and 603 females. Of the total number of
persons arrested, 79 per cent were convicted. On June 30, 1912, there
were 141 convicts confined in the penitentiary at Culebra, who were
kept at work on public roads, and the value of their work, on the
basis of 10 cents an hour, was $28,126.95. The cost of guarding, sub-
sisting, and clothing the convicts was $35,325.03. A stockade was
erected on the Mandingo River for the temporary housing of con-
victs while building the Empire-Chorrera Road. Slides on the west
bank of Culebra Cut made necessary the demolition of the peniten-
tiary buildings at Culebra.
The only changes in the organization of the division of fire pro-
tection were a reduction of one in the number of firemen and the
employment of a motor engineer. The new concrete fire station at
Cristobal, described in the last annual report, was completed and
occupied early in January. The small station at Balboa was re-
moved to make room for the construction of the terminals at that
point. The Tivoli station was altered to accommodate one of the
two new combination automobile fire engines and hose wagons which
were purchased during the year. There were 333 alarms of fire re-
sponded to, 18 of which were false. Of the 315 fires, 6 were in the
city of Panama and 2 in the city of Colon; 196 were in Government
property and 21 in property of the Panama Railroad Co. The value
of Government and railroad property involved was reported to
be $1,755,685.58. The total loss was estimated at $4,538.58 for Gov-
ernment property and $101 for property of the Panama Railroad
Co. The largest fire on the Zone totally destroyed two private frame
dwellings at Miraflores and caused a loss of $5,000. The year's fires
resulted in 12 injuries from burns; two deaths occurred, one from the
explosion of gasoline fumes and the other from an explosion of
alcohol.
There was no change in the organization of the division of public
works. In the city of Panama 1,085 water connections have been
made to date, and on June 30, 1912, 35 applications were pending.
The collections of water rents from private consumers for the first
three quarters of the year in the city of Panama were $67,491.75, and
bills rendered for the last quarter aggregated $25,436.25. For the
second and third quarters of the fiscal year the water collection ex-
ceeded requirements by $4,293.26, which amount was placed in the
amortization fund to be applied to the reduction of the cost of water-
works, sewers, and pavements. In the city of Colon 731 connections
have been made with water mains, and at the end of the year there
were 45 applications pending. Collections in Colon from private
consumers and from the commission and Panama Railroad Co. dur-
ing the first three quarters amounted to $58,631.20, and the net





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


amount of bills rendered for the fourth quarter was $20,O623.80. The
Republic of Panama paid $10,943.11 in order to liquidate its propor-
tionate part of the cost of the water, sewer, and street systems. In
the Canal Zone 691 water connections have been made. From the
eight public markets in operation during the year a revenue of
$4,183.95 was derived in rent.
The organization of the division of schools consisted of 1 super-
intendent, 2 clerks, 1 supervisor of primary grades, 2 supervisors of
children, 1 principal of high school, 7 principals of grammar schools,
66 teachers, and 1 gardener, the last named being temporarily em-
ployed. The school year opened October 1, 1911, with an enrollment
of 2,105 children-1,174 whites and 931 blacks. On .Tune 30, 1912,
26 buildings were used, 11 for white schools and 1. for colored
schools. Medical inspection of the pupils, inaugurated during the
preceding year, was continued.
The supreme court held 12 sessions during the year. It affirmed
decisions of the circuit court in 4 criminal cases and reversed the
ruling of that court in 1 criminal case. At the beginning of the
year 4 civil cases were pending in the supreme court, 6 were filed,
and 8 disposed of. In the circuit courts 567 criminal cases were in-
stituted, out of which number there were 353 convictions, 126 acquit-
tals, and 84 dismissals, leaving 23 cases pending at the close of the
year. There were 541 civil cases filed during the year, 414 of which
were disposed of and 127 were pending on June 30, 1912. In the dis-
trict courts 7,128 criminal cases were instituted, 5,183 convictions
secured, 1,063 acquittals, 350 dismissals, 528 appeals to the circuit
courts, leaving 4 cases pending at the close of the year. There were
1,305 civil actions brought, 1,280 of which were disposed of and 25
pending on June 30, 1912.
At the beginning of the fiscal year there were $197,207.56 in the
Zone treasury, and during the year collections amounted to
$370,272.81. Expenditures for the year totaled $312,459.75.
For further particulars concerning the work of this department,
attention is invited to Appendix N.

DEPARTMENT OF LAW.

The organization and duties of the department of law were de-
scribed in detail in the last annual report and remained unchanged
throughout the year. The department continued in charge of Judge
Frank Feuille.
Congressional legislation affecting the canal was not enacted until
after the close of the fiscal year. On August 24 the Panama Canal
act was made effective and the sundry civil act approved on the same
date, making appropriations for the current fiscal year. contains
legislative provisions affecting the canal. In addition to the fore-




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


going, 16 Executive orders having the effect of law were issued dur-
ing the year to provide for cases and conditions which had arisen
and which necessitated the enactment of provisions to cover them.
Copies of the laws and Executive orders are appended hereto,
marked Appendix T.
Attention has already been called to the necessity of a revision of
the Canal Zone laws, in order that legislation might be brought
under one complete correlated system. The zone is now governed
by laws of Colombia, of Panama, by executive orders of the Presi-
dent, and ordinances of the commission. The head of the depart-
ment of law advocates remedying the existing faulty condition
by embracing in one code all the Colombian and Panaman laws
which it is deemed expedient to keep and repealing all the others.
A revision of the administrative laws is also necessary, but nothing
was done in the direction of either pending the attitude of Congress
toward the canal and the Canal Zone. The work of revision has
been assigned to the department of law.
The assistant prosecuting attorney handled criminal matters in the
Zone during the past year and 615 such cases were disposed of in the
three circuits, of which 398 resulted in convictions, 139 in acquittals,
66 in dismissals, and 12 in which the defendants were fugitives and
were not arrested. This makes a considerable increase in the num-
ber of criminal cases as compared with the previous year, due in part
to the large number of prosecutions for gambling and for violations
of the navigation laws; an increase in the idle population is probably
responsible to some extent. During the year four criminal cases were
passed upon by the Supreme Court of the Canal Zone; two resulted
in affirmance of the judgment of the circuit court, in one the trial
court's finding was reversed, and the fourth was a habeas corpus
proceeding brought originally in the supreme court.
Cases arise occasionally in which unlawful intrusions are made
upon public lands, but there is no authority for anyone in the Canal
Zone to submit the title of the United States to judicial ascertain-
ment. If the land be needed for canal purposes, the intruders are
ordered to leave, and on failure to do so are ejected by the police.
When the lands intruded upon are not needed for construction
purposes, appeal is taken to the courts in order to evict the occupants.
On this theory several suits were instituted in the courts on behalf
of the commission and 225 acres of land situated between the ceme-
tery at Mount Hope and the quartermaster's corral at Cristobal
were recovered for the United States and the Panama Railroad
Co. Several disputed land claims are now pending which might
be adjusted amicably if the commission or its representatives were
authorized by Congress to agree upon boundary lines with the
claimants.





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


Several small tracts of lands were acquired from private persons
by deed, and the claims in these cases will not be submitted to the
joint commission for an adjustment of the damages. Thie amount
aggregated approximately 979 hectares and the consideration was
$9,318. In addition 31 quitclaim deeds were taken by tle Panama
Railroad Co. from squatters at Toro Point; the consideration was
$5,578.
Revocable licenses to the number of 295 were issued for 315 lots in
town sites, calling for an annual rental of $2:529.09. The sumi of
$1,536 was obtained from monthly licenses covering '27 rooms in
houses belonging to the commission at Gorgona, alnd $900 additional
for the rental of one house at the same place.
For fui'ther details concerning this department, attention is in-
vited to Appendix O.
DEPARTMENT OT SANITATION.

This department has charge of sanitary work in the cities of Colon
and Panama and. except oiling, it designates the sanitary work
to be done in the Canal Zone, in order to accomplish the desired
ends, to the construction divisions and district quartermasters, and
it exercises such supervision as may be necessary to see that the work
is done properly. In addition, the department has charge of hos-
pitals and quarantine. It is in charge of Col. William C. Gorgas,
United States Army, as chief sanitary officer.
The work in the terminal cities consists in cutting grass and brush,
oiling pools, constructing and maintaining ditches for drainage
purposes, removal of garbage and night soil, fumigation, and street
cleaning. On account of the juxtaposition of Cristobal and Mount
Hope to Colon, these are included in the Colon area, and for the
same reason Ancon Hospital grounds are incorporated with Panama.
According to the report submitted, the work done in Panama con-
sisted in cleaning 398 miles of ditches, digging 2.5 miles of ditches,
and clearing 118 acres of weeds and grass, in addition to oiling, dis-
infecting, and fumigating. In the Colon district, from the same
source, 112.5 miles of ditches were maintained, 8 miles of ditches
constructed, and 217 acres cleared of vegetation, in addition to oiling,
disinfecting, fumigating, etc.
The impression is general elsewhere than on the Isthmus that the
sanitary work, in the way of clearing land, extends over the entire
area included within the limits of the Zone, so,that it is interesting
to note in this connection that of the 278,848 acres comprised within
those limits less than 1,200 acres are kept cleared for sanitary pur-
poses and on sanitary requests, outside of the military reservations,
where the work is done by the troops. What clearing may be done




REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


around groups of scquatters in the brush is not done under sanitary
supervision nor for stich purpose, and is relatively small. In addi-
tion, clearing is done for construction purposes, but almost the en-
t.ire Zone is in its original condition as regards brush and jungle.
TheI total expense for sanitary work in the Canal Zone and in the
cities of Pa;ii;n;1: ;ind Colon was $596,608.73, of which $07,968.19
\\ere for sanitation proper in the two cities, $409,205.84 for sanitation
proper il the Zone, $1,S072.50 for removal of garbage and street
cleaning in the twio'cities, and $100,760.20 for removal of garbage
and street cleaning in the Zone. Of the amount expended for sani-
tation properly in the Zone the construction divisions expended $89,-
725.17, principally in the maintenance of existing ditches and the
construction of new ones for drainage purposes; the quartermaster's
department, $93,$870.20 for grass and brush cutting; the sanitary
department used 719,835 gallons of oil, costing $18,862.81, and 124,718
gallons of larvacide, costing $23,751.64; the labor expense for dis-
tribu)ting \;as $1S.820.05 and $17,514.06, respectively. All work per-
formed by the construction divisions and the quartermaster's depart-
ment was done under the direction of the sanitary department, new
ditching being done in accordance with plans prepared by that de-
partment after consultation with the divisions interested. The re-
moval of garbage and night soil in the Zone was done by the quarter-
master's department.
Reporting on the health conditions on the Isthmus, the chief sani-
tary officer states that the total admissions to hospitals and sick camps,
including those sick in quarters during the year, was 48,307; that
the daily average sick was 22.91 out of every thousand employees as
against 24.77 for 1910-11 and 23.01 for 1909-10 on the basis that the
total numbers employed during the years mentioned were 50,008,
49,129, and 50,535, respectively; that the total number of deaths
among employees was 508, of which 35 were Americans, 79 were
white employees of other nationalities, and 394 were blacks; that the
total number of deaths from violence among all employees was 154,
as against 178 for the preceding year. In addition, on the recom-
mendation of the medical examining board, 193 deportations were
made, 141 for disease and 52 for injuries.
For further details concerning this department, attention is invited
to Appendix P.
RECREATION OF EMPLOYEES.

On June 30, 1912, clubhouses were in operation at Corozal, Cule-
bra, Empire, Gorgona, Gatun, Cristobal, and Porto Bello, under the
supervision of the Young Men's Christian Association. During the
61012 -12---5





REPORT ISriIlMIAN CANA. COMMISSION.


year bowling alleys, locker rooms, shower baths, and a barber shop
were added to the Corozal cluilihouse at a cost of about $5,000.
The average monthly inelrmbership for the year was 1,944, as against
1,947 for the previous year. The smallest iemnl:,ership for any month
was 1,784 for August, 1911, and the largest was 2,0!' for June, 1912.
The total expenditures from commission funds for the support of
these clubhouses aggregated $50,565.61.
For further details of the operation of the clubhouses see Ap-
pendix Q.
WASHINGTON OFFICE.
The work of the Washington office was of the same scope as
previously reported, and continued in charge of Maj. F. C. Boggs,
United States Army.
During the year 1, 290 persons within the United States were
tendered employment for duty on the Isthmus in grades above that
of laborer; 632 accepted and( were appointed, covering 51 different.
positions.
The total amount of purchase orders placed for the fiscal year was
$10,446,551.23. The most important contracts entered into were for
permanent equipment in the form of structural look material, $3Sr,-
274.60; electric locomotives and tracks, $249,258.44; spillway gates
and materials, $526,697.0.3; machinery for the operation of locks and
spillways, $2,271,582.01; and hydroelectric station, $15; ,580G.S.
Other important purchases included 10,105,000 pounds of dynamite,
34,424,500 feet of lumber, and 7, 59 gross tons of steel rails. Under
a contract for 4,500,000 barrels of Portland cement. entered into
January 7, 1909, a total of 4,354.024 barrels has been shipped, of
which 1,579,210 barrels were delivered during the past year.
During the year the three independent inspecting oltices were con-
tinued for the inspection of lock gates and material which enter into
construction of the locks and damns.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix R.

GENERAL REMARKS.
A year has passed since the last annual report, in which was noted
the dates by which the various parts of the work were to be com-
pleted, and the situation has been modified somewhat, so that more
accurate information can 1e given than was possible at thai time.
The division engineer of the central division reported at the close of
the year that if no more material due to slides had to be removed
than the increase which the revised etimnates of July 1. 1912, con-
templated, the excavation through Cuilebra Cut would l:e completed
by July 1, 1913, or the same date as was fixed a year ago. Though
additional slides have occurred since the close of the fiscal year, there
has been no decrease in the force, so that it is still possible to com-
plete it as predicted, though the date must. depend upon the slides.





REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER.


In the Atlantic division concrete work at the north end of the locks
remains to be completed. As outlined in the report, excavation in
the area below by dredging was not begun until February, 1912, and
it is reported by the division engineer that, due to slides, the date
for completing the concrete will now be June 30, 1913. On account
of increase in the additional quantity of dry fill that must be added
to the dam, July 1, 1913, is now the date fixed for completing this
work, and August 1, 1913, is fixed as the date foi completing the
Gatun spillway.
In the Pacific division the division engineer now estimates that
the locks will be completed in their entirety by January 1, 1913, by
which date the dams at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores will also be
finished, and that the spillway at Miraflores Locks will be completed
by June 30, 1913. The delay of seven months in the delivery of the
dredge Corozal threatened to cause a delay in completing the excava-
tion in the channel below Miraflores by the amount that it was esti-
mated the dredge would remove in that time. However, a large por-
tion of this excavation will be done by steam shovels, thus reducing
the length of time sufficiently to permit the completion of the channel
by June 30, 1913.
As already noted, the contract for the lock gates has not been car-
ried out as rapidly as was anticipated, and the contractor has been
called upon to finish the gates in one flight of locks first, so that, if
the rest of the work is in condition, passage of ships can be permitted
by the use of one of the flights instead of both. While delays have
occurred in the delivery of the lock machinery and accessories, the
assistant chief engineer is so organizing his work as to have com-
pleted sufficient machinery to meet the conditions that the lock-gate
contract will furnish. It is probable that certain features of the
work will not be finished until some time after the first vessel passes
the locks. These are features, such as the power-generating station,
the transmission line, the aids to navigation, etc., which, though im-
portant in themselves, are not essential to the preliminary trial of the
system.
The act of Congress approved March 4, 1911, provides that-
Except in cases of emergency or conditions arising subsequent to and unfore-
seen at the time of the passage of this act, there shall not be employed at any
time during the fiscal year nineteen hundred and twelve, under any of the
foregoing appropriations for the Isthmian Canal, any greater number of per-
sons than are specified in the notes submitted, respectively, in connection with
the estimates for each of said appropriations in the annual Book of Estimates
for said year, nor shall there be paid to any such persons during that fiscal
year any greater rate of compensation than was authorized to be paid to per-
sons occupying the same or like positions on the first day of July, nineteen
hundred and ten, and all employment made or compensation increased because





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


of emergencies so arising shall he specifically set forth. wvith the reasons there-
for, by the chairman of the commission in his report for the fiscal year nineteen
hundred and twelve.
In compliance with the requirements of the law, the increase in
salaries and the increase in the number of employees are given in
Appendix S.
The laws affecting the canal recently enacted and the Executive
orders issued during the fiscal year are given in Appendix T.
The organization in effect July 1, 1~12, is given in Appendix U.
Respectfully submitted.
GEO. W. GOETHALS,
Colonel, Co.rps of Engin rs, Lifthd States Army,
C' airn an a(nd C(Jief Eng incr.
The Hon. HENRY L. STI'SON,
Secretary of 1]ar, 1l'asJgington, D. C.











APPENDIX A.


REPORT OF COL. H. F. HODGES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, UNITED
STATES ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER, IN CHARGE OF THE FIRST DIVI-
SION OF THE OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER.



ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER, FIRST DIVISION,
Culebra, Canal Zone, July 29, 1912.
SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of the opera-
tions during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, of the first division
of the office of the chief engineer:
This division is charged with the design of the locks, dams, regu-
lating works, and accessories; with the design and construction of
aids to navigation, and with the erection of the operating machinery
at the locks and spillways. In addition it is responsible for the in-
spection of the manufacture and of the erection under contract or
otherwise of certain of the structures and machines designed in its
different subdivisions.
At present the division is organized in subdivisions in charge of
designs and work as follows: (a) Design of masonry and lock
structures, including spillways and valves; (b) design of lock gates
and protective devices, including the inspection of construction and
of erection under contract; (c) design of operating machinery and
electrical installation, including inspection and erection; (d) design
of movable dams, including inspection of construction and of erec-
tion under .contract; and (e) design and construction of aids to
navigation.
A chart of the approved organization is herewith (plate 112).

MASONRY AND LOCK .STRUCTURES.
This subdivision is under charge of Mr. L. D. Cornish, designing
engineer, assisted by Messrs T. E. L. Lipsey, A. R. Brown, and L. B.
Fay, assistant engineers, and the necessary draftsmen.

LOCKS.
At the beginning of the last fiscal year the general design of all
the locks had been adopted, approved, and issued, except the plans
of the lower portion of the lower locks at Gatun and Miraflores, and
detailed drawings needed by the working force in the field had been
made and issued from time to time.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, the general plans
for the lower portion of the lower locks at Gatun and Miraflores
were completed, approved, and issued.





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


All detailed plans for all the lock- were colnpl)eted dulrilng the fiscal
year. All the decking dlrawing-s, showing details of construction
over rising stem gate valve llachiller'y chaI I erfs, Illter gate moving
machiery chllamberls, intake valve\ operating nviachinerv chaml-bers,
and other miscellaneous deckings, were made Iand iisuci-e during- the
year.
VALVES AND FINED PA.lTS.

At the close of the last fic;al year the signs had been completed
and approved for the fixed irony for the vaIlve and gate clihambnlers in
all locks and in the Gatiun anld Miraltores spill\wav; for the cylin-
drical valves for all locks, for the Stoineyv gate, caissons, footlridiges,
and railings for the spillways, and for the rising tell gate valves for
the locks, including all roller trains, sealing device-, rocker bearings,
etc., for the above gates and valves; for the guard valves, screens,
bulkhead gates, lateral culvert valve, snlbbing hooks, andl blidges
at intakes, and other miscellaneous ironwork.
During the fiscal year all reenforciilgi rons in decking over oper-
ating machinery chambers were designed and contracted for, also
snubbing posts and spring buitlers.

AITPlHOACH_ WALLS.

At the close of the Iast fiscal year the design- for all approach
walls at all locks had been adopted, approved, and issued, except for
the south middle approach wall for Miraifores.
During the fiscal year ending .Juine 30 1!91. the design for the
south middle approach wall at MiraHfore wvas adopted, approved,
and issued, and the design for t.he uncompleted portion of south
middle approach wall at Pedro Migiel \wav altered, a-lopting the re-
enforced type in lieu of the solid type previously plrolposed.
DRAWINGS.

During the fiscal year 1910-11, 133 drawing- were made, approved,
and issued, covering the feature hereinbe fore mentioned.
During the fiscal year V1911-1' 1l1 dlrawiing- have been made, ap-
proved, and issued. The following spillway drawings have been-
changed and new drawings issued to replace same: 4024, 4510, 4511,
4512, 4513, 4515. 4510, 4517, 45-23, and 4524. About 00 drawings
have been revised. \A dlnrwing ,of Pedro Mimguel Lock has been made
for the Post Office Depairtmnenit and work bIegun on drawiig of Pedro
Miguel Lock for final record.

CONTHR.\CTS.

At the end of the last fiscal year the following contracts had been
completed:
Dated July 10, 1910, witlt the Rosedlale Foundry & Machine Co.,
of Pittsburgh, Pa.. for 40 cylindrical valves for thle ipper Gatun and
Pedro Miguel Locks. 'Total cost of contract, $84,177.50.
Dated July 10, I.)0., with tlie CIhapman Valve Co., of Indian
Orchard, Mass., for )valves, expansion joiint-, and pipeil fo.r by-pass
valves at upper end of all locks. Total cost of contract, $4,:30,0.-0.





CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING--FIRST DIVISION.


Dated Septemlier 7, 1909, with the Crane Co., of Baltimore, Md.,
torI valves for liy-pass valves at upper end of all locks. Total contract
price, $11;45G;.
Dated September 7, 1909, with Lynchburg Foundry Co., of Lynch-
burg. Va., for valves, expansion joints, annc pipe for by-pass valves
;at ulppler end of all locks. Total price, $9,114.90.
Dated .Jilv 10, 109l with Penn Bridge Co., of Beaver Falls, Pa.,
for ladder rilins for all locks. Total price, $2,058.40.
Dated JuIly 10, 1909, with United Engineering & Foundry Co.,
of lPittsburgh, Pa., for anchor bolts, snubbing hooks, girders, cut-
waters, wicket girders; seats and guides, and reaction castings for
all locks. Total contract price, $46,846.56.
Datedl July 10, 10'.0', with the Penn Bridge Co., of Beaver Falls,
Pa., for '2 sets of fixed irons for rising stem gate valves, 4 rising
stei valves \\'ith roller trains and sealing devices for upper lock at
Gatun. Total contract, price, $29,252.56.
Dated Marchl 2, 1910i, with the Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co., of
\Wheeling, W. Va., for 22 sets of fixed irons for rising stem gate
valves for Pedro Miguel and upper Gatun Locks, and 18 intake valves,
12 bulkhead gates for all locks. Total contract price, $199,106.24.
During the past fiscal year the following contracts were completed:
Dated September 1, 1910, with the Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co.,
of Wheeling, W. Va., for 34 sets of fixed irons for rising stem gate
valves for Miraflores Locks and middle and lower locks at Gatun.
Total contract price, $225,895.61.
Dated August 11, 1910, with the Rosedale Foundry & Machine Co.,
of Pittsburgh, Pa., for 80 cylindrical valves for Miraflores Locks and
middle and lower locks at Gatun and spillway. Total contract price,
$140,588.
Dated August 11, 1910, with Pennsylvania Steel Co., of Steelton,
Pa., for snubbing hooks and girders for Miraflores Locks, and middle
and lower locks at Gatun. Total contract price, $17,216.94.
During the fiscal year 1912, the following contracts have been let
on plans and specifications prepared in the fiscal year 1911:
Dated September 11, 1911, with the McClintic-Marshall Construc-
tion Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., for 22 spillway gates, 2 steel caissons,
material for 22 footbridges, 132 rising stem gate valves and 2 spares,
12 guard-gate valves, 6 lateral culvert valves, 12 bulkhead gates to
middle wall culverts, 27 bulkhead gates at intakes, and 36 screens at
intakes. Total contract price, $342,681.88.
Dated September 2; 1911, with the Excelsior Tool & Machine Co.,
of East St. Louis, Ill., for 515 tons of fixed irons for spillways at
Gatun and Miraflores spillways. Total contract price, $25,724.12.
Dated September 11, 1911, with the Westinghouse Machine Co., of
East Pittsburgh, Pa., for 264 roller trains and 4 spares and 292
sealing devices and 32 spares for rising stem gate valves in all locks,
46 roller trains and 2 spares, 52 sealing devices and 8 spares, rocker
bearings and tracks for spillways at Gatun and Miraflores spillways.
Total contract price, $177,147.58.
Dated August 21, 1911, with the Vulcan Rail & Construction Co.,
of Brooklyn, N. Y., for material required for 22 sets of bridge rail-
ings for Gattu and Miraflores spillways. Total contract price,
$5,665.





REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


Dated December 2I;, 1911. with tlje United States Steel Products
Co., 30 Church Street, New\ York City, for material for four intake
bridges at upper end of Pedro Miguel anld Miraflores Locks and struc-
tural material for decking over rising stein gate valve and 1 iter gaite
moving machinery chambers of all locks. Total estimated cost,
$21,414.97.
The following contracts have been let on plans and specifications
prepared during the fiscal vearl 1912:
Dated November 23, 1911, with the Standard Foundry Co., 743
Hartel Avenue, Buffalo,, N. Y., for slublbing posts and washers for all
locks. Total contract price, $5,518.09.
Dated November 23, 111, with the American Car &. Foundry Co.,
165 Broadway, New York( City, for bolts, links. annchlor rods. etc., for
buffers on all lock walls. Total contract price, $i;,257.02.
Dated December 21, 1911, witli tile lRailwaly- Spriing & Steel Co.,
New York City, for 25,1i08 helical sp5rngs for spring batters on
approach walls of locks. Total contract price. .1 ,572 .4.
Dated November 11, 1911, with J. B. Kend.al Co., of Wasliington,
D. C., for cold twisted slqua re steel bars for reenlforcitn deckiig- over
miter gate moving alnd rising steim gate valvee machinery chaImber for
all locks. Total contract price, $1, )059.35.
Dated January 5, 1!19. withl the Uni ted States Steel Products Co.,
of 30 Church Street. New York City, for trialigular Ime~-h slab reel-
forcement for deckings )over rising stent gate valve amid miter garte
moving machinery clamil:,Cers at. all locks. Total contract price,
$891.44.
CASTINGS MADE ON THE ISTHMUS.

In addition to the ironwork maie in tlie Uniited States the com-
mission foundry has jjiimade. or fabricated, iln accordance witli the
designs of this subdivision, about 5,3i1l tons of castings and structiu ral
material. (Nine hundred atnd fifty-four tons of material wa_ fur-
nished during the fiscal year 1910-11.)

INSTALL I'ION OF VALVES, GATES, ETC.
The work of preparing chambers for anld installations of rising
stem gate valves was begi)iiu during this fiscal year, anid 14 c(iihamlbers
(12 at Gatun and 2 at Pedro Miguel were lpreparedl foe valves, and
12 valves have been placed in position in lock. Six lblkhead gate_
have been placed in side-wall intakes and six "in center-wall intakes
at Gatun. The three rising stem e'ate valves and one cylindrical
valve have been placed in spillway, and all cyliidrical valves. have
been placed at all locks.
About 90 per cent of tlie material for the two caissons, 22 spillway
gates, and 22 spillway footbridges has been delivered, aind the erec-
tion of the caissons and ratess in the vards was about to beginit at the
close of the fiscal year. The placing of all this material will be done
by the commission during this fic-al year.
TE'SI'S 1OF VALVES.

The details of conrt ru ction of tle rising stein valv'es for the inain
culverts are illustrated ini plates '*!:,, 70. and 71 Iierewitl. The plate
show slight changes from tlhe valves illustrated iin the anllnual report





CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING-FIRST DIVISION. 73

for 1909, the changes having been made after contracting for the first
two experimental sets. For test under working pressures a set of two
valves was installed in the upper valve chamber of the west side cul-
vert at Gatun, the entrance to the culvert was closed with a water-
tight bulkhead, and the culvert above the valves, with the well con-
necting the same to the top of the wall, was filled with water. When
the water reached the coping level there was a head against the valve
slightly greater than that which will obtain when the lock is pumped
dry for examination and considerably greater than the usual oper-
ating head. Under this condition the leakage was measured, and
also the force required to start the valve and to maintain motion for
a distance of about 1 foot. The leakage was as follows:
Cubic feet
per second.
2S-foot head above bottom of valve____-__-_-----------0. 75
4S-foot head above bottom of valve--------------------- 1. 46
53-foot head above bottom of valve --------------- 1.56
79-foot head above bottom of valve--------------------- 1. S2
The following table gives the result of the test made under full
head, i. e., with the-surface of the water 79 feet above the bottom of
the valve. It will be seen that the combined friction resulting from
the contact of the side seals of the gates, as well as the action of the
roller trains, averages 21,170 pounds. It had been assumed as 31,750
pounds in the design of the machinery, which was intended to exert a
lifting force of 60,000 pounds, including all friction and the weight
of the valve and its accessories. The valve tested was one of the first
made and lacks certain improvements in details and workmanship
which are found in those of later manufacture and which would
undoubtedly reduce the friction and leakage somewhat.

Tabulation of tests of rising stem gate valves.

Gate.
No. Designation.
260 261

Pounds. Pounds.
1 Pull to lift gate, no water pressure..................-----------------------------............------ 24, 000 25,000
2 Weight of gate, plus one-half weight of roller trains ............................ 23000 23,000
3 Friction of side seals, initial (1-2)..... ....-------------...................... 1,000 2,000
4 Friction of side seals, due to water pressure .... ......................-------- 4,170 4,170
5 Friction of side seals, total (3+4).....-------- ..-------- ---------- -........ ---- 5,170 6,170
6 Water pressure against gate, calculated (h=79 feet) ............--....-..--- ... 651,000 651,000
7 Water pressure against upper seal, lifting force..................---------------- ------ 5420 5,420
8 Dynamometer pull to start motion ..................... -............. ....- 37,500 40.000
9 Total upward force, initial (7+8) ........ .. ...........- ... 42,920 45,420
10 Dynamometer pull, maximum during 12-inch travel of gate................... 41,500 44,500
11 Total friction, sliding plus rolling (9-2)....-......-....-.......- ..-. ........... 19,920 22,420
12 Rolling friction, initial (11-5) ....................... .....-.......-........- 14,750 16,250
13 Coefficient of rolling friction (12+6).............................-------- ....--------------- 0.0226 0.0231


One of the cylindrical valves in the locks at Gatun was tested for
leakage from the exterior by constructing a bulkhead across the
entrance to the valve chamber. The valve chamber was filled with
water under pressure. When the head reached 60 feet, the leakage
was found to vary from a, quantity too small to measure to about
0.25 cubic foot per second. The average was about what was to be
expected from the previous tests made and described in the last
annual report. Close examination indicated that the leather seal or





REPORT ISTHMLAN CANAL COMMISSION.


gasket was sufficiently rigid to old to holl te movaI:l:le portion of the
valve and prevent its seating properly. The segments which
clamped the leather seal were removed and tll.h ed'e beveled slightly
to allow an easier bending of tlie gasket. After this operation the
leakage was found, by measurement, to b:e albout 0.015 cubic foot per
second, or about. one-tenth of that previously ,measured. The se!-
ments for all the valves are now being beveled in the mannIer indi-
cated as advisable by this experiment.
The details of con-st ruction of thle cylindrical valve, will be found
illustrated in the a nnul report for l1901'.

LoCK GAT.ES AND I')PnO'EC''rvE DeV\ICES.

This subdivision has been under the immediate ch'arg'e of Mr.
Henry Goldmark. designing engi neer, assisted in tihe otice by Messrs.
F. E. Sterns, L. A. Man-n, and J. Soderberg, a-istant engineers, and
the necessary draftsmen and clerk.
The force organized f ,o inspection of. lck gate;_ in tile United
States was under tile immediate chlar,-e of Mr. J.. I-Hamn er, assistant
engineer, and Mr. Frank Price, chief inspector. Mr. George F.
Guynn was the chief inspector on the Istlhmus.

LOCK CATES.

The fixed metallic parts enm:bedded in the masonry, such a-, the
anchorages, sill reenforcemient, quoini and foundation :vatingl, etc..
furnished under a contract with the United Engineering & -Foulndry
Co., of Pittsburgh, Pn., lhd been delivered prior to tleileeiilninii of
the fiscal year 1912. All these parts have been erected by the division,
engineers.
The construction aind erection of the lock gates proper and of tlhe
fixed parts necessary f or supporting the gates on the foundation cast-
ings and fastening them to thle inichior;, have been carried on under
the contract with tle McClintic-Manrslill ('onstiruI'tion Co., of Pitts-
burgh, Pa., dated June '21. 10~10. I)ring the year tile shop drawings
for all the different heights of gates were completed by the con-
tractors and approved.
The inspection of the material for the gates in the rolling mills,
foundries, and the contractor's works at Pitts)burgh was continued
in essentially the -salme m;11:nner as in tle previous fiscal year. The
only change of importance was the transfer of the inspection at tile
foundry of the Wheeling Mold & iFond ry Co. from inspectors
reporting to the Washiinton office to a force under the direct orders
of the assistant enLineer in char l-e of the lock ,'n tes.
The inspection of the hand railing and its mechanimin, as well af
of a few minor pI:rt-, is still being carried _on by tle commini,-on
inspectors engaged on other duties in- connection with tlie Washing-
ton office.
The total steel plates andl shapes accepted at the Imlills to the end
of the fiscal year aggregated .,'l,: ~- tons, hal f of w\icl waa- rolled
during the year. This practically comprises all rolled material
required for the gates, excepting tliat for the slare parts.
Tle manufacture of the l teel costing,. both of ordinary enrboni
steel and the vanadium steel alloy n-ed in certain parts of the g:ites.




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