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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Index
 Letter of submittal
 Main
 Back Cover














Title: Biennial report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097353/00002
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Alternate Title: Annual report ( 1928 )
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Game and Fresh Water Fish
Publisher: The Dept.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1931-1932
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Wildlife management -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fishery management -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nature conservation -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Description based on: 1928; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097353
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 40687807
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report - Florida Department of Game and Fish
Succeeded by: Biennial report - Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Index
        Page 2
    Letter of submittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text
!
2 [1.1


BIENNIAL REPORT of thi


f/GAM JE


and


FRESH WATER FISH
I. ) R 1 i) A

For the Period Ending June 3o, 1930


C.I. WOODWARD, STATE GAME COMMISSIONER
99 TA I. .A -ASSE E, FLO RIDA


"Deparmentt















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY



11o













BIENNIAL REPORT of the

Department of GAME and

FRESH WATER FISH

FLORIDA


for the Period Ending June 3oth, 1930




*o,o ,*'' "- f' ~ ,
l, ', '* ''* " ** "" ',,'


C. C. WOODWARD
State Game Commissioner
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


1- ~ ~~c~c~~~~~O~~~t~~4~~~~ ~C- ~~jf-.
.~.OO~~c~c COG~~~;~~~;~; ~~











INDEX

Page
CONSERVATION
A W orthy Objective ......... .. ... ...................................... 5
Value of Fisheries ................................. ...... ................. 5
Value of Game Birds and Animals............................................ 5
Value of Birds as Crop Defenders. .......... ............................... 6
A Magnet for Visitors ................................. ... .................. 6
Fur Industry................. ............................................. 6
M monetary W orth of W ild Life .............................. .......... ......... 6
An Agency for Recreation................................. ................ 7
Is Preservation Worthwhile? ......... ...................................... 7
Florida Possibilities ................... ......................................... 8
Conservation Defined .......................................................... 8
M methods ..................................... ......................... 8
ORGANIZATION OF WORK
Office Force .................................................................. 9
Field Force ................. ................................................10
WILD-LIFE SUPPLY
The Game Bird Supply................................................10
Squirrels ............................. .......... ................... ..... .... . 10
Deer ........... ......................... ................. ....... ....... 11
Fur-Bearers ................................ ........................... 12
GAME PROPAG(ATION
Breeding Grounds-Parks-Preserves .......................................... 13
Breeding Grounds, Refuges ...................................................13
Highlands Hammock Park ................................ ................ 14
Kelly Park Preserve ......................... .. ...... .......................14
Ocala National Game Preserve................................................. 15
Federal Government Establishes Preserves ................ .....................16
Make Closing 20,000 Acres Mandatory ............................................17
Proposed National Everglades Park..................... .....................17
Florida's Game Farm ...................... ..................................19
Sportsmen Try Pheasants ..................................... ..................22
FLORIDA'S FRESH-WATER FISH SUPPLY ................ .................... .........22
Destruction of Predatory Fish .............. ......................................23
A another Plan ................................. ......... ............ ..........24
Winter Haven Hatchery........................................................ 24
Requests for Fingerling ................. ................ ........... ........... 25
Small-Mouth and Rock Bass. ................ ............................ .. 25
Sale of Black Bass ............... ..................... ........... ......... .. 26
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM
M monthly B ulletins ............................. ....................... ...... ..27
Q quarterly M magazine ....... . .. .. .. ......... ..... ... .... .... 27
Coming Publications ....... ' .; ......................... 28
Exhibits ............ .. ..' ., .................. .... 28
Moving Pictures .. , ............ .................29
Supervision of ainal Program .................... ............... 29
LAW ENFORCEMENT '
Court Cases. . '. .":. ........... 30
Co-operation .. ....................... .............. ...... '. ......... 30
EXCERPT FROM REPORT OF CONGRESSIONAL COMM ITTIE
Wild-Life Resources of America ...... ... ......... ......................31
LEGISLATIVE RICOMlMEoiNDATIONS ........... ........................................... 33
CONCLUSION ........... ................................................... .......... 34
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts for Biennium ....................................... ........ ........... 36
Expenditures for Biennium ......................... ..........................35














Tallahassee, Florida,
December 31, 1930.
To His Excellency,
Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida.
Sir:
Under authorization of the Laws of Florida, Chapter 13644, Section
8, Acts of 1929, 1 have the honor of submitting to you, herewith, the Third
Biennial Report of the Department of Game and Fresh-Water Fish, State
o* Florida.
The statistical report submitted covers the biennium closing June 30,
1930; the narrative carries the story of the two-year period closing Decem-
ober 31, 1930.
The activities of the Department from July 1, 1928, until February 25,
1929, were directed by the former State Game Commissioner; the activities
of the Department from February 25, 1929, through the remainder of the period
were directed by the present State Game Commissioner.
Respectfully submitted,
C. C. WOODWARD,
State Game Commissioner.










50o34







Department of Game and Fresh-Water Fish



Two Years in the Conservation of

the Native Wild Life of Florida

doors, the sparkle of conscious life.
Lost, one of the greatest attractions
of the realm of outdoors would be
gone. Furthermore, their conserva-
fi .tion is of direct profit to the indi-
vidual and to the State. Since earli-
est times they have served as in-
come-producers and income-savers;
furnishing products for the market,
and food for the home table of the
man who hunts and fishes. They pay
a levy to the State and build the
fortunes of individuals. Their worth
(. X -_ varies directly with their abundance.

I, Value of Florida Fisheries


DEAD LAKES IN WEST FLORIDA

A Worthy Objective
HUMAN activity should have as
its object those things that
are helpful to the individual and of
benefit to the race. In view of this
fact, before considering the activities
of the State Department of Game
and Fresh-Water Fish, one might
ask, Are its activities worthwhile?
Is the saving of our great outdoors
worthwhile?
Birds, animals and fish are the
very embodiment of the spirit of out-


Florida's fisheries produce,
through commercial channels, an
annual revenue of many millions of
dollars. To this must be added a
considerable sum as an estimate of
the value of the food consumed on
the home table. No one other food
product which Florida affords has
served as has fish to cut the cost
of living. To be had in every section
of the State for the taking, and
purchasable in the market for a price
that is far below that of meats-for
which fish may be substituted with-
out loss either from the standpoint
of the diet or of goodness-fish fur-
nishes a ready substitute for the
more expensive meats.

Value of Game Birds and Animals
As food, game birds and animals
are a delicacy, and yet the numbers
in which they are taken and served
on the Florida table give them a
monetary value not to be overlooked.
Unlike many other delicacies, they







Biennial Report of the


are not confined to the tables of the
rich.
In many instances, property own-
ers in Florida not only pay their
taxes on their lands, but receive con-
siderable income from the leasing of
the shooting privileges over these
lands.

Value of Birds as Crop Defenders

To agriculture, a basic industry of
the State, the birds that feed upon
weed seeds and insects render a ser-
vice of incalculable value. Estab-
lished records, had from that last
court of appeal-the examination of
the contents of the stomachs of
birds, an estimated 70,000 having
been used for the purpose-lead
Federal authorities to state that
birds, through their destruction of
harmful insects, reduce the losses
to agriculture in America by twenty-
five per cent. Since these authorities
place the annual losses at from
$1,000,000,000 to $2,000,000,000, it
will be seen that the annual value of
the service of bids as crop defend-
ers in America must approximate
$500,000,000. In Florida, where the
mild climate is conducive not only to
the production of many kinds of
crops but of many species of insects
as well, the service of the birds is
v;i1ii.i1.1. indeed. It must amount
each year to several millions of
dollars.

A Magnet for Visitors

The drawing power of Florida's
wild-life, found in the setting
1,;. 1, the State offers, and under
those climatic conditions which
make it .a delight to go into the
woods each day in the year, can
hardly be overestimated.
SAstute real estate dealers, recog-
nizing its 'value, have in some in-
staices inade special provision on


their properties for attracting and
protecting bird life, and, where the
acreage warrants it, some are propa-
gating and protecting several specie's
of game.

Fur Industry

Pelts taken from Florida fur-
bearers produce an annual income
that varies with the market price on
furs from one million to two million
dollars.

Monetary Worth of Wild-Life

The combination of climate, set-
ting and wild-life, which produces
our great outdoors, has been esti-
mated by Roger Babson, nationally
known statistician, to bring to the
State annually a revenue that is five
times as great as that derived from
the citrus crop.
In a State where the tourist busi-
ness reaches the proportions that it
does in Florida, sport fishing as-
sumes an importance as an attraction
to those of other States, that in this
nation of outdoor lovers is very
great. This democratic sport draws
rich and poor, high and low, the
seasoned angler and the novice to its
common meeting ground about lake,
stream or on ocean or gulf shores.
The books of hotels that entertain
the thousands of visitors that it an-
nually brings, of boat owners, guides,
dealers in I.... l.; goods, gasoline
stations, garages, places of amuse-
ment, grocery stores, growers of
vegetables and fruits, in fact, the
trade that profits on every hand from
this tourist business, alone can show
the monetary worth of sport fishing
to Florida. Though with not as
many devotees, hunting brings to the
State each year thousands of highly
desirable visitors.







Department of Ganme and Fresh-Water Fish


An Agency for Recreation
The monetary worth of Florida s
wild-life is but one of its many
values. In this day, when our highly
organized industrial system has so
shortened hours of labor and multi
plied hours of leisure, the profitable
employment of leisure time becomes
a problem to be faced both by indi-
viduals and the State. Where can


unmarred by careless or vicious
hands, bring an appreciation of
things that are real, and a content-
ment with those simpler, finer things
of life that tend to lift the whole
to a higher plane.

Is Preservation Worthwhile?
Is the preservation of such a re-
source worthwhile?


r r
It '~~ ..,~


r77N


4.

C.f R ~ A;


ON THE WACISSA RIVER


more wholesome recreation be found
than that to he had in the great out-
doors? No other material agency
offers those in need of re-creation
of physical and spiritual values what
may be found there. As a preventive
of moral and physical ills, this life
in the open is without a peer. Con-
tacts in the wide spaces with things


That section which can boast of
but little that makes for such a life
in the open-regardless of what its
industrial development may be-is
poor; that section which has such
and fails to conserve it, is unwise;
while that section which has and
conserves it is both rich and wise.







Biennial Report of the


Conservation

Protection
Restoration
V Wise Utilization


Possibilities
L1 I r1 1 .F 1. i I 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 l I

everything-except the complete un-
derstanding of its value and a posi-
ti\e determination to conserve it-to
develop the wild-life of the State in
amazing abundance; and it is doubt-
ful if any other value as great
could be created at so low a cost.
The benefits of such a development
would be so broad as to affect bene-
ficially every civic, social, moral and
commercial interest in the State.
Objective
This is the objective which the De-
partment holds in view, the goal for
which it strives.
Utopian though it may seem, it is
within reach. It will become a reality
when the masses demand it.

Conservation
Conservation, as that term is ap-
plied to the saving of wild-life in this
and other States, had its birth in the
reaction that followed an awaken-
ing to the fact that birds, fish and
animals were steadily diminishing in
numbers. In its incipiency it sought
but to save them from destruction.
With but limited knowledge of the
many values of wild-life, the appeal
for its preservation was based
largely on idealism. Today that ap-
peal is re-enforced by that of prac-
ticability; and policies include plans,


not only for protection and restora-
tion, but for wise utilization.
Though this wider conception of
conservation is fast coming to be
universally accepted, if it is to le as
universally practiced, it must be-
come an intimate part of the convic-
tions of the individual citizen.
Methods
To this end knowledge of the life
of woods and waters must be en-
larged: this knowledge must reach
the public: scientific methods for
protecting and propagating wild life
under changed conditions of today,
brought about by the cutting away
of forests, the opening up of natural
refuges, the destruction of vast
breeding grounds by drainage, must
be discovered and employed : regula-
tion of methods for taking game,
consistent with its conservation,
must be secured.
Adequate legislation, supported by
education, must lay the foundation
for such conservation. To secure re-
spect for and obedience to law a
sufficient number of law enforcement
officers to provide for general cover-
age in the State, and intensive work
where needed, and strong co-opera-
tion from the courts and county
officials must be had.







Department of Game and Fresh-Water Fish


Organization of Work


\Without exception States have de-
veloped their conservation work
through these three i el defined
channels--education, protection and
propagation. 1 Where best results are
being obtained these three branches
of the work are each well developed.
The State Game law. enacted by the
Legislature in 1929. and which con-
templated the reorganization of the
Department, provides for the three.
Office Force
Under this law an office force con-
sisting of an Assistant State Com-
missioner, a Secretary to the Com-
missioner, a bookkeeper, a stenog-
rapher and a clerk, has been main-
tained. This force has rendered
efficient service.
Field Force
Following the mandate for reor-
ganization, the State was districted,
and a District Game Commissioner
for and from each of the four dis-
tricts, which correspond with the
Congressional Districts of the State.
was appointed. These men, under
the State Commissioner, have direct
supervision of the work in their re-
spective districts. I. N. Kennedy
was appointed District Commission-
er for the First; H. C. Harper for
the Second; J. T. Hurst for the
Third; J. W. Black for the Fourth.
As early as funds were available
a force of forty men, as provided by
law, were appointed as deputies, and
assigned to the several districts.
These men are a picked group. keen
and efficient. Though the force is
not adequate in numbers, district
commissioners and deputies have
rendered a tireless, loval service,
which has resulted in a growing re-
spect for the law and a deepening
interest in conservation throughout
the State.
Prior to the 1930 nesting season
for quail, a limited number of men


were employed to trap birds in a few
of the breeding grounds and remove
them to the open territory in those
counties in which they were trapped.
State exhibits at fairs have been
planned and supervised by the clerk
employed in the office, and a field
assistant employed for the duration
of the fairs. District commissioners.
and deputies have rendered every as-
sistance possible with this work as
the exhibit was brought to their re-
spective fields.
Supervision
Directing the work of office and
field, the State Game Commissioner
has divided his time between the
two. In addition to the usual ad-
ministrative duties discharged since
entering upon the office, March 1,
1929, he has visited every section of
the State, and those points where
the need was most pressing, many
An additional force has been main-
tained throughout the biennium at
the Winter Haven Fish Hatchery.


FISHING IN THE EVERGLADES CANALS







Biennial Report of the


times over. Invitations to meet civic
groups and present the needs of the
work have been accepted whenever
it was possible to do so. Numerous
conferences looking to the promo-
tion of the work have been held with
interested, active citizens and organ-
izations. Every effort has been made
to keep the avenue between the field
and office open and contacts between
the two close. A cordial relationship
has been maintained between the
State and that branch of the Fed-
eral government charged with the


protection of migratory birds. As-
sistance has been both given and re-
ceived by these two agencies. Cor-
dial relationships have been estab-
lished with the Conservation Depart-
ments of other States with a view
to becoming better acquainted with
those methods of work under which
best results in their respective areas
are being obtained, while active co-
operative relationship has been
maintained between the Department
and other branches of government in
Florida.


Wild-Life Supply


A check-up on progress made dur-
ing the biennium shows much ac-
complished and yet much to be done;
some outstanding results and some
disappointing failures.

The Game Bird Supply
The hunting season of 1929-30
showed in most sections of the State
an increase in the number of game
birds to be found in Florida, espe-
cially of quail and turkeys, with
doves holding their own and ducks
not so plentiful. The hunting season
of 1930-31 does not seem so propi-
tious. There is an apparent reduc-
tion to a considerable extent in
Florida's chief native species of
game birds-quail and turkeys. This
is recognized in most sections of the
State and is a matter of real concern.
The increase in game birds for the
first year of the biennium may be at-
tributed to several factors, primarily,
to good breeding seasons that gave
the increasing breeding stock oppor-
tunity to replenish the hunting areas.
Several reasons for the apparent
shortage during the present season
in the two species of birds named,
have been offered. Forest fires are
a continual menace to the supply.
They take a steady toll. The heavy
rainfall at nesting season, which
flooded a wide area in South Florida


destroying nests and young birds,
and depleting seed stock; and the
fact that many coveys of quail were
overshot in the previous season, are
two reasons for the shortage fre-
quently given.
Florida's supply of game birds is
too valuable an asset to the State to
be jeopardized. It matters not what
has brought about the present short-
age over wide areas of the State,
the fact that such exists is the matter
of concern.
The general decrease in ducks in
the country has, with the exception
of the two species breeding in the
State-the Wood Duck and the
Dusky or Florida Black Duck-been
reflected in Florida's supply. The
Wood Duck, which has enjoyed a
decade of protection, has re-estab-
lished itself in considerable numbers.
Other game birds are holding their
owin.
Non-game birds show a marked
increase over the entire State. Some
species that it was once feared would
become extinct, notably the egrets,
are not infrequently seen. This is
gratifying.
Squirrels
Fox squirrels, under the protection
provided by a closed season, are on
the increase. Cat squirrels are nu-
merous in most parts of the State.


[ 10]









Pennsylvania, starting some
twenty-three years ago with a herd
of less than a hundred has built this
great herd by observing short
seasons, limited bags, special
protection of does and the es-
tablishing of State-owned
breeding grounds and re-
fuges.
It is estimated that Florida has
35,000 deer in the woodlands of the
State. With the vast area in which
they may breed, given proper pro-
tection, a herd that would rival that
of Pennsylvania might easily be built
in Florida during the next ten years.
The prohibiting of the hunting of
deer in Florida woods with dogs
would greatly facilitate the develop-
ment of such a herd. Not many years
would elapse before the sight of deer
in our vast forests would not be un-
usual-a sight that would thrill both
sportsmen and casual travelers.
A COLLIER COUNTY BUCK

Deer 1
There seems to be a general in-
crease of deer in the State. No one
species of game has profited more
from the establishment oi breeding
grounds in the State than have deer.
The repeal of the law providing an
open season in August, and the
added protection given doe deer have
been large factors in securing the
general increase.
Florida's season for hunting deer
opens on November 20 and closes on
December 31st. The open season -
of forty-one days in this State is
long as compared with the season
fixed by the majority of States. In
Colorado there is an open season of
but four days, and a bag limit of one..
Pennsylvania, which has a herd in
the forest that is estimated to num-
ber from three-quarters of a million
to a million deer, has a season of ten
days and a bag limit of one.
[11]


D c P a), I tn rr e n t o 1:


Ga w c and Fresh- Wa ter Filsh







B ic7n Ial Report of the


A JEFFERSON COUNTY TRAPPER

Fur-Bearers
Florida's fur-bearing animals, due
to the high prices offered for pelts
during the past few years, have been
trapped too closely in the majority
of the counties. There is a noticeable
depreciation in their numbers. These
animals furnish a source of income
to many of limited means, while the
economic worth of their pelts gives
rise to an industry that brings to the
State, under normal conditions, an
annual income of more than a mil-
lion dollars. This asset should be
properly guarded.
The following from one of the
leaders in the industry in Florida
merits consideration:
"There is no question about this
industry with its earnings of nearly


CAUGHT WITH DOGS WEST OF JUPITER


a inillion and a quarter a year being
of State-wide importance, the only
question is what we can and should
do, not only to keep it from declin-
ing in value, as it has been doing,
but to conserve and protect it so
that it will bring increased revenues
in years to come. Other States have
seen and solved this same problem
and so can we.
"The first and important step in
this problem is education. The
people affected must be educated to
the fact that sensible and enforce-
able conservation laws will not cur-
tail their earning power, but will, in
fact. gradually increase it. The
greatest menace to our entire wild-
life today is the deadly forest fire
during the dry seasons wIhen the
young wild-life is unable to save it-
self. These fires destroy nearly as
much wild-life each year as the
hunters and trappers, and is a source
of terrific loss to the fur industry.
These fires will, ultimately, practi-
cally destroy this industry unless
stopped. Our people need to know
this. They must then convince their
members of the Legislature that this
industry cannot be handled on local
lines or as a local issue, but must be
administered under one general.
State-wide law, passed after serious
study of the needs of the industry."


[12]







Department of Game and Fresh-Water Fish


Breeding Grounds-Parks-Preserves


Breeding Grounds and Refuges
Breeding grounds andl refuges
have furnished in othe- States the
most effectual means for the re-
estahlishlment of w\ild-life. Under the
Florida Plan, which provides for the


COUNTY COMMISSIONER F. J.
WITH A COVEY FROM THE HUNDRED E


closing of selected areas ib mandate.
approximately 3,000,000 acres have
been closed to hunting during the
past five ears. Protection of these
areas has not been complete, and yet
good results have followed their es-
tablishment. Aside from the natural
overflow of wild life to adjoining
lands, the surplus may be trapped
and transferred. In Sarasota County
in April. 1930. one deputy in thirty-
days trapped and transferred to open
territory 1,800 quail. The publicly
owned preserve, however, possesses
many advantages over the mere clos-
ing of an area. It is a goal to be kept
ever in veiw. It may he attained by


gift. purchase. or, should it be so
provided. by the setting aside of
some State-owne1d lands adapted to
the purpose. Those \who see a loss
in public revenue should such lands
he retired from the tax lists would








'irp














ZIEGLER, SARASOTA COUNTY
OBWHITES THAT FEED IN HIS YARD


find. on examination, that il most in-
stances these lands are not now onil
the tax books. The increase in
values, in attractiveness, to those
sections where permanent breeding
grounds are established, might well
be considered in the nature of an off-
set for any possible loss that would
come from their retirement.
There are a number of large pri-
vately owned preserves in Florida
that serve, even when hunted by
their owners, to build up wild life
in the surrounding country. Their
hunting, in view of the State bag
limits, is far less than it would be
were the land thrown open to public


[13]







Biennial Report of the


shooting. Such a system has done
much to maintain the supply of wild
life in some of the northern counties
in the State, notably in Madison,
Jefferson. Leon. The McCrory Pre-
serve in Orange and Osceola
Counties, embracing 105,000 acres, is
another illustration. This preserve.
seldom hunted even by its owners,
maintains the supply of the section.
Hidden Lake Game Preserve, in
Pasco County, will restock that
section.


as a memorial to her. The area, com-
prising 5,000 acres, embraces in its
center 2,000 acres of rich hammock
land. Highlands Hammock Park, as
it is known, though but recently es-
lished, has been made accessible
through good roads to visitors.
Other improvements are planned.

Kelly Park Preserve
Another permanent park preserve,
not so large as this, but established


WILD TURKEYS. KELLY PARK PRESERVE, ORANGE COUNTY


Highlands Hammock Park
Highlands County-and through
this source, the State-has recently
profited from the establishment tby
gift, of a permanent refuge within
its bounds. The project, undertaken
by Mrs. John A. Roebling, a visitor
who had seen the natural beauty of
the Hammock, and who appreciated
its value as a home for wild-life, and
knew of the rare botanical specimens
to be found in its depths, was com-
pleted after her death by her husband


prior to it by a few years, is that
in Orange County-Kelly Park Pre-
serve. This park, consisting of 362
acres, not only affords an admir-
able game refuge, but possesses
many natural attractions. Dr. How-
ard Kelly, of Baltimore, for whom it
is named, gave 202 acres of the park
to the county on condition that the
county employ at all times a warden
to protect it. This has been done.


[ 14 ]







Departm rut of Game and Fresh-Water Fish


The park adjoins one of the State
breeding grounds. Three years ago
the keeper, noticing a few wild
turkeys feeding at the edge of the
swamp in the grounds, started feed-
ing them. In two years time the
flock had increased to more than 200
birds and the county was furnishing
approximately ten sacks of grain a
month to feed the flock.
The Florida wild turkey affords
one of the few unmixed strains of
bronze to be found in America today.
What has been done in Kelly Park
I'reserve in building up a flock of
these choice birds, might, without a
doubt, be done elsewhere in the
State.
Ocala National Game Preserve
The area in the State best stocked
with deer in the Big Scrub lying
largely in Marion County. A part of
this natural breeding ground, located
in the Ocala National Forest, was
closed in 1927. The co-operation of
the foresters gave better protection
than had been previous-ly afforded,
but not what it w as deemed dlesir-
able. In 1929, by legislative act.
60,000 acres of these lands were
offered to the Federal government as
a National Game Preserve. The bill
providing for this was introduced
by Representative WV. D. Cam, of
Marion County. The bill authorizing
its acceptance was introduced in
Congress by Florida's senior senator,
Honorable Duncan U. Fletcher.
The creation of this large
sanctuary, in the heart of one of the
best game sections in Florida, is a
large contribution to conservation in
this State. Under the presidential
proclamation issued July 24th, 1930,
creating the refuge, warning is given
to all persons not to hunt, catch,
trap, wilfully disturb, or kill any
kind of game animal or game bird
within the area and to any who
would molest or kill any bird or wild


animals, or take birds' eggs in these
grounds.
For its protection the following
regulations have been promulgated:
"Reg. T-8. The following acts are
prohibited upon any national forest
lands embraced within the bound-
aries of a national game or bird
refuge, preserve, sanctuary or reser-
vation, established by or under
authority of an act of Congress:
"(A) Hunting, trappin-., catching,
disturbing or killing any kind of
game or non-game animal, or game
or non-game bird, or taking the eggs
of any such bird, except when auth-
orized by permit issued by, or under
authority of, the forester.
"(B) Carrying or having posses-
sion of firearms, without the written
permission of the forest supervisor
or such other officer as he may des-
ignate.
"(C) Permitting dogs to run at
large, or having in possession dogs
not in leash or confined.
"(D) Camping without permit is-
sued by a forest officer, except on
areas designated as public camp
grounds, or other areas which may
be specifically accepted by the re-
gional forester."
The importance of regulation T-8,
Supervisor Hadley in charge, ex-
plained, lies in the prohibition of
guns and dogs in the game refuge,
and the taking of non-game animals.
This will absolutely remove the old
excuse of hog hunting by means of
which many game poachers had
dodged the State game laws in the
past. Supervisor Hadley asserted
that in regard to dogs, the forest
service does not wish to take drastic
measures to keep them out of the
game refuge if such action can be
avoided through the co-operation of
the hunters. Dogs running at large
through national game refuges are


[15]







Biennial Report of the


"i
.00 '. '


or
... .......


MIGRATORY BIRDS ON GULF COAST


usually shot, but this will not be the
practice on the Ocala national game
refuge if hunters show a real effort
to keep their dogs out of the refuge.
Game wardens have been instructed
to catch all dogs found in the game
refuge and impound them at the
Lake Bryant ranger station, where
owners may recover them by repay-
ing the forest service for the cost of
impounding. Owners of dogs found
on the refuge a second time will be
prosecuted under Federal regulation
T-8 quoted above.
All the Federal forest officers also
hold commissions as honorary State
game wardens, and are prepared to
enforce the State game laws on lands
not included in the national game
refuge.
In connection with the use of the
Ocala Forest for hunting during the


coming hunting season, Supervisor
Hadley stated that he wished to call
to the attention of all sportsmen the
fact that under regulation T-1 (F-)
written camp fire permits must le
obtained from a forest officer before
building a camp fire anywhere in the
national forest, no matter how small
the fire or how temporary the camp.
These permits are issued free, and
may be had upon application to any
forest officer.
Federal Government Establishes
Preserves
The Federal government, on its
own initiative. during the biennium,
has established two other preserves
in Florida, the one on the last Coast,
an island where the brown pelican
breeds: the other acquired by pur-
chase, in Wakulla and Jefferson
counties. This latter is comprised of


[16]







) cpa mrl mct of Game and Frcsh- Wa ter Fish


13,000 acres lying along the Gulf
Coast. It embraces some of the best
game country in the section. It wAas
purchased because oif its \alue as a
resort for migratory waterfowl. It
includes approximately one-seventh
of the famous Wakulla feeding
grounds for wild geese. The pur-
chase. which was authorized Decem-
ber 19, 1930, was in accord with the
Migratory Bird Contservation Act,
signed by the President February 18,
1929, and made effective July 1, 1929.

By this plan it is expected that
there will be one or more -efuges in
each State and these will be selected
at places best serving the purposes
contemplated under the Act. They
will, in order to be most effective,
embrace not only breeding grounds
of the birds, but areas offering them
unmolested feeding and resting
places.
The migratory bird refuge pro-
gram has received the unanimous en-
dorsement of all sportsmen's organi-
zations throughout the United
States. It was by reason of these
endorsements and the overwhelming
sentiment of other conservationists,
that Congress authorized the estab-
lishment of such refuges and passed
the Act necessary to the consumma-
tion of this program.

The establishment of the Wakulla
Preserve will mean much in the
preservation not only of migratory
birds, but other species of game for
which the section is noted.


Make Closing of 20,000 Acres in
Each County Mandatory
Since the acquiring of title to per-
manent breeding grounds either by


setting aside State lands for this pur-
pose, purchase or by gift, is a
slow and uncertain process, the safe
thing for Florida to do is to pass a
law making it mandatory that 20,000
acres be closed in each county to all
shooting. This area closed and pro-
tected in each county would pro-
vide a game nucleus for each that
would go far toward insuring the
preservation of game in some abund-
ance throughout the State.

Proposed as the most feasible plan
under existing conditions, the plan,
has advantages that would tend to
make it a permanent feature of the
conservation program of the state.
Among these is, that, despite the fact
that funds are not available for
the purchase or lease of areas for
preserves, every section of the state
has a chance, and an equal chance,
to secure a breeding ground.


Everglades Tropic Park
The National Everglades Tropic
Park, a project that would create
a National park in the extreme
Southern part of Florida and which
has received the endorsement of
authorities at Washington could add
to the national park system, its first
tropical park,

In speaking of it the National Geo-
graphic Magazine, John le Gorce
savs:

"In this amazing region there now
exists a plant life of wild and superb-
ly beautiful palms, orchids, brome-
laids, and fancinating climbing lian-
as, but, like the bird and animal life.
these colorful glades and hammocks
are threatened with destruction from
fires, often left by careless hunters
and others, unless the protecting
hand of the Government is raised
in time to save them.


[17]






Biennial Report of the


"Set apart, preserved, and made
accessible as the Everglades Nat-
ional Park, this area would be visited
in time by millions-millions eager
for subtropical adventure, but ad-
venture under American skies, amid
American customs, and the comforts
and excellent direction extended to
all by the governmental supervision
of the National Park Service of the
Department of the Interior. The
leading citizens of Florida and many
residents of the states are urging


interesting wild life, and we saw not
less than forty thousand egrets,
ibises, herons and other water-
birds. In great flocks we watched
them arise from their nesting places
and sweep across the glades and
jungles. Deer and wild turkeys are
common sights.
Here is the only place where the
crocodile is found in the United
States."
The proposed park lies on both
sides of the Tamiami Trail, extend-


EAST CAPE SABLE BEACH, EAST CAPE SABLE IN THE DISTANCE


this important and needed project,
which, of course, is for all the peo-
ple of the Nation."
Dr. T. Gilbert Pearson says: "It
is the one distinctive tropical area in
the United States. Here are found
sixteen species of native palms, the
great gumbo-limbo tree, the pecu-
liar strangling fig tree, and the man-
grove, which here grows into giant
forests 80 feet high. It teems with


ing from the Gulf Coast about half
way across the state and south-
ward including the Royal Palm
State Park, the Cape Sable region.
the Ten Thousand Island region,
and the coast line and many islands
of the Bay of Florida.
Bills for its establishment were
favorably reported by both House
and Senate Committees in the last
Session of Congress.


[181







Depart in cot of Game and Fresh-IFVater Fish


a
'It' -


THE COURT JESTER


WAIFS


Game Propagation-

F OR nearly a year the story of
Florida's game farm has been in
the making. The story has been per-
mitted to unfold itself through the
passing months of the year just
closed before an attempt was made
to transcribe it. Today, with but its
first chapter completed, the story is
one of both endeavor and accom-
plishment. Florida's game farm, es-
tablished at Raiford, is a co-opera-
tive undertaking of the State De-
partment of Game and Fresh-Water
Fish and the State Prison Farm. It
has had whole-hearted support from
both Departments.
It seemed a small beginning when,
in February, 1930. the first unit of
thirty-five individual laying pens for
quail were built at the farm, and as
many pairs of these birds placed in
them for breeding stock. From
these pens, however, there were
gathered for incubation 1,018 eggs,
from which 786 chicks were hatched,
and 662 birds were brought to ma-
turity. The birds selected for the
foundation stock at the farm were
of the type found in North Florida,
larger and darker than those of


A PENNSYLVANIA BUCK


Florida's Game Farm
South Florida and running in weight
a little above the average Mexican
bobwhite. Eighteen pairs were of
hand-raised stock, the remainder,
with the exception of a few pairs of
Mexicans that were used, were taken
from the wild. The record quail hen
of the farm, "Miss Florida," laid 114
eggs during the season.
Eggs were gathered each Monday
and placed in some of the many trays
of a Buckeye No. 8 chicken egg in-
cubator in use at the State Farm for
hatching domestic poultry, a ma-
chine with a six thousand chicken
egg capacity. Limited space in this
machine was assigned for quail,
pheasant and wild turkey eggs, trays
for holding the eggs being located in
those sections of the machine where
the desired temperature for the
hatching of the respective species of
eggs could be obtained. This plan
of hatching the eggs of several
species of birds in one incubator at
one time-an innovation-proved
successful.
To adapt the trays for chicken
eggs to quail and pheasant eggs, Mr.
T. W. Shuler, manager of the


[ 19 ]







Biennial Report of the


poultry plant at the State Farm, in-
geniously provided wire troughs
made of quarter-inch mesh welded
wire and so shaped as to hold the
eggs securely and in the right posi-
tion. This arrangement, he reports,
enabled him to give the necessary
turning every twelve hours during
the period of incubation without
touching them. This he accomplish-
ed by merely changing to the desir-
ed angle the racks that held the
trays. He strongly recommends the
plan where chicken egg incubators
must be used for hatching quail or
pheasant eggs.
\When dry, the young birds were
taken from the incubator and placed
in electric brooders of Mr. Shuler's
own designing. These brooders,
eighteen inches by thirty-six, have
attached wire-bottom runs eighteen
inches by six feet. Each brooder
takes care of fifteen quail chicks.
When placed in the brooders, the
baby quail are immediately fed on
chick starting mash, chick grain,
clabber, grit, charcoal, oyster-shell
and green feed, such as lettuce or
chopped crimson clover. At the end
of four or five weeks they were
transferred to the growing pens,
wire-covered runs, ten feet by thirty,
and the mash in the diet was chang-
ed to growing mash, with whole
wheat, kaffir corn, millet seed and
peas added. In the growing pens the


birds for the first time found their
feet on the ground and an opportu-
nity to try their growing winds.
which soon provided the "whirr-r-r-r
with the rise of the "covey" so pleas-
ing to every sportsman's ear.
Eighty pairs of large, hand-raised,
native quail are now in the wintering
pens to be held as breeding stock
for the coming season; among them,
"Miss Florida" of the high laying
record.
In one of the runs a covev o[ im-
ported Hungarian partridges have
been placed-birds that double in
size our bobwhite quail. The story
of these wild Huns, however-and
wild they are-will be written after
the next breeding season, if written
at all.
Other of the runs were used for
breeding pens for ring-neck pheas-
ants. Ten of the fifteen birds used
were raised in Hillshorough County
during the previous season. The
others were brought from out of
State. The number of eggs laid and
the per cent. hatch was surprisingly
good; but the number of birds
brought to maturity was not as great
as was expected. It is believed that
with a better understanding of the
dietary needs of this bird, results
next season will he greater. The
brilliant plumage of the cocks and
blended browns of the hens (a fine


M U
- ',' -


T. W. SHULER. MANA-
GER OF POULTRY AND
GAME FARMS. AT STATE
FARM. RAIFORD, WITH
PART OF THE 662 QUAIL
RAISED DURING SEASON.
MUST BE ACCREDITED.
IN THE MAIN, WITH SUC-
CESS OF GAME PROJECT


[ 20]







D part iinc t of G ame and F r s W a ter FI sh


example of the protective plumage
which nature provides ground-nest-
ing birds) make them an attraction
on any farm, while their quality as
game birds warrants a continued
effort to establish them in Florida.
Florida affords one of the few
areas in America where the unmixed
strain of wild bronze turkeys are
to be found. WAith a few of these
and some imported stock sufficient
to bring the flock up to twelve, the
propagation of wild turkeys was un-
dertaken. The flock was released
in a woodland run of forty acres en-
closed by a fourteen-foot fence. Six-
ty turkeys were raised during the
season. It is planned during the com-
ing season to establish an unmixed
11...I. of Florida wild bronze at the
farm. To this end, birds from one of
the State breeding grounds have
been selected and will be transferred
to the farm.
A herd of nineteen deer share the
woodland run with the turkeys. Five
of these are white-tails from Penn-
sylvania, the remainder are native
stock. The deer from Pennsylvania
are larger than are the native deer.
Most of the Florida deer are year-
lings or younger, and were taken
from people who had picked them
up as fawns, contrary to law, being
found in some secluded spot where
they had been left by the doe while
she browsed nearby. In some in-


r~rb~J~4*~ F
V.


stances those wAho had taken them
were ignorant of the fact that fawns,
so placed, are not abandoned, but
hidden for the time by the doe to
await her unfailing return. When
brought to the farm these fawns are
often but "bottle babies," and as
such have been given special care.
In the herd at Raiford there is a
white deer mottled with reddish
brolIwn. This was found in Levy
County. Dwarfed and with a head
of unusual shape, it suggests the folk
tales of the phantom (leer of the deep
woods. Like a court jester it seems
as it walks in and out or cavorts in
the presence of the stately herd.
WVhen the establishment of the
game farm at Raiford was under-
taken, Mr. Sidney Stringer, of
Beachton, Georgia, successful man-
ager of a quail production plant at
that point, was retained in an ad-
visory capacity. This service rend-
ered through personal visits to the
farm has been valuable.
The use of prison labor, available
at Raiford, has kept down costs.
while the establishment of the game
farm has provided another signifi-
cant program of work at the State
institution.


[21]


"'Twr", 3P'_







Biiennial Report of the


The strong support of the under-
taking given by Hon. J. S. Blitch,
Superintendent of the State Farm,
hon\wver, and his assistant, Capt. B.
V. 3rown, and the skilled super-
\ision of Mr. T. W. Shuler, must be
accredited, in the main, with the
success of the project.

Sportsmen Try Pheasants
That Florida sportsmen will fol-
low the lead of the State Depart-
ment in giving the pheasant a try-
out here is indicated not only by the
number of requests that reached the
Department when it announced that
a limited number of eggs from the
flock at the State Farm would be dis-


tribute during the coming season
to those having suitable environment
for these birds and who were pre-
pared to hatch and attempt to rear
them, but by concerted movement in
Dade County for an undertaking of
this nature sponsored by the Izaak
League of Miami of that section and
supported by the Dade County
Board of Commissioners.
The League purchased twenty
ringnecks for foundation stock, and
have arranged for importing and
hatching pheasant eggs at the
County Prison Farm. These will be
augmented by stock from the State
Farm. A similar movement is under
way in Volusia County.


Florida's Fresh -Water Fish Supply


THE vast extent of coastal waters,
numerous streams in every sec-
tion, more than thirty thousand
lakes, provide Florida with unex-
celled fishing grounds. Climatic
conditions that make year 'round
fishing seasonal, and a variety and
abundance of fish that insures some
species in season throughout the
year, enhance the value of these
grounds. Due to the universal love
for fishing, that the pleasure from its
practice is not limited by age, sex or
condition, that it may be enjoyed at
a minimum expense or be made a
costly pastime at will, insures the
popularity of the sport for many
years to come-provided the supply
of fish is maintained at anything like


original abundance in these waters.
Of the species in the fresh waters
of the State, the bass is most highly
prized by the sport fishermen-
though crappie, bream, shellcrackers,
jack, perch, and in some of the
streams in the northern counties of
the State, pike, each have their ar-
dent pursuers; and the catfish from
these waters, taken in commercial
quantities, find a ready sale in the
markets of the North and West.
Though fish are not as abundant as
they once were, most of Florida's
fresh waters yield unexcelled sport
fishing. That this condition shall
prevail without exception, is the ob-
jective of the fish conservation pro-
gram.


[ 22 1



-







Department of Game and Fresh-Water Fish


GEO. V. SCHAFFNER. COLUMBUS. OHIO
ELEVEN-POUND, FOUR-OUNCE BASS

Protection During Spawning
Florida fish enjoyed during the
past year protection in the southern
part of the State that came as a re-
sult of high waters during the sum-
mer season. In North and West
Florida a number of the counties
were closed on petition of the re-
spective Boards of County Commis-
sioners. The counties in the Third
District that will be closed to afford
protection during a part of the
spawning season of 1931. are Leon.
March 17-May 15; Liberty and Gulf,
April 2-May 31; Bay, April 1-May
30; Calhoun, April 15-May 30; Ok-
aloosa, April 1-May 31. The counties
of this District afford some of the
best fishing to be found in Florida,
both in lakes and streams. This pro-
tection during spawning season will
go far toward maintaining and up-
building it.
Florida, many years ago, recog-


nized the necessity for providing
those species of fish on which
the commercial fishing industry is
largely based, State-wide protection
during a part of the spawning
season. Fish of the fresh waters,
drafted as they are both for com-
mercial and sport fishing, need simi-
lar protection.
There is abundant seedstock in the
waters. Bag limits and minimum
legal lengths have been observed
sufficiently to improve conditions in
many sections, but these safeguards
are not alone sufficient if best re-
sults are to be obtained. A closed
season, uniform in length, should be
provided for the State.
Destruction of Predatory Fish
Season
A means for the successful re
moval of predatory fish from these
waters must be devised. Provision
for their removal by the commercial
fishermen, on permit to seine these
waters, provided by legislation in
1929, with but few exceptions proved
unsatisfactory. The law which re-
quires the fishermen to whom permit
is granted to return the game fish
taken to the waters from which
they seined and to remove or destroy
the rough fish, has resulted profit-
ably for the commercial fishermen,
but has brought about the destruc-
tion of but few gar or other rough
fish. Under the method provided.
with the very few exceptions re-
ferred to, the proportionate number
of rough fish have seemed to in-
crease. One of the notable excep-
tions is found at Lake Griffin, near
Leesburg. Here commercial fisher-
men paid to the local chamber of
commerce a fee that was sufficient
to enable the chamber to employ a
supervisor for this work, who kept
constant check on the bass thrown
back into the lake and of the gar
taken out. This plan, which has
worked satisfactorily in Lake


[23 ]







Biennial Reporl of the


County, may he suggestive of what
might be proitably done elsewhere.
Another Plan
Another plan that might be con-
sidered would be the removal of
rough fish by the State, with author-
ization to ship and sell non-game
food lish. It is believed that the rev-
enu e from these would largely, if
not entirely, meet the cost. At the
same time it would provide employ-
mnent for those fishermen familiar
with the waters in which the work
was carried on.
Winter Haven Hatchery
Another factor in maintaining the
supply io fresh-water lish is that of
restocking. In 1929 nearly 500,000
fingerling bass were taken from the
\inter lHaven Hatchery and dis-
tributed to the fresh waters of
Florida In 1930 there were 629,000
ingerlings distributed from this


hatchery. It is expected that this
number will be increased in 1931 to
1.000.000 fingerlings. During the
months of February and March of
this year 3.500 brood bass have been
placed in the Winter Haven Hatch-
ery. This is an increase of fifty per
cent. over the number used during
1930 when 2,300 were stocked. This
increase in the number of brood bass,
together with improvements made at
the hatchery, give grounds for ex-
pecting the larger number for release
in 1931. Conditions have been im-
proved by deepening- the canal be-
tween the two hatchery lakes; the
suplyinii ofi a concrete intake for
each lake; perfect control of waters.
whether in drouth or time of rain Iall.
resulting and na creation of a reserve
in the canal which may be deepened
to four feet. and where brood bass
may be held for further use. when no
longer needed in the lakes.


GAR DESTROYED-CATFISH TAKEN-ONE OF THE EXCEPTIONS


[24]






Departrimen c t oj Ga ine a nd Fresh- WVater Fish


Requests for Fingerling
Requests for the 1931 season are
being received at Departntent head-
quarters. The hatch will be held
until of fingerling size, as a much
greater per cent. of this size survive
their enemies when released than
would survive if released when fry.
Requests will be cared et() as far as
it is possible to do so. Among the
points that will be earl stocked
will be those where rearing ponds
have been provided by local agen-
cies. Such a pond was provided in


Leesburg, all of which will be util-
ized. Indications are that there will
be others. With the newly pur-
chased Thompson Oxygen Trans-
portation Tank, delivery to rearing
ponds and other bodies of water will
he greatly facilitated. This work of
restocking from the Winter Haven
11atcherv has been augiiented by
the planting of fry from the txwo
hatcheries under the supervision of
the State Shell-Fish Commission, the
(,e located at Welaka, on the St.
Johns, the other at I.ake Okeechobec.


''4.N w
r -


WINTER HAVEN FISH HATCHERY


Clearwater last year through the ac-
tivities of the Chamber of Commerce
at that point, and stocked with
40,000 bass that were held until of
large fingerling size, then released in
the fresh waters of Pinellas County.
This work was highly satisfactory to
the State and to the co-operating-
agency. This pond wil.bl > to' 'retl '
again. Suitable plaes.tieaj~'i.ben pre""
pared at Sulphur -Spi'C s in Hills-
borough Cou.ift:..'\'inter Park and


Small-Mouth and Rock Bass
In the summer of 1930, 1,500 rock
Iass and 1,000 small-mouth bass,
both of fingerling size, obtained from
a Federal hatchery, were released in
the Chipola River. the Wakulla, the
\\acissa. and the Suwxannee-wxaters
tfhat.it wvas deemed adapted to their
;ise:* The.Suwannee and Santa Fee
Ri\vers- ar alreadydv stocked with
small-moutoiy xa',s, these having been


[!. =,






Biennial Report of the


planted there several years ago by
the Federal government. In Santa
Rosa County the network of
streams that flow through it to the
Gulf are said to produce small-mouth
bass in considerable numbers.

Record Small-Mouth Bass
To Lake Senaca, four miles from
the city of Eustis, belongs the honor
of producing the largest small-mouth
bass which until that time had ever
been taken. The established weight
was 9 pounds, 13 ounces. Another
fish of this same species, weighing 8
pounds and 13 ounces, has since been
landed. The first taken has been
mounted and is on display at the
offices of the Department in Talla-
hassee. This fish was taken by 0.
W. Milton.
The first of the two taken was sent
to "Field and Stream," and recorded
1)v that publication as the largest
small-mouth bass ever taken in this
country up to the time of its receipt.
These bass came from a planting
liade in the lake twenty-three years
ago. I. N. Kennedy, present Dis-
trict Commissioner, in which terri-
tory the lake is located, assisted.
Numerous catches in all sections
of the State of large-mouth black
bass that tip the scales at weights
that vary from ten to fifteen pounds
have been reported.

Sale of Black Bass SS
There is a growing sentiment W. MILTON--WITH 9-LB. 13-OZ. SMALL-
throughout the State for prohibiting MOUTH BLACK BASS
the sale of Florida black bass. The
sentiment strengthens as the eco- pete, but that when retained as an
nomic aspect of it is recognized. Fish attraction for the tourist trade, a
belong to the people of the State as a source of food for the home table,
whole, and as a natural resource and of the finest of sport fishing for
should be so handled as to bring to Florida people, they are worth many
the people the largest possible re- times over the price that they bring
turns. The fact that when placed 6."d .' .'.:tlihentrket, would justify prohib-
the market they bring no, mot-e'thal -'itink thiri'sAle. Florida is one of
the lowly carp, catfil,;at&d;other the eight'Sth{es':i1 the Union that
food fish with whic,'the,,lmust com- permits the sa'l'e' ;dfias.
v..........'..:".. ...."':....-







) 'par inc1t of (;Gai c and Fresh-- Water Fish


In determining the course to be
taken in the matter, a check-up on
the supply of bass will he found by
the sport fisherman in those fresh
waters where seining for commer-
cial purposes is permitted might be
of value. Should this lish he taken
from the marketable list, there
would yet remain in great abundance
and easily available other species to
supply all demands.
Federal Fish Hatchery to be Built
This fact has been a deterrent


when it came to securing aid from
the Federal government for fish
propagation. Under a hill introduced
in Congress by Congressman R. A.
Green, of the Second District, and
passed during the summer of 1930,
an appropriation of $60,000 for the
building of a fish hatchery in this
State, to become available in 1932
was made. All possible encourage-
inent and co-operation should be
given bv the State in developing this
and similar projects.


Educational Program


IN the State, in the Nation, con-
servation practices that fail to
meet the needs of today are being
discarded, and others substituted. in
such transitions, knowledge of the
field of activity; of the activity in
related fields, of the life that will
be affected by change, is essential
as a safe foundation on which to
base change. Not only in such
knowledge important as a safeguard
against error in procedure, but,
given publicity, it becomes a mighty
force in securing conviction on the
part of the individual as to the need
for, change from the old order, and
on understanding and sympathy for
the new. Recognizing this fact,
authorization for such work was
given in the law enacted in 1929.

Monthly Bulletins
The Department has supplied to
the press through regular news agen-
cies, information as to its activities
To supplement this a monthly bul-
letin which gives statistics of gen-
eral interest to the public, arrests in
each county, the offense and dispo-
sition of the case, financial status
of the Department, as shown by the
monthly audit: and brief editorial
comments on conservation has been
issued. Monthly bulletins are not
only mailed to the press, but depu-


ties of the Department,-full time
and honorary, county judges, cham-
bers of commerce and interested
citizens.
Quarterly
Of a more permanent nature, a
quarterly magazine, Florida Woods
and Waters, has been published, de-
signed to present both to the people
of this and other States the attrac-
tions of outdoor Florida, the facts of
the life of the woods, that deepening
appreciation may lead to its conser-
vation. It has been given wide cir-
culation. being placed on news
stands in the State, through the
Southern News Agency, a ranch
of the American; and by transporta-
tion companies, in bound form, on
passenger boats, club and observa-
tion cars. It goes to a growing list
of regular subscribers. Approxi-
mately fifty percent of the public
libraries in Florida are among its
subscribers. In Volusia County it
has been placed by county author-
ities in every school library. Copies
of it have been placed in the vault of
the State Supreme Court where
papers of historical interest are kept.
A number of libraries in other States
have placed it in their reserve files.
and it has found its way into six
foreign countries. The State, through
the Department of Agriculture, has


[ 27 1







Biennial Report of the


A GLIMPSE OF THE LIFE IN THE DEEP
WOODS OF FLORIDA
made wide use of it for distribution
at out-of-State fairs where Florida
exhibits have been placed.
Coming Publications
A manuscript has been provided
by the Department on a hundred
species of Florida birds, to be pub-
lished in April. 1931. by the Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Prepared by
Rupert J. Longstreet, Superintend-
ent of Schools in Daytona Beach;
Francis M. \eston. of the U. S.
Naval Air Station, located in Pen-
sacola; R. W. Williams, and Herbert
L. Stoddard, both of the U. S.
Biological Survey: well illustrated
with cuts and colored plates, the bul-
letin, it is hoped, will provide easily
assessible information on Florida
birds, and stimulate a study of the


same. It will be found in school li-
braries in sufficient numbers to be
utilized 1b those teachers who are
instructing in nature subjects. The
requirement by legislative act of the
teaching each week in each of the
twelve grades of Florida's public
schools of this and kindred subjects
has created a demand for such a bul-
letin. Its use should greatly
strengthen conservation in this
State.

For long anticipated, the manu-
script on Florida Birds, by A. H.
Howell, senior Biologist of the
U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey,
representing a study of these
reaching over a period of some
ten or twelve years, will be published
in 1931. The book will include thirty-
eight colored plates from original
paintings made. by a well known
nature artist. The financing of the
publication has been arranged for
by Mrs. Marcia Brady Tucker of
New York, who is advancing funds
for this purpose. The project will
be handled jointly by the Federal
Bureau and the State Department of
Game and Fresh-Water Fish. These
books will be made available to
purchasers at cost. Its value to the
work of the Department, and to
those generally interested in Florida
birds cannot be over-estimated.


Exhibits


THE winter season in Florida is
one of outdoor festivals. It is
one when fairs and pageants are at
their height. While the extensive
exhibits of tropical fruits and winter
vegetables, as well as the fine ex-
hibits of general farm products give
a comprehensive view of what is
being done in the cultivated areas of
outdoor Florida, the Department of
Game and Fresh-Water Fish brings
to a number of these a glimpse of life
in the deep woods of the State.
Reaching into the forests for palms,


moss-draped trees and flowering
plants, a setting is built in harmony
with the habitat of wild-life in
Florida. A hunter's shack, aquarium
tanks and reproductions of pools and
retreats furnish a place for trophies
and live specimens from the life of
the woods.
In the ten thousand feet of moving
picture film which is used, intimate
glimpses of this life pass before
those who visit the improvised
theatre, a feature of the exhibits.


[28







Department of Game and Fresh-4Water Fish


A HUNTER'S SHACK FURNISHES A PLACE
FOR TROPHIES

The wide attention which these
exhibits attract attests the general
interest in this life. To many the
live and mounted specimens of rare
birds, fish and animals, is their first
glimpse of that hidden life that
makes its appeal to all. These ex-
hibits not only promote the educa-
tional work of the Department, but
have established many contacts that
have been valuable.
During the past season these ex-
hibits were shown at the following
points: Ocala, Largo, Winter Haven.
Tampa, DeLand. Orlando, West
Palm Beach and Jacksonville.
During the winter season 1931
these exhibits will be shown at
Winter Haven. Tampa, )eLand and
Orlando.
One special worker is employed to
assist in putting on these exhibits.
Financial aid in their handling is
provided by the fair associations.
Moving Pictures
During the 1929-30 season the
moving picture machine in the De-
partment exhibit was operated by a
field worker of the State Department
of Forestry. Forestry films were
shown in this exhibit also.
A further use of Department films
has been by special showing made
on request at schools and in commu-
nities, and by loan of these films and


hand-painted slides of Florida birds,
for educational purposes.
On request material has been com-
piled and photographs supplied to
outside interests for publicity in re-
gard to the wild-life of the State.
During the summer months 3,000
feet of the moving picture films,
owned by the Department have been
shown at points in the North. The
first showing was made in the muni-
cipal auditorium at Atlantic City, in
connection with the Florida exhibit
placed there by the State Depart-
mnent of Agriculture for the six
weeks duration of the fair. At Mich-
igan State Fair, Detroit; Tennessee
State Fair, Nashville; Mid-South
Fair, Memphis, 10,000 copies of the
summer number of "Florida Woods
and Waters" were used to answer
those asking about outdoor Florida.
And 5,000 of the fall number of the
magazine was used for the same pur-
pose at the National Dairy Show.
St. Louis. Missouri, and the Louis-
iana State Fair. Shreveport.
Supervision of Educational Program
\ith the exception of the prepara-
tion of the mimeographed monthly
bulletin, above referred to, which is
ably handled by the Assistant Game
Commissioner, the educational pro-
gram. including office and field ac-
tivities, is directed by the clerk in the
Department.


IN HARMONY WITH THE HABITAT OF WILD
LIFE IN FLORIDA


[29







Biennial Report of the



Law Enforcement


With fairness to all and favors to
none, the field force of the Depart-
ment has made a fearless effort to
secure law enforcement. Every
effort has been put forth to secure a
willing obedience to law, but where
violations have been knowingly com-
mited offenders have been carried
into court. Throughout the State
there is a growing respect for the
Game Law.
Where co-operation from sheriffs
and judges has been given, results
have been greatest, and such sup-
port is given in the majority of the
counties. Where court action is lax,
the law is lightly held and conserva-
tion difficult.
A sunmmar of the record on court
cases handled during the biennium
ending June 30, 1930, follows:

Arrests, 1928-29 Sum.


Number of Arrests
Convicted .. ...
Dismissed ...
Bonds Estreated . .
Disposition unknown.


.....3 11
70
3
..... 69

453


Arrests, 1929-30


Number of Arrests ...
Convicted .. .
Dismissed ... .
Bonds Estreated .
Disposition unknown.
Escaped ..


... 522
. 140

63
4

734


The difference in the number of
cases handled during these two years
is due in part to the fact that for
several months following reorganiza-


tion in 1929, due to a lack of funds,
the force in the field was but a small
part of the authorized quota. The
increase during the last year over
any year in the history of the De-
partment came as a result of better
organization. With a full force in
the field, better organization and
growing co-operation on the part of
the public, the calendar year of 1930
shows 961 cases carried into court.
The final disposition of these is not
vet known.

Co-operation
The service of the paid deputies of
the Department is given active sup-
port in many counties by Honorary
Deputies, public spirited citizens
who without compensation give ac-
tive cooperation in law enforcement,
often furnishing the information on
which the deputy can proceed. Such
information is always held in strict-
est confidence.
Sportsmens organizations have
given active cooperation at all times
both in law enforcement and in pro-
moting other phases of the conser-
vation program. The Izaak Walton
League, other organizations that are
local and organized solely for co-op-
eration in such work and the State
Audubon Society have been especi-
ally active in such work. Such organ-
izations and county officials co-
operated financially during the time
of the reorganization of the depart-
ment in 1929, thereby making it
possible to retain the services of
deputies in their respective areas.
The Federal Bureau of Biological
Survey has rendered valuable assist-
ance through the cooperation of their
deputies and other representatives.


[ 30]







D) department of Gam ie and Frcsh- Vater Fish


Excerpts from Report of Congressional Committee

on Wild-Life Resources in America


Of very great interest to Florida,
the following excerpt, from the re-
port of the committee appointed at
the last session of Congress to in-
vestigate the wild-life resources of
this Country, are offered :
"Your committee has been im-
pressed with the fact that the wsild-
life problem of America has its eco-
nomic value; we have a national re-
source in many respects answerable
to the ordinary rules of investment.
Disregarding, for the time. the vital
but incalculable benefits to health.
of wholesome amusement and recre-
ation to Americans the committee
desires at this point to present evi-
dences dealing with cash values and
the great financial importance of
the investment under consideration.
"The recent census figures show
that the value of sporting fire-arms
sold to the public during the year
1920 amounted to $21,970.367: the
value of ammunition was $43,779.-
020; the value of fishing tackle, as
estimated by the Institute of Fish-
ing Tackle Manufacturers, wvas $25.-
000,000.
"It has been estimated that sports-
men spent in 1929 an average of $50
apiece in equipment for shooting and
fishing including their purchases of
ammunition, firearms, and fishing
tackle, as. well as clothing, tents
canoes, and motor boats. When we
take into consideration the large
number of articles which enter into
a day's sport, the estimate of $50 per
annum seems reasonable as an aver-
age annual figure. Even at this low
figure, the amount sportsmen invest
each year in this way at $50 apiece
for 13.000,000 equals $650,000,000.
If we include the cost of transporta-
tion, weal and tear on automobiles


going to and from shooting grounds,
the total expenditure of the citizens
of the United States in their quest
for outdoor recreation in shooting
and fishing alone during 1929 would
doubtless amount to fully three-
quarters of a billion dollars.
"These estimates concern only
those values realized in the pursuit
of wild birds, animals, and fishes for
food and sport. By far the greater
proportion o f Americans w h o
annually go afield to enjoy our wild-
life resources and the associations of
out-of-doors, do not either shoot
game or catch fish for sport. But
all of them, nevertheless, are inter-
ested in wild-life. Their numbers
are annually increasing. For ex-
ample, in 1929, 2,680.597 persons
visited the national park areas alone
and in 1930, 2,774,561 visited these
same areas. The National Associ-
ation of State Parks indicates that
one park area in the State of New
York was visited by 13.000,000 peo-
ple in 1930. Park areas in Michigan
were visited during the same period
by 8.900,000; in Connecticut hv 1,-
428.514; and in Indiana by 950,000.
The same authority estimates that
State p a r k areas, exclusively,
throughout the country were visited
in 1930 by between forty and forty-
five million people seeking outdoor
recreation in forests, field, and
stream. There are, of course, addit-
ional millions of Americans who go
afield each year wsho do not visit
established parks, therefore are not
registered and their numbers can
not be accurately computed. It is
impossible to estimate, even approxi-
mately, the tremendous sums an-
nually invested and spent bv this
vast group of recreationists who are
attracted by the ennobling and in-


S31 1







Biennial Report of the


spirational qualities associated with
all varieties of wild creatures and
their environment, but when figures
are compiled they will dwarf any
totals so far presented in connection
with the activities of fishermen and
hunters.
"It is estimated that the Federal
Government has in national parks an
investment of $54,634,935; in fish
hatcheries $3,500,000; in game sanc-
turaries between $2,000,000 and $4,-
000,000. The States own approxi-
mate forty-four and a half million
acres of various types of land and
water which have been set aside as
bird and game sanctuaries or re-
serves. It is believed that the value
of these lands would average about
$7 per acre. An estimated value of
at least $300,000,000 in the aggre-
gate for all State reservations and
sancturaries would not be excessive.
"The value, therefore, of invest-
ments which the Federal and various
State governments have made for
the purpose of preserving or in-
creasing wild-life comes to a total of
$507,134,935. If to this figure we
add the value of private sancturaries
and shooting preserves, the grand
total would undoubtedly be at least
a billion dollars.
"In the direct production of food
and clothing items consumed or
used by Americans, estimates of the
Biological Survey credit the
country's wild-life supply of meat
and fur each year to the value of
$150,000,000. The extent of protec-
tion by insect-destroying birds to
food and other farm crops is esti-
mated by the Department of Agri-
culture to be annually $350,000,000.
"In considering the place of fish
in the national food supply, it is sur-
prising to discover that it ranks
third in total quantity among meat
products in the United States, as


shown by the following table of the
Bureau of Fisheries:


Beef
Fish
Veal
lMutton and Lamb


7,458,000,000
2,500,000,000
960,000,000
.643,000,000


This table does not include what
might be termed "game fishes."
"The annual yield of our commer-
cial fisheries exceeds 3,000,000,000
pounds, valued at $116,000,000 to the
fishermen.
"There are many other products
of the fisheries put to varied uses in
the arts and industries. The total
value of these by-products of the
fisheries is not less than $25,000,000.
"The investigation of the wild-life
resources of America, therefore, be-
comes not only a problem of health
and recreation, but a problem of
large and growing economic im-
portance.
"Your committee finds that the
total annual subscription in cash by
Federal and State Governments
specifically to administer this re-
source, to insure its maintenance,
and to secure a continuation of
profits from their resources prob-
ably does not exceed $12,000,000.
The value of the annual dividend to
Americans, considering only the
tangible assets, is many times this
amount. Your committee therefore
is compelled to report that it believes
the primary cause for the gradual
and serious decrease in our supply
of wild-life to be due to the failure
of. Federal and State legislative
bodies to be guided by the ordinary
rules of sound business practice
which require that the sums used for
research, protection, administration,
development, and upkeep must be in
due proportion to the income derived
from its resources.


[32]







Department of Gam e and Fresh-Water Fish


"The enterprise of wild-life conser-
vation and increase viewed solely
as a business matter, has been griev-
ously underfinanced and small ac-
knowledgment or recognition has
been had of its value in dollars to the
people of our Commonwealths.
"If there is no game for the hunter,
no fish for the fisherman, no wild-
life in the recreational playgrounds
for tourists, these occupations and
recreations will perish.
"While the private individual may


assist in (and. when organized into
clubs and associations, very largely
supplement) the work of the State
and :. ir.. i, the very character of
game and fish preservation depends
upon State and National legislation
and administration.
"The matter of hunting and fishing
and outdoor recreation is naturally
related to that of the preservation of
insectivorous birds and birds of song
and plumage, and for reforestation
and all other natural resources
similar in character."


Legislative Recommendations


Because of the growing outdoor-
mindedness of the people of this and
other States, increasing the number
of those who hunt and fish, and of
those modern practices in hunting
and fishing that bring surer results
to the individual sportsman, but
often make inroads upon the reserve
supply of wild-life; Florida needs to
strengthen the guards about the re-
serve. To this end the following
recommendations for legislative
action are made:
1. Prohibit the sale, and the trans-
portation out of the State for sale,
of black bass from all waters of
the State.
2. Prohibit the carrying of guns in
the woods during the closed
season, and in State Game Breed-
ing Grounds at all times, except
under permit, with a provision
whereby persons may carry guns
on their own property for protec-
tion of live stock, etc.
3. Reduce the open season on deer
and turkey to thirty days.


4. Prohibit the killing
turkeys.


of hen


5. Requirement of State-wide license
fee of $1.00 for residents to fish in
the fresh waters of the State.
6. Authority to employ a sufficient
number of wardens not to ex-
ceed seventy, but not more than
funds will permit.
7. State-wide closed season on all
fresh-water fish during the
months of March and April, with
a provision whereby the County
Commissioners of any County
may designate a closed season of
same duration at any other time
of the year more suitable to local
conditions.
8. The bag limit on turkey to be re-
duced to one per day, three per-
sons.
9. Bag limit on quail to be reduced
to twelve per day.
10. The possession limit of all game
to be reduced to one day's bag
limit.


S331







Biennial Report of the


11. The season on all game and fur-
bearing animals to close not later
than January 31st.
12. Season on fur-bearing animals
to be months of December and
January.
13. A minimum fine of $100.00 or a


sentence of sixty days, for fire-
hunting and dylnamiting.
14. All persons convicted for viola-
tions of the game and fish laws
to be made ineligible for hunt-
ing and fishing licenses for a
period of one year.


Conclusion


Blessed in the original endowment
of wild-life, in the environment in
which it was placed, and in the fact
that a sufficient seedstock remains
to restore it, under adequate protec-
tion, to a large measure of its orig-


inal abundance. Florida needs to
crystallize the growing interest in
the conservation of this resource.
into action that will bring this de-
sired end, and that without delay.


Finances


The Department of Game and
Fresh-Water Fish is given no legis-
lative appropriation. Supported
financially by revenue derived from
the sale of various licenses to those
who derive pleasure or profit from
that, the native wild-life of the State.
and a very small sum from a propor-


tion of court costs from cases which
the Department handles, funds vary
from year to year.
The following statement gives a
summary of all moneys collected and
disbursed by the Department during
the biennium :


[34 ]







EXPENDITURES

1928-29 1929-30
Administrative Salaries 192 9 Commissioner and Assistant..................... ........ $ 6,444.45 $ 7,400.04
Administrative Expense ...................................................................... 2,486.83 1,882.10
Office Salaries ..................... ................................. .. ........................ 12,855.94 6,510.00
Office Expense (Printing-Supplies, etc.) ............................. .............................. 5,803.79 8,291.95
Office Equipment .............. .... ............ ................. ...................... .... 1,277.24 308.50
Field M en's Salaries ........ ........... ........ ......................................... 103,966.99 57,541.93
Field Men's Expenses ........... ................................. ......................... .... 65,920.93 41,775.81
Field Equipment ................................... .......... ...... . .............. ...... 4,315.86 925.00
Field Equipment M maintenance ....................................... .... .................. ... . 745.51 784.89
Restocking Game (Includes Purchase of Game; Printing Signs and Posting Breeding Grounds).... 1,527.94 2,882.73
Restocking Fish (Includes Purchase of Fish; Printing Signs and Posting Closed Waters).. ....... 4,433.28 281.82
Construction Work on Fish Hatchery..................... ....................... ............. 15,492.29 1,173.79
Operation, Equipment and Cost Distribution Fish from Hatchery .................................. 4,351.82 11,521.61
Educational and Fair Exhibits ......................................... ............. ..... ..... 3,479.10 3,392.71
Remitted to School Fund as of Act 1927.................................................. ...... 8,152.00 850.00
M miscellaneous Expenditures ..................................... .... ....................... . 6,693.01
Current Expenditures ........................... ........ ........................... $247,964.98 $145,523.33
Back Pay Paid Employees of Previous Administration ............................................. 23,797.90
Repayment to General Inspection Fund ........ ............ ... ............................ ..20,000.00 10,000.00
TOTAL .............................. .... ...... ......... ........................... $267,964.98 $179,321.23
TOTAL RECEIPTS .......... $283,447.67 $251,050.56
TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS 267,964.98 179,321.23
Balance on Hand Close Fiscal Year (June 30th) .....................................$ 15,482.69 $ 71,729.33



[35]






RECEIPTS


Received from County Judges-Sale of Hunting, Fishing and
T rapping L licenses .. ........................................
Less Cnecks on closed Banks-Brevard County ..................
Less Checks on closed Banks-Citrus County ....................
Less Refunds on over Remittances..............................

Non-resident Retail Fish Dealers' Licenses .................. ....
Resident Retail Fish Dealers' Licenses ............................
Resident Wholesale Fish Dealers' Licenses. ............ ...... .
Deposit on Wholesale Fish Dealers' Licenses (not issued)........
Guide Licenses ............................................
Bait N et (R epealed 1929 A ct) .....................................
Gam e Farm (A ct 1929) ............... ..........................
Resident Commercial Fish Boat Licenses ........ ...........
Non-resident Commercial Fish Boat Licenses.................
Boats for H ire Licenses ...................................... .
Non-resident Fur Dealers' Licenses..................... ... .
Non-resident Wholesale Fur Dealers' Licenses....................
Non-resident Wholesale Fur Agents' Licenses...................
Non-resident Local Fur Dealers' Licenses................... ..
Alien Hunting Licenses.................. .. ......... ........

Less Amount Collected by Wardens on above Licenses and not
remitted for at close of Fiscal Year............................
Less Amount Deposited Prior to July 1st, 1928, on Licenses to
be issued July 1st, 1929 .........................................

Court Costs (Wardens' Mileage and Arresting Fees) ...........
Interest from Banks on Deposits ................ ...........
Miscellaneous Collections-(Refunds in Stamps, Sale of Con-
fiscated F urs, etc.) .................. ........................
Dividends on Checks on closed Banks............................
Deposited on Commercial Licenses to be Issued after July 1st.
1929 ........ ................ ..............................
Estreated Bond...... ..... ..................................

Total Receipts Fiscal Year ................... .............
Balances with Banks and State Treasurer beginning Fiscal Year.
Borrowed from General Inspection Fund to Pay Back-Pay-Due
Employees former Administration............................
TOTALS


$1,600.00
871.00
35.50

50.00
3,095.00
1,500.00

220.00
55.00

569.60
10.00
2.214.00
100.00

1,430.00
100.00


1928-1929

$254,605.81

i06.50 $252,099.31


9,343.60


$ 128.00

25.00

4,290.00
1,900.00
25.00
220.00

55.00
611.00

2,017.00

2,000.00
400.00
700.00
200.00


69.50

45.50 115.00 9,228.60
2.221.14
182.37

575.90
142.40

927.70


$265,377.42
18,070.25


1929-1930

$187,471.50

153.00 $187,318.50













12,424.00



927.70 11,490.30

2,398.28
561.28

799.51


10,000.00

$212,567.87
15,482.69


23,000.00

$283.447.67 $251,050.56



































































THE DREW PRESS, JACKSONVILLE
536212




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Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs