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Title: Biennial report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097353/00001
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Alternate Title: Annual report ( 1928 )
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Game and Fresh Water Fish
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: The Dept.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1928-1930
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Wildlife management -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fishery management -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nature conservation -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Description based on: 1928; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097353
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 40687807
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report - Florida Department of Game and Fish
Succeeded by: Biennial report - Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission

Table of Contents
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text

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FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT
of the

Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
FLORIDA


For Biennium Ending December 31, 1932.
Statistical Report For Fiscal Biennium
Ending June 30, 1932


C. C. Woodward
State Game Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida


( qc9












UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY














FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


of the


Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish


FLORIDA















For Biennium Ending December 31, 1932.

Statistical Report For Fiscal Biennium

Ending June 30, 1932


.

.

.
.

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C. C. Woodward

State Game Commissioner

Tallahassee, Florida


"'
"'
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"'
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Tallahassee, Florida,
December 31, 1932.
To His Excellency,
Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,

Sir:

Under authorization of the Laws of Florida, Chapter 13644,
Section 8, Acts of 1929, I have the honor of submitting to you,
herewith, the Fourth Biennial Report of the Department of
Game and Fresh Water Fish, State of Florida.

The statistical report submitted covers the biennium closing
June 30, 1932, with an added statistical report for the period
beginning July 1, 1932 and closing December 31, 1932. The
narrative report carries the story of the two year period closing
December 31, 1932. ...
.Repesp 'fu)y.submitted,
.. C. C. Woo '.id',
... : ": tit CGame Co'nmi'sioner.







CONTENTS


Subject
Conservation Florida Wild Life _-----____
Organization _
Supervision -- -------
Office Work -..-... ...- ..
Law Enforcement ------.----
Breeding Grounds and Refuges _____.__
Federal Refuges and Preserves ____________
State Game Farm -__ -----__------__-_____
Report on Operation of Quail Farm _____
Operations in 1931 ---
Incubation ---- --- --.- -- -
High Records -
Hungarian Partridge --------_--_--__---___
General Care --
Operations in 1932
Champion Quail Hen ----- ------
Egg Records --_---
Twenty-five Mated Pairs, Record ----
Summary of Production 1932 _______________
Trouble ----- -----
Released to Wild Life _--__-----------------
Cost of Production 1932
Requests for Information ________
Cost of Hunting Licenses __
Fishing __
Prohibit Sale of Bass ____
Closed Seasons
Restocking _
Salvaging Fish
Revenue From Fishing Licenses --
Trapping -
Educational Program -
Fair Exhibits, 1931 --------
"Florida Woods and Waters" -------
Bulletin, "Florida Birds"
Exhibits, 1932 -
Work in Schools _---
"Florida Bird Life"
Co-operative Work ____- --
General Increase in Wild Life __-- __
Legislative Recommendations ----------
Finances-----------
Division of the Dollar ___
Revenue From Licenses sold by County Judges _
Revenue from Commercial Licenses ___--
Financial Statement Year Ending June 30, 1931
Financial Statement Year Ending June 30, 1932
Financial Statement July l-December 31, 1932


3503-


Page
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_-.---- ---- 5

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16
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S 31
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FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


CONSERVATION
of
FLORIDA'S WILD LIFE RESOURCES

Florida is pre-eminently an outdoor State. Not only does its
climate and its many natural attractions make it a good place
in which to live, but these, with other physical resources, fur-
nish the basis for its development and wealth. Back of the
State's chief industries are its forests, fisheries, a responsive
soil, mineral deposits, abundant wild life in woods and waters,
wayside beauty, fine bathing beaches and a matchless climate.

It is interesting to note that these are used almost in the form
in which they came from the hand of the Creator. It is heart-
ening to further note that the majority of these major resources
may be maintained at a high producing level by careful hand-
ling and wise usage. Mineral deposits naturally grow less as
they are mined; beaches are but little affected by what man
may do; but climate and rainfall respond in a measure to
drainage operations or to the maintenance or denuding of
forests; while forests, fisheries, soil fertility and native wild
life are very directly affected by the way in which they are
handled. These facts and the relation of these natural re-
sources to Florida's future prosperity give a very important
place to the -program for the conservation of the natural re-
sources of the State.

It was in recognition of the value of game and non-game
birds and animals and of the fish found in the lakes and streams
of the State, that the Department of Game and Fresh Water
Fish was created in 1925 and charged with the administering
of the laws enacted for their protection and upbuilding. In
developing the program, work has been directed along three
general lines; protection, propagation and education.

The following presents briefly, and in the order named: the
organization used in carrying forward the work; activities
during the biennium closing December 31, 1932; the present
status of wild life in the State; a summary of finances collected






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


and disbursed during the fiscal biennium closing June 30, 1932;
and proposed legislation.

ORGANIZATION

The workers employed under the direction of the State Game
Commissioner during the biennium, comprised an office force
of five, (including the assistant state game commissioner), re-
duced to four on July 1, 1932; four district game commission-
ers; forty deputy game wardens; a superintendent at the Win-
ter Haven Fish Hatchery and one foreman; and one employee
at the State Game Farm.

ACTIVITIES
1. Supervision

Responsible alike for the supervision of office and field work,
the State Game Commissioner has divided time between the
two. In addition to supervision of established field projects
(details of which are incorporated in report) time was given to
building up support for the conservation program among the
civic and service organizations throughout the State. There
has been a corresponding interest in Florida's conservation pro-
gram aroused on the part of these and of the general public.

National contacts have gained recognition for the Florida
work, and have brought to the State valuable cooperation.
For a period of months, R. W. Williams, supervising agent for
the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey in the southeastern
states, made his headquarters in Tallahassee, maintaining a
desk in Department headquarters. A native Floridian and
deeply interested in the conservation of the wild life of the
State, he gave freely of his time and effort in promoting the
work. His ability and long experience as Attorney for the
U. S. Department of Agriculture made his legal advice (given
without cost to the Department of Game and Fresh Water
Fish) of very great value. Through him the Federal Govern-
ment was led to acquire by purchase in 1931 the St. Marks
Refuge for Migratory Birds, a 20,000 acre tract lying in the
heart of the wintering grounds for Canadian geese.






FOURTH' BIENNIAL REPORT


"Florida Bird Life", by A. H. Howell, Senior Biologist of the
Bureau of Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
was published during the biennium co-operatively by that
Department and the State Department of Game and Fresh
Water Fish.

Recognition of Florida's conservation work has given it place
on several national programs and on two international pro-
grams. One feature of the work, the establishing and main-
taining of wild life breeding grounds and refuges under the
Florida plan, has attracted wide attention and much favorable
comment. (Please turn to page 8 for report of this work.)

2. Office Work

The assistant state game commissioner directs the routine
office affairs, edits the Monthly News Bulletin, a mimeograph-
ed sheet that goes to the press, county judges and a select mail-
ing list. Featuring a monthly financial statement from the desk
of the bookkeeper it has kept the public fully apprised at all
times of the handling of revenues by the Department, while
the monthly summary of cases for game law violations and the
handling of the same by the courts has kept county judges in-
formed as to those who, because of conviction for breaking
provisions of the game law, are ineligible to buy hunting
licenses.

Other affairs of the office are handled by the secretary (who
took over the stenographic work of the employee dropped July
first), by the bookkeeper and by the clerk who directs the edu-
cational program for the Department. For report of this
latter see pages 34-38.

3. Law Enforcement

The four district commissioners who stand at the head of
the law enforcement division, not only direct the activities of
the deputies assigned to their respective districts, but them-
selves are active in making arrests for game law violations and
in following all cases as they take their way through the court.
Their work greatly strengthens the work of the forty wardens.






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Records show that during the biennium 1860 arrests were made
by this division; 21 bonds were estreated; 312 cases nolle
pressed or dismissed; 324 pending or not reported. Records
of the later disposition of these will be carried into the current
fiscal year. During the biennium there were 1203 convictions
for game law violations. This represented tireless work on
the part of the enforcement division.

Cooperating with this force were 1,000 honorary wardens,
men interested in the conservation of wild life who serve with-
out pay. Their counsel and active support have been valuable.
In a few counties sheriffs have assigned special deputies to
assist in enforcing the game law.

While the courts generally co-operate in the handling of
arrests for violations of the law there have been some notable
exceptions to this, and to these exceptions are attributable,
many of cases shown as nollee pressed or dismissed" and of the
number "pending". Department records show that 59 cases
were taken into court in one county to be disposed of as fol-
lows: 19 dismissed, 27 yet pending, 5 fine and costs-and 8
not reported. In another county the prosecuting attorney
(since removed) would rarely file information against game
law violators. The law fixes the minimum fine for game law
violations at $10. In several counties fines are below the
minimum prescribed. In these counties it is not an unusual
thing for the court to fine but $1 and then to remit the fine or
suspend the sentence. In a few counties in the tourist section
of the State courts make no effort to handle violations of the
law relative to fresh water fishing. Where courts have co-
operated in the handling of game law violations there is better
observance of the law by those who hunt, fish and trap and a
growing respect for the law on the part of the general public.

While cooperating sportsmen's organizations do not form an
official part of the Department they have done much to aug-
ment results. There are a number of such organizations that
stand strongly back of Florida's conservation program.

Outstanding among these organizations are the Izaak Wal-
ton League; the Florida Wild Life League, (organized during






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


1932) ; and a number of county Game Protective Associations,
local organizations composed of men interested in the conser-
vation of the wild life of their section, associated to strengthen
law enforcement.

Among organizations other than those of sportsmen that are
cooperating strongly in building the program for conservation
of Florida's wild life are the State Chamber of Commerce, the
State Junior Chamber of Commerce, the Florida Audubon
Society and the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. These
maintain active conservation departments in their state or-
ganizations with corresponding departments in their local
chambers, clubs or branches.

4. Breeding Grounds and Refuges

States have come to recognize breeding grounds and refuges
as the most effectual means for the re-establishment of native
wild life, the greatest assurance that can be provided against its
becoming extinct. In the majority of States such areas are
established at great cost to the commonwealth. The limited
sums available for conservation in Florida and the large area
in which wild life should be maintained made the purchase of
areas for the establishment of preserves impractical here. To
meet the situation the Florida plan of closing selected areas by
mandate, was evolved. At the present time there are 43 state
breeding grounds and refuges lying within 53 counties and em-
bracing 3,500,000 acres of choice game territory. These
breeding grounds replace, in a large measure, those natural
ones lost through the building of good roads which now pene-
trate once inaccessible areas where wild game bred undisturb-
ed. During the biennium closing December 31, 1932, six
of these areas, embracing a total of 500,000 acres, were
established. The largest of these is the Santa Rosa Breeding
Ground. It embraces some 107,000 acres. This, like other
preserves, was not created until local demand gave reasonable
assurance of cooperation from local sportsmen in maintaining
its sanctity. With the limited warden service that Florida
provides-forty men to guard sixty-seven counties-such co-
operation is imperative. The careful observance of restrictions
as to hunting and trapping in the Santa Rosa Breeding Ground






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


has not only been encouraging, it must result, within the next
few years, in a large increase in game in the section. What is
said of cooperation on the part of sportsmen of Santa Rosa
County applies generally to sportsmen throughout the State.
Boundaries of breeding grounds and refuges are respected in
most sections. Results have secured this cooperation.

In locating these breeding grounds and refuges they have
been chosen primarily with respect to their value as preserves
for deer and turkey, these being the two species of game that
needed most the protection that the preserves only could
furnish. In every instance there has been a noticeable in-
crease in the supply of wild life in these areas. It is Florida's
best guarantee for the future supply of breeding stock. In
several of the breeding grounds the increase of deer and turkey
has been beyond the expectations of the most optimistic. At
the same time the passing of the surplus to surrounding terri-
tory has yielded more game for the sportsmen.


"Deer Hunting in Florida is on the Upgrade"
Bucks Only May Be Killed






FOURTH' BIENNIAL REPORT


Quail have found included in the preserves suitable areas in
which to breed and have made the most of them. While
breeding grounds have given to the naturalist the increase in
wild life which he is interested in securing, their yield in deer,
turkey and quail has been especially appreciated by the sports-
man whose interest lies both in an abundance of life in the wild
and good shooting in season. While bucks only may be killed,
deer hunting in Florida is on the upgrade; the increased supply
of turkeys has given better turkey shooting; and the 1932-33
hunting season gives promise of fair sport with quail.

The overflow to open territory of the surplus game that
raises in the breeding grounds is a large factor in restocking
in Florida and providing good shooting for such territories.
Furthermore, it has been found that to transfer quail from
breeding grounds to shot-out areas, after the hunting season
closes, to serve as seed stock, is an effective, inexpensive
method of restocking. During the biennium approximately
5,000 birds were transferred. The increase from these trans-
fers to the supply of game in Florida, estimated on a most con-
servative basis, would add in the biennium 50,000 birds to the
State's supply.

In addition to the increase of game in the breeding grounds
there has been a marked increase in those species of non-game
birds and animals that breed in the type of habitat suitable to
deer and turkey. This has been gratifying. Certain water
birds, among them the beautiful roseate spoonbill, the egrets,
herons and ibises are finding these protected areas safe places
in which to build their rookeries. The spoonbills, once nearly
extinct, maintain one very large colony of breeders. The
egrets, (American and Snowy), another bird that had been
almost wiped out by plume hunters, are to be found in all parts
of the State. Some of their largest rookeries, the largest in
the world, are found in some of these protected areas.

With but few exceptions refuges and breeding grounds are
closed to trapping throughout the year. While the law makes
it permissable for the State Game Commissioner to issue per-
mits to trap in such areas, and this is done when it seems neces-
sary to reduce predators, the great reduction in these animals






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


that resulted from the high market for furs of a few years ago,
has made the closing of these areas to trapping seem a wise
thing.

An increase in the number of wardens would greatly increase
the protection that can be given breeding grounds. The re-
vision of Florida's Game Laws so as to provide that streams,
railroads and established public roads should serve the same
purpose as would a fence in establishing the boundary lines of
breeding grounds, would strengthen the provision of the law
under which areas are closed for breeding grounds and refuges.

It would be well if it were required that State breeding
grounds be established in each of the fourteen counties now
without such closed areas as soon as adequate protection can
be provided.

5. Federal Refuges and Preserves

Refuges and preserves maintained in Florida by the Federal
Government and the Audubon Society total fifteen. These
play an important part in the preservation of Florida's wild
life. The last to be established, and from the standpoint of
game protection, the most important, is the St. Marks Refuge
for Migratory Birds. In December, 1930, the purchase of
13,000 acres extending across the lower part of Jefferson
County and into Wakulla County on its west, was authorized
by Federal authorities. In 1931 this area was increased to
20,000 acres and extended into Taylor County. Not only does
it afford refuge for migratory birds, lying as it does in the heart
of the Florida wintering ground for Canadian Geese, but, since
it embraces some of the best deer and wild turkey territory in
this section of Florida, and no shooting is allowed in the area,
it will give to these two species of game adequate protection.

Early in 1932 Chinsegut Hill, the winter home of Colonel
and Mrs. Raymond Robins, an estate of 2,000 acres in Hernando
County, about five miles north of Brooksville, was deeded to
the Federal Government for a migratory bird refuge and an
experiment farm and forestry station. The gift included well
timbered land and also embraced a fine citrus grove, with com-






FOURTH' BIENNIAL REPORT


plete dairying, poultry and stock raising units. A show place
of Florida, it will be developed into a game and bird sanctuary,
sub-tropical plant experiment station, a forestry culture and
protective station, with animal husbandry, poultry and farm
demonstration units.

Everglades Park

The project through which a National Park would be
created in the far southern part of the State, and which hos
received the endorsement of authorities at Washington, it is
hoped will receive favorable consideration at the hands of the
incoming Congress. Lying in the amazing Everglades region,
extending as far south as does lower Egypt, the proposed park
would add to the national park system not only an area cha-
racterized by its rare plant life of wild beauty, tropical and
unusual, but it would save for the bird life of America one of
its greatest winter retreats, a section that holds some of the
greatest rookeries for rare species of water birds to be found
anywhere in the world. Visiting it in recent years, Dr. Gilbert
Pearson, president of the National Association of Audubon
Societies, said "We saw not less than forty thousand egrets,
ibises, herons and other water birds. In great flocks we
watched them arise from their nesting places and sweep across
the glades and jungles. Deer and wild turkey are common
sights." Attractive as would be this national park to the
thousands to whom it would be easily accessible, its value as
a refuge for wild life both native and migratory, makes its
early establishment of interest to outdoor lovers everywhere.

6. State Game Farm

The following report of the operation of Florida's State
Game Farm, maintained at Raiford by the Department of Game
and Fresh Water Fish in cooperation with the Florida State
Farm, is submitted by Mr. T. W. Shuler, Manager of the Wild
Game Department of the Florida State Farm and also of the
Poultry Department of the Farm. This work was undertaken in
1930. A brief history of it from its beginning is included here.






DEPARTMENT OF (iAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Report on Operation of Quail Farm
By T. W. Shuler
Early in the year 1930, our Florida State Game Commis-
sioner, Mr. C. C. Woodward, in cooperation with the officials
of the Florida State Farm, decided to begin the propagation of
game birds and deer. Sufficient and suitable space for the
purpose was selected and equipped in February 1930. The
deer herd and the wild turkey flock was placed under the
supervision of the Agricultural Manager of the Farm. The
writer has been for several years in charge of the Poultry Di-
vision of the State farm, and was given supervision of the
breeding of quail and pheasants. As my experience at that
time was limited to poultry breeding, an immediate search for
information and advice was begun. This eventually resulted
in a trip to what is undoubtedly the foremost establishment for
artificial quail propagation-the White Oak Quail Farm of Mr.
W. B. Coleman at Richmond, Va. This was a trip to "look,
listen and learn", which was done as best I could. I was made
to feel at home, and was likewise made to feel that I was to
derive as much benefit as I could from Mr. Coleman's long ex-
perience with quail, and now I consider that the degree of
success which we have obtained here has been due to my trip
to Mr. Coleman's plant.
We started our 1930 season with 35 mated pairs of Bob
White. Of these 20 pairs were captivity reared birds, 15 pairs
were wild trapped birds. From these birds, we gathered that
season 1018 eggs, an average of 29 eggs per pair. This very
low average was due to the presence of the wild birds, as our
best captivity reared birds produced 114 eggs for that season.
From these 1018 eggs we hatched 786 baby quail, 77; %. We
used a Buckeye Mammouth Incubator with 6144 capacity for
hen egg. From these 786 quail chicks, we raised 662 to ma-
turity, 84%%. As soon as dry, we placed the chicks from the
incubator to an electric brooder of our own design. This
brooder is 18 x 36, with a 6 foot runway at the rear. There
was immediately placed before them Larro starting mash,
Spratts chick grain, clabber, grit, charcoal, oystershell and
lettuce or crimson clover, chopped fine. They were kept on
the wire and the same diet until they were 4 or 5 weeks old,
when they were placed on the ground in movable growing






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


pens, size 10 feet by 12 feet. These pens had been sown in
clover and lettuce, in time for it to be the right size for them
to eat on their arrival. They were changed from starting
mash to Larro turkey and game bird developer, and Kaffir
corn, millet seed, peas and peanuts then being added to their
feed.

7. Operations in 1931

From the birds reared in the 1930 season, we retained 70
pairs as breeding stock, with a few extra birds for replacement
in our show pens. With these 70 pairs of captivity reared
birds in our mating pens, we started our 1931 season. As our
first settings of quail eggs were small in number, and our busy
chicken hatching season was on, these were set along with our
regular hen egg settings, no change being made in the degree
of heat or moisture. The results were excellent. Our third
setting ran some 25% infertile, though, so it was decided to
place a number of the pen from which it was taken upon each
egg. A regular sheet for hens trap nest records with columns
provided for a record of eggs laid in each pen, the number of
infertile or dead germ eggs, was used. We indicated on the
sheets the number of eggs left after the hatch, from each indi-
vidual pen. These records were kept faithfully week by week,
and they showed surprising differences between the birds, some
of which were as follows: 126 eggs gathered from pen 70,
turned out 2 infertile, 4 dead germ in all season; pen 65 gave 33
eggs for the season, not one infertile or dead germ egg. On
the other side of the picture, pen 5 produced 115 eggs, resulting
in 110 infertile and 1 dead germ. As the bird in this pen was
a splendid egg producer, several attempts were made to satis-
factorily mate her, but no results were ever obtained. Need-
less to say, she has been eliminated from our breeding stock.
With an eye to future breeding stock, mesh wire partitions
were inserted in our hatching trays. In mid-season (August),
we started hatching separately the eggs gathered from 20 of
our very best birds, each bird's eggs being placed in a space
partitioned off by wire. From 295 eggs set in this manner, we
obtained 250 fine quail chicks, an 85%o average. These eggs
showed uniform hatchability; the chicks were vigorous, and
were placed in separate pens, and as soon as they were large






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


enough, they were banded to distinguish them. It is our belief
that line breeding is possible and may accomplish almost as
good results in artificial quail propagation as in poultry breed-
ing.

8. Incubation

Returning to our earlier subject of incubation; only three
small quail hatches had come off before our chicken hatching
was completed. We then operated our incubator on 99-3/4
degrees heat, with a wet bulb temperature of 85 degrees. Our









]. 1,





T. W. Shuler, Manager of Florida Game Farm
with Young Quail in Growing Pen
results were satisfactory until July. We were then experienc-
ing the dryest and hottest weather of the past 20 years. The
thermometer in one of our mating pens showed a reading of
108 degrees. Our egg pickup fell from 400 on the week of
June 23rd to 250 on the week of July 14th. Fertility and
hatching percentages also declined in an alarming manner.
The dry weather, continuing, the first week in August our mois-
ture in the incubator was increased 87 to 88 degrees wet bulb
temperature, with a hygrometer reading of from 52 to 55.
This increased our hatches some 10%. Egg production for
the season was 6052 eggs, an average of 86-1/2 per pair. Of
these eggs 100 were shipped to Germany in an exchange, 60
distributed to private individuals in the State, 32 set under two






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


bantam hens, 58 cracked in transportating or packing, 5802
placed in our incubator. These 5802 eggs hatched 4195 birds,
72%. We brought to maturity some 2400 birds, 58%. Our
problem during the dry hot weather was more how to keep our
birds cool than how to keep them warm.

9. High Recorda

Our best laying hen produced 131 eggs; second best 126
eggs; third best, the high laying hen of 1930, gave us 121 eggs.
We found in checking the records, that our 40 best pairs of
mated birds in 1931 averaged 85 eggs per pair, one egg below
the general average. The average of infertility from them
was 3-1/4'%, or 4-3/4% below the general average. The aver-
age of dead germ eggs was 12-1i/4%i, or 7% below the general
average. Their hatching percentage was 84-1/2 or 12-1/2'
above the general average. We firmly believe that 1800 of
the birds we raised to maturity were produced by these 40
pairs of birds. Twenty five pairs of these, the best egg pro-
ducers, are in the mating pens, mated the same as in 1931.
Twenty five pairs, selected from our separately hatched chicks
mentioned before, have been mated to avoid interbreeding, and
placed in our mating pens.

Our production costs in 1931 averaged $1.20 for each bird
brought to maturity. I would not advise using these figures
for comparison purposes, as these birds were produced by
trusty labor from our State Prison at Raiford.

The Bob White in the wild, his natural environment, finds the
Florida State Farm a good place. No one is allowed to molest
him or his family at any time of the year. He raised 7 covies
on the grounds occupied by the poultry farm last year, and it
occupies only a very small portion of the 18000 acres of the
farm; and he had to share that with from 8000 to 10000
chickens. They did not seem to bother him to any extent,
though, as he brought his family into the chicken yards and
consumed a part of the foods placed there for them. As I have
been writing this article, I have heard from several directions,
bushes and pine lands, his cheerful call of Bob White, letting






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


the world at large know that his mating season has arrived and
that "Happy Days are Here Again".

10. Hungarian Partridges

The 100 Bob White eggs mentioned as having been sent to
Germany were exchanged with a game farm in Bavaria for 100
Hungarian partridge eggs. We received these on May 20th,
with only 3 cracked from the long trip from Germany. Of
these 100 eggs, 97 were immediately placed in our incubators.
We were rewarded with 74 splendid chicks. These were
carried in our brooders for six weeks, with a loss of four birds.
They were then placed in our growing pens, and during their
first two weeks on the ground, we lost 24 of them. We were
never able to determine the cause of this heavy mortality. Our
State Veterinary examined several of the birds, but could not
determine the cause of their deaths. We have become very
much interested in this splendid bird, and after distributing all
that we could spare on applications, we have retained 24 for
breeding purposes. It may be that our troubles with them are
commencing, male and female created He them-but to this
date I have been unable to definitely determine which is which.

11. General Care

We have not had to combat any epidemics of disease among
our birds. Strict sanitation is our rule at all times.

A snake got four of our quail, but he was soon discovered
and promptly killed. This is the only loss which we have ever
suffered from a predator.

After the day men quit work, the trusty assigned to night
watch at the quail farm, makes his rounds regularly, to see that
little Bob on the brooders, Big BOB in the pens, and the pheas-
ants and the Hungarians are all O. K. throughout the night.

12. Operations in 1932

The 1932 season was started with 70 mated pairs of Florida
Bob White Quail. These were composed of the 40 pairs with






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


the best records in 1931, and 30 pairs, selected from our 1931
hatched birds.

We lost only two hens by death in our mating pens. One of
these two was our best egg producer in 193b and our third best
in 1931. She had laid 93 eggs up to August 1st, 1932, when
she died.

These 70 pairs of quail produced 5959 eggs, averaging 85
eggs to the pair.

Our best egg producer in 1931 was again our best layer in
1932; 150 eggs being produced by her this season. A special
feature is the fertility and hatchability of her eggs. Of her
150 eggs only two were infertile. These came the last two
weeks of the season. Eleven of her eggs were dead germs;
unfortunately five were cracked. Of her 150 eggs 132 were
hatched. Her record is at the top of the list of the 25 best
pairs of mated birds. She and her mate are a source of much
pride to the negro prisoner who attends to the birds in the
mating pens. After watching her and her mate affectionately
billing each other one morning, the negro remarked, "She sho
loves her m-a-n don't she"? I'll say she does.

13. OUR CHAMPION QUAIL HEN
STATE GAME FARM
RAIFORD, FLORIDA
1931 Egg Record
Eggs laid ............................ 131
Infertile .............................. 3

128
Dead Germ ..... .................... 18

Livable birds hatched .................. 110






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


1932 Egg Record
E ggs laid ............................ 150
Infertile .............................. 2

148
Dead Germ ......... ...... ....... 11

137
Cracked in handling .................. 5

Livable birds hatched .... ............ 132
1931 & 32 Seasons
Total Eggs laid ...................... 281
Total infertile ................. ...... 5

276
Total dead germs ..................... 29

247
Total cracked in handling .............. 5

Livable birds hatched .................. 242

14. Egg Records

The methods used to arrive at these figures are as follows:
Each mating pen is numbered, also each mated pair of quail
are banded. The number of the pen from which the eggs are
gathered is written on the eggs. A regular sheet for hens trap
nest records, with columns provided for (A) number of eggs
laid in each pen (B) number of infertile or dead germ or other-
wise unhatchable eggs, was used. We also indicated on this
sheet, the number of eggs left after the hatch from each indi-
vidual pen. These eggs are candled to determine whether
they were infertile or dead germ. In following this method it
is easy to arrive at the individual egg producers as well as their
hatchability, etc.






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


15.
MATED PAIRS-BOB WHITE QUAIL-FLORIDA STATE FARM,
RAIFORD, FLORIDA

INCUBATION RECORDS-25 BEST EGG PRODUCERS
1932



I l I i

0 a V xu d.0
0 bg Sn tn 'd bf | >S >
251 150! 1451 5j 2! 11 5 127! 88 24 6-1/10 5-3/10
53 1191 119 32 27 60 51 24 5 2-1/2
2 1141 114 5 9 3 97 85 22 5-1/4 4-2/5
33 111 110 1 3 7 3 971 88 22 5 4-2/5
151 106 106 2 5 4 951 90 22 4-7/8 4-3/10
6! 1061 106 3 33 5 65 62 23 4-3/5 2-7/8
4 105 105 1 10 3 91 87 23 4-3/5 4
49 105 105 1 2 14 5 83 79 22 4-4/5 3-4/5
171 104 104 8 16 4 76 73 23 4-1/2 3-3/10
36 104 1041 1 26 5 72 70 22 4-4/5 3-3/10
65 102 102 4 31 5 62! 61 22 4-3/5 2-4/5
27 102 102! 1 8 3 90! 88 23 4-2/5 3-9/10
70 101 101 8 15 5 737 72 23 4-2/5 j 3-1/5
241 101 101 2 15 4 80 79 22 4-3/5 3-5/8
52 100 100 1 6 12 3 781 78 23 4-3/8 3-2/5
28 94 941 5 12 3 74 79 23 4-1/10 3-1/5
29 92 92 4 9 5 74 80 20 4-3/5 3-7/10
16' 91 91! 3 6 6 76 84 20 4-1/2 3-4/5
19 911 911 5 13 3 70 77 20 4-1/2 3-1/2
31 90 901 3 3 5 79! 88 23 3-9/10 3-4/5
621 90 891 1 5 9 5 70 79 22 4-1/10 3-1/5
40 89 851 4 1 11 3 70 82 20 4-2/5 3-1/2
48 88 88 8 22 76 86 214-1/5 3-3/5
55 88 87 1 2 5 3 77 88 22 4 3-1/2
68 87j 86 1 1 1 2 9 5 69 80 201 4-3/10! 3-1/2

S2530! 2517[ 13 3 118 318 97 1981! 78-7/10 22 4-3/5 3-3/5


.Average number Eggs produced-101 Eggs per pair
Good Birds 79 Birds






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Needless to say that we are very proud of this pair of quail;
and with an eye to future breeding stock; the first of this sea-
son, we placed wire partitions in our hatching trays for the
purpose of hatching her eggs separately from other eggs
gathered. When hatched they were placed in brooders by
themselves, and when large enough were banded.

It is our belief that line breeding is possible; and may accom-
plish the same results as in breeding poultry, allowing some
consideration for the short laying season.

We intend to line breed this hen and her offspring this next
season, and hope to submit a more interesting report at that
time.


16. Summary of Production 1932

Of the 5959 eggs gathered from the 70 pens 5908 were in-
cubated; 51 being either cracked, too small or with false shells.
From these 5908 eggs we produced-
4233 Good Birds-71 3/5%
472 Culls (cripples)-8%
329 Infertile eggs-5 4/5%
865 Dead Germ Eggs-14 3/5%
9 cracked in handling

5908

17. Trouble

Our first hatch came off April 28th and all during May
everything was lovely-80 to 85 per cent hatches-quail chicks
doing well in the brooders with very few deaths.

In June the chicken pox or soreheadd" put in its appearance
and practically cleaned out the young birds in our growing
pens. The adult birds appeared to be practically immune.

There was no soreheadd" in the brooders. The same con-
ditions were true of our wild turkeys and our poultry flock.






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


This epidemic of soreheadd" appeared to be quite general
throughout Florida and South Georgia. There was much vac-
cination as a preventative for this disease, and the use of live
virus is believed to have been a factor in the widespread of the
infection. Mosquitoes are also accounted one of the main
sources of transmission of soreheadd".

The adult birds among the quail, wild turkey and poultry are
believed to have been immune due to previous infection or vac-
cination.

The quail chicks in the brooders were, without doubt, pro-
tected by not being accessible to any carrier of disease.

But the young birds placed in the growing pens suffered
heavy mortality almost as soon as they were placed there.

We put "isolation pens" some quarter of a mile distant,
where all infected birds were placed; moved all other birds on
fresh ground and disinfected and put everything under stricter
sanitary conditions. A box full of sawdust soaked in disin-
fectant, and sunk in the ground at each pen gate so that it was
impossible to enter or leave without stepping in it, made the
disinfecting of shoes a certainty. In this way we had checked
the disease to a great extent by August. But we had suffered
heavy losses and had a crimp put in our season's production.

18. Released to Wild Life

The Florida State Farm comprising 18,000 acres has been
made a State Game Preserve. The Farm had a good popula-
tion of wild quail but not enough.

Of the 1931 hatched quail, 450 mature birds were released
on the Farm in the spring. During this season 1000 of the
1932 hatched quail were released there along with mature
birds for covey heads.

A system of predator control; arrangement of cover and the
proper planting of the right foods for quail are expected to
make of the Farm a delightful place of residence for Bob
White.






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Under your order to release to sportsmen's organizations,
and responsible landowners in the State who have property
(not less than 160 acres) under fence, part of which was under
cultivation, same to be closed to hunting for at least two years,
we have shipped 991 birds. By allowing birds to the right kind
of landowners, it is hoped to obtain the maximum of interest,
and cooperation in game conservation from them. We have
also released to wild life some 75 turkey hens and 16 gobblers
for restocking.

We are happy to say that our incubation results are showing
constant improvement, and our average egg production in-
creased 2 eggs per pair over last season. But disease reduced
our total of birds brought to maturity.

We have been fairly successful in raising deer during this
past season. We now have a herd of 24 on the Farm. Eight
of these we raised during 1932.

In every endeavor the best results are desired. But at this
stage of game bird breeding it is possible that knowledge gain-
ed, even at an unwilling loss of results, may in the long run
prove to be of best advantage.

Following your orders, all our Hungarian Partridges and
Pheasants have been or soon will be released, and distributed
to game conservationists in the State for release purposes-and
1933 operations will be confined to a limited number of pairs
of our very best breeders among the quail.
We have the pen of doves which are largely for ornaments.
But we will very likely release some young doves on the Farm
next season.
I am adding a cost sheet furnished, at my request, by the
State Farm Accountant, Mr. H. W. Davies. Were releases to
the State shown at current prices paid for birds a very fine
credit balance would be shown.

T. W. Shuler,
Superintendent Wild Game,
Florida State Farm,
Raiford, Florida.







FOURTH 1IENNIAL REPORT


19. Cost of Production 1932

Mr. T. W. Shuler, Manager,
Quail Farm.
Dear Mr. Shuler:

As per your request I am handing you herewith figures show-
ing operation of the Quail Farm for the year 1932.


MONTH


Jany.
Feby.
March
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.

Total

Average
Per Month


TOTAL QUAIL
EXPENSE ON HAND


$ 32.76
177.66
85.18
81.42
141.90
209.31
209.48
223.52
116.32
154.84
89.41
111.99

$1,633.79



136.15


1290
1290
1026
2403
1872
2176
1676
1927
1961
1294
1157
1138

19210


1600


COST PER QUAIL
PER MONTH


.02.54
.13.77
.08.30
.03.39
.07.58
.09.61
.12.50
.11.60
.05.93
.11.96
.07.73
.09.84


.08.50


cents

it





CC
"
"
"r

"~
"~
"~
"~


" Each


Sales Cash ................ $ 1,230.75
Released to Wild Life ........ 491.85

Total .......... ...... 1,722.60
Cost .............. ...... 1,633.79

Net Gain ............... $ 88.81


The above cost is for Food and Supplies and does not include
salary. However, the Release to Wild Life revenue shown as
$491.85 is at book cost figures of $0.50 each while the cash sales
were principally at $7.00 per pair and in some instances at





DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


$10.00 per pair. There were several hundred sold at $2.75
per pair.

Other than the months of Feb., June, July, August and Oct.
which shows unusual heavy expenses the average would be
below 6 cents each per month.

Yours truly,
H. W. Davies,
Cost Accountant.

20. Requests for Information

Numerous requests for information on the artificial propaga-
tion of quail have reached the Department. Some of these
have come from sportsmen interested in restocking their own
grounds, others from those who are interested in its commer-
cial possibilities.

Quail can be raised in captivity. Thousands have been rais-
ed during the past few years by conservation departments in a
number of states and by individuals. In the matter of costs
Florida's State Game Farm has been operated on a low com-
parative basis. The cost in all cases is too high to warrant
restocking on a large scale with birds raised in captivity.
Such birds can be used economically only as breeding stock on
areas where the supply has been practically destroyed; where
trapped wild birds are not available; where food and cover
conditions are favorable; and, where shooting is to be prohibit-
ed for two years or more.

Since the raising of quail is in an experimental stage, the
market uncertain, it must be regarded as a hazardous enter-
prise when viewed from the commercial standpoint.

Information as to methods and cost of raising quail in cap-
tivity and also information and suggestions as to keeping up the
supply in the open will be mailed to those requesting it.

Bobwhite quail in,th;e .wild.ar .prolific if conditions are favor-
able. Sportspe., ~j i.dlaydd6V~r rs "in'Florida would do well to

S25 '.'.
.. : !'.'" : ': .i::-. .. :
S*.* . .
.





FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


direct their activities for increasing the quail supply to the im-
provement of food and cover, control of predators and the regu-
lation of shooting. The drain upon the supply in the last few
years has been very heavy. The more conservative shooting
on the part of many sportsmen in 1931, the more favorable


"Good Sport Afield"


breeding season of 1932 brings the biennium to a close with a
fair supply over the State. For the better protection of this
choice bird some sportsmen are suggesting reduced bag limit.
The difficulty of securing the enforcement of the present bag
limit raises the question of the efficacy of a further reduction
in the bag. The alternative would be a reduction in the sea-
son. Florida's hunting season and bag limit are both over
liberal as compared with those of the majority of the States.
The good sport afield now found in Florida must be maintained.

21. Cost of Hunting Licenses

Revenue from hunting lic.ensas-'4.hud; be sufficient to afford
protection for game and cpgs do'repldni'hi~gf'tg.e.supply where

.'' -...26..
'..' *": i *** .."' "'** **. '*






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


this becomes necessary. At current prices for breeding stock
no license charged in Florida where even a moderate bag is
killed covers the replacement cost of the breeding stock repre-
sented in the game slaughtered. Florida's long breeding sea-
sons, vast open areas, and good supply of breeding stock have
made possible the liberal bag limits allowed. An increase in
the numbers of men who hunt, in the efficiency of the modern
gun and the accessibility of all game territory brought about by
good roads and automobiles necessitate better protection.
Revenue for this under present provisions of the law have
shown a steady decline during the past three years. While it
may seem paradoxical to propose an increase in revenue
through a reduction in the cost of licenses, to many who have
given the matter thought this has seemed possible. The fol-
lowing has been recommended:

Reduce the State-wide resident hunting license from $8.00 to
$5.00. Eliminate "Additional County Resident Hunting Li-
cense". Increase County Resident Hunting License from $1.25
to $2.00.

Reduce State-wide Non-Resident Hunting License from
$25.00 to $15.00.

It is thought that the lower cost for a resident State license
with the elimination of a county license would lead to the pur-
chase of the State license, while the increase in the county resi-
dent hunting license from $1.25 to $2.00 would still retain the
privilege of hunting within one's home county within the reach
of every man who can afford to own the equipment with which
to hunt, and the increase would provide the needed protection
for game.

The decrease proposed in the non-resident license was pro-
posed in the hope that it would materially increase the number
of licenses sold.

For the numbers of hunting licenses of different classes sold
during the biennium please turn to page 43.






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


22. FISHING

For outdoor recreation no State can surpass Florida. In this
sport program fishing holds an important place. The well
stocked lakes and streams provide the world's greatest black
bass fishing grounds. In many of these waters both species,
large mouth and small mouth, are found. Bordering waters of
the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico teem with the choicest of
game and food fish. All combine to develop a common love of
fishing on the part of residents throughout the State and to at-
tract to the State lovers of the sport from everywhere. The
decrease of good fishing in many States has brought increased
appreciation for what may be found here. Florida's fishing
grounds, long the objective of the skilled angler, are proving a
lure that brings to the State annually increasing thousands
who, (born with a love of fishing), have had but scant oppor-
tunity to try their luck elsewhere with any great degree of hope
for success. Thousands of lovers of outdoors whose hands in-
stinctively reach for pole and line are found domiciled in Flori-
da's comfortable hostelries or camped under spreading oaks, or
on the border line of some hardwood hammock, or near the
coast-often with salt-water fishing right before them and
fresh water fishing within a hundred yards-always within
easy access of incomparable fishing. With the small equip-
ment needed for shelter and bedding in a Florida camp such
sport comes within the cost range of the masses.

A source of wholesome recreation for Floridians, of needed
food for many, and an important source of income because of
the many tourists that it brings to Florida, need never be lost.
To retain it, however, there is needed a strict observance
and enforcement of bag limits on fresh water fish; the closing
of fresh waters for a part of the spawning of bass and bream;
the making of the law prohibiting the use of nets in streams
and lakes in Florida, statewide in its application. There are
no waters in the State so well stocked with bass and bream that
they do not need this minimum protection. Some have been so
depleted that there is but little ground for hope that their once
abundant supply of fish will be rebuilt without such protection.
All would profit by it. Especially is this protection needed on






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


bass. This premier sport fish of Florida's fresh waters needs
the further protection that would be afforded by taking him
from the list of Florida fish that may be sold in Florida markets
or shipped into other states, for sale.

23. Prohibit Sale of Bass

Opinion has been divided in the past as to whether or not
the sale of Florida Bass should be prohibited. It is the com-
mercial net that has depleted Florida's supply of this the
choicest of sport fish. To take them out of the commercial


"Take Florida Bass from the
Commercial Barrel"


barrel would affect but
little, Florida's fishing in-
dustry. To retain them in
Florida waters strictly as
a sport fish would not only
retain for the people of
this state the greatest
sport-fishing in the world,
but would preserve for
Florida one of the great-
est attractions that it has
to offer to those visitors
that it hopes to attract
from other states from
year to year. The value
of bass as an attraction
to the tourist so far ex-
ceeds the value of bass
sold in the market that it
would seem sufficient rea-
son to conserve bass for
sport fishing only. This
can only be done by pro-
hibiting the sale of bass
within the State or the
shipment of bass out of
the State for sale. This


can only be done through legislative action. It is up to the
people of the State to say whether they will market their bass
in barrels or will sell them to the anglers of America.


B~S~ ,U a*r
r



P
?a,--l
'~t~. .p ~S
u:
i~Z~~ ~ i






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


24. Closed Seasons

Under the law county commissioners may declare a closed
season on fishing-not to exceed 60 days-in their respective
counties. During 1932 the
following counties declared
closed seasons: Leon, Lib-
erty, Gulf, Bay, Calhoun.
For 1933 the following will
observe a closed season:
Gulf, Calhoun, Washington,
the Choctawhatchee River
and its tributaries (these
lie chiefly in Walton, Hol-
mes, Washington Coun-
ies), Sumter and Orange.
It is interesting to note that
these counties that have
provided f or themselves
closed seasons during the
spawning of their choicest
game fish, have within : .. .
their limits some of the best ,
fishing to be found in the -
State. Their action shows
local interest in retaining
what they have. "Marketed to an Angler"

25. Restocking

For restocking purposes the State maintains two fresh water
fish hatcheries, one at Welaka, the other at Winter Haven.
The latter, devoted exclusively to hatching bass, is under the
supervision of the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish.
The young bass from this hatchery have been held each year
until of fingerling size (from 3 to 5 inches). It is estimated
that 50% of bass released at this size will reach maturity.
This greatly exceeds the number to be expected from those






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


released when but fry (from 1 to 2 inches). During 1931,
585,000 fingerling bass from the Winter Haven Hatchery were
released in Florida lakes and streams. During 1932, there
were 541,000.

This number could be doubled if counties to which young
bass are to be delivered would provide themselves with rearing
ponds (small bodies of water from which predators and large
fish have been removed by draining), to which fry might be
delivered to be held in the rearing pond until six inches in
length and then distributed to the fresh waters of the county.
This has been successfully done in Pinellas County. Were
other counties prepared to handle young bass in this way, they
could be given the early hatch of half million fry; while a later
hatch of approximately the same number could be held at
Winter Haven until of fingerling size, then distributed.

26. Salvaging Fish

During the drought of 1931 and its period of extension into
1932, the Department, with local cooperation, salvaged large
numbers of brood bass from waters in Sarasota, Pasco, and
Orange Counties, transferring them to other waters, thus sav-
ing thousands of mature fish and insuring future supply. The
high waters that came later in 1932 afforded protection during
a part of the spawning season increasing the supply through-
out the State.

27. Revenue from Fishing Licenses

Sport fishing in Florida does not bear its proportionate part
of the cost of protection and propagation which the State gives.
Deputy service for the protection of Florida waters; maintain-
ing and operating the Winter Haven Fish Hatchery and the
salvaging of fish are the chief items to be cared for in the pro-
gram.

In the tourist section of the State, public sentiment does not
support the charge made for a non-resident fishing license. In
this section the courts have reflected this, making enforcement
of the law difficult. In the fiscal year closing June 30, 1931,






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


revenue from non-resident fishing licenses totaled $35,961.00,
fewer than 10,000 out-of-state fishermen having purchased
licenses. During the fiscal year closing June 30, 1932, reve-
nue totaled but $20,428.00. To secure increased revenue
through increase in the sale of licenses and better coopera-
tion in the enforcement of the law, it is recommended that the
cost of non-resident license be changed from $10.50 to $5.00
for those who fish in the fresh waters of the State, or, if made
applicable to those who fish in fresh or salt waters, or both,
from $10.50 to $3.00, and that no charge be made for women
or children under fifteen years of age. This would be in line
with what is charged in many States, and would enable visitors
to Florida to enjoy, without subterfuge or disregard of law,
one of the attractions that the State delights to offer. The
enforcement of this law, should have the whole-hearted sup-
port of courts and private citizens. Revenue, it is believed,
would be increased.

During the first year in the biennium revenue from the sale
of resident fishing licenses totaled $22,566.00; during the sec-
ond year, $21,056.00.

It is recommended that the cost of State-wide Resident Fish-
ing License be reduced from $3.25 to $1.00 for those who use
artificial bait and from $3.25 to 50c for those who use line and
hook, the same to be applicable to fishing in salt or fresh
waters, or both. Women and children under fifteen years of
age to be exempt.

The reduced licenses of wider application would seem fairer
to all and at the small cost suggested, with no charge to women
and children under fifteen, would work a hardship on none.
Consideration of this is recommended.

28. TRAPPING

Trapping is done largely by men and not by boys in Florida
and is done under conditions that differ from those in many
states. The law requires that all traps be visited by the trap-
per once every 24 hours. This law seems to be generally ob-
served. Climatic conditions are conducive to its observance.






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


An animal cannot remain in a trap for an indefinite period, as
it may in frozen regions, without the danger of loss or injury of
pelt through spoilage. Florida's trapping industry is on the
decline. Fur-bearing animals have declined in numbers; and
the steady drop in the fur market of the past few years is direct-
ly reflected in Florida's trapping industry. In the season of
1929-30 there were 4588 licensed trappers operating; during
the following season this dropped to 2,921; and in the season
of 1931-32, to 2,348. The raccoon is Florida's chief fur-bearer,
furnishing the bulk of the pelts taken. The otter, never very
numerous, yields the most valuable pelt. O'possum, fox, bob-
cats and skunks, taken in scattering numbers and worth but
little at any time, contribute but a small proportion of Florida
pelts. Rabbit and squirrrel have no commercial value as fur-
bearers.

The drop in market prices afforded to the raccoon a needed
surcease from trapping, the numbers of this animal having
grown noticeably less under the stimulus of the high fur market
of a few years ago. Fur buyers of the State, many of them,
believe that a closed season on the trapping of coons would be
beneficial. It is recommended that the season be shortened by
limiting the open season for trapping to the Months of Decem-
ber and January. This would give better protection and would
permit the taking of pelts when they were in their prime.

Another provision that should come through legislation is
the enactment of a law that will protect beavers in Florida.
Thirty of these animals obtained in exchange for Florida Bob-
white Quail have been planted in the Florida wilds. The first
pair planted three years ago in Jefferson County have in-
creased to a colony of seven. Others planted elsewhere show
themselves adapted to the State.

The last native beaver known to have been killed in Florida
was killed in 1926 in Calhoun County. It is believed that the
planting made by the Department, if properly protected, will
re-establish the line. A law forbidding all trapping, killing or
taking of beaver should be passed.






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


29. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

Back of every program for the conservation of the native
wild life of a section lies knowledge of the life habits of the
birds, fish and animals that comprise it, a conviction of the
value of the resource and the need of its protection if this
wild life is to be conserved. Were this knowledge more gen-
eral on the part of those who hunt, fish and trap, and more
general on the part of the public as a whole, there would be
but little trouble in securing the observance and enforcement
of conservation laws.

To lay this educational foundation for the work states every-
where have included an educational program in their conser-
vation plan. Florida's educational work has been handled, in
the main, by the clerk of the Department whose time is divided
between field and office work.

The high spots in the program for the biennium which closed
December 31, 1932, included the following:

In the first four months of 1931 extensive educational ex-
hibits were arranged and placed at the fairs held at Winter
Haven, Tampa, DeLand, and Orlando; the last two issues of the
Department Quarterly, "Florida Woods and Waters", were
edited and taken from the press; and, the biennial report for
the Department was written and published.

30. Fair Exhibits 1931

Exhibits placed at fairs have had an important place in
Florida's educational program. They have been built in a
setting suggestive of the habitat from which the specimens
shown have been taken. They afford the only chance for
many to get even this small glimpse of Florida's native wild
life. Through the exhibits shown many facts pertaining to
the value of this resource and its need of conservation have
reached the thousands of visitors annually. These exhibits
have been an important factor in building sentiment favorable
to the conservation of Florida wild life.






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


31. Florida Woods and Waters

After issuing the two numbers of "Florida Woods and
Waters" in 1931, it was decided to discontinue the publication
of the quarterly. It had proven an excellent medium through
which to carry to Florida and other states facts regarding out-
door Florida, its native wild life, the appeal of life in the open
as found in this State and the need of conserving wild life
resources; but, Department funds were decreasing, general
economic conditions were unsettled. The decision to discon-
tinue the publication seems a wise one.
The total cost for preparing, printing and circulating the five
issues printed, (52,500 copies) was $8,075.00. Revenue pro-
duced by the publication totaled $5,187.00. The remainder
was paid from Department funds. (Approximately $600 of
the amount shown in costs are rightly chargeable to other edu-
cational work, fairs and the preparation of the Bulletin "Flori-
da Birds". The entire cost of travel in the interest of the three
projects by an error in bookkeeping were entered against the
publication only.) The Department library contains an excel-
lent file of outdoor Florida cuts, a contribution from the pub-
lication, the first issue of which appeared in 1929.

When "Florida Woods and Waters" was discontinued sub-
scribers were given an opportunity to have their unexpired
subscriptions cared for either by a refund of the money for the
unexpired term or by transferring their names to the mailing
list of "Sunrise", a monthly outdoor Florida magazine. With
but few exceptions subscribers were transferred to "Sunrise".
This fact, and the further fact that "Sunrise" for a time main-
tained a department entitled "Florida Woods and Waters"
have led some to conclude that the Department of Game and
Fresh Water Fish directly or indirectly contributed to the
monetary support of the publication, and that it was the "quasi-
official" organ of the Department. Neither conclusion is
correct.

32. Bulletin "Florida Birds"

During the summer and early fall of the year much time was
given to the preparation and publishing of "Florida Birds", a






FOURTH' BIENNIAL REPORT


splendid bulletin on the bird life of the State published co-
operatively with the State Department of Agriculture. A
staff of recognized writers on bird life cooperated with the
Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish in the preparation
of copy for the bulletin, and its editing.

The larger portion of the issue was assigned to the public
schools of the State, being given to the several counties through
their respective office of county superintendent of public in-
struction. For closer contacts with schools the Department
was represented at a number of the sectional meetings of the
Florida Educational Association held during the fall months
of 1931. Increased interest in the bird life of the State and its
study throughout Florida has come as a result of these contacts
and the circulation of the bulletin, "Florida Birds". A limited
number of the few remaining copies are being placed at the
present time in local libraries of women's clubs where such an
organization has, or will organize a local conservation depart-
ment and will feature at least one bird program during 1933.
The response to this offer has been gratifying.

33. Exhibits 1932

In the early months of 1932 the fair program of 1931 was
repeated, with an additional small exhibit made at Sanford in
connection with an agricultural fair held there. Birds that
were defenders of truck crops were featured in this exhibit.
This feature exhibit was made possible through a loan made by
Dr. F. G. Genung and Mr. R. C. Hallman, both of St. Augustine,
of mounted specimens of birds that are of special value to farm-
ers because of their destruction of insect pests. These birds
are still in the possession of the Department and have been
frequently used in illustrating lectures given in schools and
before clubs.

34. Work in Schools

In March of 1932, on request of the Florida Education Asso-
ciation, an educational exhibit from Florida Wild life was
placed in Jacksonville at the time of the state meeting of this
organization. This was followed by illustrated lecture work
in a number of the high schools of the State, and at a state






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


camp held for young people at Keystone Heights, and a region-
al camp for Boy Scouts held near Jacksonville.

In the summer of 1932 a request for material based on Flori-
da's interesting wild life, and adapted to use in the primary
grades of Florida's public schools, came to the Department
from the committee on science of the Florida Education Asso-
ciation, that was working over proposed changes in the school
curriculum. A month of intensive work was spent on this very
interesting project. Much that was offered has been incor-
porated in the committee report, which is being printed in sev-
eral volumes, and in such form as to serve as hand books for
teachers. The entire committee project, extending into the
several fields of science, and through all grades taught in the
public schools, will lay a foundation for a very broad program
that would include the conservation of every natural resource
of the State.

35. "Florida Bird Life"

The richest contribution to Florida's educational program
during 1932, a contribution to educational material on bird life
throughout America, came from an outside source. Reference
has been made in the beginning of this report to the book,
"Florida Bird Life" by A. H. Howell, Senior Biologist of the
U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey. The publishing of this au-
thoritative work, long anticipated by scientists and students of
bird life in America, is a highly significant feat. As stated, its
publication was made possible through the cooperation of a
friend of Florida bird life, who underwrote the cost of publish-
ing-approximately $30,000-arranging for the book to sell at
nominal cost, $6.00, with a special price to public or school
libraries of $4.50 a volume. This volume of 580 pages, beauti-
fully illustrated with colored cuts of Florida birds, should be
available through libraries to all Florida. Within itself it is a
library on the subject which it discusses. Orders for it have
come from every State and from many foreign countries. This
book is handled from the Department offices and by the New
York publishers.






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


36. Cooperative Work

In the late summer of 1932 the chairmanship of the Divi-
sion of Birds, Flowers and Wild Life, in the Conservation De-
partment of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, was
accepted by the Department clerk. This has broadened the
field for service. The State Department has noted with inter-
est a resolution passed by the Florida Federation of Women's
Clubs that asks the General Federation to seek to secure fed-
eral action that would stop the shooting of migratory waterfowl
over areas baited with grain. Plans for the observance of Out-
door Florida Week, initiated by the Federation late in 1932,
give promise of a program that should be of educational value
to Florida and productive of a fine line of publicity.

No report of the educational program would be complete
without acknowledging the service of the state press and radio.
Generous always with space, the papers not only have kept the
wealth of wild life and department activities for its conserva-
tion before the public, but, many times, have given editorial
support to the conservation program. Radio stations have
generously carried the conservation message to their listeners.
On several occasions they have given the State Game Commis-
sioner an opportunity to go direct to this large audience. In
November Governor Doyle E. Carlton delivered to Florida and,
through a hook up of all stations in the State, to the people of
other States, a stirring message on values of wild life resources.

Educational work in the high schools of Pinellas County late
in December completed the Department's educational program
for the biennium.

37. GENERAL INCREASE IN WILD LIFE

The conservation and upbuilding of the native wild life of
Florida is in the hands of the people of this State. Results ob-
tained during the biennium just closed are reassuring for there
has not only been a noticeable increase in song and insectivor-
ous birds observed about our towns and cities, and plumage
birds-picturesque, beautiful-in and about their haunts, but






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


an increase of those game species that are put under the fire of
the sportsman's gun during a limited season each year.


The increase in the sup-
ply of deer in breeding
grounds has just about en-
abled this fine game animal
to maintain its status of the
past few years. The great-
est menace to the supply of
deer is the man who kills a
doe. Often does killed dur-
ing the hunting season are
found with young. To se-
cure the better enforce-
ment of the law prohibiting
the killing of doe deer
legislation is needed that
would require that evi-
dence of the sex be left on
a deer carcass. Such legis-
lation is urged. Were dogs
taken out of the woods and
still hunting which requires
a greater degree of skill,
practiced, Florida's supply
of deer would greatly in-
crease.


-74







"Greatest Menace to Florida's Supply
is the Man Who Kills a Doe"


The supply of turkeys in the State has increased in some
localities but this choice bird needs better protection. A law
protecting turkey hens and permitting the killing of gobblers
only would result, as it has resulted in those states that follow
the practice, in a large increase in the supply of turkeys.
Florida's deep woods afford ideal habitat for the bird. If
brought to approximate the possible maximum supply it would
add greatly to the value of Florida wild life.

Bobwhite Quail were found throughout the State in greater
numbers at the opening of the 1932-33 season than for many
years. Favorable breeding seasons, more conservative shoot-






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


ing in the face of the game shortage of 1931-32, better law
enforcement and observance lie back of this gratifying in-
crease.

Florida has sufficient breeding stock of game and fish and a
habitat for native wild life adapted to its every need. It is pos-
sible to rebuild this valuable resource in the next decade in
such measure as would repay many times over the effort, the
self-denial and the money that it would cost. So valuable is
this asset to the State that it is worthy of every effort that its
conservation and rebuilding will cost. Recommendations for
the strengthening of Florida's game law, and the furthering of
conservation of wild life in Florida have come to the Depart-
ment from various organizations over the State. Many others
have been made by leading sportsmen and conservationists.
These, with the views of the Department, have been incor-
porated in the following legislative recommendations:

38. LEGISLATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The creation of a department for the conservation of all
wild life resources.
2. Authority be given to employ a sufficient number of
wardens, the number not to exceed seventy, and not more than
the funds of the Department will permit.
3. Provide that all monies collected for licenses for fish-
ing, hunting, trapping and so forth shall be used expressly and
solely for conservation of wild life resources.
4. Revise laws for closing State Breeding Grounds and
Refuges so that boundaries, such as streams, railroads, estab-
lished public roads, shall serve the same purpose as a fence in
establishing boundary lines.
5. Prohibit the carrying of guns in the woods during closed
season, and in State Breeding Grounds and Refuges at all times
except under permit, with provision that persons may carry
guns on their own property for protection of live stock, etc.
6. Reduce to 60 days the open season for killing game-
November 20th to January 20th.






DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


7. Reduce season for taking fur-bearing animals to
Months of December and January.
8. Reduce cost of State-wide resident fishing licenses,
made applicable alike to those who fish in fresh or salt waters,
or both, from $3.25 to $1.00 for those who use artificial bait,
and from $3.25 to 50c for those who use pole and line.
9. Reduce cost of State-wide non-resident fishing license
for fishing in fresh waters of the State from $10.50 to $5.00, or,
if made applicable alike to those who fish in fresh or salt
waters, or both, reduce fee from $10.50 to $3.00. (At present
a license is not required to fish in salt waters.)
10. Do not require women, or children under 15 years of
age, to buy license to fish.
11. Prohibit the sale, or the transportation out of the State
for sale, of black bass.
12. Reduce the State-wide resident hunting license from
$8.00 to $5.00. Eliminate "Additional County Resident Hunt-
ing License". Increase County Resident Hunting License from
$1.25 to $2.00.
13. Reduce the State-wide Non-resident Hunting License
from $25.00 to $15.00.
14. Prohibit the killing of hen turkeys.

15. Require that evidence of sex be left on deer carcass.
16. Require a minimum fine of $100.00, or a sentence of 60
days in jail, for fire-hunting, or the dynamiting of fish.
17. Make all persons convicted of violating the game law
or fish law ineligible for hunting and fishing licenses for a
period of one year.

39. FINANCES

The financial status of the Department throughout the bi-
ennium has been excellent. By keeping operating expenses
at all times below incoming revenue, the Department has been
able at all times to render the maximum service provided for






FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


under the law. Though it has been necessary to readjust sal-
aries and travel expenses twice during this period to make this
possible, through the loyalty of all employees this has been
done without affecting the quality or amount of service render-
ed. At the close of the biennium-with a credit balance of
$66,733.67, to be supplemented by those sums that will be de-
rived during the coming year from sales of fishing licenses and
other operations, the Department stands on the threshold of
1933 with sufficient funds to continue to maintain through the
ensuing year a maximum force in the field.

40. Division of the Dollar

An analysis of the expenditure of its dollar by the Depart-
ment of Game and Fresh Water Fish during the biennium
follows:


Administration ....................... .06
Clerical service, printing
licenses, postage, etc. .................. .08
Protection, game wardens,
(salary and travel) ................... .74
Replacement of field
equipment and maintenance ............ .01
Propagation of game and fish .......... .09
Education-exhibits, publications,
work at fairs, schools, clubs ............ .02

$1.00


This Department operates on funds derived from the sales of
licenses, and a small amount allowed by the courts as "arrest-
ing fees" where a deputy takes part in the arrest of the law
violator. A statement showing the sources from which reve-
nue was derived during the biennium follows:







DEPARTMENT OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


REVENUE FROM SALE OF LICENSES

Classified List of Licenses Sold by County Judges
Biennium Ending June 30, 1932


Hunting Fiscal year ending
Series A, Resident County _-__- @ $1.00
Series B, Resident other than home
county ------- --------- @ 3.00
Series C, Resident State -___._- @ 7.50
Series D, Non-resident State --.- @ 25.00


Series E,
than
Series R,
Series F,
Series G,


Fishing
Resident County other
home ______
Resident State ---
Non-resident County_-
Non-resident State ___


Trapping
Series N, Resident County ------ @
Series Q, Resident County other
than home ______-____ @
Series P, Resident State ------- @
Series O, Non-resident County -_ @



Receipts, no licenses issued --

Total Sales by County Judges _


$1.00
3.00
3.00
10.00


$3.00

10.00
25.00
25.00


June 30, 1931
$37,014.00

5,280.00
66,720.00
14,150.00

$123,164.00



$ 4,527.00
18,039.00
26,911.00
9,050.00

$58,527.00


$ 8,433.00

940.00
400.00

9,773.00


June 30, 1932
$34,111.00

7,152.00
54,375.00
8,800.00

$104,438.00



$ 3,560.00
17,496.00
14,298.00
6,130.00

$41,484.00


$ 6,861.00

490.00
200.00
100.00

7,651.00

47.00


$191,464.00 $153,620.00


The law provides that for each license sold by county Judges,
or by persons authorized by such county judges to sell, an issu-
ance fee of 25c for each license costing $3.00 or less shall be
paid; and for each license costing more than $3.00 an issuance
fee of 50c shall be paid. Under this provision buyers of hunt-
ing, fishing and trapping licenses paid during the fiscal year
closing June 30, 1931 the sum of $20,513.50; for the fiscal year
closing June 30, 1932, the sum of $17,373.00. These funds
are not handled by the Department of Game and Fresh Water
Fish.







FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Revenue from Commercial' Licenses issued by
Game Commissioner's Office
Retail Fish Dealers _------------------------$4,475.00 $2.360.00
(25 issued to Disabled War Veterans, no cost)
Wholesale Fish Dealers _--_----------------_ 1,500.00 950.00
(7 issued to Disabled War Veterans, no cost)
Commercial Fishing Boats ---------------- 624.60 290.00
(3 issued to Disabled War Veterans, no cost)
Boats for Hire ----------------------------1,768.00 1,786.50
(13 issued to Disabled War Veterans, no cost)
Fur Dealers ------_--------_--------------1,820.00 1,680.00
Guides _________________ 140.00 80.00
Game Farm .___---------------.-------- 65.00 125.00
(1 issued to Disabled War Veteran, no cost)
Alien Hunting License _---- -------- 50.00 50.00
Osceola, County seining permits _-----------__- 90.00
$10,442.60 $7,311.50

A summary of Receipts and Disbursements for the biennium
and a summary for the same for the period extending from
July 1st, 1932 through December 31st, 1932, follows:






FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR


RECEIPTS
Hunting, Fishing, Trapping licenses
Retail Fish Dealers License ---
Wholesale Fish Dealers
Commercial Fish Boat "
Boat for hire _--__ "
Guide "
Game Farm -
Fur Dealers -- "
Court Costs --------
Interest on Bank Deposits -__--
Confiscated Furs sold -----
Alien Hunting license -------
Miscellaneous ----------
Rec'd on licenses for next fiscal year

Total Receipts -__


-- $163,733.40
4,475.00
1,500.00
624.60
1,768.00
140.00
65.00
1,820.00
3,064.52
718.97
171.25
50.00
32.57
- 836.00

-- $178,999.31


YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1931

DISBURSEMENTS
Administrative salaries ------------------
i" expense
Office salaries -------------------
expense, (printing, supplies, etc.) --_
equipment ----------------------
Field Salaries -------------------------
Expense
Equipment
SMaintenance -----------------
Restocking & Transferring ----------
Fish Hatchery Construction_----------
operation
Education, (Material, Bulletin, Fairs,) ---
Attorney's fees & expense -------
Court costs--------------


$ 7,400.04
1,513.35
5,786.00
8,108.14
425.00
71,479.68
61,371.49
653.57
1,390.18
6,258.36
6,398.66
13,914.23
4,032.71
289.00
47.08


Total ------------------$189,067.49
Repaid Genl. Inspection Fund on loan
to pay employees of former administration__ 13,000.00

Total Disbursements ------------$-202,067.49


Receipts -_--_------_----__ $178,999.31
Balance cash on hand, July first 1930
(beginning of fiscal year) _-__-_ 71,729.33


Total Net Receipts ---.
Less Disbursements for Fiscal Year -

Balance on Hand, July 1st, 1931 __.


--$250,728.64
---- 202,067.49

48,661.15


*Note-Failure of county judges to remit all funds collected prior to close of fiscal
year accounts for difference in this amount and that shown on page 45.






FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1932


RECEIPTS
Hunting, Fishing and Trapping License -__
Retail Fish Dealers "-------
Wholesale Fish Dealers ____--
Commercial Boat
Boats for Hire
Fur Dealers ---
Game Farm -------
Guide ----- --
Alien Hunters -__--_------
Osceola County Fishing Permits ____
Interest on Bank Deposits --------
Court Costs -- --- ------
Check on closed banks paid in since last audi
Sale of Confiscated Furs ---------------
Part Pymt. Retail fish license & boat license<
Refund on Telephone message --__- _
Insurance Policy ______
Wholesale Fish Dealers License (previous
year collected in 1932) ____- ___- _
Refunds made in stamps ---------

Total


DISBURSEMENTS
$144,475.80 Administration, salaries ----------


2,020,00
750,00
269.00
1,441.50
1,670.00
105.00
80.00
50.00
90.00
306.67
2,094.86
t 651.04
44.00
e 3.50
.40
4.76

50.00
.60

$154,107.13


S expense
Office, salaries __----_ __-_
expense, printing, supplies, etc.
equipment --------
Field salaries _------- ---
expense
equipment -__-- __
maintenance of equipment _
Restocking Game ___-------
Fish (other than hatchery)
Education (material, exhibits, fair work)
Legal service ___-- __-----_
Fish Hatchery Construction _
Operation --- ---


_$ 2,441.67
1,536.53
6,874.02
5,001.08
72.50
71,741.87
45,415.18
594.67
1,173.31
2,232.40
194.00
2,243.88
145.00
204.33 >
8,872.75

$148,743.52 0
1


Receipts _--
Balance on Hand beginning fiscal year

Net Receipts _________
Less Disbursements _-___________


Loan to General Fund of State _--

Net Cash Balance, end of Fiscal Year


_-$154,107.13
-__ $ 48,661.15

_$202,768.28
S148,743.52

54,024.76
S17,500.00

_$ 36,524.76


*Note-Failure of county judges to remit all funds collected prior to close of fiscal
year accounts for difference in this amount and that shown on page 45.








FINANCIAL STATEMENT, JULY 1ST THROUGH DECEMBER 31ST, 1932


RECEIPTS DISBURSEMENTS


Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Licenses
Retail Fish Dealers' "
Wholesale Fish Dealers' "
Commercial Fish Boat "
Boat for Hire "
Fur Dealers' "
Game Farm "
Guide ---
Court Costs
Osceola County Fishing Permits ----
SInterest
Miscellaneous _---------__


_$ 83,333.80
695.00
200.00
50.00
784.00
695.00
25.00
10.00
982.48
5.00
65.94
320.79

$ 87,167.01


Administration Salary ______----_--_--_ -$ 1,200.00
S Expense _----_-- 663.98
Office Salaries -------------------------- 2,959.02
S Expense----------- 1,795.07
Field Salaries --------------- 36,897.98
S Expense ----- --------------- 24,966.43
Restocking and Transferring -------- 557.24
Fish Hatchery Operation ------------- 4,991.68
Fish Hatchery Construction -------------- 14.56
Educational Work ----- ---------------- 227.38
Miscellaneous -------------------------- 184.76

$74,458.10


Balance on hand July 1st, 1932
Receipts since July 1st, 1932 -


$ 54,024.76*
87,167.01


$141,191.77
Disbursements since July 1st, 1932 ___--- 74,458.10


Balance on Hand


$ 66,733.67*


*Includes amount of $13,500.00 due from other State Funds.




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