Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Part I
 Part II
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096277/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 176 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Chapman, Edwin O
Griset, Ernest Henry, 1844-1907 ( Illustrator )
Watson, John Dawson, 1832-1892 ( Illustrator )
Leitch, R. P ( Richard Pettigrew ) ( Illustrator )
Linton, W. J ( William James ), 1812-1897 ( Engraver, Illustrator )
Cooper, J ( Engraver )
Marriott, R. S ( Engraver )
Pearson ( Engraver )
Thomas, William Luson, 1830-1900 ( Engraver )
Trichon, François Auguste, b. 1814 ( Engraver )
Wentworth, Frederick ( Engraver )
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
Butterworth and Heath ( Engraver )
Donohue, Henneberry & Co ( Publisher )
Donohue & Henneberry ( Printer )
Publisher: Donohue, Henneberry & Co.
Place of Publication: Chicago
Chicago (
Manufacturer: Donohue & Henneberry
Publication Date: c1896
Edition: New ed. -- edited for young readers by E.O. Chapman.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1896   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note: Cover and spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: On t.p.: With upwards of two hundred illustrations by Dalziel, Griset, J.D. Watson and others. Other illustrators include: R.P. Leithch, W.J. Linton (?) and T. Macquoid. Engravers include: Butterworth & Heath, J. Cooper, W.J. Linton, R.S. Marriott, Pearson, W.L. Thomas, Trichon, and Wentworth..
General Note: Part I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096277
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12590559

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Part I
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
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        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 46
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        Page 49
        Page 50
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        Page 57
        Page 58
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        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Part II
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
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        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Back Matter
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Back Cover
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
Full Text






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TIHE story of RoBIN-
son CR rSOE was writ-.
> ~ tenby Daniel De Foe,
and first published in
1719, nearly one hundred and seventy years
ago. The author called it "The Life and
Strange Surprisi-lg Adventures of Robinson
Crusoe, of York, Mariner: who lived eight-
and-twenty years all alone in an uninhabited
island on the coast of America, near the
mouth of the great river Oroonoque; hav-
ing been cast on shore by shipwreck, where-
in all the men perished but himself. With
an account how he was at last strangely
delivered by Pirates. Written by himself."
They gave their books very long titles
in those days. But the people soon found
that this was a very interesting book, de-
spite its long title. No publisher wanted
to print it at first, but as soon as it was
published, a large number of copies were
sold, and publishers have been printing it
and selling it ever since.
It was at first thought by some to be an

entirely true story, but it is not. It is, no
doubt, however, founded in part on the real
adventures of Alexander Selkirk, the son
of a shoemaker in Scotland. The following
brief account of him is given by Wilson,
the biographer of De Foe:
His real name was Selcraig, which he
changed to that of Selkirk, when he went
to sea. He was born at Largo, in the
county of Fife, in 1676, and, after a com.
mon school education, was put to his
father s .i!siness, which was that of a shoe.
maker. Being a spoiled child, he soon dis-
covered a waywardness of temper that gave
much uneasiness to his parents; whilst an
early propensity to the sea rendered his
employment irksome. At length an inci.
dent occurred that put him upon indulging
his humor; for, being brought under church.
censure for irregular conduct when he was
eighteen years of age, rather than submit,
he suddenly left home, and was never heard
of for six years. It is supposed that he was
with the buccaneers in the South Seas. In
1701 we find him again at Largo, but the
same intractable person as ever, being en-
gaged in constant broils with his family.
As the sea was his favorite element, he did
not continue long in Scotland, but, going
to London. engaged with Captain Dampier


upon a cruising expedition to the South
Seas. Thim was the voyage that rendered
his subsequent history so interesting to the
lovers of romance.
"Being appointed sailing-master of the
Cinque Ports galley, a companion to the
St. George, commanded by Dampier, he left
England in the spring of 1703, and, after
various adventures, both vessels reached
the island of Juan Fernandez in the follow-
ing February. After staying some time to
re-fit, they sailed again in quest of booty ;
but a violent quarrel arising between Sel-
kirk and his commander, Stradling, which
settled into a rooted animosity, the former
resolved to take the first opportunity of
leaving the vessel. This occurred at the
beginning of September, 1704, when her
crazy state obliged Stradling to return to
Juan Fernandez for fresh :'epairs; which

being completed, Selkirk bade a final adieu
to his comrades at the end of the same
month. Upon this island he lived by him.
self four years and four months, until he
was released by Captain Woodes Rogers,
in the month of February, 1709."
It has been said that this wild fellow
wrote a story of his adventures and gave it
to De Foe, and that De Foe made the story
of RoBINsoN CRBSOE from it, but this is not
believed to be true.
Whether the story is founded upon that
of Selkirk or not, it is one that every body
finds full of interest. The picture of Crusoe,
with his coat and umbrella of goat skins,
watching day after day for a ship, until the
days pass into months and the months into
years, is one which readers will never tire
of, and is especially attractive to boys and



WAS BORN in the city
of York, in the year 1632.
My father's right name
was Kreutznaer, and he
had come to England from
Bremen. My mother's re.
ans nations were named Robin-
son, so I was named Robinson Kreutznaer.
The English people called i' Crusoe, and
after a while we came to write it so.
My father was not rich, but he had
become well to do by trading, and he
wished me to stay at home and be happy ;
and all the more because both he and my
mother were getting old, and further, be-
cause one of my elder brothers had been

killed in the war with the Spaniards, and
the other had gone away from home and
had not been heard from; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea;
and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will of my father, and
against all the entreaties of my mother
that there seemed to be something fatal in
my perversity, tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befall me.
One morning, my father called me into
his chamber, where he was sick with the
gout, and talked to me very seriously
about it. He told me that if I staid at
home, I had a prospect of raising my
fortunes and living a life of happiness


He said that it was only the very wealthy
on the one hand, or the very desperate on
the other, who went abroad in search of
adventure. Mine was the middle state,
which he.had found by experience was the
best state in the world. This was the
state of life that was envied both by kings
and beggars. This condition of life was
what the wise man meant when he prayed
that he might have neither poverty nor

Much more he told me to dissuade me
from going to sea, and he ended by saying
that though he should not cease to pray
for me, if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me.
1 was deeply affected by what my father
said, and I resolved not to think any more
of going abroad. But in a few days my
good resolutions were all given up and I
began to think of running away from
home in spite of the entreaties of my
father and the tears of my mother. How-

ever, as no opportunity presented itself, I
still remained at home, though I refused
to engage in any business or to learn any
One day, being at Hull, I met one of my
companions who was going by sea to Lon-
don, and he invited me so strongly to go
with him that I consulted neither father
nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear
of it as they might, without asking God's
blessing, or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st
of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfor
tunes, I believe, began sooner or continued
longer than mine. The sh;p was no sooner
got out of the Humber than the wind
began to blow, and the sea to ris.3 in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had Lever
been at sea before, I was most inexpressib.ly
sick in body, and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I
had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house, and abandoning
my duty. All the good counsels of my
parents came now fresh into my mind; and
my conscience, which was not yet come to
the pitch of hardness to which it has come
since, reproached me with the contempt of
advice, and the breach of my duty to God
and my father.
I thought that every wave would swallow
us up, and that every time the ship fe1l
into the hollow or trough of the sea, it
would never rise again. In this agony of
mind I made many vows and resolutions,


that if it would please God to spare my made a sight that I thought the most de.
life in this one voyage, if ever I got once lightful I ever saw.
my foot upon dry land again, I would go I had slept well in the night and was
directly home to my father, and never set now no more sea-sick, but very cheerfuL

it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run my-
self into such miseries as these any more.
I had these wise and good thoughts as
long as the storm lasted, and, indeed, for
some time after. But the next day, the
wind abated and the sea grew calmer, and
a fine evening followed. My sea-sickness
and my fears disappeared, and with them
all my thoughts of home and duty. The
sun rose clear the next morning, and his
beams shining upon the sea, which was
quite smooth, there being little or no wind,

looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little
a time after. And now, lest my good re-
solutions should continue, my companion
who had enticed me away comes to me.
Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon
the shoulder, how do you do afterr it? I
warrant you were frightened, wer'n't you,
last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind ?"
"A capful d'you call it ?" said I; "'twas
a terrible storm."


I found, indeed, some intervals of reflect.
S" tion; and the serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavor to return again sometimes;
S- but I shook them off, and roused myself
a d -i from them, and applying myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return
w-d aof those fits. But I was to have another
saior Botrial for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me
Entirely without excuse; for if I would
not take this for a deliverance, the next
was to be such a one as the worst and most
Sharpened wretch among us would confess
t both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we
w came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind
S. having been contrary, and the weather
cahn, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we Jay, the wind con-
"A storm, you foot 1" replies he; "do you tinuing contrary, for seven or eight days,
call that a storm? why, it was nothing at during which time a great many ships from
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, Newcastle came into the same Roads.
and we think nothing of such a squall of We had not, however, rid here so long
wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water but we should have tided it up the river,
sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of but that the wind blew too fresh, and,
punch, and we'll forget all that." after we had lain four or five days, blew
To make short this sad part of my story, very hard. However, the Roads being
we went the way of all sailors; the punch reckoned as good as an harbor, the anchor.
was mnade, and I was made half-drunk with age good, and our ground-tackle very
it; and in that one night's wickedness I strong, our men were unconcerned, and not
drowned all my repentance, all my reflect. in the least apprehensive of danger, but
tions upon my past conduct, all my resolu.- spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
tions for the future. In a word, as the sea manner of the sea. But the eighth day, in
was returned to its smoothness, so the the morning, the wind increase, an we
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears had all hands at work to strike our top.
of being swallowed up by the sea being masts, and make everything snug and close,
forgotten, and the current of my former that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and promises that I made in my distress, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped


several seas, and we thought once or twice
our anchor had come home; upon which
our master o rdred out the sheet-anchor.
The storm grew fiercer and fiercer until
I began to see terror in the faces of the
seamen themselves. At first, I was quite
stupid with sickness and fear, and I lay in
the cabin; but now I clambered on deck,
and looked about. Two of the ships near us
had cut their masts, and I heard the sailors

say that two more had been blown out to
sea. Finally a great ship foundered before
our eyes, and the master ordered our masts
to be cut away. Then came a cry that we
had sprung a leak, and we all went to
work at the pumps.
All our efforts were useless; the water
gained rapidly in the hold, and it became
certain that we could not ride out the
storm, Guns were now fired as signals of

distress, and, the storm somewhat abating,
a boat was put off to us from a ship that
had not been damaged, because she was
light. We had great difficulty in getting
into the boat when it reached us; but we
did it safely and after several hours of
drifting, in danger of being swamped every
minute, we reached the shore, drenched
and destitute. The ship sank soon after
we left her.

At Yarmouth, we were given some money,
and I might easily have gone back to Hull,
but my ill fate pushed me on. With what
money I had, I made my way to London.
There I fell in with the master of a ship
bound for the coast of Guinea on a trading
voyage. He took quite a fancy to me at
once and became my friend. I raised some
forty pounds by corresponding with some
relations, and investing it in trinkets, such


as cne captain carried to trade with the
natives, we set sail, and made a most suc-
cessful voyage.

My success I owed entirely to my
friend the captain, who first showed me
what things to buy in London, and then
how to trade them with the natives of
Guinea for gold-dust. On the voyage, he
taught me the use of the ship's instruments,
by which an account of our course was
taken every day, and I became a navigator
as well as a Guinea trader.
My friend died soon after his arrival at
home, but I resolved to go the same voy-
age again on the same ship. This was a
most unhappy voyage, for though I left a
good portion of my money with myfriend's
widow, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes.

Our ship making her course towards t.N
Canary Islands, was surprised, in the gray
of the morning, by a Moorish rover of Sal-
lee, who gave chase to us. We crowded as
much canvas as our yards would spread, or
our masts carry, to get clear; but finding
the pirate gained upon us, we prepared to
fight, our ship having twelve guns and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the after-
noon he came up with us, and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after
returning our firs, and pouring in also his
small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping
He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board
the next time upon our other quarter, he
entered sixty. men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the sails and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and

- cri -


such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melan-
choly part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so
dreadful as I at first feared; nor was I car-
ried r1p the country to the Emperor's court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept
by the captain as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. At this surpris-
ing change of my circumstances, from a
merchant to a slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon
my father's prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable; which I thought
was .now so effectually brought to pass,
that I could not be worse; for now the
hand of heaven had overtaken me, and I
was undone. But alas! this was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through.
As my new patron, or master, had taken
me home to his house, so I was in hopes
that he would take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing that it would
some time or other be his fate to be taken
by a man-of-war, and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine
was soon taken away; for when he went
to sea, he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the common drudgery
of slaves about his house.
I had no one to talk to, for, though
there were other slaves, not one of them
could understand my language, nor could
I understand theirs. But while at work
digging in the garden or grinding grain, I

thought of nothing but my escape, Ru,
for a long time no means of escaping re.
sented itself.
After about two years, my master stayed
at home longer than usual, and two or
three times a week he used to go oat
a-fishing in his boat. He always took me
and a young Moresco, besides a Moor, with

him, for we made him very merry, and I
was very dexterous in catching fish.
It happened one time, that, going A-fish.
ing with him in a calmn morning, a fog rose
so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it,
and rowing we knew not whither, we
labored all day and all the next night; and
when the morning came, we found we had
pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for


the snore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor and some
danger, and we were all very hungry. But
our master, warned by this disaster, resolv-
ed to take more care of himself in the
future: and having lying by him the long
boat of our English ship which he had
taken, he resolved he would not go a-fish-
ing any more without a compass and some
provision. So he ordered the carpenter of

Moor to take me and the young Moresmc,
whose name was Xury, and go and catc&-
some fish, as he expected some distinguished
company to sup with him. Now, thought
I, is my chance to get my liberty.
My first contrivance was to speak to the
Moor and ask him if we ought not to take
along some food for our dinner; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our
master's bread. He said that was true; so

his siip to build a little cabin in the
middle of the long-boat and fit a place for
provisions and water, also for a compass,
and put in a mast and sails. After that,
we used to go a-fishing in the long-boat.
nme day my master commanded the

he brought a basket full of their kind, and
three jars with fresh water into the boat.
I knew where my master's case of bottles
stood, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before for our master I


conveyed also a great lump of beeswax
into the boat, which weighed about half
an hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all of whizh were of great use to us after-
Another trick I
tried upon him, which
he innocently came
into also: Moely,"
said I, 'our patron's
guns are all on board
the boat; can y, u not
get a little powder
and shot ? It mny be
we may kill some -
alcamies (a fowl like f
our curlews) for our-
selves." "Yes," says
he, "I'll bring some;"
and accordingly, he
brought a great leath-
er pouch, which held
about a pound and a
half of powder, and
another with shot,
that had five or six
pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the
same time, I had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, and thus fur-
nished with everything needful, we sailed
out of the port to fish.
SThe castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no
notice of us; and we were not above a mile
out of the port before we hauled in our
sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind
blew from the N. N. E., which was con-
trary to my desire; for had it blown


southerly, I had been sure to make the
coast of Spain; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and

caught nothing (for when I had fish on my
hook I would not pull them up, that he
might not see them) I said to the Moor,
"This will not do; our master will not be
thus served; we must stand further off."
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being
in the head of the boat, set the sails; and,
as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near
a league farther, and then brought her to,
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the
Moor was, and making as if I stooped for


something behind him, I took him by sur-
prise with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and begged to be taken in.
As he continued to swim after us I
fetched a fowling-piece from the cabin,

-and pointing it at him, said: You can
-swim well enough to reach the shore. If
you try to get in the boat, I will shoot
you." He turned about when he saw I
was determined, and swam toward the
-shore, which I have no doubt he reached
in safety.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy,
and said to him, "Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ;
but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father's beard, I must throw you
into the sea, too." The boy smiled in my
.face. aid spoke so innocently, that I could

not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful
to me, and go all over the world with me.
As long as the swimming Moor could
see me, I steered the boat straight out to
sea, for I knew he would tell his master
which way I had gone. But as soon as
I thought the boat was out of his sight,
I turned her head to the south-east.
With a good breeze and a smooth sea, at
three o'clock on the afternoon of the next
day, I had no doubt that we were one
hundred and fifty miles from Sallee. At
this time we were within sight of the
coast, and I knew that we were were out
of the kingdom of the Moors.
But so afraid was I of being followed
by my late master, that we sailed on
toward the south for five days, without
stopping. At the close of the. fifth day,
we anchored at the mouth of a little river;
but I was afraid to go on shore for fear of
the wild beasts, which inhabit that coast
in great numbers. They made hideous
noises in the night, and sometimes we could
see great creatures bathing on the beach.
One of them swam off toward the boat,
but a shot from a fowling-piece sent him
quickly back to the shore.
However, we had to go on shore for
water, for we had not a pint left, so, the
next day, we drew the boat in as close as
we could, and waded ashore, taking our
fowling-pieces and two jars. I staid by
the boat, while Xury soon found some
water and filled the jars. He also shot a
hare, which we roasted on tie shore, and
had quite a feast.
Several times I was obliged to land for
fresh water, after we had left this place;
and once in particular, being early in the


morning, we came to an anchor under a
little point of land. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine
were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; for,"
says he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep." I looked where he pointed, and
saw a terrible great lion that lay on the

side of the shore, under the shade of a
piece of the hill. I took our biggest gun,
and loaded it with a good charge of pow-
der, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bul-
lets; and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him in the head, but lie

lay so, with his leg raise(L a little above
his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about
the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again; and then got up
upon three legs, and gave the most hideous
roar that ever I heard. I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he
began to move off. fired again, and shot

him in the head, and had the pleasure to
see him drop.
This was game indeed to us, but this
was no food ; and I was very sorry to lose
three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps
tfie skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us. So Xury and I


went to work with him; but Xury was
much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both the whole day, but at last we got off
the hide of him, and spreading it on the

top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried
it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After sailing on for twelve days more I
found that the land was inhabited by
negroes, who ran along the shore and made
signs to us. As I thought them savages, I
did not venture to go on shore. One day
a great leopard ran down among them to
the water, at which they were greatly
frightened. When I shot him, they were
greatly surprised and very grateful. They
cuckly took off the skin and began to

devour the flesh, making signs to offer me
some. I shook my head, but signified that
I would take the skin, if they would put it
on the shore and go away. This they did,
and I sent Xury for it. They also left oa

the shore a great jar of water and some
dried roots and corn for which I was.
I sailed on for eleven days m re without
going near the shore till I saw the land run
out a great way into the sea. This I took
to be Cape de Verde. On sailing out to.
the point of the Cape, I saw land far out-
to sea which I thought was the Cape de
Verde Islands. I stepped into the cabin
and was thinking whether I ought not to.
sail for the Islands when I heard Xury cry
out: "Master, master, a ship with a sab.p


I rushed from the cabin and found Xury
in a great fright, he thinking that it must
needs be a ship of his old master, the
pirate. I saw, however, that it was a
Portuguese ship, and I crowded all sail to
come up to her, and was soon on board.
Upon hearing my story, the captain
offered to take me to the Brazils, whither
he was going, without any pay whatever, and
to take all my goods also. He offered to
give me a good sum for my boat, which I
accepted. He wanted also to buy Xury,
but I was loth to sell the boy's liberty as
soon as he had gained it. But as he offered
to set him free in ten years and to treat
him well, and, moreover, Xury being will-
ing, I let the Captain have him.
We made a good voyage to the Brazils,
landing in All Saints' Bay in twenty-two
days. The generous treatment the captain
gave me, I can never enough remember. He
would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I
had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered
to me; such as the case of bottles, two of
my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees'-
wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in
a word, I made about two hundred and
twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and
with this stock I went on shore.
I soon learned that the planters of that
country lived well and became rich, so I

utensils and things as [ wanted; which he
did, and brought them to me on. hia un t
I was now very prosperous and happy,
but I was not to remain so. I often talked
to the planters about me of my voyage to
the coast of Guinea, and how easy it was to
trade with the natives for gold-dust, or
even for slaves, which were very dear in
the Brazils.
One day some of the planters came to
me and proposed, that, as there was noth.
ing we needed so much as slaves to work
our plantations, they would fit out a ship
to go to the coast of Guinea for slaves, and
that I would take charge of the affair. Al-
though I was very well situated where I
was, I accepted their proposal, providing


rd ~ 'iI

bought land and became a planter, raising
sugar and tobacco. When the Portuguese they would take care of my property while
captain sailed, I sent by him an order for I was gone. In short, I obeyed blindly the
the .money which I had left with the dictates of my fancy rather than my reason;
english captain's widow, and gave him in- and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out,
ur-uctions to invest it in Libon in such and the cargo finished, and all things donp


as by agreement, by my partners in the
vova.e,, I wnut on board in an evil hour
gain, the tst olt eptember, i659, being the
'au'e day eight ,ears that I went from my

father and mother at Hull, acting the rebel
to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and
twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were
fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
We had very good weather, and we
sailed north, at first, along our own coast.
We passed the line in about twelve days'
lime, and were, by our last observation, in
,even degrees twenty-two minutes north
latitude, when a violent tornado took us
quite out of our knowledge. It blew in
such a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but
drive, and, scudding away before it, let it
ar'ry us wherever fate and the fury of the
waves( directed; and during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every
dlay to be swallowed up; nor did any in
the ship expect to save their lives.

At last we perceived land ahead, b t hO
fore we could make out whether it was pa
island or the mainland, the ship struck on
the sand a long distance from the shore.
Now, we were in a dreadful condition in
deed, and had nothing to do but to think
of saving our lives as best we could. We
had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and in the next
place she broke away, and either sunk or
was driven off to sea; so there was no Lope
from her. We had another boat on board,
but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship
would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken
In this distress, the mate of our vessel
lay hold of the boat, and with the help of
the rest of the men, they got her flung over
the ship's side; and getting a1i into her, let
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven


in number, to God's mercy and the wild
sea; for though the storm was abated con.
I siderably, yet the sea went dreadfully hal
upon the shore.


And now we all saw plainly that the
boat could not escape, and that we should
be drowned. As to making sail, we had
none, nor, if we had, could we have done
anything with it; so we worked at the oar
towards land, though with heavy hearts,
like men going to execution; for we all
knew that when the boat came near the
shore she would be dashed in a thousand

pieces by the breach of the sea. However,
we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner.
What the shore was, whether rock or
sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not;
the only hope was that we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might run
our boat in under the lee of the land, and

perhaps make smooth water. Bat there
was nothing of this appeared; but as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.
At last, a great wave came rolling after
us, overset the boat, and we were all swal-
lowed up in a moment. Nothing can de-
scribe what I felt when I sank into the
water; for though I swam very well, yet >

could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw breath, till that wave having
driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back, and left me lupn)1 the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that seeing myself
nearer the main land than I expected, I go',


t_" _V uil.,n Illy feet :1n,1 nlin.
"v"' 2Another wave stoojl uoV'-
took me and then another, until I was
dashed against a rock with such force as to
inake me nearly senseless.
I held on to the rock, however, until the
wave receded, and the next run I took I
got to the mainland, exhausted and bruised,
-and, indeed, more (lead than alive.
But I was now landed, and safe on
shore, and began to look up and to thank
God that my life was saved. I walked
about the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, I may say, wrapt up in
a contemplation of my deliverance; mak-
ing a thousand gestures and motions, which
I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that
there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them
afterwards, or any sign of them, except
three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel,
when, the breach and froth of the sea
being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay
so far off, and considered, Lord how was
it possible I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the
comfortable part of my condition, I began
to look around me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be

done; and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful de.
liverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to
shift me, nor anything either to eat or
drink, to comfort me. Neither did I see
any prospect before me, but that of per.
fishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts ; and that which was particu-
larly affecting to me was, that I had no
weapon, either to hunt and kill any crea-
ture for my sustenance, or to defend my.
self against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a to-
bacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box.
This was all my provision; and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a
while I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if
there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for prey.
All the remedy that offered to my
thoughts, at that time, was to get up into
a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved
to sit all night, and consider the next
day what death I should die, for as yet I
saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did
to my great joy ; and having drunk, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to pre-
vent hunger, I went to the tree, and get-
ting up into it, endeavoured to place my.
self so that if I should sleep I might not
fall. And having cut me a short stick,
like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up
my lodging; and being excessively fatigued,


I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself more refreshed
with it than I think I ever was on such an

When I waked up it was broad day-
light, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised
me more was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay,
by the swelling of the tide, and was driven
up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it. This
being within about a mile from the shore
where I was, and the ship seeming to stand
upright still, I wished myself on board,

that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment
in the tree, 1 looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was t) boat, which

lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon
shore to have got to her; but found a neck,
or inlet of water between me and the boat
which was about half a mile broad; so I
came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very
calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that I
could come within a quarter of a mile of


,ie ship. And here I found a fresh renew-
ing of my grief ; for I saw evidently, that if
we had kept on board, we had been all
safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as
to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was.
This forced the tears to my eyes again.
As there was little relief in that, I resolved
if possible, to get to the ship; so 1 pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot, and
.----' .

T y. ~\


took to the water. But when I came to the
ship my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board, for as she lay high out
of th-c waer, tli 'e was nothing within my

reach to lay hold of. I swam around her
twice, and the second time I espied a small
piece of rope hanging down the fore-chains
so low, that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up
into the forecastle of the ship.
I found that the ship was bulged, and
had a great deal of water in her hold; but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that
part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search, and to see what was
spoiled and what was free. And, first, I
found that all the ship's provisions were
dry and untouched by the water, and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread-room and filled my pockets with bis-
cuit, and ate it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found
some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had, indeed,
need enough of, to spirit me for what was
before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things which 1
foresaw would be very necessary to me. It
was in vain to sit still and wish for what
was not to be had; and this extremity
roused my application. We had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of
wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the
ship. I resolved to fall to work with these,
and I flung as many of them overboard as I
could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down
the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I


tied four of them together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too ligLt.
So I went to work, and with the carpen-
ter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labor and pains. But the
hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another
My raft was now strong enough to bear
any reasonable weight. My next care was
what to load it with, and how to preserve
what I had laid upon it from the surf of
the sea: but I was not long considering
I first laid all the planks or boards upon
it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I first got three
of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft; the first of these I filled
with provisions-viz., bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's
flesh (which we lived much upon), and a
little remainder of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we
brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together; but, to my great disap-
pointment, I found afterwards that the rats
had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial
wines; and, in all, about five or six gallons

of arrack. These I stowed by tanselv 3s,
there being no need to put ,hem into the
chest, nor any room for them.
While I was doing th nr, I found the tide
began to flow, though very calm ; nid I had

the mortification to see my coat, shirt and.
waistcoat, which I had left on the shore
upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open.
kneed, I swain on board in them and my
However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but
took no more than what I wanted for pre.
sent use, for I had other things which my
eye was more upon ; as, first, tools to work
with on shore; and it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter's


chest, which was indeed a very useful prize
to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
lading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, whole as
it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.

--- _-

My next care was for some ammunition
and arms. There were two fowling-pieces
in the cabin, and two pistols. These I
secured first, with some powder-horns, and
two old, rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship and,
with much search, I found them; two of
them were dry and good, and these I got
to my raft, with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and I began to think how I
should get to shore with all my things,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder, and
the least puff of wind would have overset
my raft. But the sea was calm, the tide
was setting toward the shore, and what
little wind there was, blew in that direc-
tion. I found, however, two or three
broken oars, and with these I put to sea.
The raft went very well; but I found
that the tide took me some distance from

the point where I had landed before, b
which I perceived that there was an in-
draft of the water. This led me to think
that there might be a creek or river there;
and so I found there was.
I steered my raft toward it as well as I
could. At the -mouth of the little creek I
came very near suffering a second ship.
wreck, which, I verily believe, would have
broken my heart. The raft ran on a shoal,
and nearly upset. I held all the things in
their places, and when the tide rose a little
higher, it floated safely off. I landed at
high tide, when the water covered the
bank, and when it receded, the raft was
high and dry.
My next work was to view the country,
and seek a proper place for my habitation.
and where to stow my goods, to secure'
them from whatever might happen. Where
I was, I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of
wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high,
and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, north.
ward. I took out one of the fowling
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labor and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great
affliction-viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea no
land to be seen except some rocks, which
lay a great way off, and two small islands,.
less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.


T found also that the island I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food and what not.

- CRUSOE. 27

At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on
the side of a great wood. I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired, but from all parts of the wood
there arose an innumerable number of


fewls of many sorts, making a confused
screaming and crying, every one according
to his usual note, but not one of them of
any kind that I knew. As for the creature
I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its
color and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common. Its
flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came
back to my raft, and fell to work to bring
my cargo on shore, which took me all the
rest of the day. What to do with myself
at night I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards

found, there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricaded
myself round with the chests and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hat for that night's lodging. As
for food, I yet saw not which way to sup-
ply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the
wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might
yet get a great many things out of the
ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails,
and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voy.
age on board the vessel, if possible. And
as I knew that the first storm that blew
must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart, till I
got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council-that is to
say, in my thoughts-whether I should
take back the raft; but this appeared im-
practicable; so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so,
only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a chequered
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of
pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and
prepared a second raft; and, having had
experience of the first, I neither made this
so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet
I brought away several things very useful
to me ; as, first, in the carpenter's stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two
of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone-


All these I secured, together with seve-
ral things belonging to the gunner, particu-
larly two or three iron crows, and two
barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
and another fowling piece, with some small


-~- _

X- _

quantity of powder more; a large bag-full
of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead ;
but this last was so heavy I could not
hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's
clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
top sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.
I was under some apprehension during
my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore;
but when I came back, I found no sign of
any visitor; only there sat a creature like a
wild cat, upon nie of the chests, which,

when I came towards it, ran awmay -, litt'-
distance, and then stood still. She sat very
composed and unconcerned, and looked ful'l
in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun
to her, but, as she did nct understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor
did she offer to stir away ; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the
way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great; however, I spared her a bit,
I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and
ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more;
but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-
though I was obliged to open the barrels of
powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks-I went
to work to make me a little tent, with the
sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either
with rain or sun ; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt,
either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the
door of the tent with some boards within,
and an empty chest set up on end without:

.... ... -^^ ^= -,. .
~- ._1 -R
-^ ^ ^ : .^^.^ ;;*47


an,& spreading one of the beds upon the as much at a time as I could, for they were
ground, laying my two pistols just at my no more useful to me for sails, but as mere
head, and my gun at length by me, I went canvas only.
to bed for the first time, and slept very But that which comforted me more still,
quietly all night. I was very weary and was, that at last of all, after I had made
heavy; for the night before I had slept five or six such voyages as these, and
little, and had labored hard all day, as thought I had nothing more to expect from
well to fetch those things from the ship, as the ship that was worth my meddling with
to get them on shore. -I say, after all this, I found a great hogs.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds head of bread, three large runlets of rum
now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel
man; but still I was not satisfied, for while of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more
provisions except what was spoiled by the
_- -_ water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the
.- bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel,
- _,_ _-' ." '' '.-:-_- - in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and,
Ir ,' in a word, I got all this on shore also,
though at several times.
., The next day I made another voyage, and
-- now, having plundered the ship of what
.' ....- ..-.. .!..... '. . was portable, I cut up the cable in pieces
S .~' ,....- Vthat I could lift, and gathered all the iron
work that I could move. I cut up the
-- yards and made a raft to take it all ashore
but when I got into the little cove, the raft
upset and my load all went to the bottom.
the ship stood upright in that posture, I However, when it was low water, I got the
thought I ought to get everything out of most of it out.
her I could. So every day, at low water, I If it had remained calm, I verily believe
went on board, and brought away some- that I would have cut up the whole ship
thing or other; but particularly the third and got it ashore. The twelfth time that
time I went, I brought away as much of I went on board, I found some money and.
the rigging as I could, as also all the small some knives. The former was of no worth
rope and rope twine I could get, with a to me, but I took it, and as the wind began
piece of spare canvas, which was to mend to rise I hurried on shore. It blew very
the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of hard that night, and in the morning there
wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought was no more ship to be seen.
away all the sails, first and last; only that I now began to think of securing myself
I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring against wild beasts and savages, by build'


ung a dwelling, and I resolved to niake me
both a tent and a cave, and I set about
finding a more healthy and suitable spot
than where I then was.
I consulted several things in my situa-
tion, which I found would be proper for
me: first, health and fresh water; secondly,
shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether
man or beast; fourthly, a view to the sea.
that if God sent any ship in sight, I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance,
of which I was not willing to banish my
expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I
found a little plain on the side of a rising
hill, whose front towards this little plain
ivas steep as a house side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of the rock there was a hoiow
place, worn a little way in, like the en-
trance or door of a cave; .but there was
not really any cave, or way into the rock,
at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this
hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door; and, at the

end of it, descended irregularly every way,
down into the low ground by the sea-side.
Before I set up my tent, i drew a half-
circle before the hollow place, and in this
half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till
they stood very firm, the biggest end being
out of the ground above five feet and a
half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches frorn-
one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I
had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
upon one another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the

top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this


fenee was so strong, that neither man nor
beast could get into it or over it.
The entrance into this place I made to
be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to
go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was
completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world, and conse-
quently slept secure in the nigh-, which

year are very violent there. I madc it
double-viz., one smaller tent within, ana
one larger tent above it; and covered the
uppermost part of it with a large tar-
paulin, which I had saved among the sails.
When I had done all this, I dug a cave
in the hill-side, piling the earth and stones
within my fence so as to raise the ground
nearly to the top. Before I had done all

otherwise I could not have done; though,.
as it appeared afterwards, there was no
need of all this caution from the enemies
that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite
labor, I carried all my riches, all Yry pro-
visions, ammunition, and stores; and I
made me a large tent also, to preserve me
xomn the rains, that in one part of the

this, a thunder-storm, accompanied by sharp
flashes of lightning, frightened me very
much for fear that my powder would take
fire. As soon as the storm was over, I
went to work and separated the powder
into small parcels and hid it away in
different places in the rocks.
In the interval of time while this was
doing, I went out at least once every day


with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food;
and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself
with what the island produced. The first

tinme I wuat out, I discovered that there
were goats .n the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but they were so shy,
so subtle, a.d so swift of foot, that it was
the most di cult thing in the world to
come at them ; but I was not discouraged
at this. I observed if they saw me In the
valleys. though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away, as in a terrible fright;
out ~i they were feeding in the valleys,

and I was upon the rocks;, they took no
notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they

did not readily see objects that were abovy
them; so afterwards I always climbed the
rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these crea,
tures I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which grieved me heartily; for,
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her up.
and not only so, but when I carried ths


old one with me upon my shoulders, the
kid followed me quite to my enclosure;
upon which I laid down the dam, and took
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame;
but it would not eat, so I was forced to
kill it and eat it myself.
After I had been there about ten or
twelve days, it came into my thoughts that
I should lose my reckoning of time, and
should even forget the Sabbath-day from
the working-days; but to prevent this, I

capital lette-s, and making it into a great
cross, I set it up on the shore where I first
landed, viz., "I came on shore here on the
30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut
every day a notch with my knfe upon a largife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as
thr rest, and every first day of the month
as Inug again as that long one; and thus I
kept my "alrtdar.
I had brought from the ship some pens,
ink and paper, and while they lasted I

kept a strict account of everything, but
they were soon gone. We had on the
ship two cats and a dog, and I had brought
both of the cats on shore. As for the dog
he swam ashore, and became my trusty
servant for many years.
The want of tools made every work I
did go on heavily; and it was near a whole
year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded habitation. The
piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I
could well lift, were a long time in cutting
and preparing in the woods, and more, by
far, in bringing home; so that I spent
sometimes two days in cutting and bring-
ing home one of those posts; and a third
day in driving it into the ground. But
what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing
I had time enough to do it in? nor had I
any other employment, if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except
the ranging the island to seek for food,
and climbing the high rocks to see if any
vessel was within sight.
'Having now brought my mind a little
to relish my condition, and given over
looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a
ship; I say, giving over these things, I
began to apply myself to accommodate my
way of living, and to make things as easy
to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation,
which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it
a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on
the outside; and after some time (I think
it was a year and a half) I raised rafters


from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched -
or covered it with boughs of trees, and
such things as I could get to keep out the -
rain, which I found at some times of the ...
year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought
all my goods into this pale, and into this -
cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of goods, which, as they lay .. "
in no order, so they took up all my place.
[ had no room to turn myself; so I set my
self to enlarge my cave, and worked far-
ther into the earth, for it was a loose,
sandy rock, which yielded easily to the
labor I bestowed on it; and so when I
found I was pretty safe as to beasts of ,
prey, I worked sideways, to tb 3 right
hand, into the rock; and then turning to wanted a board, I had no other way but to
the right again, worked quite out, and cut down a tree, set it on an edge before
made me a door to come out on the out- me, and hew it flat on either side with my
side of my pale or fortification, axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
And now I began to apply myself to plank, and then dub it smooth with my
make such necessary things as I found I adze. It is true, by this method I could
most wanted, particularly a chair and a make but one board out of a whole tree,
table; for without these I was not able to but this I had no remedy for but patience.
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. However, I made me a table and a chair,
I could not write, or eat, or do several in the first place; and this I did out of the
things with so much pleasure without a short pieces of boards that I brought on
table. my raft from the ship. But when I had
I had never handLed a tool in my life ; wrought out some boards as above, I made
and yet, in time, by labor, application, and large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and
contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted an half, one over another, all along one
nothing but I could have made it, espe- side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails
cially if I had had the tools. However, I and iron-work on; and, in a word, to sepa-
made abundance of things, even without rate everything at large into their places,
tools; and some with no more tools than that I might come easily at them; also I
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, knocked pieces into the wall of the rock,
were never made that way before, and that to hang my guns and all things that would
wih infinite 1abor. For example, if I hang up; so that had my cave been to b-


Been, it looked like a general magazine of
all necessary things; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such

.AV 1-n r ii n ink
lasted I kept a jour-
nal of all that happened to me, of which I
will now give a part, for much that I wrote
at that time I have already told, and need
not repeat.

September 30, 1659.-1, poor, miserable
Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, dur-
ing a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on
shore on this dismal, unfortunate island,
which I called "The Island of Despair;"
all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflict-
ing myself at the dismal circumstances I
was brought to; viz, I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to;
and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing
but death before me: either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, or perish by
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all
day, with some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the
wind blowing a little harder than before,


and was no more to be seen, except the
wreck of her, and that only at low water.
I spent this day in covering and securing
the goods which I saved, that the rain
might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore
almost all day, to find out a place to fix
my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either
from wild beasts or men. Towards night
I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock,
and marked out a semicircle for my en-
campment, which I resolved to strengthen
with a work, wall, or fortification, made of
double piles, lined within with cables, and
without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked
very hard in carrying all my goods to my
new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.
Nov. 1.-On this day I made a strict
division of my time, fixing the hours which
I would devote to my several duties, viz.:
every morning, to walk out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain;
then to employ myself to work till about
eleven o'clock: then to eat what I had to
live on; then to lie down and sleep, the
weather being very hot ; then to work
again. The working piat of this day was
wholly employed in making my table.
Nov. 5.-This day I went abroad with
my gun and my dog, and killed a wild cat;
her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing. Of every creature that I killed,
I took off the skin and preserved it.
Coming back by the seashore, I saw two
or three seals, but not well knowing what
they were at first, while I stood gaz:ng at
them, they got into the sea and escaped me.


Nov. 17.-This day! began to dig behind
.my tent into the rock, to make room for
my further conveniency.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceed-
ingly for this work, viz., a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to con-
sider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I
made use of the iron crows, which were
proper enough, though heavy; and the
next thing was a shovel, or spade. This was
so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I
could do nothing effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching
the woods, I found a tree of that wood,
or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of
this, with great labor, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceed-
ingly heavy. The excessive hardness of
the wood, and having no other way, made
me a long while upon this machine, for I

worked it by little and little into the form
of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the
board part having no iron shod upon it at



bottom, it would not last me so long ; how.
ever, it served well enough for the ases
which I had occasion to put it to ; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made nfter
that fashion or so long making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a
basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having Lo
such things as twigs that would bend to
make wicker-ware-at least, none yet found
out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied
I could make all but the wheel ; but that
I had no notion of; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no
possible way to make iron gudgeons for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so
I gave it over, and so, for carrying away


the earth which I dug out of the cave, I
made a thing like a hod, which the laborers
carry mortar in, when they serve the brick-

in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note.-During all this time I worked to
make this room, or cave, spacious enough

This was not so difficult to me as the
making the shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in
vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me no
less than four days, I mean always except-
ing my morning's walk with my gun, which
I seldom failed, and very seldom failed
also of bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having stood
still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely

to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the
tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard, that 1
could not keep myself dry, which caused
me afterwards to cover all my place within
my pale with long poles, in the form of
rafters, lean-ing against the rock, and load
them with flags and large leaves of trees.
like a thatch.
Dec. 10.-I began now to think my cave
or vault finished, when on a suddenu fi-


seems I had made it too large), a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top.
I now had a great deal of work to do over
again, for I had the loose earth to carry
sut, and then I had to prop un the ceiling.

Dec. 11.-This day I went to work and
got posts pitched upright to the top, with
boards across over each top, and in a week
I had the roof secured.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed
another, so that I watched it and led it home
by a string. When I had it home, I bound
and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
Note.-I took such care of it that it
lived, and the leg grew as strong as ever.
By nursing it so long, it grew tame and
would not go away. This led me to think
of taming more goats.
Jan. 2.-Went out with my dog, and set

him upon some goats, but they all faced
about upon him, and he knew his danger
and would not come near them.
All this time it rained hard nearly very
day. I made rounds in the woods for game

when the rain permitted me, and made fre.
quent discoveries in these walks of some-
thing or other to my advantage; particularly
I found a kind of wild pigeons, which
build, not as wood pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the
rocks; and taking some young ones, I en-
deavored to breed them up tame, and did
so; but when they grew older they flew all
away, which perhaps was at first for want
of feeding them, for I had nothing to give
them; however, I frequently found their
nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.


And now, in the managing my household
affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was im-
possible for me to make; as, indeed, as to
some of them it was: for instance, I could
never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before;
but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it; I could never put in the

N~2Lv 4tcJ
~. ~4~q'
~ c~~'



heads, nor join the staves so true to one an-
other as to make them hold water; so I gave
that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss
for candles; so that as soon as it was dark,

which was generally by seven o'clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bees'-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure; but I had
none of that now. The only remedy I had
was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved
the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I
added a wick of some oakum, I made me
a lamp; and this gave me light, though not
a clear, steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labors, it hap.
opened that, rummaging my things, I found
a little bag, which had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry. What little re-
mainder of corn had been in the bag was
all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust; and being
willing to have the bag for some other use,
I shook the husks of corn out of it on one
side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just
now mentioned, that I threw this stuff away,
taking no notice of anything, and not so
much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there, when, about a month after, I
saw some few stalks of something green
shooting upon the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen. But I
was surprised when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come
out, which were perfect green barley, of
the same kind as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonish-
ment and confusion of my thoughts on this
occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no re-
ligious foundation at all; indeed, I had
very few notions of religion in my head,
nor had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me, otherwise than as a


chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the
end of Providence in these things. But
after I saw barley grow there in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially that I knew not how it came
there, it startled me strangely, and I began
to suggest that God had miraculously caused
this grain to grow without any help of seed
This touched my heart a little, and
brought tears out of my eyes, and I began
to bless myself that such a prodigy of
Nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, be-
cause I saw near it still, all along by the
side of the rock, straggling stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it
grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn,
you may be sure, in their season, which
was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all
again, hoping in time to have sufficient to
supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I would allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat,
and even then but sparingly; for I lost all
that I sowed the first season, by not
observing the proper time; for I sowed it
just before the dry season, so that it never
came up at all.
Besides this barley, there were twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved
with the same care, and whose use was of
the same kind, or to the same purpose,
viz., to make me bread, or rather r food;
for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some

But to return to my Journal:-
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I
went up the ladder to the top, and then
pulled it up after me, and let it down on
the inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me; for within I had room enough, and
nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was
finished, I had almost had all my labor
overthrown at once, and myself killed.
The case was thus:-As I was busy in the
inside of it, behind my tent, just in the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frightened with a most dreadful surpris-
ing thing indeed; for, all on a sudden, I
found the earth came tumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of
the hill over my head, and two of the posts
I had set up in the cave cracked in a fright-
ful manner. I was heartily scared; and for
fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward
to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than
I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake;


for tne ground I stood on shook three
times, with such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood upon the
earth; and a great piece of the top of the
rock, which stood about half a mile from
me, next the sea, fell down with such a
terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also the very sea was put
into a violent motion by it.
I was so amazed with the thing itself,
having never felt the like, or discoursed
with any one that had, that I was like one
dead or stupefied; and the motion of the

-- _: .

ea.ji made my stomach sick like one that
was tossed at sea. But the noise of the
falling of the rock awaked me as it were,
and rousing me from the stupefied condi-
tion I was in, filled me with horror, and I
thought of nothing then, but the hill fall.
ing upon my tent and all my household
goods, and burying all at once.
When I found there were no more shocks,
I began to take courage, but I was for a
long time afraid to get over the wall for
fear the hill would fall on me. To make
my situation worse, the rain began to fall
down in torrents, and there came a terrible

hurricane of wind. The sea was lashed to
foam; and trees were torn up by the roots,
and, in short, it was a dreadful storm.
In about three hours the wind abated,
but the rain continued all night and all the
next day. As there were no more shocks,
I climbed over the wall and went into my
cave to escape the rain, but still in great
fear that it would fall upon me.
This led me to a resolve that I would
find a new place for my home, where an
earthquake could not harm me, and I find
this in my journal:
April 22.-I began to consider of means
to put this resolve in execution; but I
was at a great loss about my tools. I
had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians); but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches and dull;
and 'though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. At
length, I contrived a wheel with a string,
to turn it with my foot, that I might have
both my hands at liberty.
jVote.-I had not seen any such thing in
England, or at least not to take notice how
it was done, though since I have observed
it was very common there; besides that,
my grindstone was very large and heavy.
This machine cost me a full week's work
to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days 1
took up in grinding my tools, my machine
for turning my grindstone performing very
April 30.-Having perceived my bread
had been low a great while, I now took a
survey of it, and reduced myself to one


biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart
very heavy.
May 1.-In the morning, looking toward
the sea-side, the tide being low, I saw
something lie on the shore like a cask;
when I came to it, I found a small barrel,
and two or three pieces of the wreck of the
ship, which were driven on shore by the
late hurricane; and looking towards the
wreck, I thought it seemed to lie higher
out of the water than it used to do. I
ex-amined the barrel which was driven
on shore, and soon found that it was a bar-
rel of gunpowder; but it had taken water,
and the powder was caked as hard as a
stone; however, I rolled it farther on
shore for the present, and went on to look
for more.
When I came to the ship, I found that
the earthquake or the hurricane had cast it
so close to the shore that I could walk
quite to i* at low water. The wreck was
also much broken up, and many things
were washed ashore.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from
moving my habitation, and I busied myself
mightily to make my way into the ship,
which I found was filled with sand. This
I could not do, but I resolved to pull her
in pier,%s, and to that end I worked every
May 4.-I went a-fshing, but caught
not one fish that I durst eat of, till I was
weary of my sport; when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had
made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but
I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as 1 cared to eat; all
ot which I dried in the sun, and ate them

May 5.-Worked on thle wreck; cut
another beam asunder, and brought three
great fir planks from off the decks, wiicn I
tied together, and made swim on snore
when the tide of flood came in.

- ,


MIay 6.-Worked on the wreck; got
several iron bolts, and other pieces of iron-
work; worked very hard, and came houin
very much tired.
.lMay 7.-Went to the wreck again, with
an intent not to work, but found the weight
of the wreck had broken itself down ; that
several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so
open that I could see into it,,

. 46


May 8.-Went to the wreck, and car-
ried an iron crow to wrench up the deck
which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand. I wrenched open two planks, and
brought them on shore also with the tide.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with
the crow made way into the body of the
wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt also a roll of English
lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy
to move.
May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.-Went every
day to the wreck; and got a good deal of
pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and
two or three hundredweight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try
if I could not cut a piece off the roll of
lead, but as it lay about a foot and a half
in the water, I could not make any blow to
drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It had blown hard in the
night, and the wreck appeared more broken
by the force of the water; but I stayed so
long in the woods, to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented me going to the
I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food, which I always appointed, during
this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time
I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron.
work enough to have built a good boat, if
I had known how; and also I got, at seve-
ral times, and in several pieces, near one
hundredweight of the sheet-lead.
Jane 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I
found a large tortoise, or turtle. This was

the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune; for had I happened
to be on the other side of the island, I
might have had hundreds of them every
June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I
found in her threescore eggs; and her flesh
was to me, at that time, the most savory
and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and
fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.
June 18.-Rained all the day, an d I stayed
within. I thought, at this time, the rain
felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if
the weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night: violent
pains in my head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frightened almost to
death with the apprehension of my sad con-
dition-to be sick, and no help; prayed
to God, for the first time since the storm
off of Hull, but scarce knew what I said
or why; my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better; but under
dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and
shivering, and then a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit
held me seven hours ; cold fit, and hot with
faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no
victuals to eat, took my gun, but found my-
self very weak; however, I killed a she.
goat, and with much difficulty got it home,
and broiled some of it, and ate. I wouio
fain have stewed it, and made some brr-
but had no pot.


June 27.---The ague again so violent that
I lay a-bed all day, and neither ate nor
drank. I was ready to perish with thirst;
but so weak I had no strength to stand up,
or to get myself any water to drink.
Prayed to God again, but was light-headed;
and when I was not, I was so ignorant I
knew not what to say; only I lay and
cried, Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity
me Lcrd, have mercy upon me !" I sup-
pose I did nothing else for two or three
hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep,
and did not awake till far in the night.
When I awoke, I found myself much re-
freshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty;
how ever, as I had no water in my whole
habitation, I was force: to 1.s till morning.
and went to sleep again. in this second
sleep, I had this terrible dream: I thought

that I was sitting on the ground, and that
I saw\ a mnnIU descend from a great black
1oiud, in a bright flame of fire. His
countenance was most dreadful. When lie

stepped upon the ground, I thought the
earth trembled, just as it had done in the
earthquake. Then I heard a voice so
terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it. All that I understood
was this :-" Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance, now thou
shalt die ;"-at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his hand to
kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account
will expect that I should be able to de-
scribe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. Nor is it any more possible to de-
scribe the impression that remained upon
my mind when I awaked, and found it
was but a dream.
1 had, alas no divine knowledge. What
1 had received from my father had been
worn out by eight years of seafaring
wickedness. During all that time I had
never thought seriously of God, nor had 1
been thankful to Him for His great mer
cies. But now I began to pray for the
first time in many years, after which I fell
into a refreshing sleep.
June 28.-Feeling much better, I arose
and cooked three of the turtle's eggs in
the ashes, and ate the1m. I tried to walk
about with my gun, but was too weak to
go far, and I sat down to think. I knew
that the ague would return the next day,
and then I remembered that the Brazilians
took tobacco for such distempers. I had
some tobacco in one of the chests that I
had saved, and I went to get it. I was
directed by heaven, no doubt, for I found
in the chest a cure both for soul and body.
Packed in with the tobacco was a Bible,
which I had forgotten all about, but which


I was now overjoyed to find. I took it to
my table and read from it a long time, and
having taken a dose of tobacco steeped in
rum, I went to bed.
The next day I had the fever, but not so
bad, and July 3d I missed it for good and
all. I was, however, so weak for many
days that I could do but little more than
sit at the mouth of my cave and try to
make baskets.
It was the 15th of July that I began to
take a more particular survey of the island
itself. I went up the creek first, where, as
I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I
found, after I came about two miles up,
that the tide did not float any higher; and
that it was no more than a little brook,
On its banks were many meadows covered
with grass, and on the higher parts I found
tobacco growing. There were many other
plants that I had never seen before.
On the next day I went farther the same
way, and, much to my joy, found melons
upon the ground in great abundance, and
grapes hanging in great clusters from the
branches of the trees. I staid there all
that night, sleeping in a tree as when 1
first landed. In the morning, I traveled on
some four miles farther. Here I found a
delicious valley, where everything appeared
so fresh and green that it looked like a
planted garden. Here were orange, lemon,
lime and cocoa trees, but few of them bore
fruit. I gathered some green limes, and,
mixed with water, I found their juice very
refreshing. I resolved to lay up a store of
all for the wet season.
In order to do this, I gathered a great
heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap
in another place, and a great parcel of


The next day I went back, having made
i ae two small bags to bring home my har.
- >st; but I was surprised, when, coming to
miy heap of grapes, I found them all spread
abroad, trodden to pieces, and dragged
about, some here, some there, and abund
ance eaten and devoured. By this I con.
eluded there were some wild creatures
thereabouts, which had done this; but
what they were I knew not. However, I
took another course; for I gathered a large

limes and lemons in another place; and
taking a few of each with me, I traveled
home, but before I got thither, the grapes
were spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and
the weight of the juice, having broke
them and bruised them, they were good for
little or nothing. As to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few.


quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the trees, that
they might cure and dry in the sun and
as for the limes and lemons, I carried as
many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I
contemplated with great pleasure the fruit-
fulness of that valley, and the pleasantness
of the situation; the security from storm
on that side of the water, and the wood;
-and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode, which was by far
,he worst part of the country. Upon the
whole, I began to consider of removing my
)abitation, and to look out for a place

equally safe as where now I was situate, if
possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of
the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and
I was exceedingly fond of it for some time,
the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I
considered that I was now by the sea-side,
where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage;
and that the same ill fate that brought
me hither, might bring some other un-
happy wretches to the same place ; and to
enclose myself among the hills and woods.
in the centre of the island, was to antici-
pate my bondage, and to render such an
affair not only improbable, but impossible;
and that therefore I ought not by any
means to remove.
However, I was so enamored with
this place, that I spent much of my time
there for the whole remaining part of the,
month of July; and though, upon second'
thoughts, I resolved as above not to remove,
yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and
surrounded it at a distance with a strong
fence, being a double hedge, as high as I
could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood; and here I lay very
secure, sometimes two or three nights to
gether, always going over it with a ladoter
as before; so that I fancied now I had my
country house and my sea-coast house.
The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I
had hung up were perfectly dried, and
indeed were excellent good raisins of the
sun ; so I began to take them down from the
trees, and it was very happy that I did sc.
for the rains which followed would havE
spoiled them, and I had lost the better part.


of my winter's food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner
had I taken them all down, a-Ld carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began
to rain; and it rained, mothe or less, every
day, till the middle of October, and some-
times so violently, that I could not stir out
of my cave for several days.

* I '

In this season I was much surprised with
the increase of my family. I had been con-
cerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, and I heard no more
tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she
came home about the end of August, with
three kittens. I afterward came to be so
pestered with cats, that I was forced to
kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and
to drive them from my house as much as
From the 14th of August to the 26th,
incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet.
In this confinement, I began to be strait-
ened for food ; but venturing out twice, I
one day killed a goat; and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise. which was a treat to me, and my

food was regulated thus :-I ate a bunch of
raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the
goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew anything), and
two or three of the turtle's eggs for supper.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the un-
happy anniversary of my landing. I cast
up the notches on my post, and found
I had been on shore three hundred and
sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn
fast, setting it apart for religious exercises,
prostrating myself on the ground with the
most serious humiliation, confessing my
sins to God, acknowledging his righteous
judgment upon me, and praying to him to
have mercy upon me through Jesus Christ;
and having not tasted the least refreshment
for twelve hours, even till the going down
of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a
bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing
the day as I began it. I now set off every
seventh day as the Sabbath day.
My ink gave out about this time, and I
gave up my journal. After a time I learned
how to divide the rainy season from the
dry season, but at first the lack of this
knowledge came near costing me dear, for
I sowed my grain before the dry season,
and not a stalk came up. Fortunately ]
had not sown it all, and I sowed the few
grains left before the rainy season and it
grew very well, though it was several years
before I had enough to make a crop.
After I had found, by experience, the ill
consequences of being abroad in the rain,
I took care to furnish myself with provi
sions before hand, that I might not be
obliged to go out, and I sat within doors
as much as possible during the wet months.


In this time I found much employment,
and very suitable also to the time, for I
found great occasion of many things which
I had no way to furnish myself with but
by hard labor and constant application;
particularly, I had tried many ways to
make myself a basket, but all the twigs I
could get for the purpose proved so brittle
that they would do nothing.
It came into my mind that the twigs of
that tree from whence I cut my stakes that
grew might possibly be as tough as the
sallows, willows, and osiers in England,
and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the
next day I went to my country-house, as I
called it, and cutting some of the smaller
twigs, I found them to my purpose as much
as I could desire. During the next season,
I employed myself in making, as well as
I could, a great many baskets, both to

carry earth or lay up anything, as I had
occasion ; and though I did not finish them
very handsomely, yet I made them suffi-
ciently servicable for my purpose; and
thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong,
deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of
sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.
I now resolved to travel quite across to
the other side of the island, so, taking a
hatchet with my gun and dog, and a larger
quantity of powder and shot than usual,
and putting a great bunch of raisins and
two biscuit cakes in my pouch, I began
my journey.
I saw abundance of parrots, and fain
would I have caught one, if possible, to
have kept it to be tame, and taught it to


speak to nme. I did, after some painstak- much pleasanter than mine; but yet I had
ing, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it not the least inclination to remove, for, as
down with a stick, and having recovered I was fixed in my habitation, it became
it, I brought it home; but it was some natural to me, and I seemed all the while
years before I could make him speak; I was here to be as it were upon a jour.
however, at last, I taught him to call me ney, and from home. However, I tray-
by my name very familiarly. eled along the shore of the sea towards
the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and
.' then setting up a great pole upon the shore
S ,,' i,'' ,,I for a mark, I concluded I would go home
I I took another way going home, and
iiM Jll' I became bewildered and lost, so that I had
$11 :to go back to my post and start again. In
li this journey, my dog surprised a kid, which
'' i I caught and led by a string till I came to
".. ''' -- my bower, where I left him, securely tied.
S,.-- cannot express my satisfaction when I
came to what I called my home and threw
--- myself in my hammock. I had been gone
As soon as I came to the seashore, I was a month, and it all appeared so comfortable
surprised to see that I had taken up my that I resolved never to leave it for so long
lot on the worst side of the island, for a time again, while I remained on the
here, indeed, the shore was covered with island.
innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other It was now that I began sensibly to feel
side, I had found but three in a year and how much more happy the life I now led
a half. Here was also an infinite number was, with all its miserable circumstances,
of fowls o`_ many kinds, some of which I than the wicked, abominable life I led all
had not seen before, and many of them the past part of my days; and now having
very good meat, but such as I knew not changed both my sorrows and my joys;
the names of, except those called penguins. my very desires altered, and my delights
I could have shot as many as I pleased, were perfectly new from what they were
but was very sparing of my powder and at first coming.
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill Before, as I walked about, either on my
a she-goat, if I could, which I cotJd better hunting, or for viewing the country, the
feed on; and though there were many anguish of my soul at my condition would
goats here, more than on the other side of break out upon me on a sudden, and my
the island, yet it was with much more very heart would die within me, to think
difficulty that I could come near them. of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I
I confess this side of the country was was in, and how I was a prisoner; locked


up with the eternal bars and bolts of the would go off, and the grief having ex-
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, with- hausted itself would abate.
out redemption. In the midst of the But now I began to exercise myself
greatest composures of my mind, this with new thoughts. I daily read the Word
would break out upon me like a storm, of God, and applied all the comforts of it
and make me wring my hands, and weep to my present stat-. One ii 1..1i 'l., being

like a child. Sometimes it would take me
in the middle of my work, and I would sit
down and sigh, and look upon the ground(
for an hour or two together; and this
was still worse to me, for if I could burst
out into tears, or vent myself by words, it

very sad, I opened the Bible upon these
words, I will never leave thee, never for-
sake thee." Immediately it occurred that
these words were to me; why otherwise
should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when I was mournbmg


over my condition, as one forsaken of God mind at that thought, and I durst not
and man? Well, then," said i, if God speak the words. How canst thou become
does not forsake me, of what ill conse- such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, "to
quence can it be, or what matters it, though pretend to be thankful for a condition,
which, however
thou mayst -en.
Swold sold deavor to be con.
_. tented with, thou
wouldst rather
pray heartily to be
delivered from? "
So I stopped
there; but though
I could not say I
thanked God for
being there, yet
I sincerely gave
thanks to God for
opening my eyes,
by whatever afflict.
ing providence,
to see the former
condition of my
life, and to mourn
for my wickedness
and repent.
Thus I began
my third year. I
was seldom idle,
dividing my time
hle world should all forsake me, seeing, on according to my daily employment. such as,
the other hand, if I had all the world, anmd first, my duty to God, and the reading the
should lose the favor and blessing of God, Scriptures, which I always set apart somc
there would be no comparison in the loss?" time for, thrice every day; secondly, the
From this moment I began to conclude going abroad with my gun for food, which
in my mind that it was possible for me to generally took up three hours in every
be ]mippy in this forsaken, solitary condi- morning, when it did not rain; thirdly,
tion; and I was going to give thanks to the ordering, curing, preserving and cook.
God for bringing mnie to thisplace. Iknow ing what I had killed or caught for my
not what it was, but something shocked my supply. These took up great part of the


day. Also, it is to be considered, that 'r
the middle of the cay, when the sun was
in the zenith, the violence of the heat was
too great to stir out; so that about four
hours in the evening was all the time I
could be supposed to work in, with this
exception, that sometimes I changed my
hours of hunting ar.d working, and went
to work in the morning, and abroad with
my gun in the afterr.con.
While in-doors, during the rains, I talked,
much to my parrot, which now learned her
own name and seemed to repeat it for my
diversion, as it pleased me greatly.
I was now in the months of November
and December, expecting my crop of barley
and rice. The ground I had dug up for

them was not great; for my seed of each
was not above half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry sea-
son ; but now my)- crop promised very well,
when on a sudden I found I was in danger

of losing it all again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep
from it; as, first the goats, and wild crea-
tures which I called hares, which, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, eat it so close
that it could get no time to shoot up into
This I saw no remedy for, but making
an inclosure about it with a hedge, which 1
did wiih a great deal of toil, and the more,
because it required a great deal of speed;
the creatures daily spoiling my corn. How.
ever, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop, I got it totaP'/ well
fenced in about three weeks' tn-e; and
shooting some of the creatures in the day
time, I set my dog to guart: it in the night,
tying him up to a stake at the gate, where
he would stand and bark all night long: so
in a little time the enemies forsook thp
place, and the corn grew very strong and
But now I had even greater trouble to
keep the birds from eating all of the
ripening grain. I finally shot three of
them, and hung them up as scarecrows.
This had the effect I desired, and kept the
birds away. In the latter end of Decem-
ber I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or
sickle to cut it down, and all I could do
was to make one, as well as I could, out of
one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses,
which I saved among t'ae arms out of the
ship. However, as my crop was but
small I had no great difficulty to cut it
down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for
I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried
It away in a great basket which I had
made, and so rubbed it out with my hands;

07 -, -, '! 1 1 Q2


and at the end of all my harvesting, I
found that out of my half-peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and above
two bushels and a-half of barley; that is
to say, by my guess, for I had no measure
at that time.
I had long studied, by some means or
other, to make myself some earthen vessels,
which, indeed, I wanted sorely. I did not
doubt but if I could find out any clay, I
might botch up some such pot as might,
being dried by the sun, be hard enough
and strong enough to bear handling, and
to hold anything that was dry, and re-
quired to be so; and as this was necessary
in preparing corn, meal, &c., which was
the thing that I was upon, I resolved to
make some as large as I could, and fit only
to stand like jars, to hold what should be
put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or
rather laugh at me, to tell how many awk-
ward ways I took to raise this paste; what
.odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how
many of them fell in, and how many fell
out-the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight; how many cracked
by the over-violent heat of the sun, being
set out too hastily; and how many fell to
pieces with only removing, as well before
as after they were dried; and, in a word,
how, after having labored hard to find the
clay-to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home, and work it-I could not make
above two large earthen ugly things (I can-
not call them jars) in about two months'
However, as the sun baked these two
very dry and hard, I lifted them very
gentiv up, and set them down again in two

great wicker baskets, which I had made on
purpose for them, that they might not
Though miscarried so much in my design
for large pots, yet I made several smaller
things with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers and pipkins,
and anything my hand turned to; and the
heat of the sui baked them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end,
which was to get an earthen pot to hold
what was liquid, and bear the fire; which
none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for
cooking my meat, when I went to put it
out after I had done with it, I found a
broken piece of one of my earthenware ves-
sels in the fire. burnt as hard as a st-me,


and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised
to see it, and said to myself that certainly
they mighb be made to burn whole, if they
would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my
fire so as to make it burn me some pots. I
had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead,
though I had some lead to 41o it with; but
I placed three large pipkins, two or three

pots, in a pile, one upon another, and placed
my firewood all round it, with a heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with
fresh fuel round the outside and upon the
top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did
not crack at all; when I saw them clear
red, I let them staid in that heat about
five or six hours, till I found one of them,
though it did no6 crack, did melt or run;
for the sand which was mixed with the
clay melted with the violence of the heat,
and woulM Lave run into glass if I had
gone on. So I slacked my fire gradually till
the pots Lbgan to abate of the red color,
and watching them all nigllt that I might

not let the fire abate too fast, in the morn.
ing I had three very good (I will not say
handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen
pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and
one them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.
After this experiment, I wanted no sort
of earthenware for my use; but I must
needs say as to the shapes of them they
were very indifferent, as any one may sup-
pose, when I had no way of making them,
but as the children make dirt pies, or as a
woman would make pies that never learned
to raise paste.
I now thought to dig out a stone, and
make myself a mortar; but, after searching
a long while I could find no stone hard
enough, as all the rocks on the island were
soft and crumbling. I got instead a great
block of hard wood, and with much labor
I rounded the outside, and then, with the
help of fire, made a hollow place in it, as
the Indians in Brazil make their canoes.
Then I made a heavy pestle of iron-wood,
and laid them both by till I had my next
crop of corn to grind or pound into flour.
With some muslin taken from the ship, I
made some very good sieves.
The baking part was the next thing to
be considered, but I managed this also.
I made some hollow earthen vessels, which
served as hearths. In there I built hot
fires. Then, raking the ashes and embers
off clean, I put in my loaves and covered
them with earthen jars.
All the while these things were doing,
you may be sure my thoughts ran many
times upon the land which I had seen
from the other side of the island; and I
was not without secret wishes that I was


on shore there, fancying that I might find
some way or other to convey myself far-
ther, and perhaps at last find some means
of escape.
But all this while I made no allowance
for the dangers of such a condition, and
how I might fall into the hands of sav-
ages, and perhaps such as I might have
reason to think far worse than the lions
and tigers of Africa; that if I once came
into their power I should run a hazard of
being killed, and perhaps of being eaten;
for I had heard that the people of the
Caribbean coasts were cannibals, or men-
eaters, and I knew by the latitude, that I
could not be far off from that shore. All
these things, I say, which I ought to have
considered well of, and I did cast up in
my thoughts afterwards, yet took up none
of my apprehensions at first, and my head
ran mightily upon the thought of getting
over to that shore.
Now, I wished for my boy Xury and
the long-boat, with the shoulder-of-mutton
sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa; but this was
in vain. Then I thought I would go and
look at our ship's boat, which was blown
up upon the shore a great way, in the
storm, when we were first cast away. She
lay almost where she did at first, but not
quite, and was turned, by the force of the
waves and the winds, almost bottom up-
ward, against the high ridge of rough
'sand, but no water about her as before.
If I had had hands to have refitted her,
and to have launched her into the water,
the boat would have done well enough,
a n I might have gone back into the
tazils with her easily enough; but I

might have easily foreseen that I could no
more turn her and set her upright upon
her bottom, than I could remove the
island; however, I went to the wood, and
cut levers and rollers, and brought them to
the boat, i resolved to try what I could do.
I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece,
of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three
or four weeks about it; at last, finding it
impossible to heave it up with my little
strength, I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermine it, and so to make it fall
down, setting pieces of wood to thrust
and guide it right in the fall.
But I was unable to stir it, or to get


under it, much less to move it forward to-
wards the water; so I was forced to give
it over; and yet, though I gave over the
hopes of the boat, my desire to venture
over for the mainland increased.

.. .......Tl. a.l t n i ---
"' upon thinking whether
it was not possible to make myself a
canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even without tools,
or, as I might say, without hands-viz.,
of the trunk of a great tree. This I not
only thought possible, but easy, and pleased
myself extremely with my thoughts of
making it, and with my having much more
convenience for it than any of the Negroes
or Indians; but not at all considering the
particular inconveniences which I lay
under more than the Indians did, viz.,
want of hands to move it into the water
when it was made.
I went to work upon this boat the most
like a fool that ever man did, who had any
of his senses awake. I pleased myself
with the design, without determining
whether I was ever able to undertake it;
not but that the difficulty of launching my
boat came often into my head; but I put
a stop to my inquiries into it, by this
foolish answer which I gave myself : "Let
me first make it; I warrant I shall find
some way to get it along when it is done."

This was a most preposterous method;
but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed,
and to work I went, and felled a cedar-
tree. I question much whether Solomon
ever had such a one for the building the
Temple of Jerusalem. It was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part, and four
feet eleven inches diameter at the end of
twenty-two feet; after which it lessened
for a while, and then parted into branches.
It was not without infinite labor that I
felled this tree. I was twenty days hack-
ing and hewing at it at the bottom; I was
fourteen more getting the branches and
limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut
off, which I hacked and hewed through
with my axe and hatchet. After this, it
cost me a month to shape it to something
like the bottom of a boat. It cost me
near three months more to clear the inside,
and work it out so as to make an exact
boat of it. This I did, indeed, without fire,
by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint
of hard labor, till I had brought it to be a
very handsome periagua, and big enough
to have carried six-and-twenty men.
When I had gone through this work, I
was extremely delighted with it. The
boat was really much bigger than ever I
saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of
one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke
it had cost, you may be sure-for there
remained nothing but to get it into the
water; and had I gotten it into the water,
I make no question, but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most
unlikely to be performed that ever was
But all my devices to get it into the
water failed me. It lay about one hun.


dred yards from the water, and not more;
but the first inconvenience was, it was up
hill towards the creek. Well, to take
away this discouragement, I resolved to
dig into the surface of the earth, and so
make a declivity. This I began, and it
cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but
who grudge pains that have their deliver-
ance in view ?); but when this was worked
through, and this difficulty managed, it was
still much at one, for I could no more stir
the canoe than I could the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground,
and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to
bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I
could not bring the canoe down to the
water. I began this work, but upon cal-
culating the amount of digging and what
I could do in a day, I found it would take
twelve years to finish it, so I was obliged
to abandon it.
In the middle of this work I finished my '
fourth year in this place, and kept my anni-
versary with the same devotion, and with
as much comfort as ever before; for, by
a constant study and serious application of
the Word of God, and by the assistance of
His grace, I gained a different knowledge
from what I had before. I looked now
upon the world as a thing remote, which I
had nothing to do with, no expectation
from, and, indeed, no desire about; in a
word, I had nothing indeed to do with it,
nor was ever likely to have.
The next thing to my ink being wasted,
was that of my bread, I mean the biscuit
which I brought out of the ship. This I
had husbanded to the last degree, allowing'
myself but one cake of bread a day for
above a year; and yet I was quite without

bread for a year before I got any corn of
my own.
My clothes, too, began to dezay mightily;
as to linen, I had had none for a good
while, except some shirts which I had found
in the chests of the other seamen, and
which I carefully preserved; because many
times I could bear no other clothes on but
a shirt; and it was a very great help
to me that I had, among all the men's
clothes of the ship, almost three dozen
of shirts. There were also several thick
watch-coats of the seamen's, which were
left behind, but they were too hot to wear;
so I set to work, tailoring, or rather, indeed,
botching, for I made most piteous work of
it. However, I made shift to make two or
three waiscoats, which I hoped would serve
me a great while; as for breeches om
drawers, I made but a very sorry shift till
I have mentioned that I saved the skins
of all the creatures that I killed, I mean
four-footed ones, and I had hung them up
stretched out with sticks in the sun, by
which means some of them were so dry and
hard that they were fit for little, but others,
it seems, were very useful. The first thing
made of these was a great cap for my head,
with the hair on the outside, to shoot off
the rain; and this performed so well, that
after; I made me a suit of clothes wholly of
those skins. I must not omit to acknow-
ledge they were wretchedly made; for if I
was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor.
However, they were such as I made a very
good shift with, and when I was abroad, if
it happened to rain, the hair e the waist-
coat and cap being outermo ';, I was kept
very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time it spread, but if it did not let down too,
and pains to make an umbrella. I was, in- and draw in, it would not be portable for
deed, in great need of one, and had a great me any way but just over my head, which
mind to make one. I had seen them made would not do. However, at last, as I said,
in the Brazils, where they are very useful I made one to answer. I covered it with
in the great heats which are there, and I skins, the lair upwards, so that it east off
felt the heats every jot as great here, and the rain like a pent-house, and kept off
greater too, being nearer the equinox; be- the sun so effectually, that I could walk
sides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, out in the hottest of the weather with

j~- <'~~ IIV
~ ~ ~9W

o;%~ ~"- ~ 4x

it was a most useful thing to me, as well
for the rains as the heats. I took a world
of pains at it, and was a great while before
I could make anything likely to hold nay,
after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled
two or three before I made one to my mind.
But at last I made one that answered indif-
ferently well; the main difficulty I found
was to make it to let down. I could make

greater advantage than I could before ix
the coolest.
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my
mind being entirely composed by resigning
to the will of God, and throwing myself
wholly upon the disposal of His providence.
This made my life better than sociable, for
when I began to regret the want of conver-
sation, I would ask myself whether thus


conversing mutually with my own thoughts,
ikrd (as I hope I may say) with even my
Maker, by ejaculations and petitions, was
not better than the utmost enjoyment of
human society in the world ?
I cannot say that, after this, for five
years, any extraordinary thing happened to
me, but I lived on in the same course, i.
the same posture and place, just as before.
The chief thing I was employed in, besides
my yearly labor of planting my barley and
rice, and curing my raisins-of both which
I always kept up just enough to have
sufficient stock of the year's provision
beforehand-I had one labor, to make me
a canoe, which at last I finished; so that,
by digging a canal to it of six feet wide
and four feet deep, I brought it into the
creek, almost half a mile.
In building this boat I was wiser than
in building my larger one, and I built it
small enough to get to the sea. I was near
two years in building it, but I never
grudged my labor, in hopes of having a
boat to go off to sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was
finished, yet the size of it was not at all
answerable to the design which I had in
view when I made the first; I mean of
venturing over to the mainland, so that
design was given over for the present. As
t had a boat, my next design was to make
a tour round the island.
For this purpose, I fitted up a little mast
iu my boat, and made a sail to it out of
some of the little pieces of the ship's sails
which lay in store. I tried the boat, and
found she would sail very well. Then I
made little lockers or boxes at each end to
p't provisions. ammunition, etc., to be

kept dry, either from rain or the spray of
the sea. I made also, a little, long, hollow
place where I could lay my gun, making a
flap to hang down over it to keep it dry.
I fixed my umbrella at the stern, to stand
over my head like an awning. All now
being ready, I loaded my ship for the voy-
age, putting in two dozen loaves of barley
bread, an earthen pot full of parched
rice, a little bottle of rum, and half a goat,
powder and shot for my gun, and two
large coats, one to lie upon and one to
cover me in the night, and thus I set sail.
When I came to the east side of the
island, I found a great ledge of rocks lie
out about two leagues into the sea, and be.
yond that a shoal of sand lying half a
league more. I was afraid to go so far out
to sea, for fear I could not get back again,
so I anchored my boat, and, taking my
gun, went on shore and climbed a big hill,
to get a view of the other side of the
From the hill I perceived a strong and
intricate current, which would be very
likely to prevent me from being able to,
make the island again. And, indeed, had
I not got first upon this hill, I believe it
would have been so; for there was the
same current on the other side of the
island, only that it set off at a farther dis-
tance, and I saw there was a strong edd.
under the shore; so I had nothing to do
but to get out of the first current, and I1
should presently be in an eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because..
the wind blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E.,
and that being just contrary to the current,
made a great breach of the sea upon the
point; so that it was not safe for me to


keep too close to the shore for the breach,
nor to go too far off, because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind
having abated overnight, the sea was calm,
and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece
to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no
sooner was I come to the point, when I
was not even my boat's length from the
shore, but I found myself in a great depth
of water, and a current like the sluice of
a mill. It carried my boat along with it

with such violence that all I could do
could not keep her so much as on the edge
of it; but I found it hurried me farther
and farther out from the eddy, which was
on my left hand. There was no wind
stirring to help me, and all that I could do
with my paddles signified nothing. And
now I began to give myself over for lost;
for as the current was on both sides of the
island, I knew in a few leagues' distance
they must join again, and then I was irre-


I had no prospect be-
fore me but of perishing, not by the sea,
for that was calm enough, but of starving
from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tor-
toise on the shore, as big almost as I could
lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I
had a great jar of fresh water, that is to
say, one of my earthen pots; but what
was all this to being driven into the ,rast
ocean, where, to be sure, there was no
shore, no mainland or island, for a thous-
and miles at least ?
And now I saw how easy it was for the
providence of God to make the most mis-
erable condition that mankind could be in
worse. Now I looked back upon my deso-
late, solitary island as the most pleasant
place in the world, and ail the happiness
my heart could wish for was to be there
again. I stretched out my hands to it,
with eager wishes. "0 happy desert !"
said I, "I shall never see thee more. 0
miserable creature whither am I going ?"
I still worked hard to get my boat out
,1 the current. About noon, a breeze
sprang up from the S. S. E, which cheered
my heart a little, and especially when, in
about half an hour more, it blew a pretty
small, gentle gale. By this time, I had
got at a frightful distance from the island;
and had the least cloudy or hazy weather
intervened I had been undone another

way, too; for I had no compass on board.
and should never have known how to have
steered towards the island, if I had but
once lost sight of it. But the weather
continuing clear, I applied myself to get
up my mast again, and spread my sail,
standing away to the north as much as
possible, to get out of the current.
I made such good headway that I soon
found an eddy which carried me about a
league on my way back. The wind con-
tinuing fair, I continued to near the island
and soon got to land. When I was on
shore, I fell on my knees and gave God
thanks for my deliverance. After which, I
drew my boat into a little cove under some
trees, and laid me down to sleep, being
quite spent with the fatigue of the voyage,
which I resolved not to repeat.
I was now at a great loss which way to
get home with my boat.. I had run so much
hazard, and knew too much of the case, to
think of attempting it by the way I weni
out; and what might be at the other side 1
knew not, nor had I any mind to run any
more ventures. So I resolved, on the next
morning, to make my way westward along
the shore, and to see if there was no creek
where I might lay up my frigate in safety,
so as to have her again, if I wanted her.
In about three miles, coasting the shore, I
came to a very good inlet or bay, about a
mile over, which narrowed till it came to a
very little rivulet or brook, where I found
a very convenient harbor for my boat.
Hele I put in, and, having stored my boat
very safe, I went on shore to look about
me, and see where I was.
I soon found I had but a little passed by
the place where I had been before, when I


travelled on foot to that shore; so, taking
nothing out of my boat but my gun and
umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I
began my march. The way was comfort-
able enough after such a voyage as I had
been upon, and I reached my old bower in
the evening, where I found everything
standing as I left it.
I got over the fence, and laid me down
to rest my limbs, for I was
"rery weary, and fell asleep.
But judge you, if you can,
what a surprise I must have -
been in when I was awaked
out of my sleep by a voice,
calling me by my name sev-
eral times : "Robin, Robin,
Robin Crusoe poor Robin
Crusoe Where are you,
Robin Crusoe? Where are
you? Where have you ll 1
been ?"
I was so dead asleep at
first, being fatigued with
rowing the first part of the ._._..
day and walking the latter
part, that I did not awake -
thoroughly; and dozing be- -
tween sleeping and waking,
thought I dreamed that
somebody spoke to me; but
as the voice continued to
repeat, "Robin Crusoe !
Robin Crusoe !" at last I
began to awake more per-
fectly, and was at first
dreadfully frightened, and
started up in the utmost -
consternation. No sooner -
were my eyes open, but I

saw my poll sitting on the top oif the
hedge, and immediately knew that it was
lie that spoke to me; for just in such
bemoaning language I had used to talk
to him and teach him.
IHowever, even though I knew it was the
parrot, and that indeed it could be nobody
else, it was a good while before I could
compose myself. Holding out my hand,


and calling him by his name. Poll," the
sociable creature came to me, and sat upon
my thumb, as hl used to do, and continued
talking to me, '" Poor Robin Crusoe and
how did I come here! and where had I
been ?" just as if he had been overjoyed to
see me again; and so I carried him home
along with me.
I had now enough of rambling to sea for
some time, and enough to do for many days
to sit still and reflect upon the danger I

had been in. I would have been very glad
to have had my boat again on my side of
the island; but I knew not how it was
practicable to get it about. As to the east
side of the island, which I had gone round,
I knew well enough there was no ventur-
ing that way; my very heart would shrink
and my very blood run chill, but to
think of it; and as to the other side of the
island, I knew there was a current there
quite as dangerous.
Began to t'ink now what I should do
for goat's flesh when my powder should be
all gone. To make provision for this, I set
traps, and caught some young kids, which
I tamed, keeping them in a large enclosure,
securely fenced about. It would have
made a stoic smile to see me and my little
family sit down to dinner. There was my
majesty, the prince and lord of the whole

island. I had the lives of all my subjects
at absolute command; I could hang, draw,
give life and liberty and take it away, and
no rebels among all my subjects. Then to
see how like a king I dined too, all alone,
attended by my servants! Poll, as if he
had been my favourite, was the only per-
son permitted to talk to me; my dog, who
was now grown very old and crazy, sat
always at my right hand; and two cats,
one on one side the table, and one on the
other, expecting now and then a bit from
my hand, as a mark of special favor.
I wanted the use of my boat very much,
but I was very loth to run any more risk
at sea. One day I resolved to go by land
to the little hill on the other side where I
had observed how the shore lay and the
current set, and so I started, following the
edge of the shore. Had any of the peoRle
of England met me at that time, I should
either have frightened them or raised a
great deal of laughter.
I had a great, high shapeless cap, made
of goat's skin, with a flap hanging down
behind, as well to keep the sun from me as
to shoot the rain off from running into my
neck; nothing being so hurtful in these
climates as the rain upon the flesh under
the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the
skirts coming down to about the middle
of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed
breeches of the same. The breeches were
made of the skin of an old he-goat, hose
hair hung down such a length on either
side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the
middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I
had none, but had made me a pair of some-
things, I scarce know what to call them,


like buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace
on either side ike sp,+.erdasles, but of a
most barbaro:.s shape, as indeed were all
the rest of nmy clothes.
I had on a broad belt of goat's skin
dried, which I drew together with two
thong-: of the same, instead of buckles;
and in ai kind of a frog on either side of
this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung
a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side,
one on the other. I had another belt not
so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder; and at the
end of it, under my left arm, hung two
pouches, both made of goat's skin too, in
one of which hung my powder, in the
other my shot. At my back I carried my
basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over

my head a great, clumsy, ugly goat-skin
umbrella, but which, after all, was the
most necessary thing I had about me next
to my gun.
When I reached the hill, I found the sea
quite still, which convinced me that the
current was formed by the ebb and flow
of the tide. Still I resolved to leave the
boat for use on that side of the island, and
to make me another boat to use on my
home side.
It happened one day, about noon, going
towards my boat, I was exceedingly sur-
prised with the print of a man's naked foot
on the shore, which was very plain to be
seen on the sand. I stood like one thun-
derstruck, or as if I bad seen an appar.
ition. I listened, I looLed around me, but


I could hear nothing, nor see anything; I
went np to a rising ground, to look far-
ther; I went up the shore, and down the
shore, but it was all one: I could see no
other impression but that one. I went to
it again to see if there were any more, and
to observe if it might not be my fancy;
but there was no room for that, for there
was exactly the print of a foot-toes, heel,
and every pa-:t of a foot. How it came
thither I knew not, nor could in the least
imagine. But .xater innumerable fluttering
thoughts, like 'a man perfectly confused
and out of myself, I came home to my for-
tification, not feeling,
as we say, the ground
I went on, but te-ri-
fled to the last de.
gree, looking behiudl
me at every two or
three steps, mistaking .
every bush and tree, *
and fancying every
stump at a distance
to be a man. Nor is it
possible to describe
how many various
shapes my affrighted
imagination represent-
ed things to me in;
how many wild ideas
were formed every
moment in my fancy,
and what strange un-
accountable whimseys
came into my thoughts -
by the way.
When I came .to .. :"
my castle (for so I -'
think I called it ever

after this), I fled into it like one pur.
sued. Whether I went over by the
ladder, as first contrived, or went in at
the hole in the rock, which I called a
door, I cannot remember; for never frighted
hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with
more terror of mind than I did to this
I had no sleep that night, but lay
trembling with fright and thinking who or
what it could be that had visited the
island. I fancied all sorts of things, but
finally concluded that some of the savages
of the main land had been there, and this


did not in the least allay my fear, for after-
wards I was in constant dread that I
should meet them. When milking my
goats or gathering my fruit, if I heard the
least noise, I was ready to drop every-
thing and flee to my house.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had
dug my cave so large as to bring a door
through again beyond where my fortifica-
tion joined to the rock. Therefore I re-
solved to draw me a second fortification, in
the same manner of a semicircle, at a dis-
tance from my wall, just where I had
planted a double row of trees about twelve
years before. These trees having been planted
so thick before, there wanted but few piles
to be driven between them, and my wall
would be soon finished. So that I had
now a double wall; and my outer wall
was thickened with pieces of timber, old

cables, and everything I could think
of to make it strong, having in it seven
little holes, about as big as I might put
my arm out at. In the inside of this, I
thickened my wall to about ten feet thick,
continually bringing earth out of my cave,
and laying it at the foot of the wall, and
walking upon it; and through the seven
holes I contrived to plant the muskets like
cannon, so I could fire all the seven guns in
two minutes' time. This wall I was many
a weary month in finishing, and yet never
thought myself safe till it was done.
Then I planted the ground without as
full of trees as could well stand and grow,
so that, in two years' time, I had a grove so
thick that no one would ever imagine there
was any human habitation 'beyond it.
While I was doing this I thought much of
the safety of my goats; so I made a strong


enclosure in a retired part of the island,
and removed to it ten she-goats and two
he-goats. and left them there.
One day as I wandered more to the west
part of the island, being on a hill, I thought
I saw a boat far out at sea, but I was not
sure. On coming down from the hill, I
was confounded and amazed to see the
shore spread with skulls and other bones of
human bodies. There was a place where
a lire had been made, and a circle dug in
the earth, where I supposed the savage
wretches had sat down to their inhuman
feast. When I recovered from my horror
at such a sight, I began to thank God that
I was cast ashore upon a part of the island
that was not visited by the cannibals.
In this frame of thankfulness, I went
home to my castle, and began to be much
easier now, as to the safety of my circurm-
stances, than ever I was before: for I
observed that these wretches never came to
this island in search of what they could
get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or
not expecting, anything here; and having
often, no doubt, been up in the covered,
woody part of it, without finding anything
to their purpose. I knew I had been here
now almost eighteen years, and never saw
the least footsteps of human creature there
before; and I might be eighteen years
more as entirely concealed as I was now, if
I did not discover myself to them, which I
had no manner of occasion to do; it being
my only business to keep myself entirely
concealed where I was, unless I found a
better sort of creatures than cannibals to
make myself known to. Yet I entertained
such an abhorrence of the savage wretches
that I have been speaking of, and of the

wretched inhuman custom of their devour.
ing and eating one another up, that I con-
tinued pensive and sad, and kept close
within my own circle for almost two years
after this. When I say my own circle, I
mean by it my three plantations, viz., my
castle, my country-seat (which I called my
bower), and my enclosure in the woods;
nor did I look after this for any other use
than as an enclosure for my goats; for the
aversion which nature gave me to these
wretches was such, that I did not so much
as go to look after my boat in all this time,
but began rather to think of making me



-~ *~:~~=-*

* -~ 4.

another; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the
other boat round the island to me, lest I
should meet with some of those creatures
at sea; in which case, if I had happened to
have fallen into their hands, I knew what
would have been my lot.
Night and day, I could think of nothing
now but how I might destroy some of
these monsters, and, if possible, save the
victim they should bring hither to destroy.
It would take up a larger volume than this
whole work is intended tc be, to set down
all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the

destroying of these
S~--.- creatures, or at least
:- frightening them so as
-- to prevent their coming
--- hither any more. But
-_ all was abortive; noth-
--. -ing could be possible
to take effect, unless I
was to be there to do
:- it myself: and what
could one man do
among them, when
perhaps there might
S' be twenty or thirty of
U them, together with
their darts, or their
bows and arrows, with
which they probably
2' could shoot as true to
S a mark as I could with
my gun ?
Sometimes I thought
of digging a hole
S.- ..._. under the place where
they made their fire,
and putting in five or six pounds of gun-
powder, which, when they kindled their
fire, would consequently take fire, and blow
up all that was near it: but as, in the first
place, I should be unwilling to waste so
much powder upon them, my being now
within the quantity of one barrel, so neither
could I be sure of its going off at any cer-
tain time, when it might surprise them;
and, at best, that it would do little more
than just blow the fire about their ears and
fright them, but not sufficient to make
them forsake the'place; so I laid it aside.
I continually made my tour every morn-
ing to the tcp of the hill, which was from


a.. a l ,,_,u t t I , I- I II I .s I,'
more, to see if I could
observe any boats upon the sea, coming near
the island, or standing over towards it; but
I began to tire of this hard duty, after I
had for two or three months constantly
kept my watch, but came always back
without any discovery.
I began to think, too, that it was not
for me to judge these wretches, and for a
year, I gave up watching for them. This
I did, however: I removed my boat and
hid it securely on the east end of the
island, and I kept myself more retired
than ever.
I believe the reader of this will not
think it strange if I confess these anxie-
ties, these constant fears I lived in, and
the concern that was now upon me, put
an end to all invention, and to all the
contrivances that I had laid for my future
accommodations and conveniences. I had
the care of my safety more now upon
hands than that of my food. I cared not
to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood
now, for fear the noise I should make
should be heard; much less would I fire
a gun for the same reason; and, above all,
I was intolerably uneasy at making any
fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at
a great distance in the day, should betray
me. For this reason, I removed that part

of my business which required fire, such
as burning of pots and pipes, etc., into
my new apartment in the woods; where,
after I had been some time, I found, to
my unspeakable consolation, a mere nat,
ural cave in the earth, which went in a
vast way, and where, I dare say, no sav-
age, had he been at uhe mouth of it, would
be so hardy as to venture in; nor, indeed,
would any man else, but one who, like me,
wanted nothing so much as & sa'e retreat
On entering with a lighted torch, I stum
bled over an old he-goat that had crept ir
there to die, and who did die the next day
The entrance to this cave was a smali
hole at the base of a large rock, but within
it was large and roomy and quite dry. I
was greatly rejoiced at the discovery, and
I brought here my magazine of powder,
several muskets and other things.



i t was now the month of December in
my twenty-third year; and. this, being the
southern solstice (for winter I cannot call
tt), was the particular time of my harvest,
%nd required me to be pretty much abroad
In the fields, when, going out early in the
morning, I was surprised with seeing a
dght of some fire upon the shore, at a dis-

tance from me of about two miles towards
the end of the island where I had observed
some savages had been, as before, and not
on the other side, but, to my great afflic.
tion, it was on my side of the island.
I was, indeed, terribly surprised at the
sight, and stopped short within my grove,
not daring to go out, lest I might be su-.



prisenl; ad. yet I had no more peace
within, from the apprehensions I had
that if these savages, in rambling over
the island, should find my corn standing
or cut, or any of my works. they would

V,1 I -- -.-,-- .1 _

'N W
"1 6)

immediately conclude that there were peo-
ple in the place, and would then never rest
till they had found me out. In this ex-
tremity I went back directly to my castle,
and pulled up the ladder after me, having
made all things without look as wild and
natural as I could.
Then I prepared myself within, putting
myself in a posture of defence; I loaded
il my cannon, as I called them-that is to

say, my muskets, which were mounted
upon my new fortifications, and all my
pistols, and resolved to defend myself to
the last gasp-not forgetting seriously to
commend myself to the Divine protection,
and earnestly to pray to God to deliver
me out of the hands of the barbarians.
And in this posture I continued about
two hours, and began to be impatient for
intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to
send out. I was not able to bear sitting
in ignorance any longer; so setting up my
ladder to the side of the hill, and then
pulling the ladder after me, I set it up
again, and mounted to the top of the hill,
and pulling out my perspective-glass, I laid
me down flat on the ground, and began to
look for the place. I presently found
there were no less than nine naked say
ages sitting round a small fire they had
made, not to warm them, for they had no
need of that, the weather being extremely
hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some of
their barbarous diet of human flesh which
they had brought with them, whether alive
or dead I could not know.
They had two canoes with them, which
they had hauled up upon the shore ; and
as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to
me to wait the return of the flood to go
away again. As I expected, so it proved;
for, as soon as the tide made to the west-
ward, I saw them all take boat and row
(or paddle, as we call it) away. I should
have observed, that for an hour or more
before they went off they were dancing
and I could easily discern their- postures
and gestures by my glass.
As soon as I saw them gone, I took my
guns and pistols and went away to the


hill on the other side. I saw there had
been three canoes of savages there, and
they were out at sea, making over for the
main. Going down to the shore I saw
with horror, the marks of their dreadful
feast, in the blood and bones of human
I was so filled with indignation at this
sight, that I began to ponder how I could
destroy them when they should come
again. I went often to the hill to look for
them, and if they had come, I should cer-
tainly have attacked them. But more than
a year elapsed and I saw no signs of them,
and I lived on very comfortably. In the

meantime, an event happened which
intensely excited me.
There had been a storm of wind all day,
with a great deal of lightning and thunder,
and a very foul night it was after it. As
I was reading in the Bible, and taken up
with very serious thoughts about my pres-
ent condition. I was surprised with the
noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea.
This was, to be sure, a surprise of a differ-
ent nature from any I had met before ; for
the notions this put into my thoughts were
of another kind. I started up in the
greatest haste, and, in a trice, clapped my
ladder to the middle place of the rock, and
pulled it after me; and, mounting it the

second time, got to the top of the hill thb
very moment that a flash of fire bid me
listen for a second gun, which, accordingly,

i- :

in about half a minute, I heard; and by
the sound, knew that it was from that part
of the sea where I was driven out with the
current, in my boat. I in mediately con-
sidered that this must be some ship in dis-
tress. I had the presence of mind, at that
minute, to think, that though 1 could not
help them, it might be they might help
me; so I brought together all the dry
wood I could get at hand, and, making a
good, handsome pile, I set it on fire upon
the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed
freely; and though the wind blew very
hard, yet it burned fairly out, so that I
was certain, if there was any such thing as
a ship, they must need see it, and no doubt
they did; for as soon as my fire blazed up,
I heard another gun and then several

In the morning I saw to my great sor-
row the wreck of a ship upon the concealed
rocks, far out from shore. I cannot ex-


plain, by any possible energy of words,
what a strange longing I felt in my soul
upon this sight, breaking out sometimes
thus :-" Oh, that there had been but one
or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out of
this ship, to have escaped to me that I
might but have had one companion, one
fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and
to have conversed with!" In all the time
of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest,

so strong a desire after the society of my
fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the
want of it.
But there was no sign of any living
thing on the wreck, and I had only the
affliction, some days after, to see the corpse
(of r l1rowned boy come on shore. He had
nothing ;.n his pockets but two pieces of
eighlit and a tobacco pipe-the last was to
me of ten times more value than the first.

And now the thought so pressed upon
me night and day that I must go off to this
wreck, that, at last, I loaded my boat with.
everything necessary and ventured to sea,
after making a careful study of the dan.
gerous currents.
When I came close to the ship, a dog
appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming,
yelped and cried ; and, as soon as I called
him, jumped into the sea to come to me. I

took him into the boat, but found him
almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave
him a cake of my bread, and he devoured
it like a ravenous wolf that had been starv-
ing a fortnight in the snow; I then gave
the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would
have burst himself. After this I went on
board; but the first sight I met with was
with two men drowned in the forecastle.


Besides the dog, there was nothing left in I found, besides these chests, a little cask
the ship that had life; nor any goods, that full of liquor, of about twenty gallons,
I could see, but what wei" spoiled by the which I got into my boat with much diffi-
water. I saw several chests, which I culty. There were several muskets in the
believe belonged to some of the seamen; cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about
and I got two of them into the boat, with- four pounds of powder in it. As for thile
out examiinUi what was in them. muskets, I had no occasion for them, so ,


left them, and took the powder-horn. I
took a fire shovel and tongs, which I
wanted extremely; as also two little brass
kettles, a copper pot to make chocolate,
and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and

the dog, I came away, and the same even-
ing I reached the island again, weary and
fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that
night in the boat, and in the morning I got
all my cargo on shore. The cask of liquor
I found to be a kind of rum, not at all
good; but when I came to open the chests,
I found several things of great use to me.
Foi example, I found in one a fine case of
bottles, filled with cordial waters. I found
two pots of very good succades, or sweat-
meats, so fastened on the top that the salt
water had not hurt them. I found some
very good shirts, which were very welcome

to me; and about a dozen and a half of
white linen handkerchiefs. Besides this,
when I came to the till in the chest, I
found there three great bags of pieces of
eight; and in one of them, six doubloons

of gold, and some smai' bars of gold; I
suppose they might all weigh near a pound.
Upon the whole, I got very little by this
voyage that was of any use to me; for as
to the money, I had no manner of occasion
for it; for it was to me as the dirt under
my feet, and I would have given it all for
three or four pair of English shoes and
stockings, which were things I greatly
wanted. I had,. indeed, got two pairs of
shoes now, which I took off the feet of the
two drowned men whom I saw ia the
wreck, and I found two pairs more in one
of the chests, which were very welcome to


me. I found in
this seaman's chest
about fifty pieces
of eight, in rials,
but no gold. Well,
however, I lugged
this money home
to my cave, and
laid it up, as I had
done that before
which I had got
in our own ship.
But it was a great
pity that the other

part of this ship had not come to my
share; for I am satisfied I might have
loaded my canoe several times over
with money; which, if I had ever escaped
to England, would have lain here safe

enough till I might have come again and
fetched it.
After this event, I lived easy enough for
near two years, but I thought constantly
of how I should get away from the island.
One night I dreamed that, one of the vic-
tims of the cannibals ran away from them
and came to me. "Now," thought I, in
my dream, I may venture to the main
land, for this savage will be my pilot."
After this dream, I watched every day for
the cannibals, determined Wo capture one of
their victims.
I had watched thus for about a year and
a half, when I saw one morning no less
than five canoes on shore, and there were
about thirty of the savages dancing around
a fire. While I looked, I saw two miser-
able wretches d.. from the boats.
One was knocked down immediately and
cut up for their cookery, while the other
was left standing by himself till they
would be ready for him.
This poor wretch, seeing himself a little
at liberty, and unbound, started away from
them, and ran with incredible swiftness




- -

along the sands, directly towards me. I
was dreadfully frightened, when I perceived
him run my way; and especially when, as
I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole
body. However, my spirits began to re-
coer when I found that there was not
above three men that followed him; and
still more was I encouraged, when I found
that lie outstripped them exceedingly in
There was between them and my castle,
the creek; but he made nothing of it, but,
plunging in, swam through in about thirty
strokes, landed, and ran with exceeding
strength and swiftness. When the three
persons came to the creek, I found that two
of them could swim, but the third went no
farther, and soon after went softly back
again. It came very warmly upon my
thoughts that now was the time to get me
a servant, and perhaps a companion. I
minmmdiatelv ran down the ladder, fetched
my two guns. ,and getting up again with
the same haste to the top of the hill, I
crossed towards the sea; and having a
very short cut, and all down hill, clap'd

myself in the way between the pursuers
and the pursued, hallooing aloud to
him that fled, who, looking back, was at
first perhaps as much frightened at me as
at them. But I beckoned wkih my hand to
him to come back; and, in the mean time,
rushing at once upon the foremost, I
knocked him down with the stock of my
piece. I was loth to fire, because I would
not have the rest hear. Having knocked
this fellow down, the other stopped, as if
he had been frightened, and I advanced
towards him. But as I came nearer, I per-
ceived he had a bow and arrow, and wa.
fitting it to shoot at me: so I was then
obliged to shoot at him first, which I did,
and killed him at the first shot. The poor
savage who fled, but had stopped, was so
frightened with the fire and noise of my
piece that he stood stock still. I hallooed
again to him, and made signs to come for.
ward, which he easily understood, and


came a little way, and stood, trembling. I
smiled at him pleasantly, and beckoned,
and at length he came close to me, laid his
head .pon the ground, and put my foot
upon it. This, it seems, meant that he
would be my slave forever
But there was more work to do. The
savage that I had knocked down began to
come to himself, and sat up on the ground.
My savage motioned for me to give him my
sword, and when I gave it to him he ran
quickly and cut off his head at a single
stroke. When he had done this, he comes
laughing to me in sign of triumph, and
brought me the sword again. But that
which astonished him most, was to know
how I killed the other Indiahn so far off.
WVhen he came to him, he stood like one -
amazed, looking at him, turning him first
on one side, then on the other. He took
up his bow and arrows anL came back; so
I turned to go away, and beckoned him to
follow me.
Upon this he made signs to me that he to do so. He fell to work; and in an in.
should bury them with sand, that they stant he l'ad scraped a hole in the sand
might not be seen by the rest, if they fol- with his hands, big enough to bury thq
lowed; and so I made signs to him again first in, and then dragged him into it, and

4 M-45' -1--

covered him; and did so by the of;her also.
Then calling him away, I carried him, not
to my castle, but quite away to my cave,
on the farther part of the island. Here 1
gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to
eat, and a draught of water, which I found
he was indeed in great distress for, and
having refreshed him, I made signs for
him to go and lie down to sleep, so the
poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.
He wa a comely, handsome fellow, with
straight, strong limbs, tall and well shaped;
and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of


age. He had a very good countenance, not
a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to
have something very manly in his face.
His hair was long and black, not curled
like wool; his forehead very high and
large; and a great vivacity and sparkling
sharpness in his eyes. The color of his
skin was not quite black, but very tawny.
His face was round and plump ; his nose
small, not flat like the Negroes; a very
good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth
well set, and as white as ivory. After he
had slept about half an hour, he awoke and
came out of the cave to me: for I had been
milking my goats. When he espied me he
came running to me, laying himself down
again upon the ground, with all the pos-
sible signs of an humble, thankful disposi-
tion, making a great many antic gestures
to show it. At last he lays his head flat
upon the ground, close to my foot, and
sets my other foot upon his head, as he had
done before.
I let him know that I understood him
and was very well pleased. In a little
time I began to speak to him, and teach
him to speak to me; and, first, I let him
know his name should be FRIDAY, which
was the day I saved his life. I called him
so for the memory of the time. I likewise
taught him to say Master, and then let him
know that was to be my name; I likewise
taught him to say Yes and No, and to
know the meaning of them. I gave him
some milk in an earthen D)ot, and let him
see me drink it before him, and sop my
bread in it; and gave him a cake of bread
to do the like, which he quickly complied
with, and made signs that it was very good
for him. I kept there with him all that

night; but, as soon as it was day, I bec-
koned to him to come with me, and let
him know I would give him some clothes;
at which he seemed very glad, for he was

stark naked. As we went by the place
where he had buried the two men, he
pointed exactly to the place, and showed
me the marks that he had made to find
them again, making signs to me that we
should dig them up again and eat them.
At this I appeared very angry, made as if
I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and
beckoned with my hand to him to come
away, which he did immediately, with
great submission. I then led him up to


the top of the hill, to see if his enemies
were gone, and pulling out my glass, I saw
plainly the place where they'had been, but
no appearance of them or their canoe.
We visited the. place, and carefully
buried the remains of their horrible feast.
Friday let me know that there had been
a great battle, and that four prisoners, of
which he was one, were brought here to

be eaten. When we came back to our
castle, I fell to work to dress my man,
Friday. I gave him a pair of linen
drawers, and made him a jerkin of goat's
skin, and a very good cap of hare's skin,
and he was mightily pleased to see himself
clothed like his master.
I then made him a little tent between
my two fortifications, and I fixed all my
doors so that I could fasten them on the

inside. As to the weapons, I took them
all into my habitation every night. But I
needed none of all this precaution; for
never man had a more faithful, loving,
sincere servant than Friday was to me;
without passions, sullenness, or designs,
perfectly obliged and engaged. His very
affections were tied to me, like those of a
child to a father; and I dare say he would

have sacrificed his life to save mine,
upon any occasion whatsoever. The many
testimonies he gave me of this put it out
of doubt, and soon convinced me that I
needed no precautions for my safety on his
I was greatly delighted with him, and
made it my business to teach him every.
thing that was proper to make him useful,
handy, and helpful; 'but especially to


intending to kill a kid out of my own
flock, and bring it home and dress it; 'ut
I- as I was :'in-, I saw a she-goatlying down
in the shade, and two young kids sitting
by her. I watched hold of Friday and
e made signs to 'him not to stir; immediately
I presented my piece, shot, and killed one
of the kids. The poor creature, who had,
at a distance, indeed, seen me kill his
enemy, but did not know nor could
imagine how it was done, was sensible
surprised; trembled, and shook, and looked
so amazed that I thought he would have
sunk down. Hle did not see the kid I shot
at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped
up his waistcoat, to feel whether he was
not wounded; and, as I found presently,
thought I was resolved to kill him; for he
came and kneeled down to me, and embrac-
ing my knees, said a great many things I
did not understand; but I could easily see
the meaning was, to pray me not to kill him.
.- I soon found a way to convince him
-that I would do him no harm; and taking
o e_ i so him up by the hand, laughed at him, and
morpointing to the kid which I had killed,
make him speak, and understand me when beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which
I spoke. And he was the aptest scholar he did; and while he was wondering, and
that ever was; and particularly was so looking to see how the creature was killed,
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased I loaded my gun again. Byv.and-by I saw,
when he could but understand me, or make a great fowl sitting upon a tree within.
me understand him, that it was very pleas- shot; so, to let Friday understand a little
ant to me to talk to him. what I would do, I called him to me again,
After I had beer two or three days pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a
returned to my castle, I thought that, in parrot, and to my gun, and to the ground
order to bring Friday off from his horrid under the parrot, to let. himn see I would
way of feeding, and fromni the relish of : make it fall. I fired, and bade him look,
cannibal's stomach, I ought to let him taste and immediately he saw the parrot fall
other flesh; so I took him out with me one He stood like one frightened again, not.
morning to the woods. I went, indeed, withstanding all I had said to him; and I


believe, if I would have let him, he would
have worshipped me and the gun. As for
the gun itself, he would not so much as
touch it for several days.
When Friday tasted the stewed kid he
let me know that he liked it vwry much.
The next day I roasted a piece, and when
Friday came to eat it he expressed great
satisfaction, and made me understand that
he would never eat human flesh any more.
I taught him to beat and sift the corn and


to make bread, and in a short time he was
able to do all my work as well as I could
do it myself, and we lived very happily.
I had a mind once to try if he had any
hankering inclination to his own country
again; and having taught him English so
well that he could answer me almost any
question, I asked him whether the nation
he belonged to never conquered in battle.
At which he smiled, and said, Yes, yes
we always fight the better."


-.a: ._ Master-HIIow came
S-- -- you to be taken pris-
oner, then ?
Jriday-They more many than my na-
tion, in the place where me wta; they take
one, two, three, and me; my nation over-
beat them in the yonder place, where me
no was; there my nation take one, two,
great thousand.
Mllaster-But why did not your side re-
sover you from your enemies ?
.riday--They run, one, two three, and
me, and make me go in the canoe; my
nation have no canoe that time.
Kaster-Well, Friday, what does your
nation do with the men they take? Do
they carry them away and eat them ?
F-iday-Yes, my nation eat mans too.
Mfaster-Where do they carry them ?
Friday-Go to other place, where they
Master-Do they come hither ?
Friday-Yes, yes, they come hither;
come other else place.
Master-Have you been here with
then ?
Friday-Yes, I been here (points to
the N. W. side of the island, which, it
seems, was their side).
By this I understood that my man,
Friday, had formerly been among the
savages who used to come on shore on

the farther part of the island, on the said
man-eating occasions that he was now
brought for: and, some time after, when
I took the courage to carry him to that
side, being the same I formerly mentioned,
he presently knew the place, and told me
he was there once, when they eat up
twenty men, two women and one child.
He could not tell twenty in English, but
he numbered them, by laying so many
stones in a row, and pointing to 1ie to tell
them over.
I asked Friday a thousand questionss
about his country, and he told me all he
knew. He said his sort of people were
called Caribs; but further west there were
white-bearded men like me, and that they
had killed much mans;" by all of which,
I knew he meant the Spaniards whose
cruelties in America had spread over the
whole country, and were remembered from
father to son. As the time passed away,
I talked much to Friday about God and
the Saviour, and I verily believe that he
became a better Christian than I was.
When he could understand me well I told
him of the countries of Europe, and how
I came to be on the island. When I
showed him the ship's boat which was
now falling to pieces on the shore, he told
me that such a boat had come ashore in
his country with seventeen white men in it,
and that these white men were then living
with his people.
It was after this some time, that being
upon the top of the hill, at the east side of
the island, Friday, the weather being very
serene, looked very earnestly towards the
main land, then fell to dancing and cried,
"Oh, joy oh, glad there see my country."


-~ *;~ ~g'~~*

That set me to thinking whether I could
not make the voyage with Friday, or send
Friday alone to see if the white men were
still there.
When I proposed to Friday that he
should go over alone to see his people, he
felt very badly, and said he would like to

go, but would not leave me; so I resolved
to make a large canoe and make the ven-
ture. We felled a large tree near the
water, and, with a month's hard labor, we
shaped a very handsome boat, and in an-
other fortnight we got her into the water.
Though she was large enough to carry


twenty men, I was surprised to see with
what dexterity and how swift my man
Friday could manage her, turn her, and
paddle her along. So I asked him if we
would, and if we might venture over in
her. Yes," he said; we venture over in
her very well, though great blow wind."
However, I had a farther design that he
knew nothing of, and that was to make a
mast and a sail, and to fit her with an
anchor and cable.

P-2 R

After all this was clone, I had my man
Friday to teach as to what belonged to the
navigation of my boat; for, though he
knew very well how to paddle the canoe,
he knew nothing of what belonged to a
sail and a rudder; and was the most
amazed when he saw me work the boat to
and again in the sea by the rudder, and
how the sail gibbed, and filled this way or
that way, as the course we sailed changed.
However, with a little use I made all these
things familiar to him, and he became an
expert sailor, except that as to the com-
pass I could make him understand very
little of that.
By -die time I had the boat finished the
rainy season was upon us, and we had to
keep within doors. When we began to go
,uat again, I sent Friday down to the shore
one day to find a turtle. In. a short time
he came flying over my outer wall in a

great fright, crying out to me, "0, master I
0, master 0, bad !" "What's the matter,
Friday?" said I. "Oh! yonder, there,"
says he; one, two, three canoes, one,
two, three !" Well, Friday," says I, do
not be frightened." So I heartened him
up as well as I could. However, I saw
the poor fellow was most terribly scared,
for nothing ran in his head but that they
were come back to look for him, and would
cut him in pieces and eat him; and the
poor fellow trembled so that I scarcely'
knew what to do with him. I comforted
him as well as I could, and told him I was
in as much danger as he, and that they
would eat me as well as him. "But," said
I, "Friday, we must resolve to fight them.
Can you fight, Friday?" "Me shoot,"
says he; "but there come many great num-
ber." No matter for that," said I, again;
"our guns will fright them that we do not
kill." So I asked him whether, if I re-
solved to defend him. he would defend
me, and stand by me, and do just as I bid
him. He said, "Me die when you bid die.
I loaded the two fowling-pieces with
swan shot as large as small pistol-bullets.
Then I took four muskets, and loaded
them with two slugs, and five small bullets
each; and my two pistols I loaded witn a
brace of bullets each. I hung my great
sword by my side, and gave Friday his
hatchet. When I had thus prepared my-
self, I took my perspective-glass, and went
up to the side of the hill; and I found
quickly by my glass that there were one-
and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and
three canoes; and that their whole busi-
ness seemed to be the triumphant banquet

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