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Strategy and process for changing agriculture in rural Nigeria: the Badeku experience
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096271/00002
 Material Information
Title: Strategy and process for changing agriculture in rural Nigeria: the Badeku experience
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ekpere, J. A.
Publisher: University of Ibadan
Place of Publication: Nigeria
Copyright Date: 1976
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00096271:00002

Full Text









1 STRATEGY AND PROCESS FOR CHANGING

2 AGRICULTURE IN RURAL NIGERIAI

,? THE BADEKU EXPERIENCE.1

j by

s J. A. EKPERE

6 Introduction:

7 Agriculture is still a major sector of the Nigerian economy

a notwithstanding the present heavy reliance on petroleum as the primary

9 and most important source of foreign exchange earnings. Agriculture

10 provides gainful employment for over 70 percent of the population, food

it and raw materials for the nation as well as capital accumulation for

12 inVe5tment in the nOn-agricultural sector of the economy. For a number

13 of years, the emphasis of Niger-ia's agricultural policy makers

14 was focused on export cash crop production. Agricultural research

1s institutions also invested large sums of money and time in cash crop

16 improvement and production. In recent times however, several factors

17 including high cost of food, urban congestion and inflation has led to

is a reversal of this policy. A new dimension to the present situation

1.Paper presented at the Conference or! "Developing Economies in
20 Agrarian Regions: a Search for Methodology" held at the Rockefeller
Foundation Conference Centre, Bellagio, Italy, Aug. 4-6, 1976.

*Dr. J. A. Ekpere is Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Agricultural Extension
22 Services, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

23 **The Expanded Pilot Project on Rural Development is organized and
supervised by the Department of Agricultural Extension Services
24 with aCtiVe participation of other departments in the Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Ibadan.
25 The Contribution of Dr. A. U. Patel, Co-chairman, Mrs.
C. E. Williams (Home Economics), Dr.(Mrs.) A. 0yemade (Health),
Dr. W. C. Weidemann (Marketing and Adaptive Trials) and Mr. R. C.
Matthewm~an (Livestock) in the preparation of this paper is highly
appreciated.
Professors S. 0. 01ayide and L. F. Miller have provided
A 7530-2 1 -OiY-4 746 guidance and support for this project.


A231













iin Nigeria is a renewed concern for the rural areas and those who live

2 there. In the absence of proven research on how to do a better job of

a helping our rural population, it became necessary to initiate action research

4 programmes to try new strategies at getting the job done and accumulating

5 experience. The pilot; project on rural development is one attempt in this
6 direction.

7 General Description of Project

8 The "Pilot Project on Rural Development" is an expansion of the "Badeku

9 Village Development" supervised by the department of agricultural economics

io and extension(1) with the cooperation of other departments in the Faculty of

11 Agriculture and Forestry. The project was started in 1970 in one village,

12 Badeku, and expanded in 1973 to 18 villages, and 26 villages in 1974.~ This

13 year, there are 30 villages participating in the programme.

14 DUring the firSt three years of the project, it was reliably demonstrated

is that the strategy of operation has immense value for the rapid improvement in

is traditional agriculture. However, a programme for agricultural improvement

17 will have limited impact if it does not: cover a sufficiently extensive area.

is The project was therefore expanded in 1973 to test that the techniques and

19 procedures used successfully in Badeku can be reproduced with full confidence

20 through a normal extension approach in a group of villages.

21 Badeku, the original village in which the project was initiated is located

22 in a rUral COmmunity in the rain-forest area of 0yo State(1 in Nigeria, 17

23 mileS from the University of Ibadan campus. The expanded project, however,

24 COvers two ecological areas. The Egbeda (Badeku) unit of 19 villages is

(1) Now separate Departments of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural
Extension Services.


A284 7530-21-029-4746












1 located in the rain forest zone and the Fashola unit of 11 villages in the

2 derived Savannah zone.

3 The general objective of the project is.to enhance rural development by

4 using the concept of area and regional planning, community involvement, active

5 participation, and agriculture (primary production) as the medium for generating

6 rural awareness, commitment and action.

7 The specific objectives are:

8 1. To create an innovative area. The idea being that the villages should

9 serve as a testing ground to see how quickly and permanently

10 technological changes in agriculture, health, nutrition and women

1i welfare activities could be achieved, keeping in mind that these

12 ChangeS, institutional and organizationaT procedures are reproducible

13 in other parts of the country.

14 2.. To provide a laboratory type situation for concerned staff and
they
is students of the Faculty and University, in which~can study, observe

16 and participate in rural development.

17 3. To provide a link between concerned research workers of the University,

is other agencies and the rural people for whom they work. It is

19 anticipated that the project should make it possible for researchers

20 to COme into closer contact with rural people, enabling them to better

21 understand rural problems and reaction. This will aid in the

22 organization of more relevant research more directly applicable to the

23 problems of rural agriculture and development.
24 4. To provide a basis for promoting local initiative, self-reliance,

25 confidence, and participa-tive involvement in the planning and
implementation of rural development programmes.


A284 7530-21-029-4746













1 The Plan of Action

2 The plan of action for achieving the specific objectives enunciated

3 above included:

4 1. Selection of the project area with due cognizance for

s (a) Size of village and population

6 (b) Nearness to the University of Ibadan campus

7 (c) All season accessibility by road

a and

9 (d) Receptivity to change and extension staff by most of the

io villagers

ii 2. Situation analysis through a bench mark survey to determine the

i2 socio-economic and agricultural status of the community

13 3. Formulating a development programme with the village representatives

14 and

is 4. Implementation of the programme through village commitment, local

16 OrganiZations and other government agencies.

17 The Situation

is The operationalization of an integrated rural development strategy in

iv this area was conceived on a thorough knowledge of the situation. This was

20 achieved through a socio-economic survey undertaken in Badeku in 1970 and

21 20 villages (including Badeku resurvey) in 1974. Almost all heads of

22 hOUSehold were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire.

23 In a few cases, an open-ended instrument was used to obtain in-depth data

24 On Some important issues.

25 The major emphasis in the survey was on


A284 7530-21-029-4746













1. Demographic conditions and social organization

2 population, history, culture, socio-political structure, age,

3 male-female ratio, marital status, etc.

4 2. Natural environment location, climate, soil, water and

5 vegetation resources, land use patterns, ownership, etc.

6 3. Infra-structure water supply, roads, communication (postal )

7 systems, health, education, trade, industry (local and cottage),

8 etc.

9 4. Occupational structure employment, main and subsidiary sources

10 of income, etc.

11 5. Agriculture and related activities land and labour availability,

12 crops grown and cropping systems (sequence) and production, livestock,

13 USe of improved technology, markets, etc.

14 The population of the 20 villages surveyed was 6,367, of which 6,075

is (1,124 farm families) and 292 (60 families) were from the Egbeda and Fashola

is units respectively. The average family size was 5.40 in the Egbeda unit and

17 4.87 in the Fashola area. Of the total population, 22 percent in Egbeda and

is 18 percent in the Fashola area were non-resident, 52 percent of which were

19 sons. This was an indication that a large proportion of the young people were

20 migrating frOm the rural areas of this State.

21 The predominating religious belief in both areas~ is Islam, practiced by

22 78 percent Of the population. Christians make up 20 percent of the population

23 in Egbeda and 12 percent in Fashola.

24 In both areas, 24.5 percent of the heads of household have more than one

25 Wi fe In the FaShola area, 80 percent of the population have no formal


A284 7S30-21-029-4746













i education, and of the 20 percent that does, it was either of a religious nature

2 Or only a few years of primary education. In the Egbeda area, 60 percent of

a the population have no formal school education. The population is predominantly

4 Yoruba speaking and relatively more males than females have formal education.

5 Over 90 percent of the population in both areas are farmers (primary

6 occupation). Most of this proportion 60 percent and 42 percent in Fashola

7 and Egbeda areas respectively are full time farmers i.e., they derive all or

8 most of their income from agriculture. Important subsidiary occupation include

9 hunting, trading, carpentry masonry, palm wine tapping, tailoring, bicycle

io repairing and blacksmithing.

1i The vegetation in the Egbeda area is mostly rain forest with temperatures

12 ranging from 70oF 90oF ( OC- OC) most of thle year. The annual rainfall of

13 40"-60" peaks in June and October, The dry season is between December and

14 March. The major crops are (26%/ of cultivated area), oil palm (12%),

is Kola nuts (12%), citrus (12%), cassava(12%), yam (7%), maize (7%), cocoyam-

is (3%~), and beans (0.3%)() Mixed cropping is widely practiced in both food

17 and export/cash crop production.

1s The Fashola area, by contrast, is primarily a derived savannah vegetation

19 area with open woodland and tall perennial grasses. It experiences an annual

20 pafnfall Of about 45 inches within 78-100 rainy days between May and October.

21 The ared iS ecologically ideal for food crop production and most of the

22 COnventional export tree crops of the State are absent in this area. The major

23 CrOps are yam (40% of the cultivated area), cassava (30%) and maize (15%).(1)

24 Other minor food crops in this area include cocoyams, beans (cowpeas),

25 vegetables, etc. The average land holding in this area is 14.78 acres, half

Patel, A. U. and 01ayide, S. 0. "Report on the Badeku Expanded Project on
Rural Development."


A284 7530-21-029-4746













1 of which is usually under fallow with the other half carrying crops. Each

2 piece Of land is usually actively cropped for 3-4 years before reverting to

3 a 5-10 years fallow. Although most of the farmers may be classified as

4 Small Holders, 16 percent of the farmers own 42 percent of the cultivable

area. At the time of the survey, all farm operations are performed by human

labour.

7Livestock

8 In the Egbeda area, 80 percent of the households owned poultry, 60 percent

9 keep goats and 40% owned some sheep. The mean livestock size w~as 21 chickens,

10 6 goats and 4 sheep. In the Fashola area, 70 percent, 50 percent and 30

11 percent of the households owned poultry, goats and sheep with a mean of

12 22 chickens, 5 goats and 6 sheep per household. Most of the livestock is

is managed under the free-range system. About 4 percent of the household used

1J deep litter, 0.6 percent used pre-mixed feed and 1.0 percent have adopted

is improved poultry. Some farmers in the Fashola area owned cattle, but management

is and husbandry is done by fulani who are employed specifically for this purpose.

17 Cattle is reared mainly for meat, less for milk and rarely used as a source of

is farm power.

19 Farmer-Rural Development Worker Contact

20 The results of the bench mark survey showed that even though a large

21 proportion of those interviewed have heard of government programmes for rural

22 development, very few of them have actually had contact with government

23 functionaires or benefitted directly from their services.

241 The table below shows different levels of contact between respondents

25 and rural development workers.


A284 7530-21-029-4746












Table 1. Farmer-Rural Development Waorker Contact

2 Farmer ResponSe

3 Category of Rural Gone to/Asked
Development Worker Know of Himi Met Him his Advice


1. Agric. Extension Worker 78 57 35

2. Agric. Credit Assistant 49 25 16

3. Rural Health Worker 68 50 25

4. Adult Education Teacher 51 36 25

5. Community Development Worker 28 12 8



1Source of Information

2 Even though radio ownership was low in the project area, radi-o

3 listenership and exposure was quite high. It was by far the most important

s source of information, used by 84 percent of the farmers in Egbeda and

5 60 percent of the respondents in the Fashola area. The next important

6 extension information transfer method was method demonstration to which

7 52 percent and 25 percent; of farmers respectively in the two areas have been

8 exposed. Agricultural shows and local language newspapers were minor sources

9 of agricultural information.

ro Group Identification and Participation

i Several farmers (75 percent of the population in Egbeda and 10 percent

2 in FaShola area) are members of cooperatives. ~But more important in thesE

3 villages is active participation in informal traditional groups. About

S60 percent of the farmers in Egbeda area and 46 percent of those in Fashola

s area belong to some kind of informal group either for mutual farm help or


A284 7530-21-029-746













i credit purposes. These groups were quite active and mnet very regularly to

2 assist members with their several problems.

3 Response to Agricultural Technology

4 The level of knowledge and use of new and improved agricultural technology

5 in both areas of the project is shown in Table 2. Farmers in Egbeda area have

6 heard and actually applied most of the on-going agricultural recommendations.



a Table 2. Response to Agricultural Technology 1973 Survey



o Percentage of Farmers Who
Have Heard of it Used it
1 Practice
2 Egbeda Fashola Egbeda Fashola
Unit Unit Unit Unit


4 Fertilizers 89 95 17 16

5 Improved Seed (maize) 95 94 22 14

6 Improved Cocoa Variety 97 -18

7 Chemical Spraying of Cocoa 97 -47

a Improved Oil Palm Variety 93 -3-

9 Improved Cassava Variety 90 22 2 0
o Improved Kolanut Variety 87 1
Improved Citrus Variety 78 3
Improved Cowpea Variety 75 13 13 1

Insecticide for farm storage 85 16 10 6

Ch-emical Sprvay Ejn Naize Farm 85 37 26 4
4 GOVt. Credit and Loan Utilization 90 67 2 4
5 Govt. Tractor Hire 69 62 1 2


Crop not grown in the Fasho'la area.


A2'j 75oo-21-o29-':Ms













i Public Health and Environmental Sanitation

2 The result of a special health survey undertaken (in Badeku village

3 only) indicated that 6 percent of the households used sanitary pots, 10

4 percent used pit latrines and 84 percent deficated indiscriminately in the

bush, a practice considered hazardous to public health by only 8 percent of

b the population. About 5 percent knew that drinking water from highly

7 polluted sources could cause cholera. About 92 percent of the women

8 attend ante-natal clinic in the local health centre, but only 11 percent of

them were delivered of their babies there. The others had their babies at

io home attended mostly by traditional midwives. A high proportion of the

11 children have never been immunized against tuberculosis, poliomyelitis ,

12 measles, smallpox, diphtheria, whooping cough or tetanus. There is high

13 infantile mortality,; over 25 percent of the children dying before their

44 fourth birthday. Blood samples from farmers revealed incidence of malaria

is parasites and micro fl ora Stool specimen showed a high infection of both

is hookworm and ascaris. A detailed physical examination of 150 farmers showed

17 a high incidence of dental carries and gingivitis which occurred in 40 and

is 52 percent respectively within the sample.

19 Programme for Rural Intervention

2o The result of the bench mark survey provided basic information for a better

21 understanding of the limiting structures in Badeku and other project villages.

22 Through a process of continuous dialogue with the village leadership, a

23 programme of rural change and improvement was to be evolved, using

24 agriculture (farming)) as the medium for entry into the community. The emphasis

25 Wa 10' --- 0ugbile
1. 0yemade, A. and D. 0. / "Rural Health Activities" paper presented at
the workshop on Rural Development projects in N~igeria, Ibadan, April 26-30,
1976.


A284 7530-21-029-4746














1 1. Improved maize seed utilization in the production process

2 2. Fertilizer campaign

3 3. Introduction of new crops adaptive biological technology

4 4. Labour saving devices

s 5. Expansion of farm loan and credit use

6 6. Improved maize storage and marketing

7 7. Livestock production management and improvement

a 8. Water supply other infra-structure and services

9 9. HUman nUtritiOn

io 10. Women welfare community centre and income generating activities

11 11. Public health and sanitation

12 12. Group action and

!a 13. Rural education consciousness raising and rural awareness

14 programme which was to span all the activities listed above.

15 Strategy for action

16 The success of any programnme depends on a well organized body of knowledge

17 and strategy of action. The basic theoretical formulation applied in this

1.a project derives from two major parameters: "Equilibrium-Disequilibrium and =SZ

19 Clientele Participation-Non participation" in programme decision and implementa-

20 tion. The parameter; equilibrium-disequilibrium is relevant in the context

21 Of rural Nigeria where communities have their systems and forces well7 balanced

22 and neutralized that a state of near perfect equilibrium exists. The rural

23 farmer endures a passive existence in a situation which he is incapable of

24 changing. Based on past experience, he is over-cautious of technological,

25 structural and institutional innovations from external sources. Under such


A284 7530-21-029-4716





conditions, programmes of rural intervention are more likely to succeed if

a state of guided disequilibrium is created.




Equilibrium


Was'tage

Dissatisfaction

Clientele
Participation


Stagnation

Fatalism


Cl ientele
Non-participation


Progress

Satisfaction


Progress

Resentment


,, Fig. 1. Parameters of The, Strategy for Rural Developm-fent*;



ia The second parameter of clientele participation non-participation

1, is even more important considering the bureaucratic nature of government

20 ministries having responsibility for agricultural development and rural

21 improvement in Nigeria. Burdened by the legacy of colonial rule, the

22 Nigerian agricultural administration is characterized by centralization or

23 clientele non-participation at different levels. Farmers as a client group
not
2j of government have probably received adequate attention in the conventional

2, public administration. The administrators have made very little effort to


*Based on A. U. Patel's conceptualization.


A284 7530-21 029-4746


disequilibrium












1 identify themselves with rural people and their problems. Consequently,

2 the latter view their activities with distrust and suspicion.(1

3 Externally induced programmes of rural change have a higher chance of success

4 if a feeling of trust, openness and partnership is developed through

a participative involvement.

b Essentially, this model suggests that in a system at equilibrium,

7 clientele participation serves little purpose. It generates rhetorical

a effusions and ideological wranglings which are wasteful and result in mass

9 di ssati sfa cti on On the other hand, clientele non-participation in a state of

lo equilibrium results in fatalism, anomie and stagnation. Both cases suggest

IT the need for disequilibrium in the induced development process.

12 In a dynamic situation, clientele-non participation is indicative of

13 allienation and dictatorial behaviour on part of the leadership. Such a

1? system breeds resentment even though it could lead to progress. However,

is clientele participation within a system in disequilibrium enhances dialogue,

16 trust, confidence and understanding among all those involved in the development

17 process. Participation thus leads to progress and satisfaction.

is Operational Processes

19 Based on the general development strategy described above, a more

20 specific process for improvement in rural living through change in agriculture

21 was evolved. As illustrated in Figure 2, this process involved eight steps:

22 Problem identification

23 determination of solution

24 adaptive trials (CyAl's javen 3
25 extension education

(1) Op. Cit. Patel and 01ayide, P. 26


A284 7530-21-02Y-4746

















1 legitimation

2 contractural services for trials by farmers

3 developing organization for planning and action

4 evaluation

5 As mentioned earlier, the bench mark survey provided a basis for

G the identification of broad problems-through dialogue feith the

T village leadership. The determination of solution to technical

8 problems was however undertaken through consultation with and

9 visits by agricultural scientists of specialist institutes and the

10 faculty of agriculture at the University of Ibadan.

Problem Finding Adaptive Extension
12 *- -
IdentificationJ~ Solution
Trial Education
13

141
Organization services fo
15 I vlain fIDvlpn -otatr4iLgtmto
for planning trial by
10 iiI and action I armers

17 Fig. 2 Paradigm of the process of change in agriculture.

18 Adaptive trial

19 Once a scientist thought that a solution based on sound research

20 was available to a problem, one or more adoptive trials were

21 conducted in a village on a small scale, The purpose of the adaptive

22 trials were to test:

23 1. the technical efficiency and ecological adaptability

24 of the research recommendation under village conditions.

25 2. assess the economic profitability of the new method.
















1 3. Provide the extension assistant an opportunity

2 to leamn the new method and determine the reaction

3 of farmers.

4 4. Provide the scientist with an opportunity to

5 anticipate problems that could arise from the

6 application of the recommendations, and

r 5. demonstration to farmers.

8 The agricultural scientist had primary responsibility for organ-

'3 izing and establishing these adaptive trials with the project

10 extension assistants executing routine activities under his guidance.

11 So far, adaptive trials have been carried out on maize, sweet

12 potatoes, soybeans, cowpeas, adteueo ebcds

13 Extension Education

14 Farmers are educated using a variety of methods to convince

15 them of the superiority of innovations. The method used most often
10
is the village visit during which farmers are contacted individually.

17 The officials of indigenous village groups are educated in the
18 beginning and they in turn inform their members.

10 Beforeeach planting season, project assistants attend general

20 meetings of indigenous groups to discuss new recommendations and

21 their use. A two day training programme is arranged every alternate

22 year for leaders of village groups at the university campus. A

23 newsletter is published in Yoruba(1) every three months and

24 distributed free to farmers. Office calls by farmers are quite

25 important and representatives from three to five villages visit


ITi-T Yoruba is the predominant local language.


















1 the project staff every month for discussions on credit, market-

2 ing or guidance on technical problems.

3 Each indigenous group is encouraged to grow maize and other

crops on group farms through group effort. These group farms are

supervised more intensively by the project staff. Thus the group

farms serve as an excellent training place for individual members.

Legitimation

Legitimation is achieved through indigenous groups at village

level and the area planning councils at area level. Decisions
10
taken at both levels seem to have group approval and sanction.

Also, adaptive trials are usually located on sites selected by the
12
group and/or village leader mad group members accept responsibility
10a for such decisions.

14 Contractual Services for trial by small farmers

15 It has been observed that even though farmers are convinced of

10the superiority of an innovation by observations on adaptive trials

17and further demonstrations, this did not: guarantee adoption. They
18
persisted with small scale trials on their farms and preferred
19
limited size purchase of essential inputs.
20 Under these conditions, the project arranged for the purchase

21 and distribution of inputs on a contractual basis on the understanding

22 that if the experiment succeeded, the villagers will sustain it

23 through their indigenous groups. The farmers willingly paid for

241 inputs and service charges. The process has been extremely useful

25 in helping the small farmers through a most critical stage in the












17




1 adoption decision process. Today the villages have major

2 responsibility for purchasing their inputs.

3 Developing organization for planning and action

41 The project had a very small staff and could hardly stretch

5 itself to satisfy the demands of the villages. It was therefore

6 necessary to develop organizations at village and area levels for

7 the purpose of coordination. At the village level were the

8 indigenous groups and at the area level, the area planning council.

Both organizations provided the framework for planning and review

10 of problems and programmes.
11 Evaluation

12 The progress so far made in the project is shown in Table I. Even

13 though it may be too early t-o measure the impact of the project in these

141 areas, one thing is certain, that the farmers in the project villages

15; have now developed a sense of pride and confidence in their indigenous

10 groups as a basis for rural development. They now see themselves

17 as active participants in the activities that shape their reality

18 rather than passive consumers of government programmes and directives.

19 This of course, is the foundation of real change and self development.

20 The Mvinistry of Agriculture and Natural Resources has, through

21 this project, become more aware of some problems of agricultural admin-
22 istration, fertilizer and input distribution and marketing.

23 The agricultural credit institutions in the state have benefitted

24 from experiences of the project and are currently experimenting with

25 new credit policies for the small farmer.









PROGRESS DTAB~ OF THE: BADEKU EXPANDED PROJECT

Egbeda Unit Fashola Unit
Items 1974 1975 1976*; 1974 1975 1976*


1.No. of villages 14 12 17 4 10 11

2. No. of indigenous groups 15 16 23 4 12 14

3. Maize acreage under group farms 107 72 87 63 147 169

4. Herbicides sprayed on maize
(acres) 0 0 0 0 0 60

5. Insecticides sprayed on
cowpeas (acres) 0 0 0 0 0 5

6. Use of fertilizers (in bags,
each of 50 kg.)

15-15-15 0 380 110 0 296 324

25-10-0 0 190 50 0 148 200

21-0-0 100 0 110 100 0 324

T.S.P. 4-5 0 0 34 0 0

7. Loan given by Credit 2/ 2/
Corporation in N 4074 6729 3940 1908 6035 9380

8.Loan due in N Nil 3440 -Nil 275-

9. No. of demonstrations in
agriculture:

Maize 1 1 10 0 1 10

Cowpeas 3 1 -3 2

Limabeans 1 1 -0 0-

Cassava 0 1 -0 1

Maize/Cassava 0 1 '1 0 0 1

pigeon peas 1 0 1 0

Sweet potatoes 2 0 -2 1-

Fertilizer application 13 16 -4 10-

*Till June, 1976
1/ Most of these dues are owed by only one group (Badeku) which received it: fo.r
on-lending to members. This group has invested most of this amount in buying
two vehicles, one for passenger pick-up and the other a truck. These vehicles
serve the entire village. It also buys fertilizer for villagers.

2/ This loan includes only first instalment.


Table 1













Egbedla Unit Fashola Unit

Items 1974 1975 1976 1974 1975 1976


Herbicide 1 0 -0 -

10. No. of Women's Clubs 1 2 2 0 0 4

11. Women's cassava group farms 0 0 0 0 4

12. Construction of Community Hall
by Women 0 0 1 0 0

13. Health activities:

Demonstrations/1ectures on-
wound treatment 0 0 4 0 0 1

Boiling drinking water 1 0 10 0 0 5

Breast feeding 0 2 8 0 1 2

Teeth Cleaning 0 2 4 0 0 2

Weaning of infants 0 4 4 0 0 2

Environmental sanitation 2 2 6 0 0 4

Care of umbilical cord 0 6 0 0 2

Causes of malnutrition 0 0 12 0 0 4

14. Meetings with native midwives 0 0 4 0 0 1

15. Vaccination:
S.P. O 150 0 0

T.B. O 360 -0 0

D.P.T. O 160 26 0 0-

Polio 0 166 26 0 0-

B.C.G. O 0 599 0 0

Measles 0 0 92 0 0

16. No. of villagers trained on
University campus:
Farmers 46 5 -0 11
Youth 0 13 0-

17. No. of villagers on field-trip 188 55 -0 30

18. No. of youth clubs 1 4 4 0 1 1
19. No. of Area Planning Council
Meetings 11 12 5 11 12 5


- 2-











































Egbeda Unit Fashola Unit

Items 1974 1975 1976 1974 1975 1976


-3-


No. of Home Economics
Demonstrations:


Maize recipe


-

-O

-O


Cowpea recipe

Gbegiri Soup


















Problems ~Encountered
1. Local Leadership:



The achievements of the project have not been without problems

and hardship. Perhaps the biggest problem was that of developing

local leadership and village level infra-structure and organization that

could take up the responsibility for farm supplies, credit and marketing.

2. Technological and physical constraints

The major crop of emphasis in both areas is maize. In the Egbeda

area land availability and level of fertility is a major problem -

particularly with minor elements such as zine, sulphur and magnesium.

The land problem is being contained through continuous maize cropping

and high corrective doses of fertilizer. In the Fashola area, weeds

(Imperata cylinderica) is a major problem. This is presently being

tackled with herbicide adaptive trials, demonstrations and use.

3. Labour

Rural wage structures are least attractive to rural labour if and

when such labour is ever available. It i~s now an observable phenomenon

for migrant labour to bye pass farm work in favour of unskilled urban

jobs even where the associated real wages are less than rural wages.

Measures such as tractor ploughing and use of herbicides are being re-

sorted to in order to solve the labour problem.

4. Institutional Constraints_

(a) Maize marketing has been a major source of concern. Usually,

there is no ready market for new varieties of maize which rural home

makers say is not suitable for the preparation of local diets. Those


















who are willing to try new varieties are usually prevented by perceived

hazzard of insecticides applied to grains during storage. Not only does

the ministry of agriculture buy maize through contractors but offers very

low prices when it buys directly from farmers. Local maize users (feed

companies) are substituting millet, sorghum and wheat bran for maize in

their feed, consequently, there is low demand.

(b) Inter-Agency Co-ordination

The field and divisional staff of different development ministries

usually do not meet to plan and implement a coordinated approach to rural

development. Usually, government functionaries tend to work in isolation.

The system of advisory committee, area planning council and village level

indigenous groups developed within the project has helped with providing

coordination and complementary support.

(e) Supply of farm inputs

The supply of fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals by accredited

government agents continues to be a source of problem with specific

reference to timely farm operations. Sometimes, fertilizers are sold in

too large quantitities than the farmer needs or can afford. Tractor time

and production credit usually reach the farmer too late to have the desired
effect.

The project continues to work closer with the relevant agencies to

improve the input supply situation.

Summary and Conclusions

The pilot project on rural development discussed in this paper is

essentially an action research aind service programme designed primarily
























to test how to plan and implement rural development programme with

those affected cooperating. So far, the project has demonstrated

that with the right type of leadership and ecologically adaptable

technology, scientists, farmers and rural development workers will

participate in the planning and execution of programmes for rural

improvement .

It is important that such a programme should be based on a

thorough knowledge of the local situation and needs of the people.

These should be a deliberate attempt to develop local organizations and

institutions that could assume responsibility for further programming

and action as the project winds up and moves on to duplicate its

activities somewhere else.

Problems will continue to arise, but a good project should

anticipate such constraints and plan appropriate solutions as they

occur. An essential philosophical premise of this approach to

agrarian development in third world nations is that: its successful.

replication around the country is necessary for the realization of

its full benefit. Preliminary results from this project suggests that

this is possible.