Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 What are pine flatwoods?
 Changing forest structure...
 Developing a management plan
 Silvicultural practices and their...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Circular
Title: Management of pine forests for selected wildlife in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096259/00001
 Material Information
Title: Management of pine forests for selected wildlife in Florida
Series Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 706
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Marion, Wayne R
Werner, Matthew
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1986
Subject: Forest management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forest ecology   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Wayne R. Marion and Matthew Werner.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096259
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 36302427

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    What are pine flatwoods?
        Page 5
    Changing forest structure for wildlife
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Developing a management plan
        Page 10
    Silvicultural practices and their effects on wildlife
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Back Cover
        Page 20
Full Text
By Wayne Marion and Matthew Werner

Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Weste,. Dean



Wayne R. Marion and Matthew Werner *

Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences

118 Newins-Ziegler Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Associate Professor, Department of Wildlife and Range
Sciences, University of Florida; and Graduate Research Assistant,
State University of New York, College of Environmental Science
and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.



INTRODUCTION .................... 3


FLATWOODS WILDLIFE ............... 5


Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Within-Stand Diversity .............. 7
Among-Stand Diversity ............ 7
Edge Effect .................... 8



Site Conversion .................. 11
Clearcutting . .. . .. .. . .. . . 13
Site Preparation ............... 15
Prescribed Burning . . . . . . . . 17
Fertilization . . . . . . . . . . 18
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . 19

CONCLUSIONS ..................... 19


Pine flatwoods are common in the southeastern Coastal Plain
and extensive in Florida (Fig. 1). This forest type is increasingly
used for timber production. As the total number of forested
acres in Florida diminishes, needs for forest products are
increasing. At the same time, there are other resource needs
that must be satisfied. Wildlife habitat is an excellent example.
Although these two needs can be compatible in multiple-use
forests, they are frequently seen as competitive. Forests and
wildlife are linked together since many wildlife species are
directly dependent upon the forest. Good forest management is
not necessarily good wildlife management and vice versa. Most
forest management practices affect wildlife habitat and result in
changes in the wildlife community.
This publication is aimed primarily at the private forest
landowner in Florida. Although these landowners generally hold
small parcels compared to industrial forests, such holdings
represent the majority of forested lands in the state. Florida
pine flatwoods are probably the most intensively managed for
commercial purposes, and for this reason, management options
favoring wildlife in pine flatwoods will be emphasized. We will
attempt to illustrate ways in which timber and wildlife
management can be successfully combined in an integrated
approach consistent with ecosystem functions to fulfill multiple
resource objectives.


Figure 1. The distribution of pine flatwoods forests in Florida.



Flatwoods are typically found on poorly drained, sandy soils
intermediate in moisture content between wetter bottomlands and
drier uplands. Overstory of these woodlands consists mainly of
longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines, although pond pine does occur
in local areas. Intermixed with the flatwoods are small bayheads,
many cypress domes, prairies, marshes, and hardwood swamps.
Fire originally played a major role in determining the
overstory composition of flatwoods, since longleaf pines are
relatively fire-tolerant and slash pines are not. Fire suppression
by man has greatly altered the balance of ecological forces and
caused obvious changes in natural vegetative communities. More
recently, conversion of natural longleaf, slash pine, and
hardwood forests to slash and loblolly plantations throughout the
southeastern Coastal Plain has even more strongly altered
natural vegetative patterns.
The shrub layer of flatwoods forests includes blackberry,
dwarf huckleberry, fetterbush, gallberry, saw palmetto, and wax
myrtle. These are all evergreens that produce fruits and berries
that are important wildlife foods. Grasses on the flatwoods
forest floor include broom-sedge, chalky bluestem, Indian grass,
panicum, paspalum, and wiregrass. Associated herbs include
beggarweed, deer tongue, grassleaf gold aster, partridge pea, and
rabbit tobacco. Florida flatwoods are frequently grazed by
domestic livestock and are inhabited by a variety of wildlife


The term wildlife includes all of the free-ranging, wild
vertebrate species inhabiting an area. In the southeast, there are
about 400 resident species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. Of
course, no one parcel of land will support nearly as many as 400
species. In fact, each species, and sometimes each life stage of
a species, requires a unique set of habitat conditions.
Consequently, different management techniques favor different
wildlife species. Stated as a basic ecological concept, we can say
that habitat varies in time and space, qnd as habitat changes, or
is changed, so do the species of wildlife and their abundance. It
is not realistic to think that all wildlife species in an area will
react as one to a particular management practice. There are a
wide range of responses to each practice, depending on the

species being considered. In general, the larger a parcel of land
and the greater the variety of habitat types present, the greater
the variety of wildlife species that can be supported there.
There are many reasons for managing wildlife. Among these
reasons are preservation of endangered species and recreational
activities, such as hunting and wildlife observation. Preservation
of endangered species, such as the red-cockaded woodpecker,
requires careful management of specific habitat types suited to
those species. Wildlife also is an important recreational resource.
Throughout the southeast, approximately 10 percent of resident
birds and 20 percent of resident mammals are considered game
species suitable for hunting. Leasing of hunting rights on private
forested land is becoming a more typical means of gaining
access to game. Hunting leases can provide substantiaLaanal
income, whether it be supplemental or psimaryfo the owynLrof
well-managed forestlands.
Nationally, only about 20 percent of wildlife-related
recreational activity involves hunting. Americans involved in
wildlife observation (e.g. bird watching) outnumber Americans
involved in hunting by more than two to one. In addition to
resident wildlife species, the forests of the southeastern United
States support a massive influx of migratory bird species
between the fall and spring each year. These are but a few of
the worthwhile reasons to manage forests to favor wildlife.


The ability to produce timber and pulpwood in southern pine
forests is continually improving. Examples of new techniques
include genetic stock improvement, planting of superior
seedlings, and use of various herbicides and insecticides. These
developments help the forester to meet the growing demands for
pulp and timber. But how do these developments affect wildlife?


Diversity is a fancy term to describe variety or differences
in many things. The techniques and developments listed above
tend to reduce the vegetative diversity in the flatwoods forest.
As the structural diversity (height differences in vegetation) of
forests is reduced, so is their capability to support various and
abundant wildlife species. Forest structural diversity is
considered to be the main determinant of the number and

abundance of wildlife species. Every species has a unique set of
habitat requirements (food, cover, water, and arrangement).
Maintenance or enhancement of structural diversity, both within
and among forest stands, maintains or increases the types of
habitats available for wildlife.

Within-Stand Diversity

Establishment of even-aged plantations, while facilitating
timber production and harvest, has greatly reduced within-stand
structural diversity. Low- and mid-story vegetation often are
poorly developed in such stands, especially after closure of the
pine canopy. Each tree species has a unique growth form. By
limiting a forest stand to one or two species, structural
diversity is further reduced.
Temporal diversity is created when there is a variety of
plant species present that provide wildlife food at different
times of the year. A variety of food sources also assures that if
one crop fails, there will likely be another that does produce.
Snags are another component of forest structural diversity
that are important as wildlife habitat. A snag is a standing dead
or dying tree that provides perching and nesting sites for a
variety of animals. Snags also are rich in insects, important food
sources for many animals. It is most useful to leave a few snags
standing in the forest. Even snags left in clearcut areas increase
the diversity of bird species in the cut area.

Among-Stand Diversity

The creation of among-stand diversity presents the greatest
opportunity for wildlife population enhancement in multiple-use
forests. It seems likely that even-aged pine plantations are here
to stay for the next few decades in Florida. However, even-aged
plantations can be successfully managed for selected wildlife if
horizontal, or landscape, diversity is developed and maintained.
This is achieved through the intermingling of stands of different
ages and types.
Landscape characteristics such as topography, soil types, and
related physical and biological features should dictate the design
of multiple-use forests. Management blocks are best defined on
the basis of watersheds and drainages, not on historical or
political boundaries, which very likely have no ecological basis.
Allow the site to dictate the tree species to be managed. For
instance, hardwood trees should be left or planted in areas

normally not suitable or productive for pines. Wetlands like
swamps, bottomlands, and pond edges that do not support pines
should be left alone and intact. Hardwood forests normally
produce and support two or more times the wildlife populations
of coniferous forests. As such, they are an important aspect of
among-stand forest structural diversity.
Consideration should be made when planning the locations of
habitat units for the life-cycle requirements of larger wildlife
species. Value to wildlife will be increased by insuring that
these units are sufficiently large to provide for breeding
territories and home ranges of species being considered. It is
also common for wildlife species to make daily and seasonal
shifts in habitat use, thus it is essential to provide habitat
corridors and travel lanes to allow movements between similar
habitat units and across open areas. These habitat corridors are
also useful in fostering the recolonization of isolated patches of
habitat, especially for terrestrial forest-dwelling animals.

Edge Effect

An important concept in ecology that can aid the manager
interested in wildlife is that of edge effect. Edge effect occurs
in the zone where two different habitats meet, which is
sometimes called the ecotone. Both habitats contribute plant and
animal species to the edge zone, and the cumulative effect is to
make the edge more valuable to wildlife than either habitat
Quality edge zones are created by the side-by-side
placement of two dramatically different habitats for a period of
at least several years. For instance, two adjacent clearcut areas
will generate a trivial amount of edge effect and may even have
negative side effects, such as increased erosion. A clearcut area
next to a mature stand might create maximum edge effect one
year only to have it diminish to zero the following year if the
adjacent stand is cut. The highest quality edge effect will occur
if a clearcut area is placed next to a mid-rotation stand. Long
or irregularly shaped clearcut areas will create more edge effect
than square or circular ones (Fig. 2). If the edges of the cut
follow irregular contours, the edge effect will be even greater.
Coverts are formed by the interfacing and interaction of
three or more habitat types at one point. Coverts are even
better than edge zones for some wildlife species.
Access roads, powerlines, and firelanes also are habitat
features that can be managed to greatly enhance landscape

Figure 2. Examples of several shapes (aerial views) of clearcut
areas to illustrate edge-effect relationships. All outlines enclose
the same size area. Areas A and B (square and circle) represent
minimal edge per unit of area; Area C represents a long linear
cut with more edge, and Area D represents much greater edge
per unit of area.


diversity. High-nutrient forage plants can be seeded in these
areas to provide quality food for wildlife. Irregular, as opposed
to straight, roads provide more of this valuable forage, as well
as increasing edge zones. Open areas like these also are
important insect habitats. Limiting access of people to these
areas will encourage their use by wildlife.
In summary, a mixture of relatively small, different but
even-aged pine stands at various stages of growth, intermingled
with each other and with natural communities (streams,
hardwoods, cypress domes, etc.) will provide adequate quantity
and quality edge effect and increase among-stand forest
structural diversity.


The forest is constantly changing. Many changes are subtle
and gradual, such as the replacement of plant and animal species
by other species. You may not notice these changes until they
have already happened, but they are always occurring a
process known as ecological succession.
Forest and wildlife management often involves changing the
natural course of succession to produce stand and habitat
conditions that meet your needs and interests. In essence,
management practices provide you with the ability to somewhat
control which native wildlife species will be present on a
forestland. A management plan helps to do this.
Several steps are necessary in developing a management
plan. First, identify your objectives, needs, and interests both in
short- and long-term goals. How often do you want to harvest
trees? What types of wildlife do you want to encourage? How
intensive will your management input be?
Next, inventory the habitats present on your land, so that
you know what you have to work with. Most likely you will find
pine flatwoods and/or bottomland hardwoods, and other habitat
types will add important diversity to your forest. Create
management blocks based on the habitat types that you have
To manage for specific wildlife, it is essential to know the
habitat requirements of the species in which you are interested.
This step may require further reading, or contacting Cooperative
Extension Service personnel. Be sensitive to wildlife needs for
coverfoodwaer nd the arrangement of these resources.
Many animals depend on insects as food sources, so in this

situation, the use of insecticides to suppress insect populations
can be undesirable. Also protect the animals' watersheds by
keeping streams well vegetated, and by using procedures to
prevent soil erosion during harvesting and other operations.
Once you have determined what you want to do, the
following section on silvicultural, or forest management,
practices should help you decide how to achieve your goals.


In general, the result of intensifying forest management in
recent years has been a reduction of within-stand forest
structural diversity. As a result, several habitat characteristics
of importance to wildlife are being lost. The development of
among-stand diversity is an alternative that can provide partial
compensation for the loss of within-stand diversity. In this way,
habitat conditions suitable for a wide array of wildlife can
develop. Six common timber management practices and their
effects on forest structural diversity and wildlife are discussed
next (Fig. 3).


The conversion of natural longleaf pine or hardwood forests
to slash or loblolly pine plantations generally has drastic effects
on wildlife. Site conversion typically results in the loss of both
the naturally diverse characteristics of the original forest type
and the among-stand features created by the intermixture of
different forest types. Natural longleaf pine forests in the
southeastern Coastal Plain seem to be superior as wildlife

Clearcut Site Preparation Fertilization Burn Thin Hardwood & Snag Removal

<100 >100 Snag 1-2 3-5
acres acres Removal Burn Chop Windrow year ye

White-tailed Deer + 0 + + + + + + + +

Turkey + 0 + + +

Gray Squirrel -

Bobwhite ++ + ++ + ++ ++

Wild Hog

Mourning Dove + + + +

Cottontail Rabbit + + + + + + +

Fox Squirrel -

KEY + + = Very beneficial 0 = No effect = Detrimental
+ = Beneficial Blank = Unknown effect -- = Very detrimental
Figure 3. General impacts of intensive management of pine plantations on selected wildlife as determined from
a thorough literatrue review.




habitats when compared with either natural or planted stands of
slash and loblolly pines. Longleaf pines support greater numbers
of insects, making them more attractive to insect-eating wildlife.
Did you ever hear the phrase "Mother Nature knows best?"
By leaving most tree species and natural plant communities
intact, you can usually retain valuable diversity over broad
areas. The more a stand is changed from its natural situation,
the more management efforts will be required to put it back
into its previous condition. Wet areas, such as cypress domes,
bayheads, swamps, marshes, etc. that are not suitable for pine
growth, provide important wildlife habitats and refuges. Even
small areas of 10 to 12 acres can be very important to wildlife.
On the other hand, drainage of wetlands and conversion to
conditions suitable for pine growth are generally detrimental to
native wildlife.
A noteworthy point related to site conversion involves pine
plantations that have been planted on "old-field" sites. Old-field
sites are ones formerly under agricultural cultivation. In general,
old-field sites yield greater pine growth and less understory
growth than previously non-cultivated sites. Development of
understory vegetation is typically minimal in old-field plantations
due to the lack of seeds in the soil. Studies show that there is
a steady decrease in understory deer browse as old-field
plantations grow older. The peak browse value of plantations on
previously forested sites occurs in 5- to 10-year-old stands. The
lack of structural diversity of vegetative layers in old-field
plantations results in low within-stand diversity generally
thought to be less attractive to wildlife than plantations on
previously forested sites.


Perhaps no forest management practice has caused more
controversy on a nationwide basis than clearcutting. Clearcutting
is the forestry practice that involves the harvesting of all
commercially valuable trees in an area. In the southeastern

Coastal Plain, flatwoods clearcutting is the most common
technique used in timber harvesting. No other management
practice has more immediate and dramatic effects on animals and
their habitats. For example, clearcutting typically excludes from
a site all birds and mammals that feed and nest in crowns of
trees. The degree of impact depends on the age, plant species
present, stocking density, and size and shape of the stands
removed. In northern Florida, approximately 40 percent of the
breeding forest bird species are cavity-nesters, and clearcutting
has drastic effects on local populations of these birds.
Competition among animals for nesting cavities is intense; thus,
clearcut, short-rotational management systems represent
potential limiting factors for these species. Whenever possible,
snags and trees with cavities should be left standing to fulfill
the requirements of cavity-dwelling species of wildlife.
Generally, very few wildlife species are common to a site
both before and after a clearcut. Clearcutting may be as
favorable for some species as it is unfavorable for other species.
Removal of the shading effects of the forest overstory allows an
increased growth of understory vegetation, which may
significantly benefit ground level feeders, such as white-tailed
deer, bobwhites, eastern meadowlarks, cottontails, and wild
turkeys that require open conditions and early successional stage
plant communities. Production of ground-level fruits available for
consumption by wildlife is greater during the first few years
following clearcutting. Studies of Florida flatwoods demonstrate
that clearcuts and edges of clearcuts also are important habitats
for wintering bird species.
The size and shape of a clearcut site determine the degree
of impact on wildlife. Generally, large square or circular cuts of
more than 250 acres are not used extensively by the majority of
resident animals having small home ranges. Large animals, such
as deer, use only the outermost 100 yards of large clearcuts,
where forest cover is nearby. The center of large clearings may
go largely unused by wildlife. Smaller, elongated clearcut areas
of less than 100 acres are usually more favorable for wildlife,
since they allow greater use of the food sources within clearings
and create more edges. Since long, narrow clearcut areas include
more territories and home ranges of animals, they allow more
individuals to benefit from the close proximity of food and
There are alternative regeneration methods that may be used
instead of clearcutting and replanting with seedlings. The
two-cut regeneration system, or shelterwood, is an inexpensive,

natural way to establish young pines prior to the harvesting of
all mature trees. The first cut is made a few years before the
final harvest, and prescribed burning is used to prepare the site
for seedling establishment. The stand is thinned heavily, leaving
only the best formed trees to provide seed for regeneration. The
remaining trees are harvested after a uniform growth of young
pines has appeared.
The seed tree regeneration system is similar to the
shelterwood system, except that it leaves fewer trees standing.
The main disadvantage is that the small volume of timber left
may be difficult to sell. Both of these systems are valuable in
that they generally result in increased habitat and wildlife
diversity. Abundant ground level forage is produced and
substantial bird populations are frequently supported. However,
germination, spacing, and survival of seedlings are unpredictable.
Clearcutting usually is followed by a number of treatments
that prepare the site for the planting of tree seedlings. These
treatments may include any combination of the following:
burning or chopping of debris and piling it in windows with a
K-G blade, stump removal, herbicide use, harrowing, bedding,
and ditching. The combination and intensity of these site
preparation techniques determine their impact on wildlife. Very
intensive site preparation practically eliminates the existing
plant communities from the site, and establishment of desirable
wildlife foods is consequently delayed.


The length of time that it takes for growing pines to
dominate a site also depends on the intensity of site
preparation. This is an extremely important point in determining
the species of wildlife that will be supported. When the pines
are young and the sparse crowns allow sunlight through, the
plantation may typically be used by wildlife species that live in

early successional habitats. These include bobwhites, cottontails,
cotton rats, and sparrows. Young forests also supply abundant
foods for deer and turkeys. These habitats and animals decline
as the pine stand approaches crown closure. After closure and
before thinning or burning occurs, a pine plantation provides
few food plants and little more than escape and nesting cover
for many wildlife species.
In general, high-intensity site preparation hastens
development of the forest, and in so doing diminishes wildlife
habitat. An ecological study comparing high intensity with low-
intensity site preparation demonstrated that, after nine years,
low-intensity sites had a well-developed grass/palmetto
understory and little shrub growth. The understory supported a
large number of insects, which in turn supported a variety of
insect-feeding animals, including opossums, armadillos, and
shrews. In comparison, high-intensity site preparation had a
greater degree of crown closure and a more developed shrub
layer. This greatly reduced the amount of ground forage, and
the site supported some animals that prefer more open ground
level conditions, namely rabbits, bobwhites, and cotton rats.
Although site preparation techniques such as cultivation and
fertilization may reduce the total understory, scientists have
found that the proportion of desirable understory forage plants
is sometimes greatly increased. After 12 years, prepared sites
provided better deer habitat than non-prepared sites. The
scientists concluded that intensive pine culture can be
compatible with maintaining deer habitat. Other site preparation
techniques can help wildlife also. Burning in Florida flatwoods is
often beneficial. Also, the piling of debris to form windows
provides food and cover for deer, bobwhites, and cottontails.
In general, when considering a variety of wildlife species,
less intensive levels of site preparation are probably more
favorable than more intensive levels. However, certain game
species, particularly the white-tailed deer, are helped in some
cases by higher intensity site preparation.
Controlled use of fire in Florida flatwoods is a valuable
management tool. Pine forestlands are burned to accomplish at
least one of the following goals: (1) to dispose of debris from
timber harvesting operations and to prepare the site for
planting, (2) to reduce understory litter to prevent wildfires, (3)
to control insect pests or diseases, (4) to increase the quantity
and quality of edible plants for cattle and/or wildlife, (5) to
recycle nutrients bound up in plant litter and debris back into
the soil, and (6) to alter or enhance the structural aspects of

wildlife habitats.
Native plants and animals of Florida flatwoods have evolved
in the presence of frequent burning in many pine forest types.
Shrubs such as saw palmetto, paw paw, yaupon, sweetleaf,
sumac, and blackberry all respond vigorously to periodic burning.
Other species are limited by fire. Exclusion of fire for the first
10 or 15 years in pine plantations may, therefore, have drastic
effects on the development of the forest as an ecosystem.

Burning schedules are extremely important in the
development of habitat conditions favorable for various wildlife
species. A one- to two-year burning schedule keeps the
understory open and creates habitat favorable for bobwhites. A
three- to five-year burning schedule allows for development of
browse and cover plants, thereby favoring deer and turkeys. A
three- to five-year schedule also allows the accumulation of
sufficient fuel to support the next prescribed burn, and is most
compatible with timber production.
When planning a prescribed burn, the advice of a
professional forester or technician should be sought. A burn that
is planned and carried out in a careful and knowledgeable
manner can be a safe and effective management tool. Burns are
often conducted in the winter shortly after a rain, although
there is some evidence that summer burns were historically more
common and may be better for wildlife due to the "patchy"
nature of these burns. A day with a slow, steady wind is
desirable. Keeping the blocks of land to be burned relatively
small will allow you to stop the burn at any time that
conditions become dangerous. The areas to be burned should be
surrounded by natural barriers or plowed fire breaks.
A burn is always begun by setting the fire on the downwind
side of the site so that the fire will burn slowly back into the
wind. Such a fire is considered safe provided the wind does not
change direction. The upper surface layer of pine needles and
grass will fuel the fire, but the lower organic layer should be
moist enough to resist burning. A slow, steady wind will help to

spread the heat before it rises into the tree crowns, and will
facilitate a backfire. After burning, always make follow-up
observations to prevent flare-ups from smoldering stumps or


Florida pine flatwoods are often lacking in necessary
nutrients, especially phosphorus. Fertilization, therefore, has a
major effect upon the growth of pines and influences the quality
of flatwoods habitats for wildlife. Soils that are lacking in
phosphorus produce poor quality deer browse that cannot
support large populations. The body weights and general
condition of deer can actually be predicted by knowing the
phosphorus levels in the soil.
If phosphorus is applied to the forest before crown closure
or if thinning is accompanied by fertilization, then understory
plants of superior quality result in enhanced forage for deer.
Sometimes deer damage to pines in young plantations can
become a major concern. One suggestion is to create an
alternative food source by fertilizing native plants a short
distance away from the affected stand. In general, it seems that
most wildlife species will benefit from forest stand fertilization,
especially when it is done early in the stand's development or
later along with thinning operations.
Thinning is the process of removing lesser quality trees
from the forest. Thinning in pine stands reduces light
competition and improves both the form and growth of trees left
standing. The first thinnings usually produce pulpwood that is
used in the manufacture of paper products. Later thinnings will
produce 8-inch diameter at breast height (DBH) pines, or greater
diameter chip-and-saw trees that will make chips and boards
from the same tree. Prices for chip-and-saw trees may be double
those for pulpwood.


The development of understory vegetation, without thinning
and burning, is inhibited due to the lack of light penetration
through the pine crowns, the root competition for water and
nutrients, and the heavy accumulations of organic litter that ties
up nutrients. Thinning opens up the pine canopy of plantations,
which allows understory and midstory vegetation development
that is extremely important for many wildlife species. In general,
thinning as early in plantation development and as often as
possible is favorable both for wildlife and for forest health and


Managing forested land can be a profitable and rewarding
experience. It can provide a satisfying livelihood for some, or a
pleasurable pastime for others. But managing a multiple-use
resource always involves trade-offs when making decisions. By
defining priorities and making plans based upon sound knowledge
and experience, then intelligent, long-term decisions can be
made. It is as difficult to generalize about management of all
wildlife, just as it is to generalize about all combinations of
forest management. Some forest management practices are more
favorable than others for some wildlife species. The key to
management for favoring many wildlife species is in trying to
maintain or enhance the variety of vegetation (wildlife habitats)
found in an area. Generally, the greater the variety, the greater
the use by wildlife. This publication provided some guidelines for
managing pine forests in Florida flatwoods to favor wildlife. If
you desire additional information on some of these topics,
contact your County Cooperative Extension or Division of
Forestry offices.

This publication was produced at a cost of $996.80, or 41.5 cents
per copy, to provide information on the management of pine
forests. 9-2.4M-86

OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller, director, in coopera-
tion with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information
to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is
authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only .I....L ,"ll...
to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single
copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to
determine availability.

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