• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Table of Contents
 Design in the rose garden
 Preparing the rose bed
 Planting the rose garden and treatment...
 Rose growing in Florida
 Deseases of roses and their...
 Growing roses they say will not...
 Roses in the landscape
 Round table discussion
 Growing roses for cut flowers
 Round table discussion
 Rose pests and how to handle...
 Report on new roses received from...
 Artistic arrangement of roses
 The future of the rose
 Report of the annual meeting of...
 President’s annual address
 Advertising














Title: Bulletin of the Florida Rose Society ..
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00096258/00003
 Material Information
Title: Bulletin of the Florida Rose Society ..
Physical Description: v. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Rose Society
Florida Rose Society
Publisher: The Society
Place of Publication: Deland Fla
Deland, Fla
Publication Date: 1934
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1932-
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00096258
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12110253

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Design in the rose garden
        Page 3
    Preparing the rose bed
        Page 4
    Planting the rose garden and treatment of old rose plants
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Rose growing in Florida
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Deseases of roses and their control
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Growing roses they say will not grow in Florida
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Roses in the landscape
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Round table discussion
        Page 19
    Growing roses for cut flowers
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Round table discussion
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Rose pests and how to handle them
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Report on new roses received from V.S. Hillock for testing
        Page 29
    Artistic arrangement of roses
        Page 30
    The future of the rose
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Report of the annual meeting of the Florida rose society
        Page 33
    President’s annual address
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Advertising
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text



Growing Roses

in Florida


1934 BULLETIN
OF THE
FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY
(Affiliated with the American Rose Society)
COPYRIGHTED 19883 BY FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY








The Florida Rose Society


OFFICERS 1933

President - - R. H. ELLIS, Orlando

Vice-President - N. E. JORDAN, Bartow

Treasurer - N. A. REASONER, Bradenton

Secretary, MRS. S. FRANK POOLE, Lake Alfred





Organized 1925 at Cocoa, Florida.

Annual Membership, $1.00.

Combined Annual Membership in the Florida Rose
Society and American Rose Society, $4.00.

Each member is entitled to the Annual Bulletin of
the Society.



D rME 0 PAINTER PRINTING CO.DE LAND.FL r4>








Table of Contents


PAGE
Design in the Rose Garden........................... ......... ........... 3
Preparing the Rose Bed............................... ................. 4
Planting the Rose Garden............................................ 5
Treatment of Old Rose Plants.................................................. 5
Rose Growing in Florida..................... .. ............... 7
Diseases of Roses and Their Control................................ 11
Growing Roses They Say Will Not Grow in Florida............ 14
Roses in the Landscape.......................... ......................... 17
Round Table Discussion.................. ................. 19
Growing Roses for Cut Flowers.......................................... 20
Round Table Discussion.............. ........... ................. ...... 22
Rose Pests and How to Handle Them................................. 26
Report on New Roses for Testing.................. ...... .. 29
Artistic Arrangement of Roses.......................................... 30
The Future of the Rose........................... ....................... 31
Report of the Annual Meeting.......................................... 33
President's Annual Address............................. ............ ... 34




SEA M,2





DESIGN IN THE ROSE GARDEN

MAZY H. SNODGZASS, South Clermont
The rose has been rightly called the jewel of the garden and as such
we must prepare to do honor to our most cherished flower. Shall we do
this as a jeweler would, by making such a setting as will most enhance
and display our jewel? The loveliest rose garden that I have ever seen
was set against a background of evergreens and fine-leaved trees. There
were lovely turf paths between the beds, but not another flower in sight
to distract one's attention from the beauty of the roses growing there in
such profusion.
There was more than foliage and roses about that garden that makes
it stand out most clearly of all the memories of rose gardens. Had there
been not a flower in sight it would have left a memory of perfect pro-
portion, of land shaped most effectively to express a circular garden, of
accessories such as steps, pergolas, a wee statute and a basin of water
placed most effectively to lead one on from part to part of that garden.
That was a large garden on an estate of considerable area, but there
is no reason why we should not have an equally perfect garden on a small
scale for every one of us who grow roses.
How shall we go about achieving this? First, of course, find the most
suitable location for the culture of our roses; then find the best possible
relationship between this rose area and the rest of the garden. While your
roses are best displayed by themselves, yet they want a definite relationship
to the garden as a whole, just as your jewels are best displayed when the
dress is designed with their use in mind.
When your area is located, generally then you will try to find the
most pleasing shape for that area, be it circular, oval, rectangular or
square. Unless it is circular you will need to experiment to find the
proper proportion between length and width. Scale it off on a piece of
paper and then experiment with your proportions. Unless you have done
it before you will be surprised to see how much more pleasing some
rectangles are to the eye than others.
Then plan the beds themselves; what shape shall they have? They
will conform to that of the general area, they will be narrow, with path.
between, that the roses may be easily reached. Probably they will be
conventionally shaped, for roses seem to have lived with man so long that
their living quarters are most pleasing when built on formal lines. There
need to be green paths between the beds. They might be of other things
than turf, but most frequently the turf path seems to form a better setting
for the roses themselves than anything else. Certainly there must be paths
leading us close to the roses, that each jewel may be examined and enjoyed
in turn.
The paths must lead somewhere, to a gate, to a seat, to a door of a
house. They need to tempt us ever on and on. Why is it that two shallow
steps just call to be climbed, while the same elevation gained by a slope
leaves no feeling of achievement-does not tempt one up to explore? Or
do you not find it that way? Add a stone bench where the path turns and
there is a definite call to walk to the end of the path.
Then place a planting about your jewels, to guard them from the
brilliance of the other flowers in the garden-a hedge of evergreens or
fine-leaved shrubbery, a pergola or trellis of natural wood draped with





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

climbing roses; some such enclosure is needed to make sufficiently private
the beauty of the newest addition to your collection.
Try this and see if your rose garden does not give you far more
enjoyment than the same roses without the setting.


PREPARING THE ROSE BED


U. 1. E.LLIS, Orlando
When you have chosen the spot for your rose bed in a location
sheltered from the northwest winds, to some extent at least, and not too
close to trees or shrubs so their roots will bother, and if there is danger
of this they can be kept out to a great extent by digging a trench thirty or
thirty-six inches deep and set in a sheet of roll roofing so it extends all
the way around the bed and then refill the trench.
To prepare the soil, first take off six inches of the best soil. Pile this
out on one side, then remove six inches more and take it away. Now put
in three inches of leaf mold, one pound of wood ashes per plant, then three
inches of soil, then three to five inches of cow manure and from one to
one and a half pounds of bone meal per plant and then the same amount of
castor pomace, then enough soil to finish filling. Now this whole mass
should be thoroughly mixed and enough water applied so the whole is well
moistened. This should all be done two weeks before you want to plant,
and it is not necessary that the manure be what we term well-rotted;
and if you will do this making-up thirty days before you want to plant,
you can use absolutely fresh manure, and if you will work your bed over
every few days, it will help a lot.
You may use twice the amount of leaf or compost and, instead of the
manure, use one pound of Cold Smoke Soil Corrector to four or five
cubic feet of soil. This mixture has given better results with annuals
than the manure and is also showing up well where I have used it in
making over old rose beds to be set with new plants. This material has
several advantages over manure. It is more economical, it carries no weed
seed, it can be planted in at once, it corrects soil acidity, it is an insecticide
and a fungicide and assists the development of the nitrifying bacteria. It
is truly a soil-builder, superior to any fertilizer I have used, and moles
certainly do not like it.
A few don't: Don't just dig a hole and put a lot of coarse, unrotted
material like fresh dry leaves or old dried-up manure in the bottom and
then fill it in and plant on top of it. In fact, don't bury anything down
under your plants, but mix everything thoroughly in the top twelve to
sixteen inches and use all coarse, unrotted material to top as a mulch. It
will rot faster there. Don't expect as good results from cheap, weak plants
as you would from good strong ones. Don't put a clay bottom in your
rose bed and don't think that you have to have clay in order to grow roses.
You don't need a bit of it. Good humus, such as leaf mold, is much more
valuable. Roses will grow reasonably well in any good, fertile, healthy soil.





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


PLANTING THE ROSE GARDEN

W. i. FLOYD
Roses will live longer and have greater vigor when grown on flatwoods
or hammock soils, when well fertilized and cultivated, than on sandy soils.
However, they are wanted near the dwelling, so the soil cannot be selected
as to adaptability but must be taken as found to be and amended and
enriched as the needs require.
The bed should be well supplied with organic matter, have, good
drainage, be capable of holding water well, in good tilth and free from
noxious weeds. It should not be under the shade of large trees, but so
located that it may receive a minimum of three hours of sunlight a day,
preferably in the morning. Whether partial shading is at all advantageous
is doubtful.
Where the soil is quite infertile or because of long cultivation contains
objectionable organisms, one is often advised to dig out the soil to a depth
of fifteen or eighteen inches, then fill in with new soil and other desirable
material. I doubt if digging out to a greater depth than twelve inches is
necessary where there is a porous subsoil, as some of the plant food is
carried down by descending water before the rose roots penetrate beyond
this depth, and much labor and expense is saved.
The bed in our garden at the University was prepared as follows:
The soil was removed to a depth of twelve inches, then a layer of cow
manure three inches thick was placed in the bottom, top-soil from the upper
three inches of hammock was placed on top of this, to which was added
fifty pounds of cottonseed meal and 100 pounds of bone meal. Enough
of this was used to bring the area back to the former level. It was allowed
to remain undisturbed for six weeks.
The bed is nine feet by sixty-three feet. The plants are set eighteen
inches apart each way. Strips of galvanized iron have been placed on
edge, extending down a depth of eighteen inches on the side next to a
pittosporum hedge to prevent roots of these plants from penetrating the
rose bed.
The plants were set December 15, 1932, and mulched with oak leaves
(which has been maintained). The leaves have been raked off temporarily
and top dressings of cow manure or bone meal given when needed. There
has been no lack of plant food or water, and diseases and insect pests have
been fought vigorously. We have grown roses many years but the ap-
pearance and performance of the plants in this bed have far exceeded
those in any other.

TREATMENT OF OLD ROSE PLANTS

R. H. ELLIS, Orlando
Treatment of old rose plants is rather a difficult subject to cover, in
that there is no definite way to explain clearly which old plant is worthy of
further care and which is past that point of usefulness and should be
thrown away. Some would tell you to throw away all plants at the end
of the first year and plant all new stock. That would no doubt please the
rose plant growers, but there are very few rose lovers and amateur growers





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

who will dig up and throw away a rose plant that still looks good and has
bloomed well for them. I would like to say to those few who feel finan-
cially able to discard them at the end of the first year, don't throw them
away, but give them to someone who is less fortunate and could not buy
plants, but would gladly take those and care for them and would un-
doubtedly get a 16t of pleasure out of them and in that way would get a
start in growing some roses and no doubt would later buy new plants
themselves.
It depends a lot on what condition has made your plants slow down or
almost entirely stop. It might be a lack of food, it may be a soil con-
dition caused in various ways, such as over-use of certain types of fertilizer,
lack of moisture, or by the roots of other plants or trees taking possession
of their bed, or it might be fungus or they may be badly weakened from
leaf spot. Where it is the result of starvation or soil condition they can
be dug up and pruned back, top and bottom, just like new plants, and
reset in a new bed properly prepared, either in the same spot or in a new
location, and properly watered. They will very often start off and grow
like new plants.
I have taken a bed that had become so acid from the constant use of
an all-chemical fertilizer of which a large part was acid phosphate, that
the plants just came to a standstill, applied 100 pounds of Root Knot
Control which is a fungicide-insecticide soil sweetener, made as the name
applies for the control of root knot but is a fine soil corrector as well, then
one week later an application of cow manure, and the plants put on that
healthy dark-green growth and went to blooming like new plants.
I think that when a rose bed is cut back is a fine time to give a good
spraying, because then you can get at every particle of the surface of the
old canes.
Some growers advise picking off all leaves that become affected with
leaf spot. I would like to warn right here to be sure to spray or dust
thoroughly before starting to pick such affected leaves, for the handling of
such leaves is certain to spread the fungus spores, so by having a good
covering of fungicide on the foliage such floating spores won't be able to
get a start on a new leaf. For, as you now know, the fight against leaf
spot is a matter of prevention and not of cure, other than by prevention of
spread.
Thrip is something else that should be fought in somewhat the same
manner. You know about what time in the Spring the heavy infestation
is likely to appear, so get on the job ahead of them by spraying or
dusting every two or three days and by cutting all flower buds just as
soon as they are developed enough to open in water. Cut everything; don't
leave a single one to open on the plant, and you will have gone a long way
toward controlling them. In Central Florida they appear in late March
and early April and last for several weeks, and of course there are a
few with us always, but not enough to bother.
I would like to mention one or two things concerning cutting roses
back in the late summer or fall. Some nurseries state in their catalogues
just what time they should be cut Back so as to be in bloom at Christmas.
In the first place, no one can tell when a rose plant should be cut back
without seeing the plant. One plant or bed of plants might be in condition
where it would be just right to cut while another would be in exactly the
wrong condition to cut and would be much harmed by cutting at that





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


time, so it is a matter which a grower has to use some judgment and
common sense about, and cut when he has mature wood.
In 1930 I had to wait until in November before I dared to cut, and in
1931 I had the same condition five weeks earlier. Another thing; some say
all roses should be cut and not let stay on the bush to open and drop. I
really think it helps the wood if the bloom is allowed to come to full
maturity on the plant, but should then be cut back to a strong eye.
There has been a lot said for and against Radiance, but I still say that
it is the best rose for Florida for the home owner or renter who just
wants to plant from one to a dozen plants, so as to have the pleasure of
cutting a rose occasionally that they have grown in their own garden.
There is not another that will fill that place as well, but to you people
gathered here who call yourselves rose growers, amateur or professional, it
is high time we were doing something toward digging out from among
the hundreds of fine varieties that are growing with varying degrees of
satisfaction in other sections of this country and other countries those
varieties which will grow here under our conditions to that degree of
perfection and satisfaction so that we may be able to recommend a reason-
able number of varieties, so that when a person coming into our State
to make their home wants to know what roses to plant they can be given
a full list of types and colors to fit any requirement. It can be done surely,
with the endless number of varieties we have, but if they don't exist then
let us get busy and develop the ideal Florida rose.


ROSE GROWING IN FLORIDA

GEORGE H. PETERSON, St. Petersburg
The successful growing of roses in Florida depends largely on the soil
available, character and quality of plants obtainable, and the proper selec-
tion of varieties.
Apropos of the above subject, it will, I feel sure, interest the reader
to learn that in November of 1919 I established a winter home in St.
Petersburg, and, with two exceptions, I have there been growing roses each
season from November to April, inclusive.
The question of site for the proposed rose bed or garden will first arise
and must first be disposed of. Endeavor to place this in the open, that is,
away from shrubbery or trees, and not too close to buildings. The air
should circulate freely among the plants in order that the foliage may not
remain wet or damp longer than necessary. In the spring and summer,
as the heat of the sun increases, better and more lasting bloom results
will be had if the garden is placed to the east of a building where, soon
after noon, the plants will become shaded.

SOIL
Much, if not most, of the soil of Florida is too light in character to
develop rose growing successfully, and so, where this condition obtains,
it becomes necessary to "make" one's soil. As the above condition is one
that I had to face, I will here relate just how my rose soil is prepared.
First, I excavate my beds fifteen inches deep. Into this I place a mix-
ture made up as follows:





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


2 shovels top muck
2 shovels weed and leaf compost
1 shovel cow manure.
The muck must be the virgin top layer, and should contain fibrous
rooty matter. Do not sieve it as the rose roots like a rough, porous soil.
The compost is made up of rakings and cuttings piled up during the
summer, and need not be completely decomposed. The above-mentioned
three ingredients are placed in piles convenient to throwing onto one pile;
first, two shovels of muck, then two of compost and one of manure. After
a pile of this accumulates it is thrown into the excavation, and when
this is within an inch of being filled after a thorough treading, a mixture
of half and half raw and steamed bone meal is applied on the surface at
the rate of about one-third to one-half pound to the square foot. On top
of this, hydrated lime is placed at the rate of about one-fourth pound to the
square foot. The bone and lime should now be mixed thoroughly through
the soil from top to bottom. A flat-tined fork is the best implement to use
here, pushed down beyond the hilt. Go over the bed with this several
times.
There may be, and doubtless are, soils in Florida which will not require
this careful preparation, natural soils which will grow fine roses by merely
adding a couple of handfuls to the plant of a good commercial vegetable
fertilizer. In fact, scarcely a mile away from me fine roses are grown
on low but well-drained muck soils without fertilizer of any kind.
CHARACTER OF ROSES TO PLANT
My own experience over a period of a dozen years has shown that roses
budded on the Japanese polyantha multiflora, and grown in the North, are
decidedly the best, and this after trying out California, Texas, Georgia,
and northern Florida-grown stock. The Japanese stock makes a wonderful,
bushy, feeding root system that never throws up a wild "sucker."
The advantage in northern field-grown stock lies in the fact that early
October frosts there stop growth, harden the wood, and bring the plant
to a state of rest. By transferring such a dormant plant to Florida soil in,
say, November 10th to mid-February, the plant acts as if spring were at
hand in the North, and will begin to bloom in about six weks after planting.
A southern-grown rose, on the other hand, must rest sometime, and sulks
more or less when transferred in the winter season.
Mrs. N. U. Bond, 3333 Ninth St., North, St. Petersburg, has demon-
strated what an amateur can do with northern-grown roses. Her roses
are the admiration and envy of all who see them, and a large dealer in
rose plants on beholding them said he had never anywhere seen roses to
equal them. Mrs. Bond's place is open to the public, and a visit there will
well repay the rose lover.
Three years ago, shortly after my arrival here in November, I read a
somewhat lengthy rose article in our local Sunday newspaper. Among
other things, this stated that the only rose root which would stand the
hot Florida summers was the "Texas Wax." Ordinarily I do not attempt
to carry my roses over the summer in Florida. I have no one to then
properly care for them and so I dispose of the plants before leaving in
April. The summer preceding the appearance of the above-mentioned
article, I did leave a row of about three dozen plants of Radiance and Red





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


Radiance. The summer proved a hot, very dry one, and yet, when I arrived
as usual in November, these plants were all alive and almost 100 per cent.
perfect, averaging four and a half to five feet high. The article referred to
amused me not a little since my roses were on the multiflora root. Several
friends and neighbors planted Texas roses the previous fall and winter.
Not one of these had growth or bloom approaching mine, nor did their
plants come through the summer nearly so well.
On arriving in November I at once cut back my roses to within eighteen
inches of the ground, replaced the latter with new, enriched soil, as much
as I could without disturbing the main roots, watered well, and that winter
the crop of bloom was much finer than during the first season. These roses
were still good to fine the third year, but as some were dead the next
season, I sold the remaining good plants, and this last November (1933)
I planted, in the same identical space thirty-eight President Herbert Hoover
which I expect to leave there over the coming summer.

VARIETIES
For planting in the North one can select almost at random from a
grower's catalogue and find that many varieties will succeed with him. In
Florida, however, but few varieties will be found to succeed generally.
After trying out more than 100 of the most popular sorts during the past
twelve years, I now confine my plantings to about one dozen varieties. To
begin with, the so-called "Radiance Roses," consisting of Radiance, Red
Radiance and Mrs. Charles Bell, are generally successful in Florida, as
elsewhere, and will, no doubt, continue to be largely planted. They are,
however, lacking in form since a bloom one-half to three-quarters open
resembles a perfect cabbage head.
If any rose now known will supersede the above for general planting
here I think that President Herbert Hoover will do so. Hoover has every-
thing a rose should have, exquisite form in all stages, a combination and
blending of colors such as is rarely seen in any flower, fragrance and a
strength of growth exceeding that of Radiance. In addition to the above
described desirable qualities it possesses that of standing the prolonged heat
of a Florida summer. In November of 1932 a friend here in St. Petersburg
planted ten of this variety on northern multiflora. By April following
the growth had reached five feet, and the man who occasionally watered
the plants during the summer of 1933 said some of the flowers were seven
feet above the ground. More important still, after one of the hottest of
Florida's summers, every plant came through the winter of 1933-34 in
perfect condition with canes as thick as a man's thumb.
Space will not permit me to go into details about other varieties, but
descriptions can be found in dealers' catalogues. Others I have found to
do best are:
Etoile de Hollande (best red)
Ville de Paris (best yellow)
Talisman
Mme. Edouard Herriot
Pink Pearl
Mrs. Erskine P. Thorn
Margaret Mc Gredy
Kaiserin A. Victoria





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


Through the courtesy of Mr. Robert Pyle, of West Grove, Pa., I have
twenty new varieties on trial this season. These include some marvelous
kinds originated by Pedro Dot of Spain. I am awaiting their bloom with
much interest.
ROSE DISEASES
Roses in Florida are subject to both Black Spot and Mildew as they
are in the North, but in my experience neither is likely to become as disas-
trous as they sometimes are in the North. These troubles can easily and
surely be prevented by a weekly dusting with Pomodust, beginning about
four weeks after planting. This will also take care of any chewing insects
or slugs as it contains arsenate of lead. It should be applied thoroughly
but lightly to both sides of the plant with a dust gun, and when the foliage
is dry. Probably the very best time to apply this is just before dark when
usually there is a light film of dew present. Rub the grass with your hand'
and see if moisture is not then present. Black Spot always starts at the
bottom and works upwards, so be sure that the lower foliage is evenly
covered, and when buds begin to show color use care to keep the dust off
upper part of plant. Pomogreen is the same as Pomodust, except in color,
but its greatly increased price is out of proportion to its desirability.

PLANTING AND PRUNING
When I first came to Florida and found that roses generally were
planted five to six feet apart, and even more, I could not understand it, nor
can I yet. In my opinion, there are at least two reasons why they should
be planted close enough to shade the ground completely during the summer.
Having in mind the fact that the light Florida soil attains a cooking degree
under day after day of semi-tropical heat, the wonder is not that so many
roses then perish, but that any survive. We know that the rose succeeds
to the fullest in cool, damp climates, and while we cannot control the latter,
we can plant our roses close enough so that the ground about the roses is
completely shaded by the time severe heat begins. With this in mind, I
advise that the plants be set about eighteen inches apart. This close plant-
ing will tend to produce taller growths and give longer stems for cutting.
Then, too, a close planting, where the soil must be "made," will mean a
material saving in expense. Furthermore, I think a bed of roses much
more attractive than a "grove" or "orchard" of same.
On planting your roses, prune the wood back to 4 to 6 inches above
ground, leaving the strongest canes the longest. If the plant has more
than 4 branches springing from the base, cut out the weakest canes entirely.
After the ground is prepared and traded firmly dig a hole a foot or
more in diameter and about equally deep, all according to size of roots of
plant in hand. Mound up the soil in bottom of hole over which to spread
the roots. Cut off any broken roots and ends of very long ones. Hold
plant so that when planting is done, and ground leveled, the bud junction
will be just nicely covered. Shake plant gently while soil is being slowly
filled in. As soon as bed is planted, tread ground firmly over roots of each
plant, and water heavily.
After roses have been planted some two or three weeks apply on the
surface two handfuls to the plant of a good commercial vegetable fertilizer.
Hoe this in deeply, and repeat six weeks later. Water thoroughly at once
and wash off any fertilizer which may have fallen on the foliage.





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


Other than cutting flowers desired, no pruning will be necessary during
the summer. To force plants to a state of rest, withhold all water, ferti-
lizer and cultivation (stirring of soil) until about the first of November.
At that time the plants should be cut back to twelve to eighteen inches,
the ground well fertilized and watered. This should bring a crop of bloom
by Christmas.
WATERING
The best way to water roses with a hose is without using a nozzle, and
to keep the outlet end on or very close to the ground so as not to wash
dusting material off the foliage. The best time to water is in the early
morning, and it is better to give the ground a good soaking once or twice
a week than to "sprinkle" the surface lightly every day or two. Watering
should not be done in the evening nor so late in the afternoon that the
foliage will not become thoroughly dry before night. Black Spot thrives
on excessive moisture, and the worst case of this disease and of mildew
that I have seen in Florida was where a stationary sprinkler was located
in the center of each large bed of roses and these were turned on at the
close of each day.
In order that the plants may look their best on Sundays, I often wash
the Pomodust off the foliage on Saturdays, using care to direct the water
so that the opening and opened flowers are kept dry. The dust, which is
of a sulphur color, will not disfigure the foliage greatly if applied finely
and with force, and if the foliage is dry or slightly moist, not wet.

DISEASES OF ROSES AND THEIR CONTROL

DR. WILLIAM B. SHIPPY, Leemburg
It is improbable that many of you are particularly interested in the
details regarding the various diseases which attack roses. I might add, too,
that many points must be cleared up before Florida's rose disease problems
are adequately understood. Everyone whc has grown roses for any length
of time has become familiar with the Black Spot disease which causes
unsightly, dark-colored patches on the leaves, and which so frequently
results in severe defoliation. Most rose gardeners are acquainted with
the black or purple cankers on the canes, which in many instances progress
downward until the crown area is reached and the plant destroyed. Nearly
every rosarian has had experiences at one time or another with mildew,
technically referred to as powdery mildew to distinguish it from the downy
mildew, an entirely different type of disease. A few of you have had
plants injured or destroyed by root knot, in which case the root system is
attacked by eel worms which cause swellng and distortion, thereby inter-
fering with water and mineral absorption. And possibly there are those
among you who have seen root decay of one type or another. These
several types of rose disease are fairly indicative of the sort of troubles
to which this ornamental is subject. True, there are a number of leaf
spots in addition to the Black Spot disease; there are several canker
diseases, at least two kinds of powdery mildew, and so on.
Though many rose diseases have been reported from all portions of
the United States and foreign countries, a number of which have been
observed in Florida, no purposeful effort has yet been made in this State





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


to determine definitely how many of these diseases we have to fight, their
relative importance, and how best they may be combatted. If we are to
successfully grow roses year after year, we must learn at the earliest
possible moment the difficulties which lie ahead. It may be we must grow
types of roses which are resistant to certain kinds of disease. If desirable
varieties are not now available, they must be developed through breeding
and selection. Root knot is an outstanding case in point which challenges
investigation in this direction.
The Experiment Station has this spring made a start toward determin-
ing the nature and control of Florida rose diseases. Texas rose producers
enthusiastically donated plants for study, and while we are not getting into
this too deeply during these times of stress, we now have an experimental
rose garden at the Leesburg laboratory of about 600 plants. It is to be
hoped this work may be permitted to continue, for something very much
worth while to the Florida rose gardener and the rose industry is an-
ticipated.
Now, in respect to rose disease control. At the new Leesburg garden
we are comparing several fungicides. In part, these were materials which
have proved more or less successful in combatting Black Spot and Brown
Canker in tests made by the New York and New Jersey Experiment Sta-
tions. They include sulfur dust (Niagara "Kolodust"), bordeaux mixture
(4-6-50), copper-lime dust (Niagara "D-6 mixture), lime-sulfur (1-80),
ammoniacal copper carbonate, a special preparation composed of bluestone,
soap, and ammonia, and finally, Fungtrogen, one of the proprietary rose
sprays. A row of fifty plants is used for each of these several preparations.
In so far as possible these tests are being made on ten varieties of bush
roses, including the Lady Hillingdon, Etoile de France, Columbia, Francis
Scott Key, Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria, J. J. L. Mock, Pink Radiance,
Luxembourg, Charles K. Douglas, and Frau Karl Druschki. Up to the
present time, three applications have been made of these various fungicides,
one on March 4, one on March 15, and the last on April 10. As one might
possibly expect in the case of so young a planting and so early in the
season, no leaf spotting has occurred yet in any of the plants, including the
untreated. Later on we can make better comparisons. Some injury to
the young, tender foliage has resulted from the liquid treatments, but is
not particularly noticeable except in the case of lime-sulfur. Lime-sulfur
1-80 has proved somewhat caustic, but it will be some time yet before we
can determine its value as a rose fungicide.
We are only making a beginning in rose disease control, but as some
of you are well aware, studies in this connection were begun by both the
New Jersey and New York stations several years ago. This work has
provided the most authoritative information available until similar data can
be worked out under Florida conditions. It might be well to review their
findings briefly:
Doctor White, of the New Jersey Station, selected the following
materials for his 1929 tests: Ialine (colloidal sulfur), bordeaux mixture
4-5-50, lime-sulfur, Ferrox-sulfur, Gray-sulfur, Thylox-sulfur, Pyrox,
Fungtrogen, and colloidal copper hydroxide. His results of that year
showed the sulfur sprays as a group to give better Black Spot and Brown
Canker control than the copper sprays. In his 1930 tests he included either
flour or soap in his sprays as a sticker, and added a mercury spray, a
Bentonite sulfur spray, and a Bentonite sulfur dust (Niagara "Pomo-





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


green"). That season most of the sulfurs gave a fair degree of control,
but bordeaux mixture with flour added obtained first place. Considerable
foliage and cane injury attended its use, however, so that it could not be
rated as preferable to the sulfurs. In 1931 one or two additional materials
were added to the list, and when the results were in, it was found that
bordeaux mixture came either first or second in all the tests, with such
sulfurs as Kolodust, Kolofog spray, and Gray Flotation running a fairly
close race. For some reason copper injury was not so marked in the 1931
tests. Summing up the New Jersey tests: It was definitely shown that
almost any sulfur or copper fungicide materially reduced the foliage and
cane diseases studied, and particularly so upon the addition of some suitable
sticker. Of the fungicides tested, Bentonite sulfur dusts and sprays, certain
of the wettable sulfurs, and bordeaux mixture proved more effective,
although the latter material injured the foliage and canes badly some
seasons.
The New York Experiment Station, likewise, began a special study
of fungicides for rose disease control in 1929. The materials used in that
year included bordeaux mixture, lime-sulfur, Fungtrogen Nos. 1 and 2,
calcium arsenate, Kolotex, Pomo-green, and copper-lime dust. At the end
of the season it was found that Kolotex, a proprietary sulfur-arsenate of
lead dust, came first as a control for Black Spot, with Pomo-green, a
similar dust with a green-colored dye added, a close second. Copper-lime
dust came third, and was followed by Kolotex, bordeaux mixture, lime-
sulfur, Fungtrogen, the untreated, and at the bottom of the list, calcium
arsenate. Not only did the sulfurs place at the top of the list, as was
true in the New Jersey tests for 1929, but the dusts actually outranked the
sprays. Here, too, it was found that all the sprays caused some injury to
tender growth, especially early in the season. It was also found of con-
siderable importance that fungicides be applied before rains rather than
following.
In the 1930 tests calcium arsenate and Fungtrogen No. 2 were omitted,
and new materials included Sulfocide, Ferrox flotation sulfur, and Green
Kolodust. Again Kolotex and Pomo-green, sulfur-arsenate of lead dusts,
came at the top of the list for Black Spot control. Copper-lime dust lost
its third position of the previous year, being replaced by Green Kolodust,
a Bentonite sulfur, and was also outranked by lime-sulfur solution, bor-
deaux mixture, Ferrox flotation sulfur, and Sulfocide. Fungtrogen gave
even poorer control than copper-lime dust. Sulfur dusts took first, second,
third and fourth positions for Brown Canker control, with bordeaux mix-
ture seventh.
In 1931 tests, bordeaux mixture came fourth and copper-lime dust
sixth in Black Spot control. Sulfur dusts occupied first, second, third and
fifth positions. In Brown Canker control the first five positions were taken
by sulfur preparations, with bordeaux mixture sixth. Summing up the
New York results: These tests, like those in New Jersey, showed that
sulfur and copper fungicides materially reduce Black Spot and Brown
Canker infection. The sulfur preparations throughout proved somewhat
superior to the copper, certain proprietary dusts proving particularly
effective.
These studies on disease control are of much importance to the rose
industry. In Florida, where rose culture seems to be somewhat hazardous,
I think it is particularly important that we try to keep in touch with new





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


developments. Perhaps I may have the pleasure at some future date of
reporting to you similar data gathered under Florida conditions. Until we
know more about our local problems, the better course will be to keep the
rose garden free of fallen leaves and weeds in so far as possible, to keep
the plants free of cankered or dead wood, to space them so that good air
circulation is provided, and to apply a high-grade dusting sulfur or some
other effective fungicide at well-timed intervals. Frequency of application
will depend on the rainfall, and the effectiveness of the fungicide will
depend in part on thoroughness of application and on its being present on
the plant before wetting takes place.

"GROWING ROSES THEY SAY WILL NOT GROW
IN FLORIDA"

GRACE H. SIMONSON, Lake Alfred, Florida
I had raised roses for a number of years in Westchester County,
New York, and had been successful with them, but the H. T.'s were mixed
with the H. P.'s, and the lists were not so long as they are now. The
seven or eight years previous to coming to Florida, however, we had a
New York City apartment and my rose garden centered in the New York
flower shows and the nurseries of the suburbs.
It was a very good school for learning the newer roses, for catalogues
were not very full then. Souv. de Claudius Pernet, Columbia, Mrs. Geo.
Shawyer and Mrs. Aaron Ward were the high lights, and I remember
when Mrs. Calvin Coolidge made her first appearance. It was at the
Pennsylvania Hotel.
We came down here in the Fall of 1926 to live. Our home was virtu-
ally finished but the grounds were very much in the rough. I had spent
several winters here previously.
At a luncheon given for us in New York just before we left, someone
asked what I was going to do in Florida and I remember I said I was
going to raise roses and caladiums, so I knew what I wanted, and I picked
out a location for roses almost at once. It was just wild land and seemed
more difficult than I anticipated, but we had it cleared and grubbed and
plowed and finally I staked out where I wanted to plant roses. It seems
very amateurish now, but I wanted them so much I couldn't wait.
My brother told me that roses did better in Florida with a clay under-
base. I had never seen so much sand. So we dug holes about eighteen
inches deep and put in six inches of red clay and on top about six inches of
cow manure and then six inches of top soil mixed with bone meal and in
this I planted the roses, with the exception of the clay, exactly as I had done
in the north. They started to grow at once and of the sixty-odd set out
that first winter thirty-two are still alive. I had been told by a botanical
cousin, Mrs. N. L. Britton, in New York, that only Radiance roses would
grow in Florida and I had scoffed at the idea. I would grow what I
wanted or none, and I put in the garden that cold January 1st, 1927, the
same roses the New York Flower Show exhibited: Columbia, Jonkheer
J. L. Mack, Francis Scott Key, Caroline Testout (she died only last
summer), Hadley, Souv. de Claudius Pernet, Mrs. George Shawyer, Lux-
embourg, Frau Karl Druschki, Radiance Red and Pink, Mamon Cochet,





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


and others. Some came from Hastings, some from Fruitlands and some
from Texas. I knew very little of the value of root stock at that time, but
I remember Claudius was on Manetta and Hastings on multiflora japonica.
Hadley and Los Angeles never grew at all, but the rest did and the treat-
ment they received was the same as my Pelham roses had had.
They were cultivated a good deal and left rough-to make the ground
as cool as possible, fed every month and watered before they got too dry.
I didn't know any other way and fortunately I didn't meet any local
authorities until it was too late to be of any use or disadvantage.
They were then growing well and they were the best roses I had ever
seen, North or South. I used sulphur for mildew, arsenate of lead and
tobacco for bugs as I had before, and didn't know Black Spot, as I had
not known it in Pelham, New York. I fed them every month, and as a
neighbor's roses were shabby and she said nothing but bone meal ever
touched her roses, I gave mine a varied diet.
I have kept a rather full record of rose events and, going over them
now, I find that first year was all to the good, largely on account of
beautiful flowers and large bushes, taking blue ribbons when entered at
flower shows. I also find I was impressed with beautiful leaves down to
the ground. Mr. Peterson of Lakeland thought them very fine and "would
be perfectly happy if he could grow such roses."
A special mention, I find, is that of Claudius, so satisfying, three feet
high and as broad, and sending out buds at every point. And then came
our hurricane the 8th to 11th of August, 1928. Everything battered and
broken-great rose bushes twisted round and round and tossed on their
sides-not a leaf left. All over the grounds things suffered and great trees
were down. It was an immense task to try to restore order. The roses
had to be trimmed down and reset, and from that time Black Spot made
its appearance. The bushes never had their former vigor, though most of
them recovered, but Claudius died. That Fall I started a new bed and
replaced many with new roses, and things went on as before, though later
sickness and ill health caused necessary neglect. Several months were lost at
a time, but gradually, with special care and feeding, they came back, and
from these experiences I was convinced that good care and attention given
or withheld was the cause of failure or success in Florida as elsewhere,
and any rose can be grown in Florida that is strong enough to grow well
elsewhere. Some varieties are too weak to be on the market at all.
Radiance Dies.-My Radiance have done no better than other varieties,
though Radiance grown as I have seen them this winter are fine, but
given the same conditions, other roses would grow as well, and the chief
objection to radiancitis is its monotony. Where stock is suitable to Florida
and you get good, strong, healthy plants two years old, roses have grown.
One season I wished some newer varieties I could get only at Dreer's.
They are all on Ragged Robin, the California stock, and all died. They
very kindly replaced them the next season, but these all followed the first
lot shortly.
I have had some splendid roses that came from Connecticut, but they
would never tell me what stock they did use. They said it was their own
development. They had a good list of newer varieties, but after several
very dry summers and trouble with the Japanese beetle they seem out of
the market.
Texas growers are now carrying a much better choice of the best
and newer varieties. Totty has a special grower down there who raises
15





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


all their finest roses from selected novelties bought by Mr. Totty abroad.
They are specially grown and irrigated and are not on the market to others,
but there are many other good growers who offer a choice of odorata-
Texas Wax-or multiflora, japonica, the latter supposed to be specially
for northern gardens, but I think for some varieties it is better for us, too.
My first Claudius lasted much longer than those I know were on Texas
Wax. I have had a number two, three and four years old on Texas Wax.
I have one now on its second year that is very small.
I have a good many Pernet roses and many are good. I have an
Angele Pernet four years old. It has been stepped on twice by careless
gardeners, but now has three branches, one two feet high. Three white
Pernet Duchers are also four years old, a very delicate white, semi-double
in clusters. The Pernet seems to do better in Texas on multiflora.
I do not care for Mie. Edouard Herriot. The flower is lovely, but
the leaves are too sensitive to Black Spot. Our intense summer heat over
too long a period is a great strain on all roses, and the past two seasons
seem unusually so. Without a mulch I should have certainly lost more.
Manure has too many weeds and with the necessary moisture it is impos-
sible to keep them down. Peat moss is undoubtedly the best. I tried it
one year, but last year used a rough compost. Oak leaves are good if you
get them thick enough.
I have had almost all of the well-known newer varieties, and they
carry over. Rev. F. Page Roberts-four plants are on their third year.
They are classed as No. 3 and difficult, but except as ants and rabbits eat
them they have grown easily and rebud and releaf often and though a
low-growing rose are very large for that kind. I have also Joanna Hill
but it pales so in our hot sun though if you cut the buds they open in the
house to a pleasing pale yellow. I don't care for Talisman, but President
Hoover is good, though it pales also to a pink. Autumn is much deeper
and more red. I think E. G. Hill an outstanding red, better form than
Etoile de Hollande, and David O'Dodd seems to be even better than Hill,
though it flowered little last year. Vaterland lived three years and had
some very fine, very dark-red flowers, though many were not large or full.
Sir David Davis flowers all the time, but I haven't seen any very fine
flowers. It is better in cool weather. McGredy's Scarlet isn't scarlet at
all, and not very large or full. Commonwealth has done nothing remark-
able-some fine flowers now.
My favorite pinks are Columbia and Dame Edith Helen. The first
has been faithful through the whole garden history and the latter is the
most perfect pink rose I have ever seen. I have a good many and they
are doing well.
Natalie Bottner is a very fine white; Lady Margaret Stewart does best
in cool weather. All yellows lose color in warm weather and many sup-
posedly yellow roses only attain a cream color here, but perhaps some shade
might help.
The most satisfying rose I have at present is Margaret McGredy. It
sends up lots of new canes, each full of buds which must be disbudded
unless you want clusters, but the color is so gorgeous-a vermilion red with
a golden glow. It sparkles. There are many others too numerous to
mention.
I count over eighty varieties on my list and about 275 roses at present.
I have almost lost them at times from necessary neglect, and they have





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


come back to me. I cannot dust as an asthmatic condition makes it im-
possible, and also to do the necessary pruning, watering, etc., at times is
impossible. Garden help to be of any use in a rose garden must be good
understanding help, and you cannot always find it, but I find the roses not
supposed to grow in Florida do grow.
I haven't dwelt on the hardships, the pests, the blights, the bugs, the
dry seasons, or the too copious rains occasionally, the Black Spot, etc., but
I have had them all and can say the rose success I have had has more than
balanced the failures. It has been hard work, but lots of fun, too. And
I am sure that some of our young men and women can make these same
roses grow better than I have done or ever can, as they study conditions
here.
Possibly if the citrus does not bring in greater returns soon, rose-
growing may be one of our major industries; and why not? Texas sells
all she raises. I sent to two Texas men and they wrote they were sold
out. They have acres and acres under cultivation in roses, mostly for
wholesale. I know of one man with fifty acres-eleven acres of one
variety-another a nursery of three thousand acres, mostly roses. Texas
soil is sand, too.
With new methods, and moisture and shade where you want it, we
can raise them nowadays.

ROSES IN THE LANDSCAPE

M. B. FOSTER, Orlando
I wish you had asked me about ten years ago to come to talk about
"Roses in the Landscape." 1 could have told you much more then. I do
not know that it would have amounted to anything. You know, we do not
use roses very much in the landscape. We have the desire to do so very
often, especially when somebody is just coming from the North. The first
thing they want to do is to bring roses from the North-bring them down
here and have rose arbors and climbers. I think the reason we do not use
roses in the landscape is because we have so many vines that have brightly-
colored flowers. I do think we could use roses more than we do, however.
So far as roses being any great show in the landscape way-no, 1
think not, excepting just at certain periods. You can have some very
marvelous effects from the Cherokee roses for the short time they bloom;
and the Cherokee rose is a very beautiful thing to cover a bank. Or, it may
be used in mass formation, or where it would have something to climb on
or over-wall or trellis. And I think it is the rose we should see more
of. There is a rose we could use where we want to have formation or
hedge, and it is a rose you hardly ever see, and it grows profusely. It
is the McCartney rose. It has a beautiful foliage and will make an ab-
solutely impenetrable hedge or wall. You can prune it and do anything
you wish with it. Whether the rose is for sale in any nursery I do not
know. I know it is possible to get rose bushes and cuttings from it, and
that it is a rose which should be used much more than it has been.
The rose bed itself, I think, is the thing you are most interested in-
roses for cutting. They are necessarily a part of the landscape because
they are on your lawn-on your grounds somewhere, and that necessarily
takes it in with the lawn. A rose bed for the most part is not a beautiful





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

thing, at least the bushes are not very decorative. It is the flowers you
are after, and in most cases you cut the flowers just as soon as they
are right to cut; they last longer and they are the most beautiful that way.
And by far the most roses we use today, or will use ten or fifteen years
from now, I think, will be in the garden where you can use them for
cutting. I do think it is just as important as any other part of your garden
that you do give some consideration where you are placing your rose
garden. The rose garden alone is not a very beautiful thing, but the roses
are. Therefore, I do like to see it tied in with the garden in such a way
that you have a nice background of heavy shrubbery. And if you do not
have much room, I would be satisfied to see the rose incorporated in your
planting around the edge of your garden, instead of cutting out a square
or oval and breaking up a very small space of lawn. It is a matter of
opinion. Some people would rather have those roses and not care how
it breaks up the lawn. I would have them planted uniformly in front of
your other shrubbery. Naturally you are going to have to look for the
right location, and if you are bound to have roses it is often the case you
are going to have them where they are best placed. If you like roses you
are going to have them regardless of whether they look nice in that space
or not. I do feel it is necessary to give them some consideration and to
give your entire picture some consideration in placing them, but remember
to have other shrubbery in back of them or massed near them, or to have
them in a little enclosure. I, personally, would rather see a rose garden
in a bit of enclosure-not necessarily a high hedge, but a place to go to;
it is not necessary to see it all the time, because there is a part of the year
when it is not beautiful. This applies to the North even more than it does
here, because here in the winter when we are considering our great effect,
naturally we want that effect in the winter time.
Possibly the roses grown here longer than anything else are the
"Seven Sisters," or the "Louis Philippe," but they both have been here
for many years. So far as a rose is concerned, something for show prac-
tically the year round, the Louis Philippe, I should say, would surpass
any so far as color is concerned. If you wish roses for a bush and shrub
and not for cutting, there are roses such as the Duchess de Brabant, which
is a pink and not very much for cutting-pretty on the plant. The Minnie
Francis or the Madam Lombard or the Marie Van Houtte, Mr. Ellis can
tell you about. There are some of these plants in Eola Park which have
been there for twenty years and are still blooming. They are roses just
for show. These roses will last year after year. You do not have to re-
place them as you do most varieties, and the roses you are going to push
you are going to grow for cutting.
There are a few roses, if you wish to use them in your shrubbery, you
can. The Madam Lambard, which is a pink, is a very nice rose, and then
you can have the two Cochets of white and pink, and they will last longer
than most other roses; they will go through several years. The climber, the
Reine Marie Henrietta is a very nice climber; it is a vivid red and almost
the only one that is satisfactory as a shade rose. The Marechal Niel, I
need not say anything about that; most folks have them. They want to
have at least one Marechal Neil, and it would make no difference whether
I said anything for it or not. Certainly there are some Marechal Niels in
bloom in Winter Park now that are absolutely a sight. One plant I looked
at yesterday, and I know that at this moment it has at least 500 blooms on it.





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


Now the Pink Radiance, the climbing Pink Radiance, so-called, I
would not say it was a very good climber. It would hardly satisfy you
as a climbing rose, although it is a climbing Radiance. I know of two
climbing Pink Radiance roses perfected-one by a dear friend of mine,
about two years ago, but it has not been put on the market. There are
two or three climbing roses which I would say are sprawling roses; they
try but do not succeed very well.
We have now, within the last two or three years, a very beautiful rose
for the rock garden; it is a very dwarfed rose, just a small rock rose, and
is very prolific-blooms the year round, and starts blooming anywhere from
two inches high, up; as a rule you get your first flower when it is two
inches high. From that time on it never stops blooming, and I have seen
this bush growing three feet, where it has not been cut back; whether it
would grow higher, I do not know. It is a lovely thing for the rock
garden. I found this rose during the year 1929 in Paris. They use it over
there, and it is almost unknown here. We have two-the double and the
single one. The single one is very fragrant. I have not seen the single
one on the market. It is called the Rock Rose; in France it is called the
Fairy Rose. We have had plants four inches high with six to eight roses
blooming on it. And it needs to be in the sunshine; it will hardly ever
mature blooms in the shade. This rose has recently been sent North to be
grown in rock gardens up there, and it is hardy in Detroit. It is a dark
pink; the single one is quite light.
I would very much rather try to answer some questions than to at-
tempt to tell you what to use. If there are any questions you wish to
ask, I would be glad to answer them if I can.
All I can say so far as "Roses in the Landscape" is concerned-if you are
going to have roses-do try and enclose that little rose garden, if you will.
I do not care if you use Box. In one of the gardens I have planted in
this State I have Box. Box japonica does very well, and likes to be fed
and watered, just like roses, and makes a beautiful hedge. You can use
the Cherokee Rose as a hedge and make a complete thing of it. The
foliage is lovely. If you have just a little hedge in the foreground of the
roses, only a foot or eighteen inches high, just to cover up the unsightly
bushes-I do like something of that kind. Whenever you have a bank or
an arbor, or anything of that kind, you have your climbers to select from.
Certainly we do not have very many.

ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS-Mr. Foster, Orlando
Q.-Tell us something about the McCartney Rose.
A.-The McCartney Rose is a white rose, resembling the Cherokee;
more vigorous grower and more compact. The McCartney and Louis
Philippe could be used in a mass formation.
Q.-If the roots of the hedge did not damage the roses, would it be
all right to inter-plant, to shade the rose bushes?
A.-I think it would put them in the shade. I would much prefer to
use some Cocos Plumosa Palms. There are many things you can do for
shade-something of height, and make it a part of the picture. Whether a
rose garden or vegetable garden, it does not make a bit of difference;





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

there is a way to do it, and to make it easy to look at and keep the proper
cultural conditions and have a beautiful picture. Therefore, I may have
to do this or that to change those conditions. I do wish to do it in such a
way as not to spoil the picture but to enhance it.
Q.-Which do you consider the best stock to bud?
A.-The Cherokee stock is as good stock to bud roses on in this
section as a little farther north. I am quite sure the Cherokee if not fed
and taken care of in good soil they will go to pieces. But my experience
has been it is more satisfactory than the other roses. Everything, for beauty
or not, must have some utility side to it or cease to be beautiful; it must
have a use. Beauty is a necessary thing-helps one's disposition. You
probably realize, subconsciously more than consciously, as you see the
flowers you think them beautiful; the blossoms, they give you pleasure, and
something deeper than that. It goes right on beyond the roses, because
they are a part of identically the same thing you are; and when you see
them you see something of yourself in them, and that is why you think a
lot of them.

GROWING ROSES FOR CUT FLOWERS

A. F. CAMP, Horticulturist
I have generally observed that among the amateur growers of roses
there are two groups, those who grow novelties and new varieties and to
whom one bloom of a new and startlingly different variety is worth more
than wealth and fame, and those who grow flowers in quantity for the
sake of having beautiful flowers and who grow the varieties that will
produce most satisfactorily. I will have to confess that I belong to the
latter group. This second group may again be divided into two groups,
namely, those who produce a rose garden in the stricter sense so as to have
a splendid show as well as cut flowers, and those who grow roses mainly
for cut flowers with little regard to the garden end of the problem. Again
I will have to admit belonging to the latter class, for I grow roses almost
exclusively as cut flowers and my garden is anything but a show place.
In fact, I doubt if I belong on this program at all, for the methods I
use are of little interest and one might almost say humdrum, for I ex-
periment little either with varieties or methods of culture and concentrate
on producing a large number of cut flowers in as small a space as possible.
Since I would not qualify as an expert on roses and since the work that
I do with roses is not connected with my duties at the Experiment Station
and only in the smallest sense experimental, I am simply going to give in
chronological order the steps in my procedures and hope that with that as a
basis others may continue the discussion with benefit to all.
The first step in my procedure is to build up some soil. I have the
usual very light sand, so I start by excavating twenty-four to thirty inches
deep and filling the excavation with the following approximate mixture:
1/3 clay, 1/3 muck and manure and 1/3 leaf mold and sand. This is mixed
thoroughly throughout the depth rather than following the practice of
putting clay at the bottom. While this may seem an excessive preparation,
it is not really as bad as it sounds, since I plant the bushes very close
together so that the bed may be comparatively small and the clay and
organic soil-building materials hold moisture so that my watering bill is





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

materially reduced. In the bed which I use for growing winter roses, I
omit the clay and increase the manure and leaf mold. This bed is in the
form of a hotbed with a board wall four feet high on the north side and
provision for covering with cloth during cold nights.
Having prepared the soil, the next problem is to select varieties. I
have narrowed this down to a few. Radiance and Red Radiance are of
course included for their profusion of flowers, though I do not care much
for the type of bud. For a shell pink I use Antoine Rivoire, and, while
it is not a free-bloomer, it produces a large number of long-stemmed buds
and its foliage is very free from Black Spot. For a yellow variety I use
Luxembourg; this variety is very unsatisfactory in many ways but will
produce a very large number of fine yellow blooms during the spring and
I never attempt to carry the plants through the summer. For additional
reds, I have found that the Etoile de Hollande is very satisfactory during
winter and spring and the buds are very fine and the foliage unusually good;
for summer bloom we still use a few Francis Scott Key. This latter
variety does not open well in the winter as far north as Gainesville, and
in some seasons the thrips almost ruin the bloom but when they can be
obtained they are exceedingly fine with long stems and great keeping
quality after they are cut. The above constitute all of my regular planting,
but I have a few scattered plants of other varieties and of these the Marie
van Houtte is outstanding for its vigor of growth and resistance to disease.
Planting times are one thing that I have experimented with to some
extent and also to my sorrow. As a result of this, I am going to confine
my outdoor plantings in the future to about the first half of March or even
later. Fall plantings have been entirely unsatisfactory with me and on
the contrary the best planting I ever had was on the 24th of April. With
the early plantings the cold injury is excessive, while with late plantings
the bushes go immediately into growth and heavy bloom. The hotbed
I shall continue to plant in the Fall and give protection so that there will
be a crop of winter flowers available. The bushes are planted very close
together, about 15x18 inches, watered in and heavily mulched with oak
leaves and other mulching material. All bushes are cut back heavily at
planting.
The great question in Florida is always the problem of fertilizers.
The beds are made up with liberal amounts of steamed bone meal, using
50 to 100 pounds of this to 100 square feet of surface and working it well
into the soil. Additional applications of steamed bone meal and goat
manure are given as required, the latter to furnish potash, and once a year
barnyard manure is added liberally and mixed with the soil. This may
sound like a peculiar fertilizer program and my only defense is that it
works.
The main thing is to produce flowers with reasonably long, stiff stems.
No attempt is made to grow bushes and the plants receive a continuous,
vigorous pruning through the cutting of flowers so that the bushes seldom
attain any size. This would be inexcusable in any attempt to establish a
garden but, as I stated at the beginning, I am raising cut flowers, not
bushes. Bushes are not expected to last more than two years and in the
case of Luxembourg only one year. Any bush which is weak after one
year is removed and a new bush put in. The procedure in this regard is
very like the growing of greenhouse roses. The nurseryman builds the
blooming capacity into the bush and I get the blooms. With plants at their





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


present price, I believe that this is the economical thing to do for the
purpose that I have in mind. In order to be sure of goodly supply of
long-stemmed blooms some disbudding is practiced and all multiple buds
are removed so that there is only one bloom to a stem.
The methods of pest control are rather unorthodox. For Black Spot,
Bordeaux mixture is used with a spreader (calcium caseinate). The spray
is timed to go on the plants at the end of a flush of bloom in order to keep
down the staining of the foliage as much as possible. Two or three spray-
ings during the Spring and the same during the summer generally give
good control of Black Spot, and for the insects lead arsenate and black
leaf "40" are added to the mixture. If aphids become numerous an extra
spraying of black leaf "40" is used.
Thrips have been a very severe problem during the last three years,
and here again the cutting of the flowers becomes an important factor.
All blooms are cut in the bud stage and an effort is made to prevent any
blooms from opening in the garden. This, combined with occasional
sprayings with nicotine sulphate, gives good control except on Francis
Scott Key. If it were possible to eliminate all annuals from the vicinity
of the rose garden this would probably give excellent control but with
thrips continually spreading from adjacent annuals it is difficult to keep
them down.
In conclusion, I will admit that the methods I have outlined are com-
paratively crude and that my rose garden is almost an eyesore, but I get a
lot of fine blooms from it. The methods are adapted entirely to the
Gainesville district and further south'there are other varieties than those
listed and other planting times which will bring results, but the discussion
should bring this for there are many more expert than I present at this
meeting.

ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS-Mr.. . Ellis, Orlando
There are a few questions we will take up. One is thrip, and, as the
speaker, Dr. Camp, advised, we should remove the bloom while they are
still tight buds, letting nothing open in the garden. At this time of year
every bloom, whether weed or annual, fruit trees, anything, every bloom
that is open, has thrips in it. There are about three to four weeks about
this time of the year that thrips are very plentiful. Discourage it by not
giving it a place to breed or harbor. There are a few sprays that help to
discourage it. Nicotine gets it to some extent. The Bordeaux sprays made
with coper carbonate will not stain your foliage. This alone will not have
any influence on your thrips, but if you add the black leaf "40", that helps
to get some: or, the nicotine dust will get some of them. But you have to
keep after them every day almost to keep them down.
There was another question about the reaction of the soils-acid or
alkaline soil. I understand that a soil which is a little under neutral is
really the most satisfactory for roses, but there is a difference. It makes
a difference whether you have abundance of organic material (humus) in
your soil, or whether you are growing your roses on chemicals. Humus in
your soil will balance it either way-a little too much acid or too much





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


alkaline; your soil acids will balance them, where, if you do not have
humus, you do not get that result.
The lady who used fish in her garden: Fish is a mighty fine fertilizer.
If Mr. Love did not get any results from his fish, I do not know why,
because fish, in the form we get it as fertilizer, dry and pulverized, is a fine
fertilizer-or the raw fish. They are both hot with ammonia and must be
used with judgment. The fish must be far enough way so that the animal
gas won't get the young roots.
The lady also spoke of the healthy condition having effect on the leaf
spot. That is quite true. A good, healthy plant will throw off many
diseases and also help throw off insects, whereas a weakling plant will be
affected and possibly die.
Dr. Camp spoke about making his rose bed three feet deep and ex-
plained why he did that. In this section of the State it is not necessary to
use clay in your rose bed, and, as far as muck is concerned, about the only
thing it answers is, it holds the moisture. There is not much plant food
to it. But roses do like plenty of humus; they like good soil; they are a
heavy feeder and in making up my rose bed, I prefer oak leaves-rotted
oak leaves-to anything else I can get. I prefer the rotted oak leaves even
to cow manure. Of course, bone meal is fine, but oak leaves with plenty
of bone meal and wood ashes will grow fine roses. Tobacco will give you
a soil that roses will enjoy. They must have perfect drainage, but at the
same time they like a lot of water.
Q.-Which is it better to plant, Northern or Southern-grown plants?
A.-I prefer the Northern-grown roses if budded on the proper stock.
I understand that the Texas nurseries at the present time are getting quite
strong on multiflora. I do not believe that in Central Florida there is
anything that will beat the odorata, and Texas Wax next.
Q.-Where do you get the plants propagated on the odorata?
A.-I think most of the Texas nurseries and the Florida nurseries still
use some.
Dr. Camp: It might be well to point out that some of the Florida
nurseries have better stock than Texas. I have seen some beautiful Florida
stock and I have had a chance to see it side by side with Texas stock, and
the Florida stock was the best.
Mr. Ellis: My preference, if I were planting in the Fall in Central
or Southern part of the State, so as to have a bed of roses blooming
through the winter, I would plant Northern-grown plants which had gone
dormant in the early Fall. The Florida roses are much later than the
Northern roses in going dormant.
Q.-In watering roses, when would be the best time to water the
bushes, morning or evening?
A.-In the morning. It is better that your roses be dry or almost dry
by dark, particularly in winter time when the air is cool at night.
Q.-What time do you consider the best for Fall planting?
A.-As soon as you can get thoroughly dormant stock.
Q.-When one is leaving for the North in May, is it well to prune the
bushes down so that they may have the roses in the winter when they
come back?





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

A.-That depends upon the condition of your rose plant at that time.
You cannot prune a rose plant when it is in full growth; if you do, you
are going to injure your plant. Choose a time when it is at a partial
dormant stage, just following a crop of bloom-just before they break
into a new growth, either in Spring or Fall.
Q.-A friend of mine grows some beautiful roses and brings them to
church, and her Radiance roses are seven years old. They are only ferti-
lized with cow manure and only watered occasionally in very dry weather.
She claims too much water kills Radiance roses. I have not seen her rose
bed but I have seen the blooms. She says they are at least seven years old.
A.-That would depend a little upon the soil in which she has them
planted.
Q.-Is it fair to judge roses that come the first year with roses on the
second year's growth?
A.-We have not made any difference. However, the first crop of
blooms that come on a bush after it has been planted come mainly from
the strength stored up in that plant in the growing period in the nursery.
It is from that on that the culture of the rose shows.
Q.-Should not the Society say that all flowers exhibited are from the
second year:
A.-They may have two classes. I could take you down to the other
room and show you a number of blooms that the young bush did not put
on, but have been made by the culture they have had in their present
garden. Your first crop of blooms are mighty pretty buds, but you do not
get long stems. If you have long stems, that shows care and skill of the
grower.
Q.-Should not the main stems around the bush be left and not cut?
A.-I have always recommended the pinching of the first crop of
blooms or cutting with short stems. It does not do the bush any harm to
develop that bloom, but they need the foliage to develop the plant.
Mrs. Poole: I will read to you a list of new roses I have received
from Mr. Peterson of St. Petersburg. Mr. Peterson tried these roses the
past season, and found them to be vigorous growers:
Condessa de Sastago (wild rose pink, yellow)
Duquesa de Penaranda (coral apricot)
Souv. de Mme. C. Chambard (coral pink)
President Plumecocq (buff)
Mme. Van de Voorde (deep scarlet)
Ami Quinard (velvety crimson)
Dr. McFarland (clear pink)
Mrs. Pierre S. DuPont (clear yellow)
Amulett (blackish crimson).

Q.-Speaking of old rose bushes, a man in St. Petersburg has bushes
seventeen years old, yielding the best blooms; some are tea roses and some
are Radiance (fifteen years). I am trying to cultivate my bushes to extend
their life. I believe we would have a better rose.
Q.-A representative of one of the largest Florida nurseries told me
that every two years one should take up their rose bushes, trim off the





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


dead wood and you will notice there is as much dead wood in the root
stem as at the top, and replant. If this is done you will have beautiful
roses. I have done that in my yard and I get just as good results. I move
them every two years.
A.-I do not believe I would rather have them than new plants, but it
does help. I took it up with Dr. McFarland and he said he had the same
experience.
Q.-What is to blame for serious die-back in the summer?
A.-A good bit of die-back is due to improper cutting. I use orange
clippers: drop one blade in on top of the eye at the base of the leaf and
cut it close enough so that it will heal over as a rule, but will not injure
the bud. It should be cut down to good healthy growth so it will heal
over. (Demonstrates cutting roses.)
Q.-What experience have you had with the Gigantea rose?
Dr. Camp: That is new. I do not believe anyone knows. I have
some I am trying. Many of them do not bloom until the second season.
Q.-Why is it that the Radiance roses do not last as long as the roses
we used to get budded on the Cherokee stock? I have a Minnie Francis
eighteen years old, very large bush, and when I trim it back I have a
profusion of buds and roses. And I also have a pure white which is
eighteen years old.
A.-I do not think it is stock so much as the strength is depleted by
leaf spot. If you do not dust or spray thoroughly and keep the leaf spot
from taking off the foliage it will take off two or three crops of foliage in
the summer, and that is very bad for the roses.
Q.-Another thing; why does not the Radiance rose make as large a
bush as the roses we used to get?
A.-It is just the variety, just like people; one stays skinny and the
other stays fat on the same food.
Q.-I would like to ask the advisability of a regular feeding in the
summer for the good of the bush to maintain the health, whether to keep
them fertilized?
A.-I would advise always keeping your plant in good, healthy con-
dition, not to let it suffer for feed or water. If you do not want to cut
the blooms and want to build up a large plant, leave on as much wood as
you can, cutting down to the first strong eye. If you want to keep the
bush low, then cut up to the first strong eye.
Q.-In surface feeding the roots come up to get the feed and through
the hot months the sun will burn those delicate feeders?
A.-I believe in mulching with oak leaves. The growing of roses is
the same as growing any other good crop. If you put your soil in good
condition and the elements there go to make good soil, it does not make
any difference what crop it is-it will do well.
There is a point I intended to mention-spraying with Bordeaux or
dusting with sulphur. In a number of trial experiments in greenhouses
they found dusting sulphur gave better results than Bordeaux or anything
else; but in the greenhouse it is different than in the open. And another
thing, with regard to dusting with sulphur: If you do it in the morning
when the dew is on, the dust will float on the dew to the edge of the leaf,





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


but if put on when the foliage is dry you will get better results. If there
is just a little breeze it is all right; you can blow your dust through the
bush and it will come back through and you will get it on both sides with
one operation. Sulphur will not stick through a rain-it is easily washed
off. The copper carbonate solution will not stain the foliage as badly as
the copper solution and it is very convenient to use because you can mix
up your stock solution. You can use a spreader in the spray as you would
for orange trees and make it stick.
Sulphur will always burn your blooms.
Q.-Have you tried any Triogen?
A.-I have used some, but am not in position to say what it will do,
though I have had some fine reports. The trouble with most of us in using
a spray or dust on roses for leaf spot is the fact that we do not do it
thoroughly enough or often enough. The battle against leaf spot is not
cured when we get it on a leaf. You cannot cure it. It is merely a case
of keeping the rest of your foliage so coated with a fungicide that it will
keep those very fine, dust-like spores in the air from coming in contact
with the leaf where they take root and develop more black spots.
Q.-Have you ever tried bicarbonate of soda?
A.-I do not know anything about that.

ROSE PESTS AND HOW TO HANDLE THEM

H. E. BBATLEY, Gainesville
Insects cause us much concern, no matter what plants we try to grow,
roses or any of the many others. Some insects are easily controlled and
some plants seem to be less susceptible to the attacks of insects.
The insect of paramount importance to the rose grower, if one species
may hold such a place, is the thrips. The most prominent one in our
State is known as the Florida Flower Thrips. They are in color yellow,
shaded with orange, and about one-twenty-fifth of an inch in length.
They are retiring in nature and unless numerous or very ambitiously dis-
turbed will not be noticed. Thrips have the ability of passing through a
complete life cycle in two or three weeks, when weather conditions are
favorable. Heavy dashing rains knock large numbers of them from the
plants and pound them to death on the ground; hence, their damage is
less noticeable than in dry weather. Dry, warm weather conditions are
ideal for thrips multiplication. If the rose blooms blight or the petals wilt
and fall quickly, it is usually a sign of a heavy infestation. A rotting at
the base of the petals will accompany the thrips. It is caused by a fungus
which gains a hold through the injuries inflicted by the thrips and speeds
the destruction of the bloom. This rotting causes a browning appearance
at the petal bases and emphasizes the blighted condition. A consoling point
is they do not seriously attack the bush or foliage, and by killing them we
may soon expect a new bloom from the roses.
Thrips are found infesting the blossoms of nearly all weeds, especially
Spanish needles and a large number of native plants, as well as some
cultivated ones. Cultural measures in controlling thrips then consist of
allowing no weeds to reach the bloom stage or the planting of favorite
cultivated plants, such as wisteria, in the vicinity of the rose garden. This





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


will aid materially in dealing with these pests. A constant watch should
be maintained when weather conditions are favorable and as soon as many
thrips are observed all the opening bloom should be removed and a spray
applied. In case of a heavy infestation, provide a container (a pail will
answer) partially filled with water and a good floating cover of kerosene.
Into this plunge all of the buds showing color and the flowers. After the
flowers and buds have been removed, follow with a thorough spraying.
There are several contact spray materials on the market which will gain
the end desired. Nicotine sulphate solution, our old standby spray for this
purpose, is made up of a tablespoonful of nicotine to three gallons of
water and two or three tablespoonfuls of soap. With the addition of a
couple of tablespoons of "Penetrol" use half the amount of nicotine and
leave out the soap. The Penetrol is an activator and serves the purposes
of a spreader and sticker for which the soap was used. For applying the
spray, use a sprayer which delivers a fine forceful mist so the solution can
be forced into the close-fitting places where the thrips hide.
Next to thrips, the most important pest of roses are the aphids. Like
the thrips, they obtain their living by sucking the plant juices and are even
more rapid in reproduction. They are usually most troublesome when the
plants are flushing a new growth during warm and not too moist weather
conditions. Their attacks on the new growth and buds causes malformed
leaves and flowers. If the infestation is very heavy the young shoots with
the buds wilt and wither. They are more easily seen than thrips, being
larger and not so retiring in habits. The nicotine sulphate solution recom-
mended against thrips is also a good control for aphids. A more speedily
applied control is a dusting of nicotine sulphate and lime. This dust
should be applied when there is no air stirring to obtain the desired kill.
Any of the pyrethrum compounds now on the market either in dust or
spray form, give good control when properly applied. If a nicotine dust
is used one wants to be sure the dust is fresh. When the container has
been opened and the dust exposed to air it soon loses its efficiency.
Pyrethrum powders also have a tendency to lose their killing powers, but
not so rapidly as the nicotine.
Several insects with chewing mouth parts cause damage to the roses.
The hosts of these insects being so varied and usually so plentiful, enough
food is usually furnished and they seldom collect on the roses in harmful
numbers. Flower beetles, several species of large hairy beetles and the
larvae of the corn-ear worm are at times very destructive to the flowers.
They eat into the flower, destroying the petals, and form burrows in which
they hide. Due to this burrowing trait it is almost impossible to apply
dusts or sprays for controlling them. The cheapest and m6st sure way
of conquering them is to hand pick. They may be picked off and dropped
into the kerosene bucket as recommended in the control of thrips. The
thistle is a great favorite of these beetles. Nature has arranged the
maturing of the thistle bloom to occur about the time the rose is in full
bloom. As a result, if the roses are near, the beetles will congregate on
them. The destruction of all thistles before they commence flowering in
the vicinity of the rose garden will aid in lessening the damage to the
roses.
Another chewing insect, known as the saddle-backed caterpillar, is the
larvae or worm of a moth. The name is derived from the distinctive
peculiarly formed coloration on its back. It possesses a few short spine-





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

armed bumps or tubercules and, as a whole, is a rather ferocious looking
animal. A second one, also the worm or larvae of a moth, reminds one
of a miniature Persian cat. The name "puss moth" has been applied to it.
Within the soft furry coat are hidden numerous short spines. The spines
possessed by both caterpillars are capable of producing extreme irritation
on tender skin, if one should happen to come in contact with them.
Other insects liable to cause considerable damage to the foliage and
bloom of roses are grasshoppers, katydids, flea-beetles and a few other
larvae or worms of butterflies and moths. These, together with the
saddle-back and puss moths, can be controlled with arsenate sprays or
dusts. The usual dust is one pound of lead or calcium arsenate to nine
pounds of hydrated lime. The spray is composed of one pound of arsenate
of lead to fifty gallons of water. It is best to add the milk from slacking
four pounds of rock lime in a little hot water. The lime lessens the possi-
bility of burning from the free arsenic, also aids in the spreading and
sticking qualities of the spray.
Leaf-cutting ants, bees or wasps sometimes give the rose bushes a very
rough appearance. These insects do not eat the leaf portions they cut, but
use them for different purposes. The ants cut the leaf into fine pieces and
use them in their subterranean homes to grow their food fungus. The
bees or wasps use the circular portions in lining the nests in which they
store food and raise their young. Usually the damages caused are not
enough harm to warrant a control measure. Though arsenate sprays and
dusts can be applied for controlling them.
An insect capable of causing considerable damage, if neglected, is the
stem borer. Their infestations are usually scattered and do not appear in
the same locality year after year. Their damage is called to our attention
through the wilting of the canes of the bush. The cause of this is from
the worm's feeding. It feeds on the pith in the stem. The worm usually
enters the stem several inches above the ground and travels downward. The
borers will occasionally, if given enough time, bore into the larger roots.
The best means of controlling it is to prune out the affected canes. The
cane once attacked seldom recovers so it can produce good bloom. When
pruning affected canes, cut an inch or so beyond the wilted portion. If the
rose is especially valuable and you want to save as much of the cane as
possible, sever the wilted portion and poke a wire as far as possible into
the hollowed cane. There is a chance of killing the borer in this way.
Destroy all affected canes, for the borers may crawl out and attack other
stems or there may be enough nourishment in the stem for the borer to
complete its development, emerge as an adult and produce a second
generation. It is useless to apply poisons as they will not reach the worm
in its burrow.
The root-knot nematode, while not an insect, belongs to the tribe of
round worms of which the hookworm is a member. The nematode is a
pest of numerous plants as well as roses. A rose attacked by this parasite
shows leaf yellowing, wilting, a general run-down condition, and the roots
will be found deformed. The irregular swellings in the roots are sure
indications of the presence of the nematode. The swelling is caused by
poison given off by the worm. The females live in these swellings, with
an opening to the outside for air. After reaching maturity the female
fills her body with eggs. Now the body, instead of being cylindrical, as-





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

sumes the shape of a pear, with the neck forming the connection to the
outside, and loses its ability of motion.
The eggs are liberated from her body at death and if moisture, air and
temperature conditions are favorable, hatch. If any one of these conditions
is lacking, a thickened, hard coating forms around the egg called a cyst,
which protects it over unfavorable periods. The newly-hatched worms,
resembling fish-worms but so small they are hardly seen without the aid
of magnification, proceed to find roots upon which to live. They can be
carried in soil adhering to tools, on plant roots, or in the roots themselves.
The soil washings from heavy rains or excessive irrigation will spread
them. Therefore, it is a good rule to thoroughly clean tools and even shoes
and hands of operators when going from one bed or field to another.
This will tend to prevent the infesting of areas free of nematodes. Our
Florida climate and soil conditions are admirably suited to the needs of
the nematode. In the most southern part of the State they are active
practically the entire year. In the northern section we usually have it cold
enough to retard their activities from November into February and March,
but this year the conditions have, with the exception of moisture, been
favorable most of the winter.
There are about two means of producing roses at our disposal. One
is by the use of chemicals and the other is to use root stock to bud or graft
into which is either resistant, immune or intolerant to attacks of the
nematodes or grow varieties of roses that are resistant. The stocks that
have given best results are the Cherokee, an escape from cultivation in
the United States, and the Texas Dog rose. The chemicals used are
sodium cyanide and ammonium sulphate, and will cost about $100.00 per
acre for the chemicals alone. These substances are so strong that they
will kill all plant and animal life with which they come in contact.
The cheapest control in actual cost and labor is the use of the Cherokee
or Dog Rose stock. In case some of you are working the breeding end
for new varieties, I believe that your returns will be more satisfactory to
use the chemical control mentioned. We will be glad to furnish detailed
instructions to anyone wishing to apply chemicals.

REPORT ON NEW ROSES RECEIVED FROM V. S.
HILLOCK FOR TESTING

MRS. S. F. POOLE, Lake Alfred
Bushes set out latter part of January, 1933:
Ami Quinard is vigorous, and a free bloomer. Visitors to my garden
always remark about this rose. Its color is much admired.
Mrs. Pierre S. du Pont-Plant compact. Went through the summer
better than any yellow rose in my garden except Sunburst. Has bloomed
all winter. Buds well shaped, medium size on medium stems.
Edith Nellie Perkins. Bushes good size. The bushes put on a good
growth during early fall and winter and bloomed freely during this period.
During the cool weather they did not bloom. Again this spring the bushes
grew rapidly and bloomed generously. It is a beautiful rose.
Editor MacFarland. Bushes as vigorous as the Radiance. I believe
it is going to be a good rose for Florida. Has long stems and well shaped
pointed buds.





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

Climbing Roses, Mermaid, Daydream and Scorcher. So far these
roses have done well. I am charmed with them.
Bushes planted January 29, 1934 (three months ago):
Souv. de Mme. C. Chambard. Fine, vigorous, upright bushes. A
beautiful rose.
Golden Dawn. Compact, spreading plants. Plants have put on a good
growth. Have bloomed profusely.
Grenoble. Unusually vigorous. Bushes now over three feet tall. I
believe to get large, full roses the bushes should be disbudded.
Soeur Therese. Healthy, with long stems and long pointed buds.
One of my favorites.
Black Knight is most promising. Looks healthy and vigorous.
Started to bloom in sixty days after the bush was set out.

ARTISTIC ARRANGEMENT' OF ROSES

MBS. FE-DEEICK B. LYNI E, Orlando
The art of flower arrangement is an ancient one, but owing to the
impetus given to garden club competitions it has, in recent years, been
revived with much enthusiasm. At first, flower shows were almost entirely
exhibits of horticultural specimens with little emphasis placed on the use
of flowers after they are cut. It was not long, however, before exhibitors
began to consider the definite uses of cut flowers and to add life and
beauty to their homes. They proceed to a study of design and compo-
sition for the purpose of working out the most pleasing effects in different
rooms and different settings.
The very gratifying result of this interest is that now, in place of the
stiff and tortured effects that used to be seen in our homes and at the
exhibits, we find flower arrangements characterized by increasing freedom,
naturalness and beauty.
In England, though flower arrangements are not given the same empha-
sis at the big shows as they are given here, in private houses the flowers
are arranged beautifully. The public flower market flourishes in European
countries, its prices tempting to rich and poor alike, since they seem indeed
to regard flowers as a necessity in the home.
Probably the first choice, if we were allowed the privilege of choosing,
would be the rose for flower arrangements. The queen of flowers extends
her domain from the garden into the home and royally lends herself to add
beauty and fragrance to many kinds of charming and satisfying decorations.
First, there is the tall clear glass vase designed to hold a single rose and
to show not only the flower, but the beauty of the stem, thickset with bright
red thorns. Then, where there are only two or three roses to arrange, the
silver specimen vase comes into its own, and the old-fashioned rose bowl
continues to be a favorite for it lends itself with equal grace to mass ar-
rangements or to a lighter grouping of a few roses combined with fern or
other green.
A few years ago the majority of people used only one kind of flower
in a vase and this limited the scope of color blending very drastically, but
lately the vase containing two or even three kinds of flowers is growing in





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


popularity. Everyone knows how beautifully primroses mix with violets,
but not so many people have tried the pale cream-yellow rambler roses with
sprays of purple clematis. One particularly lovely arrangement is in a
shallow, flat bowl. A yard of wire with its two ends firmly wedged in a
heavy glass flower holder forms the foundation. The wire is draped with
purple clematis and a bunch of yellow roses fill the flower holder. Such
decoration would be particularly suitable for a luncheon or small dinner
party and the foundation should be kept on hand, for with it can be made
a countless number of designs.
Basket arrangements are excellent for roses. Baskets are among the
most graceful of flower receptacles, from the tall, sophisticated ones for
elaborate arrangements required by big, lofty rooms, to small and simple
ones of rush or fibre for the porch or country cottage. And, of course,
the roses must suit the basket. Large, long-stemmed roses to fill to over-
flowing the tall wicker basket, and small roses or rosebuds to combine with
mignonette and baby's breath in the small ones.
Any arrangement of roses, if it is to be beautiful, must have distinction,
and it may gain this quality in several different ways, including (a) atten-
tion to an interesting dramatic line, (b) original color combinations, (c)
and by use of color and line in such simplicity as to produce an effect of
quiet harmony.
One characteristic of the successful arrangement of roses, as well as
other flowers, is the individuality it expresses. The composition of a
flower picture is a form of self expression which may never be standard-
ized. Is it not true that you can recognize a friend's flower arrangements
almost as readily as you can her handwriting? So, after all and above all,
arrange your roses in the way that best expresses your own personal idea
of suitability, harmony, and beauty.

THE FUTURE OF THE ROSE

V. S. EIZL-OCX, Arlington, Texas
One who indulges in rose prophecy does well to confine his prophetic
vaporings to probable developments arising solely from within man's
relation to the rose. Because of the vast inherent differences that lie
*between man's order of being and the order of being of the rose that
which appears to the mind of man to be extremely logical is with vast
frequency altogether illogical from the standpoint of the rose. Man
thinks according to the order of being of the rose but gropingly, proving
or disproving his hypothesis through trial and error.
Yet the first development is easily seen. Eighteen million field-grown
rose plants are produced and sold annually in the United States. Standing
alone the number is staggering. Standing in ratio to the number of homes
in the United States, some twenty-five million, the number is dwarfed
to the point of the ridiculous.
As this people becomes a nation appreciative of the pleasures of
gardening rose plant production will be vastly increased.
The second development is seen with equal ease. Only a half-century
has passed since the budding method of propagation came into use for
the production of field-grown rose plants. Man was not given mastery





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

over the plants and in result facts relating to the order of being of the
rose are discovered only through painstaking investigation long continued.
But through experimentation and experience the basic principles relating
to improved methods of rose propagation are becoming known, with re-
sultant heightened plant quality when employed.
The discovery and development of improved methods of rose propa-
gation does not necessitate that all field-grown rose plants will in the future
be produced through such methods. Distressingly many of the rose
plants now produced are not produced through the best methods known
and available. The bargain hunter forbids. Doubtless the bargain hunter
will remain with us in multitude and rose plants will continue to be pro-
duced for his purchase. But as we gradually become a nation of gardeners
the basic requirements for plant quality will become more widely known
and understood, thus enabling a greater portion of rose plant production
to arise from methods directed towards the producing of plant quality.
Better rose plants will be available for purchase.
The third development has to do with plant migration. In the days
of the hybrid-perpetual and the strong growing hybrid-tea whose blood.
was strongly impregnated with the blood of the hybrid-perpetual the
question of plant migration was of but slight importance. Such roses were
inherently of such vigor as to be able to overcome the effects of false
migration. That era passed in great part with the advent of the Pernetiana.
It is today definitely understood that the failure of many rose varieties
in the gardens of amateurs does not arise from a want of inherent worth
in the varieties themselves, but, rather, arises from devitalization incident
to importation or to false migration from the growing field to the garden
of the amateur, devitalization unfortunately frequently augmented through
mal-propagation.
As methods of restoration to normal vigor and the underlying require-
ments of proper migration become better known and understood by pro-
fessional and amateur a larger percentage of inherently meritorious rose
varieties ?will become available in plants that can, and will, prosper in the
gardens of amateurs.
The fourth development lies within the field of rose origination.
American gardens are primarily dependent upon the European rose origi-
nator for new and improved varieties, American varieties except in com-
paratively rare instances being natural mutations or escapes from the
greenhouse. The great rose growing agencies of Europe are habitually
founded either upon rose origination or upon rose exportation. In the
United States outstanding rose growing agencies are habitually founded
directly upon rose importation.
The future will see the rise of great rose growing agencies in the
United States founded directly upon rose origination on this continent for
this continent. It will profit the rose. The European rose originator
habitually uses as parents rose varieties displaying certain specific merits
or qualities within the climatic zone of the originator, merits or qualities
ofttimes displayed in markedly lesser degree elsewhere. The American
rose originator will use as parents rose varieties peculiarly meritorious.
on this continent to the advancement of the rose.
Dawn is breaking upon the day of American rose origination.





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

About 1870 the hybrid-tea race of roses came into being in Europe,
resulting from a cross between the once-blooming hybrid-perpetual of
Europe and the recurrent-blooming Tea rose which had shortly there-
tofore been brought into Europe from the Far East. Several decades
later, after many crossings and re-crossings, the hybrid-tea came into domi-
nancy in the rose world.
At the dawn of the century the great Pernet-Ducher crossed the
hybrid-perpetual with the Austrian Briar, giving to the world a new race
-of roses named in his honor the Pernetiana. A multitude of re-crosses
with teas, hybrid-teas and hybrid-perpetuals has brought the new race
to a place of extreme importance after its destructive deficiencies had
been tolerated for a quarter of a century because of extreme, brilliancy.
Today in Europe rose hybridizers are laboring diligently to give the
rose added values within the climatic zones of the hybridizers through
crossing the hybrid-tea and Pernetiana with specie roses and other races
that hold within them the desired added values. That, too, is a work of
decades.
In years to come American hybridizers, fully understanding the nature
and duration of the task assumed, will give to the' rose added values in
every climatic section of the United States through infusing into the
hybrid-tea and the Pernetiana the blood of specie roses and other races
possessing characteristics peculiarly valuable within each climatic zone.
In that day this land will blossom as the rose.

REPORT OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ROSE SOCIETY

May 2, 1934, Orlando, Florida
The Florida Rose Society held its Ninth annual meeting and Rose
Show on May 2, 1934, in Orlando. Meeting was called to order at 2:15
P. M., Mrs. S. F. Poole, President, in the Chair.
Report of Treasurer-N. A. Reasoner. Reported all bills paid and a
balance on hand of $37.60.
Report of 1934 Bulletin. It was moved, seconded and carried to print
the Bulletin this summer.
Report of Nominating Committee. The following names were pro-
posed for nomination for officers:
R. H. Ellis, president; N. E. Jordan, vice-president; N. A. Reasoner,
treasurer, and Mrs. S. F. Poole, secretary.
The following program was given:
President's Annual Address.
Business Session.
Address-"Artistic Arrangement of Roses" (With Demonstration),
Mrs. Frederick B. Lynch, Winter Park
Address-"Roses in the Landscape," R. W. Foster, Orlando.
Address-"Growing Roses," Dr. A. F. Camp, Gainesville.
Round Table Discussion-R. H. Ellis, chairman.
Motion made to adjourn, being duly seconded and carried, the meeting
of the Florida Rose Society adjourned at 4:30 P. M.
J. V. WATKINS, Secretary, pro tern.





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA


PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS

MB8. S. P. POOLE, Xake Alfred
At the close of the second year as your president we feel that some
progress has been made. There is an awakened interest in roses over
the state. More people are planting roses this season than any previous
year.
The Society has printed annually a Rose Bulletin. The articles in
the Bulletin are written by growers of authority. They cover the various
problems on the culture of roses and are well worth the price of an annual
membership.
The rose is only one branch of horticulture, but is very, very im-
portant. Everyone admires a rose for its color, form and perfume.
(Many a young man scores a home-run with a few roses.)
In some sections of our country the rose is the dominant factor of
the landscape. We are not too visionary when we predict a similar place
for the rose in Florida.
F. L. Atkins says: "Love for the rose is never wasted. Memory
of its beauty, color and fragrance never dies. With love and care a rose
will grow anywhere where these essentials are used with a little soil and
a little sunshine."
Enormous strides forward into new realms of color have of late been
made by the rose, until shades scarcely dreamed of are now a reality, the
latest being a black rose. It is said to be a fascinating new rose, the
reward of five years of experimentation by Max Krause, a noted rose
grower of Sangerhausen, Germany. Mr. Krause says no other announce-
ment of a rose ever aroused such widespread interest. Inquiries for and
about it have come to him from both sides of the equator. "This black
rose of Sangerhausen" has been christened by the originator as "Nigrette"
(pronounced like Negret).
"This unique rose is a cross between two interesting and extremely
dark varieties of roses, 'Chateau de Close Vougeot' and 'Lord Castle-
reagh.' It is a velvety deep red, so dark that it may properly be described
as black. The fragrant. petals show no shading whatever. The bush
blooms freely, and its leaves are dark green."
The following French maxim gives incentive for planting a Rose
Garden:
"If you want to he happy for an hour, get drunk,
If you want to be happy for three days, get married,
If you want to be happy for eight days, kill your pig nad eat it.
If you want to be happy forever, become a rose grower."
We wish to urge the holding of Rose Shows at convenient points in
the state. Shows always stimulate interest and are educational. You see
what the other rose lover has done and go home with renewed determi-
nation to do better.
A Rose Pilgrimage is just what its name indicates "in the language
of Editor MacFarland." It may be made by three people or that many
hundred. Gardens need not be large and expertly landscaped. (Some
form of landscaping is advisable.) A dozen bushes may be an inspiration.





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

The small garden may have a sporting chance in its midst. Quality in
bush and flower is what attracts the rose lover.
Two spinster ladies were working in their rose garden. Suddenly
one looks up and exclaims, "Good gracious, Jennie, Editor MacFarland
has lice again."
Many of the beautiful varieties now so highly esteemed in other
sections are failures here. It is a well known fact that some groups of
roses do not thrive equally well in some sections. Some not at all. Hybrid
teas are better for Florida than the Teas.
Florida has depended too much on introduced varieties, much to her
sorrow.
We are wondering if the solution to our rose troubles is not at our
door. Three species are native to Florida. The Prairie Rose (setigera)
and two swamp roses, the Carolina and the lance leaved. Two introduced
species have run wild and become thoroughly established. These are the
Cherokee and the McCartney bracteataa). Let these species be crossed
with some of the more desirable varieties now in our gardens. The idea
is to secure forms that retain the thriftiness of growth and freedom from
disease of the native parents, and the beauty of the introduced varieties
(I have in my garden a hybrid bracteata that seems to be promising and
also a hybrid gigantea. Gigantea is a Chinese species that grows up to
thirty feet.)
Some person with a large estate and means to match it or some mu-
nicipality (not in the throes of a financial re-birth) should undertake the
development of a test Garden. This garden should have a dual purpose.
All varieties should be grown experimentally to get a complete story of
their reactions to Florida conditions. This work has not been done in
Florida except in a desultory way and only with a few varieties. Great
possibilities may open through this avenue of research. With such a
complete list of varieties assembled hybridizing on an adequate scale could
be done. Thus another vista for results would be opened. We realize
that the full purpose of a test garden intelligently handled would call for
much time and money. Can't you visualize what would happen? Would
you have Florida made a Rose Bower? Who will offer for this most
important work?
A Texas nurseryman (Mr. V. S. Hillock of Arlington) has shown the
proper appreciation of Florida conditions. He has sent several of the
best new varieties to four widely separated sections of the state, to pure
amateurs for trial purposes. Great good may result from this project.
This trial is under the auspices of the Florida Rose Society and is being
conducted only by its members. Results will be announced by this Society.
One other point remains for your consideration, and was alluded to
in the previous section of this paper. The municipal garden. A portion
of such a garden could be made a test garden. Many people in cities who
have neither the place nor the means to grow roses could get all the cheer
and inspiration that growing roses brings to the flower lover.
Quoting from F. L. Atkins again, "Riches cannot buy health and hap-
piness, it is said. But only a little portion of great money-wealth is re-
quired to buy and place garden roses where they will promote the health





GROWING ROSES IN FLORIDA

and happiness of many." The Florida Rose Society should work for
more public rose gardens.
Today there is a movement toward the Colonial in the styles of gar-
dens. This is no doubt due to the observance of the Washington Bi-
Centennial in 1932. This is a wholesome influence, for it is bringing about
a renewed interest in many fine old roses. The pink rose called the Mary
Washington for the General's mother was planted and named by him.
Also the Nellie Custer Rose, which he also named and planted in another
section of his garden, is the fragrant, white, velvet texture flower of
romance.
Many of the things that have been advocated in this paper may seem
too large to many of you. Please remember that large undertakings always
have small beginnings. If we have inspired even a spark of enthusiasm
in your breasts our task has a noble inception. Follow Isa. 35:1, who
says, "The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and
the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose."







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